National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tertiary butyl alcohol

  1. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  2. Anhydrous aluminum chloride as an alkylation catalyst: identification of mono- and dialkyl-benzenes from the condensation of tertiary butyl alcohol with benzene. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scoggins, Lacey E

    1959-01-01

    - alkyl and polyalkyl derivatives. The percentage yield, of monoalkyl derivatives is dependent upon the alcohol, dehydrating agent and. the activation of the aromatic nuclei Anhydrous ferric and alusdnum chloride, hydrogen fluoride with phosphorous...-butyl alcohol with 'benzene in the presence of i'erric chloride and. a 5g yield using aluminum chloride under the same conditions. Simons and. Archer5 reacted t-butyl alcohol with 'benzene using hydrogen fluoride as an alkylation catalyst, obtaining 4Q...

  3. State Restrictions on Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    By the end of 2005, 25 states had barred, or passed laws banning, any more than trace levels of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in their gasoline supplies, and legislation to ban MTBE was pending in 4 others. Some state laws address only MTBE; others also address ethers such as ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) and tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME). Annual Energy Outlook 2006 assumes that all state MTBE bans prohibit the use of all ethers for gasoline blending.

  4. A study of the condensation of primary, secondary, and tertiary butyl alcohols with benzene in the presence of anhydrous ferric chloride 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dodson, Ralph Jordan

    1939-01-01

    with aresatio hg4rosoxboas aeso those shish ooataiao4 the QK greay aituate4 aloes be a 4oohlo boa4 (4) yatosse oa4 yileti, Xloyfer, 8K ~ 5I 5btV (1899) (V) 8ohlaa ao4 Kleyfor, Sar, , ~58 5150 (1899) ~ (8} Khstisoht ao4 PoLaositeh, ~, ~ 5104 (1909} (9...) Huetoa oa4 yx4o4ssouai ~ 5995 (1954) ~ Bootes, sosis, oa4 0roh~at, ibb4, ~ 1555 (195t) g Raelea oa4 Lssis, ~. ~ ~55 SSty (1951) g Rsstca os4 Boat, ~, ~ 1505 (1955}} ~ oa4 stsisuoe, ~b. , ~ 481' (1955} g Bustoa 0eamteat ea4 sasOaL11+ ibbL, ~58 4484...

  5. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Sato, and N. Kato. 2003. Propane monooxygenase and NAD + -alcohol dehydrogenase in propane metabolism by Gordonia sp.tert-butyl ether by propane-grown Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5.

  6. Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    -butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

  7. Identification of volatile butyl rubber thermal-oxidative degradation products by cryofocusing gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Jonell Nicole; White, Michael Irvin; Bernstein, Robert; Hochrein, James Michael

    2013-02-01

    Chemical structure and physical properties of materials, such as polymers, can be altered as aging progresses, which may result in a material that is ineffective for its envisioned intent. Butyl rubber formulations, starting material, and additives were aged under thermal-oxidative conditions for up to 413 total days at up to 124 %C2%B0C. Samples included: two formulations developed at Kansas City Plant (KCP) (%236 and %2310), one commercially available formulation (%2321), Laxness bromobutyl 2030 starting material, and two additives (polyethylene AC-617 and Vanax MBM). The low-molecular weight volatile thermal-oxidative degradation products that collected in the headspace over the samples were preconcentrated, separated, and detected using cryofocusing gas chromatography mass spectrometry (cryo-GC/MS). The majority of identified degradation species were alkanes, alkenes, alcohols, ketones, and aldehydes. Observations for Butyl %2310 aged in an oxygen-18 enriched atmosphere (18O2) were used to verify when the source of oxygen in the applicable degradation products was from the gaseous environment rather than the polymeric mixture. For comparison purposes, Butyl %2310 was also aged under non-oxidative thermal conditions using an argon atmosphere.

  8. Cooperative Tertiary Interaction Network Guides RNA Folding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrouzi, Reza; Roh, Joon Ho; Kilburn, Duncan; Briber, R.M.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2013-04-08

    Noncoding RNAs form unique 3D structures, which perform many regulatory functions. To understand how RNAs fold uniquely despite a small number of tertiary interaction motifs, we mutated the major tertiary interactions in a group I ribozyme by single-base substitutions. The resulting perturbations to the folding energy landscape were measured using SAXS, ribozyme activity, hydroxyl radical footprinting, and native PAGE. Double- and triple-mutant cycles show that most tertiary interactions have a small effect on the stability of the native state. Instead, the formation of core and peripheral structural motifs is cooperatively linked in near-native folding intermediates, and this cooperativity depends on the native helix orientation. The emergence of a cooperative interaction network at an early stage of folding suppresses nonnative structures and guides the search for the native state. We suggest that cooperativity in noncoding RNAs arose from natural selection of architectures conducive to forming a unique, stable fold.

  9. SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SD SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE DENVER BASIN, COLORADO By D. J. Nichols in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625-A 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones here or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. 1999 Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal

  10. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SN A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE COALMONT FORMATION (TERTIARY), NORTH PARK BASIN, COLORADO By S assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  11. Scholarship for Tertiary Education for Refugees

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Stephan

    Scholarship for Tertiary Education for Refugees The Albert Einstein German Academic Refugee or employment after completion of studies? UNHCR has limited options to guide refugee students in finding: dafi.southafrica@gmail.com Jesuit Refugee Service 485 Vermeulen Street, Arcadia. Pretoria. Tel: 012 323

  12. Butyl Fuel LLC formerly Environmental Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLC JumpBiossenceBrunswick, Maine:IAEA CooperationSolarButyl Fuel LLC

  13. Interactions mixing alcohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    --including many popular painkillers and cough, cold, and allergy remedies--contain more than one ingredient. Cough syrup and laxatives may have some of the high- est alcohol concentrations. ALCOHOL AFFECTS WOMEN

  14. Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production of Tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) from Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scow, K M; MacKay, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Project title: Impacts of Ethanol on Anaerobic Production oftert-butanol (TBA). As ethanol is being promoted as ainvestigate the effect of ethanol release on existing MTBE

  15. Furfuryl alcohol cellular product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-05-26

    Self-extinguishing rigid foam products are formed by polymerization of furfuryl alcohol in the presence of a lightweight, particulate, filler, zinc chloride and selected catalysts.

  16. Electrooxidation of Alcohols Catalyzed by Amino Alcohol Ligated Ruthenium Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zare, Richard N.

    Alcohols are attractive chemical fuels for fuel cells due to their high energy densities, established, even the most highly optimized alcohol electrooxidation catalysts suffer from kinetic limitations

  17. A kinetic investigation of the reaction of dibutyl sodiophosphonate with n-butyl bromide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, James Howard

    1955-01-01

    LIBRARY A A N COLLEGE OF TEXAS A KINETIC INVESTIGATION OI" TIIE RFACTION OF DIBUTYL SODIOITIOSPHONATE II'ITH N BUTYL BROIIllDE A Thesis By James Howard Shaffer Submitted to the Oraduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College... of Texn~ in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the de ree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1955 Major Subject: Chemistry A KINETIC INVESTIGATION OF THE REACTION OF DIBUTYL SODIOPHOSPHONATE WITH N-BUTYL BROMIDE A Thesis By James Howard Shaffer...

  18. Marshall University Ethyl Alcohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanyal, Suman

    or obliterate the marks, brand, and labels required by this chapter to be placed on packages of tax-free alcohol. (b) A person may not destroy or obliterate the marks, brands or labels until the package or drum has and brands. (a) Any person who empties a package containing tax-free alcohol shall immediately destroy

  19. Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tertiary proton diagnostics in future inertial confinement fusion experiments S. Cremera) and C. P energetic up to 31 MeV tertiary protons produced during the final stage of inertial confinement fusion the elastic scattering of 14.1 MeV neutrons, is a source of very energetic protons capable of escaping from

  20. Photochemical dimerization and functionalization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and silanes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    The space-time yield and/or the selectivity of the photochemical dimerization of alkanes, ethers, primary and secondary alcohols, phosphine oxides and primary, secondary and tertiary silanes with Hg and U.V. light is enhanced by refluxing the substrate in the irradiated reaction zone at a temperature at which the dimer product condenses and remains condensed promptly upon its formation. Cross-dimerization of the alkanes, ethers and silanes with primary alcohols is disclosed, as is the functionalization to aldehydes of the alkanes with carbon monoxide.

  1. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  2. Computational Studies of [Bmim][PF6]/n-Alcohol Interfaces with Many-Body Potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Tsun-Mei; Dang, Liem X.

    2014-09-04

    In this paper, we present the results from molecular-dynamics simulations of the equilibrium properties of liquid/liquid interfaces of room temperature ionic liquid [bmim][PF6] and simple alcohols (i.e., methanol, 1-butanol, and 1-hexanol) at room temperature. Polarizable potential models are employed to describe the interactions among species. Results from our simulations show stable interfaces between the ionic liquid and n-alcohols, and we found that the interfacial widths decrease from methanol to 1-butanol systems, and then increase for 1-hexanol interfaces. Angular distribution analysis reveals that the interface induces a strong orientational order of [bmim] and n-alcohol molecules near the interface, with [bmim] extending its butyl group into the alcohol phase while the alcohol has the OH group pointing into the ion liquid region, which is consistent with the recent sum-frequency-generation experiments. We found the interface to have a significant influence on the dynamics of ionic liquids and n-alcohols. The orientational autocorrelation functions illustrate that [bmim] rotate more freely near the interface than in the bulk, while the rotation of n-alcohol is hindered at the interface. Additionally, the time scale associated with the diffusion along the interfacial direction is found to be faster for [bmim] but slowed down for n-alcohols approaching the interface. We also calculate the dipole moment of n-alcohols as a function of the distance normal to the interface. We found that, even though methanol and 1-butanol have different dipole moments in bulk phase, they reach a similar value at the interface. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  3. Aqueous flooding methods for tertiary oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peru, Deborah A. (Bartlesville, OK)

    1989-01-01

    A method of aqueous flooding of subterranean oil bearing formation for tertiary oil recovery involves injecting through a well into the formation a low alkaline pH aqueous sodium bicarbonate flooding solution. The flooding solution's pH ranges from about 8.25 to 9.25 and comprises from 0.25 to 5 weight percent and preferably about 0.75 to 3.0 weight percent of sodium bicarbonate and includes a petroleum recovery surfactant of 0.05 to 1.0 weight percent and between 1 and 20 weight percent of sodium chloride. After flooding, an oil and water mixture is withdrawn from the well and the oil is separated from the oil and water mixture.

  4. Freezing-induced perturbation of tertiary structure of monoclonal antibody

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Lu; Kueltzo, L. A.; Jones, L. S.; Carpenter, J. F.

    2006-10-25

    Freezing-induced Perturbation of Tertiary Structure of Monoclonal Antibody Lu Liu, LaToya S. Jones, John F. Carpenter Center for Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University....e.,cryopreservation). ? However, freeze-thawing cycle usually results protein partially un- folding, and consequently forming aggregates, which may induce immunogenic response. ? Fluorescence spectroscopy is commonly used to study perturba- tions of protein tertiary structure...

  5. Accurate Computer Simulation of Phase Equilibrium for Complex Fluid Mixtures. Application to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    to Binaries Involving Isobutene, Methanol, Methyl tert-Butyl Ether, and n-Butane Martin Li´sal,*,, William R + methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and the binaries formed by methanol with isobutene, MTBE, and n

  6. IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IDENTIFYING THE USAGE PATTERNS OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) AND OTHER OXYGENATES IN GASOLINE USING GASOLINE SURVEYS By Michael J. Moran, Rick M. Clawges, and John S. Zogorski U.S. Geological Survey 1608 Mt. View Rapid City, SD 57702 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is commonly added to gasoline

  7. Batch polymerization of styrene and isoprene by n-butyl lithium initiator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasan, Sayeed

    1970-01-01

    BATCN ?OLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE AND ISO?RENE BY n-BUTYL LITHIUM INITIATOR A Thesis SAYEED IIASAV Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the d pre of IJASTER OF SCIFNCE... ler) CP3 MV gse P . January 1970 9&ZS&8 ABSTRACT Batch Polymerization of Styrene and Isoprene By n-Butyl Lithium Initiator. (January 1970) Sayeed 1Iasan, B. Sc. , East Pakistan University of Engineering and Technology, Dacca Directed by: Dr...

  8. Batch polymerization of styrene initiated by n-butyl lithium in a cyclohexane solvent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landon, Thomas Rodman

    1971-01-01

    Committee ea Depa tment Mem er Mem er em er August 1971 ABSTRACT Batch Polymerization of Styrene Initiated by N-Butyl Lithium in Cyclohexane Solvent. (August 19 71) Thomas Rodman Landon, B, S. , Te x as A (&M Un i ve rs i ty Directed by: Dr.... Rayford G. Anthony Styrene is polymerized by n-butyl lithium with cyclo- hexane as the solvent. The polymerization is carried out in an isothermal batch reactors at three temperature 30, 40, and 50'C. The proposed reaction proceeds by a homo- geneous...

  9. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deluga, Gregg A. (St. Paul, MN); Schmidt, Lanny D. (Minneapolis, MN)

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  10. Portal Vein Embolization before Right Hepatectomy: Improved Results Using n-Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Compared to Microparticles Plus Coils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiu, Boris Bize, Pierre; Gunthern, Daniel; Demartines, Nicolas; Halkic, Nermin; Denys, Alban

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is currently no consensus in the literature on which embolic agent induces the greatest degree of liver hypertrophy after portal vein embolization (PVE). Only experimental results in a pig model have demonstrated an advantage of n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) over 3 other embolic materials (hydrophilic gel, small and large polyvinyl alcohol particles) for PVE. Therefore, the aim of this human study was to retrospectively compare the results of PVE using NBCA with those using spherical microparticles plus coils. Methods: A total of 34 patients underwent PVE using either NBCA (n = 20), or spherical microparticles plus coils (n = 14). PVE was decided according to preoperative volumetry on the basis of contrast-enhanced CT. Groups were compared for age, sex, volume of the left lobe before PVE and future remnant liver ratio (FRL) (volume of the left lobe/total liver volume - tumor volume). The primary end point was the increase in left lobe volume 1 month after PVE. Secondary end points were procedure complications and biological tolerance. Results: Both groups were similar in terms of age, sex ratio, left lobe volume, and FRL before PVE. NBCA induced a greater increase in volume after PVE than did microparticles plus coils (respectively, +74 {+-} 69 % and +23 {+-} 14 %, p < 0.05). The amount of contrast medium used for the procedure was significantly larger when microparticles and coils rather than NBCA were used (respectively, 264 {+-} 43 ml and 162 {+-} 34 ml, p < 0.01). The rate of PVE complications as well as the biological tolerance was similar in both groups. Conclusion: NBCA seems more effective than spherical microparticles plus coils to induce left-lobe hypertrophy.

  11. Palladium/Tris(tert-butyl)phosphine-Catalyzed Suzuki Cross-Couplings in the Presence of Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lou, Sha

    Dipalladiumtris(dibenzylideneacetone)/tris(tert-butyl)phosphonium tetrafluoroborate/potassium fluoride dihydrate [Pd2(dba)3/[HP(t-Bu)3]BF4/KF?2?H2O] serves as a mild, robust, and user-friendly method for the efficient ...

  12. A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SB A SUMMARY OF COAL IN THE FORT UNION FORMATION (TERTIARY), BIGHORN BASIN, WYOMING assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U...........................................................................................................................SB-1 Coal Production History

  13. A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter SR A SUMMARY OF TERTIARY COAL RESOURCES OF THE RATON BASIN, COLORADO AND NEW MEXICO By R of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U Resource assessment of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great

  14. Discrimination of alcoholics from non-alcoholics using supervised learning on resting EEG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, Joel David

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a widespread problem that can have serious medical consequences. Alcoholism screening tests are used to identify patients who are at risk for complications from alcohol abuse, but accurate diagnosis of alcohol ...

  15. Why Are We Here? Competing Conceptions of Tertiary Education

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Why Are We Here? Competing Conceptions of Tertiary Education Peter Roberts is a Professor in the School of Educational Studies and Leadership at the University of Canterbury. His primary areas of scholarship are philosophy of education and educational policy studies. Professor Roberts is Director

  16. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  17. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  18. December 2012 Queen's University Alcohol Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    . The university recognizes that the misuse of alcohol can create risks, threaten individual health, compromise of the use and abuse of alcohol; Discourage high-risk alcohol-related behaviours and practices through-based practices and ongoing evaluation guide the practices surrounding alcohol use at Queen's University. SECTION

  19. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  20. Brown's second alcohol fuel cookbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Instructions are given for making and using various types of alcohol fuels in internal combustion engines. The distillation column is treated at some length as well as stripper columns for sugar substances, reflux ratio and proof concentration, condensers, and junkyard steam boilers. Safety features are stressed as well as plant layout. Enzymes for alcohol production and starch fermentation are described as well as commercial enzyme production, continuous fermentation, distillation of crude oil, alcohol production from cellulose (sawdust), and preparation of alcohol fuel and other products (butanol, acetone, ether) without distillation. Production of dry ice (solidified CO/sub 2/) is described. The conversion of carburetor jets in auto engines for different fuel blends, and the use of heat risers and pre-heaters to facilitate engine starting are discussed at length. In an appendix, a patent for production of acetone and alcohol by bacteriological action is included as well as congressional testimony on a hearing dealing with biomass, renewable fuel sources, fuel economy of engines and related topics. (MJJ)

  1. Remote I/O Optimization and Evaluation for Tertiary Storage Systems through Storage Resource Broker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liao, Wei-keng

    Remote I/O Optimization and Evaluation for Tertiary Storage Systems through Storage Resource Broker storage systems emerge as a popular place to hold them. SRB, a uniform interface to various storage systems including tertiary storage systems such as HPSS, UniTree etc., becomes an important and convenient

  2. Effects of oxygenate concentration on species mole fractions in premixed n-heptane flames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    -heptane/oxygenate mixtures were 2.7 and 3.4. Three different fuel oxygenates (i.e. MTBE, methanol, and ethanol) were tested in these emissions is the improvement in motor vehicle fuel properties. Fuel oxygenates were first used as an octane.e. oxygenates) such as alcohols (e.g. methanol, ethanol, and tertiary butyl alcohol) and ethers (e.g. methyl

  3. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  4. Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shamsudin, Intan Juliana [Chemistry Department, Centre for Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmad, Azizan; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Green polymer electrolytes based on chitosan as the polymer matrix and ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate [Bmim][OAc] as charge carriers were prepared by solution casting technique. Complexes with various amount of ionic liquid loading were investigated as possible ionic conducting polymers. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing weight percent of ionic liquid. The highest ionic conductivity of the charged chitosan-[Bmim][OAc] was 2.44 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1} at 90 wt.% of [Bmim][OAc] content at ambient temperature. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy has proven the interaction between chitosan and [Bmim][OAc]. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) has shown that the amorphosity of the complexes increase as the amount of [Bmim][OAc] increase.

  5. Alcohol and HIV Disease Progression: Weighing the Evidence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Judith A.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Glass TR, et al. : Self-reported alcohol consumption and itsself-administering model of chronic alcohol consumption. J

  6. Method for photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate by tri-N-butyl phosphate and application of this method to nuclear fuel reprocessing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Poorter, Gerald L. (Los Alamos, NM); Rofer-De Poorter, Cheryl K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1978-01-01

    Uranyl ion in solution in tri-n-butyl phosphate is readily photochemically reduced to U(IV). The product U(IV) may effectively be used in the Purex process for treating spent nuclear fuels to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The Pu(III) is readily separated from uranium in solution in the tri-n-butyl phosphate by an aqueous strip.

  7. Features of the spectral dependences of transmittance of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted lutetium phthalocyanine molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belogorokhov, I. A.; Tikhonov, E. V.; Dronov, M. A.; Belogorokhova, L. I.; Ryabchikov, Yu. V.; Tomilova, L. G.; Khokhlov, D. R.

    2011-11-15

    Vibronic properties of organic semiconductors based on tert-butyl substituted phthalocyanine lutetium diphthalocyanine molecules are studied by IR and Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that substitution of several carbon atoms in initial phthalocyanine (Pc) ligands with {sup 13}C isotope atoms causes a spectral shift in the main absorption lines attributed to benzene, isoindol, and peripheral C-H groups. A comparison of spectral characteristics showed that the shift can vary from 3 to 1 cm{sup -1}.

  8. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, Jerome W. (Bolingbrook, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Woodridge, IL); Heiberger, John J. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  9. Concentrating aqueous volatile fatty acid salt solutions using a tertiary amine mixture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskin, David J

    1997-01-01

    Lee (1993) has shown that tertiary amines are able to hics. extract water from low-concentration calcium acetate and sodium acetate solutions. This thesis extends the previous work to include calcium propionate and butyrate. Amine extraction may...

  10. Stochastic Programming Approach to Hydraulic Fracture Design for the Lower Tertiary Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Podhoretz, Seth

    2013-07-27

    In this work, we present methodologies for optimization of hydraulic fracturing design under uncertainty specifically with reference to the thick and anisotropic reservoirs in the Lower Tertiary Gulf of Mexico. In this analysis we apply a stochastic...

  11. LETTER TO THE EDITOR Binding of manganese(II) to a tertiary stabilized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westhof, Eric

    as studied by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy NATALIA KISSELEVA,1 ANASTASIA KHVOROVA,2 ERICII ions to a tertiary stabilized hammer- head ribozyme (tsHHRz) and to compare it with the binding

  12. Calcareous nannofossils from the uppermost Cretaceous and the lowermost Tertiary of central Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Ming-Jung

    1980-01-01

    the Lower Cretaceous calcar- eous nannofossils from parts of Texas and Oklahoma. In this study, two well known sections from central Texas that extend from the uppermost Cretaceous into the lowermost Tertiary have been examined for their nannofossil... the results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, many cores containing a nearly complete Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary interval have been re- covered from many parts of the world ocean. Some of these cores have been subjected to both sedimentary...

  13. Multiprobe Spectroscopic Evidence for "Hyperpolarity" within 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate Mixtures with Tetraethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, Abhra [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Trivedi, Shruti [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi; Baker, Gary A [ORNL; Pandey, Siddharth [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid, potentially green solvent system composed of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]) was investigated across all mole fractions with regard to the solvent properties of the mixture. For this purpose, a suite of absorbance- and fluorescence-based solvatochromic probes were utilized to explore solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions existing within the [bmim][PF6] + TEG system. These studies revealed an interesting and unusual synergistic solvent effect. In particular, a remarkable hyperpolarity was observed in which the ET value, comprising dipolarity/polarizability and hydrogen bond donor (HBD) acidity contributions, at intermediate mole fractions of the binary mixture well exceeded that of the most polar pure component (i.e., [bmim][PF6]). Independently determined dipolarity/polarizability ( *) and HBD acidity (R) Kamlet-Taft values for the [bmim][PF6] + TEG mixtures were also observed to be anomalously high at intermediate mole fractions, whereas hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) basicities ( values) were much more in line with the ideal arithmetic values predicted on a mole fraction basis.

  14. N-butyl Cyanoacrylate Glue Embolization of Arterial Networks to Facilitate Hepatic Arterial Skeletonization before Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samuelson, Shaun D.; Louie, John D.; Sze, Daniel Y.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. Avoidance of nontarget microsphere deposition via hepatoenteric anastomoses is essential to the safety of yttrium-90 radioembolization (RE). The hepatic hilar arterial network may remain partially patent after coil embolization of major arteries, resulting in persistent risk. We retrospectively reviewed cases where n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) glue embolization was used to facilitate endovascular hepatic arterial skeletonization before RE. Methods. A total of 543 RE procedures performed between June 2004 and March 2012 were reviewed, and 10 were identified where n-BCA was used to embolize hepatoenteric anastomoses. Arterial anatomy, prior coil embolization, and technical details were recorded. Outcomes were reviewed to identify subsequent complications of n-BCA embolization or nontarget RE. Results. The rate of complete technical success was 80 % and partial success 20 %, with one nontarget embolization complication resulting in a minor change in treatment plan. No evidence of gastrointestinal or biliary ischemia or infarction was identified, and no microsphere-related gastroduodenal ulcerations or other evidence of nontarget RE were seen. Median volume of n-BCA used was <0.1 ml. Conclusion. n-BCA glue embolization is useful to eliminate hepatoenteric networks that may result in nontarget RE, especially in those that persist after coil embolization of major vessels such as the gastroduodenal and right gastric arteries.

  15. West Hackberry tertiary project. Annual report, September 3, 1994--September 2, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Turek, E.

    1996-05-01

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the idea that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a low cost tertiary recovery process which is economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. The Double Displacement Process is based upon the concept that in fields such as West Hackberry waterdrive recoveries are typically 50%-60% of the original oil in place while gravity drainage recoveries average 80%-90% of the original oil in place. Therefore, by injecting a gas into a watered out reservoir, a gas cap will form and additional oil can be recovered due to gravity drainage. Although the Double Displacement Process has been shown to be successful in recovering tertiary oil in other fields, this project will be the first to utilize air injection in the Double Displacement Process. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery due to the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that the use of air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs where tertiary oil recovery is presently uneconomical.

  16. Acculturation, Alcohol Expectancies, and Alcohol Use Among Mexican-American Adolescents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flato, Claudia Graciela

    2011-02-22

    in the current study indicated a higher orientation to Mexican culture predicted higher levels of alcohol involvement for boys; whereas, a higher orientation to U.S. culture predicted higher alcohol involvement for girls. Also, identification with Mexican culture...

  17. Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved Saccharification Efficiency in Switchgrass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Downregulation of Cinnamyl...

  18. Alcohol and Other Drugs -1 -Approved: 05/09/2014 Alcohol and Other Drugs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Alcohol and Other Drugs - 1 - Approved: 05/09/2014 Alcohol and Other Drugs Policy Type: Board with the federal Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988, the federal Drug Free Schools and Communities Act of 1989, and the Commonwealth of Virginia's Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs (AOD), it is the policy of Virginia Commonwealth

  19. Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

  20. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  1. Effect of alcohols on aqueous lysozyme-lysozyme interactions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of alcohols on aqueous lysozyme-lysozyme interactions from static light-scattering measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of alcohols on aqueous...

  2. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of...

  3. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation) Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...

  4. Process for the synthesis of unsaturated alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maughon, Bob R.; Burdett, Kenneth A.; Lysenko, Zenon

    2007-02-13

    A process of preparing an unsaturated alcohol (olefin alcohol), such as, a homo-allylic mono-alcohol or homo-allylic polyol, involving protecting a hydroxy-substituted unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester, such as methyl ricinoleate, derived from a seed oil, to form a hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester; homo-metathesizing or cross-metathesizing the hydroxy-protected unsaturated fatty acid or fatty acid ester to produce a product mixture containing a hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product; and deprotecting the hydroxy-protected unsaturated metathesis product under conditions sufficient to prepare the unsaturated alcohol. Preferably, methyl ricinoleate is converted by cross-metathesis or homo-metathesis into the homo-allylic mono-alcohol 1-decene-4-ol or the homo-allylic polyol 9-octadecene-7,12-diol, respectively.

  5. Ureteric Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Fistulae: Use of Two Amplatzer Vascular Plugs and N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate Employing the 'Sandwich' Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saad, Wael E. A., E-mail: ws6r@virginia.edu; Kalagher, S.; Turba, U. C.; Sabri, S. S.; Park, A.-W.; Stone, J.; Angle, J. F.; Matsumoto, A. H. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Division of Vascular Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThis study describes and evaluated the effectiveness of occluding distal ureters in the clinical setting of urinary vaginal (vesicovaginal or enterovesicovaginal) fistulae utilizing a new technique which combines Amplatzer vascular plugs and N-butyl cyanoacrylate.MaterialsThis is a retrospective study (January 2007-December 2010) of patients with urinary-vaginal fistulae undergoing distal ureter embolization utilizing an Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique. An 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plug was delivered using the sheath and deployed in the ureter distal to the pelvic brim. Instillation of 0.8-1.5 cc of N-butyl cyanoacrylate into ureter proximal to the Amplatzer plug was performed. This was followed by another set of 8-12-mm type-I or type-II Amplatzer vascular plugs in a technique referred to as the 'sandwich technique.'ResultsFive ureters in three patients were occluded utilizing the above-described technique during the 4-year study period. Mean maximum size Amplatzer used per ureter was 10.8 mm (range, 8-12). One ureter required three Amplatzer plugs and the rest required two. Two patients (3 ureters) were clinically successful with complete resolution of symptoms in 36-48 h. The third patient (2 ureters) was partly successful and required a second Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate sandwich technique embolization. The mean clinical follow-up was 11.3 months (range, 1.7-29.2).ConclusionsThe Amplatzer- N-butyl cyanoacrylate-Amplatzer sandwich technique for occluding the distal ureter is safe and effective with a quick (probably due to the N-butyl cyanoacrylate) and durable (probably due to the Amplatzer plugs) clinical response.

  6. Molecular Simulation of Water Extraction into a Tri-n-Butyl-Phosphate/n-Dodecane Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL] [ORNL; Ye, Xianggui [ORNL] [ORNL; Cui, Shengting [ORNL] [ORNL; Khomami, Bamin [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate water extraction into a solution of 30 vol% tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) in n-dodecane. This solvent extraction mixture is commonly used in hydrometallurgical and nuclear fuel recycling operations for recovering metals from aqueous streams. It is known that water is coextracted in the organic phase and that it competes with metal ions for the available extractant agent (TBP). Therefore investigating pure water extraction provides a realistic prototype to test molecular simulation methods for the first time in this area. Our computational results indicate that the TBP electric dipole moment has a significant effect on the predicted water solubility. A larger TBP dipole moment decreases the aqueous-organic interfacial tension, leading to increased roughness of the aqueous-organic interface. Interfacial roughness has a significant effect on disrupting the interfacial water hydrogen bonding structure, resulting in a greater number of dangling water molecules at the interface. This enhances the probability of water molecules to break away from the aqueous phase and to migrate into the bulk of the organic phase. Therefore, the magnitude of the TBP dipole moment is a crucial factor in controlling water hydrogen bond breaking at the aqueous-organic interface. By slightly lowering the atomic partial charges of the TBP atoms, to produce a dipole moment that better agrees with experimental data, we were able to predict water solubility in close agreement with experimental measurements. Hence we demonstrate that a molecular modeling and simulation approach may provide quantitative support to experimental programs in this area. In addition, our simulation results shed light into the molecular mechanism of water extraction, the critical role of TBP, and the structural forms of water molecules both at the interface and in the bulk of the organic phase. Specifically, it is found that water molecules are extracted either as single molecules or as clusters. Furthermore, within the organic phase, the extracted water forms clusters with up to 20 water molecules, however, more than 70% of these water clusters contain less than 5 water molecules when the water extraction process reaches saturation.

  7. MTBE Production Economics (Released in the STEO April 2001)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the causes of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) price increases in 2000.

  8. Alcohol injection cuts diesel consumption on turbocharged tractors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edson, D.V.

    1980-07-21

    M and W Gear Co. of Gibson City, IL, are marketing a new alcohol- injection system that permits turbocharged diesel engines to burn alcohol and claims to cut diesel consumption by 30% and more. The alcohol fuel, a blend of alcohol and water, does not meet the diesel fuel until the alcohol has been atomized and sprayed through the intake manifold into the cylinders. It permits farmers to use home- still-produced ethanol without the added expense of refining to anhydrous composition.

  9. Monitoring Electricity Consumption in the Tertiary Sector- A Project within the Intelligent Energy Europe Program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plesser, S.; Fisch, M. N.; Gruber, E.; Schlomann, B.

    2008-01-01

    The electricity consumption in the tertiary sector in the EU is still increasing and a further increase is expected of more than 2 % per year during the next 15 years. This sector includes companies and institutions of public and private services...

  10. The Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Ellen

    The Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE and sedimentological analysis of this transition at the El Mulato section (NE Mexico), in order to infer the little Palaeogene Velasco Formation, there is a 2-m-thick Clastic Unit. Strati- graphical and sedimentological ana

  11. Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bachmann, Michael

    Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity¨lich, 52425 Ju¨lich, Germany Received June 14, 2010; E-mail: deserno@andrew.cmu.edu Abstract: Protein folding be difficult to measure. Therefore, protein folding cooperativity is often probed using the calorimetric

  12. The Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Adopts an Ion-dependent Tertiary Fold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    The Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Adopts an Ion-dependent Tertiary Fold Jeffrey S-0539, USA Hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located in the 5H entry site (IRES); hepatitis C virus (HCV); chemical and enzymatic probing*Corresponding author

  13. Plants with double genomes might have had a better chance to survive the CretaceousTertiary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    in plants by using phylogenetic approaches. Table 1 provides a list of monocot and eudicot plant speciesPlants with double genomes might have had a better chance to survive the Cretaceous­Tertiary extinction event Jeffrey A. Fawcetta,b,1 , Steven Maerea,b,1 , and Yves Van de Peera,b,2 aDepartment of Plant

  14. Energy Minimization of Protein Tertiary Structure by Parallel Simulated Annealing using Genetic Crossover

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongarra, Jack

    Energy Minimization of Protein Tertiary Structure by Parallel Simulated Annealing using Genetic Simulated Annealing using Genetic Crossover (PSA/GAc) has a high searching capability on an energy of the energy function has been studied. Simulated Annealing (SA) has often been employed as the optimiza- tion

  15. An Efficient Genetic Algorithm for Predicting Protein Tertiary Structures in the 2D HP Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Istrail, Sorin

    , predicting its tertiary structure is known as the protein folding problem. This problem has been widely genetic algo- rithm for the protein folding problem under the HP model in the two-dimensional square Genetic Algorithm, Protein Folding Problem, 2D HP Model 1. INTRODUCTION Amino acids are the building

  16. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  17. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com-pound (VOC) derived from natural gas that is added to gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a volatile organic com- pound (VOC) derived from natural gas Water in Urban and Agricultural Areas made from methanol, which is derived primarily from natural gas that is added to gas- oline either seasonally or year round in many parts of the United States to increase

  18. Prenatal alcohol exposure pattern and timing and minor structural malformations and growth deficiencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawada, Glenda Haruna

    2011-01-01

    of prenatal alcohol consumption self-reports. Collaborationsbetween self-reported alcohol consumption in the monthvalidity in self-reported alcohol consumption in emergencies

  19. The role of the Early Tertiary Uluk?sla Basin, southern Turkey, in suturing of the Mesozoic Tethys ocean 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Matthew; Robertson, Alastair H F

    2002-01-01

    The Maastrichtian–Late Eocene Uluk?sla Basin is representative of the tectonic and sedimentary evolution of prominent Early Tertiary basins in central Anatolia, including the Tuzgolu and S ark?sla basins. The Uluk?sla ...

  20. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  1. Alcohol Fuels - Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional KnowledgeAgenda Agenda NERSC UserAgustinAlcohol Fuels Alcohol

  2. Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.C.; Kraus, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

  3. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in...

  4. A PROTEOMIC STUDY OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newton, Billy W.

    2010-01-16

    Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial pathology associated with early stage alcoholic liver disease and is characterized by the accumulation of fat in the liver. AS is considered clinically benign as it is reversible, ...

  5. The effects of alcohol use on zinc status 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Lisa Louise

    1998-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been shown to have adverse affects on bone growth and maintenance, although the mechanism has not been elucidated. The objective of this research was to look at the relationship between zinc and alcohol as a possible...

  6. Mechanisms underlying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: ovine model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramadoss, Jayanth

    2009-05-15

    that maternal alcohol exposure does not result in fetal cerebral hypoxia. Instead, alcohol results in hypercapnea and acidemia leading to a cascade of events in the maternal and fetal compartments that include deficits in the levels of glutamine and glutamine...

  7. Identification of organic-rich lower tertiary shakles as petroleum source rock, southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDade, E.C. (Texaco Inc., New orleans, LA (United States)); Sassen, R. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)); Wenger, L. (Exxon Production Research, Houston, TX (United States)); Cole, G.A. (Saudi Aramco Laboratories Department, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia))

    1993-09-01

    Comprehensive organic geochemical evidence of organic-rich, marine shales in the lower part of the middle eocene Claiborne Group and the lower Eocene-Paleocene Wilcox Group of southern Louisiana is now available. The evidence influences models for Gulf Coast petroleum origin. The shales are the only post-Cretaceous sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico that meet recognized criteria for oil source rocks. Many of organic-rich Paleogene shales contain terrestrially derived, amorphous kerogen altered by microbial activity, and display pyrolysis results consistent with type II/III kerogen. Shelf-edge depositional environments favored preservation of hydrogen-rich kerogen. Seismic and sedimentologic interpretations suggest that marine character and thickness increase on the Paleogene continental slope to the south. The shales at burial depths in the 3050-4600 m depth range, at present, are thermally immature to late mature with respect to oil generation. Detailed geochemical analyses of extractable organic matter and kerogen isolates suggest an oil-source correlation with Tertiary-reservoired oils in southern Louisiana and offshore in the adjacent Gulf of Mexico. Biomarkers of selected samples display high concentrations of C[sub 28]-bisnorhopane and 18[alpha]-oleanane biomarker is absent or not reported in Gulf crude oils from Cretaceous and Jurassic source rocks. Burial and thermal history models suggest the timing of oil migration from Paleogene source rocks is consistent with emplacement of oils in Tertiary reservoirs. The lower Tertiary source rocks described here could offer new insight to understanding the origin of oil in other Tertiary deltas.

  8. Laramide thrusting and Tertiary deformation Tierra Caliente, Michoacan and Guerrero States, southwestern Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.A.; Harrison, C.G.A. ); Lang, H. ); Barros, J.A.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    1990-05-01

    Field investigations and detailed interpretations of Landsat Thematic Mapper images are in progress to improve understanding of regional structure and tectonics of the southernmost extension of the North American cordillera. Two areas have been selected within the Ciudad Altamirano 1:250,000 topographical sheet for geologic mapping and structural interpretation at 1:50,000 scale. The authors results to date require modification of previous ideas concerning the style and timing of deformations, the role and timing of terrane accretion in the overall tectonic history of the region, and the importance of southern Mexico to investigations of the tectonic evolution of the plates in the region. The relative sequence of deformation in the area correlates well with variations in relative motion between North America and plates in the Pacific. Post-Campanian thrusts and generally eastward-verging folds deformed the Mesozoic sequence during the (Laramide equivalent) Hidalgoan orogeny, associated with high-velocity east-west convergence with the Farallon plate that began about 70 Ma. The resulting unconformity was covered by the Tertiary Balsas Formation, a thick sequence of mostly continental clastics. The Tertiary stratigraphy is regionally and sometimes locally variable, but it can be divided into two members. The lower member is relatively volcanic poor and more deformed, and it lies below a regionally significant mid-Tertiary unconformity, which may mark a change to northeast-directed convergence with the Farallon plate sometime prior to 40 Ma. Continued mid-Tertiary deformation in southern Mexico may be related to eastward movement of the Chortis block and the resulting truncation of the Pacific margin of Mexico. The authors also suggest a tentative correlation between the volcaniclastic member of the Lower Cretaceous San Lucas Formation and the protolith of the Roca Verde metamorphics to the east.

  9. Alcohols as hydrogen-donor solvents for treatment of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ross, David S. (Palo Alto, CA); Blessing, James E. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A method for the hydroconversion of coal by solvent treatment at elevated temperatures and pressure wherein an alcohol having an .alpha.-hydrogen atom, particularly a secondary alcohol such as isopropanol, is utilized as a hydrogen donor solvent. In a particular embodiment, a base capable of providing a catalytically effective amount of the corresponding alcoholate anion under the solvent treatment conditions is added to catalyze the alcohol-coal reaction.

  10. UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN POLICY ON DRUGS AND ALCOHOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neri, Peter

    UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN POLICY ON DRUGS AND ALCOHOL 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The University of Aberdeen, and the introduction of a drugs and alcohol policy is intended to form an integral part of that approach. 1 and consistently. The University recognises that alcohol/drug dependency is an illness and will be treated

  11. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  12. AUTHORIZATION TO PURCHASE ALCOHOL Please provide the following information each time alcohol is ordered.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    : ___________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Order Quantity __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Stock # CX20442 CX20445 CX20460 CX20457 CX20461 Units Pint Gallon 5 Gallon Gallon 5 Gallon Description 200 Proof Ethyl Alcohol (Case of 24

  13. Alcohol and Other Drugs Education and Prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . · The School's commitment to conducting a biennial review of its program. Employees, like students, are coveredAlcohol and Other Drugs Education and Prevention Policy Responsible Administrative Unit: Student.0 BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Colorado School of Mines is committed to: · Providing students educational

  14. Alcohol and Historiography in Early China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterckx, Roel

    2015-06-16

    , it was also a corner stone in sacrificial ritual and therefore an important measure to please the spirit world. In assessing the past, early Chinese writers often judged rulers and their regimes based on the way they handled alcohol and ritualized drinking...

  15. The novel µ-opioid receptor antagonist GSK1521498 decreases both alcohol seeking and drinking: evidence from a new preclinical model of alcohol seeking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giuliano, Chiara; Goodlett, Charles R.; Economidou, Daina; García-Pardo, Maria P.; Belin, David; Robbins, Trevor W.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Everitt, Barry J.

    2015-06-05

    -intake and alcohol-seeking behaviors. Re-derived alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and high alcohol-drinking replicate 1 lines of rats (Indiana University, USA) first received 18 sessions of 24-h home-cage access to 10% alcohol and water under a 2-bottle...

  16. A model system for QTL analysis: Effects of alcohol dehydrogenase genotype on alcohol pharmacokinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, N.G.; Nightingale, B.; Whitfield, J.B.

    1994-09-01

    There is much interest in the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) - major genes which affect quantitative phenotypes. The relationship of polymorphism at known alcohol metabolizing enzyme loci to alcohol pharmacokinetics is a good model system. The three class I alcohol dehydrogenase genes are clustered on chromosome 4 and protein electrophoresis has revealed polymorphisms at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci. While different activities of the isozymes have been demonstrated in vitro, little work has been done in trying to relate ADH polymorphism to variation in ethanol metabolism in vivo. We previously measured ethanol metabolism and psychomotor reactivity in 206 twin pairs and demonstrated that most of the repeatable variation was genetic. We have now recontacted the twins to obtain DNA samples and used PCR with allele specific primers to type the ADH2 and ADH3 polymorphisms in 337 individual twins. FISHER has been used to estimate fixed effects of typed polymorphisms simultaneously with remaining linked and unlinked genetic variance. The ADH2*1-2 genotypes metabolize ethanol faster and attain a lower peak blood alcohol concentration than the more common ADH2*1-1 genotypes, although less than 3% of the variance is accounted for. There is no effect of ADH3 genotype. However, sib-pair linkage analysis suggests that there is a linked polymorphism which has a much greater effect on alcohol metabolism that those typed here.

  17. New genera and species of early Tertiary palynomorphs from Gulf Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stover, L. E.; Elsik, W. C.; Fairchild, W. W.

    1966-05-23

    pattern and wall thickness identical to C. pertusus, but C. guruba is normally bisulculate. Pollen similar to C. pertusus are found in the extant families Pal- mae and Magnoliaceae, and possibly in other families as well. It is evident that Ca1amuspol...- Stover, Elsik, and Fairchild—New Early Tertiary Pal ynomorphs from Gulf Coast 3 lar, annulate ulcus located at or near center of grain. Exine thin; sexine and nexine closely ap- pressed, of approximately equal thickness. Sexine of type species foveolate...

  18. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  19. Characterization of the influence of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride on the structure and thermal stability of green fluorescent protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heller, William T [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Zhang, Qiu [ORNL; Baker, Gary A [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are finding a vast array of applications as novel solvents for a wide variety of processes that include enzymatic chemistry, particularly as more biocompatible ILs are designed and discovered. While it is assumed that a native or near-native structure is required for enzymatic activity, there is some evidence that ILs alter protein structure and oligomerization states in a manner than can negatively impact function. The IL 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [bmim]Cl, is a well-studied, water-miscible member of the popular 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium IL family. To improve our understanding of the impact of water-miscible ILs on proteins, we have characterized the structure and oligomerization state of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in aqueous solutions containing 25 and 50 vol % [bmim]Cl using a combination of optical spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Measurements were also performed as a function of temperature to provide insight into the effect of the IL on the thermal stability of GFP. While GFP exists as a dimer in water, the presence of 25 vol % [bmim]Cl causes GFP to transition to a monomeric state. The SANS data indicate that GFP is a great deal less compact in 50 vol % [bmim]Cl than in neat water, indicative of unfolding from the native structure. The oligomerization state of the protein in IL-containing aqueous solution changes from a dimer to a monomer in response to the IL, but does not change as a function of temperature in the IL-containing solution. The SANS and spectroscopic results also demonstrate that the addition of [bmim]Cl to the solution decreases the thermal stability of GFP, allowing the protein to unfold at lower temperatures than in aqueous solution.

  20. Separation and concentration of lower alcohols from dilute aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Raymond H. (Richland, WA); Eakin, David E. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for producing, from a dilute aqueous solution of a lower (C.sub.1 -C.sub.5) alcohol, a concentrated liquid solution of the alcohol in an aromatic organic solvent is disclosed. Most of the water is removed from the dilute aqueous solution of alcohol by chilling sufficiently to form ice crystals. Simultaneously, the remaining liquid is extracted at substantially the same low temperature with a liquid organic solvent that is substantially immiscible in aqueous liquids and has an affinity for the alcohol at that temperature, causing the alcohol to transfer to the organic phase. After separating the organic liquid from the ice crystals, the organic liquid can be distilled to enrich the concentration of alcohol therein. Ethanol so separated from water and concentrated in an organic solvent such as toluene is useful as an anti-knock additive for gasoline.

  1. Biomarker Testing to Estimate Under-Reported Heavy Alcohol Consumption by Persons with HIV Initiating ART in Uganda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Judith A.; Bwana, Mwebesa B.; Javors, Martin A.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Emenyonu, Nneka I.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2010-01-01

    We compared self-reported alcohol consumption with levels ofthan expected self-reported alcohol consumption in personsalcohol was Self-reported heavy alcohol consumption was con?

  2. Evidence for temperate conditions along the Antarctic peninsula during the Early Tertiary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinsmeister, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several investigators based on deep sea glacial marine sediments from the southern oceans and volcanic sequences in West Antarctica have suggested extreme glacial conditions existed around Antarctica during the early Tertiary. Their data suggest ice sheets with ice shelves greater than those today were present on Antarctica by the late Eocene. If these data are correct, conditions during the Eocene along the Peninsula were similar to those that exist today. Late Eocene faunas and floras from Seymour Island indicate that conditions along the Peninsula were temperature. No paleontologic or geologic evidence have been obtained from Seymour Island (64/degree/18'S) to support the existence of glacial conditions along the northern part of the Peninsula during the early Tertiary. The presence of large quantities of fossil wood and plant debris in the upper Eocene sediments on Seymour Island indicates the presence of dense forests on the Peninsula during the Eocene. The discovery of marsupial and land birds remains on Seymour Island also indicate the presence of abundant terrestrial life on the Peninsula. The occurrence of an abundant marine life on Seymour Island supports the existence of temperate conditions along the Peninsula. Similarities of the Eocene faunas and floras with present day biotas from Tasmania, New Zealand and southern South America indicate that conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula during the late Eocene were comparable to present day mid latitudes of the southern hemisphere.

  3. Heavy Alcohols as a Fuel Blending Agent for Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance Characterization of Dual-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Using Hydrated Ethanol and...

  4. HD Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Applications of Significantly Downsized SI Engines Using Alcohol DI for Knock Avoidance Direct injection of a second fuel (ethanol or methanol) is explored as a means of avoiding...

  5. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed...

  6. Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernando, Harshica; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze; Shakeel Ansari, G.A.

    2013-02-01

    Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a Lieber–DeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (? 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (? 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (? 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (1–3) and 3 (4–6) months. C and E represent pair-fed control and ethanol-fed rats, respectively. Highlights: ? Proteins related to ethanol-induced steatosis and mild steatohepatitis are identified. ? ADH1C and ALDH2 involved in alcohol metabolism are differentially expressed at 1 and 3 months. ? Discovery proteomics identified a group of proteins to serve as potential biomarkers. ? Using nonparametric analysis DDT is identified as a possible marker for liver damage.

  7. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.

    2001-01-01

    Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

  8. An evaluation of pocket-model, numerical readout breath alcohol testing instruments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Tassel, William Edward

    2004-11-15

    alcohol levels, the PMBTs ranged in price from $40-100 USD. The devices were first tested under laboratory conditions with alcohol solution simulators providing the alcoholic samples. They were then tested with human drinkers, under controlled field...

  9. Manipulation of the HIF–Vegf pathway rescues methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-induced vascular lesions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonventre, Josephine A., E-mail: josephine.bonventre@oregonstate.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Oregon State University, Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, 1011 Agricultural and Life Sciences Bldg, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kung, Tiffany S., E-mail: tiffany.kung@rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); White, Lori A., E-mail: lawhite@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Cooper, Keith R., E-mail: cooper@aesop.rutgers.edu [Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Joint Graduate Program in Toxicology, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, 76 Lipman Dr., New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) has been shown to be specifically anti-angiogenic in piscine and mammalian model systems at concentrations that appear non-toxic in other organ systems. The mechanism by which MTBE targets developing vascular structures is unknown. A global transcriptome analysis of zebrafish embryos developmentally exposed to 0.00625–5 mM MTBE suggested that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-regulated pathways were affected. HIF-driven angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf) is essential to the developing vasculature of an embryo. Three rescue studies were designed to rescue MTBE-induced vascular lesions: pooled blood in the common cardinal vein (CCV), cranial hemorrhages (CH), and abnormal intersegmental vessels (ISV), and test the hypothesis that MTBE toxicity was HIF–Vegf dependent. First, zebrafish vegf-a over-expression via plasmid injection, resulted in significantly fewer CH and ISV lesions, 46 and 35% respectively, in embryos exposed to 10 mM MTBE. Then HIF degradation was inhibited in two ways. Chemical rescue by N-oxaloylglycine significantly reduced CCV and CH lesions by 30 and 32% in 10 mM exposed embryos, and ISV lesions were reduced 24% in 5 mM exposed zebrafish. Finally, a morpholino designed to knock-down ubiquitin associated von Hippel–Lindau protein, significantly reduced CCV lesions by 35% in 10 mM exposed embryos. In addition, expression of some angiogenesis related genes altered by MTBE exposure were rescued. These studies demonstrated that MTBE vascular toxicity is mediated by a down regulation of HIF–Vegf driven angiogenesis. The selective toxicity of MTBE toward developing vasculature makes it a potentially useful chemical in the designing of new drugs or in elucidating roles for specific angiogenic proteins in future studies of vascular development. - Highlights: • Global gene expression of MTBE exposed zebrafish suggested altered HIF1 signaling. • Over expression of zebrafish vegf-a rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • Inhibiting PHD or knocking down VHL rescues MTBE-induced vascular lesions. • HIF1-Vegf driven angiogenesis is a target for MTBE vascular toxicity.

  10. Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, C.M. [ed.

    1990-12-31

    Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii`s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

  11. Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Corynebacterium nuruki sp. nov., isolated from an alcohol fermentation starter Na-Ri Shin, Mi , was isolated from a Korean alcohol fermentation starter. Optimal growth occurred at 37 6C, at pH 8 and in 1 were meso-diaminopimelic acid, alanine, glycine and glutamic acid. The strain contained mycolic acids

  12. Alcohol Fuel Cells at Optimal Temperatures Tetsuya Uda,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcohol Fuel Cells at Optimal Temperatures Tetsuya Uda,a Dane A. Boysen,b Calum R. I. Chisholm of operation, 250°C, is matched both to the optimal value for fuel cell power output and for reforming. Peak, California 91125, USA High-power-density alcohol fuel cells can relieve many of the daunting challenges

  13. Office of Alcohol Fuels Program plan, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-10-01

    The goal of the Office of Alcohol Fuels is to promote the production, distribution, and use of alcohol fuels. The program objectives are defined and the strategy for implementation is described. An organizational model of the operation is included. The roles of the 3 program offices and various field offices are described. (DMC)

  14. Page 1 of 19 Policy on Alcohol Use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or explicitly sanctioned. The University has an obligation to ensure that: consumption of alcohol on campus this policy the Campus Alcohol Policy Committee promotes low risk consumption as well as primary and secondary behaviour through educational programs, by providing a campus climate that encourages self

  15. Alternative Breaks Alcohol and Drug Policy 2014-2015

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Alternative Breaks Alcohol and Drug Policy 2014-2015 In order to promote personal development order and stability on Alternative Break trips, the following standards concerning drug and alcohol use have been set and will be enforced on all Alternative Break trips: 1. Use, possession or distribution

  16. The effects of adult-onset alcoholism on cortical bone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Atha Louise

    2001-01-01

    -fed liquid control diet or rat pellet chow for either 8 or 14 weeks. An additional group of animals (alcohol cessation and pair-fed cessation) was fed the alcohol diet for 8 weeks with pair-fed partners receiving the liquid control diet. These animals were...

  17. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tedder, Daniel W. (Marietta, GA)

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  18. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, MM; Ray, LA; Mackillop, J

    2015-01-01

    comor- bid posttraumatic stress disorder. Alcoholism,K. -I. , & Sinha, R. (2007). Stress-induced and alcohol cue-2011). Craving in response to stress induction in a human

  19. Web-based intervention for alcohol use in women of childbearing potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlett, Katia Delrahim

    2010-01-01

    assessing self-reported ethanol consumption. In J. Allen, &biases in self- reported alcohol consumption and harms.Retrospective self-report of alcohol consumption: Test-

  20. Adolescent alcohol use and fMRI BOLD response : a longitudinal study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Squeglia, Lindsay M.

    2012-01-01

    9872. Oscar-Berman, M. , & Marinkovic, K. (2003). AlcoholismOscar-Berman, M. , & Marinkovic, K. (2007). Alcohol: Effects2008; Oscar-Berman & Marinkovic, 2003, 2007; Vik, Cellucci,

  1. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium of the systems cumene + benzyl alcohol and phenol + benzyl alcohol at 10 kPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resa, J.M.; Quintana, T.; Cepeda, E. (Univ. del Paris Vasco, Vitoria (Spain). Dept. Ingenieria Quimica)

    1994-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data are reported for the binary systems cumene + benzyl alcohol and phenol + benzyl alcohol at 10 kPa. The activity coefficient data were tested for thermodynamic consistency by the methods of Herington, Black, and Van Ness and correlated with the Wilson equation. None of the systems show an azeotrope.

  2. Electro-autotrophic synthesis of higher alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liao, James C.; Cho, Kwang Myung

    2015-10-06

    The disclosure provides a process that converts CO.sub.2 to higher alcohols (e.g. isobutanol) using electricity as the energy source. This process stores electricity (e.g. from solar energy, nuclear energy, and the like) in liquid fuels that can be used as high octane number gasoline substitutes. Instead of deriving reducing power from photosynthesis, this process derives reducing power from electrically generated mediators, either H.sub.2 or formate. H.sub.2 can be derived from electrolysis of water. Formate can be generated by electrochemical reduction of CO.sub.2. After delivering the reducing power in the cell, formate becomes CO.sub.2 and recycles back. Therefore, the biological CO.sub.2 fixation process can occur in the dark.

  3. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  4. Production and Use of Alcohol on the Farm. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, Henry; Rothe, Joe M.

    1981-01-01

    : '_ ? ? .r :' ' : , Production and Use of Alcohol on the Farm Henry O'Neal and Joe M. Rothe* To become energy independent, many ag ricultural producers have considered on-farm fuel production. The most popular home-made fuel is ethyl alcohol (ethanol... duction is as easy as making corn liquor. Howev er, moonshiners produce a product of only 80 to 100 proof. Modern alcohol fuel plants produce a product up to 200 proof in large quantities. Such production is not a simple operation and takes careful...

  5. Function and Dysfunction of Prefrontal Brain Circuitry in Alcoholic Korsakoff's Syndrome

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Robin L.

    in cognitive abilities and emotional functioning in chronic alcoholics (Oscar- Berman and Marinkovic 2007

  6. The Development and Application of Gold(I)-Catalyzed Cyclization Cascades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sethofer, Steven Gregory

    2011-01-01

    lithium trimethylsilylacetylide to give tertiary alcohol 4.43. Deprotection and esterification then provided acetate

  7. Determination of optical conductivity and different optical energy losses for non-crystalline Vanadyl tetra tert-butyl 2,3 Naphthalocyanine thinfilms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhanya, I.; Menon, C. S. [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Priyadarshini Hills, Kottayam, Kerala, 686 560 (India)

    2011-10-20

    Amorphous Vanadyl Tetra Tert Butyl 2, 3 naphthalocyanine thin films (VTTBNc) have been deposited using Physical Vapor Deposition technique. By analyzing the X-ray diffraction, the structure of as deposited films is found to be non-crystalline. Different optical properties of these thin films have been investigated by means of optical absorption and reflection spectra. Various optical constants like band gap energy, E{sub g} the width of band tails of localized states into the gap, E{sub U} and steepness parameter, {beta} gets calculated and the variation of different optical parameters like refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constants, optical conductivity and surface and volume energy losses with photon energy are estimated.

  8. Large-magnitude miocene extension in the central Mojave Desert: Implications for Paleozoic to Tertiary paleogeography and tectonics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, J. Douglas; Bartley, John M.; Glazner, Allen F.

    1990-01-10

    JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 95, NO. B l, PAGES 557-569, JANUARY 10, 1990 Large-Magnitude Miocene Extension in the Central Mojave Desert' Implications for Paleozoic to Tertiary Paleogeography and Tectonics J. DOUGLAS WALKER Department... of Geology, University of Kansas, La}rwence JOHN M. BARTLEY Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City ALLEN F. GLAZNER Department of Geology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill The main Cenozoic extensional structure...

  9. Method for producing hydrocarbon and alcohol mixtures. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    It is an object of this invention to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols and ketones from an aqueous solution containing the same into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. Another object of the invention is to provide a mixture consisting of hydrocarbon, alcohols or ketones, polyoxyalkylene polymer and water which can be directly added to fuels or further purified. The above stated objects are achieved in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5 to 18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is mixed in the presence or one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers described in detail hereinafter; the fermentation alcohol being extracted into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  10. New diversification strategies for the Japanese alcohol industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshimura, Toru, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    Japanese major alcoholic beverage companies, whose businesses are mainly the production and sale of beer products, stand at a strategic crossroads. There are several reasons: a slow decrease in the Japanese population, ...

  11. Alcohol Services Category #1 # Permit Application Category #2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    or Wine Sheldon Art Museum Non-Alcoholic Beverages to be served or consumed: Soda pop Coffee/Tea Non Champions Club Schorr Suite Gaughan Center Sheldon Museum of Art Int'l Quilt Study Center State Museum Lied

  12. Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Catalytic Upgrading of Current Dilute Alcohol Fermentation Streams to Hydrocarbons for Fungible Fuels 2.3.1.100 Chaitanya Narula, 1 Zhenglong Li, 1 E. Casbeer, 1 Robert A....

  13. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Illinois: Prevalence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Chicago, University of

    Assessment Program. Rod R. Blagojevich, Governor #12;#12;Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in Illinois by the federal Office of Management and Budget. Theodora Binion-Taylor, Associate Director 100 West Randolph

  14. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 517 Requested by Sens. Daschle & Murkowski

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    Additional analysis of the impact of the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban provisions of S. 517.

  15. TABLE33.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    products are reported by the PAD District of entry. b Includes crude oil imported for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. c Includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE),...

  16. TABLE34.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    products are reported by the PAD District of entry. b Includes crude oil imported for storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. c Includes ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE),...

  17. The effects of alcohol and aspirin on neonatal brain development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beshear, Myra Dawn

    2013-02-22

    -1 THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND ASPIRIN ON NEONATAL BRAIN DEVELOPMENT A Senior Honors Thesis By MYRA DAWN BESHEAR Submitted to the Office of Honors Programs & Academic Scholarships Texas A&M University In partial fulfillment of the requirements... of the UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH FELLOWS April 2000 Group: Cell Biology 2 THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND ASPIRIN ON NEONATAL BRAIN DEVELOPMENT A Senior Honors Thesis By ~ DAWN BESHEAR Submitted to the Ofhce of Honors Programs 4 Academic Scholarships...

  18. Patterns of role-impairment among alcoholic workers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Carolyn Lesley Klein

    1971-01-01

    behavior of alcoholic workers. Five dimensions of work behavior were examined with respect to possible modes of role impairment: work efficiency; absenteeism; cover-up practices; job turn-over; and. lost-time accident rates. The data were obtained from... in general No relationship between alcoholism and lost- time accidents was found. Three factors which may explain the low rate of accidents among problem drinkers were identified: (l) most respondents reported that there was little possibility of having...

  19. Interplay between Secondary and Tertiary Structure Formation in Protein Folding Cooperativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tristan Bereau; Michael Bachmann; Markus Deserno

    2011-07-01

    Protein folding cooperativity is defined by the nature of the finite-size thermodynamic transition exhibited upon folding: two-state transitions show a free energy barrier between the folded and unfolded ensembles, while downhill folding is barrierless. A microcanonical analysis, where the energy is the natural variable, has shown better suited to unambiguously characterize the nature of the transition compared to its canonical counterpart. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of a high resolution coarse-grained model allow for the accurate evaluation of the density of states, in order to extract precise thermodynamic information, and measure its impact on structural features. The method is applied to three helical peptides: a short helix shows sharp features of a two-state folder, while a longer helix and a three-helix bundle exhibit downhill and two-state transitions, respectively. Extending the results of lattice simulations and theoretical models, we find that it is the interplay between secondary structure and the loss of non-native tertiary contacts which determines the nature of the transition.

  20. IDENTIFYING HEALTHY ALCOHOL CUSTOMS: A CULTURAL ANALYSIS COMPARING THE ITALIAN AND AMERICAN ALCOHOL CULTURES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Cindy 1989-

    2011-08-15

    in Italy in Year 2009 [Data File]. Retrieved from http://en.istat.it/salastampa/comunicati/non_calendario/20100422_00/consumo_alcol_INI.pdf (see Appendix B) Figure 3 below to fully illustrate these differences in data. This further shows how Italy...]. Retrieved from http://en.istat.it/salastampa/comunicati/non_calendario/20100422_00/consumo_alcol_INI.pdf These statistical data raise questions about the origins of these radically different frames of reference. If 70% of Italians consume alcohol...

  1. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl alcohol microspheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, J.H.; Grens, J.Z.; Poco, J.F.; Ives, B.H.

    1986-06-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres, having a size range of approx.150- to 250-..mu..m diameter with 1- to 5-..mu..m wall thickness, have been fabricated using a solution droplet technique. The spheres were developed for possible use on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program. PVA, a polymer chosen based on earlier survey work carried out at KMS Fusion, Inc., has good strength, low hydrogen permeability, is optically transparent, and water soluble. The latter property makes it safe and easy to use in our droplet generator system. A unique dual-orifice droplet generator was used to prepare the spheres. The droplet generator operating conditions and the column processing parameters were chosen using results from our 1-D model calculations as a guide. The polymer microsphere model is an extension of the model we developed to support the glass sphere production. After preparation, the spheres were physically characterized for surface quality, sphericity, wall thickness (and uniformity), and size. We also determined the buckling pressure for both uncoated and CH-coated spheres. Radiation stability to beta decay (from tritium) was evaluated by exposing the spheres to a 7-keV electron beam. The results from these and other physical property measurements are presented in this report.

  2. Deetherification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1985-11-05

    Ethers such as isobutyl tertiary butyl ether are dissociated into their component alcohols and isoolefins by heat stabilized catalyst compositions prepared from nuclear sulfonic acid, for example, macroporous crosslinked polyvinyl aromatic compounds containing sulfonic acid groups are neutralized with a metal of Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, ions or mixtures and alkali, alkaline earth metals or ammonium ions by contacting the resin containing the sulfonic acid with aqueous solutions of the metals salts and alkali, alkaline earth metal or ammonium salts. The catalysts have at least 50% of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with metal ions and the balance of the sulfonic acid groups neutralized with alkali, alkaline earth ions or ammonium ions.

  3. Use of Treated Municipal Wastewater as Power Plant Cooling System Makeup Water: Tertiary Treatment versus Expanded Chemical Regimen for Recirculating Water Quality Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Dzombak; Radisav Vidic; Amy Landis

    2012-06-30

    Treated municipal wastewater is a common, widely available alternative source of cooling water for thermoelectric power plants across the U.S. However, the biodegradable organic matter, ammonia-nitrogen, carbonate and phosphates in the treated wastewater pose challenges with respect to enhanced biofouling, corrosion, and scaling, respectively. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits and life cycle costs of implementing tertiary treatment of secondary treated municipal wastewater prior to use in recirculating cooling systems. The study comprised bench- and pilot-scale experimental studies with three different tertiary treated municipal wastewaters, and life cycle costing and environmental analyses of various tertiary treatment schemes. Sustainability factors and metrics for reuse of treated wastewater in power plant cooling systems were also evaluated. The three tertiary treated wastewaters studied were: secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to acid addition for pH control (MWW_pH); secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected to nitrification and sand filtration (MWW_NF); and secondary treated municipal wastewater subjected nitrification, sand filtration, and GAC adsorption (MWW_NFG). Tertiary treatment was determined to be essential to achieve appropriate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control for use of secondary treated municipal wastewater in power plant cooling systems. The ability to control scaling, in particular, was found to be significantly enhanced with tertiary treated wastewater compared to secondary treated wastewater. MWW_pH treated water (adjustment to pH 7.8) was effective in reducing scale formation, but increased corrosion and the amount of biocide required to achieve appropriate biofouling control. Corrosion could be adequately controlled with tolytriazole addition (4-5 ppm TTA), however, which was the case for all of the tertiary treated waters. For MWW_NF treated water, the removal of ammonia by nitrification helped to reduce the corrosivity and biocide demand. Also, the lower pH and alkalinity resulting from nitrification reduced the scaling to an acceptable level, without the addition of anti-scalant chemicals. Additional GAC adsorption treatment, MWW_NFG, yielded no net benefit. Removal of organic matter resulted in pitting corrosion in copper and cupronickel alloys. Negligible improvement was observed in scaling control and biofouling control. For all of the tertiary treatments, biofouling control was achievable, and most effectively with pre-formed monochloramine (2-3 ppm) in comparison with NaOCl and ClO2. Life cycle cost (LCC) analyses were performed for the tertiary treatment systems studied experimentally and for several other treatment options. A public domain conceptual costing tool (LC3 model) was developed for this purpose. MWW_SF (lime softening and sand filtration) and MWW_NF were the most cost-effective treatment options among the tertiary treatment alternatives considered because of the higher effluent quality with moderate infrastructure costs and the relatively low doses of conditioning chemicals required. Life cycle inventory (LCI) analysis along with integration of external costs of emissions with direct costs was performed to evaluate relative emissions to the environment and external costs associated with construction and operation of tertiary treatment alternatives. Integrated LCI and LCC analysis indicated that three-tiered treatment alternatives such as MWW_NSF and MWW_NFG, with regular chemical addition for treatment and conditioning and/or regeneration, tend to increase the impact costs and in turn the overall costs of tertiary treatment. River water supply and MWW_F alternatives with a single step of tertiary treatment were associated with lower impact costs, but the contribution of impact costs to overall annual costs was higher than all other treatment alternatives. MWW_NF and MWW_SF alternatives exhibited moderate external impact costs with moderate infrastructure and chemical conditioner dosing, which makes them (especially

  4. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  5. Multiple Co-Evolutionary Networks Are Supported by the Common Tertiary Scaffold of the LacI/GalR Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parente, Daniel J.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2013-12-31

    ]. Here, we used the 6 largest subfamilies – CcpA, GalRS, GntR, PurR, RbsR-A, and TreR – (Table 1 and Figure 2a) to compare and contrast the amino acid positions on the common tertiary structure that are under evolutionary constraint. (E. coli PLOS ONE... of the LacI/GalR family. For PurR and CcpA, endogenous effector binding enhances DNA binding (Table 1). Further, CcpA is primarily allosterically regulated by a protein-protein interaction with HPr-Ser46-P, with only a secondary, ‘fine-tuning’ role for small...

  6. Natural fats and oils route to fatty alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchold, H.

    1983-02-21

    The Philippines will be the site for a chemical plant that will use coconut oil to make fatty alcohols by means of a direct hydrogenation route - eliminating an intermediate esterification step. The facility will produce about 65,000 tonnes/yr of coconut fatty acid and 7,900 tonnes/yr of glycerine. About half of the fatty acid produced will be used to make 29,000 tonnes/yr of fatty alcohols. The principles and operation of the process are outlined.

  7. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, MM; Ray, LA; Mackillop, J

    2015-01-01

    economic indices of motivation may be more reliably observedOF STRESS EFFECTS ON ACUTE MOTIVATION FOR ALCOHOL M AX M. Oin the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other

  8. The effects of alcohol consumption after menopause on bone regulating hormones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaschke, Dawn Lewis

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this project was to determine if the alcohol-associated increase in osteopenia as observed in ovariectomized rats, which simulated human females after menopause, was due to the elect of alcohol on hormones that ...

  9. Two Sides of the Same Story: Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Taking in South India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    Sharma H. Alcohol and culture in India. In: Heath D, editor.Alcohol related problems in India: need for policy orientededitor. Mental health in India 1950–2000: essays in honour

  10. The role of non-parental adult social support in adjustment of adolescent children of alcoholics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roney, James E.

    1997-01-01

    The present study examined the effect adult social support outside of the family has on subjects' outcome scores in the areas of interpersonal problems, alcohol use and psychological functioning. Results indicate that children of alcoholics who had...

  11. Brief intervention to reduce alcohol use among men who have sex with men

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croff, Julie May Ketchie

    2010-01-01

    for assessing self-reported alcohol consumption. In R. Z.between BrAC and self-reported consumption (Clapp J. D. , etbelow: Alcohol Consumption Several self-reported measures of

  12. Characterization of Particulate Emissions from GDI Engine Combustion with Alcohol-blended Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Analysis showed that gasoline direct injection engine particulates from alcohol-blended fuels are significantly different in morphology and nanostructures

  13. Solvent extraction of technetium from alkaline waste media using bis-4,4{prime}(5{prime})[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Presley, D.J.; Moyer, B.A.

    1995-07-01

    The crown ether bis-4,4`(5`)[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6 can be utilized in a solvent-extraction process for the removal of technetium as pertechnetate ion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from solutions simulating highly radioactive alkaline defense wastes (``tank wastes``) stored at several sites in the United States. The process employs non-halogenated and non-volatile diluents and modifiers and includes an efficient stripping procedure using only water. More than 95% of the pertechnetate present at 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} M in Melton Valley (Oak Ridge, TN) and Hanford (Washington) tank-waste simulants was removed following two cross-current extraction contacts using 0.02 M bis-4,4`(5`)[(tertbutyl)cyclohexano]- 18-crown-6 in 2:1 vol/vol TBP/Isopar{reg_sign} M diluent at 25 C. Similarly, for both simulants, more than 98% of the pertechnetate contained in the solvent was back-extracted following two cross-current stripping contacts using deionized water.

  14. Low-temperature CVD of iron, cobalt, and nickel nitride thin films from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cloud, Andrew N.; Abelson, John R., E-mail: abelson@illinois.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 Materials Science and Engineering Building, 1304 W. Green St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Davis, Luke M.; Girolami, Gregory S., E-mail: girolami@scs.illinois.edu [School of Chemical Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Ave., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Thin films of late transition metal nitrides (where the metal is iron, cobalt, or nickel) are grown by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition from bis[di(tert-butyl)amido]metal(II) precursors and ammonia. These metal nitrides are known to have useful mechanical and magnetic properties, but there are few thin film growth techniques to produce them based on a single precursor family. The authors report the deposition of metal nitride thin films below 300?°C from three recently synthesized M[N(t-Bu){sub 2}]{sub 2} precursors, where M?=?Fe, Co, and Ni, with growth onset as low as room temperature. Metal-rich phases are obtained with constant nitrogen content from growth onset to 200?°C over a range of feedstock partial pressures. Carbon contamination in the films is minimal for iron and cobalt nitride, but similar to the nitrogen concentration for nickel nitride. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the incorporated nitrogen is present as metal nitride, even for films grown at the reaction onset temperature. Deposition rates of up to 18?nm/min are observed. The film morphologies, growth rates, and compositions are consistent with a gas-phase transamination reaction that produces precursor species with high sticking coefficients and low surface mobilities.

  15. Continuous Flow Oxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes Utilizing Bleach and Catalytic Tetrabutylammonium Bromide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leduc, Andrew B.

    We report a method for the oxidation of a range of alcohols and aldehydes utilizing a simple flow system of alcohols in EtOAc with a stream of 12.5% NaOCl and catalytic Bu[subscript 4]NBr. Secondary alcohols are oxidized ...

  16. FT-ICR reaction study of bimetallic clusters with alcohol and hydrocarbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    FT-ICR reaction study of bimetallic clusters with alcohol and hydrocarbon Satoshi Yoshinaga beam source [1]. In order to investigate the initial reaction of alcohol or hydrocarbon with a metal reaction of catalysts with carbon containing molecules, such as alcohol and hydrocarbon. Fig. 1 shows mass

  17. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidation of Alcohols: A Dramatic Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidation of Alcohols: A Dramatic Rate Acceleration by Cs2CO3 of Cs2CO3 and t-BuOH provides a dramatic rate acceleration in the palladium-catalyzed aerobic oxidative- mercially available palladium complex, sparteine, and mo- lecular oxygen (Scheme 1).1-3 Although our

  18. Methods for sequestering carbon dioxide into alcohols via gasification fermentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaddy, James L; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, J. Randy; Slape, M. Sean

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for use with synthesis gas fermentation. Further, the present invention is directed to improvements in gasification for the production of alcohols from a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas containing at least one microorganism.

  19. University of Alberta Sexual Assault Centre Alcohol & Drug-Facilitated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machel, Hans

    University of Alberta Sexual Assault Centre Alcohol & Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault In a survey conducted at the University of Alberta, it was found that over half of the sexual assaults experienced process involves remembering and working through the memories, #12;University of Alberta Sexual Assault

  20. Correct quantitative determination of ethanol and volatile compounds in alcohol products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charapitsa, Siarhei; Sytova, Svetlana; Yakuba, Yurii

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the volume content of ethanol in the alcohol products in practice is usually determined by pycnometry, electronic densimetry, or densimetry using a hydrostatic balance in accordance with Commission Regulation No 2870/2000. However, these methods determine directly only density of the tested liquid sample and does not take into account the effects of other volatile components such as aldehydes, esters and higher alcohols. So they are appropriate only for binary water-ethanol solutions in accordance with international table adopted by the International Legal Metrology Organization in its Recommendation No 22. Availability notable concentrations of the higher alcohols and ethers in different alcohol-based products, e. g. in whisky, cognac, brandy, wine as well as in waste alcohol and alcohol beverage production, leads to the significant contribution of these compounds in the value of the density of tested alcohol-containing sample. As a result, determination of the volume of ethanol content for ...

  1. Confirming Diagnosis of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use Diagnostic accuracy of a computer assisted diagnostic system compared to conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Lambalgen, Michiel

    1 TITLE PAGE Confirming Diagnosis of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use Diagnostic accuracy for alcoholism have good screening properties for detecting hazardous and harmful alcohol use (HHAU Test (BAT) for confirming the diagnosis of hazardous and harmful alcohol use. Design and Subjects BAT

  2. Confirming Diagnosis of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use Diagnostic accuracy of a computer assisted diagnostic system compared to conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Lambalgen, Michiel

    1 TITLE PAGE Confirming Diagnosis of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use Diagnostic accuracy for alcoholism have good screening properties for detecting hazardous and harmful alcohol use (HHAU Test (BAT) for confirming the diagnosis of hazardous and harmful alcohol use Design and Subjects BAT

  3. Journal of the Geological Society, London, Vol. 160, 2003, pp. 783795. Printed in Great Britain. Spherule deposits in CretaceousTertiary boundary sediments in Belize and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . 783 Spherule deposits in Cretaceous­Tertiary boundary sediments in Belize and Guatemala G. KELLER1 , W Guatemala Limited, 6a Av. 0­28 Zona 10, Guatemala 01010, Guatemala Abstract: Large spheroid deposits and eastern Guatemala have the same glass origin based on the presence of almost pure Cheto smectite derived

  4. Errors, 3rd printing Page 3, Fig 1.2 has an error in the stratigraphic key: "Tertiary" should be "Triassic".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fossen, Haakon

    Errors, 3rd printing ·Page 3, Fig 1.2 has an error in the stratigraphic key: "Tertiary" should "-amplitude" to "-wavelength". ·Page 231, 6th and 3rd last lines of the page: Add "Figure" in front of 19.5a ..." and 3rd line: "three principal axes" (not two). #12;

  5. GeochimicaetCosmwhimicaAcia.1975.Vol.39.pp.1629to1645.PergamonPress.Printedin Great Bntain Diagenesis in Tertiary sandstones from Kettleman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schieber, Juergen

    Diagenesis in Tertiary sandstones from Kettleman North Dome. California-II. Interstitial solutions and the McAdams sandstones at Kettleman are essen- tially Na-Ca-Cl solutions with subsidiary SOL in the sandstones, the calculations suggest that the minerals are in stable equilibrium with the brines. By contrast

  6. Review and reconnaissance of the hydrogeology of Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the vicinity of Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prothro, L.B.; Drellack, S.L. Jr.

    1997-09-01

    Work is currently underway within the Underground Test Area (UGTA) subproject of the US Department of Energy/Nevada Operations Office Environmental Restoration Program to develop corrective action plans in support of the overall corrective action strategy for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as established in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). A closure plan is currently being developed for Frenchman Flat, which has been identified in the FFACO as a Corrective Action Unit (CAU). Part of this effort requires that hydrogeologic data be compiled for inclusion in a CAU-specific hydrologic flow and transport model that will be used to predict contaminant boundaries. Hydrogeologic maps and cross sections are currently being prepared for use in the model to define the nature and extent of aquifers and confining units that might influence the flow of contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear tests conducted in Frenchman Flat. During this effort, it has been found that older Tertiary-age sediments might be hydrogeologically important in the Frenchman Flat model area. Although the character and extent of these units are poorly known, there is reason to believe that in some parts of Frenchman Flat they may lie between the regional Lower Carbonate Aquifer (LCA) and the younger Tertiary saturated alluvium and volcanic units in which several underground nuclear tests were conducted. It was not possible to quickly determine their extent, or ascertain whether or not these units might act as confining units or aquifers. The work described in this report was done to gain a better understanding of the hydrogeology of these rocks.

  7. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav (East Setauket, NY); Kowal, Andrzej (Cracow, PL)

    2011-11-02

    In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

  8. Alcohol-free alkoxide process for containing nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pope, James M. (Monroeville, PA); Lahoda, Edward J. (Edgewood, PA)

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of containing nuclear waste. A composition is first prepared of about 25 to about 80%, calculated as SiO.sub.2, of a partially hydrolyzed silicon compound, up to about 30%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed aluminum or calcium compound, about 5 to about 20%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed boron or calcium compound, about 3 to about 25%, calculated as metal oxide, of a partially hydrolyzed sodium, potassium or lithium compound, an alcohol in a weight ratio to hydrolyzed alkoxide of about 1.5 to about 3% and sufficient water to remove at least 99% of the alcohol as an azeotrope. The azeotrope is boiled off and up to about 40%, based on solids in the product, of the nuclear waste, is mixed into the composition. The mixture is evaporated to about 25 to about 45% solids and is melted and cooled.

  9. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, R.A.; Laugal, J.A.; Rappa, A.

    1985-08-06

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about [minus]10 C to about 30 C or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  10. Process for reducing organic compounds with calcium, amine, and alcohol

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benkeser, Robert A. (West Lafayette, IN); Laugal, James A. (Lostant, IL); Rappa, Angela (Baltimore, MD)

    1985-01-01

    Olefins are produced by contacting an organic compound having at least one benzene ring with calcium metal, ethylenediamine, a low molecular weight aliphatic alcohol, and optionally a low molecular weight aliphatic primary amine, and/or an inert, abrasive particulate substance. The reduction is conducted at temperatures ranging from about -10.degree. C. to about 30.degree. C. or somewhat higher. Substantially all of the organic compounds are converted to corresponding cyclic olefins, primarily diolefins.

  11. Electrolytic method to make alkali alcoholates using ion conducting alkali electrolyte/separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Joshi, Ashok V. (Salt Lake City, UT); Balagopal, Shekar (Sandy, UT); Pendelton, Justin (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-12-13

    Alkali alcoholates, also called alkali alkoxides, are produced from alkali metal salt solutions and alcohol using a three-compartment electrolytic cell. The electrolytic cell includes an anolyte compartment configured with an anode, a buffer compartment, and a catholyte compartment configured with a cathode. An alkali ion conducting solid electrolyte configured to selectively transport alkali ions is positioned between the anolyte compartment and the buffer compartment. An alkali ion permeable separator is positioned between the buffer compartment and the catholyte compartment. The catholyte solution may include an alkali alcoholate and alcohol. The anolyte solution may include at least one alkali salt. The buffer compartment solution may include a soluble alkali salt and an alkali alcoholate in alcohol.

  12. Acute toxicity of smoke screen materials to aquatic organisms, white phosphorus-felt, red phosphorus-butyl rubber and SGF No. 2 fog oil. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, T.M.; McFadden, K.M.; Bean, R.M.; Clark, M.L.; Thomas, B.L.; Killand, B.W.; Prohammer, L.A.; Kalkwarf, D.R.

    1986-04-01

    The acute toxicity of three obscurants was determined for nine freshwater organisms. The materials tested were white phosphorus-felt smoke, red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP-BR) smoke, and smoke generator fuel (SGF) No. 2 fog oil (bulk and vaporized). The chemistry of WP-F and RP-BR smoke in water and the resulting effects on aquatic organisms are similar. Combustion of these two obscurants and their deposition in water leads to the formation of many complex oxy-phosphoric acids. Rates of hydrolysis of these complex products to ortho-phosphate were inconsistent and unpredictable over time. These products acidify water and produce toxic effects after exhausting the buffering capacity of the water. Acute 96 hr tests using Daphnia magna with neutralized and nonneutralized exposure solutions indicated that the presence of unidentified toxic component(s) acted independently of pH. At pH levels of 6.0 to 7.0, phosphorus combustion products precipitated out of solution leading to a bimodal toxic response in extended 96-hr tests with Daphnia magna. Most components of fog oil had low solubility in water. Saturation was apparent at approximately 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L total oil. Vaporization had no demonstrable effect on the chemistry or toxicity of the fog oil. Neither the bulk fog oil nor the vaporized fog oil was acutely toxic to freshwater animals at concentrations less than 10 mg/L total oil. In oil-water mixes in excess of 1.0 mg/L total oil, fog oil quickly separated and floated to the surface. The primary hazard associated with vaporized and bulk fog oil was the physical effect of oil fouling the organisms. Photolysis increased the concentration of water-soluble components of the fog oil. Acute toxicity was demonstrated in oil-water mixes (approx.10 mg/L total oil) of photolyzed bulk and vaporized fog oil. No difference in toxicity was observed between photolyzed and non-photolyzed dilutions of OWM at comparable levels of total oil.

  13. 01-12-1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1998 - Bench Top FIre Involving Use of Alcohol and Burner Document Number: NA Effective Date: 011998 File (public): 01-12-1998...

  14. Brief intervention to reduce alcohol use among men who have sex with men

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croff, Julie May Ketchie

    2010-01-01

    from reducing my carbon footprint. 11. Carpooling preventsfrom reducing my carbon footprint. 10. Carpooling preventsAlcohol-Barriers Carbon Footprint Perceived susceptibility:

  15. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  16. Identification and Risk-Stratification of Problem Alcohol Drinkers with Minor Trauma in the Emergency Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Scott H.; Kuklentz, Ashley; Miles, Sarah; Borg, Keith

    2010-01-01

    our reliance on self-reported consumption, the accuracy ofthe validity of self-reported consumption was objectivelythe accuracy of self-reported alcohol consumption, and

  17. Quick setting water-compatible furfuryl alcohol polymer concretes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Ridge, NY); Kukacka, Lawrence E. (Port Jefferson, NY); Horn, William H. (Brookhaven, NY)

    1982-11-30

    A novel quick setting polymer concrete composite comprising a furfuryl alcohol monomer, an aggregate containing a maximum of 8% by weight water, and about 1-10% trichlorotoluene initiator and about 20-80% powdered metal salt promoter, such as zinc chloride, based on the weight of said monomer, to initiate and promote polymerization of said monomer in the presence of said aggregate, within 1 hour after mixing at a temperature of -20.degree. C. to 40.degree. C., to produce a polymer concrete having a 1 hour compressive strength greater than 2000 psi.

  18. T4 DNA condensation in water-alcohol media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. O. Gallyamov; O. A. Pyshkina; V. G. Sergeyev; I. V. Yaminsky

    2011-07-21

    The process of compaction of high molecular weight DNA T4 is investigated directly in a AFM liquid cell. The AFM-images of globules formed by DNA molecules in the result of compaction in water-alcohol environments at high izopropanol concentration (80%) are received; it is found that at intermediate concentration of izopropanol (40-50%) the DNA molecules form partially compacted formations in which the separate coils of macromolecules twist in toroidal structures. It is shown using the technique of deconvolution of the AFM-images that the globule include only one closely packed DNA molecule. The model of DNA packing is proposed on the basis of AFM experiment.

  19. Jilin Fuel Alcohol Company Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar Hydro Jump to:Huilun SolarLongjiangJiaozuoJidongAlcohol

  20. Alcoholes Biocarburantes de Extremadura Albiex | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5 -Telephone Co JumpAlcoholes Biocarburantes de

  1. Declining and rebounding unhealthy alcohol consumption during the first year of HIV care in rural Uganda, using phosphatidylethanol to augment self-report.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Decreases in self-reported alcohol consumption following HIVY, et al. Comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption toY, et al. Comparison of self-reported alcohol consumption to

  2. Supplemental Materials for: The Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidation of Alcohols: A Dramatic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Supplemental Materials for: The Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidation of Alcohols Company, Milwaukee, WI. Non-commercially available enantiopure alcohols prepared by palladium with oven dried powdered molecular sieves (MS3Å, 0.5 g). After cooling, Pd(nbd)Cl2 complex (0.05 mmol, 0

  3. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  4. Cannabinoid receptors as novel therapeutic targets for the management of non alcoholic steatohepatitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Cannabinoid receptors as novel therapeutic targets for the management of non alcoholic Marne, Créteil, 94000 France; AP-HP, Groupe hospitalier Henri Mondor-Albert Chenevier, Service d rationale for the use of CB1 antagonists in the management of NASH. KEYWORDS: fatty liver, non alcoholic

  5. PartyWith A Plan SJSU Alcohol & Drug AbusePrevention Committee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    . If preparing an alcoholic punch, use a non- carbonated base such as fruit juice. Alcohol is absorbed into the blood stream faster when it has a carbonated base. Close your bar 90 minutes before your party is over-12 months) Increase in insurance $6600 3 years probation Cost of saving a life Priceless Never drink

  6. Characterization of Catalysts for Synthesis of Higher Alcohols using Electron Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    and better production paths. One of these is using biogas to create alcohol as a fuel. Higher alcohols are favorable due to the higher energy density and the facile application in today they are working [2],[3]. The catalysts for sustainable energy project (CASE) at DTU aims

  7. Characterization of Catalysts for the Synthesis of Higher Alcohols using Transmission Electron Microscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    the use of biogas to create alcohol for fuel. Higher alcohols are favorable due to their high energy of transportation fuels from sustainable resources requires new and better production paths. One approach involves of TEM techniques at close to working conditions. [2,3]. The CAtalysis for Sustainable Energy Project

  8. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse Mariana P Torrente, Willard M Freeman, and Kent E Vrana*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, James

    with any organization or entity with a financial interest in or financial conflict with the subject matter of alcohol abuse. Brief surveys ­ including AUDIT-C [5] and CAGE [6] ­ aimed at quantifying alcohol intake & competing interests disclosure The authors have no other relevant affiliations or financial involvement

  9. The consequence of late-onset alcohol abuse in aged bone: a histomorhometric analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, Lisa Setchfield

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of late-onset alcohol abuse on aged bone using the rat model. Thirty female Fischer 344 rats were separated by weights into one of four groups: baseline, alcohol-fed, pair-fed, and pellet...

  10. The harmful effects of late-onset alcohol consumption on cortical bone in aged rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowlin, Julie Lee

    2001-01-01

    This study looked at the effects of late-onset alcohol consumption for 8 weeks on the aged rat model (15 months old). Thirty 15 month old female Fisher 344 rats were divided into three diet groups: Alcohol (n=9), pair-fed (n=9), and pellet (n=6...

  11. Comparative study of the effect of ferrocyanide and EDTA on the production of ethyl alcohol from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oderinde, R.A.; Ngoka, L.C.; Adesogan, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of potassium ferrocyanide and EDTA on ethyl alcohol production from molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated on simulated batch pilot-plant-scale conditions for alcoholic fermentation of molasses. Ethyl alcohol production was more sensitive to ferrocyanide than to EDTA. When ferrocyanide was introduced into the cultures at the time of inoculation, there was stimulation of ethyl alcohol production, with 261 ppm ferrocyanide producing the maximum effect, which was 3.0% more than n control cultures. When added during the propagation of the yeast, ferrocyanide depressed ethyl alcohol production by 4.0% maximum whereas EDTA stimulated ethyl alcohol production by 2.0%. Addition of ferrocyanide during the fermentation stage produced no significant effect on alcohol production, whereas over a wide range of EDTA concentration there was a steady increase in alcohol yield.

  12. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  13. Production of branched-chain alcohols by recombinant Ralstonia eutropha in fed-batch cultivation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fei, Q; Brigham, CJ; Lu, JN; Fu, RZ; Sinskey, AJ

    2013-09-01

    Branched-chain alcohols are considered promising green energy sources due to their compatibility with existing infrastructure and their high energy density. We utilized a strain of Ralstonia eutropha capable of producing branched-chain alcohols and examined its production in flask cultures. In order to increase isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol) productivity in the engineered strain, batch, fed-batch, and two-stage fed-batch cultures were carried out in this work. The effects of nitrogen source concentration on branched-chain alcohol production were investigated under four different initial concentrations in fermenters. A maximum 380 g m(-3) of branched-chain alcohol production was observed with 2 kg m(-3) initial NH4Cl concentration in batch cultures. A pH-stat control strategy was utilized to investigate the optimum carbon source amount fed during fed-batch cultures for higher cell density. In cultures of R. eutropha strains that did not produce polyhydroxyalkanoate or branched-chain alcohols, a maximum cell dry weight of 36 kg m(-3) was observed using a fed-batch strategy, when 10 kg m(-3) carbon source was fed into culture medium. Finally, a total branched-chain alcohol titer of 790 g m(-3), the highest branched-chain alcohol yield of 0.03 g g(-1), and the maximum branched-chain alcohol productivity of 8.23 g m(-3) h(-1) were obtained from the engineered strain Re2410/pJL26 in a two-stage fed-batch culture system with pH-stat control. Isobutanol made up over 95% (mass fraction) of the total branched-chain alcohols titer produced in this study. (C) 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Understanding chemical reactions of CO{sub 2} and its isoelectronic molecules with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate by changing the nature of the cation: The case of CS{sub 2} in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate studied by NMR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabaço, M. Isabel, E-mail: isabelcabaco@ist.utl.pt [Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Física Atómica da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Besnard, Marcel; Danten, Yann [GSM Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS (UMR 5255), Université de Bordeaux, 351, Cours de la Libération 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Chávez, Fabián Vaca [Centro de Física da Matéria Condensada da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1694-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Pinaud, Noël [CESAMO Institut des Sciences Moléculaires, CNRS (UMR 5255), Université de Bordeaux, 351, Cours de la Libération 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Sebastião, Pedro J. [Departamento de Física, Instituto Superior Técnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Centro de Física da Matéria Condensada da UL, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1694-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Coutinho, João A. P. [CICECO, Departamento de Química, Universidade de Aveiro 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2014-06-28

    NMR spectroscopy ({sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) shows that carbon disulfide reacts spontaneously with 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium acetate ([BmPyrro][Ac]) in the liquid phase. It is found that the acetate anions play an important role in conditioning chemical reactions with CS{sub 2} leading, via coupled complex reactions, to the degradation of this molecule to form thioacetate anion (CH{sub 3}COS{sup ?}), CO{sub 2}, OCS, and trithiocarbonate (CS{sub 3}{sup 2?}). In marked contrast, the cation does not lead to the formation of any adducts allowing to conclude that, at most, its role consists in assisting indirectly these reactions. The choice of the [BmPyrro]{sup +} cation in the present study allows disentangling the role of the anion and the cation in the reactions. As a consequence, the ensemble of results already reported on CS{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (1), OCS-[Bmim][Ac] (2), and CO{sub 2}-[Bmim][Ac] (3) systems can be consistently rationalized. It is argued that in system (1) both anion and cation play a role. The CS{sub 2} reacts with the acetate anion leading to the formation of CH{sub 3}COS{sup ?}, CO{sub 2}, and OCS. After these reactions have proceeded the nascent CO{sub 2} and OCS interact with the cation to form imidazolium-carboxylate ([Bmim] CO{sub 2}) and imidazolium-thiocarboxylate ([Bmim] COS). The same scenario also applies to system (2). In contrast, in the CO{sub 2}-[Bmim] [Ac] system a concerted cooperative process between the cation, the anion, and the CO{sub 2} molecule takes place. A carbene issued from the cation reacts to form the [Bmim] CO{sub 2}, whereas the proton released by the ring interacts with the anion to produce acetic acid. In all these systems, the formation of adduct resulting from the reaction between the solute molecule and the carbene species originating from the cation is expected. However, this species was only observed in systems (2) and (3). The absence of such an adduct in system (1) has been theoretically investigated using DFT calculations. The values of the energetic barrier of the reactions show that the formation of [Bmim] CS{sub 2} is unfavoured and that the anion offers a competitive reactive channel via an oxygen-sulphur exchange mechanism with the solute in systems (1) and (2)

  15. Alcohol and Other Drugs: Penalties Under State and Federal Law PENALTIES UNDER TEXAS LAW

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasser, Adrian

    not to exceed 180 days. #12;Consumption or Possession of Alcoholic Beverage in Motor Vehicle Fine not to exceed, or dispensing drugs (includes marijuana) A term of imprisonment not less than five years, and a fine of not more

  16. Atomic-Scale Mechanistic Study of Iodine/Alcohol Passivated Si(100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mo, Renee T.

    1999-09-27

    Solutions of iodine in alcohol have been shown to passivate H{sub x}-Si(100), decreasing the number of surface states. The degree of passivation depends upon the structure of the alcohol; methanol provides the most stable surface, with an order of magnitude fewer unpassivated sites than H{sub x}-Si(100). The authors experiments have allowed them to develop a mechanistic understanding of the reaction of the iodine/alcohol solution with the hydrogen-terminated surface. The passivation mechanism appears to be light activated iodination of the surface followed by nucleophilic substitution by the alcohol. Their data suggests that this methoxy-terminated surface is exceptionally stable in the cleanroom ambient because the Si-O bond and the unreactive methoxy moiety hinder further reactions with contaminants. Upon annealing, they find that the passivation is readily removed, and the surface reconstructs to clean Si(100) 2x1 without the formation of silicon carbide.

  17. Osteopontin-mediated neutrophilic infiltration and higher liver injury in a female rodent alcoholic steatohepatitis model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Atrayee

    2009-05-15

    the increased susceptibility of females to alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH). Female rats in ASH model were found to have significantly higher neutrophilic infiltration in the liver as compared to the males. Osteopontin (OPN), a member of the SIBLING family...

  18. The Effects of Alcohol on the Regulation of Imprinted Genes in Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villanueva, Elizabeth Mary

    2013-02-04

    origin comes from alternations to the molecular mechanisms controlling development. In this study, we examined how gene regulation is affected when alcohol is introduced into the environment by looking at genomic imprints. Genomic imprinting is the unique...

  19. Young drivers and the efficacy of the Texas drug and alcohol driving awareness program 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darnell, Richard

    2009-05-15

    , PI offenses and DUI/DWI offenses attributed to a group. When adjusted for group size, participants who did not receive TDADAP instruction had 53% more convictions than the TDADAP participants. With regard to alcohol-related accidents, findings were...

  20. Development of miscella refining process for cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol system: laboratory-scale evaluations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chau, Chi-Fai

    1994-01-01

    A technologically feasible cottonseed oil-isopropyl alcohol (IPA) miscella refining process was developed to produce high quality cottonseed oil. Individual steps necessary to refine cottonseed oil-IPA miscella were determined and improved...

  1. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  2. Level of osteopenia and bone recovery in alcohol-fed adolescent rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spears, Heather Lynae

    1999-01-01

    Adolescence is a period in human growth and development that is a time of rapid and drastic change. It is also known to be an age of widespread alcohol abuse. Studies addressing the reversibility of the deleterious effects ...

  3. Topic Policy/Procedur Change Alcohol and Controlled Substance Testing (CDL) Policy None

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Topic Policy/Procedur Change Alcohol and Controlled Substance Testing (CDL) Policy None Applicant Selection --- Selection of Non- --Academic Employees Policy Added clarification: This policy Resources Award Program Policy Updated links to forms and related documents. For approvals, require

  4. Structural studies of alumina pillared hectorite using polyvinyl alcohol as a pillaring agent 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroenig, Andrea N

    1997-01-01

    In the present work, the structures of a natural hectorite clay pillared with alumina were studied. Frequently, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was added as a pillaring agent to observe structural differences in the calcined ...

  5. Alcohol Consumption in University Students: The Relationship Between Personality and Metacognition in Relation to Drinking 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Ailsa

    2010-03-17

    Neuroticism, high Extraversion and low Conscientiousness have also been related to heavier alcohol consumption. Furthermore, there is evidence that personality, mainly Neuroticism, might be related to metacognition. In this study we use self-report measures...

  6. Endorcine Effects of Pyrethroid Pesticide Esfenvalerate Metabolites; 3-Phenoxybenzyl Alcohol and 3-Phenoxybenzoic Acid 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavez, Marco

    2009-09-30

    Much research has been conducted on type II pyrethroid pesticides but there is a paucity of research conducted on metabolites from these pesticides. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and 3-phenoxybenzyl alcohol are two metabolites ...

  7. Effects of Alcohol on the Regulation of Imprinted Genes in Mouse Stem Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crocker, Alyssa

    2013-02-04

    ABSTRACT Effects of Alcohol on the Regulation of Imprinted Genes in Mouse Stem Cells. (December 2013) Alyssa Crocker Department of Animal Science Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Michael Golding Department of Veterinary Physiology...

  8. Experimental investigations of rheological properties of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fort, Ben Franklin

    1966-01-01

    EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE AND POLYVINYL ALCOHOL A Thesis By BEN F. FORT, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas AfkM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1966 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SODIUM CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE AND POLYVINYL ALCOHOL A Thesis By BEN F. FORT, JR. Approved...

  9. Process for the conversion of alcohols and oxygenates to hydrocarbons in a turbulent fluid bed reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avidan, A. A.; Kam, A. Y.

    1985-04-23

    Improvements in converting C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ monohydric alcohols, particularly methanol, related oxygenates of said alcohols and/or oxygenates produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to light olefins, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons and/or distillate boiling range hydrocarbons are obtained in a fluidized bed of ZSM-5 type zeolite catalyst operating under conditions effective to provide fluidization in the turbulent regime.

  10. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, Marvin I. (Oradell, NJ); Gelbein, Abraham P. (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  11. Process for the synthesis of aliphatic alcohol-containing mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greene, M.I.; Gelbein, A.P.

    1984-10-16

    A process for the synthesis of mixtures which include saturated aliphatic alcohols is disclosed. In the first step of the process, the first catalyst activation stage, a catalyst, which comprises the oxides of copper, zinc, aluminum, potassium and one or two additional metals selected from the group consisting of chromium, magnesium, cerium, cobalt, thorium and lanthanum, is partially activated. In this step, a reducing gas stream, which includes hydrogen and at least one inert gas, flows past the catalyst at a space velocity of up to 5,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. The partially activated catalyst is then subjected to the second step of the process, second-stage catalyst activation. In this step, the catalyst is contacted by an activation gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide present in a volume ratio of 0.5:1 and 4:1, respectively, at a temperature of 200 to 450 C and a pressure of between 35 and 200 atmospheres. The activation gas flows at a space velocity of from 1,000 to 20,000 liters (STP) per hour, per kilogram of catalyst. Second-stage activation continues until the catalyst is contacted with at least 500,000 liters (STP) of activation gas per kilogram of catalyst. The fully activated catalyst, in the third step of the process, contacts a synthesis gas stream comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  12. PROMOTED ZINC CHROMITE CATALYSTS FOR HIGHER ALCOHOL SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ms. Xiaolei Sun; Professor George W. Roberts

    2001-06-15

    This report describes the analytical protocols that were developed during the last two years to analyze ''spent'' THQ (tetrahydroquinoline) slurry liquid. Identification of the components of the ''spent'' THQ should help to understand the influence of the slurry medium on the methanol synthesis reaction, and on other reactions with THQ as the slurry liquid. Silica gel liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to isolate and purify the major compounds in the ''spent'' slurry liquid. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to identify the major compounds. Methyl-, dimethyl-, and trimethyl-THQ were found to comprise more than 80% of the ''spent'' liquid. The balance was various methylated indoles. A methyl group always is attached to the N atom in the ring structure. Speculative mechanisms are presented that may help to understand the interaction between the catalyst and the alkylated THQ slurry liquid, and the effect of liquid composition on the methanol synthesis reaction. A poster entitled ''Promoted Zinc Chromite Catalyst for Higher Alcohol Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor-2. Spent Liquid Analysis'' was presented at the AIChE National Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Nov 12-17, 2000.

  13. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    This map displays interpreted structural and stratigraphic relations among the Paleozoic and older rocks of the Nevada Test Site region beneath the Miocene volcanic rocks and younger alluvium in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat basins. These interpretations are based on a comprehensive examination and review of data for more than 77 drillholes that penetrated part of the pre-Tertiary basement beneath these post-middle Miocene structural basins. Biostratigraphic data from conodont fossils were newly obtained for 31 of these holes, and a thorough review of all prior microfossil paleontologic data is incorporated in the analysis. Subsurface relationships are interpreted in light of a revised regional geologic framework synthesized from detailed geologic mapping in the ranges surrounding Yucca Flat, from comprehensive stratigraphic studies in the region, and from additional detailed field studies on and around the Nevada Test Site. All available data indicate the subsurface geology of Yucca Flat is considerably more complicated than previous interpretations have suggested. The western part of the basin, in particular, is underlain by relics of the eastward-vergent Belted Range thrust system that are folded back toward the west and thrust by local, west-vergent contractional structures of the CP thrust system. Field evidence from the ranges surrounding the north end of Yucca Flat indicate that two significant strike-slip faults track southward beneath the post-middle Miocene basin fill, but their subsurface traces cannot be closely defined from the available evidence. In contrast, the eastern part of the Yucca Flat basin is interpreted to be underlain by a fairly simple north-trending, broad syncline in the pre-Tertiary units. Far fewer data are available for the northern Frenchman Flat basin, but regional analysis indicates the pre-Tertiary structure there should also be relatively simple and not affected by thrusting. This new interpretation has implications for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  14. Geothermal source potential and utilization for methane generation and alcohol production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating a geothermally heated anaerobic digester with a fuel alcohol plant and cattle feedlot. Thin stillage produced from the alcohol production process and manure collected from the cattle feedlot would be digested in anaerobic digesters to produce biogas, a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and residue. The energy requirements to maintain proper digester temperatures would be provided by geothermal water. The biogas produced in the digesters would be burned in a boiler to produce low-pressure steam which would be used in the alcohol production process. The alcohol plant would be sized so that the distiller's grains byproduct resulting from the alcohol production would be adequate to supply the daily cattle feed requirements. A portion of the digester residue would substitute for alfalfa hay in the cattle feedlot ration. The major design criterion for the integrated facilty was the production of adequate distiller's grain to supply the daily requirements of 1700 head of cattle. It was determined that, for a ration of 7 pounds of distiller's grain per head per day, a 1 million gpy alcohol facility would be required. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared for the proposed project, operating costs were calculated for a facility based on a corn feedstock, the economic feasibility of the proposed project was examined by calculating its simple payback, and an analysis was performed to examine the sensitivity of the project's economic viability to variations in feedstock costs and alcohol and distiller's grain prices.

  15. Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    In response to a Congressional request, the Energy Information Administration examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

  16. Effects of cigarette smoking history on neurocognitive recovery over 8 months of abstinence in alcohol-dependent individuals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    2007; Oscar-Berman and Marinkovic, 2007; Rourke and Grant,MD. Oscar-Berman M, Marinkovic K (2007) Alcohol: e?ects on

  17. Overview: Mesozoic through Early Tertiary Stratigraphic Evolution and Deep-water Deposition of the Magallanes Basin, Chile Copyright 2007 by The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. DOI: 10.1306/1240919St563291

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overview: Mesozoic through Early Tertiary Stratigraphic Evolution and Deep-water Deposition the earliest phase of deep-water deposition in the Magallanes foreland basin (Figure 2) (Natland et al., 1974, represents the apex of deep-water sedimentation in the Magallanes basin and was deposited at depths

  18. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  19. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diebold, James P. (Lakewood, CO); Scahill, John W. (Evergreen, CO); Chum, Helena L. (Arvada, CO); Evans, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO); Rejai, Bahman (Lakewood, CO); Bain, Richard L. (Golden, CO); Overend, Ralph P. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING SCIENCE Volume 20, Number 5, 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chu, Kung-Hui "Bella"

    -butyl ether (MTBE) is the most widely used oxygenate in gasoline, followed by ethanol. Widespread use in certain urban regions to reduce air pollution from motor vehi- cles. To meet the requirements of the CAAA), and diisopropyl ether (DIPE). Alcohol oxy- genates include ethanol (EtOH), tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), and methanol

  1. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, Paul T. (Arlington Heights, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  2. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  3. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood This article has been Contact us My IOPscience #12;Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood K conversion of biomass provide a great variety of products: oils, alcohols and gases. After treatment

  4. Interaction Between Family History of Alcoholism and Locus of Control in the Opioid Regulation of Impulsive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    choice, motor inhibition, and attentional bias after ingestion of moderate ethanol (0.3 g / kg, n = 30 ethanol intake is important. Our previous study of abstinent alcoholics and control subjects showed Making, Delay Discounting, Ethanol, Impulsivity, Naltrexone. N ALTREXONE (NTX), AN opioid antagonist

  5. Deficits in Eye Movement Control in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munoz, Douglas Perry

    subjects. Conclusion: These results reflect deficits in executive function and motor control CONSEQUENCE of prenatal ethanol exposure is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (Astley and Clarren, 2000; Chudley et), and deficits in these functions are now recognized as a hallmark of prenatal ethanol exposure. Individuals

  6. Dissolution Mechanism of Semicrystalline Poly(viny1 alcohol) in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    is important in many applications such as controlled drug delivery,'S2 recycling of polymer^,^ and in packaging reaching zero by the time the polymer dissolved completely. Increase in molecular weight led to lesser of the polymer chains of the crystal was proposed. 01996John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Keywords: Poly(viny1 alcohol

  7. Campus Coalition for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Strategic Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Campus Coalition for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Strategic Plan May 2015 Respectfully 2014 and charged the Coalition with developing a strategic plan for reducing high-risk drinking among in a one-day strategic planning retreat. Through its work, the Coalition identified three primary problems

  8. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid Waste via Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program develops design cases to understand the current state of conversion technologies and to determine where improvements need to take place in the future. This design case establishes cost targets for converting MSW to ethanol and other mixed alcohols via gasification.

  9. Alcohol chemical vapor deposition growth of millimeter-sized single-crystal of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Alcohol chemical vapor deposition growth of millimeter-sized single-crystal of graphene Sungjin Kim@photon,t,u-tokyo.ac.jp Abstract: The growth of large-sized single crystalline graphene with mono layer is necessary for large-scale integration of graphene devices. Ethanol as a precursor has proven effective in the chemical vapor deposition

  10. THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK POLICY ON DRUGS AND ALCOHOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yi

    ; (2) CUNY sanctions for the violation of this policy; and (3) responsibilities of the CUNY colleges, as well as information about the health risks of illegal drug and alcohol use, criminal sanctions, and social consequences of substance abuse. #12;CUNY SANCTIONS Employees and students who violate this policy

  11. HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis of Synergistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, Timothy E.

    HOUSEHOLD AND STRUCTURAL INSECTS Mineral Oil and Aliphatic Alcohols: Toxicity and Analysis. Entomol. 104(5): 1680Ð1686 (2011); DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/EC10440 ABSTRACT Two mineral oils and 12 and some- times repeated applications. Mineral oils, and other petroleum distillates, are often used

  12. Floated Catalyst CVD Generation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Alcohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    the generation of high-quality SWNTs. This simple technique is expected to be an efficient low-cost generationFloated Catalyst CVD Generation of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes from Alcohol Shigeo Maruyama of Tokyo 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan We have proposed the new catalytic CVD generation

  13. ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION Self-Awareness-Reducing Effects of Alcohol Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levenson, Robert W.

    to examine the effects ofalcohol consumption on the self-aware state. Based on a model proposed by Hull (1981ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION --------------------------------------------.--------------- Self-Awareness-Reducing Effects of Alcohol Consumption Jay G. Hull Dartmouth College Robert W. Levenson and Richard David Young

  14. Factors controlling reservoir quality in tertiary sandstones and their significance to geopressured geothermal production. Annual report, May 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loucks, R.G.; Richmann, D.L.; Milliken, K.L.

    1980-07-01

    Differing extents of diagenetic modification is the factor primarily responsible for contrasting regional reservoir quality of Tertiary sandstones from the Upper and Lower Texas Gulf Coast. Detailed comparison of Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury Dome area, Brazoria County, and Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area, Hidalgo County, reveals that extent of diagenetic modification is most strongly influenced by (1) detrital mineralogy and (2) regional geothermal gradients. Vicksburg sandstones from the McAllen Ranch Field area are less stable, chemically and mechanically, than Frio sandstones from the Chocolate Bayou/Danbury dome area. Vicksburg sandstones are mineralogically immature and contain greater proportions of feldspars and rock fragments than do Frio sandstones. Thr reactive detrital assemblage of Vicksubrg sandstones is highly susceptible to diagenetic modification. Susceptibility is enhanced by higher than normal geothermal gradients in the McAllen Ranch Field area. Thus, consolidation of Vicksburg sandstones began at shallower depth of burial and precipitation of authigenic phases (especially calcite) was more pervasive than in Frio sandstones. Moreover, the late-stage episode of ferroan calcite precipitation that occluded most secondary porosity in Vicksburg sandstones did not occur significantly in Frio sandstones. Therefore, regional reservoir quality of Frio sandstones from Brazoria County is far better than that characterizing Vicksburg sandstones from Hidalgo County, especially at depths suitable for geopressured geothermal energy production.

  15. A Single Phosphine Ligand Allows Palladium-Catalyzed Intermolecular C-O Bond Formation with Secondary and Primary Alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiaoxing

    Forging a bond: An efficient, general palladium catalyst for C-O bond-forming reactions of secondary and primary alcohols with a range of aryl halides has been developed using the ligand 1. Heteroaryl halides, and for the ...

  16. The Non-alcoholic Beverage Market in the United States: Demand Interrelationships, Dynamics, Nutrition Issues and Probability Forecast Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dharmasena, Kalu Arachchillage Senarath

    2011-08-08

    There are many different types of non-alcoholic beverages (NAB) available in the United States today compared to a decade ago. Additionally, the needs of beverage consumers have evolved over the years centering attention ...

  17. Oral Probiotic Microcapsule Formulation Ameliorates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Bio F1B Golden Syrian Hamsters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhathena, Jasmine; Martoni, Christopher; Kulamarva, Arun; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Paul, Arghya; Urbanska, Aleksandra Malgorzata; Prakash, Satya

    2013-03-12

    The beneficial effect of a microencapsulated feruloyl esterase producing Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11976 formulation for use in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was investigated. For which Bio F1B Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a...

  18. VI-8.00(B) UMCP POLICY ON STUDENT ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE APPROVED BY PRESIDENT SEPTEMBER 9, 1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Ning

    of this policy, the following rules, standards of conduct, and sanctions are set forth. II. Rules and Standards Sanctions Sanctions for violations of University drug and alcohol policies include expulsion, suspension

  19. Effects of Concentration of Organically Modified Nanoclay on Properties of Sulfonated Poly(vinyl alcohol) Nanocomposite Membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanglimsuwan, Apiradee

    Electrolyte nanocomposite membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells were prepared by carrying out a sulfonation of poly(vinyl alcohol) with sulfosuccinic acid and adding a type of ...

  20. Short-chain polymer rigidity due to the Debye process of monohydroxy alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Gainaru; R. Figuli; T. Hecksher; B. Jakobsen; J. C. Dyre; M. Wilhelm; R. Böhmer

    2013-05-21

    In addition to the ubiquitous structural relaxation of viscous supercooled liquids, monohydroxy alcohols and several other hydrogen-bonded systems display a strong single-exponential electrical low-frequency absorption. So far, this so-called Debye process could be observed only using dielectric techniques. Exploiting a combination of broad-band and high-resolution rheology experiments for three isomeric octanols, unambiguous mechanical evidence for the Debye process is found. Its spectral signature is similar to the viscoelastic fingerprint of small-chain polymers, enabling us to estimate the effective molecular weight for the supramolecular structure formed by the studied monohydroxy alcohols. This finding opens the venue for the application of further non-dielectric techniques directed at unraveling the microscopic nature of the Debye process and for an understanding of this phenomenon in terms of polymer concepts.

  1. Mild and selective vanadium-catalyzed oxidation of benzylic, allylic, and propargylic alcohols using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, Susan Kloek; Silks, Louis A; Wu, Ruilian

    2013-08-27

    The invention concerns processes for oxidizing an alcohol to produce a carbonyl compound. The processes comprise contacting the alcohol with (i) a gaseous mixture comprising oxygen; and (ii) an amine compound in the presence of a catalyst, having the formula: ##STR00001## where each of R.sup.1-R.sup.12 are independently H, alkyl, aryl, CF.sub.3, halogen, OR.sup.13, SO.sub.3R.sup.14, C(O)R.sup.15, CONR.sup.16R.sup.17 or CO.sub.2R.sup.18; each of R.sup.13-R.sup.18 is independently alkyl or aryl; and Z is alkl or aryl.

  2. Catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons and alcohols by carbon dioxide on oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krylov, O.V. . N.N. Semenov Inst. of Chemical Physics); Mamedov, A.Kh.; Mirzabekova, S.R. . Yu.G. Mamedaliev Inst. of Petrochemical Processes)

    1995-02-01

    The great interest displayed lately in heterogeneous catalytic reactions of carbon dioxide is caused by two reasons: (1) the necessity to fight the greenhouse effect and (2) the exhaust of carbon raw material sources. Reactions of oxidative transformation of organic compounds of different classes (alkanes, alkenes, and alcohols) with a nontraditional oxidant, carbon dioxide, were studied on oxide catalysts Fe-O, Cr-O, Mn-O and on multicomponent systems based on manganese oxide. The supported manganese oxide catalysts are active, selective, and stable in conversion of the CH[sub 4] + CO[sub 2] mixture into synthesis gas and in oxidative dehydrogenation of C[sub 2] [minus] C[sub 7] hydrocarbons and the lower alcohols. Unlike metal catalysts manganese oxide based catalysts do not form a carbon layer during the reaction.

  3. Controlled etching of hexagonal ZnO architectures in an alcohol thermal process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Junshu [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dfxue@chem.dlut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2010-03-15

    An alcohol thermal technique was applied to the controlled growth of hexagonal ZnO architectures via selective chemical etching. ZnO microdisks were produced first under mild alcohol thermal conditions in presence of formamide. Due to a higher surface energy/atomic density of Zn{sup 2+} {l_brace}0 0 0 1{r_brace} than that of the other faces, hexagonal ZnO microring was obtained by selectively etching positive polar surface of disk-like precursor with a high density of planar defects at the center. The selective etching of ZnO is related to its crystallographic characteristics of surface polarity and chemical activities, which opens a new opportunity for the shape-controlled synthesis of wurtzite-structured materials.

  4. Nickel Phosphine Catalysts with Pendant Amines for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weiss, Charles J.; Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Appel, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Nickel phosphine complexes with pendant amines have been found to be electrocatalysts for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols, with turnover frequencies as high as 3.3 s-1. These complexes are the first electrocatalysts for alcohol oxidation based on non-precious metals, which will be critical for use in fuel cells. The research by CJW, ESW, and AMA was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. The research by JASR was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal the origin of the Debye process in monohydroxy alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Gainaru; R. Meier; S. Schildmann; C. Lederle; W. Hiller; E. A. Rössler; R. Böhmer

    2010-09-03

    Monohydroxy alcohols show a structural relaxation and at longer time scales a Debye-type dielectric peak. From spin-lattice relaxation experiments using different nuclear probes an intermediate, slower-than-structural dynamics is identified for n-butanol. Based on these findings and on diffusion measurements, a model of self-restructuring, transient chains is proposed. The model is demonstrated to explain consistently the so far puzzling observations made for this class of hydrogen-bonded glass forming liquids.

  6. Activation of farnesoid X receptor attenuates hepatic injury in a murine model of alcoholic liver disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Weibin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 ; Zhu, Bo; Peng, Xiaomin; Zhou, Meiling; Jia, Dongwei; Gu, Jianxin; Institutes of Biomedical Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. •Activation of FXR attenuated alcohol-induced liver injury and steatosis. •Activation of FXR attenuated cholestasis and oxidative stress in mouse liver. -- Abstract: Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common cause of advanced liver disease, and considered as a major risk factor of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Hepatic cholestasis is a pathophysiological feature observed in all stages of ALD. The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, and plays an essential role in the regulation of bile acid, lipid and glucose homeostasis. However, the role of FXR in the pathogenesis and progression of ALD remains largely unknown. Mice were fed Lieber-DeCarli ethanol diet or an isocaloric control diet. We used a specific agonist of FXR WAY-362450 to study the effect of pharmacological activation of FXR in alcoholic liver disease. In this study, we demonstrated that FXR activity was impaired by chronic ethanol ingestion in a murine model of ALD. Activation of FXR by specific agonist WAY-362450 protected mice from the development of ALD. We also found that WAY-362450 treatment rescued FXR activity, suppressed ethanol-induced Cyp2e1 up-regulation and attenuated oxidative stress in liver. Our results highlight a key role of FXR in the modulation of ALD development, and propose specific FXR agonists for the treatment of ALD patients.

  7. Oxidation, Reduction, and Condensation of Alcohols over (MO3)3 (M=Mo, W) Nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zongtang; Li, Zhenjun; Kelley, Matthew S.; Kay, Bruce D.; Li, Shenggang; Hennigan, Jamie M.; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Dixon, David A.

    2014-10-02

    The reactions of deuterated methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-propanol, 2-butanol and t-butanol over cyclic (MO3)3 (M = Mo, W) clusters were studied experimentally with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and theoretically with coupled cluster CCSD(T) theory and density functional theory. The reactions of two alcohols per M3O9 cluster are required to provide agreement with experiment for D2O release, dehydrogenation and dehydration. The reaction begins with the elimination of water by proton transfers and forms an intermediate dialkoxy species which can undergo further reaction. Dehydration proceeds by a ? hydrogen transfer to a terminal M=O. Dehydrogenation takes place via an ? hydrogen transfer to an adjacent MoVI = O atom or a WVI metal center with redox involved for M = Mo and no redox for M = W. The two channels have comparable activation energies. H/D exchange to produce alcohols can take place after olefin is released or via the dialkoxy species depending on the alcohol and the cluster. The Lewis acidity of the metal center with WVI being larger than MoVI results in the increased reactivity of W3O9 over Mo3O9 for dehydrogenation and dehydration.

  8. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  9. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  10. LANXESS Global Butyl Rubber Research Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    or improve existing petrochemical products. They're then used for plastics, fragrance and cosmetics," Hartmann said.BioAmber's process is cheaper than conventional petroleum-based routes, he said. It

  11. Cold-Start Performance and Emissions Behavior of Alcohol Fuels in an SIDI Engine Using Transient Hardware-In-Loop Test Meth

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses results of cold- and hot-start transient tests using gasoline and 3 alcohol-gasoline blends (50% and 85% ethanol, and 83% iso-butanol)

  12. Serial longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging data indicate non-linear regional gray matter volume recovery in abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durazzo, TC; Mon, A; Gazdzinski, S; Yeh, PH; Meyerhoff, DJ

    2015-01-01

    2007b; Oscar-Berman & Marinkovic 2007; Mon et al. 2013). It1073– Oscar-Berman M, Marinkovic K (2007) Alcohol: effects

  13. The role of acetate in alcohol-induced alterations of uterine glucose metabolism in the mouse during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simm, B. ); Murdoch, R.N. )

    1990-01-01

    The acute exposure of mice to ethanol during post-implantation pregnancy has been reported to cause alterations in the levels of several glycolytic intermediates in the uterus, suggesting a possible indirect mechanism of alcohol embryo-toxicity. The present study was undertaken to assess whether the ethanol metabolite, acetate is implicated in this phenomenon. Blood and uterine alcohol concentrations in day 9 - pregnant Quackenbush Swiss mice were maximal 15 minutes after the intraperitoneal injection of ethanol, and fell to almost negligible levels 6 hours later. In response to this treatment, the levels of blood and uterine acetate increased, liver glycogen decreased, plasma glucose increased, and uterine glucose, glucose-6-phosphate (G-6-P), fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P), and citrate increased. When acetate was administered to pregnant mice in amounts approximating those generated by exposure to alcohol, the levels of uterine F-6-P and citrate increased while other metabolic parameters remained unaffected. The administration of 4-methylpyrazole to mice subsequently treated with alcohol produced conditions of alcohol exposure in the absence of ethanol-derived acetate and depressed the ethanol-induced rise in uterine G-6-P and citrate.

  14. Coupling of alcohols to ethers: The dominance of the surface S{sub N}2 reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Feeley, O.C.; Johansson, M.; Herman, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    Coupling of alcohols to ethers, important high value oxygenates, proceeds on acid catalysts via general pathways that uniquely control product composition, oxygen retention, chirality inversion, and kinetics. The dominant pathway is the S{sub N}2 reaction with competition of the alcohols for the surface acid sites. This is exemplified by formation of methyl(ethyl) isobutylether (M(E)IBE) from methanol(ethanol)/isobutanol mixtures, retention of oxygen ({sup 18}O) of the heavier alcohol, and optimum rate as a function of concentration of either reactant alcohol. The S{sub N}2 pathway in the confinement of zeolite pores exhibits additional features of a near-100% selectivity to dimethylether (DME) in H-mordenite and a near-100% selectivity to chiral inversion in 2-pentanol/ethanol coupling to 2-ethoxypentane in HZSM-5. A minor reaction pathway entails olefin or carbenium intermediates, as exemplified by the formation of methyl tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE) from methanol/isobutanol mixtures with oxygen retention of the lighter alcohol. Calculations of transition state and molecular modeling of the oxonium-involving pathways dramatically demonstrate how the reaction path selects the products.

  15. Global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uria, L.A.B.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper examines the direct and indirect global warming impact of gasoline and alcohol use in light-duty highway vehicles in Brazil. In order to do that, it quantifies emissions of CO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} in terms of CO{sub 2}-equivalent units for time spans of 20, 100 and 500 years. It shows that the consideration of CO{sub 2} HC and NO{sub x} emissions in addition to CO{sub 2} provides an important contribution for better understanding the total warming impact of transportation fuels in Brazil.

  16. Transpiration and water use by cotton plants as affected by the soil application of fatty alcohols 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, Frederick Milton

    1963-01-01

    on tz snspl: ' icn cont~ oi is almost non-existent for cotton. The reseat'ch zepo 'ted berin is one. pa. -. of a joint resea h program which is being conducred by t?e Texas Agriculcur=l Experimen Station and the Procter and Gamble Company fo. de... the fatty alcohols were incuba ed in moist soil for the pre- scribed length of time, the soil was dried in an oven, pulverized by grind- ing, placed in marked containers, and shipped to lfr. heal Thompson, of The Procter and Gamble Company (Pecos, Texas...

  17. Hydrogen-bond equilibria and life times in a supercooled monohydroxy alcohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Gainaru; S. Kastner; F. Mayr; P. Lunkenheimer; S. Schildmann; H. J. Weber; W. Hiller; A. Loidl; R. Böhmer

    2011-06-29

    Dielectric loss spectra covering 13 decades in frequency were collected for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, a monohydroxy alcohol that exhibits a prominent Debye-like relaxation, typical for several classes of hydrogen-bonded liquids. The thermal variation of the dielectric absorption amplitude agrees well with that of the hydrogen-bond equilibrium population, experimentally mapped out using near infrared (NIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements. Despite this agreement, temperature-jump NIR spectroscopy reveals that the hydrogen-bond switching rate does not define the frequency position of the prominent absorption peak. This contrasts with widespread notions and models based thereon, but is consistent with a recent approach.

  18. Synergistic interaction between oxides of copper and iron for production of fatty alcohols from fatty acids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kandel, Kapil; Chaudhary, Umesh; Nelson, Nicholas C.; Slowing, Igor I.

    2015-10-08

    In this study, the selective hydrogenation of fatty acids to fatty alcohols can be achieved under moderate conditions (180 °C, 30 bar H2) by simultaneously supporting copper and iron oxides on mesoporous silica nanoparticles. The activity of the cosupported oxides is significantly higher than that of each supported metal oxide and of a physical mixture of both individually supported metal oxides. A strong interaction between both metal oxides is evident from dispersion, XRD, TPR, and acetic acid TPD measurements, which is likely responsible for the synergistic behavior of the catalyst. Copper oxide is reduced in situ to its metallic formmore »and thereby activates hydrogen.« less

  19. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Menszak, J.; Johansson, M.A.; Feeley, O.C.; Kim, D.

    1993-07-01

    The results shown in Figures 10 and 11 demonstrate that the formation of butenes was very sensitive to the alcohol partial pressure. A small elevation of the alcohol pressure suppressed the formation of butenes rather drastically at both 90 and 117{degree}C. The synthesis rates of DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers were not significantly affected at 90{degree}C, although there was a trend to increase the space time yield of DME as the alcohol pressure was increased. At the reaction temperature of 117{degree}C, all of the ethers showed increasing productivities as the pressure of the reactants was increased (Figure 11). An isotope labelling experiment was carried out to provide mechanistic insight into the manner in which methanol and isobutanol react together to form DME, MIBE, and MTBE ethers and to determine if MTBE were derived from MIBE.

  20. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Tertiary Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Nikola Tesla STEM High School in Redmond, WA, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  1. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-?B signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-?B activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKK? and the protein expressions of phospho-I?B?, NF-?B, TNF-?, TGF-?{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers ?-SMA, ?{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-?B activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKK?, which decreased the activation of NF-?B and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-?B activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKK? and alteration of intestinal permeability. • This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis.

  2. The potential for alcohols and related ethers to displace conventional gasoline components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; McNutt, B.D.

    1996-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is required by law to determine the feasibility of producing sufficient replacement fuels to replace 30 percent of the projected United States consumption of motor fuels by light duty vehicles in the year 2010. A replacement fuel is a non-petroleum portion of gasoline, including alcohols, natural gas and certain other components. A linear program has been used to study refinery impacts for production of ``low petroleum`` gasolines, which contain replacement fuels. The analysis suggests that high oxygenation is the key to meeting the replacement fuel target, and major contributors to cost increase can include investment in processes to produce olefins for etherification with alcohols. High oxygenation can increase the costs of control of vapor pressure, distillation properties, and pollutant emissions of gasolines. Year-round low petroleum gasoline with near-30 percent non-petroleum might be produced with cost increases of 23 to 37 cents per gallon, with substantial decreases in greenhouse gas emissions in some cases. Cost estimates are sensitive to assumptions about extrapolation of a national model for pollutant emissions, availability of raw materials and other issues. Reduction in crude oil use, a major objective of the low petroleum gasoline program, is 10 to 17 percent in the analysis.

  3. Polymer Growth Rate in a Wire Chamber with Oxygen,Water, or Alcohol Gas Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyarski, Adam; /SLAC

    2008-07-02

    The rate of polymer growth on wires was measured in a wire chamber while the chamber was aged initially with helium-isobutane (80:20) gas, and then with either oxygen, water, or alcohol added to the gas. At the completion of the aging process for each gas mixture, the carbon content on the wires was measured in a SEM/EDX instrument. The same physical wires were used in all the gas mixtures, allowing measurement of polymer build up or polymer depletion by each gas additive. It is found that the rate of polymer growth is not changed by the presence of oxygen, water or alcohol. Conjecture that oxygen reduces breakdown by removing polymer deposits on field wires is negated by these measurements. Instead, it appears that the reduced breakdown is due to lower resistance in the polymer from oxygen ions being transported into the polymer. It is also observed that field wires bombarded by the electrons in the SEM and then placed back into the chamber show an abundance of single electrons being emitted, indicating that electron charge is stored in the polymer layer and that a high electric field is necessary to remove the charge.

  4. Emission Spectroscopy of Dissociative Allyl Iodide and Allyl Alcohol Excited at 199.7 nm B. F. Parsons, D. E. Szpunar, and L. J. Butler*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Laurie J.

    Emission Spectroscopy of Dissociative Allyl Iodide and Allyl Alcohol Excited at 199.7 nm B. F investigated the emission spectroscopy of allyl iodide, CH2dCHCH2I, and allyl alcohol, CH2dCHCH2- OH, excited). The emission spectrum is dominated by activity in the CH2 wag and the CdC stretch, reflecting the dynamics

  5. Geographic and Demographic Patterns of Alcohol-Related Fatal Traffic Crashes: A Spatial-Temporal Analysis in Texas, 1996-2005 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolland, Gabriel A.

    2010-01-16

    This thesis analyzes aggregated county-level data of fatal alcohol related traffic crashes where a driver was killed in the state of Texas during 1996 to 2005. Alcohol has constantly threatened drivers and passengers alike and continues to be a...

  6. Talking Pointsa parent guide to discussing alcohol and other drugs As I look forward to welcoming your students to the University of South Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talking Pointsa parent guide to discussing alcohol and other drugs #12;As I look forward with their students about alcohol and other drug use. I urge you to read this guide. It includes information to help and drug use. I ask for your support. Together, we will strive to foster a healthy community of leaders

  7. Supersonic Jet Spectroscopic Study of p-Methoxybenzyl Alcohol Min-Chul Yoon, Sun Jong Baek, Hyeongjin Cho, Young S. Choi, and Sang Kyu Kim*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Supersonic Jet Spectroscopic Study of p-Methoxybenzyl Alcohol Min-Chul Yoon, Sun Jong Baek0 excitation spectra of p-methoxybenzyl alcohol in a supersonic jet are reported. The long in the jet. The torsional barrier height of 316 cm-1 in the S1 ground-vibrational state is obtained from

  8. 12.4.7 Parental Notification and Alcohol and Drug Violations 1. Achieving autonomy and acceptance of one's personal responsibility are student development goals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    12.4.7 Parental Notification and Alcohol and Drug Violations 1. Achieving autonomy and acceptance's violation of any federal, state, or local law, or an institutional disciplinary policy relating to the use or local law or College policy governing the use or possession of alcohol or a controlled substance. #12;

  9. Analyzing the effects of alcohol on IGF-I in bone and plasma and on IGF-I mRNA in the liver and bone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Christina Nicole

    2001-01-01

    ; an alcohol-fed group, a pair-fed group that was matched in energy intake to the alcohol-fed group, and a pellet-fed group that was maintained on standard rat pellets for two weeks. Food was administered according to the Lieber-Decarli technique of ethanol...

  10. Diagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL -Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest Advanced Renewables Alliance (NARA) is an organization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    Pretreatment for Cellulosic Ethanol Production: Technology and Energy Consumption Evaluation." BioresourceDiagram of the Biofuel Production Process (SPORL - Alcohol Production):Introduction: The Northwest production industry in the Northwest United States. One of NARA's goals is to develop a production process

  11. CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunst, Ljerka

    CER4 Encodes an Alcohol-Forming Fatty Acyl-Coenzyme A Reductase Involved in Cuticular Wax surfaces of land plants. It is composed of a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex and characterization of CER4, a wax bio- synthetic gene from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis cer4

  12. Techno-Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abhijit Dutta; Michael Talmadge; Jesse Hensley; Matt Worley; Doug Dudgeon; David Barton; Peter Groenendijk; Daniela Ferrari; Brien Stears; Erin Searcy; Christopher Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-07-01

    This techno-economic study investigates the production of ethanol and a higher alcohols coproduct by conversion of lignocelluosic biomass to syngas via indirect gasification followed by gas-to-liquids synthesis over a precommercial heterogeneous catalyst. The design specifies a processing capacity of 2,205 dry U.S. tons (2,000 dry metric tonnes) of woody biomass per day and incorporates 2012 research targets from NREL and other sources for technologies that will facilitate the future commercial production of cost-competitive ethanol. Major processes include indirect steam gasification, syngas cleanup, and catalytic synthesis of mixed alcohols, and ancillary processes include feed handling and drying, alcohol separation, steam and power generation, cooling water, and other operations support utilities. The design and analysis is based on research at NREL, other national laboratories, and The Dow Chemical Company, and it incorporates commercial technologies, process modeling using Aspen Plus software, equipment cost estimation, and discounted cash flow analysis. The design considers the economics of ethanol production assuming successful achievement of internal research targets and nth-plant costs and financing. The design yields 83.8 gallons of ethanol and 10.1 gallons of higher-molecular-weight alcohols per U.S. ton of biomass feedstock. A rigorous sensitivity analysis captures uncertainties in costs and plant performance.

  13. Generation of SWNTs on Si Wafer by Alcohol Catalytic CVD Shigeo Maruyama, Shohei Chiashi and Yuhei Miyauchi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Generation of SWNTs on Si Wafer by Alcohol Catalytic CVD Shigeo Maruyama, Shohei Chiashi and Yuhei ACCVD technique, lower temperature generation of SWNTs on Al patterned Si surface should be principally possible. We tried to generate SWNTs on Si wafer by ACCVD technique. Zeolite particles supporting Fe

  14. Hydrogen Bond Breaking and Reformation in Alcohol Oligomers Following Vibrational Relaxation of a Non-Hydrogen-Bond Donating Hydroxyl Stretch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Hydrogen Bond Breaking and Reformation in Alcohol Oligomers Following Vibrational Relaxation of a Non-Hydrogen-Bond Donating Hydroxyl Stretch K. J. Gaffney, I. R. Piletic, and M. D. Fayer* Department measured with ultrafast infrared pump-probe experiments. Non-hydrogen-bond donating OD stretches (2690 cm-1

  15. Mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroteratology: an examination of the roles of fetal cerebral blood flow and hypoxia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parnell, Scott Edward

    2005-02-17

    ............................... 30 4. Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow by Changes in Metabolism ................... 32 5. Binge-Type Exposure Paradigm .................................................................... 41 6. Blood Flow in the Frontal Cortex at the 0... .............................. 19 Regulation of Cerebral Blood Flow ............................................... 21 Developmental Changes in the Regulation of CBF ....................... 34 Fetal Cerebral Blood Flow and Alcohol...

  16. Adsorption of various alcohols on Illinois No. 6 coal in aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.; Rigby, R.R.

    1993-07-01

    Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromacity of Illinois {number_sign}6 coal in water are relatively determined by evaluating equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption of probe compounds on the coal. Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various additives on 60--200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (DECS-2; Randolph county) were performed to investigate relatively surface properties of the coal at 25{degree}C. The additives include various alcohols, alkanes and aromatic compounds. The main objectives of this research are to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals with the inverse liquid chromatography technique, using various probe compounds, to analyze flotation recoveries of coals with a micro-flotation apparatus in order to relate coal floatability to evaluated coal surface properties, and to delineate roles of coal-cleaning/handling additives with the inverse liquid chromatography technique.

  17. Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteria are genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuel—in this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLA’s electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

  18. Study of polyvinyl alcohol nanofibrous membrane by electrospinning as a magnetic nanoparticle delivery approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ger, Tzong-Rong; Huang, Hao-Ting; Hu, Keng-Shiang [Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chen-Yu [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Lai, Jun-Yang [Department of Applied Physics, National Ping Tung University of Education, Pingtung, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jiann-Yeu [Center of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lai, Mei-Feng, E-mail: mflai@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of NanoEngineering and MicroSystems, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-07

    Electrospinning technique was used to fabricate polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-based magnetic biodegradable nanofibers. PVA solution was mixed with ferrofluid or magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) powder and formed two individual nanofibrous membranes (PVA/ferrofluid and PVA/MNPs powder) by electrospinning. The surface morphology of the nanofibrous membrane was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and the magnetic properties were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Macrophages (RAW 264.7) were co-cultured with the nanofibrous membranes for 12, 24, and 48 h and exhibited good cell viability (>95%). Results showed that the PVA fibers would be degraded and the embedded Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles would be released and delivered to cells.

  19. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Rummel, Becky L.

    2011-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Research during FY 2011 continued to examine the performance of RhMn catalysts on alternative supports including selected zeolite, silica, and carbon supports. Catalyst optimization continued using both the Davisil 645 and Merck Grade 7734 silica supports. Research also was initiated in FY 2011, using the both Davisil 645 silica and Hyperion CS-02C-063 carbon supports, to evaluate the potential for further improving catalyst performance, through the addition of one or two additional metals as promoters to the catalysts containing Rh, Mn, and Ir.

  20. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis – 2012 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Thompson, Becky L.

    2012-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). In recent years, this research has primarily involved the further development of catalysts containing rhodium and manganese based on the results of earlier catalyst screening tests. Testing continued in FY 2012 to further improve the Ir-promoted RhMn catalysts on both silica and carbon supports for producing mixed oxygenates from synthesis gas. This testing re-examined selected alternative silica and carbon supports to follow up on some uncertainties in the results with previous test results. Additional tests were conducted to further optimize the total and relative concentrations of Rh, Mn, and Ir, and to examine selected promoters and promoter combinations based on earlier results. To establish optimum operating conditions, the effects of the process pressure and the feed gas composition also were evaluated.

  1. Optimization of Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis -- 2010 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; Gray, Michel J.; Albrecht, Karl O.; White, J. F.; Rummel, Becky L.; Stevens, Don J.

    2010-10-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been conducting research for the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency Renewable Energy, Biomass Program to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas. In recent years this research has primarily involved the further development of a silica-supported catalyst containing rhodium and manganese that was selected from earlier catalyst screening tests. A major effort during 2010 was to examine alternative catalyst supports to determine whether other supports, besides the Davisil 645 silica, would improve performance. Optimization of the Davisil 645 silica-supported catalyst also was continued with respect to candidate promoters iridium, platinum, and gallium, and examination of selected catalyst preparation and activation alternatives for the baseline RhMn/SiO2 catalyst.

  2. Earlier effective monitoring of alcohol-fuels projects may have minimized problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-23

    Although the Department of Energy's system for monitoring projects for the development and production of alcohol fuels now seems effective, it was not established until 7 months after some of the projects started and after major portions of them were conducted. This contributed to problems which may result in some projects not being completed after substantial portions of project funds were spent. GAO also found that 24 grantees scheduled to be paid on a reimbursable basis were erroneously advanced about $3 million. Of those grantees, only five returned a total of $378,110; and by the time the errors were detected, grantees had spent the balance of the funds advanced. Earlier effective monitoring may have detected the errors sooner, enabled more advances to be returned, and prevented a weakening of the Department's oversight and control over the projects. GAO makes recommendations which could help future projects from starting without effective monitoring.

  3. Gold(I)-Mediated Nucleophilic Additions to Allenes: from Enantioselective Catalysis to Supramolecular Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhan

    2012-01-01

    the N-X bond in hydroxyl-amine and hydrazine nucleophilesHydroamination with hydroxyl amine substrates: Tert-butyl 4-hydroxyl nitriles, hydroxyphosphates, azido alcohols and amines

  4. The boson peak in structural and orientational glasses of simple alcohols: Specific heat at low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miguel A. Ramos; Cesar Talon; Sebastian Vieira

    2002-01-30

    We review in this work specific-heat experiments, that we have conducted on different hydrogen-bonded glasses during last years. Specifically, we have measured the low-temperature specific heat Cp for a set of glassy alcohols: normal and fully-deuterated ethanol, 1- and 2- propanol, and glycerol. Ethanol exhibits a very interesting polymorphism presenting three different solid phases at low temperature: a fully-ordered (monoclinic) crystal, an orientationally-disordered (cubic) crystal or 'orientational glass', and the ordinary structural glass. By measuring and comparing the low-temperature specific heat of the three phases, in the 'boson peak' range 2-10 K as well as in the tunneling-states range below 1K, we are able to provide a quantitative confirmation that ''glassy behavior'' is not an exclusive property of amorphous solids. On the other hand, propanol is the simplest monoalcohol with two different stereoisomers (1- and 2-propanol), what allows us to study directly the influence of the spatial rearrangement of atoms on the universal properties of glasses. We have measured the specific heat of both isomers, finding a noteworthy quantitative difference between them. Finally, low-temperature specific-heat data of glassy glycerol have also been obtained. Here we propose a simple method based upon the soft-potential model to analyze low-temperature specific-heat measurements, and we use this method for a quantitative comparison of all these data of glassy alcohols and as a stringent test of several universal correlations and scaling laws suggested in the literature. In particular, we find that the interstitialcy model for the boson peak [A. V. Granato, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (1992) 974] gives a very good account of the temperature at which the maximum in Cp/T^3 occurs.

  5. Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgson, J.W.; Irick, D.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

  6. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  7. Evaluation of Promoters for Rhodium-Based Catalysts for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-08

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially-available catalysts or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially-available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. A total of 28 tests were conducted to evaluate 22 different promoters as well as an unpromoted catalyst. The following general trends were observed for the test results: • The highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the lowest reaction temperatures and accompanying lowest space time yields (STYs). • The lowest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates occurred at the highest reaction temperatures because of high carbon conversion to hydrocarbons. • The highest C2+-oxygenate STYs occurred between 300°C and 325°C, with the gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) adjusted when necessary to maintain carbon conversion ranges between ~ 30 and 40 percent. Higher carbon selectivity to hydrocarbons at higher temperatures resulted in lower C2+-oxygenate STYs. • When catalysts were heated to between 300°C and 325°C the catalysts showed evidence of some deactivation with respect to C2+ oxygenate productivity, accompanied by reduced chain growth for the hydrocarbon products. The degree of deactivation and the temperature at which it occurred varied between the different catalysts tested. Of all of the catalysts evaluated, the Li-promoted catalysts had the highest carbon selectivity to C2+ oxygenates (47 percent) under the conditions at which the maximum C2+-oxygenate STYs were obtained.

  8. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300°C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity to desired C5+ hydrocarbons as the formation of CO2, CH4, and other light hydrocarbons is challenging to suppress in the presence of mixed metal and acid sites. When the 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu and HZSM-5 are operated sequentially by way of a two-step process the C5+ hydrocarbons fraction is lower and represents 30.4% of the hydrocarbons under comparable conditions. The yield toward the C5+ hydrocarbons is twice higher for the one-step process due to an improved CO conversion and higher C5+ hydrocarbons fraction. The main advantage of the one-step process is that higher syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed since they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbons product.

  9. Inhibition of Amyloid-? (A?) Peptide-Binding Alcohol Dehydrogenase-A? Interaction Reduces A? Accumulation and Improves Mitochondrial Function in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jun; Du, Heng; Yan, Shiqiang; Fang, Fang; Wang, Chaodong; Lue, Lih-Fen; Guo, Lan; Chen, Doris; Stern, David M.; Moore, Frank J. Gunn; Chen, John Xi; Arancio, Ottavio; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2011-02-09

    Amyloid-? (A?) peptide-binding alcohol dehydrogenase (ABAD), an enzyme present in neuronal mitochondria, exacerbates A?-induced cell stress. The interaction of ABAD with A? exacerbates A?-induced mitochondrial and neuronal ...

  10. Gel electrophoretic analysis of Zymomonas mobilis glycolytic and fermentative enzymes: Identification of alcohol dehydrogenase II as a stress protein

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haejung An; Keshav, K.F.; Ingram, L.O. ); Scopes, R.K.; Rodriguez, M. )

    1991-10-01

    The 13 major enzymes which compose the glycolytic and fermentative pathways in Zymomonas mobilis are particularly abundant and represent one-half of the soluble protein in exponential-phase cells. One- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis maps were developed for 12 of these enzymes. Assignments were made by comigration with purified proteins, comparison with overexpressed genes in recombinant strains, and Western blots (immunoblots). Although most glycolytic enzymes appeared resistant to turnover and accumulated in stationary-phase cells, the protein levels of pyruvate kinase, alcohol dehydrogenase I, and glucokinase declined. Alcohol dehydrogenase II was identified as a major stress protein and was induced both by exposure to ethanol and by elevated temperature (45C). This enzyme, encoded by the adhB gene, is expressed from tandem promoters which share partial sequence identity with Escherichia coli consensus sequence for heat shock proteins.

  11. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Volkow, Nora D. [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Fowler, Joanna S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, Gene-Jack [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Kojori, Eshan Shokri [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Benveniste, Helene [Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Tomasi, Dardo [National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹?FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

  12. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹?FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared tomore »placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.« less

  13. Role of Benzyl Alcohol in Controlling the Growth of TiO2 on Carbon Nanotubes David J. Cooke,*,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    Role of Benzyl Alcohol in Controlling the Growth of TiO2 on Carbon Nanotubes David J. Cooke) in the morphological control of the growth of TiO2 on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by the consideration of two model systems of thin-film TiO2.14,15 Kongkanand et al. reported that combining single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs

  14. Effects of partial charge-transfer solute -- solvent interactions in absorption spectra of aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous and alcoholic solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. A. Ar'ev; N. I. Lebovka; E. A. Solovieva

    2013-03-03

    A method for study of charge-transfer interactions between solute molecules and solvent based on the comparison of the ratios of spectral shifts of different electronic transitions in solute molecules in chemically inert solvent is proposed. The method is applicable to molecules that do not change their dipole moment on excitation. As an example, a presence of charge transfer interactions in higher electronic states of aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene) dissolved in water and alcohols was demonstrated.

  15. Identifying the Role of N-Heteroatom Location in the Activity of Metal Catalysts for Alcohol Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E. [Universita di Milano, Italy; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Villa, Alberto [Universita di Milano, Italy; Prati, Laura [Universita di Milano, Italy

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on understanding how the bonding of nitrogen heteroatoms contained on/in a activated carbon support influence the stability and reactivity of a supported Pd catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in solution. The results show that simply adding N groups via solution chemistry is insufficient to improve catalytic properties. Instead a strongly bound N moiety is required to activate the catalyst and stabilize the metal particles.

  16. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smits, Maarten L. J.; Vanlangenhove, Peter Sturm, Emiel J. C.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Hav, Monirath Praet, Marleen; Vente, Maarten A. D.; Snaps, Frederic R.; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  17. Batch Microreactor Studies of Lignin Depolymerization by Bases. 1. Alcohol Solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MILLER, JAMES E.; EVANS, LINDSEY; LITTLEWOLF, ALICIA; TRUDELL, DANIEL E.

    2002-05-01

    Biomass feedstocks contain roughly 10-30% lignin, a substance that can not be converted to fermentable sugars. Hence, most schemes for producing biofuels (ethanol) assume that the lignin coproduct will be utilized as boiler fuel to provide heat and power to the process. However, the chemical structure of lignin suggests that it will make an excellent high value fuel additive, if it can be broken down into smaller molecular units. From fiscal year 1997 through fiscal year 2001, Sandia National Laboratories was a participant in a cooperative effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the University of Utah to develop and scale a base catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) process for lignin conversion. SNL's primary role in the effort was to utilize rapidly heated batch microreactors to perform kinetic studies, examine the reaction chemistry, and to develop alternate catalyst systems for the BCD process. This report summarizes the work performed at Sandia during FY97 and FY98 with alcohol based systems. More recent work with aqueous based systems will be summarized in a second report.

  18. Molecular control of the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase by ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoun, A.M.; Geer, B.W.; Heinstra, P.W.H. ); Corbin, V. ); McKechnie, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the major pathway for ethanol degradation, is induced in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by low concentrations of dietary ethanol. Two lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic products of the ADH pathway for ethanol degradation are not directly involved in the induction of Adh. First, the accumulation of the proximal transcript in Adh{sup n2} larvae was increased when the intracellular level of ethanol was elevated. In addition, the ADH activity, the proximal Adh mRNA, and the intracellular concentration of ethanol were elevated coordinately in wild-type larvae fed hexadeuterated-ethanol, which is metabolized more slowly than normal ethanol.l An examination of P element transformant lines with specific deletions in the 5{prime} regulatory DNA of the Adh gene showed that the DNA sequence between +604 and +634 of the start site of transcription from the distal promoter was essential for this induction. The DNA sequence between {minus}660 and about {minus}5,000 of the distal transcript start site was important for the down-regulation of the induction response.

  19. Marangoni spreading due to a localized alcohol supply on a thin water film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández-Sánchez, José Federico; Snoeijer, J H

    2013-01-01

    Bringing the interfaces of two miscible fluids into contact naturally generates strong gradients in surface tension. Here we investigate such a Marangoni-driven flow by continuously supplying isopropyl alcohol (IPA) on a film of water, using micron-sized droplets of IPA-water mixtures. These droplets create a localized depression in surface tension that leads to the opening of a circular and thin region in the water film. At the edge of the thin region, there is a rim growing and collecting the water of the film. We find that the spreading radius scales as $r \\sim t^{1/2}$. This result can be explained from a balance between Marangoni and viscous stresses, assuming that the gradients in surface tension are smoothened out over the entire size of the circular opening. We derive a scaling law that accurately predicts the influence of the IPA flux as well as the thickness of the thin film at the interior of the spreading front.

  20. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70?nm and lengths of 200–250?nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  1. Pregnancy Following Uterine Artery Embolization with Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles for Patients with Uterine Fibroid or Adenomyosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Man Deuk Kim, Nahk Keun; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Mee Hwa

    2005-06-15

    Purpose:To determine whether uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles affects fertility in women desiring future pregnancy.Methods:Of 288 patients managed with UFE with PVA particles for uterine myoma or adenomyosis between 1998 and 2001, 94 patients were enrolled in this study. The age range of participants was 20-40 years. The data were collected through review of medical records and telephone interviews. Mean duration of follow-up duration was 35 months (range 22-60 months). Patients using contraception and single women were excluded, and the chance of infertility caused by possible spousal infertility or other factors was disregarded. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all patients before and after UFE, and the size of PVA particles used was 255-700 {mu}m.Results:Among 94 patients who underwent UFE with PVA, 74 were on contraceptives, 6 had been single until the point of interview, and 8 were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 6 patients who desired future pregnancy, 5 (83%) succeeded in becoming pregnant (1 patient became pregnant twice). Of a total of 8 pregnancies, 6 were planned pregnancies and 2 occurred after contraception failed. Five deliveries were vaginal, and 2 were by elective cesarean. Artificial abortion was performed in 1 case of unplanned pregnancy. There was 1 case of premature rupture of membrane (PROM) followed by preterm labor and delivery of an infant who was small-for-gestational-age. After UFE, mean volume reduction rates of the uterus and fibroid were 36.6% (range 0 to 62.6%) and 69.3% (range 36.3% to 93.3%), respectively.Conclusion:Although the absolute number of cases was small, UFE with PVA particles ultimately did not affect fertility in the women who underwent the procedure.

  2. Novel Characterization of GDI Engine Exhaust for Gasoline and Mid-Level Gasoline-Alcohol Blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storey, John Morse; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Szybist, James P; Thomas, John F; Barone, Teresa L; Eibl, Mary A; Nafziger, Eric J; Kaul, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines can offer improved fuel economy and higher performance over their port fuel-injected (PFI) counterparts, and are now appearing in increasingly more U.S. and European vehicles. Small displacement, turbocharged GDI engines are replacing large displacement engines, particularly in light-duty trucks and sport utility vehicles, in order for manufacturers to meet more stringent fuel economy standards. GDI engines typically emit the most particulate matter (PM) during periods of rich operation such as start-up and acceleration, and emissions of air toxics are also more likely during this condition. A 2.0 L GDI engine was operated at lambda of 0.91 at typical loads for acceleration (2600 rpm, 8 bar BMEP) on three different fuels; an 87 anti-knock index (AKI) gasoline (E0), 30% ethanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel (E30), and 48% isobutanol blended with the 87 AKI fuel. E30 was chosen to maximize octane enhancement while minimizing ethanol-blend level and iBu48 was chosen to match the same fuel oxygen level as E30. Particle size and number, organic carbon and elemental carbon (OC/EC), soot HC speciation, and aldehydes and ketones were all analyzed during the experiment. A new method for soot HC speciation is introduced using a direct, thermal desorption/pyrolysis inlet for the gas chromatograph (GC). Results showed high levels of aromatic compounds were present in the PM, including downstream of the catalyst, and the aldehydes were dominated by the alcohol blending.

  3. Competitive threshold collision-induced dissociation: Gas-phase acidities and bond dissociation energies for a series of alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeTuri, V.F.; Ervin, K.M.

    1999-09-02

    Energy-resolved competitive collision-induced dissociation methods are used to measure the gas-phase acidities of a series of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and 2-methyl-2-propanol). The competitive dissociation reactions of fluoride-alcohol, [F{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOR], alkoxide-water, [RO{sup {minus}}{center{underscore}dot}HOH], and alkoxide-methanol [RO{+-}{center{underscore}dot}HOCH{sub 3}] proton-bound complexes are studied using a guided ion beam tandem mass spectrometer. The reaction cross sections and product branching fractions to the two proton transfer channels are measured as a function of collision energy. The enthalpy difference between the two product channels is found by modeling the reaction cross sections near threshold using RRKM theory to account for the energy-dependent product branching ratio and kinetic shift. From the enthalpy difference, the alcohol gas-phase acidities are determined relative to the well-known values of HF and H{sub 2}O. The measured gas-phase acidities are {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}OH) = 1599 {+-} 3 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}(CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH) = 1586 {+-} 5 kJ/mol, {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}CHOH) = 1576 {+-} 4 kJ/mol, and {Delta}{sub acid}H{sub 298}((CH{sub 3}){sub 3}COH) = 1573 {+-} 3 kJ/mol.

  4. An evaluation of the effects of an alcoholic extract of fescue grass on the plasma prolactin levels of cattle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheeler, Lauren Venette

    1985-01-01

    as to style and content by: Max S. Amoss Jr. (Ch rman of Committee) Gerald R. Bratton (Member) Oavid W. Forrest (Member) J. O. McCrady (Head of Oepartment) ABSTRACT An Evaluat1on of the Effects of an Alcoholic Extract of Fescue Grass on Plasma.... Gerald R. Bratton, for their assistance in the preparation of this manuscript. I would like to recognize the contributions of my colleagues, Lauretta A. Rund and Jay P. Kile, for their invaluable assistance in the conduction of numerous exper- iments...

  5. Nonlinear optical properties of ZnO/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeeju, P. P., E-mail: jeejupp@gmail.com [Department of Physics, S N M College, Maliankara, Ernakulam, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022 (India); Chandrasekharan, K. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Extensive studies have already been reported on the optical characteristics of ZnO/polymer nanocomposite films, using a variety of polymers including transparent polymers such as polystyrene, polymethyl methacrylate etc and many interesting results have been established regarding the non linear optical characteristics of these systems. Poly (vinyl alcohol)(PVA) is a water soluble polymer. Though the structural and optical studies of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films have already been investigated, there are no detailed reports on the nonlinear optical characteristics of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films, irrespective of the fact that these nanocomposite films can be synthesized using quite easy and cost effective methods. The present work is an attempt to study in detail the nonlinear optical behaviour of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films using Z-scan technique. Highly transparent ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films were prepared from the ZnO incorporated PVA solution in water using spin coating technique. The ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the simple chemical route at room temperature. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show that the ZnO nanoparticles are of size around 10 nm. The ZnO/PVA nanocomposite films were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, from which the presence of both PVA and ZnO in the nanocomposite was established. The optical absorptive nonlinearity in the nanocomposite films was investigated using open aperture Z-scan technique. The results indicate optical limiting type nonlinearity in the films due to two photon absorption in ZnO with efficiency more than 50%. These films also show a self defocusing type negative nonlinear refraction in closed aperture Z-scan experiment. The present studies indicate that, highly transparent and homogeneous films of ZnO/PVA nanocomposite can be obtained on glass substrates using simple methods, in a highly cost effective way, since PVA is water soluble. These nanocomposite films offer prospects of application as efficient optical limiters to protect light sensitive devices from the possible damage on exposure to high intensity radiation.

  6. Chlorine atom-initiated low-temperature oxidation of prenol and isoprenol: The effect of C=C double bonds on the peroxy radical chemistry in alcohol oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Welz, Oliver; Savee, John D.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-07-04

    The chlorine atom-initiated oxidation of two unsaturated primary C5 alcohols, prenol (3-methyl-2-buten-1-ol, (CH3)2CCHCH2OH) and isoprenol (3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, CH2C(CH3)CH2CH2OH), is studied at 550 K and low pressure (8 Torr). The time- and isomer-resolved formation of products is probed with multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS) using tunable vacuum ultraviolet ionizing synchrotron radiation. The peroxy radical chemistry of the unsaturated alcohols appears much less rich than that of saturated C4 and C5 alcohols. The main products observed are the corresponding unsaturated aldehydes – prenal (3-methyl-2-butenal) from prenol oxidation and isoprenal (3-methyl-3-butenal) from isoprenol oxidation. No significant products arising from QOOH chemistry are observed. Thesemore »results can be qualitatively explained by the formation of resonance stabilized allylic radicals via H-abstraction in the Cl + prenol and Cl + isoprenol initiation reactions. The loss of resonance stabilization upon O2 addition causes the energies of the intermediate wells, saddle points, and products to increase relative to the energy of the initial radicals and O2. These energetic shifts make most product channels observed in the peroxy radical chemistry of saturated alcohols inaccessible for these unsaturated alcohols. The experimental findings are underpinned by quantum-chemical calculations for stationary points on the potential energy surfaces for the reactions of the initial radicals with O2. Under our conditions, the dominant channels in prenol and isoprenol oxidation are the chain-terminating HO2-forming channels arising from radicals, in which the unpaired electron and the –OH group are on the same carbon atom, with stable prenal and isoprenal co-products, respectively. These results suggest that the presence of C=C double bonds in alcohols will reduce low-temperature reactivity during autoignition.« less

  7. Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 1766

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2002-01-01

    This service report addresses the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766. The 'S. 1766' Case reflects provisions of S. 1766 including a renewable fuels standard (RFS) reaching five billion gallons by 2012, a complete phase-out of MTBE within four years, and the option for states to waive the oxygen requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG).

  8. Status and Impacts of State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes legislation passed in 16 states banning or restricting the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline. Analysis of the status and impact of these state MTBE bans is provided concerning the supply and potential price changes of gasoline.

  9. Role of Volatilization in Changing TBA and MTBE Concentrations at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a low affinity for gasoline (low Kfw, Table 1). Therefore, minute amounts of TBA in the MTBE blended tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) added to gasoline. Frequent observations of high TBA, and especially rising TBA/MTBE concentration ratios, in groundwater at gasoline spill sites are generally attributed to microbial conversion

  10. Motor Gasoline Outlook and State MTBE Bans

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. is beginning the summer 2003 driving season with lower gasoline inventories and higher prices than last year. Recovery from this tight gasoline market could be made more difficult by impending state bans on the blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into gasoline that are scheduled to begin later this year.

  11. Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

  12. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 °C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  13. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 9: Mixed Alcohols From Syngas -- State of Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    This deliverable is for Task 9, Mixed Alcohols from Syngas: State of Technology, as part of National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Award ACO-5-44027, ''Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup and Oxygen Separation Equipment''. Task 9 supplements the work previously done by NREL in the mixed alcohols section of the 2003 technical report Preliminary Screening--Technical and Economic Assessment of Synthesis Gas to Fuels and Chemicals with Emphasis on the Potential for Biomass-Derived Syngas.

  14. Rh-Based Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalysts: Characterization and Computational Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albrecht, Karl O.; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Rousseau, Roger J.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Varga, Tamas; Colby, Robert J.; Jaffe, John E.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Mei, Donghai; Windisch, Charles F.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Gray, Michel J.; Hart, Todd R.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is conducting a program focused on developing a process for the conversion of biomass to bio-based fuels and co-products. Biomass-derived syngas is converted thermochemically within a temperature range of 240 to 330°C and at elevated pressure (e.g., 1200 psig) over a catalyst. Ethanol is the desired reaction product, although other side compounds are produced, including C3 to C5 alcohols; higher (i.e., greater than C1) oxygenates such as methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, acetic acid and acetaldehyde; and higher hydrocarbon gases such as methane, ethane/ethene, propane/propene, etc. Saturated hydrocarbon gases (especially methane) are undesirable because they represent a diminished yield of carbon to the desired ethanol product and represent compounds that must be steam reformed at high energy cost to reproduce CO and H2. Ethanol produced by the thermochemical reaction of syngas could be separated and blended directly with gasoline to produce a liquid transportation fuel. Additionally, higher oxygenates and unsaturated hydrocarbon side products such as olefins also could be further processed to liquid fuels. The goal of the current project is the development of a Rh-based catalyst with high activity and selectivity to C2+ oxygenates. This report chronicles an effort to characterize numerous supports and catalysts to identify particular traits that could be correlated with the most active and/or selective catalysts. Carbon and silica supports and catalysts were analyzed. Generally, analyses provided guidance in the selection of acceptable catalyst supports. For example, supports with high surface areas due to a high number of micropores were generally found to be poor at producing oxygenates, possibly because of mass transfer limitations of the products formed out of the micropores. To probe fundamental aspects of the complicated reaction network of CO with H2, a computational/ theoretical investigation using quantum mechanical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations was initiated in 2009. Computational investigations were performed first to elucidate understanding of the nature of the catalytically active site. Thermodynamic calculations revealed that Mn likely exists as a metallic alloy with Rh in Rh-rich environments under reducing conditions at the temperatures of interest. After determining that reduced Rh-Mn alloy metal clusters were in a reduced state, the activation energy barriers of numerous transition state species on the catalytically active metal particles were calculated to compute the activation barriers of several reaction pathways that are possible on the catalyst surface. Comparison of calculations with a Rh nanoparticle versus a Rh-Mn nanoparticle revealed that the presence of Mn enabled the reaction pathway of CH with CO to form an adsorbed CHCO species, which was a precursor to C2+ oxygenates. The presence of Mn did not have a significant effect on the rate of CH4 production. Ir was observed during empirical catalyst screening experiments to improve the activity and selectivity of Rh-Mn catalysts. Thus, the addition of Ir to the Rh-Mn nanoparticles also was probed computationally. Simulations of Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles revealed that, with sufficient Ir concentrations, the Rh, Mn and Ir presumably would be well mixed within a nanoparticle. Activation barriers were calculated for Rh-Mn-Ir nanoparticles for several C-, H-, and O-containing transitional species on the nanoparticle surface. It was found that the presence of Ir opened yet another reactive pathway whereby HCO is formed and may undergo insertion with CHx surface moieties. The reaction pathway opened by the presence of Ir is in addition to the CO + CH pathway opened by the presence of Mn. Similar to Mn, the presence of Ir was not found to not affect the rate of CH4 production.

  15. THE ECONOMICAL PRODUCTION OF ALCOHOL FUELS FROM COAL-DERIVED SYNTHESIS GAS. Includes quarterly technical progress report No.25 from 10/01/1997-12/31/1997, and quarterly technical progress report No.26 from 01/01/1998-03/31/1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-03-01

    This project was divided into two parts. One part evaluated possible catalysts for producing higher-alcohols (C{sub 2} to C{sub 5+}) as fuel additives. The other part provided guidance by looking both at the economics of mixed-alcohol production from coal-derived syngas and the effect of higher alcohol addition on gasoline octane and engine performance. The catalysts studied for higher-alcohol synthesis were molybdenum sulfides promoted with potassium. The best catalysts produced alcohols at a rate of 200 g/kg of catalyst/h. Higher-alcohol selectivity was over 40%. The hydrocarbon by-product was less than 20%. These catalysts met established success criteria. The economics for mixed alcohols produced from coal were poor compared to mixed alcohols produced from natural gas. Syngas from natural gas was always less expensive than syngas from coal. Engine tests showed that mixed alcohols added to gasoline significantly improved fuel quality. Mixed-alcohols as produced by our catalysts enhanced gasoline octane and decreased engine emissions. Mixed-alcohol addition gave better results than adding individual alcohols as had been done in the 1980's when some refiners added methanol or ethanol to gasoline.

  16. Effects of blending a heavy alcohol (C20H40O with diesel in a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Effects of blending a heavy alcohol (C20H40O with diesel in a heavy-duty compression phytol (C20H40O) with diesel in 5%, 10%, and 20% by volume blends. 3-D, transient, turbulent nozzle flow and emissions experiments of the different phytol/diesel blends. Combustion event depicted by high

  17. ~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates to a substantial increase in harvestable energy (Btu's).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    when consumed in an internal combustion engine yields no SOX, NOX or carbon monoxide allButanol ~A four carbon alcohol. It has double the amount of carbon of ethanol, which equates environmentally harmful byproducts of combustion. CO2 is the combustion byproduct of butanol, and is considered

  18. One-pot synthesis of alcohols from olefins catalyzed by rhodium and ruthenium Joseph Zakzeski, Hae Ryun Lee, Yi Ling Leung, Alexis T. Bell *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    as additives to gasoline, diesel, and aviation fuel [2,3]. For these reasons, the production of butanol,5]. Alternatively, alcohols could be produced by hydrogenation of aldehydes derived from the hydroformylation an attractive extension of existing technology to the production of transporta- tion fuel. The challenge

  19. Preparation of novel carbon microfiber/carbon nanofiber-dispersed polyvinyl alcohol-based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jayant K.

    -based nanocomposite material for lithium-ion electrolyte battery separator Ajit K. Sharma a , Prateek Khare a , Jayant with the web of carbon microfibers and carbon nanofibers is developed as lithium (Li)-ion electrolyte battery acetate to produce polyvinyl alcohol gel, ball-milling of the surfactant dispersed carbon micro

  20. Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells with different solution conductivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spray-on polyvinyl alcohol separators and impact on power production in air-cathode microbial fuel hydroxide ions (Popat et al., 2012) at the air cathode. Power production can be increased in MFCs by using-on and cast methods. PVA separators increased power with closely spaced electrodes versus spaced electrodes

  1. A novel copper(II)-Schiff base complex containing pyrrole ring: Synthesis, characterization and its modified electrodes applied in oxidation of aliphatic alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , ethanol and benzyl alcohol. The electro-reduction of carbon dioxide was also examined. Keywords: Copper] and carbon dioxide [9]. So, in continuation of our recent papers [10], we have undertaken a covalent grafting. Thus, conducting polymeric films of polypyrrole were obtained on the surfaces of glassy carbon and ITO

  2. Estimating changes in the mechanical properties of the femur in the adult and aged rat due to adult-onset alcohol consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Lyndon Phuoc

    2001-01-01

    caloric intake may lead to a reduction in the quality of both cortical and cancellous bone. The duration of alcohol consumption and caloric restriction may also contribute to a decrease in bone properties, but that cannot be concluded from this study....

  3. Talking Pointsa parent guide to discussing alcohol and other drugs We are looking forward to welcoming each new Gamecock to the University of South

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to welcoming each new Gamecock to the University of South Carolina! As a parent, I understand drunk, · driving after drinking alcohol or riding in a car with someone who is under the influence with medications, energy drinks or other illegal drugs and · misusing prescription drugs. Talking with your student

  4. A systematic study of the isothermal crystallization of the mono-alcohol n-butanol monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. H. Jensen; C. Alba-Simionesco; K. Niss; T. Hecksher

    2015-06-14

    Isothermal crystallization of the mono-hydroxyl alcohol n-butanol was studied with dielectric spectroscopy in real time. The crystallization was carried out using two different sample cells at 15 temperatures between 120 K and 134 K. For all temperatures, a shift in relaxation times to shorter times was observed during the crystallization process, which is characterized by a drop in relaxation strength. The two different sample environments induced quite different crystallization behaviors, consistent and reproducible over all studied temperatures. An explanation for the difference was proposed on the background of an Avrami and a Maxwell-Wagner analysis. Both types analysis suggest that the morphology of the crystal growth changes at a point during the crystallization. The differences between the cells can be explained by this transition taking place at different times for the two cells.

  5. Investigation into the potential use of Poly (vinyl alcohol)/Methylglyoxal fibres as antibacterial wound dressing components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bulman, Sophie E L; Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J; Carr, Chris

    2015-01-01

    As problems of antibiotic resistance increase, a continuing need for effective bioactive wound dressings is anticipated for the treatment of infected chronic wounds. Naturally derived antibacterial agents, such as Manuka honey, consist of a mixture of compounds, more than one of which can influence antimicrobial potency. The non-peroxide bacteriostatic properties of Manuka honey have been previously linked to the presence of methylglyoxal (MGO). The incorporation of MGO as a functional antibacterial additive during fibre production was explored as a potential route for manufacturing wound dressing components. Synthetic MGO and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were fabricated into webs of sub-micron fibres by means of electrostatic spinning of an aqueous spinning solution. Composite fabrics were also produced by direct deposition of the PVA-MGO fibres onto a preformed spunbonded nonwoven substrate. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) and Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR) spectros...

  6. An enzyme-amplified microtiter plate assay for ethanol: Its application to the detection of peanut ethanol and alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, S.Y.; Vercellotti, J.R. [USDA-ARS-SRRC, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sanders, T.H. [USDA-ARS-NCSU, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A calorimetric microliter plate assay for ethanol amplified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was developed. In the assay ethanol from a sample took part in a chain-reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and amplified by ALDH in the presence of NAD{sup +}, diaphorase, and p-ibdonitrotetrazolium-violet (INT-violet)(a precursor of red product). The resultant reaction gave a red color, the intensity of which was proportional to the amount of ethanol present. Using the technique, the content of activity from peanuts of differing maturity and curing stages were determined respectively. Data showed that immature peanuts had a higher level of ethanol and a lower ADH activity than mature peanuts, and that the level of ethanol and ADH activity decreased with the curing time. This indicates that peanut maturity and curing have an effect on ethanol. Also, this implies that other peanut volatiles could be affected in the same way as ethanol, a major volatile in peanuts.

  7. High-throughput behavioral phenotyping of drug and alcohol susceptibility traits in the expanded panel of BXD recombinant inbred strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Ansah, T [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Blaha, C, [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Cook, Melloni N. [University of Memphis; Hamre, Kristin M. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis; Lariviere, William R [University of Pittsburgh; Matthews, Douglas B [Baylor University; Goldowitz, Daniel [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Genetic reference populations, particularly the BXD recombinant inbred strains, are a valuable resource for the discovery of the bio-molecular substrates and genetic drivers responsible for trait variation and co- ariation. This approach can be profitably applied in the analysis of susceptibility and mechanisms of drug and alcohol use disorders for which many predisposing behaviors may predict occurrence and manifestation of increased preference for these substances. Many of these traits are modeled by common mouse behavioral assays, facilitating the detection of patterns and sources of genetic co-regulation of predisposing phenotypes and substance consumption. Members of the Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium have obtained behavioral phenotype data from 260 measures related to multiple behavioral assays across several domains: self-administration, response to, and withdrawal from cocaine, MDMA, morphine and alcohol; novelty seeking; behavioral despair and related neurological phenomena; pain sensitivity; stress sensitivity; anxiety; hyperactivity; and sleep/wake cycles. All traits have been measured in both sexes and the recently expanded panel of 69 additional BXD recombinant inbred strains (N=69). Sex differences and heritability estimates were obtained for each trait, and a comparison of early (N = 32) and recent BXD RI lines was performed. Primary data is publicly available for heritability, sex difference and genetic analyses using www.GeneNetwork.org. These analyses include QTL detection and genetic analysis of gene expression. Stored results from these analyses are available at http://ontologicaldiscovery.org for comparison to other genomic analysis results. Together with the results of related studies, these data form a public resource for integrative systems genetic analysis of neurobehavioral traits.

  8. Reactivity of the Quinone Methide of Butylated hydroxytoluene in Solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willcockson, Maren Gulsrud

    2011-08-31

    8 pH Measurements 9 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) Analysis 9 Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) Analysis 9 Kinetic Studies 10 Generation of Standard Curves 10 Calculation of Mole... at 285 nm and Dionex Chromeleon analysis software (Sunnyvale, CA) was used to integrate peak area. Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) Analysis Shimadzu UV-1700 (Japan) Ultra Violet-Visible Spectrophotometer (UV-Vis) equipped...

  9. Butyl acetate replaces toluene to remove phenol from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodel, A.E.

    1993-03-01

    Plastics Engineering Co. manufactures phenol formaldehyde resins and molding compounds at a plant in Sheboygan, WI. Process water from the plant, containing 7% phenol and 1% methanol, requires treatment prior to discharge to the sewer. Toluene was used as a solvent in a countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction column. A vacuum distillation of the extract separated the phenol and toluene. The raffinate (1% methanol, 98% water and 1% toluene) was stripped to recover the toluene and remove methanol from the bottoms prior to discharge. Methanol was not recovered. Disposal costs for the waste methanol (with about 10% toluene as an azeotrope) were high.

  10. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartment of Energy3-1Department of

  11. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01

    was originally applied to water desalination in which water was extracted from aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Here, we explore its potential to recover acetate produced via fermentation. At 40C 55C, which corresponds to typical fen-fermentation temperatures...

  12. Methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether: A comparison of properties, synthesis techniques, and operating conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sneesby, M.G.; Tade, M.O.; Datta, R.

    1996-12-31

    MTBE is currently the most industrially significant oxygenate but some of the properties of ETBE and the EPA ethanol mandate suggest that ETBE could become a viable competitor. Similar synthesis techniques are used for both ethers but the phase behaviour of the ETBE system requires slightly different operating conditions and creates some alternatives for product recovery. The process control strategy for both systems must address some unusual challenges. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Phase behavior and mesoscale solubilization in aqueous solutions of hydrotropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deepa Subramanian; Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2013-09-27

    Hydrotropes are amphiphilic molecules that are too small to spontaneously form equilibrium structures in aqueous solutions, but form dynamic, noncovalent assemblies, referred to as clusters. In the presence of a hydrophobic compound, these clusters seem to get stabilized leading to the formation of long-lived, highly stable mesoscopic droplets, a phenomenon that we call mesoscale solubilization. In this work, we focus on the unusual mesoscopic properties of aqueous solutions of a nonionic hydrotrope, namely tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), on addition of various hydrophobic compounds. Aqueous TBA solutions, in about 3 to 8 mol percent TBA concentration range and about 0 to 25 deg. C temperature range, show the presence of short-ranged (0.5 nm), short-lived (tens of picoseconds) molecular clusters which result in anomalies of the thermodynamic properties. These clusters are transient but do not relax by diffusion, thus distinctly different from conventional concentration fluctuations. In this concentration and temperature range, upon the addition of a third (more hydrophobic) component to TBA-water solutions, long-lived mesoscopic droplets of about 100 nm size are observed. In this work, we clarify the ambiguity behind the definition of solubility and elucidate the phenomenon of mesoscale solubilization. A systematic study of the macro and meso phase behavior of three ternary systems TBA-water-propylene oxide, TBA-water-isobutyl alcohol, and TBA-water-cyclohexane has been carried out. We differentiate between molecular solubility, mesoscale solubilization, and macroscopic phase separation. We have confirmed that practically stable aqueous colloids can be created from small molecules, without addition of surfactants or polymers. Such kind of novel materials may find applications in the design of various processes and products, ranging from pharmaceuticals to cosmetics and agrochemicals.

  14. Catalysis for Mixed Alcohol Synthesis from Biomass Derived Syngas: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-292

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hensley, J.

    2013-04-01

    The Dow Chemical Company (Dow) developed and tested catalysts for production of mixed alcohols from synthesis gas (syngas), under research and development (R&D) projects that were discontinued a number of years ago. Dow possesses detailed laboratory notebooks, catalyst samples, and technical expertise related to this past work. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is conducting R&D in support of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) to develop methods for economically producing ethanol from gasified biomass. NREL is currently conducting biomass gasification research at an existing 1/2 ton/day thermochemical test platform. Both Dow and NREL believe that the ability to economically produce ethanol from biomass-derived syngas can be enhanced through collaborative testing, refinement, and development of Dow's mixed-alcohol catalysts at NREL's and/or Dow's bench- and pilot-scale facilities. Dow and NREL further agree that collaboration on improvements in catalysts as well as gasifier operating conditions (e.g., time, temperature, upstream gas treatment) will be necessary to achieve technical and economic goals for production of ethanol and other alcohols.

  15. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Seventh quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    An analysis of the current base cases has been undertaken to determine if the economic status of the proposed alcohol fuels may benefit from economies of scale. This analysis was based on a literature review which suggested that plants of capacities substantially below 5000 metric tons/day are unlikely to be competitive for the bulk production of alcohols for fuel consumption or chemicals manufacture. The preliminary results of this scale up procedure would indicate that the capacity of the current base cases be increased by a factor of eight. This would yield annual production of 4.1 million metric tons and essentially reduce the plant gate cost by approximately 41 percent in both cases. A facility of this size would be the equivalent of a medium sized oil refinery and would be capable of sustaining local market demands for fuel oxygenates. The actual competitiveness of this product with current oxygenates such as MTBE remains to be determined. The alcohol synthesis loop is being used to evaluate optimization procedures which will eventually be used to optimize the entire process. A more detailed design of the synthesis reactor is required, and a preliminary design of this reactor has been completed.

  16. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause the adaptive change of glucocorticoid-IGF1 axis.

  17. Oil droplet in alcohol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Foy, Roderick R.

    The elegant patterns formed by fluid droplets falling through a dissimilar liquid were first studied over a century ago.1 The emerging patterns are driven by hydrodynamic instabilities set up by velocity and density gradients ...

  18. Ethyl Alcohol Production. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neal, Henry

    1981-01-01

    is added to and mixed with 150 gallons of water (12 gallons per bushel) at 120 degrees F. This begins the cooking process, during which the grain mixture or mash is constantly agitated. A liquefying enzyme (Taka Therm by Miles Laboratories Inc... exchanger is disposed of as waste water. However, it could be stored, cooled and used again as cooling water for the heat exchanger. Heat exchanger water use was determined from January through April production batches. Water use increases during summer...

  19. Rubbing Alcohol Adhesive Strips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ®) · Cetirizine (compare to Zyrtec®) Baby Care · Diaper Rash Ointment · Digital Thermometer Cough and Cold · Cough Suppressant · Cough Drops · Anti-Bacterial Wipes · Cold and Flu Relief · Cold and Sinus Relief · Children

  20. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  1. Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2004-01-01

    In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

  2. Appendix: Bibliography of Technical Reports of the National Cancer Institute/ National Toxicology Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gold, Lois Swirsky

    95 108 1978 1,3-Butadiene 288 1984 1,3-Butadiene 434 1993 2-Butoxyethanol 484 2000 tert-Butyl alcohol(bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol 452 1996 Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether 191 1979 #12;--2-- Bis(2-chloro-1

  3. Heterogeneous Catalysis DOI: 10.1002/anie.200503898

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    , as in the reactions of isobutane on sulfated zirconia[14] and tert-butyl alcohol[5,7,8] on acidic ZSM5, MOR, BEA of Chemical Engineering University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720 (USA) Fax: (+1)510-642-4778 E

  4. SU-E-T-58: Calculation of Dose Distribution of Accuboost Brachytherapy in Deformable Polyvinil Alcohol Breast Phantom Using Biomechanical Modeling and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammadyari, P; Faghihi, R; Shirazi, M Mosleh; Lotfi, M; Meigooni, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: the accuboost is the most modern method of breast brachytherapy that is a boost method in compressed tissue by a mammography unit. the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue, as compressed tissue is important that should be characterized. Methods: In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast in mammography loading, the displacement of breast tissue and the dose distribution in compressed and uncompressed tissue, are investigated. Dosimetry was performed by two dosimeter methods of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 code and thermoluminescence dosimeters. For Monte Carlo simulations, the dose values in cubical lattice were calculated using tally F6. The displacement of the breast elements was simulated by Finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software, from which the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model is constructed from MR images of 6 volunteers. Experimental dosimetery was performed by placing the thermoluminescence dosimeters into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom and on the proximal edge of compression plates to the chest. Results: The results indicate that using the cone applicators would deliver more than 95% of dose to the depth of 5 to 17mm, while round applicator will increase the skin dose. Nodal displacement, in presence of gravity and 60N forces, i.e. in mammography compression, was determined with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in orthogonal orientation. Finally, in comparison of the acquired from thermoluminescence dosimeters with MCNP5, they are consistent with each other in breast phantom and in chest's skin with average different percentage of 13.7±5.7 and 7.7±2.3, respectively. Conclusion: The major advantage of this kind of dosimetry is the ability of 3D dose calculation by FE Modeling. Finally, polyvinyl alcohol is a reliable material as a breast tissue equivalent dosimetric phantom that provides the ability of TLD dosimetry for validation.

  5. Transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates: Catalysts for asymmetric olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Kuntal [Ames Laboratory

    2012-12-17

    The research presented and discussed in this dissertation involves the synthesis of transition metal complexes of oxazolinylboranes and cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates, and their application in catalytic enantioselective olefin hydroamination and acceptorless alcohol decarbonylation. Neutral oxazolinylboranes are excellent synthetic intermediates for preparing new borate ligands and also developing organometallic complexes. Achiral and optically active bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are synthesized by reaction of 2-lithio-2-oxazolide and 0.50 equiv of dichlorophenylborane. These bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes are oligomeric species in solid state resulting from the coordination of an oxazoline to the boron center of another borane monomer. The treatment of chiral bis(oxazolinyl)phenylboranes with sodium cyclopentadienide provide optically active cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borates H[PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}] [Ox{sup R} = Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4R-iPr,Me2}, Ox{sup 4S-tBu]}. These optically active proligands react with an equivalent of M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4} (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) to afford corresponding cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 complexes {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup R}){sub 2}}M(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} in high yields. These group 4 compounds catalyze cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature or below, providing pyrrolidine, piperidine, and azepane with enantiomeric excesses up to 99%. Our mechanistic investigations suggest a non-insertive mechanism involving concerted C?N/C?H bond formation in the turnover limiting step of the catalytic cycle. Among cyclopentadienyl-bis(oxazolinyl)borato group 4 catalysts, the zirconium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-iPr,Me2}){sub 2}}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} ({S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}) displays highest activity and enantioselectivity. Interestingly, {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} also desymmetrizes olefin moieties of achiral non-conjugated aminodienes and aminodiynes during cyclization. The cyclization of aminodienes catalyzed by {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} affords diastereomeric mixture of cis and trans cylic amines with high diasteromeric ratios and excellent enantiomeric excesses. Similarly, the desymmetrization of alkyne moieties in {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2}-catalyzed cyclization of aminodiynes provides corresponding cyclic imines bearing quaternary stereocenters with enantiomeric excesses up to 93%. These stereoselective desymmetrization reactions are significantly affected by concentration of the substrate, temperature, and the presence of a noncyclizable primary amine. In addition, both the diastereomeric ratios and enantiomeric excesses of the products are markedly enhanced by N-deuteration of the substrates. Notably, the cationic zirconium-monoamide complex [{S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2})][B(C{sub 6}F{sub 5}){sub 4}] obtained from neutral {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} cyclizes primary aminopentenes providing pyrrolidines with S-configuration; whereas {S-2}Zr(NMe{sub 2}){sub 2} provides R-configured pyrrolidines. The yttrium complex {S-2}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} also affords S-configured pyrrolidines by cyclization of aminopentenes, however the enantiomeric excesses of products are low. An alternative optically active yttrium complex {PhB(C{sub 5}H{sub 4})(Ox{sup 4S-tBu}){sub 2}}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} ({S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3}) is synthesized, which displays highly enantioselective in the cyclization of aminoalkenes at room temperature affording S-configured cyclic amines with enantiomeric excesses up to 96%. A noninsertive mechanism involving a six-membered transition state by a concerted C?N bond formation and N?H bond cleavage is proposed for {S-3}YCH{sub 2}SiMe{sub 3} system based on the kinetic, spectroscopic, and stereochemical features. In the end, a series of bis- and tris(oxazolinyl)borato iridium and rhodium complexes are synthesized with bis(oxazolinyl)phenylborane [PhB(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 2}]{sub n}, tris(oxazolinyl)borane [B(Ox{sup Me2}){sub 3}]n, and tris(4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolinyl)phenylborate [To{sup M}]{sup ?}. All these new an

  6. Characterizing HfXZr1-XO2 by EXAFS: Relationship Between Bulk and Surface Composition, and Impact on Catalytic Selectivity for Alcohol Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, G.; Milling, M; Ji, Y; Patterson, P; Sparks, D; Davis, B

    2009-01-01

    A series of mixed Hf{sub X}Zr{sub 1-X}O{sub 2} oxide catalysts was prepared according to a recipe that yields the monoclinic structure. The samples were examined by EXAFS spectroscopy at the Zr K and Hf L{sub III} edges. A fitting model was used that simultaneously fits data from both edges, and makes use of an interdependent mixing parameter X mix to take into account substitution of the complementary atom in the nearest metal-metal shell. For XPS analysis, Scofield factors were applied to estimate the relative atomic surface concentrations of Zr and Hf. EXAFS results suggested that a solid bulk solution was formed over a wide range of X for Hf{sub X}Zr{sub 1-X}O{sub 2} binary oxides, and that the relative ratio was retained in the surface shell (i.e., including some subsurface layers by XPS) and the surface (e.g., by ISS). The increase in selectivity for the 1-alkene from dehydration of alcohols at high Zr content does not correlate smoothly with the tuned relative atomic concentration of Hf to Zr. The step change at high Zr content appears to be due to other indirect factors (e.g., surface defects, oxygen vacancies).

  7. Portal Vein Embolization with Radiolabeled Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles in a Swine Model: Hepatic Distribution and Implications for Pancreatic Islet Cell Transplantation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, Richard J.; Mercer, John R.; Al-Saif, Faisal; Molinari, Michele; Ashforth, Robert A.; Rajotte, Ray V.; Conner-Spady, Barbara; Shapiro, A. M. James

    2009-05-15

    The distribution of radiolabeled polyvinyl alcohol microspheres (PVAMs) when infused into the portal vein of domestic swine was investigated, with the purpose of assessing implications for pancreatic islet cell transplantation. PVAMs measuring 100-300 {mu}m (Contour SE) and labeled with {sup 99m}Tc were infused into the main portal vein of 12 swine, with intermittent portal venous pressure measurements. The infusion catheter was introduced antegradely via direct or indirect cannulation of the portal vein. The liver was subsequently divided into anatomical segments. Radioactivity (decay corrected) was measured for {sup 99m}Tc microsphere synthesis, dose preparation, gross organ activities, tissue samples, and blood. Particulate labeling, catheter positioning, and infusion were successful in all cases. The number of particles used was (185,000 {+-} 24,000) with a volume of 1 ml. Mean portal pressure at 5 min was significantly higher than baseline, but without a significant difference at 15 min. Extrahepatic tissue and serum radioactivity was negligible. A significant difference in number of radioactive particles per gram was detected between segments 6/7 and segments 5/8. Intrasegmental activity was analyzed, and for segments 2/3 a significant difference in the percentage dose per gram across samples was demonstrated (P = 0.001). Effective and stable radiolabeling of PVAMs with {sup 99m}Tc-sulfur colloid was demonstrated. Portal venous infusion of 100- to 300-{mu}m particles showed entrapment in the sinusoidal hepatic system with transient portal pressure elevation. Preferential embolization into the right lateral and posterior segments occurs, suggesting that flow dynamics/catheter tip position plays a role in particle distribution.

  8. Conducting polymer blends: Polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, polycarbonate resin, poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl methyl ketone)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    Various aromatic compounds can be polymerized by electrochemical oxidation in solution containing a supporting electrolyte. Most studies have been devoted to polypyrrole and polythiophene. In situ doping during electrochemical polymerization yields free standing conductive polymer film. One major approach to making conducting polymer blends is electrochemical synthesis after coating the host polymer on a platinum electrode. In the electrolysis of pyrrole or thiophene monomer, using (t-Bu[sub 4]N)BF[sub 4] as supporting electrolyte, and acetonitrile as solvent, monomer can diffuse through the polymer film, to produce a polypyrrole or polythiophene blend in the film. Doping occurs along with polymerization to form a conducting polymer alloy. The strongest molecular interaction in polymers, and one that is central to phase behavior, is hydrogen bonding. This mixing at the molecular level enhances the degree of miscibility between two polymers and results in macroscopic properties indicative of single phase behavior. In this dissertation, the authors describes the syntheses of conducting polymer blends: polypyrrole and polythiophene blends with polystyrene, poly(bisphenol-A-carbonate), polyvinyl alcohol and poly(vinyl methyl ketone). The syntheses are performed both electrochemically and chemically. Characterization of these blends was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Percolating threshold conductivities occur from 7% to 20% for different polymer blends. The low threshold conductivity is attributed to blend homogeneity enhanced by hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl group in the insulating polymer and the N-H group in polypyrrole. Thermal stability, environmental stability, mechanical properties, crystallinity and morphological structure are also discussed. The authors have also engaged in the polymerization of imidazoles.

  9. Australian Government Tertiary Education Quality and Standards Agency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    of Cooperation to cooperate for the benefit of both parties and to work towards enhancing regulation and quality and collaboration TEQSA and QAA will work together: a) To develop a programme of cooperation including joint, business models and risk and risk-based approaches to regulation and quality assurance, and other topics

  10. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, Clayton J. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  11. Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodagholian, Sevana

    2010-01-01

    9. S. Yaghmaei, In Search of a Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond inP.A. Frey, and J.A. Gerlt, “The Low Barrier Hydrogen Bond inConsiderations Show That Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds do not

  12. Steroid estrogens in primary and tertiary wastewater treatment plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braga, Olga; Smythe, George A.; Schäfer, Andrea; Feitz, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of two natural estrogens (Estrone (E1) and Estradiol (E2)) and one synthetic progestin (Ethinylestradiol (EE2)) were measured for different unit operations in an advanced sewage treatment plant and in ...

  13. Low Barrier Hydrogen Bonds in Acyclic Tertiary Diamines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khodagholian, Sevana

    2010-01-01

    and -0.311 e.Å-3 Table 3.6: Atomic coordinates ( x 104) andS(2) O(4) O(5) Table 3.9: Hydrogen coordinates ( x 104) andand -0.362 e.Å-3 Table 3.13: Atomic coordinates ( x 104) and

  14. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  15. Eutrophication potential of secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, James Thomas

    1972-01-01

    with a lime recalcining and 48 sludge incinerating process. At Dallas, recarbonation facilities were not available. As a result, neutralization was attempted with a mineral acid. Unfortunately, the densator effluent had little buffering capacity in a... not support substantial algal growth 1n the lagoon system, while the neutral1zed effluents from this system supported algal growth that was comparable to that of the secondary (act1vated sludge) wastewater treatment system. Laboratory exper1ments...

  16. Alcohol and Drug Policies 31 Alcohol and Drug Policies________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahlquist, Kam D.

    learning and memory, anxiety, panic attacks, psychosis, cough, frequent respiratory infections, possible

  17. Alcoholic beverages Nuts and seeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    oregano shallot orange fruit green tea balm pumpkin eel roasted almond coffee carnation pecan artemisia whiskey jasmine tea barleycilantro cod cocoa nut parmesan cheese black mustard seed oil grape brandy thai lavender salmon roe cream palm black tea carob asparagus veal cardamom jamaican rum turmeric mushroom

  18. Homologation process making higher alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leung, Tak W. (Charleston, WV); Dombek, Bernard D. (Charleston, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A liquid phase process for the manufacture of C.sub.2+ alkanols by the reaction of hydrogen with carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst containing ruthenium, cobalt, a halide-containing compound, and an aromatic compound substituted in adjacent ring positions by nitrogen atoms. The process embraces the use of rhodium as an additive to the catalyst system.

  19. ESE Alcohol | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower VenturesInformation9)askDoubleEERE - EnergySPCCEQuilibriumESE

  20. Syngas Mixed Alcohol Cost Validation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergyPlan | Department ofSUPPLEMENTSwitzerland 2012 ProgramSynergy between1, 2013

  1. Production of long chain alcohols and alkanes upon coexpression of an acyl-ACP reductase and aldehyde-deformylating oxgenase with a bacterial type-I fatty acid synthase in E. coli

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Coursolle, Dan; Shanklin, John; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-06-23

    Microbial long chain alcohols and alkanes are renewable biofuels that could one day replace petroleum-derived fuels. Here we report a novel pathway for high efficiency production of these products in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3). We first identified the acyl-ACP reductase/aldehyde deformylase combinations with the highest activity in this strain. Next, we used catalase coexpression to remove toxic byproducts and increase the overall titer. Finally, by introducing the type-I fatty acid synthase from Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, we were able to bypass host regulatory mechanisms of fatty acid synthesis that have thus far hampered efforts to optimize the yield of acyl-ACP-derived products inmore »BL21(DE3). When all these engineering strategies were combined with subsequent optimization of fermentation conditions, we were able to achieve a final titer around 100 mg/L long chain alcohol/alkane products including a 57 mg/L titer of pentadecane, the highest titer reported in E. coli BL21(DE3) to date. The expression of prokaryotic type-I fatty acid synthases offer a unique strategy to produce fatty acid-derived products in E. coli that does not rely exclusively on the endogenous type-II fatty acid synthase system.« less

  2. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Contaminated Water Using a Dense

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dandy, David

    -massspectrometryandgaschromatography-thermal conductivity techniques. A rate law is developed for the removal of MTBE from an aqueous solution in the DMP of water in which alkyl groups have replaced both hydrogen atoms. In fact, the C-O-C bond angle is only, causing nationwide concern. Advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) are techniques that involve an input

  3. Saponification rates of isomeric butyl esters in aqueous 1,4-dioxane 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruhnke, Edward Vincent

    1954-01-01

    stranded RNA ligands with overhangs or a 5’ triphosphate group. The Cys951 residue was shown to disrupt stability of the MDA5 RD-RNA complex. Binding analyses were performed using a combination of SDS-PAGE, gel filtration analysis, and nondenaturing gel...

  4. Treatment of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether Vapors in Biotrickling Filters. 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    byproducts in either the gas or the liquid phase. They also exhibited a very high specific degradation and leaking pipe- lines. In the past few years, several studies have been conducted to determine if natural, ethyl benzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes, with in most cases no clear signs of natural attenuation (2

  5. Use of ethyl-t-butyl ether (ETBE) as a gasoline blending component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiblom, C.M.; Schoonveld, G.A.; Riley, R.K.; Pahl, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Treasury Department recently ruled that the ethanol blenders tax credit applies to ethanol used to make ETBE for blending with gasoline. As a result, ETBE may soon become a popular gasoline blending component. Like MTBE ETBE adds oxygen to the fuel while contributing to other performance properties of the gasoline. Phillips Petroleum Company has completed limited driveability and material compatibility studies on gasolines containing ETBE and has determined the effect on various performance parameters such as octane, volatility, and distillation of ETBE in gasoline. Levels of ETBE ranging from 0.0 to 23.5 volume percent (3.7 weight percent oxygen) in gasoline were included in the investigation. Use in gasoline is currently limited to only 12.7 volume percent (2.0 weight percent oxygen) by the gasoline substantially similar rule. No detrimental effects of the ETBE on metal or elastomeric parts common to gasoline delivery and fueling system were found. Also, several favorable blending properties of eTBE in gasoline are apparent as compared to either MTBE or ethanol. This paper presents details of these results.

  6. Organometallics 1994, 13, 4367-4376 4367 tert-Butyl-SubstitutedPoly(ferroceny1enepersulfides)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rauchfuss, Thomas B.

    . The trisulfides were converted to the polymers [(RC5H3)2FeS2Inupon desulfurization with Bu~P,which was shown by 31PNMR spectroscopy to be converted to Bu3PS. The rate of this desulfurization increases ferrocenylene persulfide polymers undergo reversible electrochemical oxidation in two steps, separated by 290 m

  7. Exchange Reactions Between a Molten Salt and a Solution of Tri-Butyl

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech(Journal(Patent)pressure inrepeats (Journal(Journal

  8. MEE 452: Example 3-2 ShellShell--andand--Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis:Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    MEE 452: Example 3-2 ShellShell--andand--Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis:Tube Heat Exchanger Analysis-butyl alcohol @150oF. Two-tube-pass for illustration only COUNTER FLOW T PARALLEL FLOW T Heat Exchanger/c,out or 16/Re otherwise Tube-side Pressure drop ... MathCAD S&T HX analysis 7 of 7 Tube-side Pressure drop

  9. Polymide gas separation membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ding, Yong; Bikson, Benjamin; Nelson, Joyce Katz

    2004-09-14

    Soluble polyamic acid salt (PAAS) precursors comprised of tertiary and quaternary amines, ammonium cations, sulfonium cations, or phosphonium cations, are prepared and fabricated into membranes that are subsequently imidized and converted into rigid-rod polyimide articles, such as membranes with desirable gas separation properties. A method of enhancing solubility of PAAS polymers in alcohols is also disclosed.

  10. California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10–a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanol–is assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

  11. Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1998-01-01

    The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

  12. MTBE, Oxygenates, and Motor Gasoline (Released in the STEO October 1999)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1999-01-01

    The blending of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) into motor gasoline has increased dramatically since it was first produced 20 years ago. MTBE usage grew in the early 1980's in response to octane demand resulting initially from the phaseout of lead from gasoline and later from rising demand for premium gasoline. The oxygenated gasoline program stimulated an increase in MTBE production between 1990 and 1994. MTBE demand increased from 83,000 in 1990 to 161,000 barrels per day in 1994. The reformulated gasoline (RFG) program provided a further boost to oxygenate blending. The MTBE contained in motor gasoline increased to 269,000 barrels per day by 1997.

  13. Energy and crude oil input requirements for the production of reformulated gasolines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M.; McNutt, B.

    1993-10-01

    The energy and crude oil requirements for the production of reformulated gasoline (RFG) are estimated. The scope of the study includes both the energy and crude oil embodied in the final product and the process energy required to manufacture the RFG and its components. The effects on energy and crude oil use of employing various oxygenates to meet the minimum oxygen-content level required by the Clean Air Act Amendments are evaluated. The analysis shows that production of RFG requires more total energy, but uses less crude oil, than that of conventional gasoline. The energy and crude oil use requirements of the different RFGs vary considerably. For the same emissions performance level, RFG with ethanol requires substantially more total energy and crude oil than does RFG with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethyl tertiary butyl ether. A specific proposal by the US Environmental Protection Agency, designed to allow the use of ethanol in RFG, would increase the total energy required to produce RFG by 2% and the total crude oil required by 2.0 to 2.5% over the corresponding values for the base RFG with MTBE.

  14. Study of optimal sequences and energy requirements of integrated processing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Enezi, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The increased demand for high quality unleaded gasoline produced from a refinery has caused an increased in developing processing alternatives for producing high-octane gasoline components. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is currently considered one of the most practical alternatives. The production of methyl tertiary butyl ether is based mainly on the availability of light hydrocarbons as a feed, such as isobutane from a refinery. The availability of isobutane is increased by isomerization of normal butanes. Even though distillation processes are widely used to separate mixtures of light hydrocarbons, they are highly energy intensive. A steady-state design of several configurations of distillation columns were studied for separating light hydrocarbon mixtures. A number of energy conservation alternatives were evaluated for the distillation process integrated with an isomerization unit. A modified form of the Complex Method of Box was used for optimizing the design and operating conditions of these energy conservation alternatives. The use of vapor recompression with distillation columns was evaluated as one of the alternatives. Despite the more complex processing scheme required, this alternative used only about 30% of the external energy required in a conventional distillation process for the same separation. The operating conditions of the multi-effect distillation columns were optimized as another alternative. Reduction in energy consumption for this case was about 40% compared to conventional distillation columns.

  15. Polymer Brushes on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of n-Butyl Methacrylate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Resasco, Daniel

    Polymer Brushes on Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization of n-mail: wtford@okstate.edu Abstract: Polymer brushes with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) as backbones were-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are leading to the development of new nanotechnologies because of their out

  16. A search for mode-selective chemistry: The unimolecular dissociation of I-butyl hydroperoxide induced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rate over the thermal energy distribution of the photoactivated molecules is included. At pressures of thermal unimolecular processes. 1 The ergodic theories were very successful in rationaliZing the bulk rate. The excess chemical energy released through the addition process is initially localized

  17. Fetal germ cell development in the rat testis and the impact of di (n-Butyl) phthalate exposure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jobling, Matthew S.

    2010-01-01

    During gonad development and fetal life, the germ cells (GC) undergo a range of different developmental processes necessary for correct postnatal gametogenesis and the production of the next generation. If these fetal ...

  18. On the structural and impedance characteristics of Li- doped PEO, using n-butyl lithium in hexane as dopant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anand, P. B., E-mail: anandputhirath@gmail.com, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in; Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: anandputhirath@gmail.com, E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Division for Research in Advanced Materials Department of Physics Cochin University of Science and Technology Cochin 22, Kerala (India)

    2014-01-28

    Nowadays polymer based solid state electrolytes for applications in rechargeable battery systems are highly sought after materials, pursued extensively by various research groups worldwide. Numerous methods are discussed in literature to improve the fundamental properties like electrical conductivity, mechanical stability and interfacial stability of polymer based electrolytes. The application of these electrolytes in Li-ion cells is still in the amateur state, due to low ionic conductivity, low lithium transport number and the processing difficulties. The present work is an attempt to study the effects of Li doping on the structural and transport properties of the polymer electrolyte, poly-ethelene oxide (PEO) (Molecular weight: 200,000). Li doped PEO was obtained by treating PEO with n-Butyllithium in hexane for different doping concentrations. Structural characterization of the samples was done by XRD and FTIR techniques. Impedance measurements were carried out to estimate the ionic conductivity of Li doped PEO samples. It is seen that, the crystallinity of the doped PEO decreases on increasing the doping concentration. XRD and FTIR studies support this observation. It is inferred that, ionic conductivity of the sample is increasing on increasing the doping concentration since less crystallinity permits more ionic transport. Impedance measurements confirm the results quantitatively.

  19. Kinetic study of acid-catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium Zehui Zhang a,d,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Weixue

    . Zhao a,c, a Division of Biotechnology, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China b The State Key Laboratory of Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, CAS, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023, China c Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian 116023

  20. An experimental system for the n-butyl-lithium initiated polymerization of styrene in a multi-sampled batch reactor 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, James Harvey

    1974-01-01

    AN EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM FOR THE n-BUTYLLITHIUM INITIATED POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE IN A MULTI-SAMPLED BATCH REACTOR A Thesis by JAMES HARVEY COX, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1974 Ma]or Subject: Chemical Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM FOR THE n-BUTYLLITHIUM INITIATED POLYMERIZATION OF STYRENE IN A MULTI-SAMPLED BATCH REACTOR A Thesis by JAMES HARVEY COX, JR. Approved...

  1. Supporting Information A scalable synthesis of the (S)-4-(tert-butyl)-2-(pyridin-2-yl)-4,5-dihydrooxazole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    for flash chromatography. Analytical chiral SFC was performed utilizing an OB-H column (4.6 mm × 25 cm with a three-pitched curved blade, an internal thermometer, and a reflux condenser equipped with a two a steam of N2. The flask was charged with (S)-tert-leucine (15.08 g, 115.0 mmol, 1.00 equv, 99% ee

  2. Whole-Genome Analysis of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Beta-Proteobacterium Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    degradation pathways. PM1 contains an operon (mpeA0814-0821) likely encoding for conversion of benzene to phenol (

  3. Viscoelastic Properties and Phase Behavior of 12-tert-Butyl Ester Dendrimer/Poly(methyl methacrylate) Blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    with bis- phenol A polycarbonate (PC), resulting in an in- crease in free volume with increasing dendrimer hyperbranched polyester/bisphenol A PC blends with respect to pure PC. Studies were conducted by Carr et al.24

  4. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  5. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    tomography ?ndings in anorexia nervosa. Journal of ComputerPfefferbaum, 1989), anorexia nervosa (Enzmann & Lane, 1977),

  6. Pellagra associated with esophageal carcinoma and alcoholism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nogueira, Ana; Duarte, Ana F; Magina, Sofia; Azevedo, Filomena

    2009-01-01

    a rare complication of anorexia nervosa. Eur Child Adolescalcoholism, or anorexia nervosa. Metabolic derangements,

  7. Phenobarbital for Alcohol Withdrawal: Rapid Patient Disposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, John R.

    2000-01-01

    CAL/AAEM President’s message to CAL/ACEP. As EPs, united,all express our gratitude to CAL/ACEP for its long-standingthe outstanding services CAL/ACEP has provided to all EPs on

  8. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  9. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  10. Alcohol And drUg Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    and violations. Violation of state laws and local town bylaws will result in university sanctions. #12;residence are considered endangering behaviors and are prohibited. #12;MiniMuM SanctionS and Educational REquiREMEntS First ($175 fee) · AND Parental notification Consequences of violations *Note: all sanctions are cumulative

  11. Method for producing gasoline-alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, C.

    1983-05-10

    A process for producing gasoline-ethanol blends comprises purifying dilute ethanol by extractive distillation and concentrating the ethanol by distillation followed by one or both of the following steps: (A) liquid extraction of ethanol into heated gasoline or (B) azeotropic distillation of ethanol with an entrainer followed by blending with gasoline.

  12. Mechanisms of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Shannon Elizabeth

    2011-10-21

    examined with non-invasive techniques such as MRI (Mattson et al., 1992, 1994; Sowell et al., 1996, 2001; Archibald et al. 2001, Riley et al., 2004), these cases have identified a number of brain regions that suffer damage as a consequence of fetal... to determine normal 4 values and to establish the animal preparation. The large body mass of the sheep is also an advantage. The sheep fetus will weigh between 0.85-4.50 kg during the third trimester equivalent (this weight range represents the rapid...

  13. Ozone-forming potential of a series of oxygenated organic compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Japar, S.M.; Wallington, T.J.; Rudy, S.J.; Chang, Tai Y. )

    1991-03-01

    An incremental reactivity approach has been used to assess the relative ozone-forming potentials of various important oxygenated fuels/fuel additives, i.e., tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), dimethyl ether (DME), diethyl ether (DEE), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), in a variety of environments. Calculations were performed using a single-cell trajectory model, combined with the Lurmann-Carter-Coyner chemical mechanism, with (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratios ranging from 4 to 20. This work provides the first quantitative assessment of the air quality impact of release of these important oxygenated compounds. ETBE and DEE are the two most reactive compounds on a per carbon equivalent basis, while TBA is the least reactive species. At a (NMOC)/(NO{sub x}) ratio of 8, which is generally typical of polluted urban areas in the United States, TBA, DME, MTBE, and ETBE all have incremental reactivities less than or equal to that of the urban NMHC mix. Thus, use of these additives in fuels may have a beneficial impact on urban ozone levels.

  14. Mesozoic-Tertiary tectonic evolution of the easternmost Mediterranean area: integration of marine and land evidence. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Alastair H F

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of Holocene to Late Paleozoic marine and land evidence from the easternmost Mediterranean area, in the light of recent ODP Leg 160 drilling results from the Eratosthenes Seamount. The ...

  15. Catalytic Asymmetric Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl Fluorides: Negishi Cross-Couplings of Racemic ?,?-Dihaloketones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liang, Yufan

    The development of new approaches to the construction of fluorine-containing target molecules is important for a variety of scientific disciplines, including medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe a method for ...

  16. Tertiary nitrogen heterocyclic material to reduce moisture-induced damage in asphalt-aggregate mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plancher, Henry (Laramie, WY); Petersen, Joseph C. (Laramie, WY)

    1982-01-01

    Asphalt-aggregate roads crack when subjected to freezing and thawing cycles. Herein, the useful life of asphalts are substantially improved by a minor amount of a moisture damage inhibiting agent selected from compounds having a pyridine moiety, including acid salts of such compounds. A shale oil fraction may serve as the source of the improving agent and may simply be blended with conventional petroleum asphalts.

  17. Supplementary Material Construction of Tertiary Chiral Centers by Pd-catalyzed Asymmetric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    * The Warren and Katharine Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 101 and tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA) were distilled from calcium hydride prior to use. (S)-2-(2-(bis(4- (trifluoromethyl

  18. Application of a moving bed biofilm reactor for tertiary ammonia treatment in high temperature industrial wastewater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    industrial wastewater Jennifer L. Shore a,b , William S. M'Coy b , Claudia K. Gunsch a , Marc A. Deshusses a 2012 Available online 17 February 2012 Keywords: Moving bed biofilm reactor Industrial wastewater and industrial wastewater. No biotreatment was observed at 45 °C, although effective nitrification was rapidly

  19. Ultrasonic absorption associated with tertiary butanol complex formation in cyclohexane solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musa, Raiq S.

    1957-01-01

    T loiA hT eyofn ihyntnuina mT ryn ft'^up entdhp df c^iy fcollnt ryou ryn iyotoirntdfrdi rdcn hT ryn tnoirdhuw ryn rncentor^tn iyouSnf roAn eloin fh Tofr ryor ryn chlnR i^lnf iouuhr Thllhqw oup kntE ldrrln ovfhterdhu roAnf eloina /u ryn hrynt youpw d...T ryn fh^up entdhp df c^iy lhuSnt ryou ryn iyotoirntdfrdi rdcnwryn chlni^lnf Thllhq ryn rncentor^tn iyouSnf oup ryn ovfhterdhu df or drf ydSynfra mu vhry rynfn iofnf dr df fnnu ryor kotdordhu hT ryn fh^up Ttn,^nuR iE hknt o fcoll touSn qdll ethp...

  20. Diagenesis of Middle Tertiary carbonates in the Toa Baja Well, Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ruiz, H. M.

    1991-03-01

    indicate that these carbonates were rapidly cemented in the marine environment (limiting compaction), that replacement of metastable carbonates by calcite and precipitation of sparry calcite took place mostly in meteoric diagenetic environments...

  1. Origin of gaseous hydrocarbons from Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata in the Piceance basin, western Colorado 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, David Jonathan

    1997-01-01

    ), and are chemically distinct and therefore Renetically different from gases between 2450 and 2791 M (513C ci =-37.9 +-O.2%og 813C C2 =-26.4 0?.5%09 CI/Cl-3 = 0.88 0?.01). Gases of the latter group were probably derived from coalbeds that comprise the Cameo Group...

  2. An atmospheric pCO2 reconstruction across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royer, Dana

    attribute marked ``green- house'' warming to either volcanic degassing of mantle volatiles (especially CO2 impact. A resultant climatic forcing of 12 W m 2 would have been sufficient to warm the Earth's surface evidence for major climatic warming after the KTB impact and implies that severe and abrupt global warming

  3. 1208 Organometallics1988,7,1208-1213 Copper(I) Alkyls. Synthesis and Characterization of Tertiary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    -Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 Received December 28. 1986 Alkylation of copper(I1)acetate reflections and 62 variables. Introduction Lithium dialkylcuprates, LiCuR2,are used extensively in organic

  4. The effect of solids retention time on tertiary ozonation and carbon adsorption of petrochemical wastewaters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buys, Ronald Earl

    1980-01-01

    time of 30 days. 34 10 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized samples. 37 Correlation between measured and calculated nonadsorbable COD values for bio-oxidized plus ozonated samples. 12 Effect... of solids retention time on nonadsorbable COD, with and without ozonation. 39 LIST OF TABLES Table Page Biochemical and chemical oxygen demand data. COD removal and ozone consumption data 21 26 iVon-adsorbable COD data for bio-oxidized effluent. . 3O...

  5. The geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Tertiary igneous rocks of the Eagle Mountains, Van Horn, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, Ronald Alan

    1972-01-01

    , 0 1, 9 4h 18 IR 1. 8 1. 5 '1. 4 5p 0 p Sd 8101214 Ca 'ro Fig12re 13. Hb/Sr vs. Cap plot for the rocks of the Eagle Mountains. 39 2. 1 2. 0 ~ VI' 1. 9 1. 7 ep sd O ~ Na/ K Figure l4. Rb/Sr vs. Ma/K plot for the rooks... Page 3 ~ 5. 6. 7 ~ 8. Map of a portion of West Texas showing the location of' the Eagle Mountains. . . 4 The Cretaceous section of the Eagle Mountains after Underwood. (1962) . . . . 8 Distribution of igneous rock and sample locations...

  6. Tertiary recycling of PVC-containing plastic waste by copyrolysis with cattle manure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangchan, Apinya [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyotin Road, Ladyao Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)], E-mail: fengapd@ku.ac.th; Samart, Chanatip [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Paholyotin Road, Ladyao Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2008-11-15

    The corrosion from pyrolysis of PVC in plastic waste was reduced by copyrolysis of PVC with cattle manure. The optimization of pyrolysis conditions between PVC and cattle manure was studied via a statistical method, the Box-Behnken model. The pyrolysis reaction was operated in a tubular reactor. Heating rate, reaction temperature and the PVC:cattle manure ratio were optimized in the range of 1-5 deg. C/min, 250-450 deg. C and the ratio of 1:1-1:5, respectively. The suitable conditions which provided the highest HCl reduction efficiency were the lowest heating rate of 1 deg. C/min, the highest reaction temperature of 450 deg. C, and the PVC:cattle manure ratio of 1:5, with reliability of more than 90%. The copyrolysis of the mixture of PVC-containing plastic and cattle manure was operated at optimized conditions and the synergistic effect was studied on product yields. The presence of manure decreased the oil yield by about 17%. The distillation fractions of oil at various boiling points from both the presence and absence of manure were comparable. The BTX concentration decreased rapidly when manure was present and the chlorinated hydrocarbon was reduced by 45%. However, the octane number of the gasoline fraction was not affected by manure and was in the range of 99-100.

  7. The identification of recurrent tertiary motifs by interactions of protein secondary structure units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hodges, Hamilton Courtney

    2013-02-22

    2sns 2spc 2Cgt 2tps 2vhb 3bam 3cBo 3chb 3CIB 3cyr' 3elp 3elm 3grs 3hts 31St 3nul 3pnp 3pn) 3 pvl 3pyp 3seb 3SII 3 std 3vub 4eug 4gcr 4u'Ig 4ubp 4xis 6rl x 7B3h 7ocic 8abp Partitioning of Secondary Structure For each...

  8. An example of regioselective esterification by intramolecular acyl transfer from a tertiary amine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddell, T.G.; Rambalakos, T.; Christie, K.R. )

    1990-07-20

    Despite the fact that the famous antimarlarial quinine (1) has been known for 170 years, there is still considerable interest in its chemical and biological properties. Much of the most recent attention is due to the utility of quinine as a chiral resolving agent and catalyst. Important and new chemistry of quinine may yet be discovered. To this point, the authors became interested in constructing quinine derivatives which have built into their structures electrophilic centers which might make covalent bonds with cellular protein or nucleic acid nucleophilic sites. In order to preserve the noncovalent binding properties of quinine, functionalization and derivatization of the remote vinyl group were desired. In an esterification step of the derivatization, a structurally hindered ester was formed, to our surprise. The mechanism for this regioselective reaction are discussed.

  9. Tertiary contacts distant from the active site prime a ribozyme for catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martick, Monika; Scott, William G

    2006-01-01

    pH-activity relationships of G8 and G12 variants at thecharged alkoxide anion. (C) The G8-C3 base pair is important

  10. New surfactant classes for enhanced oil recovery and their tertiary oil recovery potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    esters sorbitan ester ultra-low interfacial tension enhanced oil recovery surfactant flood chemical flood sandstones. In addition to the corefloods, one sandpack surfactant flood was performed. The porous media were by polymer drive slug injection, and incremental oil recovery was measured against time. The tested

  11. Mineralogy and diagenesis of Gulf Coast Tertiary shales Ann-Mag Field, Brooks County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bott, Winston Frederick

    1985-01-01

    , which is charactrerized by thinning or absence of salt, shale ridges, massifs, and diapirs, and associated long, linear belts of growth faults; and the Rio Grande embayment, which has large but discontinuous belts of growth faults and deep shale... the H202 and becomes soluble. The reaction is given below: 2 + HP02 + 2 HOAc ~ , in(OAc)Z + 2 H20 + 02. The pH 5 N NaOAc is necessary in this step because it increases the effeciency of the H202 by reducing the pH. It also acts as a di lutant...

  12. Evidence for Large-Scale Laramide Tectonic Inversion and a Mid-Tertiary

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville,PowerEvaporative Coolers Jump

  13. What to Bring: What NOT to Bring: Clothing for an entire week Alcohol and alcohol paraphernalia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rock, Chris

    speakers, amplifiers Toiletries (i.e. makeup, sunscreen, deodorant, body wash) Wireless router - for more

  14. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  15. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-04-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  16. The efficient use of natural gas in transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stodolsky, F.; Santini, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns over air quality and greenhouse gas emissions have prompted discussion as well as action on alternative fuels and energy efficiency. Natural gas and natural gas derived fuels and fuel additives are prime alternative fuel candidates for the transportation sector. In this study, we reexamine and add to past work on energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of natural gas fuels for transportation (DeLuchi 1991, Santini et a. 1989, Ho and Renner 1990, Unnasch et al. 1989). We add to past work by looking at Methyl tertiary butyl ether (from natural gas and butane component of natural gas), alkylate (from natural gas butanes), and gasoline from natural gas. We also reexamine compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, and methanol based on our analysis of vehicle efficiency potential. We compare the results against nonoxygenated gasoline.

  17. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes, Phase 3. Topical report, January 1990--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in the first simple, economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to an alcohol-rich oxygenated product which can either be used as an environmentally friendly, high-performance liquid fuel, or a precursor to a liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. The authors have entered the proof-of-concept stage for converting isobutane to tert butyl alcohol in a practical process and are preparing to enter proof-of-concept of a propane to isopropyl alcohol process in the near future. Methane and ethane are more refractory and thus more difficult to oxidize than the C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. Nonetheless, advances made in this area indicate that further research progress could achieve the goal of their direct conversion to alcohols. Progress in Phase 3 catalytic vapor phase methane and ethane oxidation over metals in regular oxidic lattices are the subject of this topical report.

  18. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE DETECTION OF METHYL TERT-BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) IN SURFACE AND GROUND WATER AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND ITS CONTENT IN GASOLINE By Michael J. Moran, Mike J. Halde, Rick M. Clawges and John S. Zogorski U in the United States as an octane enhancer and oxygenate in gasoline. Octane enhancement began in the late 1970's with the phase-out of tetraethyl lead from gasoline. The use of oxygenates was expanded

  19. Effects of bile salts and other carboxylates on the reactions of N-tert-butyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzamide in dimethyl sulfoxide-water solutions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koranek, David James

    1977-01-01

    incandescent bulb at a distance of 20 cm), [5] = 4x10 M: Curve 1 ( . ), initial spectrum; Curve Z ( ? ), after 2 hours; Curve 3 (---), after 10 days; Curve 4 (+-+), after 24 days. . . 92 2Z Absorption spectra of the complex in DMSO at 25. 0'C... of the absorbance at 535 nm vs. nitrite ion concentration using 1. 0 cm cells at 25. 0'C. 4 Absorption spectra of the complex generated in situ from Page 15 24 27 5 at 25. 0'C: 10 M NaOH; 10 M NaOH; -2 Curve 1 (---), in 99K/1% DMSO/H20 (v/v), Curve 2...

  20. An evaluation of the 3M Organic Vapor Monitor #3500 as a short term exposure limit sampling device for acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and methyl iso butyl ketone 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Lloyd B.

    1982-01-01

    . Six (6) monitors were removed from 3M's resealable envelopes and labeled. The monitors were attached to the aluminum disc so the air movement would be perpendicular to and against the back of the monitor. dl '0 l 0 dt dl dt 0 td 0 IJ 0 0 0 0... the contaminant into the system. The F-values in Table 7 are all greater than 3. 0718 so the null hypothesis is rejected, or Equation 4 is rejected in support of Equation 5. This means there are three different slopes describing the relationship between...

  1. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  2. Recovery of organic acids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  3. Development of Effective Solvent Modifiers for the Solvent Extraction of Cesium from Alkaline High-Level Tank Waste.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    2003-01-01

    A series of novel alkylphenoxy fluorinated alcohols were prepared and investigated for their effectiveness as modifiers in solvents containing calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 for extracting cesium from alkaline nitrate media. A modifier that contained a terminal 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy group was found to decompose following long-term exposure to warm alkaline solutions. However, replacement of the tetrafluoroethoxy group with a 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy group led to a series of modifiers that possessed the alkaline stability required for a solvent extraction process. Within this series of modifiers, the structure of the alkyl substituent (tert-octyl, tert-butyl, tert-amyl, and sec-butyl) of the alkylphenoxy moiety was found to have a profound impact on the phase behavior of the solvent in liquid-liquid contacting experiments, and hence on the overall suitability of the modifier for a solvent extraction process. The sec-butyl derivative[1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol] (Cs-7SB) was found to possess the best overall balance of properties with respect to third phase and coalescence behavior, cleanup following degradation, resistance to solids formation, and cesium distribution behavior. Accordingly, this modifier was selected for use as a component of the solvent employed in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process for removing cesium from high level nuclear waste (HLW) at the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Savannah River Site. In batch equilibrium experiments, this solvent has also been successfully shown to extract cesium from both simulated and actual solutions generated from caustic leaching of HLW tank sludge stored in tank B-110 at the DOE?s Hanford Site.

  4. Enantioselective Nucleophile-Catalyzed Synthesis of Tertiary Alkyl Fluorides via the ?-Fluorination of Ketenes: Synthetic and Mechanistic Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sarah Yunmi

    The catalytic asymmetric synthesis of alkyl fluorides, particularly ?-fluorocarbonyl compounds, has been the focus of substantial effort in recent years. While significant progress has been described in the formation of ...

  5. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey Jr., Thomas C.

    2003-02-06

    The primary objective of this project was to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox Basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project was designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  6. GEOLOGY, TAPHONOMY, AND PALEOECOLOGY OF A UNIQUE UPPER CRETACEOUS BONEBED NEAR THE CRETACEOUS-TERTIARY BOUNDARY IN SOUTH DAKOTA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DePalma, Robert A.

    2010-04-27

    a chronology of significant local forest fires. The optimum temperature requirements for plants at Bone Butte, for example the gymnosperm Taxodium, give a rough estimation of annual temperature variation. Thousands of collected vertebrate specimens...

  7. High-resolution reservoir characterization by an acoustic impedance inversion of a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    process and thereby com- plement the relatively dense horizontal coverage of seismic data with high ones encountered in the subsurface, and potential reservoir units are often close to or below seismic resolution. For seismic inversion, it is therefore important to integrate the seismic data with higher

  8. Solvent-extraction and purification of uranium(VI) and molybdenum(VI) by tertiary amines from acid leach solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Gamma, Ana M.G.; Becquart, Elena T.; Chocron, Mauricio

    2008-07-01

    Considering international interest in the yellow-cake price, Argentina is seeking to exploit new uranium ore bodies and processing plants. A study of similar plants would suggest that solvent- extraction with Alamine 336 is considered the best method for the purification and concentration of uranium present in leaching solutions. In order to study the purification of these leach liquors, solvent-extraction tests under different conditions were performed with simulated solutions which containing molybdenum and molybdenum-uranium mixtures. Preliminary extraction tests carried out on mill acid-leaching liquors are also presented. (authors)

  9. A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Needs Assessment for Multimedia Radiology Reports in a Large Tertiary Care

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubin, Daniel L.

    A Picture Is Worth A Thousand Words: Needs Assessment for Multimedia Radiology Reports in a Large, Jafi A. Lipson, MD Rationale and Objectives: Radiology reports are the major, and often only, means referring physicians' preferences about radiology reports and to quantify their perceived value

  10. INCREASED OIL PRODUCTION AND RESERVES UTILIZING SECONDARY/TERTIARY RECOVERY TECHNIQUES ON SMALL RESERVOIRS IN THE PARADOX BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey, Jr.

    2002-11-01

    The Paradox Basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from shallow-shelf carbonate buildups or mounds within the Desert Creek zone of the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels (111,300-318,000 m{sup 3}) of oil per field at a 15 to 20 percent recovery rate. Five fields in southeastern Utah were evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide (CO{sub 2})-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Geological characterization on a local scale focused on reservoir heterogeneity, quality, and lateral continuity as well as possible compartmentalization within each of the five project fields. The Desert Creek zone includes three generalized facies belts: (1) open-marine, (2) shallow-shelf and shelf-margin, and (3) intra-shelf, salinity-restricted facies. These deposits have modern analogs near the coasts of the Bahamas, Florida, and Australia, respectively, and outcrop analogs along the San Juan River of southeastern Utah. The analogs display reservoir heterogeneity, flow barriers and baffles, and lithofacies geometry observed in the fields; thus, these properties were incorporated in the reservoir simulation models. Productive carbonate buildups consist of three types: (1) phylloid algal, (2) coralline algal, and (3) bryozoan. Phylloid-algal buildups have a mound-core interval and a supra-mound interval. Hydrocarbons are stratigraphically trapped in porous and permeable lithotypes within the mound-core intervals of the lower part of the buildups and the more heterogeneous supramound intervals. To adequately represent the observed spatial heterogeneities in reservoir properties, the phylloid-algal bafflestones of the mound-core interval and the dolomites of the overlying supra-mound interval were subdivided into ten architecturally distinct lithotypes, each of which exhibits a characteristic set of reservoir properties obtained from outcrop analogs, cores, and geophysical logs. The Anasazi and Runway fields were selected for geostatistical modeling and reservoir compositional simulations. Models and simulations incorporated variations in carbonate lithotypes, porosity, and permeability to accurately predict reservoir responses. History matches tied previous production and reservoir pressure histories so that future reservoir performances could be confidently predicted. The simulation studies showed that despite most of the production being from the mound-core intervals, there were no corresponding decreases in the oil in place in these intervals. This behavior indicates gravity drainage of oil from the supra-mound intervals into the lower mound-core intervals from which the producing wells' major share of production arises. The key to increasing ultimate recovery from these fields (and similar fields in the basin) is to design either waterflood or CO{sub 2}-miscible flood projects capable of forcing oil from high-storage-capacity but low-recovery supra-mound units into the high-recovery mound-core units. Simulation of Anasazi field shows that a CO{sub 2} flood is technically superior to a waterflood and economically feasible. For Anasazi field, an optimized CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total 4.21 million barrels (0.67 million m3) of oil representing in excess of 89 percent of the original oil in place. For Runway field, the best CO{sub 2} flood is predicted to recover a total of 2.4 million barrels (0.38 million m3) of oil representing 71 percent of the original oil in place. If the CO{sub 2} flood performed as predicted, it is a financially robust process for increasing the reserves in the many small fields in the Paradox Basin. The results can be applied to other fields in the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois Basins, and the Midcontinent.

  11. Carbon dioxide reduction to alcohols using perovskite-type electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, M.; Cook, R.L.; Kehoe, V.M.; MacDuff, R.C.; Patel, J.; Sammells, A.F. (Eltron Research, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Electrochemical reduction of CO[sub 2] under ambient conditions to methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol is reported at perovskite-type A[sub 1.8]A[prime][sub 0.2]CuO[sub 4] (A = La, Pr, and Gd; A[prime] = Sr and Th) electrocatalysts when incorporated into gas diffusion electrodes. In the absence of copper at the perovskite B lattice site, no activity was found. This investigation resulted in the identification of electrochemical conditions whereby perovskite-type electrocatalysts could achieve cumulative Faradaic efficiencies for CO[sub 2] reduction to methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol up to [congruent] 40% at current densities of 180 mA/cm[sup 2].

  12. High compression ratio turbo gasoline engine operation using alcohol enhancement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Raymond (Raymond A.)

    2013-01-01

    Gasoline - ethanol blends were explored as a strategy to mitigate engine knock, a phenomena in spark ignition engine combustion when a portion of the end gas is compressed to the point of spontaneous auto-ignition. This ...

  13. Physicochemical Characterization of a Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pyrobaculum aerophilum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vitale, Annalisa; Thorne, Natasha; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Xin; Shen, Min; D'Auria, Sabato; Auld, Douglas S.

    2013-06-05

    -tetralone is used as substrate. Here, to gain insights into enzyme function, we screened several chemical libraries for enzymatic modulators using an assay employing ?-tetralone. The results indicate that PyAeADHII activity in the presence of ?...

  14. Methods for dehydration of sugars and sugar alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-08-10

    The invention includes a method of dehydration of a sugar using a dehydration catalyst and a co-catalyst within a reactor. A sugar is introduced and H.sub.2 is flowed through the reactor at a pressure of less than or equal to about 300 psig to convert at least some of the sugar into an anhydrosugar product. The invention includes a process for producing isosorbide. A starting material comprising sorbitol is flowed into a reactor. H.sub.2 is counter flowed through the reactor. The starting material is exposed to a catalyst in the presence of a co-catalyst which comprises at least one metal. The exposing is conducted at a hydrogen pressure of less than or equal to 300 psig within the reactor and the hydrogen removes at least some of any water present during the exposing and inhibits formation of colored byproducts.

  15. Interactions between silver nanoparticles and polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, H. L.; Wu, C. M.; Lin, F. D.; Rick, J.

    2014-08-15

    The interaction of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) nanofibers with silver (Ag) nanoparticles (mean diameter 8nm) has been modeled using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The physical adsorption of PVA through the hydroxyl group, to the Ag, and its corresponding molecular orientation was compared with experimental results obtained from surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of the same material. A good agreement was found between the computational model of the vibrational spectrum of the adsorbate and the experimentally observed SERS. In general, aliphatic capping molecules are used to passivate the surface of Ag{sub 55} nanocrystals (55 = atomic number of Ag). In this study, a DFT simulation was employed to show binding energies and electron contour map analyses of Ag{sub 55} with PVA. Here we show that the PVA interacts with the Ag nanoparticle's surface, through the OH group, thereby contributing significantly to the increase in SERS activity.

  16. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, F. Abron; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Webster, Daniel W.; Pan, William K.

    2010-01-01

    Heal. 1995;85(3):335-40. 17. Speer, P. W. , Gorman, D. M. ,16(1):25-40. Gorman DM, Speer PW, Labouvie EW, and Subaiya1998;88(1):97-100. Gorman DM, Speer PW, Gruenewald PJ, and

  17. Kinetics Feasibility Study of Alcohol Sulfate Esterification Reactions in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elrod, Matthew J.

    of the interaction of sulfuric acid aerosol with glyoxal (11), an oxidation product of aromatic VOCs. Sulfate ester-cell uptake experiments. As a result of their experiments with the methanol (15) and ethanol (16) systems

  18. Alcohol Outlets and Violent Crime in Washington D.C.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, F. Abron; LaVeist, Thomas A.; Webster, Daniel W.; Pan, William K.

    2010-01-01

    of Violence and Disorder. Washington, D.C. : The Urbanand Violent Crime in Washington D.C. F. Abron Franklin II,Involvement in Crime. Washington, D.C. : U.S. Department of

  19. Redox regulation of hepatitis C in nonalcoholic and alcoholic liver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seronello, Scott; Sheikh, Muhammad Y.; Choi, Jinah

    2007-01-01

    D. The natural history of hepatitis C virus infection: host,World Health Organization. Hepatitis C-global prevalence (role of chronic viral hepatitis in hepatocellular carcinoma

  20. Detection of Physiologically Relevant Alcohol Concentrations Using Raman Spectroscopy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKay, Joshua L.

    2006-08-16

    . A. Watson, J. P. Wicksted, R. D. Stith, and W. F. March, ?Analysis of metabolites in aqueous solutions by using laser Raman spectroscopy,? Applied Optics, 32-6, 925-929, (1993). 5. A. J. Berger, Y. Wang, and M. S. Feld, ?Rapid, noninvasive... concentration measurements of aqueous biological analytes by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy,? Applied Optics, 35-1, 209-212, (1996). 29 6. A. J. Berger, I. Itzkan, and M. S. Feld, ?Feasibility of measuring blood glucose concentration by near...

  1. Redox regulation of hepatitis C in nonalcoholic and alcoholic liver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seronello, Scott; Sheikh, Muhammad Y.; Choi, Jinah

    2007-01-01

    ?B, nuclear factor kappa B; RNS, reactive nitrogen species;oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) and decreased antioxidantincrease the levels of ROS/RNS, oxidized thioredoxin, lipid

  2. Reorientation and Solvation Dynamics of Bulk and Confined Alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vartia, Anthony Andrew

    2012-12-31

    of the additional timescales, appear in free energy profiles for reorientation, solvent viscosity must also be considered. Ethanol and a Stockmayer model solute were confined within a roughly cylindrical silica pore to investigate the effect of confinement...

  3. Doctor of Applied Social Research Drug and Alcohol Studies Pathway

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Tony

    the skills and knowledge to collect, analyse and report qualitative and quantitative data, taking account and practical innovations in their professional environment; - To design and complete a research thesis and the Thesis. The taught modules include: ASRP01: The Nature of Social Enquiry Introduces students

  4. A Dioxane Template for Highly Selective Epoxy Alcohol Cyclizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousseau, James J.

    Ladder polyether natural products are a class of natural products denoted by their high functional-group density and large number of well-defined stereocenters. They comprise the toxic component of harmful algal blooms ...

  5. Reversible catalytic dehydrogenation of alcohols for energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    a renewed interest in hydrogen as a form of chemical energy storage. Hydrogen, which may be used in fuel attractive hydrogen storage media are liquid organic hydrogen carriers (LOHCs), because they have relatively simplify the conventional hydrogen storage process (10). The envisioned partial electrochemical

  6. Examining college students' beliefs and behaviors regarding responsible alcohol consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barry, Adam Etheridge

    2009-05-15

    - Anheuser-Busch, Coors, and Miller Brewing Company - promote responsible drinking campaigns. Descriptions and specifics regarding these full-scale marketing endeavors revolving around the guiding theme of responsibility can be found on the brewer?s..., & Wallack, 1992). 15 In the promotion of responsible drinking, brewing companies also tend to utilize ironic catch-phrases such as ?Think When you Drink? (Miller Brewing Company, 2006) and ?Know When to Say When? (Anheuser-Busch, 2006b), which...

  7. The effects of alcohol and irradiation on the albino rat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klobukowski, Christopher John

    1963-01-01

    '&eight During the Test I'eriod. lh Combined. Daily Caloric Intake - Ca- lories per 100 Grams of 3ody Ueight. 17 Survival '?ata and Peak Death Days 3xpt. II. Surv1 vBI Data and Peek !3ea'l h Days Sxpte Ilia 3 j& Average Dody "? eights ( Pram... ~ ) ?" i rat Day I'ostirradiation. Average Pluid Intake (in millili gers) per 100 Grams of Dody Ueight, T~so Dave Pre-, Three ?Days Postirradiafion, "?S Average Percent ?ge of Total Caloric lntal:e per 100 Grams of 3od. , ? '?eight Supplied. 'by...

  8. Autothermal Partial Oxidation of Ethanol and Alcohols - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O DBiomass andAtomsVehicles and Fuels Vehicles and

  9. Catalysts for Syngas-Derived Alcohol Synthesis - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports fromSheetsCascadia AnalysisCatalysis andVehicles and

  10. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy BillsNo. 195 - Oct. 7,DOERTIRegulatoryResidentialRenewable

  11. Downregulation of Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase (CAD) Leads to Improved

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Discriminationquenched chiralSaccharification

  12. Improving Ethanol-Gasoline Blends by Addition of Higher Alcohols |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancingREnergyDepartment of Energy ImprovingCooling

  13. STEP 1: TO BE COMPLETED BY ALCOHOL TECHNICIAN

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterestedReplacement-2-AA-1 SECTION JSTEM-ing the Tide STEM-ing the Tide September 29,7

  14. Electrocatalyst for Alcohol Oxidation at Fuel Cell Anodes - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear ProfileMultiferroic 2015ProgramWoodward UnitUses Thereof

  15. Electrocatalysts for Alcohol Oxidation in Fuel Cells - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansas Nuclear ProfileMultiferroic 2015ProgramWoodward

  16. Design Case Summary: Production of Mixed Alcohols from Municipal Solid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us|of EnergySmall Business

  17. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report15 MeetingDevelopmentDepartmentof

  18. Microbes Produce High Yields of Fatty Alcohols From Glucose - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matterEnergyPublicatonsSubstances | TheInnovation Portal

  19. Development of a partition function for polymer systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver-Labra, Pedro Aurelio

    1967-01-01

    of the Reduced Pressure, Reduced Temperature, and Calculated Reduced Vol- ume i'or Mixtures of Heptane and Butyl Rubber 19 III. Values for Mixtures of Octane and Butyl Rubber 19 IV. Values for Mixtures of Nonane and Butyl Rubber 20 V. Values for Mixtures... of Decane and Butyl Rubber 20 VI. Values Obtained Using the Formulation Derived in this Thesis for Heptane and Butyl Rubber 23 VII. Values for Mixtures of Octane and Butyl Rubber 23 VIII. Values for Mixtures of Nonane and Butyl Rubber 24 IX. Values...

  20. Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs Minimum Standard Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs Minimum Standard (April 2015) Page 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wapstra, Erik

    Resources Approved and commenced April 2015 Review by April, 2018 Relevant Legislation, Ordinance, Rule and Regulations 2012 Work Health and Safety Policy Responsible Organisational Unit Work Health and Safety Unit Minimum Standard (April 2015) Page 2 1 Executive Summary The University of Tasmania is committed

  1. Development of candidate chemical simulant list: the evaluation of candidate chemical simulants which may be used in chemically hazardous operations. Final report 15 Jun-15 Dec 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    The objectives of this task were threefold: (1) to provide additional data for the proposed candidate simulates dipentene, methyl benzoate and benzyl alcohol by means of in-depth literature searches encompassing both computerized data bases and a manual search of the older literature; (2) to fully evaluate twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible simulant criteria; and (3) to develop a list of candidate simulants in the low and non-volatile categories. Computerized literature searches were conducted for the twelve possible candidate simulants under more flexible intake simulant criteria as well as for dimethyl methylphosphonate, a compound selected for evaluation by the USAF. The twelve possible candidates included: cyclohexanone, n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, dihexyl ether, dypnone, n-aminopropyl morpholine, n-(2-hydroxyethyl) morpholine, butyl salicylate, di(2-ethyl hexyl) ether, 2-undecanol, 2-hydroxyethyl-n-octyl sulfide and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide. Full assessments of the potential health hazards associated with exposure to n-dodecanethiol, methyl salicylate, butyl salicylate and n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide were completed. All of these compounds meet the majority of USAF criteria for candidate simulants. Cyclohexanone was disqualified for reasons of toxicity, while the available toxicological data for the seven remaining candidates were considered inadequate for full assessment of hazard.

  2. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  3. Low emissions diesel fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

    1998-05-05

    A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

  4. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  5. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey (Boston, MA); El-Toukhy, Ahmed (Alexandria, EG)

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  6. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes. Final report, January 1, 1990--October 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-12-31

    During the course of the first three years of the Cooperative Agreement (Phase I-III), we uncovered a family of metal perhaloporphyrin complexes which had unprecedented activity for the selective air-oxidation of fight alkanes to alcohols. The reactivity of fight hydrocarbon substrates with air or oxygen was in the order: isobutane>propane>ethane>methane, in accord with their homolytic bond dissociation energies. Isobutane was so reactive that the proof-of concept stage of a process for producing tert-butyl alcohol from isobutane was begun (Phase V). It was proposed that as more active catalytic systems were developed (Phases IV, VI), propane, then ethane and finally methane oxidations will move into this stage (Phases VII through IX). As of this writing, however, the program has been terminated during the later stages of Phases V and VI so that further work is not anticipated. We made excellent progress during 1994 in generating a class of less costly new materials which have the potential for high catalytic activity. New routes were developed for replacing costly perfluorophenyl groups in the meso-position of metalloporphyrin catalysts with far less expensive and lower molecular weight perfluoromethyl groups.

  7. Advanced quadrupole ion trap instrumentation for low level vehicle emissions measurements. CRADA final report for number ORNL93-0238

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Buchanan, M.V.; Asano, K.G.; Hart, K.J.; Goeringer, D.E.; Dearth, M.A.

    1997-09-01

    Quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry has been evaluated for its potential use in vehicle emissions measurements in vehicle test facilities as an analyzer for the top 15 compounds contributing to smog generation. A variety of ionization methods were explored including ion trap in situ chemical ionization, atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization, and nitric oxide chemical ionization in a glow discharge ionization source coupled with anion trap mass spectrometer. Emphasis was placed on the determination of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbons at parts per million to parts per billion levels. Ion trap in situ water chemical ionization and atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization were both shown to be amenable to the analysis of arenes, alcohols, aldehydes and, to some degree, alkenes. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge also generated molecular ions of methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE). Neither of these ionization methods, however, were found to generate diagnostic ions for the alkanes. Nitric oxide chemical ionization, on the other hand, was found to yield diagnostic ions for alkanes, alkenes, arenes, alcohols, aldehydes, and MTBE. The ability to measure a variety of hydrocarbons present at roughly 15 parts per billion at measurement rates of 3 Hz was demonstrated. These results have demonstrated that the ion trap has an excellent combination of sensitivity, specificity, speed, and flexibility with respect to the technical requirements of the top 15 analyzer.

  8. Practical Calculation of Molecular Acidity with the Aid of a Reference Molecule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, Steven K; Liu, Shubin; Ayers, Paul W

    2011-02-24

    A set of linear free energy models are presented for determining the pK{sub a} values of amines, alcohols, and carboxylic acids. Models are determined from a series of pK{sub a} predictors, taken both from traditional natural atomic orbital analysis (NAO) and from a novel approach introduced here of using a reference molecule: an ammonium ion for amines and a hydrogen sulfide molecule for alcohols and carboxylic acids. Using these reference molecules, we calculate the barrier to proton transfer and show that a number of properties associated with the transition state are correlated with the pK{sub a}. By considering 38 predictors, we obtain a four-variable model for amines and a three-variable model for oxygen-containing compounds. The model for amines is based on 145 compounds and has a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.45 and R{sup 2} = 0.98. The oxygen set has 48 molecules: RMSE = 0.26, and R{sup 2} = 0.993. Similar, linear, and multilinear models are constructed after separating the sets into chemically similar categories: alcohols, carboxylic acids, and primary, secondary, tertiary, and aromatic amines. This separation gives simpler models with relatively low RMSE values, where the most important predictor of the pK{sub a} is the difference in energy between transferring the proton from the reference molecular base to the conjugate acid from the data set.

  9. Detailed comparisons of airborne formaldehyde measurements with box models during the 2006 INTEX-B and MILAGRO campaigns: potential evidence for significant impacts of unmeasured and multi-generation volatile organic carbon compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    of 2-butyl nitrate to butane, as dis- cussed by Bertman ethereafter be referred to as butane time or photochemicalof 2-butyl nitrate to butane (see Perring et al. , 2010)

  10. N-(N-[2-(3,5-Difluorophenyl)acetyl]-(S)-alanyl)-(S)-phenylglycine tert-butyl ester (DAPT): an inhibitor of ?-secretase, revealing fine electronic and hydrogen-bonding features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czerwinski, Andrzej; Valenzuela, Francisco; Afonine, Pavel; Dauter, Miroslawa; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2010-12-01

    The title compound, C{sub 23}H{sub 26}F{sub 2}N{sub 2}O{sub 4}, is a dipeptidic inhibitor of ?-secretase, one of the enzymes involved in Alzheimer’s dis@@ease. The mol@@ecule adopts a compact conformation, without intra@@molecular hydrogen bonds. In the crystal structure, one of the amide N atoms forms the only inter@@molecular N—H?O hydrogen bond; the second amide N atom does not form hydrogen bonds. High-resolution synchrotron diffraction data permitted the unequivocal location and refinement without restraints of all H atoms, and the identification of the characteristic shift of the amide H atom engaged in the hydrogen bond from its ideal position, resulting in a more linear hydrogen bond. Significant residual densities for bonding electrons were revealed after the usual SHELXL refinement, and modeling of these features as additional inter@@atomic scatterers (IAS) using the program PHENIX led to a significant decrease in the R factor from 0.0411 to 0.0325 and diminished the r.m.s. deviation level of noise in the final difference Fourier map from 0.063 to 0.037 e Å{sup ?3}.

  11. Study of the kinetics of the gas-phase, iodine catalyzed elimination of HBr from isobutylbromide: the tertiary C-H bond dissociation energy in isobutylbromide. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirustithipong, Pongsiri

    1975-01-01

    EXPERIMENTAL A. Apparatus A schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus is shown in Fig. 2. The reactions were carried out in a constant volume, pyrex vessel (A), which was heated in an aluminium block furnace (B). The vessel was connected via a... Aluminium Block Furnace Differential Pressure Transducer Transducer Indicator Front-Side Vacuum System Back-Side Vacuum System Sample Outlets Iodine Reservior Hot Box Dibutylphathalate (oil) Manometer Mercury Manometer Mercury Manometer Liquid...

  12. Mesozoic to Early Tertiary tectonic-sedimentary evolution of the Northern Neotethys Ocean: evidence from the Beysehir-Hoyran-Hadim Nappes, S.W. Turkey. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Theo

    The Bey?ehir-Hoyran-Hadim Nappes crop out over 700km, from east to west in the Pisidian and Central Taurus Mountains of southern Turkey. During this study, field obsevations of lithological, structural and sedimentological features are combined...

  13. Nickel-catalyzed cross-couplings of unactivated secondary and tertiary alkyl halides and photoinduced copper-mediated asymmetric C-N cross-couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zultanski, Susan L. (Susan Lyn)

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1 describes the development of two nickel-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling methodologies that employ alkyl halides as electrophiles. In Section 1.1, asymmetric [gamma]-alkylation relative to a carbonyl group is ...

  14. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah, Class II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, Thomas C.

    2000-07-28

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced-oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m{sup 3}) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah.

  15. High-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion: an example from a Tertiary deltaic clinoform system in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    that is then iteratively matched with the seismic data using a Bayesian inversion process. The inversion is then extendedHigh-resolution reservoir characterization by 2-D model-driven seismic Bayesian inversion-resolution reservoir model from seismic and well data, an approach was developed based on an a priori layered model

  16. Uranium mineralization along a fault plane in tertiary sedimentary rocks in the McLean 5 Mine, Live Oak Conty, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bomber, Brenda Jean

    1980-01-01

    relief, uranium rich phase occurs. 22A Photomicrograph in plane polar ized light showing fine particles of a high relief, brown mineral in opaline cement and adjacent to a feldspar grain (F) 83 85 228 Fission track pattern corresponding to 22A. 85... 22C Photomicrograph of a pyrite-cemented sandstone of sample XZ (45 ppm uranium). 85 LIST OF FIGURES (continued) FIGURE PAGE 22D Fission track pattern corresponding to 22C showing uranium associated with the fine-grained particles in the opaline...

  17. Sino-KoreanYangtze suture, Huwan detachment, and PaleozoicTertiary exhumation of (ultra)high-pressure rocks in TongbaiXinxianDabie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Bradley R.

    , Germany Bradley R. Hacker Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA al., 1996; Hacker et al., 1996, Wallis et al., 1999). In the Qin Mountains ("Qinling"), a clearer

  18. Increased oil production and reserves utilizing secondary/tertiary recovery techniques on small reservoirs in the Paradox basin, Utah. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate buildups or mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to four wells with primary production ranging from 700,000 to 2,000,000 barrels of oil per field at a 15 to 20% recovery rate. At least 200 million barrels of oil is at risk of being unrecovered in these small fields because of inefficient recovery practices and undrained heterogeneous reservoirs. Five fields (Anasazi, mule, Blue Hogan, heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern utah are being evaluated for waterflood or carbon-dioxide-miscible flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. The results can be applied to other fields in the Paradox basin and the Rocky Mountain region, the Michigan and Illinois basins, and the Midcontinent. The reservoir engineering component of the work completed to date included analysis of production data and well tests, comprehensive laboratory programs, and preliminary mechanistic reservoir simulation studies. A comprehensive fluid property characterization program was completed. Mechanistic reservoir production performance simulation studies were also completed.

  19. Investigating Returns to Investments in Education: An Empirical Study Estimating Returns to Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Education for Countries at Different Levels of Economic Development 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano, Ricardo Viviano

    2012-07-16

    Studies on returns to education disagree as to where these returns are highest. It is suggested that these disagreements are the result of inconsistencies in the data and methodologies used for their estimation. These ...

  20. Comparison of maternal and neonatal outcome before and after the availability of a rapid assay for fetal fibronectin at a tertiary level maternity hospital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeltler, Debra Ann Milbert

    2010-01-01

    before and after test availability as compared to those whoBenjamin A. (2005). Does availability of fetal fibronectinBefore and After the Availability of a Rapid Assay for Fetal

  1. Process for selective production of di- and tri-alkylamines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klier, Kamil (Bethlehem, PA); Herman, Richard G. (Whitehall, PA); Vedage, Gamini A. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A primary alkyl amine and an alcohol of up to 12 carbon atoms are reacted at low temperature (50.degree.-250.degree. C.) over specific catalysts (alkali-treated catalysts generally or binary Cu/ZnO and Pd/SiO.sub.2 systems, with or without alkali treatment) to produce, with good selectivity, secondary and tertiary alkylamines of the general formula, R.sub.1 N(R.sub.2).sub.2, wherein R.sub.1 is a lower alkyl or an aryl group, and R.sub.2 is hydrogen or another lower alkyl or aryl group, with at least one of R.sub.2 's being an alkyl or aryl group.

  2. Synthesis metal nanoparticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunge, Scott D.; Boyle, Timothy J.

    2005-08-16

    A method for providing an anhydrous route for the synthesis of amine capped coinage-metal (copper, silver, and gold) nanoparticles (NPs) using the coinage-metal mesityl (mesityl=C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3 -2,4,6) derivatives. In this method, a solution of (Cu(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5, (Ag(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.4, or (Au(C.sub.6 H.sub.2 (CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.5 is dissolved in a coordinating solvent, such as a primary, secondary, or tertiary amine; primary, secondary, or tertiary phosphine, or alkyl thiol, to produce a mesityl precursor solution. This solution is subsequently injected into an organic solvent that is heated to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. After washing with an organic solvent, such as an alcohol (including methanol, ethanol, propanol, and higher molecular-weight alcohols), oxide free coinage NP are prepared that could be extracted with a solvent, such as an aromatic solvent (including, for example, toluene, benzene, and pyridine) or an alkane (including, for example, pentane, hexane, and heptane). Characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the NPs were approximately 9.2.+-.2.3 nm in size for Cu.degree., (no surface oxide present), approximately 8.5.+-.1.1 nm Ag.degree. spheres, and approximately 8-80 nm for Au.degree..

  3. Polysubstance and alcohol dependence: Unique abnormalities of magnetic resonance-derived brain metabolite levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abé, C; Mon, A; Durazzo, TC; Pennington, DL; Schmidt, TP; Meyerhoff, DJ

    2013-01-01

    synthesis, cellular bioenergetics, glio- sis) and alteredCho), cellular bioenergetics (Creatine, Cr), astroglio-to abnor- mal cellular bioenergetics (lower Cr; Licata and

  4. Hydrogen transfer from alcohols to carbonyl compounds catalyzed by aluminum porphyrins. Stereochemical aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konishi, Katsuaki; Aida, Takuzo; Inoue, Shohei (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-02-02

    There is interest in synthesizing molecules containing di- or tri-sulfide linkages together with sulfinate functions because of their potential as antiradiation agents. In the process of synthesizing such compounds, formation of monothioquinone S,S-dioxides presented a mechanistic problem which had to be overcome. This paper focuses on the formation of these dioxides and routes around them.

  5. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANOPARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seetala V. Naidu; Upali Siriwardane

    2005-05-24

    We have developed and streamlined the experimental systems: (a) Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) photosynthesis, ball-milling, and chemical synthesis of Fe, Co, and Cu nanoparticle catalysts; (b) Sol-gel method for mesoporous {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, hybrid alumina/silica granular supports; (c) Three sol-gel/oil-drop catalyst preparation methods to incorporate metal nanoparticles into mesoporous 1 mm granular supports; (d) Low-cost GC-TCD system with hydrogen as carrier gas for the determination of wide spectrum of alkanes produced during the F-T reactions; and (e) Gas-flow reactor and microchannel reactor for fast screening of catalysts. The LISD method could produce Co, Cu, and Fe (5 nm) nanoparticles, but in milligram quantities. We could produce nanoparticles in gram quantities using high-energy ball milling and chemical synthesis methods. Ball milling gave wide particle size distribution compared to the chemical synthesis method that gave almost uniform size ({approx}5 nm) particles. Metal nanoparticles Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe were loaded (2-12 wt%) uniformly into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, SiO{sub 2}, or alumina/silica hybrid supports by combined sol-gel/oil-drop methods followed by calcination and hydrogenation steps, prior to syngas FT reaction studies. The properties of metal loaded {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} granules were compared for the two precursors: aluminum tri-sec-butoxide (ALTSB) and aluminum tri-iso-propoxide (ALTIP). The effect of solgel supports alumina, silica, and alumina/silica hybrid were examined on catalytic properties. Metal loading efficiencies for pure metal catalysts increased in the order Co, Cu and Fe in agreement with solubility of metal hydroxides. In case of mixed metals, Co and Cu seams to interfere and reduce Fe metal loading when metal nitrate solutions are used. The solubility differences of metal hydroxides would not allow precise control of metal loading. We have overcome this problem by introducing a novel method of nanoparticle metal oxide co-entrapped sol-gel that gave the highest metal loading with precise control and reproducibility, and greater mechanical strength of granules than the metal nitrate solution co-entrapping and wet impregnation methods. Both, slurry-phase-batch and gas-phase-continuous-flow, reactors were used for syngas conversion reactions. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited micro-reactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. The catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion was observed in the increasing order for the nanocatalysts Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe in alumina sol-gel support, and Co/Fe showed the highest yield for methane. The optimization of CO/H{sub 2} ratio indicated that 1:1 ratio gave more alkanes distribution in F-T process with Co/Fe (6% each) impregnated on alumina. We could estimate the activity of catalysts (involving Co, Fe) during hydrogenation and after catalytic reaction using magnetization studies. In summary our accomplishments are: (1) Novel chemical methods for the synthesis of (5 nm) Fe, Co, Cu nanoparticles with narrow size distribution. (2) Developing a method of metal oxide nanoparticles addition to alumina/silica sol-gel to control metal loading of pure and mixed metal catalysts compositions in high yields. (3) A low-cost GC-TCD system to analyze wide spectrum of alkanes (F-T reaction products). (4) Fe/Co mixed metal alumina/silica mesoporous catalysts with higher FT activity. (5) Characterizing nanoparticle catalysts and supports for detail understanding of FT-process.

  6. NOVEL PREPARATION AND MAGNETO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NANO-PARTICLE MIXED ALCOHOL CATALYSTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setala V. Naidu

    2003-01-01

    We have produced Co, Cu, and Fe nano-particles by Laser-induced solution deposition (LISD) as evidenced by TEM investigations. Sizes of the nano-particles created are in the order of 5 nm. The LISD system could generate nano-particles in quantities only in the order of a milligram. This may be mainly due to the limited photo induced reactions taking place on the surface of the solutions. We have designed experiments to use drop flow technique with LISD for nano-particle deposition on microreactors. Preliminary work has been done on Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors. We are also investigating the catalytic properties of nano-particles of FeO and CoO prepared by ball milling and dispersed into sol-gel prepared alumina granules. We have continued our investigation of catalytic reactions of Cu, Co, Fe, Cu/Co, Cu/Fe and Co/Fe on alumina support. The metal oxides were first reduced with hydrogen and used for the conversion of CO/H{sub 2}. The surface area of the catalysts has been determined by nitrogen disorption. They are in the range of 200-300 m{sup 2}/g. Cu, Co, Fe, Co/Fe, Cu/Co and Cu/Fe showed increasing order of catalytic activity for CO/H{sub 2} conversion. We are also studying catalytic conversion rates for CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} mixtures using these catalysts. Our investigations of Co and Fe thin film deposited microreactors showed higher CO/H{sub 2} conversion for Fe compared to Co. We have used vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to study the magnetic characteristics of as prepared, reduced, post-reaction catalysts. Comparative study of the ferromagnetic component of these samples gives the reduction efficiency and the changes in metal centers during catalytic reactions. Magnetic studies of post-reaction Co and Fe micro-reactors show that more carbide formation occurs for iron compared to cobalt.

  7. Two Sides of the Same Story: Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Taking in South India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    risk behaviours among contracted and non-contracted male migrant workers in India: potential role of labour

  8. Synthesis Gas Conversion to Aliphatic Alcohols: Study of MoS2 catalytic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baksh, Faisal

    2010-04-19

    ?Setup:?Catalyst?synthesis?&?evaluation?..................................................................................?46? 2.1? Reactor?Unit?..........................................................................................................................................................?46? 2.1.1? Modifications?to?original?reactor...?of?Volatile?Components?...................................................................................................?49? 2.1.1.3? Analysis?at?reactor?exit?......................................................................................................................?51? 2.1.1.4? Exit...

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Molecular Mobility during Dissolution of Poly(vinyl alcohol) in Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peppas, Nicholas A.

    for recycling,4 the semiconductor industry,5 and packaging.6 The dissolution of a polymer in a solvent involves-dimensional water concentration profiles were measured as a function of distance from the polymer-solvent interface of the polymer. Self-diffusion coefficient values within the dissolving polymer increase with increasing

  10. Web-based intervention for alcohol use in women of childbearing potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howlett, Katia Delrahim

    2010-01-01

    D, and Ahmadpour O: ?Celecoxib Augmentation of ContinuouslyReport: The effects of celecoxib augmentation on immune

  11. Ag-Al2O3 Catalyst HC-SCR: Performance with Light Alcohols and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EtOH SCR Study Fuel Effects on Emissions Control Technologies Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Fuel and Lubricant Effects on Emissions Control Technologies...

  12. The effect of moderate alcohol intake on bone mineral density of ovariectomized rats 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shipley, Debra Lynn

    1997-01-01

    groups had access to rat chow and distilled water ad libitim. Ovariectomized animals had increased weight and decreased femur density and bone volume per total volume. They also had decreased total trubecular area, trabecular area and number as well...

  13. Changes in bone morphology and composition following long-term alcohol consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebert, Valerie Anne

    1998-01-01

    sacrificed 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months after feeding was initiated. Using right femurs and left tibias, morphological data, wet-weight, percent water, and volume were determined. Throughout a drying and ashing period, dry weight, fat-free weight, percent fat...

  14. The Sober Revolution: The Political and Moral Economy of Alcohol in Modern France, 1954-1976

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohling, Joseph Estle

    2012-01-01

    Technocratic Ideals,” History and Technology 23 (SeptemberTechnocratic Ideals,” History and Technology 23 (September

  15. The Resolution of Important Pharmaceutical Building Blocks by Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    The Resolution of Important Pharmaceutical Building Blocks by Palladium-Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation. Abstract: The palladium-catalyzed aerobic oxidative kinetic resolution of key pharmaceutical building resolution; oxidation; oxygen; palladium; pharmaceutical sub- stance As part of a general program initiated

  16. Structural Evidence for a Ligand Coordination Switch in Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lund UniVersity, P.O. Box 124, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden ReceiVed No the transfer of a hydride ion between a red-ox pair consisting of NAD(H)/NADP(H) and a great variety the MDRs, but the hydride transfer reaction between the zinc- bound substrate and the pyridine ring

  17. Short communication Poly(vinyl alcohol) separators improve the coulombic efficiency of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    microorgan- isms [1] to generate electricity from biomass have received much at- tention as a promising materials and architectures that maintain high cell performance is important for wide-spread deployment

  18. Structure and Reactivity of Zeolite- and Carbon-Supported Catalysts for the Oxidative Carbonylation of Alcohols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briggs, Daniel Neal

    2010-01-01

    can also function as eco-friendly alternatives to phosgenequantities of HCl. A more eco-friendly process to make alkyl

  19. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-based buffering membranes for isoelectric trapping separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craver, Helen C.

    2009-05-15

    Isoelectric trapping (IET) in multicompartment electrolyzers (MCE) has been widely used for the electrophoretic separation of ampholytic compounds such as proteins. In IET, the separation occurs in the buffering membranes that form a step-wise p...

  20. Brief intervention to reduce alcohol use among men who have sex with men

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croff, Julie May Ketchie

    2010-01-01

    in gift cards to either Starbucks or Rubios. Approximatelyamount as: Grande Cappuccino at Starbucks - 120 caloriesGrande Latte at Starbucks - 190 calories Rubio's fish taco -