National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for terrestrial carbon stocks

  1. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  2. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    control, terrestrial carbon sequestration, temperature,on terrestrial carbon sequestration (Nemani et al 2003, Xiaodeposition and forest carbon sequestration Glob. Change

  3. DOE Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is considerable opportunity and growing technical sophistication to make terrestrial carbon sequestration both practical and effective, according to the latest carbon capture and storage "best practices" manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. This Issue: Forest Carbon Stocks and Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Policy Framework Managing Forests because Carbon Matters: Integrating Energy, Products, and Land's Note M.T. Goergen Jr. SAF TASK FORCE REPORT Managing Forests because Carbon Matters: Integrating EnergyThis Issue: Forest Carbon Stocks and Flows Climate­Forest Interactions Biomass Use and Feedstock

  5. Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems Personnel. Blaine Metting #12;vii Abstract The Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial needed to evaluate the feasibility of environmentally sound strategies for enhancing carbon sequestration

  6. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    the Australian National Green- house Gas Inventory (DCCEE,fuel emissions Carbon and green house gas (GHG) accounts are

  7. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    emissions from fossil-fuel com- bustion, Biogeosciences, 9,re- gional and national fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbontimes more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning

  8. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    of Energy (Terrestrial Carbon Program, National Institutesand Energy Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551, USA Graduate Degree Program

  9. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition...

  10. Transient simulations of Holocene atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrestrial carbon since the Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    Transient simulations of Holocene atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrestrial carbon since the Last ppm between 8 ka BP and pre-industrial time. The carbon component of the Bern Carbon Cycle Climate. Terrestrial carbon inventory changes related to climate and CO2 forcing, the greening of the Sahara, peat

  11. Age of riverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primary production in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    riverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primaryriverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primarycarbon dioxide, and export via rivers affects calculations

  12. Argonne Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Data from Batavia Prairie and Agricultural Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Matamala, Roser [ANL; Jastrow, Julie D.; Lesht, Barry [ANL; Cook, David [ANL; Pekour, Mikhail [ANL; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A. [University of Illinois at Chicago

    Carbon dioxide fluxes and stocks in terrestrial ecosystems are key measurements needed to constrain quantification of regional carbon sinks and sources and the mechanisms controlling them. This information is required to produce a sound carbon budget for North America. This project examines CO2 and energy fluxes from agricultural land and from restored tallgrass prairie to compare their carbon sequestration potentials. The study integrates eddy covariance measurements with biometric measurements of plant and soil carbon stocks for two systems in northeastern Illinois: 1) long-term cultivated land in corn-soybean rotation with conventional tillage, and 2) a 15 year-old restored prairie that represents a long-term application of CRP conversion of cultivated land to native vegetation. The study contributes to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) by providing information on the magnitude and distribution of carbon stocks and the processes that control carbon dynamics in cultivated and CRP-restored land in the Midwest. The prairie site has been functioning since October 2004 and the agricultural site since July 2005. (From http://www.atmos.anl.gov/ FERMI/index.html)

  13. Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    RESEARCH PAPER Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau during the 20th tundra to evergreen tropics. Its soils are dominated by permafrost and are rich in organic carbon. Its, the carbon dynamics of the Tibetan Plateau have not been well quantified under changes of climate and per

  14. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-02

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data setmore »with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m, and remained constant beyond this scale. The fitted exponential function accounted for 98 % of variability in the variance of SOC stocks. We found moderately accurate linear relationships between mean and higher-order moments of predicted SOC stocks (R2 ? 0.55–0.63). Current ESMs operate at coarse spatial scales (50–100 km), and are therefore unable to represent environmental controllers and spatial heterogeneity of high-latitude SOC stocks consistent with observations. We conclude that improved understanding of the scaling behavior of environmental controls and statistical properties of SOC stocks could improve ESM land model benchmarking and perhaps allow representation of spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemistry at scales finer than those currently resolved by ESMs.« less

  15. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-01-27

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a dataset with reasonablemore »fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, 500 m, 1, 2, 5, 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83–0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 to ~ 500 m, and remained constant beyond this scale. The fitted exponential function accounted for 98% of variability in the variance of SOC stocks. We found moderately-accurate linear relationships between mean and higher-order moments of predicted SOC stocks (R2 ~ 0.55–0.63). Current ESMs operate at coarse spatial scales (50–100 km), and are therefore unable to represent environmental controllers and spatial heterogeneity of high-latitude SOC stocks consistent with observations. We conclude that improved understanding of the scaling behavior of environmental controls and statistical properties of SOC stocks can improve ESM land model benchmarking and perhaps allow representation of spatial heterogeneity of biogeochemistry at scales finer than those currently resolved by ESMs.« less

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stan D. Wullschleger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stan D. Wullschleger://csite.eds.ornl.gov PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) project conducts research of switchgrass growing in the field. #12;Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) tion of inputs

  17. Sustainability of terrestrial carbon sequestration: A case study in Duke Forest with inversion approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Sustainability of terrestrial carbon sequestration: A case study in Duke Forest with inversion of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration is critical for the success of any policies geared toward stabilizing. Ellsworth, A. Finzi, J. Lichter, and W. H. Schlesinger, Sustainability of terrestrial carbon sequestration

  18. CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew

    CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink A N D R E W W H I T E , * M E L V, Hybrid v4.1, with a subdaily timestep, was driven by increasing CO2 and transient climate output from scenarios were used: (i) IS92a, giving 790 ppm CO2 by 2100, (ii) CO2 stabilization at 750 ppm by 2225

  19. Consequences of Considering Carbon/Nitrogen Interactions on the Feedbacks between Climate and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei P.

    A number of observational studies indicate that carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems in a world with an atmosphere richer in carbon dioxide and a warmer climate depends on the interactions between the carbon and ...

  20. Carbon isotopes in terrestrial ecosystem pools and CO2 fluxes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowling, DR; Pataki, DE; Randerson, JT

    2008-01-01

    terrestrial higher plants during biosynthesis for distinctive photosynthetic pathways.terrestrial C cycle. Autotrophic respiration involves many possible biochemical pathways

  1. Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

    2012-12-01

    The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

  2. Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model Kevin and physical processes to test our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle and to predict ecosystem biomass and carbon fluxes. We combine the photosynthesis and biophysical calculations in the Simple

  3. A Brief Review of the Application of 14C in Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guilderson, T; Mcfarlane, K

    2009-10-22

    An over-arching goal of the DOE TCP program is to understand the mechanistic controls over the fate, transport, and residence time of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. Many of the modern process and modeling studies focus on seasonal to interannual variability. However, much of the carbon on the landscape and in soils is in separate reservoirs with turnover times that are multi-decadal to millennial. It is the controls on these longer term pools or reservoirs that is a critical unknown in the face of rising GHGs and climate change and uncertainties of the terrestrial biosphere as a future global sink or source of atmospheric CO{sub 2} [eg., Friedlingstein et al., 2006; Govindasamy et al., 2005; Thompson et al., 2004]. Radiocarbon measurements, in combination with other data, can provide insight into, and constraints on, terrestrial carbon cycling. Radiocarbon (t{sub 1/2} 5730yrs) is produced naturally in the stratosphere when secondary neutrons generated by cosmic rays collide with {sup 14}N atoms [Libby 1946; Arnold and Libby, 1949]. Upon formation, {sup 14}C is rapidly oxidized to CO and then to CO{sub 2}, and is incorporated into the carbon cycle. Due to anthropogenic activities, the amount of {sup 14}C in the atmosphere doubled in the mid/late 1950s and early 1960s from its preindustrial value of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of 1.18 x 10{sup -12} [eg., Nydal and Lovseth, 1983]. Following the atmospheric weapons test ban in 1963, the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio, has decreased due to the net isotopic exchange between the ocean and terrestrial biosphere [eg., Levin and Hessheimer, 2000] and a dilution effect due to the burning of {sup 14}C-free fossil fuel carbon, the 'Suess Effect' [Suess, 1955]. In the carbon cycle literature, radiocarbon measurements are generally reported as {Delta}{sup 14}C, which includes a correction for mass dependent fractionation [Stuiver and Polach, 1977]. In the context of carbon cycle studies radiocarbon measurements can be used to determine the 'age' and rate of change of carbon stocks or as a biogeochemical tracer to elucidate processes and pathways. It is this dual nature that can be exploited across scales in space (individual plant, plot or research site, ecosystem, regional, and global) and time (days to millennia). For example, across regional scales, {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements of atmosphere CO{sub 2} can be used to attribute carbon dioxide to sources (e.g., respiration vs. fossil fuel emissions) or sinks ( e.g,. photosynthesis), which cannot be readily inferred from concentration, net flux measurements, or {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} [eg. Graven et al., 2009; Levin and Hessheimer, 2000; Turnbull et al., 2007]. At smaller scales, similar analyses can be used to elucidate the source, and 'age' of the below ground component undergoing heterotrophic respiration. Net (biome or ecosystem) uptake of carbon is the difference of two large fluxes: photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon fixation by photosynthesis is, to a large extent, a single process with theoretical underpinnings. On the other-hand, net ecosystem or biome respiration integrates microbial (heterotrophic) and plant (autotrophic) respiration. Eddy covariance methods can be used to estimate bulk CO{sub 2} fluxes but they cannot discriminate the process nor the source of the respired CO{sub 2}. It is these processes that are parameterized in predictive models and contribute to the uncertainty in the climate forcing effect of the carbon cycle in the future [Friedlingstein et al., 2006; Heimann and Reichstein, 2008].

  4. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yue, Haowei; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiping; Gilbert, Jack A.; Sun, Xin; Wu, Linwei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; He, Zhili; et al

    2015-02-17

    Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition that offsets increased grass productivity. Yet, a multi-decadal survey indicated that the surface soil C stock in Tibetan alpine grasslands remained relatively stable. To investigate this inconsistency, we analyzed the feedback responses of soil microbial communities to simulated warming by soil transplant in Tibetan grasslands. Microbial functional diversity decreased in response to warming, whereas microbial community structure did not correlate with changes in temperature. The relative abundance of catabolic genes associated with nitrogen (N) and C cycling decreased with warming, most notablymore »in genes encoding enzymes associated with more recalcitrant C substrates. By contrast, genes associated with C fixation increased in relative abundance. The relative abundance of genes associated with urease, glutamate dehydrogenase and ammonia monoxygenase (ureC, gdh and amoA) were significantly correlated with N2O efflux. These results suggest that unlike arid/semiarid grasslands, Tibetan grasslands maintain negative feedback mechanisms that preserve terrestrial C and N pools. To examine whether these trends were applicable to the whole plateau, we included these measurements in a model and verified that topsoil C stocks remained relatively stable. Thus, by establishing linkages between microbial metabolic potential and soil biogeochemical processes, we conclude that long-term C loss in Tibetan grasslands is ameliorated by a reduction in microbial decomposition of recalcitrant C substrates.« less

  5. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock in Tibetan grasslands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Haowei; Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiping; Gilbert, Jack A.; Sun, Xin; Wu, Linwei; Lin, Qiaoyan; Hu, Yigang; Li, Xiangzhen; He, Zhili; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-02-17

    Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in northern grasslands owing to accelerated microbial decomposition that offsets increased grass productivity. Yet, a multi-decadal survey indicated that the surface soil C stock in Tibetan alpine grasslands remained relatively stable. To investigate this inconsistency, we analyzed the feedback responses of soil microbial communities to simulated warming by soil transplant in Tibetan grasslands. Microbial functional diversity decreased in response to warming, whereas microbial community structure did not correlate with changes in temperature. The relative abundance of catabolic genes associated with nitrogen (N) and C cycling decreased with warming, most notably in genes encoding enzymes associated with more recalcitrant C substrates. By contrast, genes associated with C fixation increased in relative abundance. The relative abundance of genes associated with urease, glutamate dehydrogenase and ammonia monoxygenase (ureC, gdh and amoA) were significantly correlated with N2O efflux. These results suggest that unlike arid/semiarid grasslands, Tibetan grasslands maintain negative feedback mechanisms that preserve terrestrial C and N pools. To examine whether these trends were applicable to the whole plateau, we included these measurements in a model and verified that topsoil C stocks remained relatively stable. Thus, by establishing linkages between microbial metabolic potential and soil biogeochemical processes, we conclude that long-term C loss in Tibetan grasslands is ameliorated by a reduction in microbial decomposition of recalcitrant C substrates.

  6. Terrestrial Carbon Management Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Terrestrial Carbon Management are organized as Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management, Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management, Carbon Loss Following Cultivation, Carbon Accumulation Following Afforestation, and Carbon Sources and Sinks Associated with U.S. Cropland Production.

  7. Differential support of lake food webs by three types of terrestrial organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    from the t-DOC to bacteria pathway. Terrestrial POC significantly subsidized the production of bothLETTER Differential support of lake food webs by three types of terrestrial organic carbon Jonathan whole-lake additions of dissolved inorganic 13 C were made to reveal the pathways of subsidies to lakes

  8. Comparison of coniferous forest carbon stocks between old-growth and young second-growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanborn, Paul

    stocks by 54%­41%. Résumé : Les stocks de carbone (C) ont été évalués pour les forêts de montagne-Britannique, au Canada. Des parcelles-échantillons ont été éta- blies dans quatre vieilles forêts (141­250 ans) et quatre jeunes forêts de seconde venue (ans) sur les deux types dominants de texture du sol, grossière

  9. Effects of grazing intensity on soil carbon stocks following deforestation of a Hawaiian dry tropical forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmore, Andrew J.

    : carbon isotopes, elevation, Hawai'i, imaging spectroscopy, land-use change, pastures, remote sensing be addressed, future changes in ecosystem dynamics and atmospheric carbon dioxide cannot be easily predictedEffects of grazing intensity on soil carbon stocks following deforestation of a Hawaiian dry

  10. Carbon Stocks and Projections on Public Forestlands in the United States, 19522040

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ARTICLES Carbon Stocks and Projections on Public Forestlands in the United States, 1952­2040 JAMES are publicly owned; they represent a substantial area of potential carbon sequestration in US for- ests inventoried than privately owned forests. Thus, less information is avail- able about their role as carbon

  11. Modelling Urban scale Retrofit, Pathways to 2050 Low Carbon Residential Building Stock 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lannon, Simon; Georgakaki, Aliki; Macdonald, Stuart

    A bottom up engineering modelling approach has been used to investigate the pathways to 2050 low carbon residential building stock. The impact of housing retrofit, renewable technologies, occupant behaviour, and grid decarbonisation is measured at a...

  12. Estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the case of the Atlantic Forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    S.E. 2008. Estimation of biomass and carbon stocks: the casein Amazonian forest biomass. Global Change Biol. 10:545-562R. 2004b. Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots.

  13. The significance of the erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berhe, A.A.; Harte, J.; Harden, J.W.; Torn, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    potential of soil carbon sequestration to mitigate theof soil movement on carbon sequestration in agriculturalEnhancement of carbon sequestration in US soils. BioScience.

  14. Global patterns and controls of soil organic carbon dynamics as simulated by multiple terrestrial biosphere models: Current status and future directions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tian, Hanqin; Lu, Chaoqun; Yang, Jia; Banger, Kamaljit; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Michalak, Anna M.; Cook, Robert; Ciais, Philippe; Hayes, Daniel; et al

    2015-06-05

    Soil is the largest organic carbon (C) pool of terrestrial ecosystems, and C loss from soil accounts for a large proportion of land-atmosphere C exchange. Therefore, a small change in soil organic C (SOC) can affect atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO?) concentration and climate change. In the past decades, a wide variety of studies have been conducted to quantify global SOC stocks and soil C exchange with the atmosphere through site measurements, inventories, and empirical/process-based modeling. However, these estimates are highly uncertain, and identifying major driving forces controlling soil C dynamics remains a key research challenge. This study has compiled century-longmore »(1901–2010) estimates of SOC storage and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) from 10 terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) in the Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project and two observation-based data sets. The 10 TBM ensemble shows that global SOC estimate ranges from 425 to 2111 Pg C (1 Pg = 10¹? g) with a median value of 1158 Pg C in 2010. The models estimate a broad range of Rh from 35 to 69 Pg C yr?¹ with a median value of 51 Pg C yr?¹ during 2001–2010. The largest uncertainty in SOC stocks exists in the 40–65°N latitude whereas the largest cross-model divergence in Rh are in the tropics. The modeled SOC change during 1901–2010 ranges from –70 Pg C to 86 Pg C, but in some models the SOC change has a different sign from the change of total C stock, implying very different contribution of vegetation and soil pools in determining the terrestrial C budget among models. The model ensemble-estimated mean residence time of SOC shows a reduction of 3.4 years over the past century, which accelerate C cycling through the land biosphere. All the models agreed that climate and land use changes decreased SOC stocks, while elevated atmospheric CO? and nitrogen deposition over intact ecosystems increased SOC stocks—even though the responses varied significantly among models. Model representations of temperature and moisture sensitivity, nutrient limitation, and land use partially explain the divergent estimates of global SOC stocks and soil C fluxes in this study. In addition, a major source of systematic error in model estimations relates to nonmodeled SOC storage in wetlands and peatlands, as well as to old C storage in deep soil layers.« less

  15. Differential Support of Lake Food Webs by Three Types of Terrestrial Organic Carbon ELE 00670-2005 Revision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Notre Dame, University of

    of dissolved inorganic 13 C were made to reveal the pathways of subsidies to lakes from terrestrial dissolved pathway. Terrestrial POC significantly subsidized the production of both zooplankton and benthic1 Differential Support of Lake Food Webs by Three Types of Terrestrial Organic Carbon ELE 00670

  16. Terrestrial Subsidies of Organic Carbon Support Net Ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    filled, we monitored net ecosystem production (NEP) on a biweekly basis from 9 April to 27 May 2002. All ponds were consistently net heterotrophic; how- ever, NEP was significantly less negative in re- moval that the difference in NEP between treatments was driven by the change in R. Therefore, it appears that terrestrial

  17. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    of carbon and energy exchanges Agric. Forest Meteorol. 113Agric. Forest Meteorol. Foken T 2008 The energy balance

  18. Terrestrial Carbon Inventory at the Savannah River Site, 1951 – 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    US Forest Service - Annonymous,

    2012-02-01

    A Power Point slide presentation/report on the terestrial carbon inventory at the Savannah River Site.

  19. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change H. DAMON MATTHEWS, ANDREW J. WEAVER, AND KATRIN J. MEISSNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meissner, Katrin Juliane

    extensive research over the past several years, the uncertainty range on estimates of terrestrial carbonTerrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change H. DAMON MATTHEWS, ANDREW, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (Manuscript received 18 June 2004, in final form 21 October 2004

  20. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U S terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Richardson, Andrew [Harvard University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory; Davis, Ken J. [Pennsylvania State University; Hollinger, D. [USDA Forest Service; Wharton, Sonia [University of California, Davis; Falk, Matthias [University of California, Davis; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha [University of California, Davis; Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katulk, Gabriel G. [Duke University; Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State University; Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska; Suyker, A. E. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Sun, G. [USDA Forest Service; McNulty, Steven G. [USDA Forest Service; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University; Bolstad, Paul V [University of Minnesota; Burns, Sean [University of Colorado, Boulder; Monson, Russell K. [University of Colorado, Boulder; Curtis, Peter [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Drake, Bert G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Foster, David R. [Harvard University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Hadley, Julian L. [Harvard University; Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Martin, Timothy A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Meyers, Tilden [NOAA, Oak Ridge, TN; Oechel, Walter C. [San Diego State University; Schmid, H. P. [Indiana University; Scott, Russell L. [USDA ARS; Torn, Margaret S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2011-01-01

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63 pg C yr 1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1 km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr 1 over the period 2001 2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by 20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

  1. What is the Potential for Carbon Sequestration by the Terrestrial Biosphere?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlman, R. C.; Jacobs, Gary K.; Breshears, David; Metting, F. Blaine

    2002-12-31

    This paper is a summary discussion of technical information about carbon sequestration (CS) in terrestrial ecosystems that was presented in various Sessions of the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington D.C., May 14-17, 2001. The Earth's mantle of vegetation naturally removes CO2 from the atmosphere, and some of this carbon then becomes sequestered in biomass products and soil. As discussed at this National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, mechanisms of terrestrial biosphere carbon sequestration (TBCS) represent important options for sequestration of excess CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels. A number of studies suggest that the potential quantity of TBCS may be significant, and that economic aspects appear attractive; therefore we conclude the following points: ? Quantity of annual carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems can be measured at a reasonable accuracy; ? Median measure of current NEP or sequestration by forested ecosystems is 3 metric tons per hectare per year; ? Current calculated global TBCS for forests is ~3Gt C per yr; ? Estimated future TBCS capacity is 200-250 Gt C using available knowledge and current technology and management practice at nominal estimated cost of $10-20 per metric ton of C; ? It seems reasonable to assume that advanced science, technology, and management can double the capacity at low additional costs. ? TBCS option offers potential for sequestering more than 50 percent of projected excess CO2 that will have to be managed over the next century.

  2. Local Involvement in Measuring and Governing Carbon Stocks in China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Laos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    26 Local Involvement in Measuring and Governing Carbon Stocks in China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Laos-REDD+ study sites in China, Vietnam, Indonesia and Laos have been trained in establishing vegetation plots in China, Indonesia, Lao PDR and Vietnam from 2011 to 2014. ___________________________ 1 Skindergade 23

  3. Above-and Belowground Carbon Stocks in a Miombo Woodland Landscape of Mozambique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with other savannas systems around the globe. A new allometric relationship between stem diameter and tree lost and degraded to meet agricultural and energy needs (Brouwer & Falca~o 2004). Rural land use on knowledge of the magnitude of such carbon stocks. Indeed Houghton (2005) shows that knowledge of the car

  4. The microbe-mediated mechanisms affecting topsoil carbon stock...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. Warming has been shown to cause soil carbon (C) loss in...

  5. Recovery of Soil Carbon Stocks on Disturbed Coastal Plain Soils Through Secondary Forest SuccessionPlain Soils Through Secondary Forest Succession

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Recovery of Soil Carbon Stocks on Disturbed Coastal Plain Soils Through Secondary Forest SuccessionPlain Soils Through Secondary Forest Succession Recovery of soil carbon stocks in historically Contact and Environmental Research 50 µm Recovery of soil carbon stocks in historically degraded soils provides a means

  6. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks.

  7. Research Article Connecting Soil Organic Carbon and Root Biomass with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debinski, Diane M.

    of Earth's terrestrial organic carbon but are sensitive to land-use. Rangelands are important to carbon. Introduction Soils constitute the greatest stock of terrestrial organic carbon [1] and soil properties can major pathways of organic matter input--root tissue and exudates--directly involve plants [22]. Roots

  8. Continental Scale Comparisons of Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Estimated from Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling 1982-1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    ecosystem (tundra and boreal) sinks for atmospheric CO2. Key Words: carbon dioxide, ecosystems, remote "missing sink" for carbon dioxide emissions. Measured atmospheric CO2, 13 C, and O2/N2 distributionsContinental Scale Comparisons of Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Estimated from Satellite Data

  9. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

  10. Proceedings of the 17th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-78 (2011) 143 STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF TERRESTRIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    AND POTENTIAL OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN WEST VIRGINIA Benktesh D. Sharma and Jingxin Wang1 Abstract.--Terrestrial ecosystem management offers cost-effective ways to enhance carbon (C) sequestration. This study utilized C stock and C sequestration in forest and agricultural lands, abandoned mine lands, and harvested wood

  11. CALMIT Remote-Sensing Research Relating to Carbon Sequestration There is considerable interest in assessing the magnitude of carbon sources and sinks in terrestrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    CALMIT Remote-Sensing Research Relating to Carbon Sequestration There is considerable interest in assessing the magnitude of carbon sources and sinks in terrestrial ecosystems using remote sensing techniques. We developed a novel technique to remotely assess carbon dioxide exchange in maize using

  12. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique Y.

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project “A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling” from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  13. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity versus turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-09-07

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into four categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), of both the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for five models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. For dead carbon pools, themore »situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This response arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully coupled, biogeochemically coupled, and radiatively coupled 1 % yr?1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, initial productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter-model spread in carbon changes arising from initial conditions is dominated by model disagreement on turnover times, whereas inter-model spread in carbon changes from fractional changes to these terms is dominated by model disagreement on changes to productivity in response to both warming and CO2 fertilization. However, the lack of changing turnover time control on carbon responses, for both live and dead carbon pools, in response to the imposed forcings may arise from a common lack of process representation behind changing turnover times (e.g., allocation and mortality for live carbon; permafrost, microbial dynamics, and mineral stabilization for dead carbon), rather than a true estimate of the importance of these processes.« less

  14. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity vs. turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-04-16

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into 4 categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), and apply the analysis separately to the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for 5 models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. Formore »dead carbon pools, the situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This responses arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully-coupled, biogeochemically-coupled, and radiatively-coupled 1% yr?1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally-integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, inital productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter-model spread in carbon changes arising from initial conditions is dominated by model disagreement on turnover times, whereas inter-model spread in carbon changes from fractional changes to these terms is dominated by model disagreement on changes to productivity in response to both warming and CO2 fertilization. However, the lack of changing turnover time control on carbon responses, for both live and dead carbon pools, in response to the imposed forcings may indicate a common lack of process representation behind changing turnover times (e.g., allocation and mortality for live carbon; permafrost, microbial dynamics, and mineral stabilization for dead carbon), rather than a true estimate of the uncertainty in these processes.« less

  15. Studies of the terrestrial O{sub 2} and carbon cycles in sand dune gases and in biosphere 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O{sub 2} composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}.

  16. Terrestrial sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Charlie Byrer

    2010-01-08

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  17. Terrestrial sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charlie Byrer

    2008-03-10

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  18. North America's net terrestrial carbon exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Woodall, Chris W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America over the period (1990-2009). This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North America land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the atmospheric inversion estimate forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land-sink) and the inventory-based estimate the upper (a smaller land sink). Integrating across estimates, a “best” estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil-fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. The continent’s CO2 source to sink ratio for this time period was likely in the range of 4:1 to 3:1.

  19. Variations in carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere due to CO{sub 2} evaluation and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, M.; Woodward, F.I.

    1997-12-31

    The global carbon budget for atmospheric CO{sub 2} can`t been balanced, a sink of 1 to 3 Gt C yr{sup -1} has not yet been clearly identified. Without a good account for the fate of the miss carbon, prediction of future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and climate change will remain uncertain. It is suggested that terrestrial ecosystems may take up the miss carbon. To validate this hypothesis and to improve the estimates of the carbon sink or source strength requires a direct investigation of the carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems and its response to atmospheric CO{sub 2} elevation and climate change at the global scale. In this study, a highly aggregated model was developed on the basis of photosynthesis, plant growth, litter production and soil organic carbon decomposition. And the model was use to predict the variations in carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from 1860 to 2020. In our estimates, climate change alone does not cause a significant variation in net primary production (NPP), but results in a reduction in net ecosystem production (NEP) by 50% thus, a decrease in the total carbon storage, since 1960s. Climate change happened undercuts the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems taking up atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Without climate change, CO{sub 2} elevation enhances NPP and NEP steadily. NPP is enhanced by 26% and NEP is increased from about 1.0 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 1860s to 4.0 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 2020s. The combined CO{sub 2} elevation and climate change increase the global annual NPP from 46.0 Gt C in 1860s to 57.0 Gt C in 2010s. NEP is increased to 2.1 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 1980s and about 3.6 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 2010s. The increase occurs in both the northern middle-high latitudes and tropical regions. Taking land use change into account, terrestrial ecosystems are nearly carbon-balanced before 1950s, but afterwards they become a significant sink of about 1.6 Gt C yr{sup -1} for atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  20. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  1. Terrestrial carbon cycle & introduction to box modeling.2/15 & 2/17 Chemistry of Earth's oceans II2/10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrestrial carbon cycle & introduction to box modeling.2/15 & 2/17 Chemistry of Earth's oceans II2 - stratospheric chemistry2/1 Chemistry of Earth's atmosphere I - review of chemical kinetics. HW #1 handed out to be discussed include chemistry of the solar nebula, accretion of the Earth and terrestrial planets, estimates

  2. 150 G. Marland et al. / Climate Policy 3 (2003) 149157 Strategies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    2003-01-01

    anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can reduce to create a system of credits and debits wherein emission or sequestration of carbon in the biosphere; Carbon sequestration; Land use change; Land surface change; Surface energy balance 1. Introduction Human

  3. A global analysis of soil microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Xiaofeng; Thornton, Peter E; Post, Wilfred M

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbes play a pivotal role in regulating land-atmosphere interactions; the soil microbial biomass carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and C:N:P stoichiometry are important regulators for soil biogeochemical processes; however, the current knowledge on magnitude, stoichiometry, storage, and spatial distribution of global soil microbial biomass C, N, and P is limited. In this study, 3087 pairs of data points were retrieved from 281 published papers and further used to summarize the magnitudes and stoichiometries of C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass at global- and biome-levels. Finally, global stock and spatial distribution of microbial biomass C and N in 0-30 cm and 0-100 cm soil profiles were estimated. The results show that C, N, and P in soils and soil microbial biomass vary substantially across biomes; the fractions of soil nutrient C, N, and P in soil microbial biomass are 1.6% in a 95% confidence interval of (1.5%-1.6%), 2.9% in a 95% confidence interval of (2.8%-3.0%), and 4.4% in a 95% confidence interval of (3.9%-5.0%), respectively. The best estimates of C:N:P stoichiometries for soil nutrients and soil microbial biomass are 153:11:1, and 47:6:1, respectively, at global scale, and they vary in a wide range among biomes. Vertical distribution of soil microbial biomass follows the distribution of roots up to 1 m depth. The global stock of soil microbial biomass C and N were estimated to be 15.2 Pg C and 2.3 Pg N in the 0-30 cm soil profiles, and 21.2 Pg C and 3.2 Pg N in the 0-100 cm soil profiles. We did not estimate P in soil microbial biomass due to data shortage and insignificant correlation with soil total P and climate variables. The spatial patterns of soil microbial biomass C and N were consistent with those of soil organic C and total N, i.e. high density in northern high latitude, and low density in low latitudes and southern hemisphere.

  4. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntzinger, D.N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A.M; Schaefer, K.; King, A.W.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A.; Liu, S.; Cook, R.; Post, W.M.; Berthier, G.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Peng, C.H.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Riccuito, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

  5. Characterization of Siberian Arctic coastal sediments: Implications for terrestrial organic carbon export

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    pyrolysis-GC/MS of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) indicated an increase in the freshness for carbon. As such, large quantities of soil organic carbon are stored in the region. It is estimated

  6. Analysis of alternative methods for estimating carbon stock in young tropical plantations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    .2%, supporting our hypothesis. # 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Carbon sequestration of these plantations to sequester carbon has received renewed interest, since carbon sequestration projects). A good estimate of carbon sequestration is essential to any project of this type. The rate of carbon

  7. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

    2014-03-07

    Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

  8. Continental-scale comparisons of terrestrial carbon sinks estimated from satellite data and ecosystem modeling 19821998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    (tundra and boreal) sinks for atmospheric CO2. Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Ecosystems; Remote sensing; Ocean climate 1. Introduction Less than 50% of the carbon emitted). This is the so-called ``missing sink'' for carbon dioxide emissions. Measured atmospheric CO2, 13 C, and O2/N2

  9. Forest biomes are major reserves for terrestrial carbon, and major components of global primary productivity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    (World Energy Council, Nature 390, p. 215) and increasing at a rate of about 0·1 Gt year­1 primary productivity. The carbon balance of forests is determined by a number of component processes in the carbon balance of each biome are also reviewed, and the evidence for a carbon sink in each forest biome

  10. Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Mirin A (2007) Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects ofcycle are a robust constraint at a large spatial scale on the combined

  11. Age of riverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primary production in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest, J.rains. The lack of variability in ? 14 C VP values between the rising water

  12. Evaluating aerosol direct radiative effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    loading normally induces lower solar energy arriving at the land surface whereas plant photosynthesis of diffuse solar radiation for plant carbon uptake. Comparing with direct-beam solar radiation, diffuse solar to quantify aerosol effects on downward solar radiation. Simulations with and without considering the aerosol

  13. The terrestrial carbon inventory on the Savannah River Site: Assessing the change in Carbon pools 1951-2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Zhaohua; Trettin, Carl, C.; Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2011-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from an agricultural-woodland landscape in 1951 to a forested landscape during that latter half of the twentieth century. The corresponding change in carbon (C) pools associated land use on the SRS was estimated using comprehensive inventories from 1951 and 2001 in conjunction with operational forest management and monitoring data from the site.

  14. Natural migration rates of trees: Global terrestrial carbon cycle implications. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    The paper discusses the forest-ecological processes which constrain the rate of response by forests to rapid future environmental change. It establishes a minimum response time by natural tree populations which invade alien landscapes and reach the status of a mature, closed canopy forest when maximum carbon storage is realized. It considers rare long-distance and frequent short-distance seed transport, seedling and tree establishment, sequential tree and stand maturation, and spread between newly established colonies.

  15. Carbon stocks in coffee agroforests and mixed dry tropical forests in the western highlands of Guatemala

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Tom

    of Guatemala Mikaela Schmitt-Harsh · Tom P. Evans · Edwin Castellanos · J. C. Randolph Received: 4 January 2012- ducted in 2007 and 2010 in the Lake Atitla´n region of Guatemala, this research examines the carbon pools Estudios Ambientales y de Biodiversidad, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, 18 Avenida 11-95 Zona 15

  16. Economic and Physical Modeling of Land Use in GCAM 3.0 and an Application to Agricultural Productivity, Land, and Terrestrial Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wise, Marshall A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick; Edmonds, James A.

    2014-09-01

    We explore the impact of changes in agricultural productivity on global land use and terrestrial carbon using the new agriculture and land use modeling approach developed for Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) version 3.0. This approach models economic land use decisions with regional, physical, and technological specificity while maintaining economic and physical integration with the rest of the GCAM model. Physical land characteristics and quantities are tracked explicitly, and crop production practices are modeled discretely to facilitate coupling with physical models. Economic land allocation is modeled with non-linear functions in a market equilibrium rather than through a constrained optimization. In this paper, we explore three scenarios of future agriculture productivity in all regions of the globe over this century, ranging from a high growth to a zero growth level. The higher productivity growth scenario leads to lower crop prices, increased production of crops in developing nations, preservation of global forested lands and lower terrestrial carbon emissions. The scenario with no productivity improvement results in higher crop prices, an expansion of crop production in the developed world, loss of forested lands globally, and higher terrestrial carbon emissions.

  17. Carbon Lock-in Through Capital Stock Inertia Associated with Weak Near-term Climate Policies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertram, Christoph; Johnson, Nils; Luderer, Gunnar; Riahi, Keywan; Isaac, Morna; Eom, Jiyong

    2015-01-01

    Stringent long-term climate targets necessitate a strict limit on cumulative emissions in this century for which sufficient policy signals are so far lacking. Based on an ensemble of ten energy-economy models, we explore how long-term transformation pathways depend on policies pursued during the next two decades. We find that weak GHG emission targets for 2030 lead, in that year alone, to excess carbon dioxide emissions of nearly half of the annual emissions in 2010, mainly through coal electricity generation. Furthermore, by consuming more of the long-term cumulative emissions budget in the first two decades, weak policy increases the likelihood of overshooting the budget and the urgency of reducing GHG emissions. Therefore, to be successful under weak policies, models must prematurely retire much of the additional coal capacity post-2030 and remove large quantities of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in the latter half of the century. While increased energy efficiency lowers mitigation costs considerably, even with weak near-term policies, it does not substantially reduce the short term reliance on coal electricity. However, increased energy efficiency does allow the energy system more flexibility in mitigating emissions and, thus, makes the post-2030 transition easier.

  18. Final Report on "Rising CO2 and Long-term Carbon Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems: An Empirical Carbon Budget Validation"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Patrick Megonigal; Bert G. Drake

    2010-08-27

    The primary goal of this report is to report the results of Grant DE-FG02-97ER62458, which began in 1997 as Grant DOE-98-59-MP-4 funded through the TECO program. However, this project has a longer history because DOE also funded this study from its inception in 1985 through 1997. The original grant was focused on plant responses to elevated CO2 in an intact ecosystem, while the latter grant was focused on belowground responses. Here we summarize the major findings across the 25 years this study has operated, and note that the experiment will continue to run through 2020 with NSF support. The major conclusions of the study to date are: (1 Elevated CO2 stimulated plant productivity in the C3 plant community by ~30% during the 25 year study. The magnitude of the increase in productivity varied interannually and was sometime absent altogether. There is some evidence of down-regulation at the ecosystem level across the 25 year record that may be due to interactions with other factors such as sea-level rise or long-term changes in N supply; (2) Elevated CO2 stimulated C4 productivity by <10%, perhaps due to more efficient water use, but C3 plants at elevated CO2 did not displace C4 plants as predicted; (3) Increased primary production caused a general stimulation of microbial processes, but there were both increases and decreases in activity depending on the specific organisms considered. An increase in methanogenesis and methane emissions implies elevated CO2 may amplify radiative forcing in the case of wetland ecosystems; (4) Elevated CO2 stimulated soil carbon sequestration in the form of an increase in elevation. The increase in elevation is 50-100% of the increase in net ecosystem production caused by elevated CO2 (still under analysis). The increase in soil elevation suggests the elevated CO2 may have a positive outcome for the ability of coastal wetlands to persist despite accelerated sea level rise; (5) Crossing elevated CO2 with elevated N causes the elevated CO2 effect to diminish, with consequences for change in soil elevation.

  19. Study of the Role of Terrestrial Processes in the Carbon Cycle Based on Measurements of the Abundance and Isotopic Composition of Atmospheric CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piper, Stephen C; Keeling, Ralph F

    2012-01-03

    The main objective of this project was to continue research to develop carbon cycle relationships related to the land biosphere based on remote measurements of atmospheric CO2 concentration and its isotopic ratios 13C/12C, 18O/16O, and 14C/12C. The project continued time-series observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and isotopic composition begun by Charles D. Keeling at remote sites, including Mauna Loa, the South Pole, and eight other sites. Using models of varying complexity, the concentration and isotopic measurements were used to study long-term change in the interhemispheric gradients in CO2 and 13C/12C to assess the magnitude and evolution of the northern terrestrial carbon sink, to study the increase in amplitude of the seasonal cycle of CO2, to use isotopic data to refine constraints on large scale changes in isotopic fractionation which may be related to changes in stomatal conductance, and to motivate improvements in terrestrial carbon cycle models. The original proposal called for a continuation of the new time series of 14C measurements but subsequent descoping to meet budgetary constraints required termination of measurements in 2007.

  20. Jim Stock

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

     James H. Stock is a member of the Council of Economic Advisers and is responsible for offering the President objective advice on the formulation of economic policy.  Stock was previously...

  1. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopment TopMetathesis

  2. Quantification of Terrestrial Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics in the Conterminous United States Combining a Process-Based Biogeochemical Model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cook, David R.; Coulter, Richard L.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Scott, Russell L.; Munger, J. W.; Bible, Ken

    2011-09-21

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial 24 ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical 25 models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate 26 quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution 27 Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Water Index 28 (LSWI) and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary 29 production (GPP) modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the 30 changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and 31 verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous 32 United States over the period 2000-2005 at a 0.05o ×0.05o spatial resolution. We find that the new 33 version of TEM generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon 34 dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 Pg C yr-1 and net primary 35 production (NPP) ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg C yr-1 and net ecosystem production (NEP) varies 36 within 0.08-0.73 Pg C yr-1 over the period 2000-2005 for the conterminous United States. The 37 uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 Pg C yr-1 for the regional estimates of GPP, 38 NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 39 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a 40 new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, 41 which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon 42 management and climate.

  3. Quantification of terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics in the conterminous United States combining a process-based biogeochemical model and MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Min; Zhuang, Qianlai; Cook, D.; Coulter, Richard L.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Scott, Russell L.; Munger, J. W.; Bible, Ken

    2011-08-31

    Satellite remote sensing provides continuous temporal and spatial information of terrestrial ecosystems. Using these remote sensing data and eddy flux measurements and biogeochemical models, such as the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM), should provide a more adequate quantification of carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) and carbon flux data of AmeriFlux to conduct such a study. We first modify the gross primary production (GPP) modeling in TEM by incorporating EVI and LSWI to account for the effects of the changes of canopy photosynthetic capacity, phenology and water stress. Second, we parameterize and verify the new version of TEM with eddy flux data. We then apply the model to the conterminous United States over the period 2000-2005 at a 0.05-0.05 spatial resolution. We find that the new version of TEM made improvement over the previous version and generally captured the expected temporal and spatial patterns of regional carbon dynamics. We estimate that regional GPP is between 7.02 and 7.78 PgC yr{sup -1} and net primary production (NPP) ranges from 3.81 to 4.38 Pg Cyr{sup -1} and net ecosystem production (NEP) varies within 0.08- 0.73 PgC yr{sup -1} over the period 2000-2005 for the conterminous United States. The uncertainty due to parameterization is 0.34, 0.65 and 0.18 PgC yr{sup -1} for the regional estimates of GPP, NPP and NEP, respectively. The effects of extreme climate and disturbances such as severe drought in 2002 and destructive Hurricane Katrina in 2005 were captured by the model. Our study provides a new independent and more adequate measure of carbon fluxes for the conterminous United States, which will benefit studies of carbon-climate feedback and facilitate policy-making of carbon management and climate.

  4. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward...

  5. Global/Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Publications Baes, C. F., H. E. Goeller, J. S. Olson, and R. M. Rotty. 1977. Carbon dioxide and climate: The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Rotty. 1977. Carbon dioxide and climate: The uncontrolled experiment. American Scientist 65.S. and the global carbon dioxide problem. Journal of Environmental Management 10:37­49. Gardner, R. H., J. B. Mankin Carbon. CONF-8108131. Carbon Dioxide Research Division, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. Post

  6. Application of Remote Sensing Technology and Ecological Modeling of Forest Carbon Stocks in Mt. Apo Natural Park, Philippines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leal, Ligaya Rubas

    2015-01-23

    This dissertation work explored the application of remote sensing technology for the assessment of forest carbon storage in Mt. Apo Natural Park. Biomass estimation is traditionally conducted using destructive sampling with high levels...

  7. House Committee on Natural Resources The Future of Fossil Fuels: Geological and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and sequestration (CCS) is the critical enabling technology that would reduce CO2 emissions significantly while also at a large industrial source, such as a coal-fired power plant. By capture, it is meant isolating the CO2, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Carbon Dioxide (CO2) geological

  8. Relative role of changes in CO? and climate to equilibrium responses of net primary production and carbon storage of the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    In a partial factorial model experiment, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM, version 4.0) to assess the relative roles of changes in CO2, temperature, precipitation and cloudiness in equilibrium responses of ...

  9. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    net ecosystem production (NEP); fire; land use change (LUC);observation types. The mean NEP reveals that climatetributions to uncertainty are NEP, fire and LUC. This NBP

  10. All wet or dried up? Real differences between aquatic and terrestrial food webs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Gruner, Daniel S; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    pathways of carbon ?ow and pools between aquatic and terrestrialand terrestrial environments in a number of important trophic pathways (?pathways. Our review synthesizes current knowledge of patterns of trophic interactions between aquatic and terrestrial

  11. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  12. Radiocarbon in particulate matter from the eastern sub-arctic Pacific Ocean; evidence of a source of terrestrial carbon to the deep sea.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Druffel, Ellen R M; Honju, Susumu; Griffin, Sheila; Wong, C S

    1986-01-01

    in the sub-Arctic Pacific Ocean: Inter- natl North PacificSalmon of the North Pacific Ocean-Part II-Review of theproduced carbon-14 by the Pacific Ocean: Ph D dissert, Univ

  13. Effects of litter traits, soil biota, and soil chemistry on soil carbon stocks at a common garden with 14 tree species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01

    Nematode density (min. soil) Bacterial-feeding nemat.C:N microb. biomass (min. soil) Ectomycorrh. sporocarp spp.R, McCartney D (2002) Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in

  14. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Turner, David P [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Stinson, Graham [Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service; Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Heath, Linda S. [USDA Forest Service; De Jong, Bernardus [ECOSUR; McConkey, Brian G. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Birdsey, Richard A. [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Kurz, Werner [Canadian Forest Service; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Pan, Yude [U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

  15. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type",6,"Monthly","82015","1151956"...

  16. Stock Discrimination Travis Elsdon and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    Stock Discrimination Methods Travis Elsdon and Karin Limburg Fisheries Science & Management Dr. Bronwyn Gillanders Dr. Travis Elsdon Lecture Outline ·Overview of stock discrimination: what, why, and issues ·Approaches to stock discrimination: a question of scale ·Natural marks: · Otolith chemistry

  17. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of carbon stocks and flux, and the uncertainties inherent in each approach. The alternative approaches to estimating continental scale carbon fluxes that we explored here can...

  18. Terrestrial Water Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, Jay

    2013-01-01

    properties. • Atmospheric Composition: aerosols and their precursors. • Ocean Surface: carbon dioxide,

  19. Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    73 Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183. Blaine Metting2 The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA. #12;74 TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEqUESTRATION

  20. An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: CarbonTracker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Net terrestrial summer flux (NEP plus fires for weeks 20 –terrestrial and oceanic flux (NEP plus fires; no fossil fuelof Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) derived from CarbonTracker

  1. Terrestrial Water Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodell, M; Chambers, D P; Famiglietti, Jay

    2013-01-01

    T. E. Reilly, 2002: Flow and storage in groundwater systems.storage ..2013: Global ocean storage of anthropogenic carbon.

  2. DOE Regional Partnership Successfully Demonstrates Terrestrial CO2 Storage Practices in Great Plains Region of U.S. and Canada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test demonstrating the best approaches for terrestrial carbon dioxide storage in the heartland of North America has been successfully completed by one of the U.S. Department of Energy's seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships.

  3. Terrestrial Gravity Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Harms

    2015-07-21

    The article reviews the current state of the field, and also presents new analyses especially with respect to the impact of seismic scattering on gravity perturbations, active gravity noise cancellation, and time-domain models of gravity perturbations from atmospheric and seismic point sources. Our understanding of terrestrial gravity fluctuations will have great impact on the future development of GW detectors and high-precision gravimetry in general, and many open questions need to be answered still as emphasized in this article.

  4. Research Article Airborne carbon deposition on a remote forested lake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Michael L.

    allochthonous carbon sources and food webs (Cole et al., 2006). There are numerous pathways for terrestrial inputs of terrestrial particulate organic carbon (TPOC) were measured during summ- er stratification of TPOC were between 6:1 and 22:1 (molar), much lower than the values for terrestrial leaves which were

  5. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  6. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2014-09-22

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool to explore how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore »States over approximately a 170 year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual plots growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored, compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5% and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  7. Modeling the impact of agricultural land use and management on US carbon budgets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Drewniak, B. A.; Mishra, U.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Kotamarthi, V. R.

    2015-04-09

    Cultivation of the terrestrial land surface can create either a source or sink of atmospheric CO2, depending on land management practices. The Community Land Model (CLM) provides a useful tool for exploring how land use and management impact the soil carbon pool at regional to global scales. CLM was recently updated to include representation of managed lands growing maize, soybean, and spring wheat. In this study, CLM-Crop is used to investigate the impacts of various management practices, including fertilizer use and differential rates of crop residue removal, on the soil organic carbon (SOC) storage of croplands in the continental Unitedmore »States over approximately a 170-year period. Results indicate that total US SOC stocks have already lost over 8 Pg C (10%) due to land cultivation practices (e.g., fertilizer application, cultivar choice, and residue removal), compared to a land surface composed of native vegetation (i.e., grasslands). After long periods of cultivation, individual subgrids (the equivalent of a field plot) growing maize and soybean lost up to 65% of the carbon stored compared to a grassland site. Crop residue management showed the greatest effect on soil carbon storage, with low and medium residue returns resulting in additional losses of 5 and 3.5%, respectively, in US carbon storage, while plots with high residue returns stored 2% more carbon. Nitrogenous fertilizer can alter the amount of soil carbon stocks significantly. Under current levels of crop residue return, not applying fertilizer resulted in a 5% loss of soil carbon. Our simulations indicate that disturbance through cultivation will always result in a loss of soil carbon, and management practices will have a large influence on the magnitude of SOC loss.« less

  8. Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, D.W.H.

    1987-01-01

    The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these ecosystems. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.

  9. Multi-temporal Terrestrial Lidar for Estimating Individual Tree Dimensions and Biomass Change 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Shruthi

    2013-10-30

    Accurate measures of forest structural parameters are essential to forest inventory and growth models, managing wildfires, and modeling of carbon cycle. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) provides accurate understory information rapidly through non...

  10. Major Disturbance Events in Terrestrial Ecosystems Detected using Global Satellite Data Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    disturbance events, we estimate that nearly 9 Pg of carbon could have been lost from the terrestrial biosphere, hurricanes, floods, droughts, lava flows, and ice storms. Biogenic disturbance categories include the impacts

  11. Major disturbance events in terrestrial ecosystems detected using global satellite data sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    that nearly 9 Pg of carbon could have been lost from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere as a result- turbance categories include fires, hurricanes, floods, droughts, lava flows, and ice storms. Biogenic

  12. SOLAR PHYSICS AND TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS Solar-Terrestrial Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    SOLAR PHYSICS AND TERRESTRIAL EFFECTS Chapter 4 Chapter 4 Solar-Terrestrial Interactions from the charged particles that reach the planet steadily as part of the solar wind and the much it will be deflected into a circular or spiral path by the Lorentz Force. Most charged particles in the solar wind

  13. Islamic Finance Bulletin Conventional Stock Markets 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meju, Max

    in Oman crude prices are re- flected in the Oman stock markets returns as it rose by about 5 percent- lar increased from oil importers, and as #12;StockMarkets Table 2: Evolution of Islamic Stock MarketsIslamic Finance Bulletin April 2012 Conventional Stock Markets 2 Islamic Stock Markets 4 Bond

  14. Evidence for distinct stocks of king mackerel,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evidence for distinct stocks of king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in the Gulf of Mexico Allyn G.-Evidence support- ing a two stock hypothesis for king mackerel, Scomberornorus cavalla, in the Gulf of Mexico. There are two identifiable stocks of king mackel'el in the Gulf of Mexico: a western stock and an eastern stock

  15. Blue carbon storage potential of marine carbonate deposits Project reference IAP/13/50. Please quote this reference when applying.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    IAPETUS Blue carbon storage potential of marine carbonate deposits Project reference IAP/13 Henrik Stahl, Scottish Association for Marine Science Key Words 1. Blue carbon 2. Carbonate 3. Coralline is referred to as `blue carbon' to differentiate it from terrestrial carbon stores. Known blue carbon sinks

  16. THE CARBON-LAND MODEL INTERCOMPARISON PROJECT (C-LAMP): A PROTOTYPE FOR COUPLED BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    often referred to as Earth System Models (ESMs). While a number of terrestrial and ocean carbon models

  17. Relative importance of multiple factors on terrestrial loading of DOC to Arctic river networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kicklighter, David W.; Hayes, Daniel J; Mcclelland, James W; Peterson, Bruce; Mcguire, David; Melillo, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western Russia.

  18. 4, 21112145, 2007 Enhanced carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are generally low in productivity and carbon (C) storage. We report, however, large increases in C sequestration . Carbon sequestration following afforestation was associated with increased N use efficiency as reflected of terrestrial ecosystems that leads to increased carbon (C) sequestration. One of those means is afforestation

  19. Persistent collective trend in stock markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balogh, Emeric; Nagy, Balint Zs; Neda, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence is given for a significant difference in the collective trend of the share prices during the stock index rising and falling periods. Data on the Dow Jones Industrial Average and its stock components are studied between 1991 and 2008. Pearson-type correlations are computed between the stocks and averaged over stock-pairs and time. The results indicate a general trend: whenever the stock index is falling the stock prices are changing in a more correlated manner than in case the stock index is ascending. A thorough statistical analysis of the data shows that the observed difference is significant, suggesting a constant-fear factor among stockholders.

  20. 21st Century Directions in Biology Fungi play pivotal roles in all terrestrial environ-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that break down complex organic polymers into simpler forms that can be taken up by the fungi or by other organisms. This process is an essential step in the carbon cycle; without it, plant detritus would quickly of terrestrial food webs. Fungal mycelia serve as the primary carbon source in a number of soil food webs (Wardle

  1. Carbon Cycle Coastal Sensitivity to Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    For the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http to reduce carbon emissions from landuse change, and may also advance global terrestrial and climate an enormous 500 billion tones of carbon, more than 60 times annual anthropogenic carbon emissions

  2. Quantum Brownian motion model for stock markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Xiangyi; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relevance between quantum open systems and stock markets. A Quantum Brownian motion model is proposed for studying the interaction between the Brownian system and the reservoir, i.e., the stock index and the entire stock market. Based on the model, we investigate the Shanghai Stock Exchange of China from perspective of quantum statistics, and thereby examine the behaviors of the stock index violating the efficient market hypothesis, such as fat-tail phenomena and non-Markovian features. Our interdisciplinary works thus help to discovery the underlying quantum characteristics of stock markets and develop new research fields of econophysics.

  3. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume II, Steelhead Stock Summaries, Stock Transfer Guidelines, Information Needs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1985-07-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of wild and hatchery-raised steelhead trout stocks in the Columbia River Basin. (ACR)

  4. Essays on macroeconomic risks and stock prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duarte, Fernando Manuel

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I study the relationship between macroeconomic risks and asset prices. In the first chapter, I establish that inflation risk is priced in the cross-section of stock returns: stocks that have low returns ...

  5. Credit Conditions and Stock Return Predictability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Heungju

    2012-10-19

    Survey on Bank Lending Practices. Using Standards, this study investigates whether the aggregate credit conditions predict the expected returns and volatility of the stock market. The first essay, "Credit Conditions and Expected Stock Returns," analyzes...

  6. Three Essays on Stock Market Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Peng

    2013-05-31

    This dissertation aims to understand the comovements of international stock markets, financial contagion, and the relationship between international stock market comovements and macroeconomic factors. It contains three essays as follows: The first...

  7. Otoliths are crystalline structures com-posed of calcium carbonate and are ideal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Otoliths are crystalline structures com- posed of calcium carbonate and are ideal structures crystalline microstructure (Smith, 1992; Campana and Casselman, 1993). Stock definitions based on differences

  8. Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling the Deep Terrestrial Biosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilkins, Michael J.; Daly, Rebecca; Mouser, Paula J.; Trexler, Ryan; Sharma, Shihka; Cole, David R.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Biddle , Jennifer F.; Denis, Elizabeth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Kieft, Thomas L.; Onstott, T. C.; Peterson, Lee; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Schrenk, Matthew O.

    2014-09-12

    Research in the deep terrestrial biosphere is driven by interest in novel biodiversity and metabolisms, biogeochemical cycling, and the impact of human activities on this ecosystem. As this interest continues to grow, it is important to ensure that when subsurface investigations are proposed, materials recovered from the subsurface are sampled and preserved in an appropriate manner to limit contamination and ensure preservation of accurate microbial, geochemical, and mineralogical signatures. On February 20th, 2014, a workshop on “Trends and Future Challenges in Sampling The Deep Subsurface” was coordinated in Columbus, Ohio by The Ohio State University and West Virginia University faculty, and sponsored by The Ohio State University and the Sloan Foundation’s Deep Carbon Observatory. The workshop aims were to identify and develop best practices for the collection, preservation, and analysis of terrestrial deep rock samples. This document summarizes the information shared during this workshop.

  9. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feed-stocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others.

  10. Increasing carbon storage in intact African tropical forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    to predictions of future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide1,2 . The role of tropical forests is critical dioxide concentrations, may be the cause of the increase in carbon stocks13 , as some theory14 and models2 with estimates of fossil fuel emissions, ocean carbon fluxes and carbon released from land-use change, indicate

  11. -Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water/energy exchange -301 Journal of Vegetation Science 13: 301-314, 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, A. David

    - Environmental variation, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water/energy exchange environmental variables, vegetation distribution, carbon dynamics, and water and energy exchange distribution, carbon stocks and turnover, and water and energy exchange are related to environmental variation

  12. Improving carbon fixation pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ducat, DC; Silver, PA

    2012-08-01

    A recent resurgence in basic and applied research on photosynthesis has been driven in part by recognition that fulfilling future food and energy requirements will necessitate improvements in crop carbon-fixation efficiencies. Photosynthesis in traditional terrestrial crops is being reexamined in light of molecular strategies employed by photosynthetic microbes to enhance the activity of the Calvin cycle. Synthetic biology is well-situated to provide original approaches for compartmentalizing and enhancing photosynthetic reactions in a species independent manner. Furthermore, the elucidation of alternative carbon-fixation routes distinct from the Calvin cycle raises possibilities that novel pathways and organisms can be utilized to fix atmospheric carbon dioxide into useful materials.

  13. U.S. Total Stocks

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global CrudeWhat'sMay-15May-15 Jun-15 Jul-15Stock

  14. Terrestrial Mammals Hypothesis: Birds and Mammals were

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schweik, Charles M.

    Pathways for Terrestrial Vertebrates. In Carlton, J., G. Ruiz, and R. Mack (Eds.), Invasive speciesTerrestrial Mammals and Birds Hypothesis: Birds and Mammals were predominantly introduced, via release and escape pathways. Project By: Lauren Bettino, Sarah Brodeur, Keith Green, Megan Murphy, Jenna

  15. STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STOCK ASSESSMENT OF THE BLUE CRAB IN CHESAPEAKE BAY 2011 #12;2011 Stock assessment for blue crab in Chesapeake Bay iii Executive Summary The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) is an icon for the Chesapeake Bay region. The commercial fisheries for blue crab in the Bay remain one of the most valuable fishery sectors

  16. Bachelor Project StockHome -Web Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanza, Michele

    Bachelor Project StockHome - Web Application User interface for a financial analysis tool Gilad and assisting us during dark times. Last but not least, I would like to thank my friends who spent those long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 iii #12;Gilad Geron StockHome - Web Application A Technologies 31 A.1 Ruby

  17. Eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus) Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus) Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) for the Cowlitz River, 2014; in particular the Cowlitz River #12;Technique: Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB): Calculation of SSB for eulachon in the Cowlitz River was accomplished via the following equation: B = P/(F*R) Eq. 1 where: B = Biomass: total

  18. A quantum mechanical model for the relationship between stock price and stock ownership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotfas, Liviu-Adrian [Faculty of Economic Cybernetics, Statistics and Informatics, Academy of Economic Studies, 6 Piata Romana, 010374 Bucharest (Romania)

    2012-11-01

    The trade of a fixed stock can be regarded as the basic process that measures its momentary price. The stock price is exactly known only at the time of sale when the stock is between traders, that is, only in the case when the owner is unknown. We show that the stock price can be better described by a function indicating at any moment of time the probabilities for the possible values of price if a transaction takes place. This more general description contains partial information on the stock price, but it also contains partial information on the stock owner. By following the analogy with quantum mechanics, we assume that the time evolution of the function describing the stock price can be described by a Schroedinger type equation.

  19. A quantum mechanical model for the relationship between stock price and stock ownership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liviu-Adrian Cotfas

    2012-09-05

    The trade of a fixed stock can be regarded as the basic process that measures its momentary price. The stock price is exactly known only at the time of sale when the stock is between traders, that is, only in the case when the owner is unknown. We show that the stock price can be better described by a function indicating at any moment of time the probabilities for the possible values of price if a transaction takes place. This more general description contains partial information on the stock price, but it also contains partial information on the stock owner. By following the analogy with quantum mechanics, we assume that the time evolution of the function describing the stock price can be described by a Schrodinger type equation.

  20. Seasonal patterns of forest canopy and their relevance for the global carbon cycle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mizunuma, Toshie

    2015-06-30

    In the terrestrial biosphere forests have a significant role as a carbon sink. Under recent climate change, it is increasingly important to detect seasonal change or ‘phenology’ that can influence the global carbon cycle. ...

  1. Webinar-Terrestrial Solar Spectral Modeling for Renewable Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Webinar-Terrestrial Solar Spectral Modeling for Renewable Energy: SMARTS Model Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Webinar-Terrestrial Solar Spectral Modeling for...

  2. Terrestrial Climate Change and Ecosystem Response Recorded in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terrestrial Climate Change and Ecosystem Response Recorded in Lake Sediments and Related Deposits Reconstruction of past terrestrial climate and ecosystem response relies on...

  3. Altered Belowground Carbon Cycling Following Land-Use Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil ABSTRACT Belowground carbon (C) dynamics of terrestrial to be thoroughly quantified through field measurements. Here, we show that belowground C cycling pathways grasses; establishment phase. INTRODUCTION Terrestrial ecosystems have a pervasive influence on the global

  4. Chaos in Terrestrial Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volker Hoffmann; Simon L. Grimm; Ben Moore; Joachim Stadel

    2015-08-04

    Terrestrial planets are thought to be the result of a vast number of gravitational interactions and collisions between smaller bodies. We use numerical simulations to show that practically identical initial conditions result in a wide array of final planetary configurations. This highly chaotic behaviour questions the predictability of different scenarios for the formation and evolution of our solar system and planetary systems in general. However, multiple realisations of the same initial conditions can be used to predict certain global statistics. We present two sets of numerical experiments that quantify this behaviour. Firstly, we demonstrate that simulations with slightly displaced particles are completely divergent after ~500 years, irrespective of initial displacement, particle number, and code accuracy. If a single planetesimal is moved by less than one millimetre, then a different set of planets results -- this timescale for chaotic divergence decreases with increasing particle number. Secondly, we show final planetary configurations of initially similar simulations with and without giant planets after evolving them for ~148 Myr. We find that the same simulations including giant planets tend to generate higher mass planets at lower semi-major axes than simulations without gas giants. This prediction can be tested with forthcoming observational programs. By extracting outliers in the observations, we cautiously predict that Kepler-10, Kepler-9, 61 Vir, HD 134060, and HD 51608 may host as yet undetected giant planets.

  5. Earth and Terrestrial Planet Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    The growth and composition of Earth is a direct consequence of planet formation throughout the Solar System. We discuss the known history of the Solar System, the proposed stages of growth and how the early stages of planet formation may be dominated by pebble growth processes. Pebbles are small bodies whose strong interactions with the nebula gas lead to remarkable new accretion mechanisms for the formation of planetesimals and the growth of planetary embryos. Many of the popular models for the later stages of planet formation are presented. The classical models with the giant planets on fixed orbits are not consistent with the known history of the Solar System, fail to create a high Earth/Mars mass ratio, and, in many cases, are also internally inconsistent. The successful Grand Tack model creates a small Mars, a wet Earth, a realistic asteroid belt and the mass-orbit structure of the terrestrial planets. In the Grand Tack scenario, growth curves for Earth most closely match a Weibull model. The feeding zon...

  6. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University,0328, USA Civil and Environmental Engineering Department,CESAM and Department of Environmental Engineering, School of

  7. Twentieth-Century Droughts and Their Impacts on Terrestrial Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    , disturbances (e.g., fire), human management (e.g., fertilization and irrigation), and environmental pollution (e.g., ozone pollution, nitrogen deposition). These drought effects are of particular importance in light of projected widespread summer drying in midlatitude regions during the twenty-first century

  8. SUPPLEMENTARY DATA Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Chuixiang Yi1 , Daniel Ricciuto2 , Runze Li3 , John Wolbeck1 , Xiyan Xu1 , Mats Nilsson4 , Luis Aires5

  9. Carbon fluxes and storage in forests and landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    , as they store 45 % of the terrestrial carbon and account for ~50 % of soil calbon sequestration (Bonan 2008Chapter 6 Carbon fluxes and storage in forests and landscapes Jiquan Chen, Ranjeet John, Ge Sun this chapter with a discussion of the major carbon fluxes (e.g., gross primary ploductlon, ecosystem

  10. Material Stock Requests -SH Version Date: June 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Material Stock Requests - SH Version Date: June 2013 #12;Training Guide Material Stock Requests injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all Stock Requests - SH Page iii Table of Contents Material Stock Requests - SH

  11. Influence network in Chinese stock market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    In a stock market, the price fluctuations are interactive, that is, one listed company can influence others. In this paper, we seek to study the influence relationships among listed companies by constructing a directed network on the basis of Chinese stock market. This influence network shows distinct topological properties, particularly, a few large companies that can lead the tendency of stock market are recognized. Furthermore, by analyzing the subnetworks of listed companies distributed in several significant economic sectors, it is found that the influence relationships are totally different from one economic sector to another, of which three types of connectivity as well as hub-like listed companies are identified. In addition, the rankings of listed companies obtained from the centrality metrics of influence network are compared with that according to the assets, which gives inspiration to uncover and understand the importance of listed companies in the stock market. These empirical results are meaning...

  12. REITs: Stocks, Bonds, or Real Estate?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Kenneth T.

    1995-01-01

    Berkeley FISHER CENTER FOR REAL ESTATE AND URBAN ECONOMICS244 RElTs: Stocks, Bonds or Real Estate? By KENNETH T. ROSENBUSINESS FISHER CENTER FOR REAL ESTATE AND URBAN ECONOMICS

  13. Global Distribution of Carbon Stock in Live Woody Vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Yifan

    2013-01-01

    It will also help with green house gas inventory at regionala resource for national green house gas inventory reporting[

  14. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-02-05

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore »this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  15. Constructing a database of terrestrial radiocarbon measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trumbore, Susan; Torn, Margaret; Smith, Lydia

    2011-01-01

    and Scaling Carbon, Water, and Energy Fluxes With Opticalquantifying carbon, water, and energy fluxes “everywhere andcarbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy transfer between the

  16. Strain Storage Typically, mycobacteria can be stored as lyophilized stocks, agar slants, or frozen stocks.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strain Storage Typically, mycobacteria can be stored as lyophilized stocks, agar slants, or frozen stocks. Since lyophilization is not a cost-effective product storage alternative for virulent M. tuberculosis and agar slants can take up considerable BSL3 storage space, the best alternative for strain

  17. Quantification of and Controls on Dinitrogen and Nitrous Oxide Fluxes from Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wendy Hui-I

    2010-01-01

    N 2 production pathway in terrestrial soils, but I showedimportant terrestrial N 2 production pathways. In marine andonly pathway for N 2 production in terrestrial and aquatic

  18. Pear Stocks. Some Parasitic Fungi of Texas. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunk, Thomas L; Jennings, H. S. (Herbert Spencer)

    1890-01-01

    loam, and rich bottom lands. The up- PEAR STOCKS. 1 'l lands mainly underlaid with red clay and the bottom land with a lighter col- ored subsoil. G. W. Stoner, Jewella, Louisiana, January 10, 1890: In answering the questions you ask, will first... seedlings are worth there $10 per thousand, which will cost laid down here about $18 per thou- sand. And in the same catalogue I can buy pear stocks at $10 per ten thou- sand, or $1 a thousand. The temptation is great to take the latter. Man is but n...

  19. Electromagnetic neutrinos in terrestrial experiments and astrophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlo Giunti; Konstantin A. Kouzakov; Yu-Feng Li; Alexey V. Lokhov; Alexander I. Studenikin; Shun Zhou

    2015-06-17

    An overview of neutrino electromagnetic properties, which open a door to the new physics beyond the Standard Model, is given. The effects of neutrino electromagnetic interactions both in terrestrial experiments and in astrophysical environments are discussed. The experimental bounds on neutrino electromagnetic characteristics are summarized. Future astrophysical probes of electromagnetic neutrinos are outlined.

  20. R E V I E W Liana Impacts on Carbon Cycling, Storage and Sequestration in Tropical Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnitzer, Stefan

    R E V I E W Liana Impacts on Carbon Cycling, Storage and Sequestration in Tropical Forests Geertje for carbon storage and sequestration. Lianas reduce tree growth, survival, and leaf productivity; however liana carbon stocks are unlikely to compensate for liana-induced losses in net carbon sequestration

  1. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 NOVEMBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1014 Rapid carbon sequestration at the termination of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 NOVEMBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1014 Rapid carbon sequestration sequestration of organic carbon could reflect the regrowth of carbon stocks in the biosphere or shallow ago, has been attributed to the release of thousands of petagrams of reduced carbon into the ocean

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizae and terrestrial ecosystem Matthias C. Rillig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rilli, Matthias C.

    REVIEW Arbuscular mycorrhizae and terrestrial ecosystem processes Matthias C. Rillig Microbial in terrestrial ecosystems. Despite their acknowledged importance in ecology, most research on AMF has focused (interacting) routes via which AMF can influence ecosystem processes. These include indirect pathways (through

  3. A diagnostic analysis of retail out-of-stocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foo, Yong Ning

    2007-01-01

    In the highly competitive retail industry, merchandise out-of-stock (OOS) is a significant and pertinent problem. This thesis performs a diagnostic analysis on retail out-of-stocks using empirical data from a major retailer. ...

  4. Essays on Return and Volatility on World Stock Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jia

    2013-08-31

    sizes and etc. Those questions are addressed in this dissertation research. In Chapter 2, co-movements across worldwide stock markets are investigated. A dynamic factor model is designed to decompose stock return volatility into three orthogonal factors...

  5. Emotion Regulation: Taking Stock and Moving Forward James J. Gross

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, James J.

    Emotion Regulation: Taking Stock and Moving Forward James J. Gross Stanford University The field). In this article, I take stock of the field and consider how it might be moved forward. I do this by asking

  6. Mining Distribution Change in Stock Order Streams Xiaoyan Liu#1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Rui

    by employing a natural Poisson distribution assumption about the nature of stock order streams. We establish that an oil company has found a new oil source, they will submit large numbers of orders to buy the stocks

  7. Genetic Analysis in Populus Reveals Potential to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration In a paper published in the August, 2005 issue of Canadian Journal of Forest Research, scientists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genetic Analysis in Populus Reveals Potential to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration In a paper carbon sequestration by an estimated 0.35Gt carbon/year. This represents ca. 4% of global carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. This work is supported by research funded through the Carbon Sequestration Program

  8. Edinburgh Research Explorer Modelling Urban scale Retrofit, Pathways to 2050 Low Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    Building Stock Citation for published version: Lannon, S, Georgakaki, A & Macdonald, S 2013, 'Modelling Urban scale Retrofit, Pathways to 2050 Low Carbon Residential Building Stock'. in Proceedings of BS2013 by the legal requirements associated with these rights. Take down policy The University of Edinburgh has made

  9. Ecosystem Carbon Storage Across the GrasslandForest Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silman, Miles R.

    of the large soil carbon stocks under an afforestation scenario exist. Key words: Peru; Manu National Park, JBF, and PM conceived of or designed this study; AG, MRS, MZ, GCD, WRF, and KCG performed re- search in the newly created carbon markets and funds (Glenday 2006). Similarly, the size and dynamics of the above

  10. Ecosystem Carbon Storage Across the GrasslandForest Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    of the large soil carbon stocks under an afforestation scenario exist. Key words: Peru; Manu National Park 2010 Author Contributions: AG, MRS, YM, JBF, and PM conceived of or designed this study; AG, MRS, MZ in the newly created carbon markets and funds (Glenday 2006). Similarly, the size and dynamics of the above

  11. Realized Stock Volatility 2.1 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niebur, Ernst

    Chapter 2 Realized Stock Volatility 2.1 Introduction Financial market volatility is indispensable for asset and derivative pricing, asset allocation, and risk management. As volatility is not a directly is to calculate the daily volatility from the sample variance of intraday returns, the `realized' volatility

  12. DELINEATION OF TILEFISH, LOPHOLATILUS CHAMAELEONTICEPS, STOCKS ALONG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND IN THE GULF OF MEXICO S. J. KATZ,l C. B. GRIMES,2 AND K. W. ABLE3 ABSTRACT Tilefish, Lopkolatilus fisheries in the South Atlantic Bight and the Gulf of Mexico. Attempts were made to delineate stocks over'etic migration of eye, liver, and muscle proteins. Morphological and electrophoretic data (liver isocitrate

  13. Planetary Geology Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crenshaw, Michael

    · A planet s outer layer of cool, rigid rock is called the lithosphere · It floats on the warmer, softer rock1 Chapter 9 Planetary Geology Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds What are terrestrial planets that lies beneath Terrestrial Planet Interiors · Applying what we have learned about Earth s interior

  14. Two Stock-Trading Agents: Market Making and Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Peter

    Two Stock-Trading Agents: Market Making and Technical Analysis Yi Feng, Ronggang Yu, Peter Stone://www.cs.utexas.edu/~{fengyi,ryu,pstone} Abstract. Evolving information technologies have brought computa- tional power and real-time facilities into the stock market. Automated stock trading draws much interest from both the #12;elds of computer sci- ence

  15. The Information in Option Volume for Future Stock Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrieli, John

    that option trading volume contains information about future stock prices. Taking advantage of a unique dataThe Information in Option Volume for Future Stock Prices Jun Pan MIT Sloan School of Management set, we construct put-call ratios from option volume initiated by buyers to open new positions. Stocks

  16. Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system: from past to future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arneth, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Zaehle, S.; Tsigaridis, K; Menon, S; Bartlein, P.J.; Feichter, J; Korhola, A; Kulmala, M; O'Donnell, D; Schurgers, G; Sorvari, S; Vesala, T

    2010-01-05

    The terrestrial biosphere plays a major role in the regulation of atmospheric composition, and hence climate, through multiple interlinked biogeochemical cycles (BGC). Ice-core and other palaeoenvironmental records show a fast response of vegetation cover and exchanges with the atmosphere to past climate change, although the phasing of these responses reflects spatial patterning and complex interactions between individual biospheric feedbacks. Modern observations show a similar responsiveness of terrestrial biogeochemical cycles to anthropogenically-forced climate changes and air pollution, with equally complex feedbacks. For future conditions, although carbon cycle-climate interactions have been a major focus, other BGC feedbacks could be as important in modulating climate changes. The additional radiative forcing from terrestrial BGC feedbacks other than those conventionally attributed to the carbon cycle is in the range of 0.6 to 1.6 Wm{sup -2}; all taken together we estimate a possible maximum of around 3 Wm{sup -2} towards the end of the 21st century. There are large uncertainties associated with these estimates but, given that the majority of BGC feedbacks result in a positive forcing because of the fundamental link between metabolic stimulation and increasing temperature, improved quantification of these feedbacks and their incorporation in earth system models is necessary in order to develop coherent plans to manage ecosystems for climate mitigation.

  17. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Assessing the impact of changes in climate and CO2 on potential carbon sequestration in agricultural soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing the impact of changes in climate and CO2 on potential carbon sequestration the influence of climate and CO2 feedbacks on soil carbon sequestration using a terrestrial carbon cycle model sequestration of 42 Tg. This is 5% of the soil carbon estimated to be potentially sequestered as the result

  19. An Organic Carbon Budget for the Mississippi River Turbidity Plume and Plume Contributions to Air-sea CO2 Fluxes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breed, Greg A.

    are the primary interface between terrestrial and oceanic environments and play a central role in linking terrestrial and marine carbon cycles. Annually, rivers transport 1 Gt total carbon to the world's oceans (e.g., Cai et al. 2003). Despite the known importance of RiOMar, the export pathways of OC

  20. Hurricane Katrina's Carbon Footprint on U.S. Gulf Coast Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chambers, Jeff

    Hurricane Katrina's Carbon Footprint on U.S. Gulf Coast Forests Jeffrey Q. Chambers,1 * Jeremy I carbon sink is an increase in disturbance frequency and intensity (4), which transfers bio- mass from and lower biomass stocks (5). Here, we quantify hurricane Katrina's carbon impact on Gulf Coast forests

  1. Search Business News, Stocks, Funds, Companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.

    To capture the carbon dioxide generated by coal plants, chemical companies like Dow Chemical Co. and energy's Revival May Combat Climate Change Build a Better Carbon Trap and ... And Now, Climate Bill's Supporters and the bottom line. Go to Blog » Build a Better Carbon Trap and ... By PAUL VOOSEN of Published: June 30, 2009

  2. Crude oil as refinery feed stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boduszynski, M.M.; Farrell, T.R. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper gives a brief overview of the integrated oil refinery. It illustrates that crude oil refining involves {open_quotes}molecular tailoring,{close_quotes} where feed stock molecules are {open_quotes}tailored{close_quotes} through catalytic processing to make products with the most desirable composition. Chemical composition of crude oil as refinery feed stock is discussed. The emphasis is on the understanding of molecular transformations which occur in refinery processes to manufacture light transportation fuels. Diesel fuel manufacturing is used as an example. Recent environmental legislation in the United States has necessitated a significant upgrade in the quality of diesel fuel used for highway transportation. Examples are given to illustrate the impact that petroleum chemistry may have on the industry`s response to government regulations.

  3. October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 BioScience 895 Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 · BioScience 895 Articles Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 reduce the concen- tration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Understanding biological and edaphic processes of the 21st century (IPCC 2001a). Management of vegetation and soils for terrestrial carbon sequestration

  4. ORIGINAL PAPER Estimation of tree biomass, carbon pool and net primary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    et al. 2008). Determination of carbon sequestration potential in terrestrial ecosystems throughORIGINAL PAPER Estimation of tree biomass, carbon pool and net primary production of an old Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract & Background The data on carbon pool and biomass distribution

  5. Organic Carbon Cycling in East China Sea Shelf Sediments: Linkages with Hypoxia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Xinxin

    2013-01-03

    The Changjiang River provides the main source of sediment and terrestrial derived organic carbon (OC) to the Changjiang large delta-front estuary (LDE) in the East China Sea (ECS). This study analyzed bulk OC, biomarkers including lignin and plant...

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure in worldwide finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 87, 012814 (2013) Carbon-dioxide emissions trading and hierarchical structure of the stock market indicators and those of the EU CO2 emission allowance (EUA) and crude oil futures (WTI that the volatility of stock market indicators today can predict the volatility of EU emissions allowances

  7. ,"Crude Oil and Petroleum Products Total Stocks Stocks by Type"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeMonthly","10/2015" ,"Release Date:","12/31/2015" ,"Next ReleaseTotal Stocks Stocks by

  8. Water On -and In- Terrestrial Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowan, Nicolas B

    2015-01-01

    Earth has a unique surface character among Solar System worlds. Not only does it harbor liquid water, but also large continents. An exoplanet with a similar appearance would remind us of home, but it is not obvious whether such a planet is more likely to bear life than an entirely ocean-covered waterworld---after all, surface liquid water defines the canonical habitable zone. In this proceeding, I argue that 1) Earth's bimodal surface character is critical to its long-term climate stability and hence is a signpost of habitability, and 2) we will be able to constrain the surface character of terrestrial exoplanets with next-generation space missions.

  9. A New Photochemistry Code for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    A New Photochemistry Code for Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres Renyu Hu, Sara Seager Massachusetts-transport equation for 111 molecules and aerosols · Eddy diffusion · Chemical kinetics · Photolysis · Boundary

  10. Comparing Wealth Effects: The Stock Market versus The Housing Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Case, Karl E.; Quigley, John M.; Shiller, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    The Stock Market, The Housing Market and Consumer Spending,”Perspective,” Journal of Housing Economics, 6, 1997: 119-of House Value,” Journal of Housing Economics, 2, 1992: 339-

  11. Advanced Stirling conversion systems for terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaltens, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNLA) is developing heat engines for terrestrial Solar distributed Heat Receivers. SNLA has identified the Stirling to be one of the most promising candidates for the terrestrial applications. The free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) has the potential to meet the DOE goals for both performance and cost. Free-piston Stirling activities which are directed toward a dynamic power source for the space application are being conducted. Space power system requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability and low vibration. The FPSE has the potential for future high power space conversion systems, either solar or nuclear powered. Generic free-piston technology is currently being developed for use with a residential heat pump under an Interagency Agreement. Also, an overview is presented of proposed conceptual designs for the Advanced Stirling Conversion System (ASCS) using a free-piston Stirling engine and a liquid metal heat pipe receiver. Power extraction includes both a linear alternator and hydraulic output capable of delivering approximately 25 kW of electrical power to the electric utility grid. Target cost of the engine/alternator is 300 dollars per kilowatt at a manufacturing rate of 10,000 units per year. The design life of the ASCS is 60,000 h (30 y) with an engine overhaul at 40,000 h (20 y). Also discussed are the key features and characteristics of the ASCS conceptual designs.

  12. Soil Carbon Stocks and Soil Carbon Quality in the Upland Portion of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    , Quebec David Pare´,1 * Jessica L. Banville,2,3 Michelle Garneau,2,3 and Yves Bergeron4 1 Natural. Sainte-Foy, Quebec, Quebec G1V 4C7, Canada; 2 De´partement de Ge´ographie, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Montre´al, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3P8, Canada; 3 GEOTOP UQA` M-McGill, Universite´ du Que´bec a` Montre

  13. Carbon Issues Task Force Report for the Idaho Strategic Energy Alliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis L. Mcling

    2010-10-01

    The Carbon Issues Task Force has the responsibility to evaluate emissions reduction and carbon offset credit options, geologic carbon sequestration and carbon capture, terrestrial carbon sequestration on forest lands, and terrestrial carbon sequestration on agricultural lands. They have worked diligently to identify ways in which Idaho can position itself to benefit from potential carbon-related federal legislation, including identifying opportunities for Idaho to engage in carbon sequestration efforts, barriers to development of these options, and ways in which these barriers can be overcome. These are the experts to which we will turn when faced with federal greenhouse gas-related legislation and how we should best react to protect and provide for Idaho’s interests. Note that the conclusions and recommended options in this report are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather form a starting point for an informed dialogue regarding the way-forward in developing Idaho energy resources.

  14. Preferred Stock and the Debt-Equity Hybrid Puzzle: An Analysis Using Credit Ratings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strawser, William

    2011-08-08

    This study investigates the effect of preferred stock on the credit ratings assessed by professional credit analysts. Preferred stock inherently contains both features of debt and equity financing. Hence, the nature of preferred stock has...

  15. Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraft, Clifford E.

    Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface in Forested Landscapes Andrew A- tems. In 1998, a severe ice storm damaged over ten million hectares of forest across northern New York investigated the spatial arrangement of forest damage at the terrestrial-aquatic interface, an ecological edge

  16. Using Neural Networks to Forecast Stock Market Prices Ramon Lawrence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Ramon

    Using Neural Networks to Forecast Stock Market Prices Ramon Lawrence Department of Computer Science on the application of neural networks in forecasting stock market prices. With their ability to discover patterns in nonlinear and chaotic systems, neural networks offer the ability to predict market directions more

  17. Industrial Electricity Usage and Stock Returns , Dayong Huang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfrender, Michael

    on electricity consumption as a more accurate measure of economic growth in China. "All other figures, especiallyIndustrial Electricity Usage and Stock Returns Zhi Da , Dayong Huang , Hayong Yun§ April 2015 Abstract The industrial electricity usage growth rate predicts future stock returns up to one year

  18. Material Stock Requests 9.1 BRFHS and BRFHM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Material Stock Requests 9.1 BRFHS and BRFHM Version Date: January 2014 #12;Training Guide BRFHS injury. If you use this software in dangerous applications, then you shall be responsible to take all and BRFHM Page iii Table of Contents Material_Stock_Requests_9_1_BRFHS

  19. Material Stock Requests 9.1 Version Date: April 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Material Stock Requests 9.1 HCSD Version Date: April 2013 Revision Date: April 2013 #12;Training be responsible to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy and other measures to ensure the safe use Guide HCSD Page iii Table of Contents Material Stock Requests HCSD

  20. Describing Spatial Relations using Informal Semantics Kristin Stock1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stock, Kristin

    Describing Spatial Relations using Informal Semantics Kristin Stock1 1 University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD, Nottingham Tel. +44(0)787 299 3270 Email: kristin.stock@nottingham.ac.uk Web address: http, people tend to think in terms of informal semantics. Informal semantics take the form of cognitive models

  1. REVIEW / SYNTHSE Increasing biological realism of fisheries stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    sources of information to construct more biologically realistic stock-assessment models. The main message species. The hierarchical Bayesian framework provides a way of formally integrating these sources of knowledge into the stock-assessment protocol and to accumulate information from multiple sources and over

  2. Past and Future Effects of Ozone on Net Primary Production and Carbon Sequestration Using a Global Biogeochemical Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felzer, Benjamin Seth.

    Exposure of plants to ozone inhibits photosynthesis and therefore reduces vegetation production and carbon sequestration. Simulations with the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) for the historical period (1860-1995) show ...

  3. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  4. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com The carbon balance of tropical forest regions, 19902005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    the biosphere to the atmosphere, through the combustion and decomposition of vegetation biomass. The exact of knowledge of the carbon balance of the tropical bio- sphere, looking at both CO2 emissions from land use, principally because they contain the more substantial biomass carbon stocks, but also because so few data

  5. Terrestrial Analysis of the Organic Component

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    they formed, these large bodies cannot provide many insights into the nature of the raw starting materials organics is of great interest, both because these materials are thought to represent a reservoir of the original carbon-containing materials from which everything else in our solar system was made and because

  6. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. I. PHOTOCHEMISTRY MODEL AND BENCHMARK CASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2012-12-20

    We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all types of terrestrial planet atmospheres, ranging from oxidizing through reducing, which makes the code suitable for applications for the wide range of anticipated terrestrial exoplanet compositions. The one-dimensional chemical transport model treats up to 800 chemical reactions, photochemical processes, dry and wet deposition, surface emission, and thermal escape of O, H, C, N, and S bearing species, as well as formation and deposition of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid aerosols. We validate the model by computing the atmospheric composition of current Earth and Mars and find agreement with observations of major trace gases in Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. We simulate several plausible atmospheric scenarios of terrestrial exoplanets and choose three benchmark cases for atmospheres from reducing to oxidizing. The most interesting finding is that atomic hydrogen is always a more abundant reactive radical than the hydroxyl radical in anoxic atmospheres. Whether atomic hydrogen is the most important removal path for a molecule of interest also depends on the relevant reaction rates. We also find that volcanic carbon compounds (i.e., CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) are chemically long-lived and tend to be well mixed in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and their dry deposition velocities to the surface control the atmospheric oxidation states. Furthermore, we revisit whether photochemically produced oxygen can cause false positives for detecting oxygenic photosynthesis, and find that in 1 bar CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres oxygen and ozone may build up to levels that have conventionally been accepted as signatures of life, if there is no surface emission of reducing gases. The atmospheric scenarios presented in this paper can serve as the benchmark atmospheres for quickly assessing the lifetime of trace gases in reducing, weakly oxidizing, and highly oxidizing atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets for the exploration of possible biosignature gases.

  7. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Deliverables for the 7th Quarter reporting period include (1) for the geological efforts: Reports on Technology Needs and Action Plan on the Evaluation of Geological Sinks and Pilot Project Deployment (Deliverables 2 and 3), and Report on the Feasibility of Mineralization Trapping in the Snake River Plain Basin (Deliverable 14); (2) for the terrestrial efforts: Report on the Evaluation of Terrestrial Sinks and a Report of the Best Production Practices for Soil C Sequestration (Deliverables 8 and 15). In addition, the 7th Quarter activities for the Partnership included further development of the proposed activities for the deployment and demonstration phase of the carbon sequestration pilots including geological and terrestrial pilots, expansion of the Partnership to encompass regions and institutions that are complimentary to the steps we have identified, building greater collaborations with industry and stakeholders in the region, contributed to outreach efforts that spanned all partnerships, co-authorship on the Carbon Capture and Separation report, and developed a regional basis to address future energy opportunities in the region. The deliverables and activities are discussed in the following sections and appended to this report. The education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The public website has been expanded and integrated with the GIS carbon atlas. We have made presentations to stakeholders and policy makers including two tribal sequestration workshops, and made connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmental

  8. Isotope powered Stirling generator for terrestrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tingey, G.L.; Sorensen, G.C.; Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An electric power supply, small enough to be man-portable, is being developed for remote, terrestrial applications. This system is designed for an operating lifetime of five years without maintenance or refueling. A small Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) has been developed. The energy source of the generator is a 60 watt plutonium-238 fuel clad used in the General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) developed for space applications. A free piston Stirling Engine drives a linear alternator to convert the heat to power. The system weighs about 7.5 kg and produces 11 watts AC power with a conversion efficiency of 18.5%. Two engine models have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date: (a) a developmental model instrumented to confirm and test parameters, and (b) an electrically heated model with an electrical heater equipped power input leads. Critical components have been tested for 10,000 to 20,000 hours. One complete generator has been operating for over 11,000 hours. Radioisotope heated prototypes are expected to be fabricated and tested in late 1995.

  9. Revision of the global carbon budget due to changing air-sea oxygen fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    -derived relationship between changes in atmospheric O2/N2 due to oceanic outgassing and heat fluxes to estimate ocean O2 outgassing. The inferred terrestrial carbon sink for the 1990s is reduced by a factor of two: global carbon budget, changes in ocean heat content, oceanic oxygen outgassing, ocean and land sinks

  10. NASA ROSES CCS NNH13ZDA001N-CARBON MSTMIP PHASE II DATA MANAGEMENT PLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NASA ROSES CCS NNH13ZDA001N-CARBON MSTMIP PHASE II DATA MANAGEMENT PLAN 4-1 MSTMIP PHASE II: DATA UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO, 4 CARNEGIE INSTITUTE, AND 5 JPL NASA The following Data Management Plan was part of the NASA ROSES 2013 Proposal North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model

  11. Carbon pathways to zooplankton: insights from the combined use of stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    Carbon pathways to zooplankton: insights from the combined use of stable isotope and fatty acid quantified the relative contribution of terrestrial- and phytoplankton-derived carbon sources to zooplankton secondary production in lakes. However, few investigated the pathways along which allochthonous

  12. Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S

    2007-10-03

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

  13. X-ray emission from the terrestrial magnetosheath

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Ina Picket; Cravens, Thomas Edward

    2003-04-29

    [1] X-rays are generated throughout the terrestrial magnetosheath as a consequence of charge transfer collisions between heavy solar wind ions and geocoronal neutrals. The solar wind ions resulting from these collisions are left in highly excited...

  14. Myoglobin Adaptation in Terrestrial and Diving Birds and Mammals 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Traver J.

    2014-04-25

    concentrations ten-fold those found in their terrestrial counterparts making them ideal animal models for studying Mb function. Increased Mb bound muscle oxygen stores are advantageous for diving vertebrates, but Mb concentration optimized to maintain aerobic...

  15. Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence Donna M. Jurdy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jurdy, Donna M.

    NASA/JPL SETI - Search for Extra-terrestrial Intelligence Donna M. Jurdy Northwestern University used in the 1950's to study pathways to the origin of life. #12;Pole-to-Equator Temperature

  16. Chemical sensing and imaging in microfluidic pore network structures relevant to natural carbon cycling and industrial carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong; Wilkins, Michael J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-06-11

    Energy and climate change represent significant factors in global security. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, while global in scope, are influenced by pore-scale phenomena in the subsurface. We are developing tools to visualize and investigate processes in pore network microfluidic structures with transparent covers as representations of normally-opaque porous media. In situ fluorescent oxygen sensing methods and fluorescent cellulosic materials are being used to investigate processes related to terrestrial carbon cycling involving cellulytic respiring microorganisms. These structures also enable visualization of water displacement from pore spaces by hydrophobic fluids, including carbon dioxide, in studies related to carbon sequestration.

  17. Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Variability in the Community Earth System Model: Evaluation and Transient Dynamics during the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Forrest M.

    pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) using the Community Earth System Model­Biogeochemistry (CESM1- BGC). CO2 fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon exchange. In the RCP8.5 simulation, where CO2 increased to 1150 emitted by human activities is taken up by the ocean or terrestrial ecosystems, with 45% remaining

  18. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-07-12

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  19. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  20. The effect of the currency movements on stock markets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zohrabyan, Tatevik

    2006-04-12

    This paper uncovers the relationship between stock markets and exchange rates in seven countries by employing stable aggregate currency (SAC) for the period of 1973- 2004. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression, time ...

  1. Taking Stock of Our Situation: Pricing and Randomness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Taking Stock of Our Situation: Pricing and Randomness Dianne P. O'Leary1 Many fascinating study is a supplement to Scientific Computing with Case Studies, Dianne P. O'Leary, SIAM Press

  2. Locke, Stock, and Peril: Natural Property Rights, Pollution, Peter Railton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Callender, Craig

    1 Locke, Stock, and Peril: Natural Property Rights, Pollution, and Risk* Peter Railton INTRODUCTION rightfully take it from him or hinder him in his enjoyment of it. His right entitles him to exclude others

  3. Forecasting Stock Market Volatility: Evidence from Fourteen Countries. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balaban, Ercan; Bayar, Asli; Faff, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This paper evaluates the out-of-sample forecasting accuracy of eleven models for weekly and monthly volatility in fourteen stock markets. Volatility is defined as within-week (within-month) standard deviation of continuously ...

  4. The informational feedback effect of stock prices on corporate disclosure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Luo, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies whether managers use investor information they learn from the stock market when making forward-looking disclosures. Using annual management earnings forecasts from 1996 to 2010, I find that the association ...

  5. Essays on liquidity of U.S. common stocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nageswaran, Shalini

    2012-01-01

    31, 2002. The daily data on stock bid-ask quotes and finalstock market data such as daily or intraday prices, bid-asknarrower bid-ask spreads. Using daily price and quote data

  6. NONLINEARITY AND MARKET EFFICIENCY IN GCC STOCK MARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alharbi, Abdullah M. H.

    2009-07-31

    ): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), using three robust and highly regarded nonlinearity tests. In addition, the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) was tested in this dissertation for the GCC stock markets using...

  7. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere 1990–2009

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; et al

    2015-01-21

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land–atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990–2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or other greenhouse gases. This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North Americanmore »land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the mean of atmospheric inversion estimates forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land sink) and the inventory-based estimate using the production approach the upper (a smaller land sink). This relatively large range is due in part to differences in how the approaches represent trade, fire and other disturbances and which ecosystems they include. Integrating across estimates, \\"best\\" estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. With North America's mean annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions for the period 1990–2009 equal to 1720 Tg C yr-1 and assuming the estimate of -472 Tg C yr-1 as an approximation of the true terrestrial CO2 sink, the continent's source : sink ratio for this time period was 1720:472, or nearly 4:1.« less

  8. TERMOD 2; an interactive code for analysing intake of radionuclides by man through terrestrial pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zach, R

    1978-01-01

    TERMOD 2; an interactive code for analysing intake of radionuclides by man through terrestrial pathways

  9. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Effects in Microbial Methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saleska, Scott

    6 Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Effects in Microbial Methane from Terrestrial Environments Jeffrey Chanton, Lia Chaser, Paul Glasser,Don Siegel Methane is the ultimate end-product of anaerobic respiration. Methane production via CO2 reduction does not consume CO2. Also, acetate can be written as 2CH20, so Eq. 6

  10. Carbon dioxide in soil profiles: Production and temperature dependence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Biosphere/atmosphere interactions 1. Introduction [2] Soil CO2 emissions comprise an important component of the global carbon cycle, and represent the largest terrestrial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Globally, 2000]. As global temperatures rise, any changes in soil CO2 emissions will in part be determined

  11. Effects of Dissolved Carbonate on Arsenate Adsorption and Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    kinetics, pseudo-equilibrium adsorption/titration experiments, extended X-ray absorption fine structure(V) adsorption. As(V) adsorption kinetics [4 g L-1, [As(V)]0 ) 1.5 mM and I ) 0.01 M NaCl] showed carbonate metalloid in oxic-reduced terrestrial/ aquatic environments derived from indigenous sources (e

  12. Tidal heating in multilayered terrestrial exoplanets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henning, Wade G.; Hurford, Terry

    2014-07-01

    The internal pattern and overall magnitude of tidal heating for spin-synchronous terrestrial exoplanets from 1 to 2.5 R{sub E} is investigated using a propagator matrix method for a variety of layer structures. Particular attention is paid to ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths, where a significant ice mantle is modeled to rest atop an iron-silicate core, and may or may not contain a liquid water ocean. We find multilayer modeling often increases tidal dissipation relative to a homogeneous model, across multiple orbital periods, due to the ability to include smaller volume low viscosity regions, and the added flexure allowed by liquid layers. Gradations in parameters with depth are explored, such as allowed by the Preliminary Earth Reference Model. For ice-silicate hybrid worlds, dramatically greater dissipation is possible beyond the case of a silicate mantle only, allowing non-negligible tidal activity to extend to greater orbital periods than previously predicted. Surface patterns of tidal heating are found to potentially be useful for distinguishing internal structure. The influence of ice mantle depth and water ocean size and position are shown for a range of forcing frequencies. Rates of orbital circularization are found to be 10-100 times faster than standard predictions for Earth-analog planets when interiors are moderately warmer than the modern Earth, as well as for a diverse range of ice-silicate hybrid super-Earths. Circularization rates are shown to be significantly longer for planets with layers equivalent to an ocean-free modern Earth, as well as for planets with high fractions of either ice or silicate melting.

  13. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Warren

    2014-07-03

    As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance.

  14. Pan-Arctic land–atmospheric fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide in response to climate change over the 21st century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xudong

    Future changes of pan-Arctic land–atmospheric methane (CH[subscript 4]) and carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) depend on how terrestrial ecosystems respond to warming climate. Here, we used a coupled hydrology–biogeochemistry ...

  15. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S., Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law

    2011-10-05

    As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance.

  16. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. In the fourth quarter, three deliverables have been completed, some in draft form to be revised and updated to include Wyoming. This is due primarily to some delays in funding to LANL and INEEL and the approval of a supplemental proposal to include Wyoming in much of the GIS data sets, analysis, and related materials. The de

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO2 concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. A third Partnership meeting has been planned for August 04 in Idaho Falls; a preliminary agenda is attached.

  18. Where does the carbon go?–Plant carbon allocation under climate change

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sevanto, Sanna; Dickman, L. Turin

    2015-06-01

    The ability of terrestrial vegetation to both take up and release carbon and water makes understanding climate change effects on plant function critical. These effects could alter the impacts and feedbacks of vegetation on climate and either slow down or accelerate climatic warming (Bonan 2008). In conclusion, studies on plant responses to increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and elevated temperatures have become abundant in the last 20 years (for reviews, see Way and Oren 2010, Franks et al. 2013).

  19. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed this quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. To date, there has been little research on soil carbon on rangelands, and since rangeland constitutes a major land use in the Big Sky region, this is important in achieving a better understanding of terrestrial sinks. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. Progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations. A series of meetings held during the second quarter have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. Finally, the education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan and process which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. While we are still working on the public website, we have made many presentations to stakeholders and policy makers, connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmentally-friendly energy production. In addition, we have laid plans for integration of our outreach efforts with the students, especially at the tribal colleges and at the universities involved in our partnership. This includes collaboration with the film and media arts departments at MSU, with outreach effort

  20. Managing the cost of emissions for durable, carbon-containing products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirley, Kevin [Appalachian State University; Marland, Eric [Appalachian State University; Cantrell, Jenna [Appalachian State University; Marland, Gregg [ORNL

    2011-03-01

    We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probability distribution that models the carbon release predicts the amount of carbon that is released as a function of time. The use of a probability distribution in accounting for the release of carbon to the atmosphere realizes a fundamental shift from the idea that all carbon-containing products contribute to a single pool that decays in proportion to the size of the stock. Viewing the release of carbon as a continuous probabilistic process introduces some theoretical opportunities not available in the former paradigm by taking advantage of other fields where the use of probability distributions has been prevalent for many decades. In particular, theories developed in the life insurance industry can guide the development of pricing and payment structures for dealing with the costs associated with the oxidation and release of carbon. These costs can arise from a number of proposed policies (cap and trade, carbon tax, social cost of carbon, etc), but in the end they all result in there being a cost to releasing carbon to the atmosphere. If there is a cost to the emitter for CO2 emissions, payment for that cost will depend on both when the emissions actually occur and how payment is made. Here we outline some of the pricing and payment structures that are possible which result from analogous theories in the life insurance industry. This development not only provides useful constructs for valuing sequestered carbon, but highlights additional motivations for employing a probability distribution approach to unify accounting methodologies for stocks of carbon containing products.

  1. Quantum spatial-periodic harmonic model for daily price-limited stock markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Xiangyi; Xu, Jingjing; Guo, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of stocks in daily price-limited stock markets by purposing a quantum spatial-periodic harmonic model. The stock price is presumed to oscillate and damp in a quantum spatial-periodic harmonic oscillator potential well. Complicated non-linear relations including inter-band positive correlation and intra-band negative correlation between the volatility and the trading volume of stocks are derived by considering the energy band structure of the model. The validity of price limitation is then examined and abnormal phenomena of a price-limited stock market (Shanghai Stock Exchange) of China are studied by applying our quantum model.

  2. 95A.E. Hartemink and K. McSweeney (eds.), Soil Carbon. Progress in Soil Science, DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-04084-4_10, Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    and the uncertainty around these stocks is necessary for national C inventories (IPCC 2007), inputs to earth system models (Todd-Brown et al. 2013), and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC) temporal changes (Kravchenko

  3. Current and Future Carbon Budgets of Tropical Rain Forest: A Cross Scale Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberbauer, S. F.

    2004-01-16

    The goal of this project was to make a first assessment of the major carbon stocks and fluxes and their climatic determinants in a lowland neotropical rain forest, the La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Our research design was based on the concurrent use of several of the best available approaches, so that data could be cross-validated. A major focus of our effort was to combine meteorological studies of whole-forest carbon exchange (eddy flux), with parallel independent measurements of key components of the forest carbon budget. The eddy flux system operated from February 1998 to February 2001. To obtain field data that could be scaled up to the landscape level, we monitored carbon stocks, net primary productivity components including tree growth and mortality, litterfall, woody debris production, root biomass, and soil respiration in a series of replicated plots stratified across the major environmental gradients of the forest. A second major focus of this project was on the stocks and changes of carbon in the soil. We used isotope studies and intensive monitoring to investigate soil organic stocks and the climate-driven variation of soil respiration down the soil profile, in a set of six 4m deep soil shafts stratified across the landscape. We measured short term tree growth, climate responses of sap flow, and phenology in a suite of ten canopy trees to develop individual models of tree growth to daytime weather variables.

  4. Centennial black carbon turnover observed in a Russia steppe soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammes, K.; Torn, M.S.; Lapenas, A.G.; Schmidt, M.W.I.

    2008-09-15

    Black carbon (BC), from incomplete combustion of fuels and biomass, has been considered highly recalcitrant and a substantial sink for carbon dioxide. Recent studies have shown that BC can be degraded in soils. We use two soils with very low spatial variability sampled 100 years apart in a Russian steppe preserve to generate the first whole-profile estimate of BC stocks and turnover in the field. Quantities of fire residues in soil changed significantly over a century. Black carbon stock was 2.5 kg m{sup -2}, or about 7-10% of total organic C in 1900. With cessation of biomass burning, BC stocks decreased 25% over a century, which translates into a centennial soil BC turnover (293 years best estimate; range 182-541 years), much faster than so-called inert or passive carbon in ecosystem models. The turnover time presented here is for loss by all processes, namely decomposition, leaching, and erosion, although the latter two were probably insignificant in this case. Notably, at both time points, the peak BC stock was below 30 cm, a depth interval, which is not typically accounted for. Also, the quality of the fire residues changed with time, as indicated by the use benzene poly carboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers. The proportions of less-condensed (and thus more easily degradable) BC structures decreased, whereas the highly condensed (and more recalcitrant) BC structures survived unchanged over the 100-year period. Our results show that BC cannot be assumed chemically recalcitrant in all soils, and other explanations for very old soil carbon are needed.

  5. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of April 1, 2005-September 30, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. While Phase 2 planning is well under way, the content of this report focuses exclusively on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period. Progress during this period was focused in the three areas: geological carbon storage capacity in New Mexico, terrestrial sequestration capacity for the project area, and the Integrated Assessment Model efforts. The geologic storage capacity of New Mexico was analyzed and Blanco Mesaverde (which extends into Colorado) and Basin Dakota Pools were chosen as top two choices for the further analysis for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the system dynamics model preliminary analysis. Terrestrial sequestration capacity analysis showed that the four states analyzed thus far (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) have relatively limited potential to sequester carbon in terrestrial systems, mainly due to the aridity of these areas, but the large land area offered could make up for the limited capacity per hectare. Best opportunities were thought to be in eastern Colorado/New Mexico. The Integrated Assessment team expanded the initial test case model to include all New Mexico sinks and sources in a new, revised prototype model in 2005. The allocation mechanism, or ''String of Pearls'' concept, utilizes potential pipeline routes as the links between all combinations of the source to various sinks. This technique lays the groundwork for future, additional ''String of Pearls'' analyses throughout the SW Partnership and other regions as well.

  6. Variation of mitochondrial control region sequences of Steller sea lions: the three-stock hypothesis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Alyson Renee

    2004-09-30

    -statistics at the regional level. The Commander Islands clearly associate with Alaskan western stock rookeries, not with the Asian rookeries. Within each of the three stocks there is significant isolation by distance among rookeries. This relationship does not hold...

  7. Are analysts biased? An analysis of analysts' stock recommendations that perform contrary to expectations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taffler, Richard; Mokoteli, Thabang; Ryan, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to test whether analysts are prone to behavioral biases when making stock recommendations. In particular, we work with stocks whose performance subsequent to a new buy or sell recommendation is in the ...

  8. An Arctic Terrestrial Food-Chain Bioaccumulation Model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gobas, Frank

    An Arctic Terrestrial Food-Chain Bioaccumulation Model for Persistent Organic Pollutants B A R R Y tarandus), and wolf (Canis lupus) food-chains of Canada's central and western arctic region from measured concentrations of 25 organic chemicals forecasted for caribou and wolves from Cambridge Bay (69°07 N 105°03 W

  9. The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, James H.

    The Evolution of Maximum Body Size of Terrestrial Mammals Felisa A. Smith,1 * Alison G. Boyer,2 the primary driver for the evolution of giant mammals was diversification to fill ecological niches extracted from the Paleobiology Database (12), using the range- through option for each interval of time. We

  10. BIG BEAR SOLAR OBSERVATORY CENTER FOR SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIG BEAR SOLAR OBSERVATORY CENTER FOR SOLAR-TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH Faculty Position in Solar Physics, New Jersey Institute of Technology A tenure track faculty position in solar physics is available of NJIT's program in solar physics, visit http://solar.njit.edu. Applicants are required to have a Ph

  11. SUN-EARTH CONNECTION Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MISSIONS SUN-EARTH CONNECTION STEREO Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Hinode CORONAL MASS. Twin spacecraft, placed in different orbits, take images to produce 3-D pictures of the Sun and Solar Japanese/US/UK mission to study interactions between the Sun's magnetic field and its outer atmosphere

  12. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements Stephen T. Dye, and approved November 16, 2007 (received for review July 11, 2007) Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemi- cal model

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF TERRESTRIAL ELECTRON ANTI-NEUTRINOS WITH KAMLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    number of terrestrial 238 U and 232 Th ¯e's detected is 4 to 40. This is consistent with the best models grant 09CE2003, and by the United States Department of Energy under grant DEFG03-00ER41138. The reactor, Hokuriku, Chubu, Kansai, Chugoku, Shikoku, and Kyushu Electric Power Companies, Japan Atomic Power Company

  14. Transient climate change and net ecosystem production of the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Xiangming.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Kicklighter, David W.; McGuire, A. David.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Wang, Chien.; Stone, Peter H.; Sokolov, Andrei P.

    The Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM version 4.1) is applied to assess the sensitivity of net ecosystem production (NEP) of the terrestrial biosphere to transient changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate in the ...

  15. Strategic Male Calling Behavior in an Australian Terrestrial Toadlet (Pseudophryne bibronii)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keogh, Scott

    Strategic Male Calling Behavior in an Australian Terrestrial Toadlet (Pseudophryne bibronii behavior in response to fluctuating social conditions. Within a species, it is not known whether males Pseudophryne bibronii, males construct terrestrial nests and call to advertise territory occupation

  16. Author's personal copy Beryllium-10 terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of Quaternary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frankel, Kurt L.

    Author's personal copy Beryllium-10 terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides Optically stimulated luminescence Alluvial fans Shore lines Lake Manly nuclide (TCN) surface exposure methods in Death Valley. The 10 Be TCN ages show considerable variance

  17. Redistribution ofmulti-phase particulate organic carbon in a marine shelf and canyon system during an exceptional river flood: Effects of Typhoon Morakot on the Gaoping River–Canyon system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparkes, Robert B.; Lin, In-Tian; Hovius, Niels; Galy, Albert; Liu, James T.; Xu, Xiaomei; Yang, Rick

    2015-02-25

    Volumetrically, turbidity currents are the prime suppliers of sediment to the deep sea, and conveyors of organic carbon from the terrestrial biosphere and submarine shelf into marine depositional basins. They result from complex processes of erosion...

  18. RoSCAR: Robot Stock Car Autonomous Racing , Corey Montella

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spletzer, John R.

    RoSCAR: Robot Stock Car Autonomous Racing Kyle Hart , Corey Montella , Georges Petitpas , DylanSCAR. The platform is based on a 1/10-scale short track race car, integrated with an on-board desktop-class computer of Computer Science and Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering ABSTRACT In this paper, we present

  19. Mining The Stock Market: Which Measure Is Best ? [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indyk, Piotr

    community in mining time series data. Such data naturally arise in business as well as scientific decision the price of the stock at the beginning of an operational day. Every time series is assigned to one out of 102 clusters (e.g. ``Computers (Hardware)'', ``Oil and Gas'', etc). Assuming this classification

  20. Forecasting stock prices using Genetic Programming and Chance Discovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    finance. GAs are algorithms that emulate evolution and natural selection to solve a problem. A populationForecasting stock prices using Genetic Programming and Chance Discovery Alma Lilia Garcia to financial problems. In particular, the use of Genetic Algorithms (GAs), for financial purposes, has

  1. Safety Stocks in Manufacturing Systems Stephen C. Graves*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Stephen C.

    1987 A.P. Sloan School of Management Massachusetts Institute of Technology Room E53-390 Cambridge, MA Stephen C.Graves A.P.Sloan School of Management Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139Safety Stocks in Manufacturing Systems by Stephen C. Graves* WP 1894-87 January 1987 revised June

  2. The Volatility of Liquidity and Expected Stock Returns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbas, Ferhat 1981-

    2011-07-29

    The pricing of total liquidity risk is studied in the cross-section of stock returns. The study suggests that there is a positive relation between total volatility of liquidity and expected returns. Our measure of liquidity is based on Amihud...

  3. Market Maker Inventories and Stock Prices Terrence Hendershott

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kearns, Michael

    in intraday trading and price formation.2 This paper examines the relationship between closing market makerMarket Maker Inventories and Stock Prices Terrence Hendershott U.C. Berkeley Mark S. Seasholes U prices follow naturally from inventory models. Liquidity suppliers and market markers profit from

  4. An empirical investigation of Australian Stock Exchange Data.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydney, University of

    separate data series representing an intraday and overnight component. Power law exponents the price dy- namics of the securities that trade on it. Markets such as the ASX allow for price development during non-trading periods, such as after hours trading and dual-listed stocks. A new approach

  5. An empirical investigation of Australian Stock Exchange Data.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sydney, University of

    separate data series representing an intraday and overnight component. Power law exponents the price dy­ namics of the securities that trade on it. Markets such as the ASX allow for price development during non­trading periods, such as after hours trading and dual­listed stocks. A new approach

  6. Trend Following Algorithms for Technical Trading in Stock Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Si, Yain Whar "Lawrence"

    to the design of technical trading systems. It implies that the fluctuation of market trend should be monitoredTrend Following Algorithms for Technical Trading in Stock Market Simon Fong, Jackie Tai, Yain Whar-- Trend following (TF) is a rule-based trading mechanism that taps on the movements of long-term market

  7. Stock Picking Skills of SEC Employees Shivaram Rajgopal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    on trades by SEC employees are interesting. In March 2009, H. David Kotz, then Inspector General (IG for all securities in general; and (ii) about 8.5% in U.S. common stocks in particular. The abnormal of Thomson-Reuters for her invaluable help in explaining the institutional details of the Form 144 reporting

  8. Can the stock market be linearised? Dimitris N. Politis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politis, Dimitris N.

    Can the stock market be linearised? Dimitris N. Politis Department of Mathematics University of financial markets is a complicated real-world phenom- enon that ranks at the top in terms of difficulty- pose to transform the problem into a more manageable setting such as the setting of linearity. The form

  9. STOCK COMPOSITION, GROWTH, MORTALITY, AND AVAILABILITY OF PACIFIC SAURY,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RA, OF THE NORTHEASTERN PACIFIC OCEAN STEVEN E. HUGHES) ABSTRACT Recent international interest in the Pacific saury (C%/ahi" "£lira) resource of the north- eastern Pacific Ocean prompted studies to determine the stock, in the northeastern Pacific Ocean was begun by our laboratory. This study was a direct result of a tenfold decrease

  10. Regional partnerships lead US carbon sequestration efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    During the sixth annual conference on carbon capture and sequestration, 7-10 May 2007, a snapshot was given of progress on characterization efforts and field validation tests being carried out through the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership Initiative. The initiative is built on the recognition that geographical differences in fossil fuel/energy use and CO{sub 2} storage sinks across North America will dictate approaches to carbon sequestration. The first characterization phase (2003-2005) identified regional opportunities and developed frameworks to validate and deploy technologies. The validation phase (2005-2009) includes 10 enhanced oil recovery/enhanced gas recovery field tests in progress in Alberta and six US states and is applying lessons learned from these operations to sequestration in unmineable coal seams. Storage in saline formations are the focus of 10 field tests, and terrestrial sequestration will be studied in 11 other projects. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  11. The St. Petersburg Paradox and the Crash of High-Tech Stocks in 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Donald St. P.

    . P. RICHARDS During the late 1990s high technology growth stock prices were raised to unprecedented in which the valuation of growth stocks is related to the St. Petersburg paradox. Our conclusion- ball team; Fair game of chance; Geometric distribution; High technology stocks; Irrational exuberance

  12. Dynamics of a fishery on two fishing zones with fish stock dependent migrations: aggregation and control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bravo de la Parra, Rafael

    Dynamics of a fishery on two fishing zones with fish stock dependent migrations: aggregation a specific stock-effort dynamic model. The stock corresponds to two fish populations growing and moving between two fishing zones, on which they are harvested by two different fleets. The effort represents

  13. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2014-10-30

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous OC stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global C cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil OC stocks to changing climatic conditions. In this review,more »we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of OC stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this OC to permafrost thaw under a warming climate.« less

  14. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes Jeffrey J. Love1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Jeremy N.

    Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes Jeffrey J. Love1 and Jeremy N. Thomas2 that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure

  15. Radio emissions from terrestrial gamma-ray flashes Joseph R. Dwyer1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    . Introduction 1.1. TGF Theory Overview [2] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bright bursts of gamma raysRadio emissions from terrestrial gamma-ray flashes Joseph R. Dwyer1 and Steven A. Cummer2 Received frequency (RF) emissions by terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) is developed. These radio emissions, which

  16. Measurements and implications of the relationship between lightning and terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    the discovery of short bursts of gamma rays originating from Earth, called terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFsMeasurements and implications of the relationship between lightning and terrestrial gamma ray associated with 26 terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) recorded by the RHESSI satellite over the Caribbean

  17. The Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) in Dune Ecosystems: The Lessons Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) in Dune Ecosystems: The Lessons Learned Rusty A. Feagin of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in dune ecosystems: the lessons learned. Journal of Coastal Research, 30 terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to quantify sand dune geomorphology. As an example of the use of TLS, we

  18. Subalpine Forest Carbon Cycling Short- and Long-Term Influence ofClimate and Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueppers, L.; Harte, J.

    2005-08-23

    Ecosystem carbon cycle feedbacks to climate change comprise one of the largest remaining sources of uncertainty in global model predictions of future climate. Both direct climate effects on carbon cycling and indirect effects via climate-induced shifts in species composition may alter ecosystem carbon balance over the long term. In the short term, climate effects on carbon cycling may be mediated by ecosystem species composition. We used an elevational climate and tree species composition gradient in Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to quantify the sensitivity of all major ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes to these factors. The climate sensitivities of carbon fluxes were species-specific in the cases of relative above ground productivity and litter decomposition, whereas the climate sensitivity of dead wood decay did not differ between species, and total annual soil CO2 flux showed no strong climate trend. Lodge pole pine relative productivity increased with warmer temperatures and earlier snowmelt, while Engelmann spruce relative productivity was insensitive to climate variables. Engelmann spruce needle decomposition decreased linearly with increasing temperature(decreasing litter moisture), while lodgepole pine and subalpine fir needle decay showed a hump-shaped temperature response. We also found that total ecosystem carbon declined by 50 percent with a 2.88C increase in mean annual temperature and a concurrent 63 percent decrease ingrowing season soil moisture, primarily due to large declines in mineral soil and dead wood carbon. We detected no independent effect of species composition on ecosystem C stocks. Overall, our carbon flux results suggest that, in the short term, any change in subalpine forest net carbon balance will depend on the specific climate scenario and spatial distribution of tree species. Over the long term, our carbon stock results suggest that with regional warming and drying, Rocky Mountain subalpine forest will be a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.

  19. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. A series of meetings held in November and December, 2003, have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These include the impact of existing local, state, and federal permitting issues for terrestrial based carbon sequestration projects, consistency of final protocols and planning standards with national requirements, and alignments of carbon sequestration projects with existing federal and state cost-share programs. Finally, the education and outreach efforts during this performance period have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The primary goal of this plan is to increase awareness, understanding, and public acceptance of sequestration efforts and build support for a constituent based network which includes the initial Big Sky Partnership and other local and regional businesses and entities.

  20. The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    for terrestrial carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production. For P. strobus, above- ground plant carbonThe impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production R A M E S H L A U N G A N I and J O H A N N E S M . H . K N O P S School of Biological Sciences

  1. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration re

  2. Global carbon budget 2014

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Le Quéré, C.; Moriarty, R.; Andrew, R. M.; Peters, G. P.; Ciais, P.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, S. D.; Sitch, S.; Tans, P.; Arneth, A.; et al

    2015-05-08

    Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissionsmore »from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1?;, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr?¹,ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr?¹, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr?¹. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr?¹, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr?¹, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr?¹. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr?¹), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).« less

  3. Model-data Fusion Approaches for Retrospective and Predictive Assessment of the Pan-Arctic Scale Permafrost Carbon Feedback to Global Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    representation of the Arctic system carbon cycle in Earth System Modeling frameworks. This proposed study of permafrost carbon processes in terrestrial biogeochemistry models, to operate within coupled Earth system modeling frameworks. PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE This work will provide a critical bridge between the abundant

  4. Stocking and Management Recommendations for Texas Farm Ponds. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anonymous,

    1983-01-01

    , ponds less than one acre receive different recommendations than larger ponds. The extent of water surface fluctuations, degree of expected fishing pressure and the muddiness of the water are a few of the traits which the pondowner needs to know... fluctuate considerably in surface area should be stocked on the basis of average annual low water surface area. Muddy Water Many Texas ponds have a tendency to stay muddy. This condition is caused by suspended soil particles in the water and should...

  5. Taking stock of renewables: NREL teaches farm and ranch appliations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, M.G. [NREL, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    NREL workshop leaders find a receptive audience for renewable energy technologies among farmers and ranchers. As an exhibitor/participant in Denver`s National Western Stock Show, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of Golden, Colorado sponsored an educational workshop to demonstrate applications of solar and wind energy on the farm and ranch, offering a very non-traditional energy approach to people who pride themselves in tradition. This article describes solar and wind energy applications to farms and ranches.

  6. Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    cycle in the CMIP5 earth system models. J. Clim. 26, 6801–simulations from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparisonoutputs from ten Earth system models from CMIP5 65 (

  7. Introducing a terrestrial carbon pool in warm desert bedrock mountains, southwestern USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Ron

    short-term sources, such as fossil fuel combustion and changes in land cover biomass [Liu et al., 2003 to be balanced by rates of weathering and geologic CO2 emissions [Sundquist, 1993]. Decay of calcium

  8. Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    P, Dufresne JL, Cox PM, Rayner P (2003) How positive is the1208–1229. Kaminski T, Knorr W, Rayner PJ, Heimann M (2002)

  9. Global covariation of carbon turnover times with climate in terrestrial ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    cycle in the CMIP5 earth system models. J. Clim. 26, 6801–simulations from CMIP5 Earth system models and comparisonand is considered in Earth system models. The largest global

  10. Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    coming from earth system models performing simulations forecological and earth system observations. Model results fromEarth System Grid. Keywords: ameriflux, atmospheric tracer transport model

  11. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  12. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  13. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  14. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies.

  15. Seasonal changes in the age and structure of dissolved organic carbon in Siberian rivers and streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    > 100%) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy techniques showed high concentration soils or other terrestrial sources of old, previously stabilized C. Citation: Neff, J. C., J. C. Finlay]. The resulting soil deposits contain organic carbon concentrations that average between 2­5% C with numerous

  16. Mobilization pathways of organic carbon from permafrost to arctic rivers in a changing climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    Mobilization pathways of organic carbon from permafrost to arctic rivers in a changing climate rivers and Arctic coastal regions. To elucidate the transport pathways of SOC, radiocarbon composition is more readily influenced by modern terrestrial biomass, especially in large river basins which also

  17. Alaskan soil carbon stocks: Spatial variability and dependence on environmental factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishra, U.

    2013-01-01

    soil wetness in Earth System Models may lead to largeand testing of Earth System Model (ESMs). Several recentsoil wetness in Earth System Models (Lawrence & Slater,

  18. Quantification of Salt Marsh Carbon Stocks: Integration of Remote Sensing Data and Techniques with Field Measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulawardhana, Ranjani W

    2013-12-02

    in this study show the capability of remote sensing data for the characterization of salt marsh terrain and vegetation heights and the estimation of above-ground biomass quantities. The best biomass prediction models using lidar heights reported considerably...

  19. Carbon particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  20. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  1. Cow-Calf and Vegetation Response to Heavy Rates of Stocking at the Texas Experimental Ranch. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heitschmidt, R.K.; Johnson, A.B.; Frasure, J.R.; Price, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    at a stocking rate considerably great er than that normally associated with conventional grazing systems (Fig. 1). To properly evaluate any extensive rangeland graz ing system, large areas of land and large numbers of livestock are required, since... dry winters. Annual precipitation at the ranch since 1960 has averaged 690 mm (Fig. 2). The pasture layout was a completely randomized design with two replications of three rates of stock ing. Treatment stocking rates were 5.0, 4.2, and 3...

  2. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

  3. Coupling Terrestrial and Atmospheric Water Dynamics to Improve Prediction in a Changing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyon, Steve W.; Dominguez, Francina; Gochis, David J.; Brunsell, Nathaniel A.; Castro, Christopher; Chow, Fotini K.; Fan, Ying; Fuka, Daniel; Hong, Yang; Kucera, Paul A.; Nesbitt, Stephen W.; Salzmann, Nadine; Schmidli, Juerg; Snyder, Peter K.; Teuling, Adriaam J.; Twine, Tracy E.; Levis, Samuel; Lundquist, Jessica D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Sealy, Andrea M.; Walter, M. Todd

    2008-09-01

    Fluxes across the land surface directly influence predictions of ecological processes, atmospheric dynamics, and terrestrial hydrology. However, many simplifications are made in numerical models when considering ...

  4. Fujian Zhongde Technology Stock Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpAFlexStock Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name:

  5. Jiangsu FAW Foundry Stock Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgency (IRENA) Jump to: navigation,Wind Jump to:FAW Foundry Stock

  6. Weathering controls on mechanisms of carbon storage in grassland soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masiello, C.A.; Chadwick, O.A.; Southon, J.; Torn, M.S.; Harden, J.W.

    2004-09-01

    On a sequence of soils developed under similar vegetation, temperature, and precipitation conditions, but with variations in mineralogical properties, we use organic carbon and 14C inventories to examine mineral protection of soil organic carbon. In these soils, 14C data indicate that the creation of slow-cycling carbon can be modeled as occurring through reaction of organic ligands with Al3+ and Fe3+ cations in the upper horizons, followed by sorption to amorphous inorganic Al compounds at depth. Only one of these processes, the chelation of Al3+ and Fe3+ by organic ligands, is linked to large carbon stocks. Organic ligands stabilized by this process traverse the soil column as dissolved organic carbon (both from surface horizons and root exudates). At our moist grassland site, this chelation and transport process is very strongly correlated with the storage and long-term stabilization of soil organic carbon. Our 14C results show that the mechanisms of organic carbon transport and storage at this site follow a classic model previously believed to only be significant in a single soil order (Spodosols), and closely related to the presence of forests. The presence of this process in the grassland Alfisol, Inceptisol, and Mollisol soils of this chronosequence suggests that this process is a more significant control on organic carbon storage than previously thought.

  7. Imaging the Earth's Interior: the Angular Distribution of Terrestrial Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brian D. Fields; Kathrin A. Hochmuth

    2004-05-31

    Decays of radionuclides throughout the Earth's interior produce geothermal heat, but also are a source of antineutrinos. The (angle-integrated) geoneutrino flux places an integral constraint on the terrestrial radionuclide distribution. In this paper, we calculate the angular distribution of geoneutrinos, which opens a window on the differential radionuclide distribution. We develop the general formalism for the neutrino angular distribution, and we present the inverse transformation which recovers the terrestrial radioisotope distribution given a measurement of the neutrino angular distribution. Thus, geoneutrinos not only allow a means to image the Earth's interior, but offering a direct measure of the radioactive Earth, both (1) revealing the Earth's inner structure as probed by radionuclides, and (2) allowing for a complete determination of the radioactive heat generation as a function of radius. We present the geoneutrino angular distribution for the favored Earth model which has been used to calculate geoneutrino flux. In this model the neutrino generation is dominated by decays in the Earth's mantle and crust; this leads to a very ``peripheral'' angular distribution, in which 2/3 of the neutrinos come from angles > 60 degrees away from the downward vertical. We note the possibility of that the Earth's core contains potassium; different geophysical predictions lead to strongly varying, and hence distinguishable, central intensities (vertical). Other uncertainties in the models, and prospects for observation of the geoneutrino angular distribution, are briefly discussed. We conclude by urging the development and construction of antineutrino experiments with angular sensitivity. (Abstract abridged.)

  8. Monte Carlo simulation of the terrestrial hydrogen exosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodges, R.R. Jr. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Methods for Monte Carlo simulation of planetary exospheres have evolved from early work on the lunar atmosphere, where the regolith surface provides a well defined exobase. A major limitation of the successor simulations of the exospheres of Earth and Venus is the use of an exobase surface as an artifice to separate the collisional processes of the thermosphere from a collisionles exosphere. In this paper a new generalized approach to exosphere simulation is described, wherein the exobase is replaced by a barometric depletion of the major constitents of the thermosphere. Exospheric atoms in the thermosphere-exosphere transition region, and in the outer exosphere as well, travel in ballistic trajectories that are interrupted by collisons with the background gas, and by charge exchange interactions with ionospheric particles. The modified simulator has been applied to the terrestrial hydrogen exosphere problem, using velocity dependent differential cross sections to provide statistically correct collisional scattering in H-O and H-H(+) interactions. Global models are presented for both solstice and equinox over the effective solar cycle range of the F{sub 10.7} index (80 to 230). Simulation results show significant differences with previous terrestrial exosphere models, as well as with the H distributions of the MSIS-86 thermosphere model.

  9. Using Ant Communities For Rapid Assessment Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wike, L

    2005-06-01

    Measurement of ecosystem health is a very important but often difficult and sometimes fractious topic for applied ecologists. It is important because it can provide information about effects of various external influences like chemical, nuclear, and physical disturbance, and invasive species. Ecosystem health is also a measure of the rate or trajectory of degradation or recovery of systems that are currently suffering impact or those where restoration or remediation have taken place. Further, ecosystem health is the single best indicator of the quality of long term environmental stewardship because it not only provides a baseline condition, but also the means for future comparison and evaluation. Ecosystem health is difficult to measure because there are a nearly infinite number of variables and uncertainty as to which suites of variables are truly indicative of ecosystem condition. It would be impossible and prohibitively expensive to measure all those variables, or even all the ones that were certain to be valid indicators. Measurement of ecosystem health can also be a fractious topic for applied ecologists because there are a myriad of opinions as to which variables are the most important, most easily measured, most robust, and so forth. What is required is an integrative means of evaluating ecosystem health. All ecosystems are dynamic and undergo change either stochastically, intrinsically, or in response to external influences. The basic assumption about change induced by exogenous antropogenic influences is that it is directional and measurable. Historically measurements of surrogate parameters have been used in an attempt to quantify these changes, for example extensive water chemistry data in aquatic systems. This was the case until the 1980's when the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) (Karr et al. 1986), was developed. This system collects an array of metrics and fish community data within a stream ecosystem and develops a score or rating for the relative health of the ecosystem. The IBI, though originally for Midwestern streams, has been successfully adapted to other ecoregions and taxa (macroinvertebrates, Lombard and Goldstein, 2004) and has become an important tool for scientists and regulatory agencies alike in determining health of stream ecosystems. The IBI is a specific type of a larger group of methods and procedures referred to as Rapid Bioassessment (RBA). These protocols have the advantage of directly measuring the organisms affected by system perturbations, thus providing an integrated evaluation of system health because the organisms themselves integrate all aspects of their environment and its condition. In addition to the IBI, the RBA concept has also been applied to seep wetlands (Paller et al. 2005) and terrestrial systems (O'Connell et al. 1998, Kremen et al. 1993, Rodriguez et al. 1998, Rosenberg et al. 1986). Terrestrial RBA methods have lagged somewhat behind those for aquatic systems because terrestrial systems are less distinctly defined and seem to have a less universal distribution of an all-inclusive taxon, such as fish in the IBI, upon which to base an RBA. In the last decade, primarily in Australia, extensive development of an RBA using ant communities has shown great promise. Ants have the same advantage for terrestrial RBAs that fish do for aquatic systems in that they are an essential and ubiquitous component of virtually all terrestrial ecosystems. They occupy a broad range of niches, functional groups, and trophic levels and they possess one very important characteristic that makes them ideal for RBA because, similar to the fishes, there is a wide range of tolerance to conditions within the larger taxa. Within ant communities there are certain groups, genera, or species that may be very robust and abundant under even the harshest impacts. There are also taxa that are very sensitive to disturbance and change and their presence or absence is also indicative of the local conditions. Also, as with the aquatic RBAs using macroinvertebrates, ants have a wide variety of functional foragi

  10. Stock market comovements: nonlinear approach for 48 countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, Paulo; Movahed, S M S

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the stock market comovements using basically three different approaches. Firstly, we used the most common linear analysis, based on cointegration and Granger causality tests; secondly we applied a nonlinear approach, using mutual information to analyze nonlinear dependence. Since underlying data sets are affected by non-stationarities, we also applied MF-DFA and MF-DXA in order to examine the multifractality nature of data and to analyze the relationship and mutual interaction between pairs of series, respectively. The overall results are quite interesting, since we found only 170 pair of stock markets cointegrated, and according to the Granger causality and mutual information we realized that the strongest relations lies between emerging markets, and between emerging and frontier markets. According to scaling exponent given by MF-DFA, $h(q=2)>1$, we found that all underlying data belong to non-stationary process. There is no cross-over in the fluctuation functions determined by MF-DFA met...

  11. Process for producing a high quality lube oil stock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, J.W.

    1987-03-10

    A process is described for converting a waxy hydrocarbon feedstock containing a substantial proportion of hydrocarbonaceous material boiling above about 650/sup 0/F into a high quality lube oil stock which comprises: (a) contacting the waxy hydrocarbon feedstock with a dewaxing catalyst in a dewaxing zone under conditions such that the pour point of the feedstock is reduced, the dewaxing catalyst comprising a molecular sieve containing pores defined by 10-membered rings of oxygen atoms; (b) contacting at least a portion of the effluent from the dewaxing zone with molecular hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst in a hydrocracking zone under conditions such that a further reduction in pour point is effected. The hydrocracking catalyst comprises at least one hydrogenation component selected from the group consisting of Group VIB metal components and Group VIII metal components on a support comprising a crystalline aluminosilicate Y zeolite having catalytic activity for cracking hydrocarbons and a porous refractory oxide comprising silica-alumina dispersed in a matrix of gamma alumina; and (c) recovering a high quality lube oil stock from the effluent of the hydrocracking zone.

  12. Forecasting stock market returns over multiple time horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kroujiline, Dimitri; Ushanov, Dmitry; Sharov, Sergey V; Govorkov, Boris

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we seek to demonstrate the predictability of stock market returns and explain the nature of this return predictability. To this end, we further develop the news-driven analytic model of the stock market derived in Gusev et al. (2015). This enables us to capture market dynamics at various timescales and shed light on mechanisms underlying certain market behaviors such as transitions between bull- and bear markets and the self-similar behavior of price changes. We investigate the model and show that the market is nearly efficient on timescales shorter than one day, adjusting quickly to incoming news, but is inefficient on longer timescales, where news may have a long-lasting nonlinear impact on dynamics attributable to a feedback mechanism acting over these horizons. Using the model, we design the prototypes of algorithmic strategies that utilize news flow, quantified and measured, as the only input to trade on market return forecasts over multiple horizons, from days to months. The backtested res...

  13. Photosynthesis, Nitrogen, Their Adjustment and its Effects on Ecosystem Carbon Gain at Elevated CO{sub 2}l. A Comparison of Loblolly and Ponderosa Pines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ball, J. Timothy; Eichelmann, Hillar Y.; Tissue, David T.; Lewis, James D.; Picone, Johnn B.; Ross, Peter D.

    1996-12-01

    A functional understanding of terrestrial ecosystem carbon processes is essential for two reasons. First, carbon flow is a most fundamental aspects of ecosystem function as it mediates most of the energy flow in these systems. Second, carbon flow also mediates the majority of energy flow in the global economy and will do for the foreseeable future. The increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and its inevitable flow through global ecosystems will influence ecosystem processes. There is, of course, great interest in the potential of ecosystems to sequester some of the carbon being loaded into the atmosphere by economic activity.

  14. Thompson March 2003 -1STEREO -Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Mission STEREO GS PR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -www.nrl.navy.mil] ­ S/WAVES Heritage: WIND WAVES [www-lep.gsfc.nasa.gov/waves/waves.html] ­ IMPACT Heritage: WIND 3Dp.sr.unh.edu/data.html] and at UCLA with IMPACT #12;Thompson ­ March 2003 - 7STEREO - Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory MissionThompson ­ March 2003 - 1STEREO - Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Mission STEREO GS PR

  15. Compton scattering effects on the duration of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasko, Victor

    ; published 18 January 2012. [1] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are gamma-ray bursts detected from space) recently discovered by the gamma-ray burst monitor (GBM) aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Introduction [2] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high-energy photons originating from

  16. Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Retrieving snow mass from GRACE terrestrial water storage change with a land surface model Guo snow water equivalent (SWE) product is critical for climate and hydrology studies in Arctic regions changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS), of which snow mass is the primary component in winter Arctic

  17. Elements of comparison between Martian and terrestrial mesoscale meteorological phenomena: Katabatic winds and boundary layer convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    Elements of comparison between Martian and terrestrial mesoscale meteorological phenomena Keywords: Mesoscale meteorology Katabatic winds Boundary layer convection Comparative planetology a b s t r a c t Terrestrial and Martian atmospheres are both characterised by a large variety of mesoscale

  18. Terrestrial aridity and its response to greenhouse warming1 across CMIP5 climate models2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frierson, Dargan

    Terrestrial aridity and its response to greenhouse warming1 across CMIP5 climate models2 Jacob climatic aridity, it makes sense to consider P relative to potential37 evapotranspiration PET (e using v4.3.2 of the AMS LATEX template 1 #12;ABSTRACT 2 #12;The aridity of a terrestrial climate

  19. Quantifying global terrestrial methanol emissions using1 observations from the TES satellite sensor2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    1 Quantifying global terrestrial methanol emissions using1 observations from the TES Figure S1. December-January-Febuary (DJF, top) and June-July-August (JJA, bottom) biogenic3 methanol 1 Figure S4. Regions employed for quantifying terrestrial methanol fluxes (red) and for2

  20. Source altitudes of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes produced by lightning leaders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasko, Victor

    ; published 18 April 2012. [1] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are energetic photon bursts observed fromSource altitudes of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes produced by lightning leaders Wei Xu,1 Sebastien. Pasko (2012), Source altitudes of terres- trial gamma-ray flashes produced by lightning leaders, Geophys

  1. Chemistry of atmospheres formed during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chemistry of atmospheres formed during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets Laura: Earth Mars Extrasolar planets Terrestrial planets a b s t r a c t We used chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetic calculations to model chemistry of the volatiles released by heating different types

  2. Chemistry of Atmospheres Formed during Accretion of the Earth and Other Terrestrial Planets Laura Schaefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Chemistry of Atmospheres Formed during Accretion of the Earth and Other Terrestrial Planets - Abstract: We used chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetic calculations to model chemistry by outgassing during accretion of the Earth and other terrestrial planets. Outgassing of CI and CM carbonaceous

  3. Several lineages of benthic animals have made the evolutionary transition between an aquatic and a terrestrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koehl, Mimi

    and a terrestrial habitat, notably the molluscs, annelids, arthropods and vertebrates. Whether a change of habitat the kinematics (Hui, 1992; Pridmore, 1994; Jamon and Clarac, 1995), kinetics (Clarac and Cruse, 1982; Grote, 1981 comparable with those developed for legged terrestrial locomotion (Blickhan, 1989; Blickhan and Full, 1987

  4. Collective behavior of stock price movements in an emerging market Raj Kumar Pan* and Sitabhra Sinha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinha, Sitabhra

    Sinha The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C. I. T. Campus, Taramani, Chennai 600 113, India Received of stock price fluctuations in the National Stock Exchange NSE of India. We find that this emerging market activity is also influenced significantly by the arrival of external informa- tion. Statistical properties

  5. Application of Pulsed Melodic Affective Processing to Stock Market Algorithmic Trading and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    Application of Pulsed Melodic Affective Processing to Stock Market Algorithmic Trading and Analysis) to stock market analysis and algorithmic trading is examined. PMAP utilizes musically-based pulse sets on the processing efficiency and power. Having defined these elements, they then go on to investigate ways of making

  6. Building the Santa Fe Artificial Stock Market Blake LeBaron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Building the Santa Fe Artificial Stock Market Blake LeBaron Brandeis University June 2002 Abstract This short summary presents an insider's look at the construction of the Santa Fe artificial stock of the directions that researchers have been taking is the use of agent-based financial markets. These "bottom- up

  7. Joint Stocking and Product Offer Decisions Under the Multinomial Logit Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Topaloglu, Huseyin

    Joint Stocking and Product Offer Decisions Under the Multinomial Logit Model Huseyin Topaloglu This paper studies a joint stocking and product offer problem. We have access to a number of products to satisfy the demand over a finite selling horizon. Given that customers choose among the set of offered

  8. Attribute Transformations on Numerical Applications to Stock Market and Economic Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tsau Young

    Attribute Transformations on Numerical Databases Applications to Stock Market and Economic Data T of attribu- tion transformations, linear transformations, is applied to stock market and economic data. Some@cs.berkely.edu Abstract. The e#11;ects of attribute transformations on numerical data mining are investigated. Theoretical

  9. Agent-based modelling of stock markets using existing order book data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harman, Mark

    is highly problematic, because such infrequent, rapid intra-day move- ments denote one of the largest market primarily for stock market sim- ulation with a focus on longer time frames than intra-day behaviour. A keyAgent-based modelling of stock markets using existing order book data Efstathios Panayi1 , Mark

  10. RECOVERING A TIME-HOMOGENEOUS STOCK PRICE PROCESS FROM PERPETUAL OPTION PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RECOVERING A TIME-HOMOGENEOUS STOCK PRICE PROCESS FROM PERPETUAL OPTION PRICES ERIK EKSTR¨OM AND DAVID HOBSON Abstract. It is well-known how to determine the price of perpetual American options if the underlying stock price is a time-homogeneous diffusion. In the present paper we consider the inverse problem

  11. ON THE RELATION BETWEEN OPTION AND STOCK PRICES: A CONVEX OPTIMIZATION APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsimas, Dimitris

    ON THE RELATION BETWEEN OPTION AND STOCK PRICES: A CONVEX OPTIMIZATION APPROACH DIMITRIS BERTSIMAS of option and stock prices based just on the no-arbitrage assumption, but without assuming any model for the underlying price dynamics, has a long history in the financial economics literature. We introduce convex and

  12. The Conditional Relationship between Risk and Return in Iran's Stock Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    The Conditional Relationship between Risk and Return in Iran's Stock Market Mahdieh Rezagholizadeh an important role in Iran's economic growth. This paper examines the factors that affect stock returns in Iran by estimating the relationship between various sources of risk -- market risk, oil price risk

  13. Gomory Cuts from a Position-Indexed Formulation of 1D Stock Cutting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheithauer, Guntram.

    Consider the one-dimensional cutting stock problem (CSP): given material pieces of length L and product the minimal number of stock pieces. 1.1 The Gilmore-Gomory and Arc-Flow Formulations Its classical formulation formulation. For each product type i = 1, . . . , m and for each capacity p = 0, . . . , L - li define flow

  14. Can the Bond Price Reaction to Earnings Announcements Predict Future Stock Returns?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Can the Bond Price Reaction to Earnings Announcements Predict Future Stock Returns? Omri Even. #12;Abstract In this paper I show that the bond price reaction to earnings announcements has. By demonstrating that a firm's bond price reaction to an earnings announcement can predict future stock returns

  15. Heterogeneous capital stocks and the optimal timing for CO2 abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heterogeneous capital stocks and the optimal timing for CO2 abatement Mark Jaccard *, Nic Rivers assumptions, an early start at CO2 abatement for long-lived capital stocks would be economically optimal for achieving long run targets for atmospheric CO2 concentrations. If the target is a specific concentration

  16. Carbon investment funds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-01-15

    The report is a study of the development of funds to invest in the purchase of carbon credits. It takes a look at the growing market for carbon credits, the rise of carbon investment funds, and the current state of carbon investing. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of climate change, greenhouse gases, and the Kyoto Protocols. Analysis of the alternatives for reducing carbon emissions including nitrous oxide reduction, coal mine methane capture and carbon capture and storage; Discussion of the different types of carbon credits; Discussion of the basics of carbon trading; Evaluation of the current status of carbon investing; and Profiles of 37 major carbon investment funds worldwide.

  17. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briggs, Michael S. [CSPAR, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes are short pulses of energetic radiation associated with thunderstorms and lightning. While the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on Fermi was designed to observe gamma-ray bursts, its large BGO detectors are excellent for observing TGFs. Using GBM, TGF pulses are seen to either be symmetrical or have faster rise time than fall times. Some TGFs are resolved into double, partially overlapping pulses. Using ground-based radio observations of lightning from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), TGFs and their associated lightning are found to be simultaneous to {approx_equal}40 {mu} s. The lightning locations are typically within 300 km of the sub-spacecraft point.

  18. System, method, and apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Patrick W (Jefferson, MD)

    2011-04-12

    A system, method, and/or apparatus for remote measurement of terrestrial biomass contained in vegetative elements, such as large tree boles or trunks present in an area of interest, are provided. The method includes providing an airborne VHF radar system in combination with a LiDAR system, overflying the area of interest while directing energy toward the area of interest, using the VHF radar system to collect backscatter data from the trees as a function of incidence angle and frequency, and determining a magnitude of the biomass from the backscatter data and data from the laser radar system for each radar resolution cell. A biomass map is generated showing the magnitude of the biomass of the vegetative elements as a function of location on the map by using each resolution cell as a unique location thereon. In certain preferred embodiments, a single frequency is used with a linear array antenna.

  19. Assessment Of Carbon Leakage In Multiple Carbon-Sink Projects: ACase Study In Jambi Province, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boer, Rizaldi; Wasrin, Upik R.; Hendri, Perdinan; Dasanto,Bambang D.; Makundi, Willy; Hero, Julius; Ridwan, M.; Masripatin, Nur

    2007-06-01

    Rehabilitation of degraded forest land throughimplementation of carbon sink projects can increase terrestrial carbonstock. However, carbon emissions outside the project boundary, which iscommonly referred to as leakage, may reduce or negate the sequestrationbenefits. This study assessed leakage from carbon sink projects thatcould potentially be implemented in the study area comprised of elevensub-districts in the Batanghari District, Jambi Province, Sumatra,Indonesia. The study estimates the probability of a given land use/coverbeing converted into other uses/cover, by applying a logit model. Thepredictor variables were: proximity to the center of the land use area,distance to transportation channel (road or river), area of agriculturalland, unemployment (number of job seekers), job opportunities, populationdensity and income. Leakage was estimated by analyzing with and withoutcarbon sink projects scenarios. Most of the predictors were estimated asbeing significant in their contribution to land use cover change. Theresults of the analysis show that leakage in the study area can be largeenough to more than offset the project's carbon sequestration benefitsduring the period 2002-2012. However, leakage results are very sensitiveto changes of carbon density of the land uses in the study area. Byreducing C-density of lowland and hill forest by about 10 percent for thebaseline scenario, the leakage becomes positive. Further data collectionand refinement is therefore required. Nevertheless, this study hasdemonstrated that regional analysis is a useful approach to assessleakage.

  20. Significance of microbial asynchronous anabolism to soil carbon dynamics driven by litter inputs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fan, Zhaosheng; Liang, Chao

    2015-04-02

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. However, it remains largely unknown how plant litter inputs impact magnitude, composition and source configuration of the SOC stocks over long term through microbial catabolism and anabolism, mostly due to uncoupled research on litter decomposition and SOC formation. This limits our ability to predict soil system responses to changes in land-use and climate. Here, we examine how microbes act as a valve controlling carbon sequestrated from plant litters versus released to the atmosphere in natural ecosystems amended with plant litters varying in quantity and quality. We findmore »that litter quality – not quantity – regulates long-term SOC dynamics under different plausible scenarios. Long-term changes in bulk SOC stock occur only when the quality of carbon inputs causes asynchronous change in a microbial physiological trait, defined as ‘‘microbial biosynthesis acceleration’’ (MBA). This is the first theoretical demonstration that the response of the SOC stocks to litter inputs is critically determined by the microbial physiology. Our work suggests that total SOC at an equilibrium state may be an intrinsic property of a given ecosystem, which ultimately is controlled by the asynchronous MBA between microbial functional groups.« less

  1. Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel Vertimass Catalyst for Conversion of Ethanol and Other Alcohols into Fungible Gasoline, Jet, and Diesel Fuel Blend Stocks

  2. The evolution of semi-aquatic mammals from terrestrial ancestors has occurred several times in the mammalian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fish, Frank

    chrysogaster, Fish and Baudinette (Fish and Baudinette, 1999) suggested that the energy costs of terrestrial for terrestrial locomotion was 2.1 times greater. This difference suggests that the platypus may pay a price

  3. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  4. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 046112 (2011) Financial factor influence on scaling and memory of trading volume in stock market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    of price returns [31­33] for different stock markets have been widely studied. It should be noted October 2011) We study the daily trading volume volatility of 17 197 stocks in the US stock markets during price and trading volume have been studied for decades as a prerequisite to developing effective

  5. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  6. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  7. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  8. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  9. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  11. Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

  12. Carbon Isotopic Studies of Assimilated and Ecosystem Respired CO2 in a Southeastern Pine Forest. Final Report and Conference Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conte, Maureen H

    2008-04-10

    Carbon dioxide is the major “greenhouse” gas responsible for global warming. Southeastern pine forests appear to be among the largest terrestrial sinks of carbon dioxide in the US. This collaborative study specifically addressed the isotopic signatures of the large fluxes of carbon taken up by photosynthesis and given off by respiration in this ecosystem. By measuring these isotopic signatures at the ecosystem level, we have provided data that will help to more accurately quantify the magnitude of carbon fluxes on the regional scale and how these fluxes vary in response to climatic parameters such as rainfall and air temperature. The focus of the MBL subcontract was to evaluate how processes operating at the physiological and ecosystem scales affects the resultant isotopic signature of plant waxes that are emitted as aerosols into the convective boundary layer. These wax aerosols provide a large-spatial scale integrative signal of isotopic discrimination of atmospheric carbon dioxide by terrestrial photosynthesis (Conte and Weber 2002). The ecosystem studies have greatly expanded of knowledge of wax biosynthetic controls on their isootpic signature The wax aerosol data products produced under this grant are directly applicable as input for global carbon modeling studies that use variations in the concentration and carbon isotopic composition of atmospheric carbon dioxide to quantify the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of carbon uptake on the global scale.

  13. Terrestrial fate of coal-liquid constituents: behavior of alkyl anilines in soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Felice, L.J.; Zachara, J.M.; Rogers, J.E.

    1982-07-01

    The low molecular weight aromatic amines (anilines) are important water soluble constituents of coal liquids. The impact of anilines released to the terrestrial environment will largely depend on their mobility and persistence. Studies were conducted to investigate those processes governing the mobility and persistence of the alkylanilines, namely, soil sorption and chemical/microbial degradation. Soil sorption measurements were conducted on aniline and several methyl substituted anilines on A and B horizons of a soil profile collected from Davies County, Kentucky. The magnitude of sorption was large in all horizons. Sorption in the B horizons was larger than in the A horizon for many of the anilines studied, indicating the importance of both the mineral matrix and organic carbon content of the soil in determining the magnitude of sorption. Results of these measurements indicate that movement of the anilines through the soil would be significantly attenuated by sorption reactions. Aniline sorption measurement in the A horizon after removal of the organic matter and in the B/sub 22/ horizon after removal of amorphous iron oxides and crystalline iron oxides indicate that organic matter largely controls aniline sorption in the A horizon, while crystalline iron oxides and phyllosilicates are important in the B horizons. The effects of pH on aniline sorption was also examined and shown to have significant effects on the magnitude of sorption in both A and B horizons. Soil degradation studies using /sup 14/C-3-methylaniline as a model for alkyl aniline degradation show that 3-methylaniline is readily metabolized by soil microorganisms during the 32-day period examined.

  14. AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL STRESSORS IN AMPHIBIANS: A TEST OF THE DOUBLE JEOPARDY HYPOTHESIS BASED ON MATERNALLY AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    of contaminant exposure stemming from terrestrial and aquatic environments, because both exposure pathways to environmental contaminants via both aquatic and terrestrial pathways [3]. Despite concern over this doubleAQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL STRESSORS IN AMPHIBIANS: A TEST OF THE DOUBLE JEOPARDY HYPOTHESIS BASED

  15. Terrestrial gamma ray flashes with energies up to 100 MeV produced by nonequilibrium acceleration of electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasko, Victor

    . Introduction [2] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are bursts of high-energy photons originating fromTerrestrial gamma ray flashes with energies up to 100 MeV produced by nonequilibrium accelerationV) of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). This analysis provides the first direct evidence that TGFs are produced

  16. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, five major electric utility companies, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs, and the Western Governors Association. This group is continuing its work in the Phase II Validation Program, slated to conclude in 2009.

  17. Adaptation policies to increase terrestrial ecosystem resilience: potential utility of a multicriteria approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Bremond, Ariane; Engle, Nathan L.

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is rapidly undermining terrestrial ecosystem resilience and capacity to continue providing their services to the benefit of humanity and nature. Because of the importance of terrestrial ecosystems to human well-being and supporting services, decision makers throughout the world are busy creating policy responses that secure multiple development and conservation objectives- including that of supporting terrestrial ecosystem resilience in the context of climate change. This article aims to advance analyses on climate policy evaluation and planning in the area of terrestrial ecosystem resilience by discussing adaptation policy options within the ecology-economy-social nexus. The paper evaluates these decisions in the realm of terrestrial ecosystem resilience and evaluates the utility of a set of criteria, indicators, and assessment methods, proposed by a new conceptual multi-criteria framework for pro-development climate policy and planning developed by the United Nations Environment Programme. Potential applications of a multicriteria approach to climate policy vis-A -vis terrestrial ecosystems are then explored through two hypothetical case study examples. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the utility of the multi-criteria approach in the context of other climate policy evaluation approaches, considers lessons learned as a result efforts to evaluate climate policy in the realm of terrestrial ecosystems, and reiterates the role of ecosystem resilience in creating sound policies and actions that support the integration of climate change and development goals.

  18. Mycorrhizal fungi mediation of terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohan, Jacqueline E.

    . Plants often shift carbon allocation belowground and the activities of mycorrhizal associates responding to global change is not well understood. We emphasize the need for more research in this emerging scientific disciplines and society. ª 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. * Corresponding

  19. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  20. Soil carbon sensitivity to temperature and carbon use efficiency compared across microbial-ecosystem models of varying complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Jianwei [University of Oklahoma] [University of Oklahoma; Wang, Gangsheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Allison, Steven D. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Mayes, Melanie [ORNL] [ORNL; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma] [University of Oklahoma

    2014-01-01

    Global ecosystem models may require microbial components to accurately predict feedbacks between climate warming and soil decomposition, but it is unclear what parameters and levels of complexity are ideal for scaling up to the globe. Here we conducted a model comparison using a conventional model with first-order decay and three microbial models of increasing complexity that simulate short- to long-term soil carbon dynamics. We focused on soil carbon responses to microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) and temperature. Three scenarios were implemented in all models: constant CUE (held at 0.31), varied CUE ( 0.016 C 1), and 50 % acclimated CUE ( 0.008 C 1). Whereas the conventional model always showed soil carbon losses with increasing temperature, the microbial models each predicted a temperature threshold above which warming led to soil carbon gain. The location of this threshold depended on CUE scenario, with higher temperature thresholds under the acclimated and constant scenarios. This result suggests that the temperature sensitivity of CUE and the structure of the soil carbon model together regulate the long-term soil carbon response to warming. Equilibrium soil carbon stocks predicted by the microbial models were much less sensitive to changing inputs compared to the conventional model. Although many soil carbon dynamics were similar across microbial models, the most complex model showed less pronounced oscillations. Thus, adding model complexity (i.e. including enzyme pools) could improve the mechanistic representation of soil carbon dynamics during the transient phase in certain ecosystems. This study suggests that model structure and CUE parameterization should be carefully evaluated when scaling up microbial models to ecosystems and the globe.

  1. The rule of the stock distribution with large bell in blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Yuncai [Shoudu Iron and Steel Co., Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes in detail, starting from the basic equation of materials falling from a two bell furnace top system, how a number of mathematical expressions which govern the stock distribution of the throat were derived. An analysis was then made by applying these equations on topics, such as stockline levels, charging sequences, stock grain size, large bell angle and batch weight. This demonstrates that a reasonable two bells top charging system and practice could be established theoretically. Furthermore, character numbers for stock distribution, such as E{sub B} and D{sub K}, were developed for a possible computer application.

  2. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  3. TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    C Carbon TOC Total organic carbon MBC Microbial biomass carbon Active C Pool Indicated by Light, the relationship between carbon dynamics including total organic carbon (TOC) storage, microbial biomass carbon and microbial biomass carbon in subsoil 4 years after rehabilitation · Microbial biomass carbon had a positive

  4. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  5. Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Atul Jain

    2005-04-17

    This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and ocean circulations) and then complete research on how this field could be linked to the other factors we need to consider in its dynamics (e.g., land use, ocean and terrestrial carbon sequestration and climate change).

  6. USING ANT COMMUNITIES FOR RAPID ASSESSMENT OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM HEALTH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Michael Paller, M; Eric Nelson, E

    2007-01-12

    Ecosystem health with its near infinite number of variables is difficult to measure, and there are many opinions as to which variables are most important, most easily measured, and most robust, Bioassessment avoids the controversy of choosing which physical and chemical parameters to measure because it uses responses of a community of organisms that integrate all aspects of the system in question. A variety of bioassessment methods have been successfully applied to aquatic ecosystems using fish and macroinvertebrate communities. Terrestrial biotic index methods are less developed than those for aquatic systems and we are seeking to address this problem here. This study had as its objective to examine the baseline differences in ant communities at different seral stages from clear cut back to mature pine plantation as a precursor to developing a bioassessment protocol. Comparative sampling was conducted at four seral stages; clearcut, 5 year, 15 year and mature pine plantation stands. Soil and vegetation data were collected at each site. All ants collected were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol and identified to genus. Analysis of the ant data indicates that ants respond strongly to the habitat changes that accompany ecological succession in managed pine forests and that individual genera as well as ant community structure can be used as an indicator of successional change. Ants exhibited relatively high diversity in both early and mature seral stages. High ant diversity in the mature seral stages was likely related to conditions on the forest floor which favored litter dwelling and cool climate specialists.

  7. Kinetic Turbulence in the Terrestrial Magnetosheath: Cluster Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, S Y; Deng, X H; He, J S; Yuan, Z G; Zhou, M; Pang, Y; Fu, H S

    2013-01-01

    We present a first statistical study of subproton and electron scales turbulence in the terrestrial magnetosheath using the Cluster Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) waveforms of the STAFF instrument measured in the frequency range [1,180] Hz. It is found that clear spectral breaks exist near the electron scale, which separate two power-law like frequency bands referred to as the dispersive and the electron dissipation ranges. The frequencies of the breaks f_b are shown to be well correlated with the electron gyroscale \\rho_e rather than with the electron inertial length de. The distribution of the slopes below fb was found to be narrow and peaks near -2.9, while that of the slopes above fb was found broader, peaks near -5.2 and has values as low as -7.5. This is the first time that such steep power-law spectra are reported in space plasma turbulence. These observations provide strong constraints on theoretical modeling of kinetic turbulence and dissipation in collisionless magnetized plasmas.

  8. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-02-23

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

  9. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  10. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  11. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  12. Studies of plume condensation contamination upon surfaces of the Terrestrial Planet Finder spacecraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pigeon, Timothy David

    2005-01-01

    There are two competing concepts for the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) mission, one which involves a single spacecraft, and another comprised of a five craft formation. In addition, there are several propulsion options ...

  13. Mercury contamination of terrestrial vegetation near a caustic soda factory in Thailand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suckcharoen, S.

    1980-03-01

    The present study is concerned with the fall-out of mercury on some terrestrial plants and one species of aquatic plant growing in the vicinity of the TACSCO factory.

  14. Testing the Link Between Terrestrial Climate Change and Galactic Spiral Arm Transit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Overholt, Andrew

    2010-04-19

    We re-examine past suggestions of a close link between terrestrial climate change and the Sun's transit of spiral arms in its path through the Milky Way galaxy. These links produced concrete fits, deriving the unknown ...

  15. Creating Procedural Animation for the Terrestrial Locomotion of Tentacled Digital Creatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Seth A

    2015-05-04

    This thesis presents a prototype system to develop procedural animation for the goal-directed terrestrial locomotion of tentacled digital creatures. Creating locomotion for characters with multiple highly deformable limbs ...

  16. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. I. PHOTOCHEMISTRY MODEL AND BENCHMARK CASES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu

    We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all ...

  17. A Process-based Analysis of Methane Exchanges Between Alaskan Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai.

    We developed and used a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4) emissions and consumption in Alaskan soils have changed over the past century in response to observed changes ...

  18. Atmospheric photochemistry, surface features, and potential biosignature gases of terrestrial exoplanets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    The endeavor to characterize terrestrial exoplanets warrants the study of chemistry in their atmospheres. Here I present a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry-thermochemistry model developed from the ground up for ...

  19. Isoprene emission from terrestrial ecosystems in response to global change: minding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : volatile organic compound; hydrocarbon; 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene; air pollution; net primary productivity;1. Introduction The emission of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) from terrestrial ecosystems provides one

  20. Increased plant growth from nitrogen addition should conserve phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Increased plant growth from nitrogen addition should conserve phosphorus in terrestrial ecosystems, or reversed, depending on the kinet- ics and size of a buffering reactive P pool. These properties determine

  1. Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Using Forage Harvest Efficiency to Determine Stocking Rate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanselka, C. Wayne; White, Larry D.; Holechek, Jerry L.

    2002-01-11

    Grazing pressure determines both animal performance and the long-term health of the rangeland. Moderate grazing ensures that rangeland is properly stocked for the amount of forage available. Knowing how to estimate grazing ...

  2. Forecasting the Standard & Poor's 500 stock index futures price: interest rates, dividend yields, and cointegration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fritsch, Roger Erwin

    1997-01-01

    Daily Standard & Poor's 500 stock index cash and futures prices are studies in a cointegration framework using Johansen's maximum likelihood procedure. To account for the time varying relationship(basis) between the two ...

  3. Computerising gentlemen: the automation of the London Stock Exchange, c. 1945-1995 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pardo-Guerra, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation concerns the development of market information technologies in the London Stock Exchange, c. 1945-1992. Based on archival research in London, Cambridge and Edinburgh, and 20 semistructured interviews ...

  4. Decarbonising the English residential sector: modelling policies, technologies and behaviour within a heterogeneous building stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Scott

    2013-04-16

    propensity to consume more energy are also more likely to have higher energy efficiency. Internal dwelling temperature is one of the most important parameters for explaining residential energy demand over a heterogeneous building stock. Yet bottom up...

  5. Analysis of employee stock options and guaranteed withdrawal benefits for life

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Premal (Premal Y.)

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we study three problems related to financial modeling. First, we study the problem of pricing Employee Stock Options (ESOs) from the point of view of the issuing company. Since an employee cannot trade or ...

  6. Stock Market Volatility Prediction: A Service-Oriented Multi-Kernel Learning Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ling

    techniques to prepare the datasets from multiple information sources based on the classification model we performed experiments on HKEx 2001 stock market datasets with three important market information sources, such sources of information may have

  7. Disaster debris management and recovery of housing stock in San Francisco, CA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saiyed, Zahraa Nazim

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential effects of a 7.2 magnitude earthquake in San Francisco City, particularly the implications on San Francisco's residential housing stock and impacts on the construction and demolition ...

  8. Low Order Modeling of Seemingly Random Systems with Application to Stock Market Securities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surendran, Arun

    2009-08-24

    . Though stock market data is used for the formulation and verification of the technique, its application in diverse fields is verified. The dissertation discusses some of the salient features of the novel technique along with a dynamic system analogy...

  9. Essays on the predictability and volatility of returns in the stock market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Ruojun

    2008-01-01

    Finance, 9, 495-510. [69] Polk, C. , S. Thompson and T.and Ludvigson (2001), Polk, Thompson, and Vuolteenaho (high versus low beta stocks (Polk, Thompson and Vuolteenaho

  10. Contrasting survival strategies of hatchery and wild red drum: implications for stock enhancement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Jessica Louise

    2009-05-15

    Post-release survival of hatchery fishes is imperative to the success of any supplemental stocking program. The purpose of this research was to identify differences between hatchery and wild red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and determine if pre...

  11. Capital Asset Pricing Model and Arbitrage Pricing Theory in the Italian Stock Market: an Empirical Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cagnetti, Arduino

    2002-01-01

    The Italian stock market (ISM) has interesting characteristics. Over 40 per cent of the shares, in a sample of 30 shares, together with the Mibtel market index, are normally distributed. This suggests that the returns ...

  12. An Empirical Examination of Stock Market Reactions to Introduction of Co-branded Products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Zixia

    2012-10-19

    This dissertation examines how the stock market reacts to announcements of introduction of co-branded new products. Despite the apparent enthusiasm of practitioners towards co-branding--the practice of using two established brand names on the same...

  13. More than just a school : an exploration in tractable neighborhood building stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevermer, John Alton

    1983-01-01

    Shortages in land and resources are stiffling new construction and forcing the pursuit of alternate means to satisfy society's space needs within the existing building stock. Most existing buildings were not designed for ...

  14. Biological interactions and hydro-climatic forcing of Atlantic menhaden stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    Biological interactions and hydro-climatic forcing of Atlantic menhaden stock recruitment NOAA and Chesapeake Bay Program in: ·· Evaluating roles of biological interactions and hydroEvaluating roles of biological interactions and hydro--climaticclimatic forcing onforcing on forage

  15. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  16. Carbon Density and Anthropogenic Land Use Influences on Net Land-Use Change Emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Rothwell, Andrew J.

    2013-10-08

    We examine historical and future land-use emissions using a simple mechanistic carbon-cycle model with regional and ecosystem specific parameterizations. Our central estimate of net terrestrial land-use change emissions, exclusive of climate feedbacks, is 250 GtC over the last three hundred years. This estimate is most sensitive to assumptions for preindustrial forest and soil carbon densities. We also find that estimates are sensitive to the treatment of crop and pasture lands. These sensitivities also translate into differences in future terrestrial uptake in the RCP4.5 land-use scenario. This estimate of future uptake is lower than the native values from the GCAM integrated assessment model result due to lower net reforestation in the RCP4.5 gridded land-use data product

  17. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More

  18. A Study of Correlations in the Stock Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharma, Chandradew

    2015-01-01

    We study the various sectors of the Bombay Stock Exchange(BSE) for a period of 8 years from April 2006 - March 2014. Using the data of daily returns of a period of eight years we make a direct model free analysis of the pattern of the sectorial indices movement and the correlations among them. Our analysis shows significant auto correlation among the individual sectors and also strong cross-correlation among sectors. We also find that auto correlations in some of the sectors persist in time. This is a very significant result and has not been reported so far in Indian context These findings will be very useful in model building for prediction of price movement of equities, derivatives and portfolio management. We show that the Random Walk Hypothesis is not applicable in modeling the Indian market and Mean-Variance-Skewness-Kurtosis based portfolio optimization might be required. We also find that almost all sectors are highly correlated during large fluctuation periods and have only moderate correlation during...

  19. Effects of solar radiation on organic matter cycling: Formation of carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide (Chapter 11). Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zepp, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of photoinduced processes on carbon cycling and the biospheric emission of two important trace carbon gases--carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide--are examined. Both of these gases are likely to play an important role in the biospheric feedbacks that may reinforce or attenuate future changes in climate. Evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that a significant fraction of the global sources of both of these gases derives from the photochemical fragmentation of decayed plant materials and other biogenic organic matter in terrestrial and marine environments.

  20. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1998-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  1. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, Richard J. (6204 Shadow Mountain Dr., Austin, TX 78731)

    1999-01-01

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Based Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Mian; Lin, Yuehe

    2006-11-01

    This review article provides a comprehensive review on sensors and biosensors based on functionalized carbon nanotubes.

  3. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  4. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  5. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  6. PII S0016-7037(99)00335-X Sedimentary sources of old high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon from the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    terrestrial, autochthonous, and sedimentary organic carbon seem to be too young to be responsible for the old cross-flow ultrafiltration, it can hold clues to sources and pathways of DOC turnover in the ocean compounds with varying sources (Meybeck, 1982; Thurman, 1985; Hedges et al., 1997), degradation pathways

  7. Developing microbe-plant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation, and carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.H.; Bernard, S.; Andersen, G.L.; Chen, W.

    2009-03-01

    Interactions between plants and microbes are an integral part of our terrestrial ecosystem. Microbe-plant interactions are being applied in many areas. In this review, we present recent reports of applications in the areas of plant-growth promotion, biocontrol, bioactive compound and biomaterial production, remediation and carbon sequestration. Challenges, limitations and future outlook for each field are discussed.

  8. The Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is the third in a coordinated sequence of science missions within the Solar Terrestrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian, Eric

    generated by the solar dynamo. CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS One of the most important scientific advances the determination of the structure of the ambient solar wind. Two space based observatories, one drifting aheadThe Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is the third in a coordinated sequence

  9. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program; Meadow Creek vs. Lake Whatcom Stock Kokanee Salmon Investigations in Lake Roosevelt, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLellan, Holly

    2003-03-01

    Lake Whatcom, Washington kokanee have been stocked in Lake Roosevelt since 1987 with the primary objective of creating a self-sustaining fishery. Success has been limited by low recruitment to the fishery, low adult returns to hatcheries, and a skewed sex ratio. It was hypothesized that a stock native to the upper Columbia River might perform better than the coastal Lake Whatcom stock. Kokanee from Meadow Creek, a tributary of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia were selected as an alternative stock. Post smolts from each stock were released from Sherman Creek Hatchery in late June 2000 and repeated in 2001. Stock performance was evaluated using three measures; (1) number of returns to Sherman Creek, the primary egg collection facility, (2) the number of returns to 86 tributaries sampled and, (3) the number of returns to the creel. In two repeated experiments, neither Meadow Creek or Lake Whatcom kokanee appeared to be capable of providing a run of three-year old spawners to sustain stocking efforts. Less than 10 three-years olds from either stock were collected during the study period. Chi-square analysis indicated age two Meadow Creek kokanee returned to Sherman Creek and to other tributaries in significantly higher numbers when compared to the Lake Whatcom stock in both 2000 and 2001. However, preliminary data from the Spokane Tribe of Indians indicated that a large number of both stocks were precocial before they were stocked. The small number of hatchery three-year olds collected indicated that the current hatchery rearing and stocking methods will continue to produce a limited jacking run largely composed of precocious males and a small number of three-year olds. No kokanee from the study were collected during standard lake wide creel surveys. Supplemental creel data, including fishing derbies, test fisheries, and angler diaries, indicated anglers harvested two-year-old hatchery kokanee a month after release. The majority of the two-year old kokanee harvested were from a direct stock at the Fort Spokane boat launch. Only Lake Whatcom kokanee were stocked from the boat launch, therefore stock performance was not evaluated, however the high success of the stocking location will likely increase harvest of hatchery kokanee in the future. Despite low numbers of the targeted three-year olds, Meadow Creek kokanee should be stocked when possible to promote fish native to the upper Columbia River.

  10. Land Use and Ecosystems Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication titled Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Land Use and Ecosystems information includes Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Data Sets, data sets from Africa and Asia, the Worldwide Organic Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dataset, and much more.

  11. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  12. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  13. Pre-Shot Simulations of Far-Field Ground Motions for the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Explosions at the Climax Stock, Nevada National Security Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodgers, A J; Wagoner, J; Petersson, N A; Sjogreen, B

    2010-11-07

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) will involve a series of explosions in various geologic and emplacement conditions to validate numerical simulation methods to predict behavior of seismic wave excitation and propagation for nuclear test monitoring. The first SPE's currently underway involve explosions in the Climax Stock (granitic geology) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Detailed geologic data and published material properties for the major lithologic units of the NNSS and surrounding region were used to build three-dimensional models for seismic wave propagation simulations. The geologic structure near the SPE shot point is quite varied including granitic, carbonate, tuff and alluvium lithologies. We performed preliminary ground motion simulations for a near-source domain covering 8 km x 8 km at the surface centered on the shot point to investigate various source and propagation effects using WPP, LLNL's anelastic seismic wave finite difference code. Simulations indicate that variations in wave propagation properties of the sub-surface will generate strongly path-dependent response once the energy has left the relatively small granitic geology of the near-surface Climax Stock near the SPE shot point. Rough topography to the north and west of SPE shot point causes additional complexity in the signals including energy on the transverse components. Waves propagate much faster through the granitic and carbonate formations and slower through the tuff and alluvium. Synthetic seismograms for a pure explosion source in a 3D geologic structure show large amplitudes on transverse component. For paths to the south sampling the granite, tuff and alluvium lithologies transverse component amplitudes are as high as 50% of that on the vertical and radial components.

  14. 10 Antibiotic (10AB) stock solution. This recipe makes up a 10X concentrated solution. The solution should be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steury, Todd D.

    10 Antibiotic (10AB) stock solution. This recipe makes up a 10X concentrated solution. The solution Polymixin-B 0.016 g Tetracycline 0.012 g Vancomycin 0.012 g This recipe was published by Polne-Fuller, M Stocks 1.0 mL of each (recipe below) Primary Trace Metals stock solutions To 100 mL of distilled water

  15. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  16. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  17. Metallic carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA); Crespi, Vincent Henry (Darien, IL); Louie, Steven Gwon Sheng (Berkeley, CA); Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Novel metallic forms of planar carbon are described, as well as methods of designing and making them. Nonhexagonal arrangements of carbon are introduced into a graphite carbon network essentially without destroying the planar structure. Specifically a form of carbon comprising primarily pentagons and heptagons, and having a large density of states at the Fermi level is described. Other arrangements of pentagons and heptagons that include some hexagons, and structures incorporating squares and octagons are additionally disclosed. Reducing the bond angle symmetry associated with a hexagonal arrangement of carbons increases the likelihood that the carbon material will have a metallic electron structure.

  18. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites, reanalysis meteorology and various remote sensing products to generate statewide estimates of biosphere carbon exchange from the atmospheric point of view.

  19. Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

    2008-11-18

    The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

  20. ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh Bren hall 3422, suh Week 1: Introduction to carbon footprint and carbon account - Background: carbon awareness, major out a report or a web site about carbon footprint results of a product or of a company. Write a two

  1. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  2. Metal filled porous carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Adam F. (Los Angeles, CA); Vajo, John J. (West Hills, CA); Cumberland, Robert W. (Malibu, CA); Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Salguero, Tina T. (Encino, CA)

    2011-03-22

    A porous carbon scaffold with a surface and pores, the porous carbon scaffold containing a primary metal and a secondary metal, where the primary metal is a metal that does not wet the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold but wets the surface of the secondary metal, and the secondary metal is interspersed between the surface of the pores of the carbon scaffold and the primary metal.

  3. Canonical Sectors and Evolution of Firms in the US Stock Markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chachra, Ricky; Hayden, Lorien X; Ginsparg, Paul H; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01

    A classification of companies into sectors of the economy is important for macroeconomic analysis and for investments into the sector-specific financial indices and exchange traded funds (ETFs). Major industrial classification systems and financial indices have historically been based on expert opinion and developed manually. Here we show how unsupervised machine learning can provide a more objective and comprehensive broad-level sector decomposition of stocks. An emergent low-dimensional structure in the space of historical stock price returns automatically identifies "canonical sectors" in the market, and assigns every stock a participation weight into these sectors. Furthermore, by analyzing data from different periods, we show how these weights for listed firms have evolved over time.

  4. Coherence-based multivariate analysis of high frequency stock market values

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donatello Materassi; Giacomo Innocenti

    2008-05-18

    The paper tackles the problem of deriving a topological structure among stock prices from high frequency historical values. Similar studies using low frequency data have already provided valuable insights. However, in those cases data need to be collected for a longer period and then they have to be detrended. An effective technique based on averaging a metric function on short subperiods of the observation horizon is suggested. Since a standard correlation-based metric is not capable of catching dependencies at different time instants, it is not expected to perform the best when dealing with high frequency data. Hence, the choice of a more suitable metric is discussed. In particular, a coherence-based metric is proposed, for it is able to detect any possible linear relation between two times series, even at different time instants. The averaging technique is employed to analyze a set of 100 high volume stocks of the New York Stock Exchange, observed during March 2008.

  5. Carbon Footprint Towson University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Carbon Footprint Towson University GHG Inventory for Educational Institutes Getting Starting.TM The Carbon Footprint 8 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 1. Scope I-Direct Emissions works.TM The Carbon Footprint 10 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 3. Scope III

  6. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  7. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  8. Oil Prices, Stock Markets and Portfolio Investment: Evidence from Sector Analysis in Europe over the Last Decade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Oil Prices, Stock Markets and Portfolio Investment: Evidence from Sector Analysis in Europe over This article extends the understanding of oil­stock market relationships over the last turbulent decade. Unlike returns to oil price changes differ greatly depending on the activity sector. In the out

  9. Statement by Harvard Corporation Committee on Shareholder Responsibility (CCSR) Regarding Stock in China Petroleum and Chemical Corporation (Sinopec Corporation)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Petrodar announced that its first shipment of crude oil would be shipped from Sudan in January 2006Statement by Harvard Corporation Committee on Shareholder Responsibility (CCSR) Regarding Stock the Harvard Corporation's decision to direct Harvard Management Company (HMC) to divest itself of stock held

  10. IPA Derivatives for Make-to-Stock Production-Inventory Systems With Backorders Under the (R,r) Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -to-Stock (MTS) production-inventory systems with backorders, under the continuous-review ( , )R r policy, where demand and possibly random production processes. We assume that the production facility has an unlimitedIPA Derivatives for Make-to-Stock Production-Inventory Systems With Backorders Under the (R

  11. Stock Assessment of Columbia River Anadromous Salmonids : Final Report, Volume I, Chinook, Coho, Chum and Sockeye Salmon Summaries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howell, Philip J.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose was to identify and characterize the wild and hatchery stocks of salmon and steelhead in the Columbia River Basin on the basis of currently available information. This report provides a comprehensive compilation of data on the status and life histories of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  12. Formulating the next generation of models of the terrestrial carbon cycle in the conterminous US TECO-R-QP Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Sahotra

    =grassland j8=cropland k K data sets. k is a particular data set that contains observed data on solar radiation, precipitation, etc. in geographical sites (for example, the ORNL DAAC data set). K is the set radiation at site i in biome j in data set k PPTijk annual mean precipitation at site i in biome j in data

  13. COMPARISON OF DSMS GENERATED FROM MINI UAV IMAGERY AND TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER IN A CULTURAL HERITAGE APPLICATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COMPARISON OF DSMS GENERATED FROM MINI UAV IMAGERY AND TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER IN A CULTURAL Navigation KEY WORDS: UAV, Laser scanning, DEM/DTM, Comparison, Analysis, Accuracy, Archaeology ABSTRACT was recorded using a terrestrial laser scanner (Riegl LMS-Z420i) and a mini UAV-system (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

  14. Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during the past century: A retrospective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGuire, A. David

    Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during develop and use a new version of the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) to study how rates of methane (CH4 dynamics (3309); 1890 Hydrology: Wetlands; KEYWORDS: methane emissions, methane oxidation, permafrost

  15. Tolerance of resting cells of freshwater and terrestrial benthic diatoms to experimental desiccation and freezing is habitat-dependent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    desiccation and freezing is habitat-dependent CAROLINE SOUFFREAU, PIETER VANORMELINGEN, KOEN SABBE AND WIM of freshwater and terrestrial benthic diatoms to experimental desiccation and freezing is habitat, except for strains of some terrestrial taxa, freezing. In contrast, resting cells of several

  16. Dynamics of the terrestrial planets from a large number of N-body simulations"! Rebecca A. Fischer1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ! 1 Dynamics of the terrestrial planets from a large number of N-body simulations"! #! Rebecca A and planetesimals was the final stage of""! terrestrial planet formation. This process is modeled using N of planetary#&! accretion as particular accretion pathways may be representative of a given dynamic#'! scenario

  17. Role of the terrestrial subsurface in shaping geothermal spring microbial communitiesemi4_248 491..499

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelley, Scott

    Role of the terrestrial subsurface in shaping geothermal spring microbial communitiesemi4_248 491 the possibility that dis- persal from terrestrial subsurface sources `seeds' the development of geothermal spring a phylogenetic group of uncultured Firmi- cutes never before reported in geothermal habitats that were closely

  18. Remote Terrestrial Sites as Operational/Logistics Analogs for Moon/Mars Bases: the Haughton Mars Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Remote Terrestrial Sites as Operational/Logistics Analogs for Moon/Mars Bases: the Haughton Mars coordinating the logistics and resupply of far-flung planetary bases. A number of logistics methods have been terrestrial logistics methods were tested in the context of (analog) planetary exploration. A comprehensive

  19. Selectivity of terrestrial gastropod extinctions on an oceanic archipelago and insights into the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Kaustuv

    Selectivity of terrestrial gastropod extinctions on an oceanic archipelago and insights to widespread extinctions of spe- cies on oceanic islands but the nature of many of these extinctions remains alive, but among the surviving species, ranges of those that are currently declining due to human

  20. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 66 (2004) 14691479 The CISM code coupling strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shay, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 66 (2004) 1469­1479 The CISM code coupling; accepted 8 April 2004 Abstract The success of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM the scientific goals and code coupling challenges of CISM, and is equally involved in the coupling strategy

  1. VISION-BASED TECHNIQUES FOR REFRACTION ANALYSIS IN APPLICATIONS OF TERRESTRIAL GEODESY Philipp FLACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    levelling ABSTRACT: Imaging sensors are increasingly spread in geodetic instruments, because they enable the evaluation of digital image data for the determination of direction and height. Beyond this, the analysis aufzuzeigen. 1. INTRODUCTION Due to automation of tasks in terrestrial geodesy, image sensors and vision

  2. Hydrogen isotopic variability in leaf waxes among terrestrial and aquatic plants around Blood Pond, Massachusetts (USA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Hydrogen isotopic variability in leaf waxes among terrestrial and aquatic plants around Blood Pond interpretation of the hydrogen isotope ratios of plant leaf waxes extracted from sediments requires a thor- ough at a single site to determine how leaf wax hydro- gen isotope (D/H) ratios differ in different plant types

  3. Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to coal ash. In the current study we compare

  4. Data Assimilation for Estimating the Terrestrial Water Budget Using a Constrained Ensemble Kalman Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Ming

    Data Assimilation for Estimating the Terrestrial Water Budget Using a Constrained Ensemble Kalman Filter MING PAN AND ERIC F. WOOD Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Princeton University A procedure is developed to incorporate equality constraints in Kalman filters, including the Ensemble Kalman

  5. RESEARCH ARTICLE A seasonal cycle of terrestrial inputs in Lake Van, Turkey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilli, Adrian

    RESEARCH ARTICLE A seasonal cycle of terrestrial inputs in Lake Van, Turkey C. Huguet & S. Fietz Van in Turkey is the world's largest soda lake (607 km3 ). The lake's catchment area is estimated the environmental status of a lake today and in the recent history. Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia (Turkey

  6. Characteristics of broadband lightning emissions associated with terrestrial gamma ray flashes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummer, Steven A.

    . Introduction [2] Brief (typically bursts of gamma rays with mean energies of 2 MeV originating from the Earth's atmosphere, referred to as terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs), have been observed by the Burst et al., 2010; Briggs et al., 2010]. With spectra typically harder than cosmic gamma ray bursts

  7. Electromagnetic Wave Power Observed Near the Moon during Terrestrial Bow Shock Crossings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fillingim, Matthew

    Electromagnetic Wave Power Observed Near the Moon during Terrestrial Bow Shock Crossings and Its (?) noise (cf. Nakagawa et al., 2011) 3. Large increase in magnetic field strength and wave power at the bow are evident in the plasma and magnetic field data Increase in wave power over a broad range of f i t h i p

  8. Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska: A Terrestrial Analog Site for Polar, Topographically Confined Martian Dune Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillman, David E.

    P13B-1369 Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska: A Terrestrial Analog Site for Polar, Topographically Confined Martian Dune Fields Dinwiddie, C. L.1 ; D. M. Hooper1 ; T. I. Michaels2 ; R. N. Mcginnis1 ; D and Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Ft. Wainwright, AK, United States. Martian dune systems

  9. Tidally driven ice speed variation at Helheim Glacier, Greenland, observed with terrestrial radar interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, David

    Tidally driven ice speed variation at Helheim Glacier, Greenland, observed with terrestrial radar Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA 4 Earth System Science Interdisciplinary Center, University is usually packed with dense ice melange. Helheim Glacier accelerated and retreated between 2000 and 2005

  10. Water in the evolution of Earth and other terrestrial Shun-ichiro Karato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1.4 Gasà solid versus gas à liquid condensation 5.2 Behavior of volatiles during the late stage-term geological cycling of water in terrestrial planets are reviewed. The water acquisition during planetary formation is critically dependent on the nature of condensation. A majority of water acquired

  11. People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Villiers, Marienne

    People taking part in this CAR count are counting all the large terrestrial birds, such as cranes species are monitored by CAR, of which 14 appear in the South African Red Data Book as Critically Endan gered, Vulnerable or NearThreatened. CAR counts began in 1993 and take place on the last Saturday

  12. Impacts of Environmental Nanoparticles on Chemical, Biological and Hydrological Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides insights on nanoparticle (NP) influence or control on the extent and timescales of single or coupled physical, chemical, biological and hydrological reactions and processes that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. Examples taken from the literature that show how terrestrial NPs may determine the fate of the aqueous and sorbed (adsorbed or precipitated) chemical species of nutrients and contaminants, are also included in this chapter. Specifically, in the first section, chapter objectives, term definitions and discussions on size-dependent properties, the origin and occurrence of NP in terrestrial ecosystems and NP toxicity, are included. In the second section, the topic of the binary interactions of NPs of different sizes, shapes, concentrations and ages with the soil solution chemical species is covered, focusing on NP formation, stability, aggregation, ability to serve as sorbents, or surface-mediated precipitation catalysts, or electron donors and acceptors. In the third section, aspects of the interactions in the ternary systems composed of environmental NP, nutrient/contaminant chemical species, and the soil/sediment matrix are discussed, focusing on the inhibitory and catalytic effects of environmental NP on nutrient/contaminant advective mobility and mass transfer, adsorption and desorption, dissolution and precipitation and redox reactions that occur in terrestrial ecosystems. These three review sections are followed by a short summary of future research needs and directions, the acknowledgements, the list of the references, and the figures.

  13. Soil thermal dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States from 1948 to 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    ). Thus, the heat stored in soil and temperature variations cannot be ignored when studying airSoil thermal dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States from 1948 to 2008 to changes in vegetation, snow, soil moisture, and other climate variables (i.e., precipitation, solar

  14. Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowling, Sharon A.

    Greening the terrestrial biosphere: simulated feedbacks on atmospheric heat and energy circulation on atmospheric exchange of heat and moisture. Our CONTROL simulation had a mean global net primary production (NPP) of 56.3 GtCyr-1 which is half that of our scenario value of 115.1 GtCyr-1 . LAI and latent energy

  15. Terrestrial Planet Interiors fet Propulsion l-aboratory, Caffirnia Institute of Techno,loSy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    ,loSy J. M. Jackson Caffirnia Institute of Technology S. Seager Massachus etts Institute of Tbchnology discovered, mass vs. radius statistics will build up. The hope for terrestrial exoplanet mass and radius the deep atmosphere rapidly become too hot for life to exist. The solar system planets are conveniently

  16. Solar-Terrestrial Data Center, En-vironmental Data Service, National

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solar-Terrestrial Data Center, En- vironmental Data Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric by 1978 and then build an export market, Australian Fisheries reports. The Solomon Islands now has a live.... ....Norman Doelling has been named manager of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant Program

  17. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  18. Risk, Unemployment, and the Stock Market: A Rare-Event-Based Explanation of Labor Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahana, Michael J.

    Risk, Unemployment, and the Stock Market: A Rare-Event-Based Explanation of Labor Market Volatility proposes an explanation of labor market volatility based on time-varying risk, modeled as a small, implying both greater risk in productivity and lower expected growth rates. Thus even if labor productivity

  19. OPTIMAL PRICING AND PRODUCTION POLICIES OF A MAKE-TO-STOCK SYSTEM WITH FLUCTUATING DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Örmeci, E. Lerzan

    -established strategy in service industries where typical examples include airline, hotel and electric utilities that can be expected from dynamic pricing strategies in retail and production operations. Our focus. On the inventory side, we assume lost sales. A purchase can only take place if the product is available in stock

  20. The Role of Stocks and Shocks Concepts in the Debate Over Price versus Quantity*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Role of Stocks and Shocks Concepts in the Debate Over Price versus Quantity* John E. Parsons interactions among natural and human climate system components; objectively assess uncertainty in economic, monitor and verify greenhouse gas emissions and climatic impacts. This reprint is one of a series intended

  1. Valuing Stocks Copyright 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. 9-2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schubart, Christoph

    the cash flows are risky, we must discount them at the equity cost of capital. #12;Copyright ©2014 Pearson-11 Dividend Yields, Capital Gains, and Total Returns · Dividend Yield · Capital Gain ­ Capital Gain Rate · Total Return ­ Dividend Yield + Capital Gain Rate · The expected total return of the stock should equal

  2. FEMA: Family Basic Disaster Supplies There are six basics you should stock in your home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    directions below on filling the container with water. If you choose to use your own storage containers the bottle to the top with regular tap water. If the tap water has been commercially treated from a waterFEMA: Family Basic Disaster Supplies There are six basics you should stock in your home: Water

  3. Resurrecting the Size Effect: Firm Size, Profitability Shocks, and Expected Stock Returns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aazhang, Behnaam

    and Mathijs A. van Dijk* September 2008 Abstract Recent studies report that the size effect in U.S. stock of Business, Ohio State University. Mathijs A. van Dijk is at the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus Dijk (2006) for a survey of the literature to date. 2 Dichev (1998), Chan, Karceski, and Lakonishok

  4. Fish Stocks in the Gulf of Mexico Overall Economics of Gulf Fisheries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the oil spill. As the crude oil sinks, the bottom- oriented fish community may be impacted. The major1 April 2010 Fish Stocks in the Gulf of Mexico FACT SHEET Overall Economics of Gulf Fisheries coastal areas. Impacts on these shrimp will increase as the oil slick approaches nearshore areas. Shrimp

  5. A THEORY OF LIMITED LIQUIDITY AND LARGE INVESTORS CAUSING SPIKES IN STOCK MARKET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    A THEORY OF LIMITED LIQUIDITY AND LARGE INVESTORS CAUSING SPIKES IN STOCK MARKET VOLATILITY University H. Eugene Stanley Boston University Abstract We survey a theory of the economic underpinnings theory posits that they have a common origin in the strategic trading behavior of very large financial

  6. Market impact and trading protocols of hidden orders in stock markets Esteban Moro,1, 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Market impact and trading protocols of hidden orders in stock markets Esteban Moro,1, 2 Javier study the market impact of trading orders. We are specifically interested in large trading orders, as a given order is executed, the impact grows in time according to a power-law; after the order is finished

  7. Market impact and trading profile of hidden orders in stock markets Esteban Moro,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Market impact and trading profile of hidden orders in stock markets Esteban Moro,1,2 Javier Vicente of trading orders. We are specifically interested in large trading orders that are executed incrementally, as a given order is executed, the impact grows in time according to a power law; after the order is finished

  8. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Omar Abdelaziz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    732 Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency discusses efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new for different market adoption scenarios. Keywords: energy efficiency, technology prioritization, green buildings

  9. SEASONAL AND INSHORE-OFFSHORE VARIATIONS IN THE STANDING STOCKS OF MICRONEKTON AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SEASONAL AND INSHORE-OFFSHORE VARIATIONS IN THE STANDING STOCKS OF MICRONEKTON AND MACROZOOPLANKTON OFF OREGON WILLIAM G. PEARCyl ABSTRACT Dry weights of pelagic animals captured along an inshore-offshore, shrimps, and squids) were largest inshore (28 and 46 km offshore) in the winter (November

  10. The Visualization of Large Database in Stock Market Li Lin, Longbing Cao, Chengqi Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Longbing

    and global trend with fish- eye technology. Second, for the result graph, there are many parameters, so we; Fish-eye view; Local details; Global trends; Dimension reducing 1. Introduction In stock market another problem for a trading system. In the paper, we have resolved the two problems with fish- eye

  11. bush i police soviet percent mecham stock dukakis think shot gorbachev year keating market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blei, David M.

    dont man president rate senators index jackson people arrested summit last lincoln stocks president production office shares george thats officers mikhail department years jones bentsen see death nato months reagan got wounded foreign new made big told says men visit inflation senate prices state am officer

  12. IPA Derivatives for Make-to-Stock Production-Inventory Systems With Lost Sales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and random production capacity, where the finished- goods inventory is controlled by a continuous-time base to the base-stock level and a parameter of the production rate process. These formulas are comprehensive random production processes, as well as feedback information from inventory to production facilities

  13. First-Year Growth and Survival of Largemouth Bass Fingerlings Stocked into Western South Dakota Ponds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponds Nicholas R. Peterson, Justin A. VanDeHey, and David W. Willis Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Micropterus salmoides are commonly introduced into Midwestern ponds at stocking densities of 125 1981; Willis et al. 1990). Over the past decade, private pond managers in the southern U.S. began

  14. What does the stock market have in common with our brain? The physics behind the economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Eshel Ben

    1 What does the stock market have in common with our brain? The physics behind the economy The? Econophysicist's analyze the world of economy through the glasses of physics, and explain why eventually hidden in the complexity of economies and financial markets. Imagine yourself entering into a store

  15. Attribute Transformations for Data Mining II: Applications to Economic and Stock Market Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tsau Young

    Attribute Transformations for Data Mining II: Applications to Economic and Stock Market Data Joseph@cs.berkely.edu Abstract. The e#11;ects of attribute transformations have been examined theoretically in paper I (in this issue). This is paper II, and its focus is on applications. Speci#12;c linear transformations, which

  16. Indication of multiscaling in the volatility return intervals of stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    of financial markets has long been a focus of economics and econophysics research 1­9 . Study- ing recently, some related studies on financial markets, such as escape time 30 , exit time 31,32 , first and nonlinear features 36 . Recent studies 37­39 of stock markets show that the distribution of activ- ity

  17. Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    Scaling and memory of intraday volatility return intervals in stock markets Fengzhong Wang,1 Kazuko interval between price volatilities that are above a certain threshold q for 31 intraday data sets Yamasaki,1,2 Shlomo Havlin,1,3 and H. Eugene Stanley1 1 Center for Polymer Studies and Department

  18. Stock-Take of Electric Vehicle Interface with Electricity and Smart

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    Stock-Take of Electric Vehicle Interface with Electricity and Smart Grids across APEC Economies and the Potential for Harmonisation APEC Energy Working Group August 2012 #12;Assessm Electric APEC Produc Verdan Dr-01.6 group.com m 6 m or #12;Assessment of August 2012 Electric Vehicle Connectivity Conditions

  19. A modelling framework for the prices and times of trades made on the New York stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Patrick J.

    A modelling framework for the prices and times of trades made on the New York stock exchange Tina for price changes over pre-speci ed intervals of times, such as 30 seconds, 20 minutes or a day option pricing model. In practice almost all the prices at which nancial assets transact live

  20. Consistency of the Geometric Brownian Motion Model of Stock Prices with Asymmetric Information.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    Consistency of the Geometric Brownian Motion Model of Stock Prices with Asymmetric Information on the microeconomic foundation of modern option pricing models. We develop a model of market agents' interactions, induced by heterogeneity of information, which is consistent with both modern option pricing models

  1. The non-trivial random walk of stock prices Gabriele La Spada,1, 2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The non-trivial random walk of stock prices Gabriele La Spada,1, 2, J. Doyne Farmer,2, 1 the random walk of prices by developing a simple model relating the properties of the signs and absolute values of individual price changes to the diffusion rate (volatility) of prices at longer time scales. We

  2. arXiv:cond-mat/0207428v117Jul2002 Single Curve Collapse of the Price Impact Function for the New York Stock Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the 1000 largest stocks of the New York Stock Exchange, from (1995-1998), and find that, by appropriate market capitalization traded in the New York Stock Exchange. The analysis is based on roughly 113 millionarXiv:cond-mat/0207428v117Jul2002 Single Curve Collapse of the Price Impact Function for the New

  3. Kokanee Stock Status and Contribution of Cabinet Gorge Hatchery, Lake Pend Oreille, Idaho, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paragamian, Vaugh L.

    1994-07-01

    Lake Pend Oreille once provided the most popular kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka fishery in northern Idaho. A dramatic decline in the population occurred from the mid-1960s to 1970s. Restoration efforts included construction of the Cabinet Gorge Fish Hatchery to supplement the wild population and restore the fishery. In this study, hatchery-reared age 0 kokanee were stocked into Lake Pend Oreille from 1986 through 1992. Seven experimental stocking strategies for kokanee were tested using five locations and two time periods (early May through early June or late July). In 1985, the age 3 and older kokanee totaled about 0.35 million, but rose to 0.78 million in 1986, was stable, was then followed by a decline in 1990 to 0.53 million, then improved to 1.75 million in 1992. Much of the annual variation in total numbers of kokanee, ranging from 4.5 million to 10.2 million, was due to hatchery stockings of age 0 fish. Standing stocks of kokanee remained stable and ranged from 8 to 10 kg/hectare de spite dramatic changes in density due to age 0 fish. Prior to this study (1985), standing stocks were substantially higher (mean = 13.6 kg/hectare), indicating that the population may be operating below carrying capacity. The authors found survival of age 0 hatchery kokanee by each release season to range from 3% in 1986 to 39% in 1992, while the mean from 1987 through 1992 was 23%. They found significant (P=0.05) differences in survival between years, but they could not detect differences between stocking locations (P>0.71). Their analysis of survival between time (early vs late) and location was weak and inconclusive because after 1989 they had fewer fish to stock and could not repeat testing of some release strategies. They believe some of the variation in survival between release groups each year was due to the length of time between release in the lake and trawling.

  4. Organic carbon burial forcing of the carbon cycle from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Derry, Louis A.

    Organic carbon burial forcing of the carbon cycle from Himalayan erosion Christian France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weathering and erosion can affect the long-term ocean­atmo- sphere budget of carbon dioxide both through of Neogene Himalayan erosion on the carbon cycle is an increase in the amount of organic carbon

  5. CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Ian J.

    constraint to these relationships, with the carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption pressingCARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson CSERGE GEC Working Paper 92-28 #12;CARBON EMISSIONS AND CARBON FIXING FROM AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE by Dennis Anderson

  6. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and individuals wishing to reduce their carbon footprint while also delivering a range of other environmentalWoodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July of group schemes 8 2.6 Monitoring 9 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 9 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code

  7. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  8. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  9. Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium Carbonate Project Profile: Carbon Dioxide Shuttling Thermochemical Storage Using Strontium...

  10. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for literally 100s of years even if all the CO2 emissions from the region's large point sources were stored there, an unlikely scenario under any set of national carbon emission mitigation strategies. The terrestrial sequestration opportunities in the region have the biophysical potential to sequester up to 20% of annual emissions from the region's large point sources of CO2. This report describes the assumptions made and methods employed to arrive at the results leading to these conclusions. It also describes the results of analyses of regulatory issues in the region affecting the potential for deployment of sequestration technologies. Finally, it describes the public outreach and education efforts carried out in Phase I including the creation of a web site dedicated to the MRCSP at www.mrcsp.org.

  11. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  12. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  13. The temporal dynamics of terrestrial organic matter transfer to the oceans : initial assessment and application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drenzek, Nicholas J

    2007-01-01

    This thesis employs compound-specific stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopic analysis of organic biomarkers to (a) resolve petrogenic from pre-aged vascular plant organic carbon (OC) in continental margin sediments, (b) ...

  14. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  15. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  16. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-16

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  17. Phytosequestration: Carbon biosequestration by plants and the prospects of genetic engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansson, C.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Kalluri, U.C.; Tuskan, G.A.

    2010-07-15

    Photosynthetic assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by land plants offers the underpinnings for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. A proportion of the C captured in plant biomass is partitioned to roots, where it enters the pools of soil organic C and soil inorganic C and can be sequestered for millennia. Bioenergy crops serve the dual role of providing biofuel that offsets fossil-fuel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sequestering C in the soil through extensive root systems. Carbon captured in plant biomass can also contribute to C sequestration through the deliberate addition of biochar to soil, wood burial, or the use of durable plant products. Increasing our understanding of plant, microbial, and soil biology, and harnessing the benefits of traditional genetics and genetic engineering, will help us fully realize the GHG mitigation potential of phytosequestration.

  18. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01

    Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

  19. Standing Stocks and Faunal Zonation of Deep-Sea Benthos: Patterns and Predictions across Scales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Chih-Lin

    2012-07-16

    The deep ocean (> 200-m depth) covers more than 65 percent of earth's surface and is known as the largest active carbon sink of the planet. Photosynthesis fixes inorganic carbon into organic rich-compounds to fuel the biological production...

  20. How surface fire in Siberian Scots pine forests affects soil organic carbon in the forest floor: Stocks, molecular structure, and conversion to black carbon (charcoal)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czimczik, Claudia I; Preston, Caroline M; Schmidt, Michael W. I; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef

    2003-01-01

    Ecological effects of forest fires, Bot. Rev. , 26, 483 –1 ] In boreal forests, fire is a frequent disturbance andal. , 1999]. Risk of forest fires was high during the entire