National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for terrestrial carbon sequestration

  1. DOE Manual Studies Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is considerable opportunity and growing technical sophistication to make terrestrial carbon sequestration both practical and effective, according to the latest carbon capture and storage "best practices" manual issued by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems Personnel. Blaine Metting #12;vii Abstract The Center for Research on Enhancing Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial needed to evaluate the feasibility of environmentally sound strategies for enhancing carbon sequestration

  3. Terrestrial sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Charlie Byrer

    2010-01-08

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  4. Terrestrial sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charlie Byrer

    2008-03-10

    Terrestrial sequestration is the enhancement of CO2 uptake by plants that grow on land and in freshwater and, importantly, the enhancement of carbon storage in soils where it may remain more permanently stored. Terrestrial sequestration provides an opportunity for low-cost CO2 emissions offsets.

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stan D. Wullschleger

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stan D. Wullschleger://csite.eds.ornl.gov PROJECT DESCRIPTION The Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) project conducts research of switchgrass growing in the field. #12;Carbon Sequestration in Terrestrial Ecosystems (CSiTE) tion of inputs

  6. Sustainability of terrestrial carbon sequestration: A case study in Duke Forest with inversion approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeLucia, Evan H.

    Sustainability of terrestrial carbon sequestration: A case study in Duke Forest with inversion of terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration is critical for the success of any policies geared toward stabilizing. Ellsworth, A. Finzi, J. Lichter, and W. H. Schlesinger, Sustainability of terrestrial carbon sequestration

  7. What is the Potential for Carbon Sequestration by the Terrestrial Biosphere?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlman, R. C.; Jacobs, Gary K.; Breshears, David; Metting, F. Blaine

    2002-12-31

    This paper is a summary discussion of technical information about carbon sequestration (CS) in terrestrial ecosystems that was presented in various Sessions of the First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington D.C., May 14-17, 2001. The Earth's mantle of vegetation naturally removes CO2 from the atmosphere, and some of this carbon then becomes sequestered in biomass products and soil. As discussed at this National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, mechanisms of terrestrial biosphere carbon sequestration (TBCS) represent important options for sequestration of excess CO2 from combustion of fossil fuels. A number of studies suggest that the potential quantity of TBCS may be significant, and that economic aspects appear attractive; therefore we conclude the following points: ? Quantity of annual carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems can be measured at a reasonable accuracy; ? Median measure of current NEP or sequestration by forested ecosystems is 3 metric tons per hectare per year; ? Current calculated global TBCS for forests is ~3Gt C per yr; ? Estimated future TBCS capacity is 200-250 Gt C using available knowledge and current technology and management practice at nominal estimated cost of $10-20 per metric ton of C; ? It seems reasonable to assume that advanced science, technology, and management can double the capacity at low additional costs. ? TBCS option offers potential for sequestering more than 50 percent of projected excess CO2 that will have to be managed over the next century.

  8. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    control, terrestrial carbon sequestration, temperature,on terrestrial carbon sequestration (Nemani et al 2003, Xiaodeposition and forest carbon sequestration Glob. Change

  9. Carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration is the process of capture and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2).[1] Carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to either mitigate or defer global warming and avoid ...

  10. 150 G. Marland et al. / Climate Policy 3 (2003) 149157 Strategies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niyogi, Dev

    2003-01-01

    anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can reduce to create a system of credits and debits wherein emission or sequestration of carbon in the biosphere; Carbon sequestration; Land use change; Land surface change; Surface energy balance 1. Introduction Human

  11. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-05-06

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  12. CALMIT Remote-Sensing Research Relating to Carbon Sequestration There is considerable interest in assessing the magnitude of carbon sources and sinks in terrestrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    CALMIT Remote-Sensing Research Relating to Carbon Sequestration There is considerable interest in assessing the magnitude of carbon sources and sinks in terrestrial ecosystems using remote sensing techniques. We developed a novel technique to remotely assess carbon dioxide exchange in maize using

  13. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  14. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  15. CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

  16. Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    73 Carbon Sequestration and Its Role in the Global Carbon Cycle Geophysical Monograph Series 183. Blaine Metting2 The purpose of this chapter is to review terrestrial biological carbon sequestration Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA. #12;74 TERRESTRIAL BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEqUESTRATION

  17. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  18. House Committee on Natural Resources The Future of Fossil Fuels: Geological and Terrestrial Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and sequestration (CCS) is the critical enabling technology that would reduce CO2 emissions significantly while also at a large industrial source, such as a coal-fired power plant. By capture, it is meant isolating the CO2, thank you for the opportunity to appear before you today to discuss Carbon Dioxide (CO2) geological

  19. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Deliverables for the 7th Quarter reporting period include (1) for the geological efforts: Reports on Technology Needs and Action Plan on the Evaluation of Geological Sinks and Pilot Project Deployment (Deliverables 2 and 3), and Report on the Feasibility of Mineralization Trapping in the Snake River Plain Basin (Deliverable 14); (2) for the terrestrial efforts: Report on the Evaluation of Terrestrial Sinks and a Report of the Best Production Practices for Soil C Sequestration (Deliverables 8 and 15). In addition, the 7th Quarter activities for the Partnership included further development of the proposed activities for the deployment and demonstration phase of the carbon sequestration pilots including geological and terrestrial pilots, expansion of the Partnership to encompass regions and institutions that are complimentary to the steps we have identified, building greater collaborations with industry and stakeholders in the region, contributed to outreach efforts that spanned all partnerships, co-authorship on the Carbon Capture and Separation report, and developed a regional basis to address future energy opportunities in the region. The deliverables and activities are discussed in the following sections and appended to this report. The education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The public website has been expanded and integrated with the GIS carbon atlas. We have made presentations to stakeholders and policy makers including two tribal sequestration workshops, and made connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmental

  20. Regional partnerships lead US carbon sequestration efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    During the sixth annual conference on carbon capture and sequestration, 7-10 May 2007, a snapshot was given of progress on characterization efforts and field validation tests being carried out through the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership Initiative. The initiative is built on the recognition that geographical differences in fossil fuel/energy use and CO{sub 2} storage sinks across North America will dictate approaches to carbon sequestration. The first characterization phase (2003-2005) identified regional opportunities and developed frameworks to validate and deploy technologies. The validation phase (2005-2009) includes 10 enhanced oil recovery/enhanced gas recovery field tests in progress in Alberta and six US states and is applying lessons learned from these operations to sequestration in unmineable coal seams. Storage in saline formations are the focus of 10 field tests, and terrestrial sequestration will be studied in 11 other projects. 1 tab., 3 photos.

  1. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. In the fourth quarter, three deliverables have been completed, some in draft form to be revised and updated to include Wyoming. This is due primarily to some delays in funding to LANL and INEEL and the approval of a supplemental proposal to include Wyoming in much of the GIS data sets, analysis, and related materials. The de

  2. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed in the second quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO2 concentrations. While no key deliverables were due during the third quarter, progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations and in this report. A series of meetings held during the second and third quarters have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding carbon sequestration in this region, the need for a holistic approach to meeting energy demands and economic development potential, and the implementation of government programs or a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. A third Partnership meeting has been planned for August 04 in Idaho Falls; a preliminary agenda is attached.

  3. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, Hanna M.

    2014-01-01

    Area Southeast  Regional  Carbon  Sequestration  PartnershipCoast  Regional  Carbon  Sequestration  Partnership Water  West  Coast  Regional  Carbon  Sequestration  Partnership  (

  4. Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.

    2010-01-01

    carbon sequestration risk assessment, in Carbon Dioxidecarbon sequestration risk assessment, Energy Procedia,Risk Assessment Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

  5. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, Hanna M.

    2014-01-01

    for  Geologic  Carbon  Sequestration. ”   International  of  Energy.  “Carbon  Sequestration  Atlas  of  the  Water  Extracted  from  Carbon  Sequestration  Projects."  

  6. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. A series of meetings held in November and December, 2003, have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These include the impact of existing local, state, and federal permitting issues for terrestrial based carbon sequestration projects, consistency of final protocols and planning standards with national requirements, and alignments of carbon sequestration projects with existing federal and state cost-share programs. Finally, the education and outreach efforts during this performance period have resulted in a comprehensive plan which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. The primary goal of this plan is to increase awareness, understanding, and public acceptance of sequestration efforts and build support for a constituent based network which includes the initial Big Sky Partnership and other local and regional businesses and entities.

  7. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated has significant potential to sequester large amounts of CO{sub 2}. Simulations conducted to evaluate mineral trapping potential of mafic volcanic rock formations located in the Idaho province suggest that supercritical CO{sub 2} is converted to solid carbonate mineral within a few hundred years and permanently entombs the carbon. Although MMV for this rock type may be challenging, a carefully chosen combination of geophysical and geochemical techniques should allow assessment of the fate of CO{sub 2} in deep basalt hosted aquifers. Terrestrial carbon sequestration relies on land management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO{sub 2} where it is stored in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration can be implemented today and is on the front line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil Carbon (C) on rangelands, and forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Rangelands can store up to an additional 0.05 mt C/ha/yr, while the croplands are on average four times that amount. Estimates of technical potential for soil sequestration within the region in cropland are in the range of 2.0 M mt C/yr over 20 year time horizon. This is equivalent to approximately 7.0 M mt CO{sub 2}e/yr. The forestry sinks are well documented, and the potential in the Big Sky region ranges from 9-15 M mt CO{sub 2} equivalent per year. Value-added benefits include enhanced yields, reduced erosion, and increased wildlife habitat. Thus the terrestrial sinks provide a viable, environmentally beneficial, and relatively low cost sink that is available to sequester C in the current time frame. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological and terrestrial sequestration re

  8. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the Partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long-term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies.

  9. Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this statute, the Director of Natural Resources will document and quantify carbon sequestration and greenhouse emissions reductions associated with agricultural practices, management systems,...

  10. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2014-06-27

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  11. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2013-04-19

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  12. GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA to extend our thanks to the authors of various West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

  13. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  14. DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces DOE's Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program Adds Canadian Provinces February 16, 2005 - 10:14am Addthis...

  15. Carbon Sequestration Conference | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Sequestration Conference Carbon Sequestration Conference May 9, 2006 - 10:37am Addthis Remarks Prepared for Energy Secretary Samuel Bodman Thank you. It's a pleasure for me...

  16. SciTech Connect: "carbon sequestration"

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    carbon sequestration" Find + Advanced Search Term Search Semantic Search Advanced Search All Fields: "carbon sequestration" Semantic Semantic Term Title: Full Text:...

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed this quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. To date, there has been little research on soil carbon on rangelands, and since rangeland constitutes a major land use in the Big Sky region, this is important in achieving a better understanding of terrestrial sinks. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. Progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations. A series of meetings held during the second quarter have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. Finally, the education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan and process which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. While we are still working on the public website, we have made many presentations to stakeholders and policy makers, connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmentally-friendly energy production. In addition, we have laid plans for integration of our outreach efforts with the students, especially at the tribal colleges and at the universities involved in our partnership. This includes collaboration with the film and media arts departments at MSU, with outreach effort

  18. Establishing MICHCARB, a geological carbon sequestration research...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Western Michigan University 58 GEOSCIENCES Geological carbon sequestration Enhanced oil recovery Characterization of oil, gas and saline reservoirs Geological carbon...

  19. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urbanCarbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban

  20. Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    2006 Carbon sequestration: regional partnerships Accessed onCoast Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership with supportCoast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership 2008 Public

  1. Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.

    2010-01-01

    Framework for geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment,for geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment, Energyfor Geologic Carbon Sequestration, Int. J. of Greenhouse Gas

  2. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-01-01

    Enhancement of soil carbon sequestration by amendment withBiologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needson Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration, October 29,

  3. On leakage and seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Unger, A.J.A.; Hepple, R.P.; Jordan, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites Orlando Lawrencefrom Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites Farrar, C.D. , M.L.1999. Reichle, D. et al. , Carbon sequestration research and

  4. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-01-01

    workshop on geologic carbon sequestration, 2002. Benson,verification of geologic carbon sequestration, Geophys. Res.CO 2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites, Vadose Zone

  5. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newmark, Robin L.; Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01

    and HB 90:Carbon capture and sequestration, http://legisweb.conference on carbon capture and sequestration, Pittsburgh,The DOE’s Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships are

  6. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas

  7. Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01

    West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership 2008Community perceptions of carbon sequestration: insights fromof coal with carbon sequestration. Casper Star Tribune.

  8. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2008-03-21

    Fossil fuel combustion, deforestation, and biomass burning are the dominant contributors to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and global warming. Many approaches to mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions are being pursued, and among the most promising are terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. Recent advances in ecology and microbial biology offer promising new possibilities for enhancing terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. A workshop was held October 29, 2007, at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) on Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration (BECS). The workshop participants (approximately 30 scientists from California, Illinois, Oregon, Montana, and New Mexico) developed a prioritized list of research needed to make progress in the development of biological enhancements to improve terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration. The workshop participants also identified a number of areas of supporting science that are critical to making progress in the fundamental research areas. The purpose of this position paper is to summarize and elaborate upon the findings of the workshop. The paper considers terrestrial and geologic carbon sequestration separately. First, we present a summary in outline form of the research roadmaps for terrestrial and geologic BECS. This outline is elaborated upon in the narrative sections that follow. The narrative sections start with the focused research priorities in each area followed by critical supporting science for biological enhancements as prioritized during the workshop. Finally, Table 1 summarizes the potential significance or 'materiality' of advances in these areas for reducing net greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-04-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of April 1, 2005-September 30, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. While Phase 2 planning is well under way, the content of this report focuses exclusively on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period. Progress during this period was focused in the three areas: geological carbon storage capacity in New Mexico, terrestrial sequestration capacity for the project area, and the Integrated Assessment Model efforts. The geologic storage capacity of New Mexico was analyzed and Blanco Mesaverde (which extends into Colorado) and Basin Dakota Pools were chosen as top two choices for the further analysis for CO{sub 2} sequestration in the system dynamics model preliminary analysis. Terrestrial sequestration capacity analysis showed that the four states analyzed thus far (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) have relatively limited potential to sequester carbon in terrestrial systems, mainly due to the aridity of these areas, but the large land area offered could make up for the limited capacity per hectare. Best opportunities were thought to be in eastern Colorado/New Mexico. The Integrated Assessment team expanded the initial test case model to include all New Mexico sinks and sources in a new, revised prototype model in 2005. The allocation mechanism, or ''String of Pearls'' concept, utilizes potential pipeline routes as the links between all combinations of the source to various sinks. This technique lays the groundwork for future, additional ''String of Pearls'' analyses throughout the SW Partnership and other regions as well.

  10. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2006-03-31

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed its Phase I program in December 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership Phase I project was to evaluate and demonstrate the means for achieving an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Many other goals were accomplished on the way to this objective, including (1) analysis of CO{sub 2} storage options in the region, including characterization of storage capacities and transportation options, (2) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} sources, (3) analysis and summary of CO{sub 2} separation and capture technologies employed in the region, (4) evaluation and ranking of the most appropriate sequestration technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region, (5) dissemination of existing regulatory/permitting requirements, and (6) assessing and initiating public knowledge and acceptance of possible sequestration approaches. Results of the Southwest Partnership's Phase I evaluation suggested that the most convenient and practical ''first opportunities'' for sequestration would lie along existing CO{sub 2} pipelines in the region. Action plans for six Phase II validation tests in the region were developed, with a portfolio that includes four geologic pilot tests distributed among Utah, New Mexico, and Texas. The Partnership will also conduct a regional terrestrial sequestration pilot program focusing on improved terrestrial MMV methods and reporting approaches specific for the Southwest region. The sixth and final validation test consists of a local-scale terrestrial pilot involving restoration of riparian lands for sequestration purposes. The validation test will use desalinated waters produced from one of the geologic pilot tests. The Southwest Regional Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. These partners include 21 state government agencies and universities, five major electric utility companies, seven oil, gas and coal companies, three federal agencies, the Navajo Nation, several NGOs, and the Western Governors Association. This group is continuing its work in the Phase II Validation Program, slated to conclude in 2009.

  11. Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East of England #12;Low Carbon Innovation Centre Report for EEDA Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective 20/04/2009 ii Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East

  12. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

  13. Assessing the impact of changes in climate and CO2 on potential carbon sequestration in agricultural soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assessing the impact of changes in climate and CO2 on potential carbon sequestration the influence of climate and CO2 feedbacks on soil carbon sequestration using a terrestrial carbon cycle model sequestration of 42 Tg. This is 5% of the soil carbon estimated to be potentially sequestered as the result

  14. Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Archer, Steven R.

    Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Second edition Rattan Lal & Ronald F. Follett. Printed in the United States of America. #12;181 Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect, 2nd

  15. Geological carbon sequestration: critical legal issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Geological carbon sequestration: critical legal issues Ray Purdy and Richard Macrory January 2004 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 45 #12;1 Geological carbon sequestration an integrated assessment of geological carbon sequestration (Project ID code T2.21). #12;2 1 Introduction

  16. THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 sequestration and between 1 and 49 percent for forest based carbon sequestration. Value adjustments 18 19 20 21 22 BRUCE A. MCCARL, BRIAN C. MURRAY, AND UWE A. SCHNEIDER Abstract Carbon sequestered via

  17. THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION BRUCE A. MCCARL, BRIAN C. MURRAY, AND UWE A. SCHNEIDER A. Abstract Carbon sequestration via forests and agricultural soils saturates over time to sequestration because of (1) an ecosystems limited ability to take up carbon which we will call saturation

  18. WithCarbonSequestration Biological-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    342928Net energy ratio 2.603.303.60$/kg H2Total cost Central Hydrogen from Biomass via Gasification · Techno-Economic Analysis of H2 Production by Gasification of Biomass · Renewables Analysis · BiomassWithCarbonSequestration Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Oil Biological

  19. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    2007. Geologic Carbon Sequestration Strategies forfor carbon capture and sequestration. Environmental Sciencein Siting Geologic Carbon Sequestration Projects Phillip N.

  20. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    gas reservoirs for carbon sequestration and enhanced gasproduction and carbon sequestration, Society of Petroleumfeasibiilty of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas

  1. Coda-wave interferometry analysis of time-lapse VSP data for monitoring geological carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring Geological Carbon Sequestration Authors: RongmaoGeological Carbon Sequestration ABSTRACT Injection andmonitoring geological carbon sequestration. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

  2. An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

    2005-10-01

    As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

  3. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  4. The future of carbon sequestration. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-04-15

    The report is an overview of the opportunities for carbon sequestration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. It provides a concise look at what is driving interest in carbon sequestration, the challenges faced in implementing carbon sequestration projects, and the current and future state of carbon sequestration. Topics covered in the report include: Overview of the climate change debate; Explanation of the global carbon cycle; Discussion of the concept of carbon sequestration; Review of current efforts to implement carbon sequestration; Analysis and comparison of carbon sequestration component technologies; Review of the economic drivers of carbon sequestration project success; and Discussion of the key government and industry initiatives supporting carbon sequestration.

  5. EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC EFRC Carbon Capture and Sequestration Activities at NERSC Why it Matters: Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas is considered to be...

  6. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (1­8). Plantations typi- cally combine

  7. Consequences of Considering Carbon/Nitrogen Interactions on the Feedbacks between Climate and the Terrestrial Carbon Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sokolov, Andrei P.

    A number of observational studies indicate that carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems in a world with an atmosphere richer in carbon dioxide and a warmer climate depends on the interactions between the carbon and ...

  8. Genetic Analysis in Populus Reveals Potential to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration In a paper published in the August, 2005 issue of Canadian Journal of Forest Research, scientists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genetic Analysis in Populus Reveals Potential to Enhance Soil Carbon Sequestration In a paper carbon sequestration by an estimated 0.35Gt carbon/year. This represents ca. 4% of global carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. This work is supported by research funded through the Carbon Sequestration Program

  9. The significance of the erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berhe, A.A.; Harte, J.; Harden, J.W.; Torn, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    potential of soil carbon sequestration to mitigate theof soil movement on carbon sequestration in agriculturalEnhancement of carbon sequestration in US soils. BioScience.

  10. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James J. Dooley; Robert Dahowski; Casie Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This final report summarizes the Phase I research conducted by the Midwest regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The Phase I effort began in October 2003 and the project period ended on September 31, 2005. The MRCSP is a public/private partnership led by Battelle with the mission of identifying the technical, economic, and social issues associated with implementation of carbon sequestration technologies in its seven state geographic region (Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) and identifying viable pathways for their deployment. It is one of seven partnerships that together span most of the U.S. and parts of Canada that comprise the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Regional Carbon Sequestration Program led by DOE's national Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The MRCSP Phase I research was carried out under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41981. The total value of Phase I was $3,513,513 of which the DOE share was $2,410,967 or 68.62%. The remainder of the cost share was provided in varying amounts by the rest of the 38 members of MRCSP's Phase I project. The next largest cost sharing participant to DOE in Phase I was the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Air Quality Development Authority (OCDO). OCDO's contribution was $100,000 and was contributed under Grant Agreement No. CDO/D-02-17. In this report, the MRCSP's research shows that the seven state MRCSP region is a major contributor to the U. S. economy and also to total emissions of CO2, the most significant of the greenhouse gases thought to contribute to global climate change. But, the research has also shown that the region has substantial resources for sequestering carbon, both in deep geological reservoirs (geological sequestration) and through improved agricultural and land management practices (terrestrial sequestration). Geological reservoirs, especially deep saline reservoirs, offer the potential to permanently store CO2 for literally 100s of years even if all the CO2 emissions from the region's large point sources were stored there, an unlikely scenario under any set of national carbon emission mitigation strategies. The terrestrial sequestration opportunities in the region have the biophysical potential to sequester up to 20% of annual emissions from the region's large point sources of CO2. This report describes the assumptions made and methods employed to arrive at the results leading to these conclusions. It also describes the results of analyses of regulatory issues in the region affecting the potential for deployment of sequestration technologies. Finally, it describes the public outreach and education efforts carried out in Phase I including the creation of a web site dedicated to the MRCSP at www.mrcsp.org.

  11. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    - 1 - Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery January 8, 2014 Los Alamos simulation to optimize carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and enhance oil recovery (CO2-EOR) based on known production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices

  12. Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration Training Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Training Program Now Accepting Applications Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration Training Program Now Accepting Applications March 26, 2012 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, D.C....

  13. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Greening up fossil...

  14. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  15. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogden, Joan

    2004-01-01

    USDOE’s Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership program.under the Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership Program.

  16. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-04-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first 18-months of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (fifth and sixth project quarters) of the project (October 1, 2004-March 31, 2005) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, no changes occurred during the fifth or sixth quarters of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, refinements have been made to the general mapping and screening of sources and sinks. Integration and geographical information systems (GIS) mapping is ongoing. Characterization during this period was focused on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB continues to expand upon its assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has used results of a survey and focus group meeting to refine approaches that are being taken to educate and involve the public. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB has evaluated findings from work performed during the first 18-months. The focus of the project team has shifted from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team is developing an integrated approach to implementing the most promising opportunities and in setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. Milestones completed during the fifth and sixth project quarters included: (1) Q1-FY05--Assess safety, regulatory and permitting issues; and (2) Q2-FY05--Finalize inventory of major sources/sinks and refine GIS algorithms.

  17. 2010 Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of Energy's (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Research Program, DOE's international carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) collaborations, worldwide CCS projects, and CCS regulatory...

  18. Readout of Secretary Chu Meetings on Carbon Capture and Sequestration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Readout of Secretary Chu Meetings on Carbon Capture and Sequestration and State Grid Readout of Secretary Chu Meetings on Carbon Capture and Sequestration and State Grid July 16,...

  19. November 2008 Carbon Sequestration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    November 2008 Carbon Sequestration in British Columbia's Forests and Management Options T. Andrew of British Columbia through the BC Ministry of the Environment. #12;3Forestry ExECutIvE SuMMary OF FuturE rESEarCh BlAckaNd rAchhpAl S. JASSAlFaculty oF laNd aNd Food SyStemS, uNiverSity oF britiSh columbia ArThur l

  20. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  1. ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION examines biological carbon sequestration using a grassland restoration as a model system. Chapter 1 for biological carbon sequestration. In this analysis, we found that significantly greater soil carbon

  2. Green Goals: Carbon Sequestration Grade Levels: 6 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammack, Richard

    Green Goals: Carbon Sequestration Grade Levels: 6 ­ 12 type of carbon sequestration. All plants sequester carbon; however, the larger Objective: To investigate the role of trees in atmospheric carbon dioxide reduction

  3. SOUTHEAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2004-09-01

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is on schedule and within budget projections for the work completed during the first year of its two year program. Work during the semiannual period (third and fourth quarter) of the project (April 1--September 30, 2004) was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix.'' Under Task 1.0 Define Geographic Boundaries of the Region, Texas and Virginia were added during the second quarter of the project and no geographical changes occurred during the third or fourth quarter of the project. Under Task 2.0 Characterize the Region, general mapping and screening of sources and sinks has been completed, with integration and Geographical Information System (GIS) mapping ongoing. The first step focused on the macro level characterization of the region. Subsequent characterization will focus on smaller areas having high sequestration potential. Under Task 3.0 Identify and Address Issues for Technology Deployment, SECARB has completed a preliminary assessment of safety, regulatory, permitting, and accounting frameworks within the region to allow for wide-scale deployment of promising terrestrial and geologic sequestration approaches. Under Task 4.0 Develop Public Involvement and Education Mechanisms, SECARB has conducted a survey and focus group meeting to gain insight into approaches that will be taken to educate and involve the public. Task 5.0 and 6.0 will be implemented beginning October 1, 2004. Under Task 5.0 Identify the Most Promising Capture, Sequestration, and Transport Options, SECARB will evaluate findings from work performed during the first year and shift the focus of the project team from region-wide mapping and characterization to a more detailed screening approach designed to identify the most promising opportunities. Under Task 6.0 Prepare Action Plans for Implementation and Technology Validation Activity, the SECARB team will develop an integrated approach to implementing and setting up measurement, monitoring and verification (MMV) programs for the most promising opportunities. During this semiannual period special attention was provided to Texas and Virginia, which were added to the SECARB region, to ensure a smooth integration of activities with the other 9 states. Milestones completed and submitted during the third and fourth quarter included: Q3-FY04--Complete initial development of plans for GIS; and Q4-FYO4--Complete preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues.

  4. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Fossil Energy (FE) and Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) co-hosted the Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (BECCS) Workshop on...

  5. Carbon Sequestration Documentary Wins Coveted Aurora Award

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A film about carbon sequestration produced with support from the U.S. Department of Energy has received a 2009 Gold Aurora Award in the documentary category for nature/environment.

  6. Model Components of the Certification Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-01-01

    to two geologic carbon sequestration sites, Energy Procedia,for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Based on Effectivefor geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment, Energy

  7. Case studies of the application of the Certification Framework to two geologic carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-01-01

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneverification of geologic carbon sequestration, Geophys. Res.to two geologic carbon sequestration sites Curtis M.

  8. Spatially-explicit impacts of carbon capture and sequestration on water supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathre, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory). 2010. Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United2012. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographicfor use in geologic carbon sequestration projects. Aquifers

  9. GEO-SEQ Best Practices Manual. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Site Evaluation to Implementation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01

    geochemical studies relevant to carbon sequestration.National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, Washington, DC,Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 14-17, Washington

  10. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zone2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites: CO 2 migrationGeologic Carbon Sequestration as a Global Strategy to

  11. LUCI: A facility at DUSEL for large-scale experimental study of geologic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    study of geologic carbon sequestration Catherine A. Petersleakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites. Env EarthDOE) Conference on Carbon Sequestration, 2005. Alexandria,

  12. Carbon sequestration with enhanced gas recovery: Identifying candidate sites for pilot study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Benson, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Process modeling of carbon sequestration with enhanced gas2001. Reichle, D. et al.. Carbon sequestration research andCarbon Sequestration with Enhanced Gas Recovery: Identifying

  13. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-02-23

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

  14. Experimental Study of Carbon Sequestration Reactions Controlled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Experimental Study of Carbon Sequestration Reactions Controlled by the Percolation of CO2-Rich. Carbonation of ultramafic rocks in geological reservoirs is, in theory, the most efficient way to trap CO2 irreversibly; however, possible feedback effects between carbonation reactions and changes in the reservoir

  15. The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huppert, Herbert

    with a potentially disastrous global problem owing to the current emission of 32 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2The Fluid Mechanics of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Herbert E. Huppert1-3 and Jerome A. Neufeld4 1 FurtherANNUAL REVIEWS #12;1. INTRODUCTION Undeniably, the average global carbon dioxide (CO2) content

  16. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitze, Arnold

    2011-04-11

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­?year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-­?burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-­?fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  17. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  18. Carbon Sequestration GeoloGical SequeStration of co2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    Growing concern over the potential adverse effects of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) buildup in the atmosphere in three world-class CO2 storage projects that are endorsed by the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum04/2008 Carbon Sequestration GeoloGical SequeStration of co2 : the Geo-Seq Project Background

  19. Grassland to shrubland state transitions enhance carbon sequestration in the northern Chihuahuan Desert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grassland to shrubland state transitions enhance carbon sequestration in the northern Chihuahuan in woody vegetation may be enhanced ecosystem carbon sequestration, although the responses of arid at least be partially offset by increased ecosystem carbon sequestration. Keywords: carbon sequestration

  20. Past and Future Effects of Ozone on Net Primary Production and Carbon Sequestration Using a Global Biogeochemical Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felzer, Benjamin Seth.

    Exposure of plants to ozone inhibits photosynthesis and therefore reduces vegetation production and carbon sequestration. Simulations with the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) for the historical period (1860-1995) show ...

  1. Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration Tarun R Naik1 and Rakesh sequestration. Most of the studies related to the carbonation are limited to its effects on corrosion. The possibility of using carbonation process as a direct means for carbon dioxide sequestration is yet

  2. Understanding Sequestration as a Means of Carbon Management Howard Herzog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    difficult. C Carbon sequestration provides an alternate While many of the carbon management and nuclear Carbon sequestration is happening today. As part about climate change, the story is very different has imposed a carbon sequestration. They include enhancing natural tax of about $50 per tonne of CO

  3. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2005-08-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration completed several more tasks during the period of October 1, 2004--March 31, 2005. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. Action plans for possible Phase 2 carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are completed, and a proposal was developed and submitted describing how the Partnership may develop and carry out appropriate pilot tests. The content of this report focuses on Phase 1 objectives completed during this reporting period.

  4. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and individuals wishing to reduce their carbon footprint while also delivering a range of other environmentalWoodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July of group schemes 8 2.6 Monitoring 9 2.7 Carbon statements and reporting 9 2.8 Woodland Carbon Code

  5. SOUTHWEST REGIONAL PARTNERSHIP ON CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson; Rick Allis; Barry Biediger; Joel Brown; Jim Cappa; George Guthrie; Richard Hughes; Eugene Kim; Robert Lee; Dennis Leppin; Charles Mankin; Orman Paananen; Rajesh Pawar; Tarla Peterson; Steve Rauzi; Jerry Stuth; Genevieve Young

    2004-11-01

    The Southwest Partnership Region includes six whole states, including Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah, roughly one-third of Texas, and significant portions of adjacent states. The Partnership comprises a large, diverse group of expert organizations and individuals specializing in carbon sequestration science and engineering, as well as public policy and outreach. The main objective of the Southwest Partnership project is to achieve an 18% reduction in carbon intensity by 2012. The Partnership made great progress in this first year. Action plans for possible Phase II carbon sequestration pilot tests in the region are almost finished, including both technical and non-technical aspects necessary for developing and carrying out these pilot tests. All partners in the Partnership are taking an active role in evaluating and ranking optimum sites and technologies for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} in the Southwest Region. We are identifying potential gaps in all aspects of potential sequestration deployment issues.

  6. Estimation of Parameters in Carbon Sequestration Models from Net Ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Luther

    Estimation of Parameters in Carbon Sequestration Models from Net Ecosystem Exchange Data Luther in the context of a deterministic com- partmental carbon sequestration system. Sensitivity and approximation usefulness in the estimation of parameters within a compartmental carbon sequestration model. Previously we

  7. Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration: Economic Issues and Research Needs Draft paper Bruce A Mc............................................................................................................. 5 2 Why Consider Promoting Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration?...................... 6 2 Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration....... 11 3.1 What is the cost of GHGE offsets arising from large

  8. DEVELOPING A SET OF REGULATORY ANALOGS FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEVELOPING A SET OF REGULATORY ANALOGS FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION D.M. Reiner1 , H.J. Herzog2 1 Judge Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA, email: hjherzog@mit.edu ABSTRACT Carbon capture and sequestration variables critical for determining the success of carbon sequestration as a viable climate policy option

  9. A SEARCH FOR REGULATORY ANALOGS TO CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A SEARCH FOR REGULATORY ANALOGS TO CARBON SEQUESTRATION D.M. Reiner and H.J. Herzog1 1 Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, M.I.T., Cambridge, MA. 02139, USA ABSTRACT Carbon capture and sequestration for determining the success of carbon sequestration as a viable climate policy option. INTRODUCTION To date

  10. Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mladenoff, David

    Historical forest baselines reveal potential for continued carbon sequestration Jeanine M-based studies suggest that land-use history is a more important driver of carbon sequestration in these systems agricultural lands are being promoted as important avenues for future carbon sequestration (8). But the degree

  11. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) and the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is hosting a Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (BECCS) Workshop on Monday, May 18, 2015 in Washington, DC.

  12. Carbon dioxide hydrate particles for ocean carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Aaron C.

    This paper presents strategies for producing negatively buoyant CO[subscript 2] hydrate composite particles for ocean carbon sequestration. Our study is based on recent field observations showing that a continuous-jet ...

  13. The impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    for terrestrial carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production. For P. strobus, above- ground plant carbonThe impact of co-occurring tree and grassland species on carbon sequestration and potential biofuel production R A M E S H L A U N G A N I and J O H A N N E S M . H . K N O P S School of Biological Sciences

  14. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  15. Modeling the effects of topography and wind on atmospheric dispersion of CO2 surface leakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini K.

    2009-01-01

    CO 2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites, Vadose Zoneleakage at geologic carbon sequestration sites Fotini K.assessment for geologic carbon sequestration sites. We have

  16. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    from geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneCO 2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites, Vadose Zoneseepage from geologic carbon sequestration sites may occur.

  17. Coupled Vadose Zone and Atmospheric Surface-Layer Transport of CO2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Unger, Andre J.A.

    2004-01-01

    1999. Reichle, D. et al. , Carbon sequestration research andfrom geologic carbon sequestration sites: unsaturated zoneof CO 2 from Geologic Carbon Sequestration Sites Curtis M.

  18. Conceptual Design of a Fossil Hydrogen Infrastructure with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide: Case Study in Ohio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Annual Conference on Carbon Sequestration. 2003. WashingtonTechnology Laboratory Carbon Sequestration program andCONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION DOE/NETL May

  19. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2005-09-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) is a diverse partnership covering eleven states involving the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) an interstate compact; regulatory agencies and/or geological surveys from member states; the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); academic institutions; a Native American enterprise; and multiple entities from the private sector. Figure 1 shows the team structure for the partnership. In addition to the Technical Team, the Technology Coalition, an alliance of auxiliary participants, in the project lends yet more strength and support to the project. The Technology Coalition, with its diverse representation of various sectors, is integral to the technical information transfer, outreach, and public perception activities of the partnership. The Technology Coalition members, shown in Figure 2, also provide a breadth of knowledge and capabilities in the multiplicity of technologies needed to assure a successful outcome to the project and serve as an extremely important asset to the partnership. The eleven states comprising the multi-state region are: Alabama; Arkansas; Florida; Georgia; Louisiana; Mississippi; North Carolina; South Carolina; Tennessee; Texas; and Virginia. The states making up the SECARB area are illustrated in Figure 3. The primary objectives of the SECARB project include: (1) Supporting the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carbon Sequestration Program by promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. This requires the development of relevant data to reduce the uncertainties and risks that are barriers to sequestration, especially for geologic storage in the SECARB region. Information and knowledge are the keys to establishing a regional carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage industry with public acceptance. (2) Supporting the President's Global Climate Change Initiative with the goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by 2012. A corollary to the first objective, this objective requires the development of a broad awareness across government, industry, and the general public of sequestration issues and establishment of the technological and legal frameworks necessary to achieve the President's goal. The information developed by the SECARB team will play a vital role in achieving the President's goal for the southeastern region of the United States. (3) Evaluating options and potential opportunities for regional CO{sub 2} sequestration. This requires characterization of the region regarding the presence and location of sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily CO{sub 2}, the presence and location of potential carbon sinks and geological parameters, geographical features and environmental concerns, demographics, state and interstate regulations, and existing infrastructure.

  20. MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Ball; Judith Bradbury; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom; Neeraj Gupta; Robert Burns; Bob Dahowski

    2004-04-30

    This is the first semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

  1. Fly Ash Characteristics and Carbon Sequestration Potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Amonette, James E.; Tarver, Jana R.; Fagan, Lisa A.; McNeilly, Meghan S.; Daniels, William L.

    2007-07-20

    Concerns for the effects of global warming have lead to an interest in the potential for inexpensive methods to sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). One of the proposed methods is the sequestration of carbon in soil though the growth of crops or forests.4,6 If there is an economic value placed on sequestration of carbon dioxide in soil there may be an an opportunity and funding to utilize fly ash in the reclamation of mine soils and other degraded lands. However, concerns associated with the use of fly ash must be addressed before this practice can be widely adopted. There is a vast extent of degraded lands across the world that has some degree of potential for use in carbon sequestration. Degraded lands comprise nearly 2 X 109 ha of land throughout the world.7 Although the potential is obviously smaller in the United States, there are still approximately 4 X 106 ha of degraded lands that previously resulted from mining operations14 and an additional 1.4 X 108 ha of poorly managed lands. Thus, according to Lal and others the potential is to sequester approximately 11 Pg of carbon over the next 50 years.1,10 The realization of this potential will likely be dependent on economic incentives and the use of soil amendments such as fly ash. There are many potential benefits documented for the use of fly ash as a soil amendment. For example, fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, HCO3-, Cl- and basic cations, although some effects are notably decreased in high-clay soils.8,13,9 The potential is that these effects will promote increased growth of plants (either trees or grasses) and result in greater carbon accumulation in the soil than in untreated degraded soils. This paper addresses the potential for carbon sequestration in soils amended with fly ash and examines some of the issues that should be considered in planning this option. We describe retrospective studies of soil carbon accumulation on reclaimed mine lands, leaching studies of fly ash and carbon sorption studies of fly ash.

  2. Mechanical effect of adsorption Carbon sequestration and swelling of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Mechanical effect of adsorption Carbon sequestration and swelling of coal Laurent BROCHARD on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (2005)) Pressure,psi Time, year Pressure 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Rate Université Paris-Est. Laboratoire Navier (UMR CNRS 8205). Ecole des Ponts ParisTech CONTEXT - CARBON

  3. Carbon Geological Sequestration Systems Bau, Domenico 54 ENVIRONMENTAL

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-Objective Optimization Approaches for the Design of Carbon Geological Sequestration Systems Bau, Domenico 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES The main objective of this project is to...

  4. Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon Sequestration/Storage Dvorkin...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rock Physics of Geologic Carbon SequestrationStorage Dvorkin, Jack; Mavko, Gary 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES This report covers the results of developing the rock...

  5. Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Training and Research on Probabilistic Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration in Fractured Porous Rocks Gutierrez, Marte 54 ENVIRONMENTAL...

  6. Management Opportunities for Enhancing Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide Sinks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Post, W. M.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; West, Tristram O.; Liebig, Mark A.; King, Anthony W.

    2012-12-01

    The potential for mitigating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations through the use of terrestrial biological carbon (C) sequestration is substantial. Here, we estimate the amount of C being sequestered by natural processes at global, North American, and national US scales. We present and quantify, where possible, the potential for deliberate human actions – through forestry, agriculture, and use of biomass-based fuels – to augment these natural sinks. Carbon sequestration may potentially be achieved through some of these activities but at the expense of substantial changes in land-use management. Some practices (eg reduced tillage, improved silviculture, woody bioenergy crops) are already being implemented because of their economic benefits and associated ecosystem services. Given their cumulative greenhouse-gas impacts, other strategies (eg the use of biochar and cellulosic bioenergy crops) require further evaluation to determine whether widespread implementation is warranted.

  7. Carbon Sequestration Atlas and Interactive Maps from the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McPherson, Brian

    In November of 2002, DOE announced a global climate change initiative involving joint government-industry partnerships working together to find sensible, low cost solutions for reducing GHG emissions. As a result, seven regional partnerships were formed; the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) is one of those. These groups are utilizing their expertise to assess sequestration technologies to capture carbon emissions, identify and evaluate appropriate storage locations, and engage a variety of stakeholders in order to increase awareness of carbon sequestration. Stakeholders in this project are made up of private industry, NGOs, the general public, and government entities. There are a total of 44 current organizations represented in the partnership including electric utilities, oil and gas companies, state governments, universities, NGOs, and tribal nations. The SWP is coordinated by New Mexico Tech and encompasses New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and portions of Kansas, Nevada, Texas, and Wyoming. Field test sites for the region are located in New Mexico (San Juan Basin), Utah (Paradox Basin), and Texas (Permian Basin).[Taken from the SWP C02 Sequestration Atlas] The SWP makes available at this website their CO2 Sequestration Atlas and an interactive data map.

  8. Computational Geosciences Improved Semi-Analytical Simulation of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bau, Domenico A.

    Computational Geosciences Improved Semi-Analytical Simulation of Geological Carbon Sequestration of Geological Carbon Sequestration Article Type: Manuscript Keywords: Semi-Analytical Modeling; Iterative Methods; Geological Carbon Sequestration; Injection Site Assessment Corresponding Author: Brent Cody

  9. Invitation to Present, Sponsor, and Attend Geologic Carbon Sequestration Site Integrity: Characterization and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    Invitation to Present, Sponsor, and Attend Geologic Carbon Sequestration Site Integrity and long-term sustainability of geologic carbon sequestration sites depends upon the ability on geologic carbon sequestration site monitoring. The management framework and costs will be similar

  10. Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Efficiency of incentives to jointly increase carbon sequestration and species conservation the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation across heterogeneous landscapes. Using data from the Willamette Basin, Oregon, we compare the provision of carbon sequestration and species conservation under

  11. Carbon sequestration potential of tropical pasture compared with afforestation in Panama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potvin, Catherine

    Carbon sequestration potential of tropical pasture compared with afforestation in Panama S E B) to estimate the carbon sequestration potential of tropical pasture compared with afforestation; and (3 show the potential for considerable carbon sequestration of tropical afforestation and highlight

  12. Carbon dioxide reuse and sequestration: The state of the art today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Sally M.; Dorchak, Thomas; Jacobs, Gary; Ekmann, James; Bishop, Jim; Grahame, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    projects related to carbon sequestration, Presented at theDOE workshop on carbon sequestration, Washington D.C. ,29. U.S. DOE, Carbon Sequestration: State of the Science,

  13. Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in concrete in different curing environments Y.-m. Chun, T.R. Naik, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the results of an investigation on carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in concrete. Concrete mixtures were not air entrained. Concrete mixtures were made containing

  14. Received 28 Apr 2013 | Accepted 9 Sep 2013 | Published 15 Oct 2013 Earthworms facilitate carbon sequestration through

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neher, Deborah A.

    carbon sequestration through unequal amplification of carbon stabilization compared with mineralization carbon would entirely reflect the earthworms' contribution to net carbon sequestration. We show how two widespread earthworm invaders affect net carbon sequestration through impacts on the balance of carbon

  15. Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction (Kansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Carbon Dioxide Capture/Sequestration Tax Deduction allows a taxpayer a deduction to adjusted gross income with respect to the amortization of the amortizable costs of carbon dioxide capture,...

  16. Louisiana Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide Act (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This law establishes that carbon dioxide and sequestration is a valuable commodity to the citizens of the state. Geologic storage of carbon dioxide may allow for the orderly withdrawal as...

  17. Investigations into Wetland Carbon Sequestration as Remediation for Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thom, Ronald M.; Blanton, Susan L.; Borde, Amy B.; Williams, Greg D.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Huesemann, Michael H.; KW Nehring and SE Brauning

    2002-01-01

    Wetlands can potentially sequester vast amounts of carbon. However, over 50% of wetlands globally have been degraded or lost. Restoration of wetland systems may therefore result in increased sequestration of carbon. Preliminary results of our investigations into atmospheric carbon sequestration by restored coastal wetlands indicate that carbon can be sequestered in substantial quantities in the first 2-50 years after restoration of natural hydrology and sediment accretion processes.

  18. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  19. Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestration and Land Use Emissions Using Detailed Model Results and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Atul Jain

    2005-04-17

    This report outlines the progress on the development and application of Integrated Assessment Modeling of Carbon Sequestrations and Land Use Emissions supported by the DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DOE-DE-FG02-01ER63069. The overall objective of this collaborative project between the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to unite the latest advances in carbon cycle research with scientifically based models and policy-related integrated assessment tools that incorporate computationally efficient representations of the latest knowledge concerning science and emission trajectories, and their policy implications. As part of this research we accomplished the following tasks that we originally proposed: (1) In coordination with LLNL and ORNL, we enhanced the Integrated Science Assessment Model's (ISAM) parametric representation of the ocean and terrestrial carbon cycles that better represent spatial and seasonal variations, which are important to study the mechanisms that influence carbon sequestration in the ocean and terrestrial ecosystems; (2) Using the MiniCAM modeling capability, we revised the SRES (IPCC Special Report on Emission Scenarios; IPCC, 2000) land use emission scenarios; and (3) On the application front, the enhanced version of ISAM modeling capability is applied to understand how short- and long-term natural carbon fluxes, carbon sequestration, and human emissions contribute to the net global emissions (concentrations) trajectories required to reach various concentration (emission) targets. Under this grant, 21 research publications were produced. In addition, this grant supported a number of graduate and undergraduate students whose fundamental research was to learn a disciplinary field in climate change (e.g., ecological dynamics and ocean circulations) and then complete research on how this field could be linked to the other factors we need to consider in its dynamics (e.g., land use, ocean and terrestrial carbon sequestration and climate change).

  20. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  1. Chemical sensing and imaging in microfluidic pore network structures relevant to natural carbon cycling and industrial carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong; Wilkins, Michael J.; Warner, Marvin G.; Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-06-11

    Energy and climate change represent significant factors in global security. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, while global in scope, are influenced by pore-scale phenomena in the subsurface. We are developing tools to visualize and investigate processes in pore network microfluidic structures with transparent covers as representations of normally-opaque porous media. In situ fluorescent oxygen sensing methods and fluorescent cellulosic materials are being used to investigate processes related to terrestrial carbon cycling involving cellulytic respiring microorganisms. These structures also enable visualization of water displacement from pore spaces by hydrophobic fluids, including carbon dioxide, in studies related to carbon sequestration.

  2. Overview of the United States Priorities and Research Programs on Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ' Department of Energy established a Carbon Sequestration Program in 1998, Regional Carbon SequestrationOverview of the United States Priorities and Research Programs on Carbon Sequestration M. Karmis Partnerships in 2003, and FutureGen, the Integrated Sequestration and Hydrogen Research Initiative, in 2003

  3. NATCARB Interactive Maps and the National Carbon Explorer: a National Look at Carbon Sequestration

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    NATCARB is a national look at carbon sequestration. The NATCARB home page, National Carbon Explorer (http://www.natcarb.org/) provides access to information and interactive maps on a national scale about climate change, DOE's carbon sequestration program and its partnerships, CO2 emissions, and sinks. This portal provides access to interactive maps based on the Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada.

  4. Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration Offset Programs: Strengths, Difficulties, and Suggestions for Their Potential Use in AB 32's Cap and Trade Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernadett, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    harms involved in agricultural soil carbon sequestration.et al. , Soil Carbon Sequestration – Fundamentals , O HIO Sland-management/soil-carbon- sequestration/en/ (last visited

  5. Developing microbe-plant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation, and carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard, S.

    2009-01-01

    Remediation, and Carbon Sequestration References Anderson,Remediation, and Carbon Sequestration rhizosphere byRemediation, and Carbon Sequestration Figure 1. Examples of

  6. March 9 Morning Session 1 Geological Carbon Sequestration: Introductions (8:30-10:15), Jeff Daniels, Moderator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    Agenda March 9 ­ Morning Session 1 ­ Geological Carbon Sequestration: Introductions (8 Testing: The Laboratory for Geological Carbon Sequestration (Neeraj Gupta, Battelle) Session 2 ­ Carbon in Reducing the Costs for Carbon Capture (Bruce Sass, Battelle) 2. Capture and sequestration challenges

  7. Researchers question published no-till soil organic carbon sequestration rates | EurekAlert ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... published no-till soil organic carbon sequestration rates ... researchers have published soil organic carbon sequestration rates. Many of the ... have suggested that soil organic carbon can be sequestered by simply ...

  8. Annual meeting of Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership to be held Oct. 28, 29 | ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... Annual meeting of Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership to be held ... meeting of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership to be held ... science policy and technology of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Panels ...

  9. Register by Oct. 21 for annual carbon sequestration meeting | EurekAlert! Science News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ... by Oct. 21 for annual carbon sequestration meeting ... meeting of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership to be held ... science policy and technology of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Panels ...

  10. Natural CO2 Analogs for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott H. Stevens; B. Scott Tye

    2005-07-31

    The report summarizes research conducted at three naturally occurring geologic CO{sub 2} fields in the US. The fields are natural analogs useful for the design of engineered long-term storage of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} in geologic formations. Geologic, engineering, and operational databases were developed for McElmo Dome in Colorado; St. Johns Dome in Arizona and New Mexico; and Jackson Dome in Mississippi. The three study sites stored a total of 2.4 billion t (46 Tcf) of CO{sub 2} equivalent to 1.5 years of power plant emissions in the US and comparable in size with the largest proposed sequestration projects. The three CO{sub 2} fields offer a scientifically useful range of contrasting geologic settings (carbonate vs. sandstone reservoir; supercritical vs. free gas state; normally pressured vs. overpressured), as well as different stages of commercial development (mostly undeveloped to mature). The current study relied mainly on existing data provided by the CO{sub 2} field operator partners, augmented with new geochemical data. Additional study at these unique natural CO{sub 2} accumulations could further help guide the development of safe and cost-effective design and operation methods for engineered CO{sub 2} storage sites.

  11. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-09-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  12. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2007-03-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2007. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1--carbon inventory advancements; Task 2--emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3--baseline method development; Task 4--third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5--new project feasibility studies; and Task 6--development of new project software screening tool.

  13. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Brent Sohngen; Neil Sampson; Mark Anderson; Miguel Calmon; Sean Grimland; Zoe Kant; Dan Morse; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Arlene Olivero; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Jon Winsten; Chris Zganjar

    2006-12-31

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between October 1st and December 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  14. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Miguel Calmon

    2006-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  15. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Jenny Henman; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Tim Pearson; Neil Sampson; Miguel Calmon

    2005-10-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st , 2005 and June 30th, 2005. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  16. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon

    2006-04-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between January 1st and March 31st 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  17. State and Regional Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reitze, Arnold; Durrant, Marie

    2011-03-31

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­?year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Carbon capture and geologic sequestration offer one method to reduce carbon emissions from coal and other hydrocarbon energy production. While the federal government is providing increased funding for carbon capture and sequestration, recent congressional legislative efforts to create a framework for regulating carbon emissions have failed. However, regional and state bodies have taken significant actions both to regulate carbon and facilitate its capture and sequestration. This article explores how regional bodies and state government are addressing the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. Several regional bodies have formed regulations and model laws that affect carbon capture and storage, and three bodies comprising twenty-­?three states—the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative, the Midwest Regional Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord, and the Western Climate initiative—have cap-­?and-­?trade programs in various stages of development. State property, land use and environmental laws affect the development and implementation of carbon capture and sequestration projects, and unless federal standards are imposed, state laws on torts and renewable portfolio requirements will directly affect the liability and viability of these projects. This paper examines current state laws and legislative efforts addressing carbon capture and sequestration.

  18. Advancing the Science of Geologic Carbon Sequestration (Registration: www.earthsciences.osu.edu/~jeff/carbseq/carbseq 2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    Advancing the Science of Geologic Carbon Sequestration (Registration: www & American Electric Power Agenda March 9 ­ Morning Session 1 ­ Geological Carbon Sequestration: Introductions, AEP) 3. Field Testing: The Laboratory for Geological Carbon Sequestration (Neeraj Gupta, Battelle

  19. Forest cover, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat: policy review and modeling of tradeoffs among land-use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rissman, Adena

    Forest cover, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat: policy review and modeling of tradeoffs and services, including timber production, carbon sequestration and storage, scenic amenities, and wildlife habitat. International efforts to mitigate climate change through forest carbon sequestration

  20. Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulden, ML; Munger, JW; Song-Miao, F; Daube, BC; Wofsy, SC

    1996-01-01

    182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddyerror. The integrated carbon sequestration in 1994 was 2.1 ton the annual carbon sequestration in 1994 of -0.3 to +0.8 t

  1. Cost Assessment of CO2 Sequestration by Mineral Carbonation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeboah, F. E.; Yegulalp, T. M.; Singh, H.

    2006-01-01

    in the generation of electrical energy. The concept of clean coal technology will be introduced. This will then be followed by a description of sequestration by mineral carbonation. The various processes involved in sequestration process will also be discussed... Policy 31, p. 1315 – 1326. 4. Yeboah, F.E., 2004, Valuation of Clean Energy Investments – The Case of the Zero Emission Coal (ZEC) Technology. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Fu School of Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY. 5...

  2. Monitoring and verifying agricultural practices related to soil carbon sequestration with satellite imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Monitoring and verifying agricultural practices related to soil carbon sequestration with satellite on agricultural management practices related to carbon sequestration seems more realistic, and analysis practices related to carbon sequestration over large areas. Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Carbon

  3. Technical Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Zoe Kant; Patrick Gonzalez

    2009-01-07

    The Nature Conservancy participated in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project was 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration'. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Final Technical Report discusses the results of the six tasks that The Nature Conservancy undertook to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between July 1st 2001 and July 10th 2008. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. The project occurred in two phases. The first was a focused exploration of specific carbon measurement and monitoring methodologies and pre-selected carbon sequestration opportunities. The second was a more systematic and comprehensive approach to compare various competing measurement and monitoring methodologies, and assessment of a variety of carbon sequestration opportunities in order to find those that are the lowest cost with the greatest combined carbon and other environmental benefits. In the first phase we worked in the U.S., Brazil, Belize, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile to develop and refine specific carbon inventory methods, pioneering a new remote-sensing method for cost-effectively measuring and monitoring terrestrial carbon sequestration and system for developing carbon baselines for both avoided deforestation and afforestation/reforestation projects. We evaluated the costs and carbon benefits of a number of specific terrestrial carbon sequestration activities throughout the U.S., including reforestation of abandoned mined lands in southwest Virginia, grassland restoration in Arizona and Indiana, and reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. The most cost-effective U.S. terrestrial sequestration opportunity we found through these studies was reforestation in the Mississippi Alluvial Delta. In Phase II we conducted a more systematic assessment and comparison of several different measurement and monitoring approaches in the Northern Cascades of California, and a broad 11-state Northeast regional assessment, rather than pre-selected and targeted, analysis of terrestrial sequestration costs and benefits. Work was carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA. Partners include the Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development, The Sampson Group, Programme for Belize, Society for Wildlife Conservation (SPVS), Universidad Austral de Chile, Michael Lefsky, Colorado State University, UC Berkeley, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, ProNaturaleza, Ohio State University, Stephen F. Austin University, Geographical Modeling Services, Inc., WestWater, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Century Ecosystem Services, Mirant Corporation, General Motors, American Electric Power, Salt River Project, Applied Energy Systems, KeySpan, NiSource, and PSEG. This project, 'Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration', has resulted in over 50 presentations and reports, available publicly through the Department of Energy or by visiting the links listed in Appendix 1. More

  4. CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION -DOE/NETL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION - DOE/NETL May ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION - DOE/NETL May 4 ­ 7, 2009 Abstract Reservoir simulation is the industry

  5. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    the Australian National Green- house Gas Inventory (DCCEE,fuel emissions Carbon and green house gas (GHG) accounts are

  6. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and reclamation practice. In addition, experiments were integrated within the reforestation effort to address specific questions pertaining to sequestration of carbon (C) on these sites.

  7. What is the optimal heather moorland management regime for carbon sequestration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    What is the optimal heather moorland management regime for carbon sequestration? Supervisors: Prof, the Muirburn Code has no evidence base with regard to carbon sequestration. Given the increased concern use moorland carbon sequestration to offset emissions, it is essential that the most appropriate land

  8. Silvia Solano's interest in carbon sequestration was first sparked on a six-month internship

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Silvia Solano's interest in carbon sequestration was first sparked on a six-month internship experiments combining EOR with carbon sequestration. "I thought this was a win-win solution," she said. "You of a research team conduct- ing a large-scale test of carbon sequestration. "I knew I wanted to learn more about

  9. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States David J forestry Tree cover Forest inventory a b s t r a c t Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole

  10. An improved strategy to detect CO2 leakage for verification of geologic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilley, George

    An improved strategy to detect CO2 leakage for verification of geologic carbon sequestration J. L the success of geologic carbon sequestration projects. To detect subtle CO2 leakage signals, we present), An improved strategy to detect CO2 leakage for verification of geologic carbon sequestration, Geophys. Res

  11. Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keller, Klaus

    Carbon dioxide sequestration: how much and when? Klaus Keller & David McInerney & David F. Bradford + Business Media B.V. 2008 Abstract Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration has been proposed as a key component fossil fuel requirement of CO2 sequestration, and the growth rate of carbon taxes. In this analytical

  12. Carbon Capture and Sequestration: how much does this uncertain option affect near-term policy choices?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration: how much does this uncertain option affect near-term policy Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) as a key option to avoid costly emission reduction. While Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technologies are receiving increasing atten- tion, mainly

  13. Evaluating the options for carbon sequestration Clair Gough and Simon Shackley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Evaluating the options for carbon sequestration Clair Gough and Simon Shackley Tyndall Centre for carbon sequestration Tyndall Centre Technical Report No. 2 November 2002 This is the final report from Tyndall research project IT1.22 (Carbon sequestration: a pilot stage multi-criteria evaluation

  14. CARBON SEQUESTRATION FROM REMOTELY-SENSED NDVI AND NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    Chapter 8 CARBON SEQUESTRATION FROM REMOTELY- SENSED NDVI AND NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE E. Raymond sampling to determine areas of carbon sequestration. With large areas of the globe covered by rangelands, the potential for carbon sequestration may be significant. R. S. Muttiah (ed.), From Laboratory Spectroscopy

  15. Pathways to Adoption of Carbon Capture and Sequestration in India: Technologies and Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pathways to Adoption of Carbon Capture and Sequestration in India: Technologies and Policies, Technology and Policy Program #12;2 #12;Pathways to Carbon Capture and Sequestration in India: Technologies to control India's emissions will have to be a global priority. Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) can

  16. ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE GLOBAL ADOPTION OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ECONOMIC MODELING OF THE GLOBAL ADOPTION OF CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGIES J. R. Mc of carbon capture and sequestration technologies as applied to electric generating plants. The MIT Emissions, is used to model carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies based on a natural gas combined cycle

  17. Nonlinear root-derived carbon sequestration across a gradient of nitrogen and phosphorous deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Nonlinear root-derived carbon sequestration across a gradient of nitrogen and phosphorous sequestration of plant-carbon (C) inputs to soil may mitigate rising atmo- spheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and related climate change but how this sequestration will respond to anthropogenic nitrogen (N

  18. 19.1 Introduction Carbon sequestration programs on land and in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Chapter 19 19.1 Introduction Carbon sequestration programs on land and in the oceans are gaining sequestration programs emphasize storing carbon in soil organic matter in agri- cultural fields,in woody sequestration and management include the feasibil- ity and permanence of the carbon sequestered, the scale

  19. Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Impacts of Management on Carbon Sequestration and Trace Gas Emissions in Forested Wetland-DNDC, was modified to enhance its capacity to predict the impacts of management practices on carbon sequestration nonnegligible roles in mitigation in comparison with carbon sequestration. Forests are recognized for having

  20. Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Meeting the Needs of the Energy Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Meeting the Needs of the Energy of an Organized Research Unit (ORU) on Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS). The purpose of this effort Frontier Research Center proposal: "Integrated Science of Geological Carbon Sequestration" to BES office

  1. DRAFT, November 2, 1998 Carbon Sequestration via Tree Planting on Agricultural Lands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    1 DRAFT, November 2, 1998 Carbon Sequestration via Tree Planting on Agricultural Lands: An Economic affect program cost and net carbon sequestration. The focus on the provisions of tree planting agreements the cost and net carbon gains under a sequestration program. We will also investigate design aspects

  2. Evaluating carbon sequestration efficiency in an ocean circulation model by adjoint sensitivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    Evaluating carbon sequestration efficiency in an ocean circulation model by adjoint sensitivity the application of the adjoint method to develop three-dimensional maps of carbon sequestration efficiency. Sequestration efficiency (the percentage of carbon injected at a continuous point source that remains

  3. Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    Global Change Biology (2000) 6, 317­328 Soil Carbon Sequestration and Land-Use Change: Processes in enhanced soil carbon sequestration with changes in land-use and soil management. We review literature, and indicates the relative importance of some factors that influence the rates of organic carbon sequestration

  4. Carbon sequestration, optimum forest rotation and their environmental impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kula, Erhun, E-mail: erhun.kula@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Economics, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey); Gunalay, Yavuz, E-mail: yavuz.gunalay@bahcesehir.edu.tr [Department of Business Studies, Bahcesehir University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-11-15

    Due to their large biomass forests assume an important role in the global carbon cycle by moderating the greenhouse effect of atmospheric pollution. The Kyoto Protocol recognises this contribution by allocating carbon credits to countries which are able to create new forest areas. Sequestrated carbon provides an environmental benefit thus must be taken into account in cost-benefit analysis of afforestation projects. Furthermore, like timber output carbon credits are now tradable assets in the carbon exchange. By using British data, this paper looks at the issue of identifying optimum felling age by considering carbon sequestration benefits simultaneously with timber yields. The results of this analysis show that the inclusion of carbon benefits prolongs the optimum cutting age by requiring trees to stand longer in order to soak up more CO{sub 2}. Consequently this finding must be considered in any carbon accounting calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon sequestration in forestry is an environmental benefit. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It moderates the problem of global warming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It prolongs the gestation period in harvesting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This paper uses British data in less favoured districts for growing Sitka spruce species.

  5. Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Patrick Gonzalez; Zoe Kant; Gilberto Tiepolo; Wilber Sabido; Ellen Hawes; Jenny Henman; Miguel Calmon; Michael Ebinger

    2004-07-10

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The research described in this report occurred between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2003. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: remote sensing for carbon analysis; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  6. An assessment of carbon sequestration potential in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    for Climate Change Research and British Geological Survey Kingsley Dunham Centre Keyworth Nottingham NG12 5GGAn assessment of carbon sequestration potential in the UK ­ Southern North Sea case study Michele Bentham January 2006 Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper 85 #12;1 An assessment

  7. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    emissions from fossil-fuel com- bustion, Biogeosciences, 9,re- gional and national fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbontimes more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning

  8. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    of Energy (Terrestrial Carbon Program, National Institutesand Energy Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551, USA Graduate Degree Program

  9. THE APPLICATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF APPROPRIATE TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR COST-EFFECTIVE CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Sandra Brown; Ellen Hawes; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2002-09-01

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research projects is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas impacts. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: advanced videography testing; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool.

  10. Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Mineral sequestration of CO2 by aqueous carbonation of1 coal combustion fly-ash2 3 G. Montes that could possibly4 contribute to reducing carbon dioxide emissions is the in-situ mineral sequestration (long term5 geological storage) or the ex-situ mineral sequestration (controlled industrial reactors

  11. Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

  12. Evaluating variable switching and flash methods in modeling carbon sequestration in deep geologic formations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    Evaluating variable switching and flash methods in modeling carbon sequestration in deep geologic performance computing to assess the risks involved in carbon sequestration in deep geologic formations-thermal- chemical processes in variably saturated, non-isothermal porous media is applied to sequestration

  13. Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: Evidence from carbon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vegetation succession and carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland in northwest Florida: Evidence from carbon isotopes Yonghoon Choi and Yang Wang Department of Geological Sciences, Florida State. Measurements of stable carbon isotopic ratios as well as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) contents

  14. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  15. Developing microbe-plant interactions for applications in plant-growth promotion and disease control, production of useful compounds, remediation, and carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.H.; Bernard, S.; Andersen, G.L.; Chen, W.

    2009-03-01

    Interactions between plants and microbes are an integral part of our terrestrial ecosystem. Microbe-plant interactions are being applied in many areas. In this review, we present recent reports of applications in the areas of plant-growth promotion, biocontrol, bioactive compound and biomaterial production, remediation and carbon sequestration. Challenges, limitations and future outlook for each field are discussed.

  16. Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China Zhangcai Qin,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pittendrigh, Barry

    Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China Zhangcai Qin,1,2 Yao Huang,1), Soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 27, doi:10 carbon (SOC) in cropland is of great importance to the global carbon (C) balance and to agricultural

  17. Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grunwald, Sabine

    Interaction effects of climate and land use/land cover change on soil organic carbon sequestration carbon sequestration Climate change Soil carbon change Historically, Florida soils stored the largest in Florida (FL) have acted as a sink for carbon (C) over the last 40 years. · Climate interacting with land

  18. Dynamics of carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland using radiocarbon measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dynamics of carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland using radiocarbon measurements Yonghoon Choi1. Wang (2004), Dynamics of carbon sequestration in a coastal wetland using radiocarbon measurements carbon cycle. However, the dynamics of carbon (C) cycling in coastal wetlands and its response to sea

  19. CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN ARABLE SOILS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS, OFFSETTING in strategies for climate protection. 1. Introduction Carbon sequestration has been highlighted recently concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmo- sphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils

  20. NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy R. Carr

    2006-01-09

    This report provides a brief summary of the milestone for Quarter 1 of 2006 of the NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB) This milestone assigns consistent symbology to the ''National CO{sub 2} Facilities'' GIS layer on the NATCARB website. As a default, CO{sub 2} sources provided by the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships and the National Group are now all one symbol type. In addition for sinks such as oil and gas fields where data is drawn from multiple partnerships, the symbology is given a single color. All these modifications are accomplished as the layer is passed through the national portal (www.natcarb.org). This documentation is sent to National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a Topical Report and will be included in the next Annual Report.

  1. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathryn A. Baskin

    2004-03-31

    Work during the first six months of the project mainly concentrated on contracts execution and collection of data to characterize the region and input of that data into the geographical information system (GIS) system. Data was collected for source characterization, transportation options and terrestrial options. In addition, discussions were held to determine the extent of the geologic information that would be needed for the project. In addition, activities associated with the regulatory, permitting and safety issues were completed. Outreach activities are in the formative stages.

  2. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CO2-EOR provides about 5 percent of the total U.S. current crude oil production. Due to carbon capture and storage technology advances, prolonged high oil prices and the...

  3. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2004-11-30

    A monitoring program to measure treatment effects on above ground, and below ground carbon and nitrogen pools for the planting areas is being conducted. The collection of soil and tissue samples from both the 2003 and 2004 plantings is complete and are currently being processed in the laboratory. Detailed studies have been initiated to address specific questions pertaining to carbon cycling. Examinations of decomposition and heterotropic respiration on carbon cycling in the reforestation plots were continued during this reporting period. A whole-tree harvesting method was employed to evaluate carbon accumulation as a function of time on the mined site. The trees were extracted from the sites and separated into the following components: foliage, stems, branches, and roots.

  4. The Physical and Chemical Mechanisms Responsible for Carbon Sequestration in Soil Microaggregates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, John F.

    The Physical and Chemical Mechanisms Responsible for Carbon Sequestration in Soil Microaggregates aggregate formation and stability have profound implications to understanding and enhancing C sequestration in soil. Soil microaggregates are particularly crucial to long-term sequestration because they protect C

  5. A General Methodology for Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration Activities and Carbon Credits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-12-23

    A general methodology was developed for evaluation of carbon sequestration technologies. In this document, we provide a method that is quantitative, but is structured to give qualitative comparisons despite changes in detailed method parameters, i.e., it does not matter what ''grade'' a sequestration technology gets but a ''better'' technology should receive a better grade. To meet these objectives, we developed and elaborate on the following concepts: (1) All resources used in a sequestration activity should be reviewed by estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions for which they historically are responsible. We have done this by introducing a quantifier we term Full-Cycle Carbon Emissions, which is tied to the resource. (2) The future fate of sequestered carbon should be included in technology evaluations. We have addressed this by introducing a variable called Time-adjusted Value of Carbon Sequestration to weigh potential future releases of carbon, escaping the sequestered form. (3) The Figure of Merit of a sequestration technology should address the entire life-cycle of an activity. The figures of merit we have developed relate the investment made (carbon release during the construction phase) to the life-time sequestration capacity of the activity. To account for carbon flows that occur during different times of an activity we incorporate the Time Value of Carbon Flows. The methodology we have developed can be expanded to include financial, social, and long-term environmental aspects of a sequestration technology implementation. It does not rely on global atmospheric modeling efforts but is consistent with these efforts and could be combined with them.

  6. Technical Progress Report on Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bill Stanley; Patrick Gonzalez; Sandra Brown; Jenny Henman; Ben Poulter; Sarah Woodhouse Murdock; Neil Sampson; Tim Pearson; Sarah Walker; Zoe Kant; Miguel Calmon; Gilberto Tiepolo

    2006-06-30

    The Nature Conservancy is participating in a Cooperative Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to explore the compatibility of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems and the conservation of biodiversity. The title of the research project is ''Application and Development of Appropriate Tools and Technologies for Cost-Effective Carbon Sequestration''. The objectives of the project are to: (1) improve carbon offset estimates produced in both the planning and implementation phases of projects; (2) build valid and standardized approaches to estimate project carbon benefits at a reasonable cost; and (3) lay the groundwork for implementing cost-effective projects, providing new testing ground for biodiversity protection and restoration projects that store additional atmospheric carbon. This Technical Progress Report discusses preliminary results of the six specific tasks that The Nature Conservancy is undertaking to answer research needs while facilitating the development of real projects with measurable greenhouse gas reductions. The research described in this report occurred between April 1st and July 30th 2006. The specific tasks discussed include: Task 1: carbon inventory advancements; Task 2: emerging technologies for remote sensing of terrestrial carbon; Task 3: baseline method development; Task 4: third-party technical advisory panel meetings; Task 5: new project feasibility studies; and Task 6: development of new project software screening tool. Work is being carried out in Brazil, Belize, Chile, Peru and the USA.

  7. Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Michael R.

    1996-01-01

    Global Change Biology (1996)2,169-182 Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy. The integrated carbon sequestration in 1994 was 2.1 t C ha-l y-l with a 90% confidence interval due to sampling an overall uncertainty on the annual carbon sequestration in 1994 of --0.3to +0.8 t C ha-l y-l. Keywords

  8. ANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    potential of coalbed methane production using carbon dioxide sequestration in the Central Appalachian BasinANALYSIS OF ENHANCED COALBED METHANE RECOVERY THROUGH CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN THE CENTRAL dioxide emissions from power plants, while enhancing the recovery of coalbed methane. Injected carbon

  9. Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

    Issues with the Use of Fly Ash for Carbon Sequestration A.V. Palumbo1* , L. S. Fisher1 , J experiments, fly ash and biosolid amendments can increase soil carbon. Although it appears that geochemistry and its influence on carbon sequestration. Also, addition of fly ash to soil, while generally considered

  10. Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration in peatland: patterns and mechanisms of response to climate change L I S A R., 2000; Turunen et al., 2002; Kremenetski et al., 2003). Rates of carbon (C) sequestration (i.e., uptake in the climatic water budget is crucial to predicting potential feedbacks on the global carbon (C) cycle. To gain

  11. Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal Burke Hales,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin Burke Hales,1 Lee Karp), Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20 of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved O2 during the upwelling season off the Oregon coast. Oxygen

  12. REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    REGULATION OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND WATER USE IN A OZARK FOREST: PROPOSING A NEW STRATEGICALLY LOCATED AMERIFLUX TOWER SITE IN MISSOURI Pallardy, Stephen G 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL...

  13. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01

    implications for carbon sequestration. Environ Earth Sci. ,geochemistry in carbon sequestration environments. Abstractas a surveillance tool for carbon- sequestration projects.

  14. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO{sub 2}, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  15. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  16. Carbon Sequestration in Turfgrass: An Eco-Friendly Benefit of Your Lawn Dale Bremer, Kansas State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration in Turfgrass: An Eco-Friendly Benefit of Your Lawn Dale Bremer, Kansas State read this have no doubt heard of carbon sequestration and may even be well versed on the topic. Others't the slightest clue about carbon sequestration and others may not even care. After all, what does carbon

  17. R E V I E W Liana Impacts on Carbon Cycling, Storage and Sequestration in Tropical Forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnitzer, Stefan

    R E V I E W Liana Impacts on Carbon Cycling, Storage and Sequestration in Tropical Forests Geertje for carbon storage and sequestration. Lianas reduce tree growth, survival, and leaf productivity; however liana carbon stocks are unlikely to compensate for liana-induced losses in net carbon sequestration

  18. RANGELAND SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee Spangler; George F. Vance; Gerald E. Schuman; Justin D. Derner

    2012-03-31

    Rangelands occupy approximately half of the world's land area and store greater than 10% of the terrestrial biomass carbon and up to 30% of the global soil organic carbon. Although soil carbon sequestration rates are generally low on rangelands in comparison to croplands, increases in terrestrial carbon in rangelands resulting from management can account for significant carbon sequestration given the magnitude of this land resource. Despite the significance rangelands can play in carbon sequestration, our understanding remains limited. Researchers conducted a literature review to identify sustainably management practices that conserve existing rangeland carbon pools, as well as increase or restore carbon sequestration potentials for this type of ecosystem. The research team also reviewed the impact of grazing management on rangeland carbon dynamics, which are not well understood due to heterogeneity in grassland types. The literature review on the impact of grazing showed a wide variation of results, ranging from positive to negative to no response. On further review, the intensity of grazing appears to be a major factor in controlling rangeland soil organic carbon dynamics. In 2003, researchers conducted field sampling to assess the effect of several drought years during the period 1993-2002. Results suggested that drought can significantly impact rangeland soil organic carbon (SOC) levels, and therefore, carbon sequestration. Resampling was conducted in 2006; results again suggested that climatic conditions may have overridden management effects on SOC due to the ecological lag of the severe drought of 2002. Analysis of grazing practices during this research effort suggested that there are beneficial effects of light grazing compared to heavy grazing and non-grazing with respect to increased SOC and nitrogen contents. In general, carbon storage in rangelands also increases with increased precipitation, although researchers identified threshold levels of precipitation where sequestration begins to decrease.

  19. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2008-08-07

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) could become an instrumental part of a future carbon trading system in the US. If the US starts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similar to that of the European Union's then limits on CO{sub 2} emissions will be conservative in the beginning stages. The government will most likely start by distributing most credits for free; these free credits are called allowances. The US may follow the model of the EU ETS, which during the first five-year phase distributed 95% of the credits for free, bringing that level down to 90% for the second five-year phase. As the number of free allowances declines, companies will be forced to purchase an increasing number of credits at government auction, or else obtain them from companies selling surplus credits. In addition to reducing the number of credits allocated for free, with each subsequent trading period the number of overall credits released into the market will decline in an effort to gradually reduce overall emissions. Companies may face financial difficulty as the value of credits continues to rise due to the reduction of the number of credits available in the market each trading period. Governments operating emissions trading systems face the challenge of achieving CO{sub 2} emissions targets without placing such a financial burden on their companies that the country's economy is markedly affected.

  20. CARBON SEQUESTRATION ON SURFACE MINE LANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald H. Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner

    2005-02-25

    The October-December Quarter was dedicated to analyzing the first two years tree planting activities and evaluation of the results. This included the analyses of the species success at each of the sites and quantifying the data for future year determination of research levels. Additional detailed studies have been planned to further quantify total carbon storage accumulation on the research areas. At least 124 acres of new plantings will be established in 2005 to bring the total to 500 acres or more in the study area across the state of Kentucky. During the first 2 years of activities, 172,000 tree seedlings were planted on 257 acres in eastern Kentucky and 77,520 seedlings were planted on 119 acres in western Kentucky. The quantities of each species was discussed in the first Annual Report. A monitoring program was implemented to measure treatment effects on above and below ground C and nitrogen (N) pools and fluxes. A sampling strategy was devised that will allow for statistical comparisons of the various species within planting conditions and sites. Seedling heights and diameters are measured for initial status and re-measured on an annual basis. Leaves were harvested and leaf area measurements were performed. They were then dried and weighed and analyzed for C and N. Whole trees were removed to determine biomass levels and to evaluate C and N levels in all components of the trees. Clip plots were taken to determine herbaceous production and litter was collected in baskets and gathered each month to quantify C & N levels. Soil samples were collected to determine the chemical and mineralogical characterization of each area. The physical attributes of the soils are also being determined to provide information on the relative level of compaction. Hydrology and water quality monitoring is being conducted on all areas. Weather data is also being recorded that measures precipitation values, temperature, relative humidity wind speed and direction and solar radiation. Detailed studies to address specific questions pertaining to carbon flux are continuing.

  1. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: EnergyYorkColoradoBelcherCarbon Sequestration Partnership Jump

  2. Proceedings of the 17th Central Hardwood Forest Conference GTR-NRS-P-78 (2011) 143 STATUS AND POTENTIAL OF TERRESTRIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    AND POTENTIAL OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN WEST VIRGINIA Benktesh D. Sharma and Jingxin Wang1 Abstract.--Terrestrial ecosystem management offers cost-effective ways to enhance carbon (C) sequestration. This study utilized C stock and C sequestration in forest and agricultural lands, abandoned mine lands, and harvested wood

  3. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations: CCS as an offsetting activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-08-15

    When carbon capture and sequestration is conducted by entities that are not regulated, it could be counted as an offset that is fungible in the market or sold to a voluntary market. This paper addresses the complications that arise in accounting for carbon capture and sequestration as an offset, and methodologies that exist for accounting for CCS in voluntary and compliance markets. (author)

  4. Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon sequestration in western Ukraine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    Post-Soviet farmland abandonment, forest recovery, and carbon sequestration in western Ukraine T O of Forest Management, Ukrainian National Forestry University, vul. Gen. Chuprynky, 103, 79031 Lviv, Ukraine fluxes in western Ukraine (57 000 km2 ) and to assess the region's future carbon sequestration potential

  5. Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    Pre-site Characterization Risk Analysis for Commercial-Scale Carbon Sequestration Zhenxue Dai, funders and regulators require a preinjection risk analysis that identifies potential problem areas a probability framework to evaluate subsurface risks associated with commercial-scale carbon sequestration

  6. Carbon sequestration and biodiversity of re-growing miombo woodlands in Mozambique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration and biodiversity of re-growing miombo woodlands in Mozambique M. Williams a in tropical woodlands is being used to sequester carbon (C), alleviate poverty and protect biodiversity, among there is a potential for C sequestration in soils on abandoned farmland. Management should focus on identifying C

  7. GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 208 -Copper sequestration by black carbon in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    GEOC: Division of Geochemistry 208 - Copper sequestration by black carbon in contaminated soil the quality of agricultural products and underground water and impacts the stability of soil organic carbon

  8. What can ecological science tell us about opportunities for carbon sequestration on arid rangelands in the United States?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sayre, Nathan

    What can ecological science tell us about opportunities for carbon sequestration on arid rangelands). It is now commonplace to use the rationale of increasing carbon sequestration to argue for changes interest in carbon sequestration on rangelands is largely driven by their extent, while the interest

  9. Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Jeffrey E.

    Book (All chapters are peer-reviewed) Kumar, B. M. and Nair, P. K. R. (eds). Carbon Sequestration. K. R., Nair, V. D., Kumar, B. M., and Showalter, J. M. 2010. Carbon sequestration in agroforestry Publications on Carbon Sequestration in Agroforestry Systems 2008 ­ 2011 (Contact: pknair@ufl.edu) #12;cacao

  10. Interaction of ice storms and management practices on current carbon sequestration in forests with potential mitigation under future CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Ram

    Interaction of ice storms and management practices on current carbon sequestration in forests with potential impacts on carbon sequestration. Common forest management practices, such as fertilization on current carbon sequestration in forests with potential mitigation under future CO2 atmosphere, J. Geophys

  11. Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Rutledge

    2011-02-01

    The Southwest Regional Partnership (SWP) on Carbon Sequestration designed and deployed a medium-scale field pilot test of geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Aneth oil field. Greater Aneth oil field, Utah's largest oil producer, was discovered in 1956 and has produced over 455 million barrels of oil (72 million m3). Located in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah, Greater Aneth is a stratigraphic trap producing from the Pennsylvanian Paradox Formation. Because it represents an archetype oil field of the western U.S., Greater Aneth was selected as one of three geologic pilots to demonstrate combined enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and CO2 sequestration under the auspices of the SWP on Carbon Sequestration, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The pilot demonstration focuced on the western portion of the Aneth Unit as this area of the field was converted from waterflood production to CO2 EOR starting in late 2007. The Aneth Unit is in the northwestern part of the field and has produced 149 million barrels (24 million m3) of the estimated 450 million barrels (71.5 million m3) of the original oil in place - a 33% recovery rate. The large amount of remaining oil makes the Aneth Unit ideal to demonstrate both CO2 storage capacity and EOR by CO2 flooding. This report summarizes the geologic characterization research, the various field monitoring tests, and the development of a geologic model and numerical simulations conducted for the Aneth demonstration project. The Utah Geological Survey (UGS), with contributions from other Partners, evaluated how the surface and subsurface geology of the Aneth Unit demonstration site will affect sequestration operations and engineering strategies. The UGS-research for the project are summarized in Chapters 1 through 7, and includes (1) mapping the surface geology including stratigraphy, faulting, fractures, and deformation bands, (2) describing the local Jurassic and Cretaceous stratigraphy, (3) mapping the Desert Creek zone reservoir, Gothic seal, and overlying aquifers, (4) characterizing the depositional environments and diagenetic events that produced significant reservoir heterogeneity, (5) describing the geochemical, petrographic, and geomechanical properties of the seal to determine the CO2 or hydrocarbon column it could support, and (6) evaluating the production history to compare primary production from vertical and horizontal wells, and the effects of waterflood and wateralternating- gas flood programs. The field monitoring demonstrations were conducted by various Partners including New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, University of Utah, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Cambridge Geosciences. The monitoring tests are summarized in Chapters 8 through 12, and includes (1) interwell tracer studies during water- and CO2-flood operations to characterize tracer behavoirs in anticipation of CO2-sequestration applications, (2) CO2 soil flux monitoring to measure background levels and variance and assess the sensitivity levels for CO2 surface monitoring, (3) testing the continuous monitoring of self potential as a means to detect pressure anomalies and electrochemical reaction due to CO2 injection, (4) conducting time-lapse vertical seismic profiling to image change near a CO2 injection well, and (5) monitoring microseismicity using a downhole string of seismic receivers to detect fracture slip and deformation associated with stress changes. Finally, the geologic modeling and numerical simulation study was conducted by researcher at the University of Utah. Chapter 13 summarizes their efforts which focused on developing a site-specific geologic model for Aneth to better understand and design CO2 storage specifically tailored to oil reservoirs.

  12. Carbon sequestration is accelerated by the presence of seagrass in coastal habitats as the vegetation promotes the accumulation of carbon-rich sediment. Typically,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Deborah

    #12;ii Abstract Carbon sequestration is accelerated by the presence of seagrass in coastal habitats as the vegetation promotes the accumulation of carbon-rich sediment. Typically, measurements of carbon sequestration is to quantify the carbon sequestration potential of the restored seagrass habitat at the Virginia Coast Reserve

  13. Transient simulations of Holocene atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrestrial carbon since the Last

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortunat, Joos

    Transient simulations of Holocene atmospheric carbon dioxide and terrestrial carbon since the Last ppm between 8 ka BP and pre-industrial time. The carbon component of the Bern Carbon Cycle Climate. Terrestrial carbon inventory changes related to climate and CO2 forcing, the greening of the Sahara, peat

  14. 4, 21112145, 2007 Enhanced carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are generally low in productivity and carbon (C) storage. We report, however, large increases in C sequestration . Carbon sequestration following afforestation was associated with increased N use efficiency as reflected of terrestrial ecosystems that leads to increased carbon (C) sequestration. One of those means is afforestation

  15. Age of riverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primary production in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    riverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primaryriverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primarycarbon dioxide, and export via rivers affects calculations

  16. Enhanced Performance Assessment System (EPAS) for carbon sequestration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yifeng; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; McNeish, Jerry A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Dewers, Thomas A.; Hadgu, Teklu; Jove-Colon, Carlos F.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an option to mitigate impacts of atmospheric carbon emission. Numerous factors are important in determining the overall effectiveness of long-term geologic storage of carbon, including leakage rates, volume of storage available, and system costs. Recent efforts have been made to apply an existing probabilistic performance assessment (PA) methodology developed for deep nuclear waste geologic repositories to evaluate the effectiveness of subsurface carbon storage (Viswanathan et al., 2008; Stauffer et al., 2009). However, to address the most pressing management, regulatory, and scientific concerns with subsurface carbon storage (CS), the existing PA methodology and tools must be enhanced and upgraded. For example, in the evaluation of a nuclear waste repository, a PA model is essentially a forward model that samples input parameters and runs multiple realizations to estimate future consequences and determine important parameters driving the system performance. In the CS evaluation, however, a PA model must be able to run both forward and inverse calculations to support optimization of CO{sub 2} injection and real-time site monitoring as an integral part of the system design and operation. The monitoring data must be continually fused into the PA model through model inversion and parameter estimation. Model calculations will in turn guide the design of optimal monitoring and carbon-injection strategies (e.g., in terms of monitoring techniques, locations, and time intervals). Under the support of Laboratory-Directed Research & Development (LDRD), a late-start LDRD project was initiated in June of Fiscal Year 2010 to explore the concept of an enhanced performance assessment system (EPAS) for carbon sequestration and storage. In spite of the tight time constraints, significant progress has been made on the project: (1) Following the general PA methodology, a preliminary Feature, Event, and Process (FEP) analysis was performed for a hypothetical CS system. Through this FEP analysis, relevant scenarios for CO{sub 2} release were defined. (2) A prototype of EPAS was developed by wrapping an existing multi-phase, multi-component reservoir simulator (TOUGH2) with an uncertainty quantification and optimization code (DAKOTA). (3) For demonstration, a probabilistic PA analysis was successfully performed for a hypothetical CS system based on an existing project in a brine-bearing sandstone. The work lays the foundation for the development of a new generation of PA tools for effective management of CS activities. At a top-level, the work supports energy security and climate change/adaptation by furthering the capability to effectively manage proposed carbon capture and sequestration activities (both research and development as well as operational), and it greatly enhances the technical capability to address this national problem. The next phase of the work will include (1) full capability demonstration of the EPAS, especially for data fusion, carbon storage system optimization, and process optimization of CO{sub 2} injection, and (2) application of the EPAS to actual carbon storage systems.

  17. Potential and cost of carbon sequestration in the Tanzanian forest sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, Willy R.

    2001-01-01

    The forest sector in Tanzania offers ample opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and sequestered carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems. More than 90% of the country's demand for primary energy is obtained from biomass mostly procured unsustainably from natural forests. This study examines the potential to sequester C through expansion of forest plantations aimed at reducing the dependence on natural forest for wood fuel production, as well as increase the country's output of industrial wood from plantations. These were compared ton conservation options in the tropical and miombo ecosystems. Three sequestration options were analyzed, involving the establishment of short rotation and long rotation plantations on about 1.7 x 106 hectares. The short rotation community forest option has a potential to sequester an equilibrium amount of 197.4 x 106 Mg C by 2024 at a net benefit of $79.5 x 106, while yielding a NPV of $0.46 Mg-1 C. The long rotation options for softwood and hardwood plantations will reach an equilibrium sequestration of 5.6 and 11.8 x 106 Mg C at a negative NPV of $0.60 Mg-1 C and $0.32 Mg-1 C. The three options provide cost competitive opportunities for sequestering about 7.5 x 106 Mg C yr -1 while providing desired forest products and easing the pressure on the natural forests in Tanzania. The endowment costs of the sequestration options were all found to be cheaper than the emission avoidance cost for conservation options which had an average cost of $1.27 Mg-1 C, rising to $ 7.5 Mg-1 C under some assumptions on vulnerability to encroachment. The estimates shown here may represent the upper bound, because the actual potential will be influenced by market prices for inputs and forest products, land use policy constraints and the structure of global C transactions.

  18. A Finite Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2013-11-02

    We present a hydro-mechanical model, followed by stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account of the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process. Analytical solutions for pressure and deformation fields were derived for a typical geological sequestration scenario in our previous work. A finite element approach is introduced here for numerically solving the hydro-mechanical model with arbitrary boundary conditions. The numerical approach was built on an open-source finite element code Elmer, and results were compared to the analytical solutions. The shear-slip failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where the potential failure zone is identified. Information is relevant to the prediction of the maximum sustainable injection rate or pressure. The effects of caprock permeability on the fluid pressure, deformation, stress, and the shear-slip failure zone were also quantitatively studied. It was shown that a larger permeability in caprock and base rock leads to a larger uplift but a smaller shear-slip failure zone.

  19. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  20. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

  1. Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    RESEARCH PAPER Carbon dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems on the Tibetan Plateau during the 20th tundra to evergreen tropics. Its soils are dominated by permafrost and are rich in organic carbon. Its, the carbon dynamics of the Tibetan Plateau have not been well quantified under changes of climate and per

  2. Back to Exploration 2008 CSPG CSEG CWLS Convention 1 A Computational Model of Catalyzed Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiteri, Raymond J.

    techniques. In capture-and-storage methods, atmospheric carbon, usually carbon dioxide, is captured, often to help find the most cost effective methods possible. Most carbon sequestration methods are capture-and-storage. Introduction Growing international concern over the role of greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide and methane

  3. Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1 *, Dr the idea that CO2 was `scrubbed' by precipitation of carbonate minerals within the planet's crust - a reaction termed `carbonation'. This project will seek evidence for carbonation by analysis of martian

  4. Ocean Sciences 2006 An Estimate of Carbon Sequestration via Antarctic Intermediate Water Formation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    Ocean Sciences 2006 An Estimate of Carbon Sequestration via Antarctic Intermediate Water Formation traditional deep water formation via entrainment of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse-active species collected for oxygen, total carbon, alkalinity, nutrients, and CFCs. The alkalinity and total carbon data

  5. Predicting long-term carbon sequestration in response to CO2 enrichment: How and why do current ecosystem models differ?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Asao, Shinichi; Hickler, Thomas; Parton, William; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wang, Ying -Ping; Wårlind, David; et al

    2015-04-27

    Large uncertainty exists in model projections of the land carbon (C) sink response to increasing atmospheric CO2. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments lasting a decade or more have investigated ecosystem responses to a step change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. To interpret FACE results in the context of gradual increases in atmospheric CO2 over decades to centuries, we used a suite of seven models to simulate the Duke and Oak Ridge FACE experiments extended for 300 years of CO2 enrichment. We also determine key modeling assumptions that drive divergent projections of terrestrial C uptake and evaluate whether these assumptions can bemore »constrained by experimental evidence. All models simulated increased terrestrial C pools resulting from CO2 enrichment, though there was substantial variability in quasi-equilibrium C sequestration and rates of change. In two of two models that assume that plant nitrogen (N) uptake is solely a function of soil N supply, the net primary production response to elevated CO2 became progressively N limited. In four of five models that assume that N uptake is a function of both soil N supply and plant N demand, elevated CO2 led to reduced ecosystem N losses and thus progressively relaxed nitrogen limitation. Many allocation assumptions resulted in increased wood allocation relative to leaves and roots which reduced the vegetation turnover rate and increased C sequestration. Additionally, self-thinning assumptions had a substantial impact on C sequestration in two models. As a result, accurate representation of N process dynamics (in particular N uptake), allocation, and forest self-thinning is key to minimizing uncertainty in projections of future C sequestration in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.« less

  6. Evaluation of the environmental viability of direct injection schemes for ocean carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israelsson, Peter H. (Peter Hampus), 1973-

    2008-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the expected impact of several promising schemes for ocean carbon sequestration by direct injection of CO2, and serves as an update to the assessment by Auerbach et al. (1997) and Caulfield et al. ...

  7. Understanding Carbon Sequestration Options in the United States: Capabilities of a Carbon Management Geographic Information System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahowski, Robert T.; Dooley, James J.; Brown, Daryl R.; Mizoguchi, Akiyoshi; Shiozaki, Mai

    2001-04-03

    While one can discuss various sequestration options at a national or global level, the actual carbon management approach is highly site specific. In response to the need for a better understanding of carbon management options, Battelle in collaboration with Mitsubishi Corporation, has developed a state-of-the-art Geographic Information System (GIS) focused on carbon capture and sequestration opportunities in the United States. The GIS system contains information (e.g., fuel type, location, vintage, ownership, rated capacity) on all fossil-fired generation capacity in the Untied States with a rated capacity of at least 100 MW. There are also data on other CO2 sources (i.e., natural domes, gas processing plants, etc.) and associated pipelines currently serving enhanced oil recovery (EOR) projects. Data on current and prospective CO2 EOR projects include location, operator, reservoir and oil characteristics, production, and CO2 source. The system also contains information on priority deep saline aquifers and coal bed methane basins with potential for sequestering CO2. The GIS application not only enables data storage, flexible map making, and visualization capabilities, but also facilitates the spatial analyses required to solve complex linking of CO2 sources with appropriate and cost-effective sinks. A variety of screening criteria (spatial, geophysical, and economic) can be employed to identify sources and sinks most likely amenable to deployment of carbon capture and sequestration systems. The system is easily updateable, allowing it to stay on the leading edge of capture and sequestration technology as well as the ever-changing business landscape. Our paper and presentation will describe the development of this GIS and demonstrate its uses for carbon management analysis.

  8. Carbon sequestration monitoring with acoustic double-difference waveform inversion: A case study on SACROC walkaway VSP data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malcolm, Alison

    Carbon sequestration monitoring with acoustic double-difference waveform inversion: A case study National Laboratory SUMMARY Geological carbon sequestration involves large-scale injection of carbon is crucial for ensuring safe and reliable carbon storage (Bickle et al., 2007). Conventional analysis of time

  9. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 NOVEMBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1014 Rapid carbon sequestration at the termination of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 21 NOVEMBER 2010 | DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1014 Rapid carbon sequestration sequestration of organic carbon could reflect the regrowth of carbon stocks in the biosphere or shallow ago, has been attributed to the release of thousands of petagrams of reduced carbon into the ocean

  10. An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

    2012-01-10

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  11. Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    development. Since power plants are the largest point sources of CO2 emissions, capturing the carbon dioxide ................................................................................................................................ 7 1.1 APPROACHES TO REDUCING CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS1 Economic Evaluation of Leading Technology Options for Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide by Jérémy

  12. Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs Alain Jean-Marie, INRIA and UMR LIRMM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Carbon sequestration in leaky reservoirs Alain Jean-Marie, INRIA and UMR LIRMM Michel Moreaux, February 2, 2011 Abstract We propose in this paper a model of optimal Carbon Capture and Storage in which the reservoir of sequestered carbon is leaky, and pollution eventually is released into the atmosphere. We

  13. Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soil carbon sequestration and land-use change: processes and potential W . M . P O S T * and K . C to perennial vegetation, soil organic carbon can accumulate. This accumulation process essentially reverses some of the effects respon- sible for soil organic carbon losses from when the land was converted from

  14. Argonne Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Data from Batavia Prairie and Agricultural Sites

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Matamala, Roser [ANL; Jastrow, Julie D.; Lesht, Barry [ANL; Cook, David [ANL; Pekour, Mikhail [ANL; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A. [University of Illinois at Chicago

    Carbon dioxide fluxes and stocks in terrestrial ecosystems are key measurements needed to constrain quantification of regional carbon sinks and sources and the mechanisms controlling them. This information is required to produce a sound carbon budget for North America. This project examines CO2 and energy fluxes from agricultural land and from restored tallgrass prairie to compare their carbon sequestration potentials. The study integrates eddy covariance measurements with biometric measurements of plant and soil carbon stocks for two systems in northeastern Illinois: 1) long-term cultivated land in corn-soybean rotation with conventional tillage, and 2) a 15 year-old restored prairie that represents a long-term application of CRP conversion of cultivated land to native vegetation. The study contributes to the North American Carbon Program (NACP) by providing information on the magnitude and distribution of carbon stocks and the processes that control carbon dynamics in cultivated and CRP-restored land in the Midwest. The prairie site has been functioning since October 2004 and the agricultural site since July 2005. (From http://www.atmos.anl.gov/ FERMI/index.html)

  15. The Urgent Need for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Klaus S. Lackner, Darryl P. Butt, Reed Jensen and Hans Ziock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 The Urgent Need for Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Klaus S. Lackner, Darryl P. Butt, Reed Jensen in this field. This memo explains why the development of a viable sequestration technology is a long term stra- tegic goal of utmost importance and why sequestration provides a goal worthy of the attention

  16. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-15

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying the safety and effectiveness of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites. Safety and effectiveness are achieved if CO{sub 2} and displaced brine have no significant impact on humans, other living things, resources, or the environment. In the CF, we relate effective trapping to CO{sub 2} leakage risk which takes into account both the impact and probability of leakage. We achieve simplicity in the CF by using (1) wells and faults as the potential leakage pathways, (2) compartments to represent environmental resources that may be impacted by leakage, (3) CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in the compartments as proxies for impact to vulnerable entities, (4) broad ranges of storage formation properties to generate a catalog of simulated plume movements, and (5) probabilities of intersection of the CO{sub 2} plume with the conduits and compartments. We demonstrate the approach on a hypothetical GCS site in a Texas Gulf Coast saline formation. Through its generality and flexibility, the CF can contribute to the assessment of risk of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage as part of the certification process for licensing and permitting of GCS sites around the world regardless of the specific regulations in place in any given country.

  17. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  18. Review and model-based analysis of factors influencing soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garten Jr, Charles T [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. A simple, multi-compartment model was developed to predict soil carbon sequestration beneath switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) plantations in the southeastern United States. Soil carbon sequestration is an important component of sustainable switchgrass production for bioenergy because soil organic matter promotes water retention, nutrient supply, and soil properties that minimize erosion. A literature review was included for the purpose of model parameterization and five model-based experiments were conducted to predict how changes in environment (temperature) or crop management (cultivar, fertilization, and harvest efficiency) might affect soil carbon storage and nitrogen losses. Predictions of soil carbon sequestration were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the ratio of belowground to aboveground biomass production, and temperature. Predictions of ecosystem nitrogen loss were most sensitive to changes in annual biomass production, the soil C/N ratio, and nitrogen remobilization efficiency (i.e., nitrogen cycling within the plant). Model-based experiments indicated that 1) soil carbon sequestration can be highly site specific depending on initial soil carbon stocks, temperature, and the amount of annual nitrogen fertilization, 2) response curves describing switchgrass yield as a function of annual nitrogen fertilization were important to model predictions, 3) plant improvements leading to greater belowground partitioning of biomass could increase soil carbon sequestration, 4) improvements in harvest efficiency have no indicated effects on soil carbon and nitrogen, but improve cumulative biomass yield, and 5) plant improvements that reduce organic matter decomposition rates could also increase soil carbon sequestration, even though the latter may not be consistent with desired improvements in plant tissue chemistry to maximize yields of cellulosic ethanol.

  19. Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and gas, have caused a substantial increase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Sequestration to Mitigate Climate Change Human activities, especially the burning of fossil-caused CO2 emissions and to remove CO2 from the atmosphere. 2.0 What is carbon sequestration? The term "carbon sequestration" is used to describe both natural and deliberate CARBON,INGIGATONSPERYEAR 1.5 Fossil

  20. Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration & Enhanced Oil Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian McPherson

    2010-08-31

    A consortium of research partners led by the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration and industry partners, including CAP CO2 LLC, Blue Source LLC, Coffeyville Resources, Nitrogen Fertilizers LLC, Ash Grove Cement Company, Kansas Ethanol LLC, Headwaters Clean Carbon Services, Black & Veatch, and Schlumberger Carbon Services, conducted a feasibility study of a large-scale CCS commercialization project that included large-scale CO{sub 2} sources. The overall objective of this project, entitled the 'Integrated Mid-Continent Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project' was to design an integrated system of US mid-continent industrial CO{sub 2} sources with CO{sub 2} capture, and geologic sequestration in deep saline formations and in oil field reservoirs with concomitant EOR. Findings of this project suggest that deep saline sequestration in the mid-continent region is not feasible without major financial incentives, such as tax credits or otherwise, that do not exist at this time. However, results of the analysis suggest that enhanced oil recovery with carbon sequestration is indeed feasible and practical for specific types of geologic settings in the Midwestern U.S.

  1. Mathematical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Subsurface for Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery and Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    Mathematical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Injection in the Subsurface for Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery and Sequestration Philip C. Myint, Laurence Rongy, Kjetil B. Haugen, Abbas Firoozabadi Department. Combustion of fossil fuels contributes to rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels that have been

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF CENTRAL APPALACHIAN BASIN CBM DEVELOPMENT: POTENTIAL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including those areas where CBM production has previously been developed. The enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM0625 CHARACTERIZATION OF CENTRAL APPALACHIAN BASIN CBM DEVELOPMENT: POTENTIAL FOR CARBON of the carbon sequestration potential of the Pennsylvanian-age coalbeds in the Central Appalachian Basin

  3. GEOC R Lee Penn Sunday, March 25, 2012 12 -Biogeochemical transformation of Fe-and Mn-along a redox gradient: Implications for carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    a redox gradient: Implications for carbon sequestration within the Christina River Basin Critical Zone States Organic carbon (C)-mineral complexation mechanism is crucial in C sequestration. It is a function

  4. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically Viable Forest Harvesting Practices That Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, E.A.; Dail, D.B., Hollinger, D.; Scott, N.; Richardson, A.

    2012-08-02

    Forests provide wildlife habitat, water and air purification, climate moderation, and timber and nontimber products. Concern about climate change has put forests in the limelight as sinks of atmospheric carbon. The C stored in the global vegetation, mostly in forests, is nearly equivalent to the amount present in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Both voluntary and government-mandated carbon trading markets are being developed and debated, some of which include C sequestration resulting from forest management as a possible tradeable commodity. However, uncertainties regarding sources of variation in sequestration rates, validation, and leakage remain significant challenges for devising strategies to include forest management in C markets. Hence, the need for scientifically-based information on C sequestration by forest management has never been greater. The consequences of forest management on the US carbon budget are large, because about two-thirds of the {approx}300 million hectare US forest resource is classified as 'commercial forest.' In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the atmosphere. However, forest management practices could be designed to meet the multiple goals of providing wood and paper products, creating economic returns from natural resources, while sequestering C from the atmosphere. The shelterwood harvest strategy, which removes about 30% of the basal area of the overstory trees in each of three successive harvests spread out over thirty years as part of a stand rotation of 60-100 years, may improve net C sequestration compared to clear-cutting because: (1) the average C stored on the land surface over a rotation increases, (2) harvesting only overstory trees means that a larger fraction of the harvested logs can be used for long-lived sawtimber products, compared to more pulp resulting from clearcutting, (3) the shelterwood cut encourages growth of subcanopy trees by opening up the forest canopy to increasing light penetration. Decomposition of onsite harvest slash and of wastes created during timber processing releases CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere, thus offsetting some of the C sequestered in vegetation. Decomposition of soil C and dead roots may also be temporarily stimulated by increased light penetration and warming of the forest floor. Quantification of these processes and their net effect is needed. We began studying C sequestration in a planned shelterwood harvest at the Howland Forest in central Maine in 2000. The harvest took place in 2002 by the International Paper Corporation, who assisted us to track the fates of harvest products (Scott et al., 2004, Environmental Management 33: S9-S22). Here we present the results of intensive on-site studies of the decay of harvest slash, soil respiration, growth of the remaining trees, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO{sub 2} during the first six years following the harvest. These results are combined with calculations of C in persisting off-site harvest products to estimate the net C consequences to date of this commercial shelterwood harvest operation. Tower-based eddy covariance is an ideal method for this study, as it integrates all C fluxes in and out of the forest over a large 'footprint' area and can reveal how the net C flux, as well as gross primary productivity and respiration, change following harvest. Because the size of this experiment precludes large-scale replication, we are use a paired-airshed approach, similar to classic large-scale paired watershed experiments. Measurements of biomass and C fluxes in control and treatment stands were compared during a pre-treatment calibration period, and then divergence from pre-treatment relationships between the two sites measured after the harvest treatment. Forests store carbon (C) as they accumulate biomass. Many forests are also commercial sources of timber and wood fiber. In most C accounting budgets, forest harvesting is usually considered to cause a net release of C from the terrestrial biosphere to the at

  5. Comparison of Caprock Mineral Characteristics at Field Demonstration Sites for Saline Aquifer Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, C.A.; Lowry, G. (Carnegie Mellon University); Dzombak, D. (Carnegie Mellon University); Soong, Yee; Hedges, S.W.

    2008-10-01

    In 2003 the U.S Department of Energy initiated regional partnership programs to address the concern for rising atmospheric CO2. These partnerships were formed to explore regional and economical means for geologically sequestering CO2 across the United States and to set the stage for future commercial applications. Several options exist for geological sequestration and among these sequestering CO2 into deep saline aquifers is one of the most promising. This is due, in part, to the possibility of stabilized permanent storage through mineral precipitation from chemical interactions of the injected carbon dioxide with the brine and reservoir rock. There are nine field demonstration sites for saline sequestration among the regional partnerships in Phase II development to validate the overall commercial feasibility for CO2 geological sequestration. Of the nine sites considered for Phase II saline sequestration demonstration, seven are profiled in this study for their caprock lithologic and mineral characteristics.

  6. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a project/report. #12;2 The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne1 UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The carbon sequestration potential of three common turfgrasses: Lolium perenne; Fescue rubra; and Poa pratensis Yihan Wu

  7. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01

    facts: Average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromcalculation of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from fuel

  8. Summary Report on CO2 Geologic Sequestration & Water Resources Workshop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varadharajan, C.

    2013-01-01

    CCS) Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Developingof seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs)RCSP’s, the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships are

  9. Genome Enabled Discovery of Carbon Sequestration Genes in Poplar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filichkin, Sergei; Etherington, Elizabeth; Ma, Caiping; Strauss, Steve

    2007-02-22

    The goals of the S.H. Strauss laboratory portion of 'Genome-enabled discovery of carbon sequestration genes in poplar' are (1) to explore the functions of candidate genes using Populus transformation by inserting genes provided by Oakridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the University of Florida (UF) into poplar; (2) to expand the poplar transformation toolkit by developing transformation methods for important genotypes; and (3) to allow induced expression, and efficient gene suppression, in roots and other tissues. As part of the transformation improvement effort, OSU developed transformation protocols for Populus trichocarpa 'Nisqually-1' clone and an early flowering P. alba clone, 6K10. Complete descriptions of the transformation systems were published (Ma et. al. 2004, Meilan et. al 2004). Twenty-one 'Nisqually-1' and 622 6K10 transgenic plants were generated. To identify root predominant promoters, a set of three promoters were tested for their tissue-specific expression patterns in poplar and in Arabidopsis as a model system. A novel gene, ET304, was identified by analyzing a collection of poplar enhancer trap lines generated at OSU (Filichkin et. al 2006a, 2006b). Other promoters include the pGgMT1 root-predominant promoter from Casuarina glauca and the pAtPIN2 promoter from Arabidopsis root specific PIN2 gene. OSU tested two induction systems, alcohol- and estrogen-inducible, in multiple poplar transgenics. Ethanol proved to be the more efficient when tested in tissue culture and greenhouse conditions. Two estrogen-inducible systems were evaluated in transgenic Populus, neither of which functioned reliably in tissue culture conditions. GATEWAY-compatible plant binary vectors were designed to compare the silencing efficiency of homologous (direct) RNAi vs. heterologous (transitive) RNAi inverted repeats. A set of genes was targeted for post transcriptional silencing in the model Arabidopsis system; these include the floral meristem identity gene (APETALA1 or AP1), auxin response factor gene (ETTIN), the gene encoding transcriptional factor of WD40 family (TRANSPARENTTESTAGLABRA1 or TTG1), and the auxin efflux carrier (PIN-FORMED2 or PIN2) gene. More than 220 transgenic lines of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd generations were analyzed for RNAi suppression phenotypes (Filichkin et. al., manuscript submitted). A total of 108 constructs were supplied by ORNL, UF and OSU and used to generate over 1,881 PCR verified transgenic Populus and over 300 PCR verified transgenic Arabidopsis events. The Populus transgenics alone required Agrobacterium co-cultivations of 124.406 explants.

  10. Carbon sequestration monitoring with acoustic double-difference waveform inversion: A case study on SACROC walkaway VSP data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Di

    2011-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration involves large-scale injection of carbon dioxide into underground geologic formations and is considered as a potential approach for mitigating global warming. Changes in reservoir properties ...

  11. RESEARCH SUMMARY BY QUANLIN ZHOU During my stay at LBNL from March 2001, I have been working on (1) geologic carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Quanlin

    on (1) geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) projects for mitigating global climate change, (2) the DOE projects. 1 Research Highlights 1.1. Geological Carbon Sequestration I have been working on eight research projects in the area of geologic carbon sequestration since 2006. I have been PI or Co-PI for six projects

  12. DOE Regional Partnership Successfully Demonstrates Terrestrial CO2 Storage Practices in Great Plains Region of U.S. and Canada

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test demonstrating the best approaches for terrestrial carbon dioxide storage in the heartland of North America has been successfully completed by one of the U.S. Department of Energy's seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships.

  13. Modeling to discern nitrogen fertilization impacts on carbon sequestration in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling to discern nitrogen fertilization impacts on carbon sequestration in a Pacific Northwest A R K J O H N S O N } *LREIS Institute of Geographic Sciences & Nature Resources Research, Chinese of Forestry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4, zBiometeorology and Soil Physics

  14. A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A Case Study from Norway on Gas-Fired Power Plants, Carbon Sequestration, and Politics Guillaume contended the gas-fired plants would slow Norway's dependence on imported electricity from Denmark, which 81-71 in favor of building Norway's first natural gas-fired power plant.1 As a result Bondevik

  15. Permanence Discounting for Land-Based Carbon Sequestration Man-Keun Kim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    are not subject to such concerns. For example, methane capture and combustion in subsequent energy production widely suggested as a potentially cost-competitive means for reducing net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions explored the potential of land-based carbon sequestration strategies in the US such as afforestation

  16. An XFEM Model for Carbon Sequestration Journal: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gracie, Robert

    the temperatures and pressures are such that the CO2 exists in a supercritical state. The supercritical CO2 is less method (XFEM) model is presented to analyze the injection and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2 method (SUPG-FEM-FDM) to approximate the distribution of CO2 in the aquifer. Near well enrichment

  17. First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration Washington, DC, May 14-17, 2001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sequestration by direct injection by Ken Caldeira*, Howard J. Herzog , and Michael E. Wickett* DOE Center 02139 USA (hjherzog@mit.edu) Abstract Direct injection of CO2 into the ocean is a potentially effective with other carbon management options. Here, after a brief review of direct oceanic injection, we estimate

  18. EIS-0366: Implementation of the Office of Fossil Energy's Carbon Sequestration Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announces its intent to prepare a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to assess the potential environmental impacts from the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Carbon Sequestration Program, which is being implemented by the Office of Fossil Energy.

  19. Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon Sequestration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roegner, Matthias

    ­ driven by light energy (Giordano et al. 2005, Kaplan et al. 2008, Price et al. 2008). Two CO2 uptake the significance of carbon sequestration in dissipating excess light energy. Keywords: CO2 and HCO3 À uptake -- CO2 HCO3 ­ transporter dependent on BicA (Price et al. 2005). Both CO2 and HCO3 ­ are taken up

  20. A pre-publication version of Carbon Trends in U.S. forestlands: a context for the role of soils in forest carbon sequestration. The Potential of U.S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon. Chapter 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in forest carbon sequestration. The Potential of U.S. Forest Soils to Sequester Carbon. Chapter 3 in: Kimble-45. Carbon Trends in U.S. Forestlands: A Context for the Role of Soils in Forest Carbon Sequestration Linda SA pre-publication version of Carbon Trends in U.S. forestlands: a context for the role of soils

  1. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-01-01

    8.1 Lehmann, J. (2007). Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers0.9 Pg C/yr Terrestrial CS Bio-energy crops 0.5-0.8 Pg C/yr

  2. CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Andrew

    CO2 stabilization, climate change and the terrestrial carbon sink A N D R E W W H I T E , * M E L V, Hybrid v4.1, with a subdaily timestep, was driven by increasing CO2 and transient climate output from scenarios were used: (i) IS92a, giving 790 ppm CO2 by 2100, (ii) CO2 stabilization at 750 ppm by 2225

  3. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg

    2009-07-30

    July 21, 2009 Berkeley Lab summer lecture: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  4. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M [LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-04-28

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  5. Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Mitigating Climate Change by Injecting CO2 Underground (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-07-21

    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Climate change provides strong motivation to reduce CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage involves the capture, compression, and transport of CO2 to geologically favorable areas, where its injected into porous rock more than one kilometer underground for permanent storage. Oldenburg, who heads Berkeley Labs Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program, will focus on the challenges, opportunities, and research needs of this innovative technology.

  6. A Hydro-mechanical Model and Analytical Solutions for Geomechanical Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Geological Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-05-15

    We present a hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow in greater detail. The simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. Two parts were coupled using the standard linear poroelasticity. Analytical solutions for pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario. The model predicts the temporal and spatial variation of pressure field and effects of permeability and elastic modulus of formation on the fluid pressure distribution.

  7. Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration 2010 Now Accepting...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Students and early career professionals can gain hands-on experience in areas related to carbon capture and storage (CCS) by participating in the Research Experience in Carbon...

  8. Thermodynamic Data for Geochemical Modeling of Carbonate Reactions Associated with CO2 Sequestration – Literature Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2010-09-28

    Permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in deep geologic formations is being considered as a means to reduce the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and thus its contribution to global climate change. To ensure safe and effective geologic sequestration, numerous studies have been completed of the extent to which the CO2 migrates within geologic formations and what physical and geochemical changes occur in these formations when CO2 is injected. Sophisticated, computerized reservoir simulations are used as part of field site and laboratory CO2 sequestration studies. These simulations use coupled multiphase flow-reactive chemical transport models and/or standalone (i.e., no coupled fluid transport) geochemical models to calculate gas solubility, aqueous complexation, reduction/oxidation (redox), and/or mineral solubility reactions related to CO2 injection and sequestration. Thermodynamic data are critical inputs to modeling geochemical processes. The adequacy of thermodynamic data for carbonate compounds has been identified as an important data requirement for the successful application of these geochemical reaction models to CO2 sequestration. A review of thermodynamic data for CO2 gas and carbonate aqueous species and minerals present in published data compilations and databases used in geochemical reaction models was therefore completed. Published studies that describe mineralogical analyses from CO2 sequestration field and natural analogue sites and laboratory studies were also reviewed to identify specific carbonate minerals that are important to CO2 sequestration reactions and therefore require thermodynamic data. The results of the literature review indicated that an extensive thermodynamic database exists for CO2 and CH4 gases, carbonate aqueous species, and carbonate minerals. Values of ?fG298° and/or log Kr,298° are available for essentially all of these compounds. However, log Kr,T° or heat capacity values at temperatures above 298 K exist for less than approximately one-third of these compounds. Because the temperatures of host formations that will be used for CO2 injection and sequestration will be at tempera¬tures in the range of 50ºC to 100ºC or greater, the lack of high temperature thermodynamic values for key carbonate compounds especially minerals, will impact the accuracy of some modeling calculations.

  9. GEO-SEQ Best Practices Manual. Geologic Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Site Evaluation to Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, Sally M.; Myer, Larry R.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Doughty, Christine A.; Pruess, Karsten; Lewicki, Jennifer; Hoversten, Mike; Gasperikova, Erica; Daley, Thomas; Majer, Ernie; Lippmann, Marcelo; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Knauss, Kevin; Johnson, James; Foxall, William; Ramirez, Abe; Newmark, Robin; Cole, David; Phelps, Tommy J.; Parker, J.; Palumbo, A.; Horita, J.; Fisher, S.; Moline, Gerry; Orr, Lynn; Kovscek, Tony; Jessen, K.; Wang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Cakici, M.; Hovorka, Susan; Holtz, Mark; Sakurai, Shinichi; Gunter, Bill; Law, David; van der Meer, Bert

    2004-10-23

    The first phase of the GEO-SEQ project was a multidisciplinary effort focused on investigating ways to lower the cost and risk of geologic carbon sequestration. Through our research in the GEO-SEQ project, we have produced results that may be of interest to the wider geologic carbon sequestration community. However, much of the knowledge developed in GEO-SEQ is not easily accessible because it is dispersed in the peer-reviewed literature and conference proceedings in individual papers on specific topics. The purpose of this report is to present key GEO-SEQ findings relevant to the practical implementation of geologic carbon sequestration in the form of a Best Practices Manual. Because our work in GEO-SEQ focused on the characterization and project development aspects, the scope of this report covers practices prior to injection, referred to as the design phase. The design phase encompasses activities such as selecting sites for which enhanced recovery may be possible, evaluating CO{sub 2} capacity and sequestration feasibility, and designing and evaluating monitoring approaches. Through this Best Practices Manual, we have endeavored to place our GEO-SEQ findings in a practical context and format that will be useful to readers interested in project implementation. The overall objective of this Manual is to facilitate putting the findings of the GEO-SEQ project into practice.

  10. Proposed roadmap for overcoming legal and financial obstacles to carbon capture and sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Wendy ); Chohen, Leah; Kostakidis-Lianos, Leah; Rundell, Sara )

    2009-03-01

    Many existing proposals either lack sufficient concreteness to make carbon capture and geological sequestration (CCGS) operational or fail to focus on a comprehensive, long term framework for its regulation, thus failing to account adequately for the urgency of the issue, the need to develop immediate experience with large scale demonstration projects, or the financial and other incentives required to launch early demonstration projects. We aim to help fill this void by proposing a roadmap to commercial deployment of CCGS in the United States.This roadmap focuses on the legal and financial incentives necessary for rapid demonstration of geological sequestration in the absence of national restrictions on CO2 emissions. It weaves together existing federal programs and financing opportunities into a set of recommendations for achieving commercial viability of geological sequestration.

  11. Marine transportation for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrakis, Mary-Irene

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this report is to determine whether opportunities to use liquefied carbon dioxide carriers as part of a carbon capture and storage system will exist over the next twenty years. Factors that encourage or ...

  12. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2003-12-18

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. In this quarterly report, we present a preliminary comparison of the carbon sequestration benefits for two forest types used to convert abandoned grasslands for carbon sequestration. Annual mixed hardwood benefits, based on total stand carbon volume present at the end of a given year, range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $5.26/ton of carbon (low prices). White pine benefits based on carbon volume range from a minimum of $0/ton of carbon to a maximum of $18.61/ton of carbon (high prices). The higher maximum white pine carbon payment can primarily be attributed to the fact that the shorter rotation means that payments for white pine carbon are being made on far less cumulative carbon tonnage than for that of the long-rotation hardwoods. Therefore, the payment per ton of white pine carbon needs to be higher than that of the hardwoods in order to render the conversion to white pine profitable by the end of a rotation. These carbon payments may seem appealingly low to the incentive provider. However, payments (not discounted) made over a full rotation may add up to approximately $17,493/ha for white pine (30-year rotation), and $18,820/ha for mixed hardwoods (60-year rotation). The literature suggests a range of carbon sequestration costs, from $0/ton of carbon to $120/ton of carbon, although the majority of studies suggest a cost below $50/ ton of carbon, with van Kooten et al. (2000) suggesting a cutoff cost of $20/ton of carbon sequestered. Thus, the ranges of carbon payments estimated for this study fall well within the ranges of carbon sequestration costs estimated in previous studies.

  13. Carbon isotopes in terrestrial ecosystem pools and CO2 fluxes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowling, DR; Pataki, DE; Randerson, JT

    2008-01-01

    terrestrial higher plants during biosynthesis for distinctive photosynthetic pathways.terrestrial C cycle. Autotrophic respiration involves many possible biochemical pathways

  14. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    This project involves the use of an innovative new invention ? Particle Stabilized Emulsions (PSEs) of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water and Water-in-Carbon Dioxide for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. The EOR emulsion would be injected into a semi-depleted oil reservoir such as Dover 33 in Otsego County, Michigan. It is expected that the emulsion would dislocate the stranded heavy crude oil from the rock granule surfaces, reduce its viscosity, and increase its mobility. The advancing emulsion front should provide viscosity control which drives the reduced-viscosity oil toward the production wells. The make-up of the emulsion would be subsequently changed so it interacts with the surrounding rock minerals in order to enhance mineralization, thereby providing permanent sequestration of the injected CO{sub 2}. In Phase 1 of the project, the following tasks were accomplished: 1. Perform laboratory scale (mL/min) refinements on existing procedures for producing liquid carbon dioxide-in-water (C/W) and water-in-liquid carbon dioxide (W/C) emulsion stabilized by hydrophilic and hydrophobic fine particles, respectively, using a Kenics-type static mixer. 2. Design and cost evaluate scaled up (gal/min) C/W and W/C emulsification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 at the Otsego County semi-depleted oil field. 3. Design the modifications necessary to the present CO{sub 2} flooding system at Otsego County for emulsion injection. 4. Design monitoring and verification systems to be deployed in Phase 2 for measuring potential leakage of CO{sub 2} after emulsion injection. 5. Design production protocol to assess enhanced oil recovery with emulsion injection compared to present recovery with neat CO{sub 2} flooding. 6. Obtain Federal and State permits for emulsion injection. Initial research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions with the smallest possible globule size so that the emulsion can penetrate even low-permeability crude oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term ?globule? refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 ?m range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 ?m or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 ?m (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized emulsions with a flow through, static mixer based apparatus under a variety

  15. Cost and U.S. public policy for new coal power plants with carbon capture and sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Michael R.

    This paper provides a financial analysis for new supercritical pulverized coal plants with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) that compares the effects of two relevant climate policies. First, an updated cost estimate ...

  16. Experimental study of potential wellbore cement carbonation by various phases of carbon dioxide during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2013-08-16

    Hydrated Portland cement was reacted with carbon dioxide (CO2) in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases to understand the potential cement alteration processes along the length of a wellbore, extending from deep CO2 storage reservoir to the shallow subsurface during geologic carbon sequestration. The 3-D X-ray microtomography (XMT) images displayed that the cement alteration was significantly more extensive by CO2-saturated synthetic groundwater than dry or wet supercritical CO2 at high P (10 MPa)-T (50°C) conditions. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) analysis also exhibited a systematic Ca depletion and C enrichment in cement matrix exposed to CO2-saturated groundwater. Integrated XMT, XRD, and SEM-EDS analyses identified the formation of extensive carbonated zone filled with CaCO3(s), as well as the porous degradation front and the outermost silica-rich zone in cement after exposure to CO2-saturated groundwater. The cement alteration by CO2-saturated groundwater for 2-8 months overall decreased the porosity from 31% to 22% and the permeability by an order of magnitude. Cement alteration by dry or wet supercritical CO2 was slow and minor compared to CO2-saturated groundwater. A thin single carbonation zone was formed in cement after exposure to wet supercritical CO2 for 8 months or dry supercritical CO2 for 15 months. Extensive calcite coating was formed on the outside surface of a cement sample after exposure to wet gaseous CO2 for 1-3 months. The chemical-physical characterization of hydrated Portland cement after exposure to various phases of carbon dioxide indicates that the extent of cement carbonation can be significantly heterogeneous depending on CO2 phase present in the wellbore environment. Both experimental and geochemical modeling results suggest that wellbore cement exposure to supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases of CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration is unlikely to damage the wellbore integrity because cement alteration by all phases of CO2 is dominated by carbonation reaction. This is consistent with previous field studies of wellbore cement with extensive carbonation after exposure to CO2 for 3 decades. However, XMT imaging indicates that preferential cement alteration by supercritical CO2 or CO2-saturated groundwater can occur along the cement-steel or cement-rock interfaces. This highlights the importance of further investigation of cement degradation along the interfaces of wellbore materials to ensure permanent geologic carbon storage.

  17. Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collett Jr., Jeffrey L.

    Combined Simple Biosphere/Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach terrestrial carbon cycle model Kevin and physical processes to test our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle and to predict ecosystem biomass and carbon fluxes. We combine the photosynthesis and biophysical calculations in the Simple

  18. Research Experience in Carbon Sequestration 2015 Now Accepting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    professionals can gain hands-on field research experience in areas related to carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) by participating in the Research Experience in...

  19. GENOME-ENABLED DISCOVERY OF CARBON SEQUESTRATION GENES IN POPLAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DAVIS J M

    2007-10-11

    Plants utilize carbon by partitioning the reduced carbon obtained through photosynthesis into different compartments and into different chemistries within a cell and subsequently allocating such carbon to sink tissues throughout the plant. Since the phytohormones auxin and cytokinin are known to influence sink strength in tissues such as roots (Skoog & Miller 1957, Nordstrom et al. 2004), we hypothesized that altering the expression of genes that regulate auxin-mediated (e.g., AUX/IAA or ARF transcription factors) or cytokinin-mediated (e.g., RR transcription factors) control of root growth and development would impact carbon allocation and partitioning belowground (Fig. 1 - Renewal Proposal). Specifically, the ARF, AUX/IAA and RR transcription factor gene families mediate the effects of the growth regulators auxin and cytokinin on cell expansion, cell division and differentiation into root primordia. Invertases (IVR), whose transcript abundance is enhanced by both auxin and cytokinin, are critical components of carbon movement and therefore of carbon allocation. Thus, we initiated comparative genomic studies to identify the AUX/IAA, ARF, RR and IVR gene families in the Populus genome that could impact carbon allocation and partitioning. Bioinformatics searches using Arabidopsis gene sequences as queries identified regions with high degrees of sequence similarities in the Populus genome. These Populus sequences formed the basis of our transgenic experiments. Transgenic modification of gene expression involving members of these gene families was hypothesized to have profound effects on carbon allocation and partitioning.

  20. Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at a hypothetical carbon sequestration site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Keating, Elizabeth; Bacon, Diana H.; Viswanathan, Hari; Stauffer, Philip; Jordan, Amy B.; Pawar, Rajesh

    2014-03-07

    Carbon sequestration in geologic reservoirs is an important approach for mitigating greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. This study first develops an integrated Monte Carlo method for simulating CO2 and brine leakage from carbon sequestration and subsequent geochemical interactions in shallow aquifers. Then, we estimate probability distributions of five risk proxies related to the likelihood and volume of changes in pH, total dissolved solids, and trace concentrations of lead, arsenic, and cadmium for two possible consequence thresholds. The results indicate that shallow groundwater resources may degrade locally around leakage points by reduced pH and increased total dissolved solids (TDS). The volumes of pH and TDS plumes are most sensitive to aquifer porosity, permeability, and CO2 and brine leakage rates. The estimated plume size of pH change is the largest, while that of cadmium is the smallest among the risk proxies. Plume volume distributions of arsenic and lead are similar to those of TDS. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight for understanding risks of deep fluids leaking into shallow aquifers, determining the area of review, and designing monitoring networks at carbon sequestration sites.

  1. Development of a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical model in discontinuous media for carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Yilin; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Xu, Zhijie; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2013-09-12

    Geomechanical alteration of porous media is generally ignored for most shallow subsurface applications, whereas CO2 injection, migration, and trapping in deep saline aquifers will be controlled by coupled multifluid flow, energy transfer, and geomechanical processes. The accurate assessment of the risks associated with potential leakage of injected CO2 and the design of effective injection systems requires that we represent these coupled processes within numerical simulators. The objectives of this study were to develop a coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model into a single software, and to examine the coupling of thermal, hydrological, and geomechanical processes for simulation of CO2 injection into the subsurface for carbon sequestration. A numerical model is developed to couple nonisothermal multiphase hydrological and geomechanical processes for prediction of multiple interconnected processes for carbon sequestration in deep saline aquifers. The geomechanics model was based on Rigid Body-Spring Model (RBSM), one of the discrete methods to model discontinuous rock system. Poisson’s effect that was often ignored by RBSM was considered in the model. The simulation of large-scale and long-term coupled processes in carbon capture and storage projects requires large memory and computational performance. Global Array Toolkit was used to build the model to permit the high performance simulations of the coupled processes. The model was used to simulate a case study with several scenarios to demonstrate the impacts of considering coupled processes and Poisson’s effect for the prediction of CO2 sequestration.

  2. Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project U. S. Department...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant will not receive co-funding from DOE. The Lake Charles CCS Project will capture carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the LCCE Gasification plant and transport the CO 2 via a new...

  3. Reactive transport modeling of stable carbon isotope fractionation in a multi-phase multi-component system during carbon sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Shuo; DePaolo, Donald J.; Zheng, Liange; Mayer, Bernhard

    2014-12-31

    Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modifiedmore »to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.« less

  4. Reactive transport modeling of stable carbon isotope fractionation in a multi-phase multi-component system during carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shuo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DePaolo, Donald J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Liange [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mayer, Bernhard [Univ. of Calgary (Canada). Dept. of Geosciences

    2014-12-31

    Carbon stable isotopes can be used in characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources, and to evaluate the chemical reactions that take place in the CO2-water-rock system. However, there are few tools available to incorporate stable isotope information into flow and transport codes used for CO2 sequestration problems. We present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable carbon isotopes in multiphase reactive systems relevant to geologic carbon sequestration. The code is an extension of the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The transport module of TOUGHREACT was modified to include separate isotopic species of CO2 gas and dissolved inorganic carbon (CO2, CO32-, HCO3-,…). Any process of transport or reaction influencing a given carbon species also influences its isotopic ratio. Isotopic fractionation is thus fully integrated within the dynamic system. The chemical module and database have been expanded to include isotopic exchange and fractionation between the carbon species in both gas and aqueous phases. The performance of the code is verified by modeling ideal systems and comparing with theoretical results. Efforts are also made to fit field data from the Pembina CO2 injection project in Canada. We show that the exchange of carbon isotopes between dissolved and gaseous carbon species combined with fluid flow and transport, produce isotopic effects that are significantly different from simple two-component mixing. These effects are important for understanding the isotopic variations observed in field demonstrations.

  5. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munger, J. William; Foster, David R.; Richardson, Andrew D.

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  6. Development Of An Agroforestry Sequestration Project In Khammam District Of India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudha, P.; Ramprasad, V.; Nagendra, M.D.V.; Kulkarni, H.D.; Ravindranath, N.H.

    2007-01-01

    in estimating carbon sequestration potential, baselineA, Kandji, ST, (2003) Carbon sequestration in tropicalStudies on enhancing carbon sequestration in soils. Energy,

  7. Development of a Software Framework for System-Level Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.

    2013-02-28

    The overall purpose of this project was to identify, evaluate, select, develop, and test a suite of enhancements to the GoldSim software program, in order to make it a better tool for use in support of Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) projects. The GoldSim software is a foundational tool used by scientists at NETL and at other laboratories and research institutions to evaluate system-level risks of proposed CCS projects. The primary product of the project was a series of successively improved versions of the GoldSim software, supported by an extensive User’s Guide. All of the enhancements were tested by scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and several of the enhancements have already been incorporated into the CO{sub 2}-PENS sequestration model.

  8. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  9. Method for carbon dioxide sequestration (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTechelementPatent:subsectionsMethod for carbon dioxide

  10. Plant and Soil-Based Carbon Sequestration in Urban Areas Objective: Investigate current research into plant and soil carbon storage capacities,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolberg, George

    Plant and Soil-Based Carbon Sequestration in Urban Areas Objective: Investigate current research into plant and soil carbon storage capacities, perform an urban land assessment in terms of these capacities matter in soils, as a result of accumulation of plant litter and other biomass. Indeed, carbon in soil

  11. Validation and Comparison of Carbon Sequestration Project Cost Models with Project Cost Data Obtained from the Southwest Partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Lee; Reid Grigg; Brian McPherson

    2011-04-15

    Obtaining formal quotes and engineering conceptual designs for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration sites and facilities is costly and time-consuming. Frequently, when looking at potential locations, managers, engineers and scientists are confronted with multiple options, but do not have the expertise or the information required to quickly obtain a general estimate of what the costs will be without employing an engineering firm. Several models for carbon compression, transport and/or injection have been published that are designed to aid in determining the cost of sequestration projects. A number of these models are used in this study, including models by J. Ogden, MIT's Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies Program Model, the Environmental Protection Agency and others. This report uses the information and data available from several projects either completed, in progress, or conceptualized by the Southwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP) to determine the best approach to estimate a project's cost. The data presented highlights calculated versus actual costs. This data is compared to the results obtained by applying several models for each of the individual projects with actual cost. It also offers methods to systematically apply the models to future projects of a similar scale. Last, the cost risks associated with a project of this scope are discussed, along with ways that have been and could be used to mitigate these risks.

  12. Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    42 Shedding light on carbon-mineral complexation in the soil environment: impacts on C sequestration and cycling Sparks, D.L. & C. Chen Department of Plant and Soil Sciences and Delaware@udel.edu) Abstract Organic matter (OM)-mineral complexation plays a critical role in soil carbon (C) stabilization

  13. Terrestrial Carbon Management Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Collections under the broad heading of Terrestrial Carbon Management are organized as Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management, Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management, Carbon Loss Following Cultivation, Carbon Accumulation Following Afforestation, and Carbon Sources and Sinks Associated with U.S. Cropland Production.

  14. A Finite-Element Model for Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin

    2014-09-01

    Herein, we present a coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide followed by the stress, deformation, and shear-slip failure analysis. This fully coupled model considers the geomechanical response, fluid flow, and thermal transport relevant to geological sequestration. Both analytical solutions and numerical approach via finite element model are introduced for solving the thermal-hydro-mechanical model. Analytical solutions for pressure, temperature, deformation, and stress field were obtained for a simplified typical geological sequestration scenario. The finite element model is more general and can be used for arbitrary geometry. It was built on an open-source finite element code, Elmer, and was designed to simulate the entire period of CO2 injection (up to decades) both stably and accurately—even for large time steps. The shear-slip failure analysis was implemented based on the numerical results from the finite element model. The analysis reveals the potential failure zone caused by the fluid injection and thermal effect. From the simulation results, the thermal effect is shown to enhance well injectivity, especially at the early time of the injection. However, it also causes some side effects, such as the appearance of a small failure zone in the caprock. The coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical model improves prediction of displacement, stress distribution, and potential failure zone compared to the model that neglects non-isothermal effects, especially in an area with high geothermal gradient.

  15. Feasibility of Geophysical Monitoring of Carbon-Sequestrated Deep Saline Aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mallick, Subhashis; Alvarado, Vladimir

    2013-09-30

    As carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is sequestered from the bottom of a brine reservoir and allowed to migrate upward, the effects of the relative permeability hysteresis due to capillary trapping and buoyancy driven migration tend to make the reservoir patchy saturated with different fluid phases over time. Seismically, such a patchy saturated reservoir induces an effective anisotropic behavior whose properties are primarily dictated by the nature of the saturation of different fluid phases in the pores and the elastic properties of the rock matrix. By combining reservoir flow simulation and modeling with seismic modeling, it is possible to derive these effective anisotropic properties, which, in turn, could be related to the saturation of CO{sub 2} within the reservoir volume any time during the post-injection scenario. Therefore, if time-lapse seismic data are available and could be inverted for the effective anisotropic properties of the reservoir, they, in combination with reservoir simulation could potentially predict the CO{sub 2} saturation directly from the time-lapse seismic data. It is therefore concluded that the time-lapse seismic data could be used to monitor the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs. But for its successful implementation, seismic modeling and inversion methods must be integrated with the reservoir simulations. In addition, because CO{sub 2} sequestration induces an effective anisotropy in the sequestered reservoir and anisotropy is best detected using multicomponent seismic data compared to single component (P-wave) data, acquisition, processing, and analysis is multicomponent seismic data is recommended for these time-lapse studies. Finally, a successful implementation of using time-lapse seismic data for monitoring the carbon sequestrated saline reservoirs will require development of a robust methodology for inverting multicomponent seismic data for subsurface anisotropic properties.

  16. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of today’s carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Porifera’s carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.

  17. Feasibility Study of Carbon Sequestration Through Reforestation in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed of Virginia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andy Lacatell; David Shoch; Bill Stanley; Zoe Kant

    2007-03-01

    The Chesapeake Rivers conservation area encompasses approximately 2,000 square miles of agricultural and forest lands in four Virginia watersheds that drain to the Chesapeake Bay. Consulting a time series of classified Landsat imagery for the Chesapeake Rivers conservation area, the project team developed a GIS-based protocol for identifying agricultural lands that could be reforested, specifically agricultural lands that had been without forest since 1990. Subsequent filters were applied to the initial candidate reforestation sites, including individual sites > 100 acres and sites falling within TNC priority conservation areas. The same data were also used to produce an analysis of baseline changes in forest cover within the study period. The Nature Conservancy and the Virginia Department of Forestry identified three reforestation/management models: (1) hardwood planting to establish old-growth forest, (2) loblolly pine planting to establish working forest buffer with hardwood planting to establish an old-growth core, and (3) loblolly pine planting to establish a working forest. To assess the relative carbon sequestration potential of these different strategies, an accounting of carbon and total project costs was completed for each model. Reforestation/management models produced from 151 to 171 tons carbon dioxide equivalent per acre over 100 years, with present value costs of from $2.61 to $13.28 per ton carbon dioxide equivalent. The outcome of the financial analysis was especially sensitive to the land acquisition/conservation easement cost, which represented the most significant, and also most highly variable, single cost involved. The reforestation/management models explored all require a substantial upfront investment prior to the generation of carbon benefits. Specifically, high land values represent a significant barrier to reforestation projects in the study area, and it is precisely these economic constraints that demonstrate the economic additionality of any carbon benefits produced via reforestation--these are outcomes over and above what is currently possible given existing market opportunities. This is reflected and further substantiated in the results of the forest cover change analysis, which demonstrated a decline in area of land in forest use in the study area for the 1987/88-2001 period. The project team collected data necessary to identify sites for reforestation in the study area, environmental data for the determining site suitability for a range of reforestation alternatives and has identified and addressed potential leakage and additionality issues associated with implementing a carbon sequestration project in the Chesapeake Rivers Conservation Area. Furthermore, carbon emissions reductions generated would have strong potential for recognition in existing reporting systems such as the U.S. Department of Energy 1605(b) voluntary reporting requirements and the Chicago Climate Exchange. The study identified 384,398 acres on which reforestation activities could potentially be sited. Of these candidate sites, sites totaling 26,105 acres are an appropriate size for management (> 100 acres) and located in priority conservation areas identified by The Nature Conservancy. Total carbon sequestration potential of reforestation in the study area, realized over a 100 year timeframe, ranges from 58 to 66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent, and on the priority sites alone, potential for carbon sequestration approaches or exceeds 4 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. In the absence of concerted reforestation efforts, coupled with policy strategies, the region will likely face continued declines in forest land.

  18. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  19. 5, 15111543, 2008 sequestration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , cloud cover and carbon sequestration. As well, we develop a procedure to convert carbon stock changes closure, carbon sequestration rate among other factors. The sensitivity of the model is investigated that the change in albedo reduces the carbon sequestration bene- fits by approximately 30% over 100 years

  20. Southwestern Regional Partnership For Carbon Sequestration (Phase 2) Pump Canyon CO2- ECBM/Sequestration Demonstration, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Advanced Resources International

    2010-01-31

    Within the Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration (SWP), three demonstrations of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration are being performed -- one in an oilfield (the SACROC Unit in the Permian basin of west Texas), one in a deep, unmineable coalbed (the Pump Canyon site in the San Juan basin of northern New Mexico), and one in a deep, saline reservoir (underlying the Aneth oilfield in the Paradox basin of southeast Utah). The Pump Canyon CO{sub 2}-enhanced coalbed methane (CO{sub 2}/ECBM) sequestration demonstration project plans to demonstrate the effectiveness of CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams via a small-scale geologic sequestration project. The site is located in San Juan County, northern New Mexico, just within the limits of the high-permeability fairway of prolific coalbed methane production. The study area for the SWP project consists of 31 coalbed methane production wells located in a nine section area. CO{sub 2} was injected continuously for a year and different monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) techniques were implemented to track the CO{sub 2} movement inside and outside the reservoir. Some of the MVA methods include continuous measurement of injection volumes, pressures and temperatures within the injection well, coalbed methane production rates, pressures and gas compositions collected at the offset production wells, and tracers in the injected CO{sub 2}. In addition, time-lapse vertical seismic profiling (VSP), surface tiltmeter arrays, a series of shallow monitoring wells with a regular fluid sampling program, surface measurements of soil composition, CO{sub 2} fluxes, and tracers were used to help in tracking the injected CO{sub 2}. Finally, a detailed reservoir model was constructed to help reproduce and understand the behavior of the reservoir under production and injection operation. This report summarizes the different phases of the project, from permitting through site closure, and gives the results of the different MVA techniques.

  1. Jointly Estimating Carbon Sequestration Supply from Forests and Agriculture Bruce A. McCarl (mccarl@tamu.edu, 979-845-1706)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    Jointly Estimating Carbon Sequestration Supply from Forests and Agriculture Bruce A. McCarl (mccarl at Western Economics Association Meetings, July 5-8, 2001, San Francisco #12;2 Jointly Estimating Carbon Sequestration Supply from Forests and Agriculture Alterations in agricultural and forestry (AF) land use and

  2. Development of a 1 x N Fiber Optic Sensor Array for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repasky, Kevin

    2013-09-30

    A fiber sensor array for sub-surface CO{sub 2} concentrations measurements was developed for monitoring geologic carbon sequestration sites. The fiber sensor array uses a single temperature tunable distributed feedback (DFB) laser operating with a nominal wavelength of 2.004 􀁐m. Light from this DFB laser is direct to one of the 4 probes via an in-line 1 x 4 fiber optic switch. Each of the 4 probes are buried and allow the sub-surface CO{sub 2} to enter the probe through Millipore filters that allow the soil gas to enter the probe but keeps out the soil and water. Light from the DFB laser interacts with the CO{sub 2} before it is directed back through the in-line fiber optic switch. The DFB laser is tuned across two CO{sub 2} absorption features where a transmission measurement is made allowing the CO{sub 2} concentration to be retrieved. The fiber optic switch then directs the light to the next probe where this process is repeated allowing sub-surface CO{sub 2} concentration measurements at each of the probes to be made as a function of time. The fiber sensor array was deployed for fifty-eight days beginning June 19, 2012 at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site where sub-surface CO{sub 2} concentrations were monitored. Background measurements indicate the fiber sensor array can monitor background levels as low as 1,000 parts per million (ppm). A thirty four day sub-surface release of 0.15 tones CO{sub 2}/day began on July 10, 2012. The elevated subsurface CO{sub 2} concentration was easily detected by each of the four probes with values ranging to over 60,000 ppm, a factor of greater than 6 higher than background measurements. The fiber sensor array was also deploy at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) site in north-central Montana between July 9th and August 7th, 2013 where background measurements were made in a remote sequestration site with minimal infrastructure. The project provided opportunities for two graduate students to participate in research directly related to geologic carbon sequestration. Furthermore, commercialization of the technology developed is being pursued with five different companies via the Department of energy SBIR/STTR program

  3. Wellbore cement fracture evolution at the cement–basalt caprock interface during geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Kabilan, Senthil; Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Um, Wooyong; Martin, Paul F.; Dahl, Michael E.; Kafentzis, Tyler A.; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Arey, Bruce W.; Carroll, KC; Bonneville, Alain; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-08-01

    Composite Portland cement-basalt caprock cores with fractures, as well as neat Portland cement columns, were prepared to understand the geochemical and geomechanical effects on the integrity of wellbores with defects during geologic carbon sequestration. The samples were reacted with CO2-saturated groundwater at 50 ºC and 10 MPa for 3 months under static conditions, while one cement-basalt core was subjected to mechanical stress at 2.7 MPa before the CO2 reaction. Micro-XRD and SEM-EDS data collected along the cement-basalt interface after 3-month reaction with CO2-saturated groundwater indicate that carbonation of cement matrix was extensive with the precipitation of calcite, aragonite, and vaterite, whereas the alteration of basalt caprock was minor. X-ray microtomography (XMT) provided three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the opening and interconnection of cement fractures due to mechanical stress. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling further revealed that this stress led to the increase in fluid flow and hence permeability. After the CO2-reaction, XMT images displayed that calcium carbonate precipitation occurred extensively within the fractures in the cement matrix, but only partially along the fracture located at the cement-basalt interface. The 3-D visualization and CFD modeling also showed that the precipitation of calcium carbonate within the cement fractures after the CO2-reaction resulted in the disconnection of cement fractures and permeability decrease. The permeability calculated based on CFD modeling was in agreement with the experimentally determined permeability. This study demonstrates that XMT imaging coupled with CFD modeling represent a powerful tool to visualize and quantify fracture evolution and permeability change in geologic materials and to predict their behavior during geologic carbon sequestration or hydraulic fracturing for shale gas production and enhanced geothermal systems.

  4. Development of a Method for Measuring Carbon Balance in Chemical Sequestration of CO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Zhongxian; Pan, Wei-Ping; Riley, John T.

    2006-09-09

    Anthropogenic CO2 released from fossil fuel combustion is a primary greenhouse gas which contributes to “global warming.” It is estimated that stationary power generation contributes over one-third of total CO2 emissions. Reducing CO2 in the atmosphere can be accomplished either by decreasing the rate at which CO2 is emitted into the atmosphere or by increasing the rate at which it is removed from it. Extensive research has been conducted on determining a fast and inexpensive method to sequester carbon dioxide. These methods can be classified into two categories, CO2 fixation by natural sink process for CO2, or direct CO2 sequestration by artificial processes. In direct sequestration, CO2 produced from sources such as coal-fired power plants, would be captured from the exhausted gases. CO2 from a combustion exhaust gas is absorbed with an aqueous ammonia solution through scrubbing. The captured CO2 is then used to synthesize ammonium bicarbonate (ABC or NH4HCO3), an economical source of nitrogen fertilizer. In this work, we studied the carbon distribution after fertilizer is synthesized from CO2. The synthesized fertilizer in laboratory is used as a “CO2 carrier” to “transport” CO2 from the atmosphere to crops. After biological assimilation and metabolism in crops treated with ABC, a considerable amount of the carbon source is absorbed by the plants with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source percolates into the soil as carbonates, such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3). These carbonates are environmentally benign. As insoluble salts, they are found in normal rocks and can be stored safely and permanently in soil. This investigation mainly focuses on the carbon distribution after the synthesized fertilizer is applied to soil. Quantitative examination of carbon distribution in an ecosystem is a challenging task since the carbon in the soil may come from various sources. Therefore synthesized 14C tagged NH4HCO3 (ABC) was used. Products of ammonium bicarbonate (ABC) or long-term effect ammonium bicarbonate (LEABC) were tagged with 14C when they were synthesized in the laboratory. An indoor greenhouse was built and wheat was chosen as the plant to study in this ecosystem. The investigated ecosystem consists of plant (wheat), soils with three different pH values (alkaline, neutral and acid), and three types of underground water (different Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations). After biological assimilation and metabolism in wheat receiving ABC or LEABC, it was found that a considerable amount (up to 10%) of the carbon source is absorbed by the wheat with increased biomass production. The majority of the unused carbon source (up to 76%) percolated into the soil as carbonates, such as environmentally benign calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Generally speaking, alkaline soil has a higher capability to capture and store carbon. For the same soil, there is no apparent difference in carbon capturing capability between ABC fertilizer and LEABC fertilizer. These findings answer the question how carbon is distributed after synthesized fertilizer is applied into the ecosystem. In addition, a separate post-experiment on fertilizer carbon forms that exist in the soil was made. It was found that the up to 88% of the trapped carbon exists in the form of insoluble salts (i.e., CaCO3) in alkaline soils. This indicates that alkaline soil has a greater potential for storing carbon after the use of the synthesized fertilizer from exhausted CO2.

  5. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP - REPORT ON GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES FOR MONITORING CO2 MOVEMENT DURING SEQUESTRATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasperikova, Erika; Gasperikova, Erika; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2005-10-01

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques on two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhance oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  6. Full Scale Bioreactor Landfill for Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Kathy Sananikone; Don Augenstein

    2005-03-30

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works constructed a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective was to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entailed the construction of a 12-acre module that contained a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells were highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  7. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-08-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and is scheduled to be complete by the end of August 2003. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  8. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-05-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Construction is complete on the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and liquid addition has commenced. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell is nearly complete with only the biofilter remaining and construction of the west-side 6-acre anaerobic cell is nearly complete with only the liquid addition system remaining. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  9. FULL SCALE BIOREACTOR LANDFILL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND GREENHOUSE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramin Yazdani; Jeff Kieffer; Heather Akau

    2003-12-01

    The Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works is constructing a full-scale bioreactor landfill as a part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Project XL program to develop innovative approaches for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. The overall objective is to manage landfill solid waste for rapid waste decomposition and maximum landfill gas generation and capture for carbon sequestration and greenhouse emission control. Waste decomposition is accelerated by improving conditions for either the aerobic or anaerobic biological processes and involves circulating controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray water, etc.), and, in the aerobic process, large volumes of air. The first phase of the project entails the construction of a 12-acre module that contains a 6-acre anaerobic cell, a 3.5-acre anaerobic cell, and a 2.5-acre aerobic cell at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California. The cells are highly instrumented to monitor bioreactor performance. Liquid addition has commenced in the 3.5-acre anaerobic cell and the 6-acre anaerobic cell. Construction of the 2.5-acre aerobic cell and biofilter has been completed. The remaining task to be completed is to test the biofilter prior to operation, which is currently anticipated to begin in January 2004. The current project status and preliminary monitoring results are summarized in this report.

  10. Mineral Sequestration of Carbon Dixoide in a Sandstone-Shale System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2004-07-09

    A conceptual model of CO2 injection in bedded sandstone-shale sequences has been developed using hydrogeologic properties and mineral compositions commonly encountered in Gulf Coast sediments. Numerical simulations were performed with the reactive fluid flow and geochemical transport code TOUGHREACT to analyze mass transfer between sandstone and shale layers and CO2 immobilization through carbonate precipitation. Results indicate that most CO2 sequestration occurs in the sandstone. The major CO2 trapping minerals are dawsonite and ankerite. The CO2 mineral-trapping capacity after 100,000 years reaches about 90 kg per cubic meter of the medium. The CO2 trapping capacity depends on primary mineral composition. Precipitation of siderite and ankerite requires Fe+2 supplied mainly by chlorite and some by hematite dissolution and reduction. Precipitation of dawsonite requires Na+ provided by oligoclase dissolution. The initial abundance of chlorite and oligoclase therefore affects the CO2 mineral trapping capacity. The sequestration time required depends on the kinetic rate of mineral dissolution and precipitation. Dawsonite reaction kinetics is not well understood, and sensitivity regarding the precipitation rate was examined. The addition of CO2 as secondary carbonates results in decreased porosity. The leaching of chemical constituents from the interior of the shale causes slightly increased porosity. The limited information currently available for the mineralogy of natural high-pressure CO2 gas reservoirs is also generally consistent with our simulation. The ''numerical experiments'' give a detailed understanding of the dynamic evolution of a sandstone-shale geochemical system.

  11. Sensitivity of injection costs to input petrophysical parameters in numerical geologic carbon sequestration models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, C. L.; Gragg, M. J.; Perfect, E.; White, Mark D.; Lemiszki, P. J.; McKay, L. D.

    2013-08-24

    Numerical simulations are widely used in feasibility studies for geologic carbon sequestration. Accurate estimates of petrophysical parameters are needed as inputs for these simulations. However, relatively few experimental values are available for CO2-brine systems. Hence, a sensitivity analysis was performed using the STOMP numerical code for supercritical CO2 injected into a model confined deep saline aquifer. The intrinsic permeability, porosity, pore compressibility, and capillary pressure-saturation/relative permeability parameters (residual liquid saturation, residual gas saturation, and van Genuchten alpha and m values) were varied independently. Their influence on CO2 injection rates and costs were determined and the parameters were ranked based on normalized coefficients of variation. The simulations resulted in differences of up to tens of millions of dollars over the life of the project (i.e., the time taken to inject 10.8 million metric tons of CO2). The two most influential parameters were the intrinsic permeability and the van Genuchten m value. Two other parameters, the residual gas saturation and the residual liquid saturation, ranked above the porosity. These results highlight the need for accurate estimates of capillary pressure-saturation/relative permeability parameters for geologic carbon sequestration simulations in addition to measurements of porosity and intrinsic permeability.

  12. Training Graduate and Undergraduate Students in Simulation and Risk Assessment for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCray, John

    2013-09-30

    Capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) and injecting it into deep underground formations for storage (carbon capture and underground storage, or CCUS) is one way of reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Gas or aqueous-phase leakage may occur due to transport via faults and fractures, through faulty well bores, or through leaky confining materials. Contaminants of concern include aqueous salts and dissolved solids, gaseous or aqueous-phase organic contaminants, and acidic gas or aqueous-phase fluids that can liberate metals from aquifer minerals. Understanding the mechanisms and parameters that can contribute to leakage of the CO2 and the ultimate impact on shallow water aquifers that overlie injection formations is an important step in evaluating the efficacy and risks associated with long-term CO2 storage. Three students were supported on the grant Training Graduate and Undergraduate Students in Simulation and Risk Assessment for Carbon Sequestration. These three students each examined a different aspect of simulation and risk assessment related to carbon dioxide sequestration and the potential impacts of CO2 leakage. Two performed numerical simulation studies, one to assess leakage rates as a function of fault and deep reservoir parameters and one to develop a method for quantitative risk assessment in the event of a CO2 leak and subsequent changes in groundwater chemistry. A third student performed an experimental evaluation of the potential for metal release from sandstone aquifers under simulated leakage conditions. This study has resulted in two student first-authored published papers {Siirila, 2012 #560}{Kirsch, 2014 #770} and one currently in preparation {Menke, In prep. #809}.

  13. Differential support of lake food webs by three types of terrestrial organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, Jonathan J.

    from the t-DOC to bacteria pathway. Terrestrial POC significantly subsidized the production of bothLETTER Differential support of lake food webs by three types of terrestrial organic carbon Jonathan whole-lake additions of dissolved inorganic 13 C were made to reveal the pathways of subsidies to lakes

  14. Carbon Sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1, 2013,Cafe ScientifiqueCanisterEnergy»Oil

  15. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies of Mineral Carbonation as a Mechanism for Permanent Carbon Sequestration in Mafic/Ultramafic Rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhengrong; Qiu, Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Bolton, Edward; Bercovici, David; Ague, Jay; Karato, Shun-Ichiro; Oristaglio, Michael; Zhu, Wen-Iu; Lisabeth, Harry; Johnson, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    A program of laboratory experiments, modeling and fieldwork was carried out at Yale University, University of Maryland, and University of Hawai‘i, under a DOE Award (DE-FE0004375) to study mineral carbonation as a practical method of geologic carbon sequestration. Mineral carbonation, also called carbon mineralization, is the conversion of (fluid) carbon dioxide into (solid) carbonate minerals in rocks, by way of naturally occurring chemical reactions. Mafic and ultramafic rocks, such as volcanic basalt, are natural candidates for carbonation, because the magnesium and iron silicate minerals in these rocks react with brines of dissolved carbon dioxide to form carbonate minerals. By trapping carbon dioxide (CO2) underground as a constituent of solid rock, carbonation of natural basalt formations would be a secure method of sequestering CO2 captured at power plants in efforts to mitigate climate change. Geochemical laboratory experiments at Yale, carried out in a batch reactor at 200°C and 150 bar (15 MPa), studied carbonation of the olivine mineral forsterite (Mg2SiO4) reacting with CO2 brines in the form of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions. The main carbonation product in these reactions is the carbonate mineral magnesite (MgCO3). A series of 32 runs varied the reaction time, the reactive surface area of olivine grains and powders, the concentration of the reacting fluid, and the starting ratio of fluid to olivine mass. These experiments were the first to study the rate of olivine carbonation under passive conditions approaching equilibrium. The results show that, in a simple batch reaction, olivine carbonation is fastest during the first 24 hours and then slows significantly and even reverses. A natural measure of the extent of carbonation is a quantity called the carbonation fraction, which compares the amount of carbon removed from solution, during a run, to the maximum amount that could have been removed if the olivine initially present had fully dissolved and the cations released had subsequently precipitated in carbonate minerals. The carbonation fractions observed in batch experiments with olivine grains and powders varied significantly, from less than 0.01 (1%) to more than 0.5 (50%). Over time, the carbonation fractions reached an upper limit after about 24 to 72 hours of reaction, then stayed constant or decreased. The peak Final Scientific/Technical Report DE-FE0004275 | Mineral Carbonation | 4 coincided with the appearance of secondary magnesium-bearing silicate minerals, whose formation competes for magnesium ions in solution and can even promote conditions that dissolve magnesite. The highest carbonation fractions resulted from experiments with low ratios of concentrated solution to olivine, during which amorphous silica spheres or meshes formed, instead of secondary silicate minerals. The highest carbonation fractions appear to result from competing effects. Precipitation of silica layers on olivine reduces the reactive surface area and, thus, the rate of olivine dissolution (which ultimately limits the carbonation rate), but these same silica layers can also inhibit the formation of secondary silicate minerals that consume magnesite formed in earlier stages of carbonation. Simulation of these experiments with simple geochemical models using the software program EQ3/6 reproduces the general trends observed—especially the results for the carbonation fraction in short-run experiments. Although further experimentation and better models are needed, this study nevertheless provides a framework for understanding the optimal conditions for sequestering carbon dioxide by reacting CO2-bearing fluids with rocks containing olivine minerals. A series of experiments at the Rock Physics Laboratory at the University of Maryland studied the carbonation process during deformation of thermally cracked olivine-rich rock samples (dunit

  16. Model Components of the Certification Framework for Geologic Carbon Sequestration Risk Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Bryant, Steven L.; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Kumar, Navanit; Zhang, Yingqi; Jordan, Preston; Pan, Lehua; Granvold, Patrick; Chow, Fotini K.

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a framework for assessing the leakage risk of geologic carbon sequestration sites. This framework, known as the Certification Framework (CF), emphasizes wells and faults as the primary potential leakage conduits. Vulnerable resources are grouped into compartments, and impacts due to leakage are quantified by the leakage flux or concentrations that could potentially occur in compartments under various scenarios. The CF utilizes several model components to simulate leakage scenarios. One model component is a catalog of results of reservoir simulations that can be queried to estimate plume travel distances and times, rather than requiring CF users to run new reservoir simulations for each case. Other model components developed for the CF and described here include fault characterization using fault-population statistics; fault connection probability using fuzzy rules; well-flow modeling with a drift-flux model implemented in TOUGH2; and atmospheric dense-gas dispersion using a mesoscale weather prediction code.

  17. Case studies of the application of the Certification Framework to two geologic carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Nicot, J.-P.; Bryant, S.L.

    2008-11-01

    We have developed a certification framework (CF) for certifying that the risks of geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) sites are below agreed-upon thresholds. The CF is based on effective trapping of CO2, the proposed concept that takes into account both the probability and impact of CO2 leakage. The CF uses probability estimates of the intersection of conductive faults and wells with the CO2 plume along with modeled fluxes or concentrations of CO2 as proxies for impacts to compartments (such as potable groundwater) to calculate CO2 leakage risk. In order to test and refine the approach, we applied the CF to (1) a hypothetical large-scale GCS project in the Texas Gulf Coast, and (2) WESTCARB's Phase III GCS pilot in the southern San Joaquin Valley, California.

  18. National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenneth Nelson; Timothy Carr

    2009-03-31

    This annual and final report describes the results of the multi-year project entitled 'NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NatCarb)' (http://www.natcarb.org). The original project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) in the midcontinent of the United States (MIDCARB) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration. The NatCarb system built on the technology developed in the initial MIDCARB effort. The NatCarb project linked the GIS information of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project includes access to national databases and GIS layers maintained by the NatCarb group (e.g., brine geochemistry) and publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS, and Geography Network) into a single system where data are maintained and enhanced at the local level, but are accessed and assembled through a single Web portal to facilitate query, assembly, analysis and display. This project improves the flow of data across servers and increases the amount and quality of available digital data. The purpose of NatCarb is to provide a national view of the carbon capture and storage potential in the U.S. and Canada. The digital spatial database allows users to estimate the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted by sources (such as power plants, refineries and other fossil-fuel-consuming industries) in relation to geologic formations that can provide safe, secure storage sites over long periods of time. The NatCarb project worked to provide all stakeholders with improved online tools for the display and analysis of CO{sub 2} carbon capture and storage data through a single website portal (http://www.natcarb.org/). While the external project is ending, NatCarb will continue as an internal US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) project with the continued cooperation of personnel at both West Virginia University and the Kansas Geological Survey. The successor project will continue to organize and enhance the information about CO{sub 2} sources and developing the technology needed to access, query, analyze, display, and distribute natural resource data critical to carbon management. Data are generated, maintained and enhanced locally at the RCSP level, or at the national level in specialized data warehouses, and assembled, accessed, and analyzed in real-time through a single geoportal. To address the broader needs of a spectrum of users form high-end technical queries to the general public, NatCarb will be moving to an improved and simplified display for the general public using readily available web tools such as Google Earth{trademark} and Google Maps{trademark}. The goal is for NatCarb to expand in terms of technology and areal coverage and remain the premier functional demonstration of distributed data-management systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas, and forms the foundation of a functioning carbon cyber-infrastructure. NatCarb provides access to first-order information to evaluate the costs, economic potential and societal issues of CO{sub 2} capture and storage, including public perception and regulatory aspects.

  19. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: soil carbon sequestration; carbon budget;of an energy efficient carbon sequestration mechanism, asin the later section on carbon sequestration. In atmospheric

  20. EA-1846: Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Capture and Sequestration of Steam Methane Reforming Process Gas Used for Large-Scale Hydrogen Production, Port Arthur, Texas

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE completed a final environmental assessment (EA) for a project under Area I of the Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration from Industrial Sources and Innovative Concepts for Beneficial CO2...

  1. An analytical framework for long term policy for commercial deployment and innovation in carbon capture and sequestration technology in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Michael Roberts

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology has the potential to be a key CO2 emissions mitigation technology for the United States. Several CCS technology options are ready for immediate commercial-scale demonstration, ...

  2. Economics and policies for carbon capture and sequestration in the western United States : a marginal cost analysis of potential power plant deployment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shu, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is a technology that can significantly reduce power sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from coal-fired power plants. CCS technology is currently in development and requires higher ...

  3. Public resource allocation for programs aimed at managing woody plants on the Edwards Plateau: water yield, wildlife habitat, and carbon sequestration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Amber Marie

    2006-08-16

    The Edwards Plateau is the drainage area for the Edwards Aquifer, which provides water to over 2.2 million people. The plateau also provides other ecosystem services, such as wildlife habitat and the sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide...

  4. Petrophysical and Geochemical Properties of Columbia River Flood Basalt: Implications for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Goldberg, David S.; Sullivan, E. C.; Herron, Michael M.; Grau, Jim A.

    2012-11-02

    Abstract This study presents borehole geophysical data and sidewall core chemistry from the Wallula Pilot Sequestration Project in the Columbia River flood basalt. The wireline logging data were reprocessed, core-calibrated and interpreted in the framework of reservoir and seal characterization for carbon dioxide storage. Particular attention is paid to the capabilities and limitations of borehole spectroscopy for chemical characterization of basalt. Neutron capture spectroscopy logging is shown to provide accurate concentrations for up to 8 major and minor elements but has limited sensitivity to natural alteration in fresh-water basaltic reservoirs. The Wallula borehole intersected 26 flows from 7 members of the Grande Ronde formation. The logging data demonstrate a cyclic pattern of sequential basalt flows with alternating porous flow tops (potential reservoirs) and massive flow interiors (potential caprock). The log-derived apparent porosity is extremely high in the flow tops (20%-45%), and considerably overestimates effective porosity obtained from hydraulic testing. The flow interiors are characterized by low apparent porosity (0-8%) but appear pervasively fractured in borehole images. Electrical resistivity images show diverse volcanic textures and provide an excellent tool for fracture analysis, but neither fracture density nor log-derived porosity uniquely correlate with hydraulic properties of the Grande Ronde formation. While porous flow tops in these deep flood basalts may offer reservoirs with high mineralization rates, long leakage migration paths, and thick sections of caprock for CO2 storage, a more extensive multi- well characterization would be necessary to assess lateral variations and establish sequestration capacity in this reservoir.

  5. Dynamic Evolution of Cement Composition and Transport Properties under Conditions Relevant to Geological Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunet, Jean-Patrick Leopold; Li, Li; Karpyn, Zuleima T.; Strazisar, Brian; Bromhal Grant

    2013-08-01

    Assessing the possibility of CO{sub 2} leakage is one of the major challenges for geological carbon sequestration. Injected CO{sub 2} can react with wellbore cement, which can potentially change cement composition and transport properties. In this work, we develop a reactive transport model based on experimental observations to understand and predict the property evolution of cement in direct contact with CO{sub 2}-saturated brine under diffusion-controlled conditions. The model reproduced the observed zones of portlandite depletion and calcite formation. Cement alteration is initially fast and slows down at later times. This work also quantified the role of initial cement properties, in particular the ratio of the initial portlandite content to porosity (defined here as ?), in determining the evolution of cement properties. Portlandite-rich cement with large ? values results in a localized “sharp” reactive diffusive front characterized by calcite precipitation, leading to significant porosity reduction, which eventually clogs the pore space and prevents further acid penetration. Severe degradation occurs at the cement–brine interface with large ? values. This alteration increases effective permeability by orders of magnitude for fluids that preferentially flow through the degraded zone. The significant porosity decrease in the calcite zone also leads to orders of magnitude decrease in effective permeability, where fluids flow through the low-permeability calcite zone. The developed reactive transport model provides a valuable tool to link cement–CO{sub 2} reactions with the evolution of porosity and permeability. It can be used to quantify and predict long-term wellbore cement behavior and can facilitate the risk assessment associated with geological CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  6. Differential Support of Lake Food Webs by Three Types of Terrestrial Organic Carbon ELE 00670-2005 Revision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Notre Dame, University of

    of dissolved inorganic 13 C were made to reveal the pathways of subsidies to lakes from terrestrial dissolved pathway. Terrestrial POC significantly subsidized the production of both zooplankton and benthic1 Differential Support of Lake Food Webs by Three Types of Terrestrial Organic Carbon ELE 00670

  7. Terrestrial Subsidies of Organic Carbon Support Net Ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    filled, we monitored net ecosystem production (NEP) on a biweekly basis from 9 April to 27 May 2002. All ponds were consistently net heterotrophic; how- ever, NEP was significantly less negative in re- moval that the difference in NEP between treatments was driven by the change in R. Therefore, it appears that terrestrial

  8. Investigation of Integrated Subsurface Processing of Landfill Gas and Carbon Sequestration, Johnson County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. David Newell; Timothy R. Carr

    2007-03-31

    The Johnson County Landfill in Shawnee, KS is operated by Deffenbaugh Industries and serves much of metropolitan Kansas City. Refuse, which is dumped in large plastic-underlined trash cells covering several acres, is covered over with shale shortly after burial. The landfill waste, once it fills the cell, is then drilled by Kansas City LFG, so that the gas generated by anaerobic decomposition of the refuse can be harvested. Production of raw landfill gas from the Johnson County landfill comes from 150 wells. Daily production is approximately 2.2 to 2.5 mmcf, of which approximately 50% is methane and 50% is carbon dioxide and NMVOCs (non-methane volatile organic compounds). Heating value is approximately 550 BTU/scf. A upgrading plant, utilizing an amine process, rejects the carbon dioxide and NMVOCs, and upgrades the gas to pipeline quality (i.e., nominally a heating value >950 BTU/scf). The gas is sold to a pipeline adjacent to the landfill. With coal-bearing strata underlying the landfill, and carbon dioxide a major effluent gas derived from the upgrading process, the Johnson County Landfill is potentially an ideal setting to study the feasibility of injecting the effluent gas in the coals for both enhanced coalbed methane recovery and carbon sequestration. To these ends, coals below the landfill were cored and then were analyzed for their thickness and sorbed gas content, which ranged up to 79 scf/ton. Assuming 1 1/2 square miles of land (960 acres) at the Johnson County Landfill can be utilized for coalbed and shale gas recovery, the total amount of in-place gas calculates to 946,200 mcf, or 946.2 mmcf, or 0.95 bcf (i.e., 985.6 mcf/acre X 960 acres). Assuming that carbon dioxide can be imbibed by the coals and shales on a 2:1 ratio compared to the gas that was originally present, then 1682 to 1720 days (4.6 to 4.7 years) of landfill carbon dioxide production can be sequestered by the coals and shales immediately under the landfill. Three coal--the Bevier, Fleming, and Mulberry coals--are the major coals of sufficient thickness (nominally >1-foot) that can imbibe carbon dioxide gas with an enhanced coalbed injection. Comparison of the adsorption gas content of coals to the gas desorbed from the coals shows that the degree of saturation decreases with depth for the coals.

  9. An Estimate of the Cost of Electricity from Light Water Reactors and Fossil Plants with Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon, A J

    2009-08-21

    As envisioned in this report, LIFE technology lends itself to large, centralized, baseload (or 'always on') electrical generation. Should LIFE plants be built, they will have to compete in the electricity market with other generation technologies. We consider the economics of technologies with similar operating characteristics: significant economies of scale, limited capacity for turndown, zero dependence on intermittent resources and ability to meet environmental constraints. The five generation technologies examined here are: (1) Light Water Reactors (LWR); (2) Coal; (3) Coal with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS); (4) Natural Gas; and (5) Natural Gas with Carbon Capture and Sequestration. We use MIT's cost estimation methodology (Du and Parsons, 2009) to determine the cost of electricity at which each of these technologies is viable.

  10. Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production from natural gas, sequestration ofunderground storage of natural gas, Jour. Petrol. Tech. 943,dioxide as cushion gas for natural gas storage, Energy and

  11. An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finley

    2005-09-30

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has investigated the options for geological carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in the 155,400-km{sup 2} (60,000-mi{sup 2}) Illinois Basin. Within the Basin, underlying most of Illinois, western Indiana, and western Kentucky, are relatively deeper and/or thinner coal resources, numerous mature oil fields, and deep salt-water-bearing reservoirs that are potentially capable of storing CO{sub 2}. The objective of this Assessment was to determine the technical and economic feasibility of using these geological sinks for long-term storage to avoid atmospheric release of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel combustion and thereby avoid the potential for adverse climate change. The MGSC is a consortium of the geological surveys of Illinois, Indiana, and Kentucky joined by six private corporations, five professional business associations, one interstate compact, two university researchers, two Illinois state agencies, and two consultants. The purpose of the Consortium is to assess carbon capture, transportation, and storage processes and their costs and viability in the three-state Illinois Basin region. The Illinois State Geological Survey serves as Lead Technical Contractor for the Consortium. The Illinois Basin region has annual emissions from stationary anthropogenic sources exceeding 276 million metric tonnes (304 million tons) of CO{sub 2} (>70 million tonnes (77 million tons) carbon equivalent), primarily from coal-fired electric generation facilities, some of which burn almost 4.5 million tonnes (5 million tons) of coal per year. Assessing the options for capture, transportation, and storage of the CO{sub 2} emissions within the region has been a 12-task, 2-year process that has assessed 3,600 million tonnes (3,968 million tons) of storage capacity in coal seams, 140 to 440 million tonnes (154 to 485 million tons) of capacity in mature oil reservoirs, 7,800 million tonnes (8,598 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs deep beneath geological structures, and 30,000 to 35,000 million tonnes (33,069 to 38,580 million tons) of capacity in saline reservoirs on a regional dip >1,219 m (4,000 ft) deep. The major part of this effort assessed each of the three geological sinks: coals, oil reservoirs, and saline reservoirs. We linked and integrated options for capture, transportation, and geological storage with the environmental and regulatory framework to define sequestration scenarios and potential outcomes for the region. Extensive use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and visualization technology was made to convey results to project sponsors, other researchers, the business community, and the general public. An action plan for possible technology validation field tests involving CO{sub 2} injection was included in a Phase II proposal (successfully funded) to the U.S. Department of Energy with cost sharing from Illinois Clean Coal Institute.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Industrial-scale processes are available for separating carbon dioxide from the post-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be separated using the sorbent processes currently used to remove sulfur compounds from the synthesis gas is capable of separating up to 90 percent of the carbon dioxide content of raw synthesis gas. The carbon-intensive and would lower the thermal efficiency of coal gasification power plants. Selective separation membrane

  13. MIDWEST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP (MRCSP) MANAGING CLIMATE CHANGE AND SECURING A FUTURE FOR THE MIDWEST'S INDUSTRIAL BASE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Ball; Robert Burns; Judith Bradbury; Bob Dahowski; Casie Davidson; James Dooley; Neeraj Gupta; Rattan Lal; Larry Wickstrom

    2005-04-29

    This is the third semiannual report for Phase I of the Midwest Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP). The project consists of nine tasks to be conducted over a two-year period that started in October 2003. The makeup of the MRCSP and objectives are described. Progress on each of the active Tasks is also described and where possible, for those Tasks at some point of completion, a summary of results is presented.

  14. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    of carbon and energy exchanges Agric. Forest Meteorol. 113Agric. Forest Meteorol. Foken T 2008 The energy balance

  15. Terrestrial Carbon Inventory at the Savannah River Site, 1951 – 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    US Forest Service - Annonymous,

    2012-02-01

    A Power Point slide presentation/report on the terestrial carbon inventory at the Savannah River Site.

  16. EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION -DOE/NETL May 4 7, 2009 Detection of CO2 Seepage from Geological

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION - DOE/NETL May 4 ­ 7, 2009 Detection Jalali and Shahab D. Mohaghegh, West Virginia University #12;EIGHTH ANNUAL CONFERENCE ON CARBON CAPTURE to the burning of fossil fuels (1) . The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has

  17. Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    support for allocating resources to alter the market mix of carbon sequestration and direct emission carbon sequestration practices also influence the environment by for example reducing erosion1 Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental

  18. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-06-08

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in VA, WV, KY, OH, and PA mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we compiled and evaluated all soil properties measured on the study sites. Statistical analysis of the properties was conducted, and first year survival and growth of white pine, hybrid poplars, and native hardwoods was assessed. Hardwood species survived better at all sites than white pine or hybrid poplar. Hardwood survival across treatments was 80%, 85%, and 50% for sites in Virginia, West Virginia, and Ohio, respectively, while white pine survival was 27%, 41%, and 58%, and hybrid poplar survival was 37%, 41%, and 72% for the same sites, respectively. Hybrid poplar height and diameter growth were superior to those of the other species tested, with the height growth of this species reaching 126.6cm after one year in the most intensive treatment at the site in Virginia. To determine carbon in soils on these sites, we developed a cost-effective method for partitioning total soil carbon to pedogenic carbon and geogenic carbon in mine soils. We are in the process of evaluating the accuracy and precision of the proposed carbon partitioning technique for which we are designing an experiment with carefully constructed mine soil samples. In a second effort, as part of a mined land reforestation project for carbon sequestration in southwestern Virginia we implemented the first phase of the carbon monitoring protocol that was recently delivered to DOE.

  19. Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration - Educational Training and Research Through Classroom, Field, and Laboratory Investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wronkiewicz, David; Paul, Varum; Abousif, Alsedik; Ryback, Kyle

    2013-09-30

    The most effective mechanism to limit CO{sub 2} release from underground Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) sites over multi-century time scales will be to convert the CO{sub 2} into solid carbonate minerals. This report describes the results from four independent research investigations on carbonate mineralization: 1) Colloidal calcite particles forming in Maramec Spring, Missouri, provide a natural analog to evaluate reactions that may occur in a leaking GCS site. The calcite crystals form as a result of physiochemical changes that occur as the spring water rises from a depth of more than 190'?. The resultant pressure decrease induces a loss of CO{sub 2} from the water, rise in pH, lowering of the solubility of Ca{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and calcite precipitation. Equilibrium modelling of the spring water resulted in a calculated undersaturated state with respect to calcite. The discontinuity between the observed occurrence of calcite and the model result predicting undersaturated conditions can be explained if bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) are directly involved in precipitation process rather than just carbonate ions (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). 2) Sedimentary rocks in the Oronto Group of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) system contain an abundance of labile Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-silicate minerals that will neutralize carbonic acid and provide alkaline earth ions for carbonate mineralization. One of the challenges in using MCR rocks for GCS results from their low porosity and permeability. Oronto Group samples were reacted with both CO{sub 2}-saturated deionized water at 90°C, and a mildly acidic leachant solution in flow-through core-flooding reactor vessels at room temperature. Resulting leachate solutions often exceeded the saturation limit for calcite. Carbonate crystals were also detected in as little as six days of reaction with Oronto Group rocks at 90oC, as well as experiments with forsterite-olivine and augite, both being common minerals this sequence. The Oronto Group samples have poor reservoir rock characteristics, none ever exceeded a permeability value of 2.0 mD even after extensive dissolution of calcite cement during the experiments. The overlying Bayfield Group – Jacobsville Formation sandstones averaged 13.4 ± 4.3% porosity and a single sample tested by core-flooding revealed a permeability of ~340 mD. The high porosity-permeability characteristics of these sandstones will allow them to be used for GCS as a continuous aquifer unit with the overlying Mt. Simon Formation. 3) Anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can enhance the conversion rate of CO{sub 2} into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage. SRB accelerated carbonate mineralization reactions between pCO{sub 2} values of 0.0059 and 14.7 psi. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for SRB metabolism. The use of a {sup 13}CO{sub 2} spiked gas source also produced carbonate minerals with ~53% of the carbon being derived from the gas phase. The sulfate reducing activity of the microbial community was limited, however, at 20 psi pCO{sub 2} and carbonate mineralization did not occur. Inhibition of bacterial metabolism may have resulted from the acidic conditions or CO{sub 2} toxicity. 4) Microbialite communities forming in the high turbidity and hypersaline water of Storrs’ Lake, San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, were investigated for their distribution, mineralogy and microbial diversity. Molecular analysis of the organic mats on the microbialites indicate only a trace amount of cyanobacteria, while anaerobic and photosynthetic non-sulfur bacteria of the phyla Chloroflexi and purple sulfur bacteria of class Gammaproteobacteria were abundant.

  20. Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change H. DAMON MATTHEWS, ANDREW J. WEAVER, AND KATRIN J. MEISSNER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meissner, Katrin Juliane

    extensive research over the past several years, the uncertainty range on estimates of terrestrial carbonTerrestrial Carbon Cycle Dynamics under Recent and Future Climate Change H. DAMON MATTHEWS, ANDREW, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada (Manuscript received 18 June 2004, in final form 21 October 2004

  1. Molecular interactions of SO2 with carbonate minerals under co-sequestration conditions: a combined experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; McGrail, B. Peter; Schaef, Herbert T.

    2012-09-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study investigating the reactivity between selected and morphologically important surfaces of carbonate minerals with supercritical CO2 with co-existing H2O and SO2. Trace amounts of SO2 cause formation of CaSO3 in the form of hannebachite in the initial stages of SO2 adsorption and transformation. Atomistic simulations of these initial steps indicate a somewhat catalytic activity of water, which is enhanced by the presence of Magnesium atoms in the mineral surface. Under co-sequestration conditions, traces of water are not likely to cause carbonate dissolution, however the presence of SO2 greatly stabilizes the sulfite product.

  2. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U S terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Richardson, Andrew [Harvard University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory; Davis, Ken J. [Pennsylvania State University; Hollinger, D. [USDA Forest Service; Wharton, Sonia [University of California, Davis; Falk, Matthias [University of California, Davis; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha [University of California, Davis; Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katulk, Gabriel G. [Duke University; Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State University; Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska; Suyker, A. E. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Sun, G. [USDA Forest Service; McNulty, Steven G. [USDA Forest Service; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University; Bolstad, Paul V [University of Minnesota; Burns, Sean [University of Colorado, Boulder; Monson, Russell K. [University of Colorado, Boulder; Curtis, Peter [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Drake, Bert G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Foster, David R. [Harvard University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Hadley, Julian L. [Harvard University; Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Martin, Timothy A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Meyers, Tilden [NOAA, Oak Ridge, TN; Oechel, Walter C. [San Diego State University; Schmid, H. P. [Indiana University; Scott, Russell L. [USDA ARS; Torn, Margaret S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2011-01-01

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63 pg C yr 1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1 km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr 1 over the period 2001 2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by 20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF CHEMICAL SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE IN DEEP AQUIFER MEDIA - PHASE II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neeraj Gupta; Bruce Sass; Jennifer Ickes

    2000-11-28

    In 1998 Battelle was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under a Novel Concepts project grant to continue Phase II research on the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in deep saline formations. The focus of this investigation is to conduct detailed laboratory experiments to examine factors that may affect chemical sequestration of CO{sub 2} in deep saline formations. Reactions between sandstone and other geologic media from potential host reservoirs, brine solutions, and CO{sub 2} are being investigated under high-pressure conditions. Some experiments also include sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) gases to evaluate the potential for co-injection of CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} related gases in the deep formations. In addition, an assessment of engineering and economic aspects is being conducted. This current Technical Progress Report describes the status of the project as of September 2000. The major activities undertaken during the quarter included several experiments conducted to investigate the effects of pressure, temperature, time, and brine composition on rock samples from potential host reservoirs. Samples (both powder and slab) were taken from the Mt. Simon Sandstone, a potential CO{sub 2} host formation in the Ohio, the Eau Claire Shale, and Rome Dolomite samples that form the caprock for Mt. Simon Sandstone. Also, a sample with high calcium plagioclase content from Frio Formation in Texas was used. In addition, mineral samples for relatively pure Anorthite and glauconite were experimented on with and without the presence of additional clay minerals such as kaolinite and montmorillonite. The experiments were run for one to two months at pressures similar to deep reservoirs and temperatures set at 50 C or 150 C. Several enhancements were made to the experimental equipment to allow for mixing of reactants and to improve sample collection methods. The resulting fluids (gases and liquids) as well as the rock samples were characterized to evaluate the geochemical changes over the experimental period. Preliminary results from the analysis are presented in the report. More detailed interpretation of the results will be presented in the technical report at the end of Phase II.

  4. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01

    potential exists for carbon sequestration and enhanced methane recovery in coalbed methane production

  5. Carbon Issues Task Force Report for the Idaho Strategic Energy Alliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Travis L. Mcling

    2010-10-01

    The Carbon Issues Task Force has the responsibility to evaluate emissions reduction and carbon offset credit options, geologic carbon sequestration and carbon capture, terrestrial carbon sequestration on forest lands, and terrestrial carbon sequestration on agricultural lands. They have worked diligently to identify ways in which Idaho can position itself to benefit from potential carbon-related federal legislation, including identifying opportunities for Idaho to engage in carbon sequestration efforts, barriers to development of these options, and ways in which these barriers can be overcome. These are the experts to which we will turn when faced with federal greenhouse gas-related legislation and how we should best react to protect and provide for Idaho’s interests. Note that the conclusions and recommended options in this report are not intended to be exhaustive, but rather form a starting point for an informed dialogue regarding the way-forward in developing Idaho energy resources.

  6. Carbon Sequestration in Dryland and Irrigated Agroecosystems: Quantification at Different Scales for Improved Prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Shashi B; Cassman, Kenneth G; Arkebauer, Timothy J; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Knops, Johannes M; Suyker, Andrew E

    2012-09-14

    The overall objective of this research is to improve our basic understanding of the biophysical processes that govern C sequestration in major rainfed and irrigated agroecosystems in the north-central USA.

  7. Basin-Scale Leakage Risks from Geologic Carbon Sequestration: Impact on Carbon Capture and Storage Energy Market Competitiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Catherine; Fitts, Jeffrey; Wilson, Elizabeth; Pollak, Melisa; Bielicki, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-03-13

    This three-year project, performed by Princeton University in partnership with the University of Minnesota and Brookhaven National Laboratory, examined geologic carbon sequestration in regard to CO{sub 2} leakage and potential subsurface liabilities. The research resulted in basin-scale analyses of CO{sub 2} and brine leakage in light of uncertainties in the characteristics of leakage processes, and generated frameworks to monetize the risks of leakage interference with competing subsurface resources. The geographic focus was the Michigan sedimentary basin, for which a 3D topographical model was constructed to represent the hydrostratigraphy. Specifically for Ottawa County, a statistical analysis of the hydraulic properties of underlying sedimentary formations was conducted. For plausible scenarios of injection into the Mt. Simon sandstone, leakage rates were estimated and fluxes into shallow drinking-water aquifers were found to be less than natural analogs of CO{sub 2} fluxes. We developed the Leakage Impact Valuation (LIV) model in which we identified stakeholders and estimated costs associated with leakage events. It was found that costs could be incurred even in the absence of legal action or other subsurface interference because there are substantial costs of finding and fixing the leak and from injection interruption. We developed a model framework called RISCS, which can be used to predict monetized risk of interference with subsurface resources by combining basin-scale leakage predictions with the LIV method. The project has also developed a cost calculator called the Economic and Policy Drivers Module (EPDM), which comprehensively calculates the costs of carbon sequestration and leakage, and can be used to examine major drivers for subsurface leakage liabilities in relation to specific injection scenarios and leakage events. Finally, we examined the competiveness of CCS in the energy market. This analysis, though qualitative, shows that financial incentives, such as a carbon tax, are needed for coal combustion with CCS to gain market share. In another part of the project we studied the role of geochemical reactions in affecting the probability of CO{sub 2} leakage. A basin-scale simulation tool was modified to account for changes in leakage rates due to permeability alterations, based on simplified mathematical rules for the important geochemical reactions between acidified brines and caprock minerals. In studies of reactive flows in fractured caprocks, we examined the potential for permeability increases, and the extent to which existing reactive transport models would or would not be able to predict it. Using caprock specimens from the Eau Claire and Amherstburg, we found that substantial increases in permeability are possible for caprocks that have significant carbonate content, but minimal alteration is expected otherwise. We also found that while the permeability increase may be substantial, it is much less than what would be predicted from hydrodynamic models based on mechanical aperture alone because the roughness that is generated tends to inhibit flow.

  8. Nitrogen attenuation of terrestrial carbon cycle response to global environmental factors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, Atul; Yang, Xiaojuan; Kheshgi, Haroon; Mcguire, David; Post, Wilfred M

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen cycle dynamics have the capacity to attenuate the magnitude of global terrestrial carbon sinks and sources driven by CO2 fertilization and changes in climate. In this study, two versions of the terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle components of the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM) are used to evaluate how variation in nitrogen availability influences terrestrial carbon sinks and sources in response to changes over the 20th century in global environmental factors including atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen inputs, temperature, precipitation and land use. The two versions of ISAM vary in their treatment of nitrogen availability: ISAM-NC has a terrestrial carbon cycle model coupled to a fully dynamic nitrogen cycle while ISAM-C has an identical carbon cycle model but nitrogen availability is always in sufficient supply. Overall, the two versions of the model estimate approximately the same amount of global mean carbon uptake over the 20th century. However, comparisons of results of ISAM-NC relative to ISAM-C reveal that nitrogen dynamics: (1) reduced the 1990s carbon sink associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 by 0.53 PgC yr1 (1 Pg = 1015g), (2) reduced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in temperature and precipitation of 0.34 PgC yr1 in the 1990s, (3) an enhanced sink associated with nitrogen inputs by 0.26 PgC yr1, and (4) enhanced the 1990s carbon source associated with changes in land use by 0.08 PgC yr1 in the 1990s. These effects of nitrogen limitation influenced the spatial distribution of the estimated exchange of CO2 with greater sink activity in high latitudes associated with climate effects and a smaller sink of CO2 in the southeastern United States caused by N limitation associated with both CO2 fertilization and forest regrowth. These results indicate that the dynamics of nitrogen availability are important to consider in assessing the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of terrestrial carbon sources and sinks.

  9. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  10. Mobilization and Transport of Organic Compounds from Reservoir Rock and Caprock in Geological Carbon Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-05-06

    Supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an excellent solvent for organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylene (BTEX), phenols, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Monitoring results from geological carbon sequestration (GCS) field tests has shown that organic compounds are mobilized following CO2 injection. Such results have raised concerns regarding the potential for groundwater contamination by toxic organic compounds mobilized during GCS. Knowledge of the mobilization mechanism of organic compounds and their transport and fate in the subsurface is essential for assessing risks associated with GCS. Extraction tests using scCO2 and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2) were conducted to study the mobilization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including BTEX), the PAH naphthalene, and n-alkanes (n-C20 – n-C30) by scCO2 from representative reservoir rock and caprock obtained from depleted oil reservoirs and coal from an enhanced coal-bed methane recovery site. More VOCs and naphthalene were extractable by scCO2 compared to the CH2Cl2 extractions, while scCO2 extractable alkane concentrations were much lower than concentrations extractable by CH2Cl2. In addition, dry scCO2 was found to extract more VOCs than water saturated scCO2, but water saturated scCO2 mobilized more naphthalene than dry scCO2. In sand column experiments, moisture content was found to have an important influence on the transport of the organic compounds. In dry sand columns the majority of the compounds were retained in the column except benzene and toluene. In wet sand columns the mobility of the BTEX was much higher than that of naphthalene. Based upon results determined for the reservoir rock, caprock, and coal samples studied here, the risk to aquifers from contamination by organic compounds appears to be relatively low; however, further work is necessary to fully evaluate risks from depleted oil reservoirs.

  11. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nils Johnson; Joan Ogden

    2010-12-31

    In this final report, we describe research results from Phase 2 of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS). CO{sub 2} capture and storage, or alternatively, CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration, involves capturing CO{sub 2} from large point sources and then injecting it into deep underground reservoirs for long-term storage. By preventing CO{sub 2} emissions into the atmosphere, this technology has significant potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil-based facilities in the power and industrial sectors. Furthermore, the application of CCS to power plants and hydrogen production facilities can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions associated with electric vehicles (EVs) and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCVs) and, thus, can also improve GHG emissions in the transportation sector. This research specifically examines strategies for transitioning to large-scale coal-derived energy systems with CCS for both hydrogen fuel production and electricity generation. A particular emphasis is on the development of spatially-explicit modeling tools for examining how these energy systems might develop in real geographic regions. We employ an integrated modeling approach that addresses all infrastructure components involved in the transition to these energy systems. The overall objective is to better understand the system design issues and economics associated with the widespread deployment of hydrogen and CCS infrastructure in real regions. Specific objectives of this research are to: Develop improved techno-economic models for all components required for the deployment of both hydrogen and CCS infrastructure, Develop novel modeling methods that combine detailed spatial data with optimization tools to explore spatially-explicit transition strategies, Conduct regional case studies to explore how these energy systems might develop in different regions of the United States, and Examine how the design and cost of coal-based H{sub 2} and CCS infrastructure depend on geography and location.

  12. LUCI: A facility at DUSEL for large-scale experimental study of geologic carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, C. A.; Dobson, P.F.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Wang, J. S. Y.; Onstott, T.C.; Scherer, G.W.; Freifeld, B.M.; Ramakrishnan, T.S.; Stabinski, E.L.; Liang, K.; Verma, S.

    2010-10-01

    LUCI, the Laboratory for Underground CO{sub 2} Investigations, is an experimental facility being planned for the DUSEL underground laboratory in South Dakota, USA. It is designed to study vertical flow of CO{sub 2} in porous media over length scales representative of leakage scenarios in geologic carbon sequestration. The plan for LUCI is a set of three vertical column pressure vessels, each of which is {approx}500 m long and {approx}1 m in diameter. The vessels will be filled with brine and sand or sedimentary rock. Each vessel will have an inner column to simulate a well for deployment of down-hole logging tools. The experiments are configured to simulate CO{sub 2} leakage by releasing CO{sub 2} into the bottoms of the columns. The scale of the LUCI facility will permit measurements to study CO{sub 2} flow over pressure and temperature variations that span supercritical to subcritical gas conditions. It will enable observation or inference of a variety of relevant processes such as buoyancy-driven flow in porous media, Joule-Thomson cooling, thermal exchange, viscous fingering, residual trapping, and CO{sub 2} dissolution. Experiments are also planned for reactive flow of CO{sub 2} and acidified brines in caprock sediments and well cements, and for CO{sub 2}-enhanced methanogenesis in organic-rich shales. A comprehensive suite of geophysical logging instruments will be deployed to monitor experimental conditions as well as provide data to quantify vertical resolution of sensor technologies. The experimental observations from LUCI will generate fundamental new understanding of the processes governing CO{sub 2} trapping and vertical migration, and will provide valuable data to calibrate and validate large-scale model simulations.

  13. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-12-01

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. Regression models of chemical and physical soil properties were created in order to estimate the SOC content down the soil profile. Soil organic carbon concentration and volumetric percent of the fines decreased exponentially down the soil profile. The results indicated that one-third of the total SOC content on mined lands was found in the surface 0-13 cm soil layer, and more than two-thirds of it was located in the 0-53 cm soil profile. A relative estimate of soil density may be best in broad-scale mine soil mapping since actual D{sub b} values are often inaccurate and difficult to obtain in rocky mine soils. Carbon sequestration potential is also a function of silvicultural practices used for reforestation success. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Relative to carbon value, our analysis this quarter shows that although short-rotation hardwood management on reclaimed surface mined lands may have higher LEVs than traditional long-rotation hardwood management, it is only profitable in a limited set of circumstances.

  14. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01

    COAL MODEL Significant potential exists for carbon sequestration and enhanced methane recoverycoal zones within the Lower Pennsylvanian Pottsville Formation. Assessment of the CO 2 sequestration and enhanced recovery

  15. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OPTIMIZED FOSSIL ENERGY SYSTEMS WITH CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2003-06-26

    In this semi-annual progress report, we describe research results from an ongoing study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the six-month period September 2002 through March 2003. The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and attempt to identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We are carrying out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  16. Conceptual Design of Optimized Fossil Energy Systems with Capture and Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2005-11-29

    In this final progress report, we describe research results from Phase I of a technical/economic study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the period September 2002 through August 2005 The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We carried out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  17. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OPTIMIZED FOSSIL ENERGY SYSTEMS WITH CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joan M. Ogden

    2004-05-01

    In this third semi-annual progress report, we describe research results from an ongoing study of fossil hydrogen energy systems with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This work was performed under NETL Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41623, during the six-month period September 2003 through March 2004. The primary objective of the study is to better understand system design issues and economics for a large-scale fossil energy system co-producing H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. This is accomplished by developing analytic and simulation methods for studying the entire system in an integrated way. We examine the relationships among the different parts of a hydrogen energy system, and attempt to identify which variables are the most important in determining both the disposal cost of CO{sub 2} and the delivered cost of H{sub 2}. A second objective is to examine possible transition strategies from today's energy system toward one based on fossil-derived H{sub 2} and electricity with CO{sub 2} sequestration. We are carrying out a geographically specific case study of development of a fossil H{sub 2} system with CO{sub 2} sequestration, for the Midwestern United States, where there is presently substantial coal conversion capacity in place, coal resources are plentiful and potential sequestration sites in deep saline aquifers are widespread.

  18. Influence of stand age on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in Canadian forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    seasons lead to less carbon sequestration by a subalpineboreal forests to global carbon sequestration (Kurz et al. ,off- set point when carbon sequestration equals carbon loss

  19. Carbon calculator tracks the climate benefits of managed private forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, William C; Sharma, Benktesh D

    2015-01-01

    forests provide more carbon sequestration benefits than let-the relative carbon sequestration benefits of let-growlife cycle carbon sequestration benefits, averaged over 120,

  20. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-01-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-04-01

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 percent (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  2. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-10-29

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. For the Devonian shale, average total organic carbon is 3.71 (as received) and mean random vitrinite reflectance is 1.16. Measured adsorption isotherm data range from 37.5 to 2,077.6 standard cubic feet of CO{sub 2} per ton (scf/ton) of shale. At 500 psia, adsorption capacity of the Lower Huron Member of the shale is 72 scf/ton. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. The black shales of Kentucky could be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, and their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  3. Continental Scale Comparisons of Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Estimated from Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling 1982-1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Vipin

    ecosystem (tundra and boreal) sinks for atmospheric CO2. Key Words: carbon dioxide, ecosystems, remote "missing sink" for carbon dioxide emissions. Measured atmospheric CO2, 13 C, and O2/N2 distributionsContinental Scale Comparisons of Terrestrial Carbon Sinks Estimated from Satellite Data

  4. Comparison of caprock pore networks which potentially will be impacted by carbon sequestration projects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCray, John (Colorado School of Mines); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis (Colorado School of Mines); Mouzakis, Katherine (Colorado School of Mines); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2010-12-01

    Injection of CO2 into underground rock formations can reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Caprocks present above potential storage formations are the main structural trap inhibiting CO2 from leaking into overlying aquifers or back to the Earth's surface. Dissolution and precipitation of caprock minerals resulting from reaction with CO2 may alter the pore network where many pores are of the micrometer to nanometer scale, thus altering the structural trapping potential of the caprock. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of pores at these scales are poorly characterized. In order to evaluate the overall risk of leakage of CO2 from storage formations, a first critical step is understanding the distribution and shape of pores in a variety of different caprocks. As the caprock is often comprised of mudstones, we analyzed samples from several mudstone formations with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging to compare the pore networks. Mudstones were chosen from current or potential sites for carbon sequestration projects including the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Expandable clay contents ranged from 10% to approximately 40% in the Gothic shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. During SANS, neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e., minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume and arrangement of pores in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of the pore network. On such plots slopes from -2 to -3 represent mass fractals while slopes from -3 to -4 represent surface fractals. Scattering data showed surface fractal dimensions for the Kirtland formation and one sample from the Tuscaloosa formation close to 3, indicating very rough surfaces. In contrast, scattering data for the Gothic shale formation exhibited mass fractal behavior. In one sample of the Tuscaloosa formation the data are described by a surface fractal at low Q (larger pores) and a mass fractal at high Q (smaller pores), indicating two pore populations contributing to the scattering behavior. These small angle neutron scattering results, combined with high-resolution TEM imaging, provided a means for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the differences in pore networks between these various mudstones.

  5. The Water, Energy, and Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim). A user's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobos, Peter Holmes; Roach, Jesse Dillon; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Gutierrez, Karen A.; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Borns, David James; McNemar, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The Water, Energy, and Carbon Sequestration Simulation Model (WECSsim) is a national dynamic simulation model that calculates and assesses capturing, transporting, and storing CO2 in deep saline formations from all coal and natural gas-fired power plants in the U.S. An overarching capability of WECSsim is to also account for simultaneous CO2 injection and water extraction within the same geological saline formation. Extracting, treating, and using these saline waters to cool the power plant is one way to develop more value from using saline formations as CO2 storage locations. WECSsim allows for both one-to-one comparisons of a single power plant to a single saline formation along with the ability to develop a national CO2 storage supply curve and related national assessments for these formations. This report summarizes the scope, structure, and methodology of WECSsim along with a few key results. Developing WECSsim from a small scoping study to the full national-scale modeling effort took approximately 5 years. This report represents the culmination of that effort. The key findings from the WECSsim model indicate the U.S. has several decades' worth of storage for CO2 in saline formations when managed appropriately. Competition for subsurface storage capacity, intrastate flows of CO2 and water, and a supportive regulatory environment all play a key role as to the performance and cost profile across the range from a single power plant to all coal and natural gas-based plants' ability to store CO2. The overall system's cost to capture, transport, and store CO2 for the national assessment range from $74 to $208 / tonne stored ($96 to 272 / tonne avoided) for the first 25 to 50% of the 1126 power plants to between $1,585 to well beyond $2,000 / tonne stored ($2,040 to well beyond $2,000 / tonne avoided) for the remaining 75 to 100% of the plants. The latter range, while extremely large, includes all natural gas power plants in the U.S., many of which have an extremely low capacity factor and therefore relatively high system's cost to capture and store CO2.

  6. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  7. Carbon fluxes and storage in forests and landscapes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turner, Monica G.

    , as they store 45 % of the terrestrial carbon and account for ~50 % of soil calbon sequestration (Bonan 2008Chapter 6 Carbon fluxes and storage in forests and landscapes Jiquan Chen, Ranjeet John, Ge Sun this chapter with a discussion of the major carbon fluxes (e.g., gross primary ploductlon, ecosystem

  8. North American Carbon Program (NACP) Regional Interim Synthesis: Terrestrial Biospheric Model Intercomparision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntzinger, Deborah [University of Michigan; Post, Wilfred M [ORNL; Michalak, Anna [University of Michigan; West, Tristram O. [Joint Global Change Research Institute, PNNL; Jacobson, Andrew [NOAA ESRL and CIRES; Baker, Ian [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Chen, Jing M. [University of Toronto; Davis, Kenneth [Pennsylvania State University; Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL; Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Liu, Shuguang [United States Geological Survey, Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS EROS); Mcguire, David [University of Alaska; Neilson, Ronald [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Poulter, Ben [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Potsdam, Germany; Tian, Hanqin [Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Tomelleri, Enrico [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Viovy, Nicolas [National Center for Scientific Research, Gif-sur-Yvette, France; Xiao, Jingfeng [Purdue University; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Understanding of carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere can be improved through direct observations and experiments, as well as through modeling activities. Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding to much larger terrestrial regions. Although models vary in their specific goals and approaches, their central role within carbon cycle science is to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms currently controlling carbon exchange. Recently, the North American Carbon Program (NACP) organized several interim-synthesis activities to evaluate and inter-compare models and observations at local to continental scales for the years 2000-2005. Here, we compare the results from the TBMs collected as part of the regional and continental interim-synthesis (RCIS) activities. The primary objective of this work is to synthesize and compare the 19 participating TBMs to assess current understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle in North America. Thus, the RCIS focuses on model simulations available from analyses that have been completed by ongoing NACP projects and other recently published studies. The TBM flux estimates are compared and evaluated over different spatial (1{sup o} x 1{sup o} and spatially aggregated to different regions) and temporal (monthly and annually) scales. The range in model estimates of net ecosystem productivity (NEP) for North America is much narrower than estimates of productivity or respiration, with estimates of NEP varying between -0.7 and 2.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, while gross primary productivity and heterotrophic respiration vary between 12.2 and 32.9 PgC yr{sup -1} and 5.6 and 13.2 PgC yr{sup -1}, respectively. The range in estimates from the models appears to be driven by a combination of factors, including the representation of photosynthesis, the source and of environmental driver data and the temporal variability of those data, as well as whether nutrient limitation is considered in soil carbon decomposition. The disagreement in current estimates of carbon flux across North America, including whether North America is a net biospheric carbon source or sink, highlights the need for further analysis through the use of model runs following a common simulation protocol, in order to isolate the influences of model formulation, structure, and assumptions on flux estimates.

  9. Estimation of Carbon Sequestration by Combining Remote Sensing and Net Ecosystem Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt Jr., E. Raymond

    be used to estimate car- bon sequestration regionally in rangeland ecosystems. Natural resource management may be altered to offset CO2 emissions from fossil fuels (Paustian and others 1998, Follett and others offsets of CO2 emissions (Follett and oth- ers 2001). Because the landscape is extremely hetero- geneous

  10. Sustainable Carbon Sequestration: Increasing CO2-Storage Efficiency through a CO2-Brine Displacement Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinnikawe, Oyewande

    2012-10-19

    CO2 sequestration is one of the proposed methods for reducing anthropogenic CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and therefore mitigating global climate change. Few studies on storing CO2 in an aquifer have been conducted on a regional scale. This study...

  11. 1. BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES For geological carbon sequestration, it is essential to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to generate comprehensive data sets. Due to the nature of the CO2 geological sequestration where supercritical for supercritical CO2. In this study, a mixture of Glycerol-water (8:2 by weight) and Soltrol 220 was selected as the surrogate fluids for the brine and supercritical CO2, respectively, based on the fluid properties

  12. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-07-28

    CO{sub 2} emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels have been linked to global climate change. Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, sequestration strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky than in central Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to methane storage in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject of current research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores were selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. Methane and carbon dioxide adsorption analyses are being performed to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, sidewall core samples are being acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their potential CO{sub 2} uptake, and the resulting displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) are being investigated for possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements. Initial estimates indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio shale in parts of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker portions of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  13. GENETIC MODIFICATION OF GIBBERELLIC ACID SIGNALING TO PROMOTE CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN TREE ROOTS AND STEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busov, Victor

    2013-03-05

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula ? Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA(20) and GA(8), in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations. We modified gibberellin (GA) metabolism and signaling in transgenic poplars using dominant transgenes and studied their effects for 3 years under field conditions. The transgenes that we employed either reduced the bioactive GAs, or attenuated their signaling. The majority of transgenic trees had significant and in many cases dramatic changes in height, crown architecture, foliage morphology, flowering onset, floral structure, and vegetative phenology. Most transgenes elicited various levels of height reduction consistent with the roles of GA in elongation growth. Several other growth traits were proportionally reduced, including branch length, internode distance, and leaf length. In contrast to elongation growth, stem diameter growth was much less affected, suggesting that semi-dwarf trees in dense stands might provide high levels of biomass production and carbon sequestration. The severity of phenotypic effects was strongly correlated with transgene expression among independent transgenic events, but often in a non-linear manner, the form of which varied widely among constructs. The majority of semi-dwarfed, transgenic plants showed delayed bud flush and early bud set, and expression of a native GAI transgene accelerated first time flowering in the field. All of the phenotypic changes observed in multiple years were stable over the 3 years of field study. Our results suggest that transgenic modification of GA action may be useful for producing semi-dwarf trees with modified growth and morphology for horticulture and other uses. We studied the poplar C(19) gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) gene subfamily. We show that a set of paralogous gene pairs differentially regulate shoot and root development. ? PtGA2ox4 and its paralogous gene PtGA2ox5 are primarily expressed in aerial organs, and overexpression of PtGA2ox5 produced a strong dwarfing phenotype characteristic of GA deficiency. Suppression of PtGA2ox4 and PtGA2ox5 led to increased biomass growth, but had no effect on root development. By contrast, the PtGA2ox2 and PtGA2ox7 paralogous pair was predominantly expressed in roots, and when these two genes were RNAi-suppressed it led to a decrease of root biomass. ? The morphological changes in the transgenic plants were underpinned by tissue-specific increases in bioactive GAs that corresponded to the predominant native expression of the targeted paralogous gene pair. Although RNAi suppression of both paralogous pairs led to changes in wood developmen

  14. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Products, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2005-07-20

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. We are currently estimating the acreage of lands in Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, Ohio, and Pennsylvania mined under SMCRA and reclaimed to non-forested post-mining land uses that are not currently under active management, and therefore can be considered as available for carbon sequestration. To determine actual sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, one each in Ohio, West Virginia, and Virginia. The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). Each individual treatment plot is 0.5 acres. Each block of nine plots is 4.5 acres, and the complete installation at each site is 13.5 acres. During the reporting period we determined that by grinding the soil samples to a finer particle size of less than 250 ?m (sieve No. 60), the effect of mine soil coal particle size on the extent to which these particles will be oxidized during the thermal treatment of the carbon partitioning procedure will be eliminated, thus making the procedure more accurate and precise. In the second phase of the carbon sequestration project, we focused our attention on determining the sample size required for carbon accounting on grassland mined fields in order to achieve a desired accuracy and precision of the final soil organic carbon (SOC) estimate. A mine land site quality classification scheme was developed and some field-testing of the methods of implementation was completed. The classification model has been validated for softwoods (white pine) on several reclaimed mine sites in the southern Appalachian coal region. The classification model is a viable method for classifying post-SMCRA abandoned mined lands into productivity classes for white pine. A thinning study was established as a random complete block design to evaluate the response to thinning of a 26-year-old white pine stand growing on a reclaimed surface mine in southwest Virginia. Stand parameters were projected to age 30 using a stand table projection. Site index of the stand was found to be 32.3 m at base age 50 years. Thinning rapidly increased the diameter growth of the residual trees to 0.84 cm yr{sup -1} compared to 0.58 cm yr{sup -1} for the unthinned treatment; however, at age 26, there was no difference in volume or value per hectare. At age 30, the unthinned treatment had a volume of 457.1 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} but was only worth $8807 ha{sup -1}, while the thinned treatment was projected to have 465.8 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1}, which was worth $11265 ha{sup -1} due to a larger percentage of the volume being in sawtimber size classes.

  15. FY12 ARRA-NRAP Report – Studies to Support Risk Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Shao, Hongbo; Thompson, C. J.; Zhong, Lirong; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong

    2011-09-27

    This report summarizes results of research conducted during FY2012 to support the assessment of environmental risks associated with geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration and storage. Several research focus areas are ongoing as part of this project. This includes the quantification of the leachability of metals and organic compounds from representative CO2 storage reservoir and caprock materials, the fate of metals and organic compounds after release, and the development of a method to measure pH in situ under supercritical CO2 (scCO2) conditions. Metal leachability experiments were completed on 6 different rock samples in brine in equilibrium with scCO2 at representative geologic reservoir conditions. In general, the leaching of RCRA metals and other metals of concern was found to be limited and not likely to be a significant issue (at least, for the rocks tested). Metals leaching experiments were also completed on 1 rock sample with scCO2 containing oxygen at concentrations of 0, 1, 5, and 10% to simulate injection of CO2 originating from the oxy-fuel combustion process. Significant differences in the leaching behavior of certain metals were observed when oxygen is present in the CO2. These differences resulted from oxidation of sulfides, release of sulfate, ferric iron and other metals, and subsequent precipitation of iron oxides and some sulfates such as barite. Experiments to evaluate the potential for mobilization of organic compounds from representative reservoir materials and cap rock and their fate in porous media (quartz sand) have been conducted. Results with Fruitland coal and Gothic shale indicate that lighter organic compounds were more susceptible to mobilization by scCO2 compared to heavier compounds. Alkanes demonstrated very low extractability by scCO2. No significant differences were observed between the extractability of organic compounds by dry or water saturated scCO2. Reaction equilibrium appears to have been reached by 96 hours. When the scCO2 was released from the reactor, less than 60% of the injected lighter compounds (benzene, toluene) were transported through dry sand column by the CO2, while more than 90% of the heavier organics were trapped in the sand column. For wet sand columns, most (80% to 100%) of the organic compounds injected into the sand column passed through, except for naphthalene which was substantial removed from the CO2 within the column. A spectrophotometric method was developed to measure pH in brines in contact with scCO2. This method provides an alternative to fragile glass pH electrodes and thermodynamic modeling approaches for estimating pH. The method was tested in simulated reservoir fluids (CO2–NaCl–H2O) at different temperatures, pressures, and ionic strength, and the results were compared with other experimental studies and geochemical models. Measured pH values were generally in agreement with the models, but inconsistencies were present between some of the models.

  16. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirksey, Jim; Ansari, Sajjad; Malkewicz, Nick; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    The Knox Supergroup is a significant part of the Cambrian-Ordovician age sedimentary deposition in the Illinois Basin. While there is a very small amount of oil production associated with the upper Knox, it is more commonly used as a zone for both Class I and Class II disposal wells in certain areas around the state. Based on the three penetrations of the Knox Formation at the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration site in Macon County, Illinois, there is potential for certain zones in the Knox to be used for CO2 sequestration. More specifically, the Potosi member of the Knox Formation at about –3,670 feet (ft) subsea depth would be a candidate as all three penetrations had massive circulation losses while drilling through this interval. Each well required the setting of cement plugs to regain wellbore stability so that the intermediate casing could be set and successfully cemented to surface. Log and core analysis suggests significant karst porosity throughout the Potosi member. The purpose of this study is to develop a well plan for the drilling of a CO2 injection well with the capability to inject 3.5 million tons per annum (3.2 million tonnes per annum [MTPA] CO2 into the Knox Formation over a period of 30 years.

  17. RESTORING SUSTAINABLE FORESTS ON APPALACHIAN MINED LANDS FOR WOOD PRODUCTS, RENEWABLE ENERGY, CARBON SEQUESTRATION, AND OTHER ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Burger; J. Galbraith; T. Fox; G. Amacher; J. Sullivan; C. Zipper

    2005-02-15

    The overall purpose of this project is to evaluate the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on mined land, and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from forest restoration procedures. During the reporting period (October-December 2004) we completed the validation of a forest productivity classification model for mined land. A coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) of 0.68 confirms the model's ability to predict SI based on a selection of mine soil properties. To determine carbon sequestration under different forest management scenarios, a field study was installed as a 3 x 3 factorial in a random complete block design with three replications at each of three locations, Ohio (Figure 1), West Virginia (Figure 2), and Virginia (Figure 3). The treatments included three forest types (white pine, hybrid poplar, mixed hardwood) and three silvicultural regimes (competition control, competition control plus tillage, competition control plus tillage plus fertilization). For hybrid poplar, total plant biomass differences increased significantly with the intensity of silvicultural input. Root, stem, and foliage biomass also increased with the level of silvicultural intensity. Financial feasibility analyses of reforestation on mined lands previously reclaimed to grassland have been completed for conversion to white pine and mixed hardwood species. Examination of potential policy instruments for promoting financial feasibility also have been completed, including lump sum payments at time of conversion, annual payments through the life of the stand, and payments based on carbon sequestration that provide both minimal profitability and fully offset initial reforestation outlays. We have compiled a database containing mine permit information obtained from permitting agencies in Virginia, West Virginia, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kentucky. Due to differences and irregularities in permitting procedures between states, we found it necessary to utilize an alternative method to determine mined land acreages in the Appalachian region. We have initiated a proof of concept study, focused in the State of Ohio, to determine the feasibility of using images from the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and/or Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) to accurately identify mined lands.

  18. A Brief Review of the Application of 14C in Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guilderson, T; Mcfarlane, K

    2009-10-22

    An over-arching goal of the DOE TCP program is to understand the mechanistic controls over the fate, transport, and residence time of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere. Many of the modern process and modeling studies focus on seasonal to interannual variability. However, much of the carbon on the landscape and in soils is in separate reservoirs with turnover times that are multi-decadal to millennial. It is the controls on these longer term pools or reservoirs that is a critical unknown in the face of rising GHGs and climate change and uncertainties of the terrestrial biosphere as a future global sink or source of atmospheric CO{sub 2} [eg., Friedlingstein et al., 2006; Govindasamy et al., 2005; Thompson et al., 2004]. Radiocarbon measurements, in combination with other data, can provide insight into, and constraints on, terrestrial carbon cycling. Radiocarbon (t{sub 1/2} 5730yrs) is produced naturally in the stratosphere when secondary neutrons generated by cosmic rays collide with {sup 14}N atoms [Libby 1946; Arnold and Libby, 1949]. Upon formation, {sup 14}C is rapidly oxidized to CO and then to CO{sub 2}, and is incorporated into the carbon cycle. Due to anthropogenic activities, the amount of {sup 14}C in the atmosphere doubled in the mid/late 1950s and early 1960s from its preindustrial value of {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio of 1.18 x 10{sup -12} [eg., Nydal and Lovseth, 1983]. Following the atmospheric weapons test ban in 1963, the {sup 14}C/{sup 12}C ratio, has decreased due to the net isotopic exchange between the ocean and terrestrial biosphere [eg., Levin and Hessheimer, 2000] and a dilution effect due to the burning of {sup 14}C-free fossil fuel carbon, the 'Suess Effect' [Suess, 1955]. In the carbon cycle literature, radiocarbon measurements are generally reported as {Delta}{sup 14}C, which includes a correction for mass dependent fractionation [Stuiver and Polach, 1977]. In the context of carbon cycle studies radiocarbon measurements can be used to determine the 'age' and rate of change of carbon stocks or as a biogeochemical tracer to elucidate processes and pathways. It is this dual nature that can be exploited across scales in space (individual plant, plot or research site, ecosystem, regional, and global) and time (days to millennia). For example, across regional scales, {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements of atmosphere CO{sub 2} can be used to attribute carbon dioxide to sources (e.g., respiration vs. fossil fuel emissions) or sinks ( e.g,. photosynthesis), which cannot be readily inferred from concentration, net flux measurements, or {delta}{sup 13}CO{sub 2} [eg. Graven et al., 2009; Levin and Hessheimer, 2000; Turnbull et al., 2007]. At smaller scales, similar analyses can be used to elucidate the source, and 'age' of the below ground component undergoing heterotrophic respiration. Net (biome or ecosystem) uptake of carbon is the difference of two large fluxes: photosynthesis and respiration. Carbon fixation by photosynthesis is, to a large extent, a single process with theoretical underpinnings. On the other-hand, net ecosystem or biome respiration integrates microbial (heterotrophic) and plant (autotrophic) respiration. Eddy covariance methods can be used to estimate bulk CO{sub 2} fluxes but they cannot discriminate the process nor the source of the respired CO{sub 2}. It is these processes that are parameterized in predictive models and contribute to the uncertainty in the climate forcing effect of the carbon cycle in the future [Friedlingstein et al., 2006; Heimann and Reichstein, 2008].

  19. A Carbon Flux Super Site. New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leclerc, Monique Y.

    2014-11-17

    This final report presents the main activities and results of the project “A Carbon Flux Super Site: New Insights and Innovative Atmosphere-Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Measurements and Modeling” from 10/1/2006 to 9/30/2014. It describes the new AmeriFlux tower site (Aiken) at Savanna River Site (SC) and instrumentation, long term eddy-covariance, sodar, microbarograph, soil and other measurements at the site, and intensive field campaigns of tracer experiment at the Carbon Flux Super Site, SC, in 2009 and at ARM-CF site, Lamont, OK, and experiments in Plains, GA. The main results on tracer experiment and modeling, on low-level jet characteristics and their impact on fluxes, on gravity waves and their influence on eddy fluxes, and other results are briefly described in the report.

  20. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

  1. Sequestration: isolating the issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-06-15

    A question and answer session between Steve Blankinship and David Ball, Battelle program manager and Neeraj Gupta, research leader at Battelle digs deep into one of USA's largest CO{sub 2} sequestration research programs. Under the US Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program, the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), led by Ohio-based Battelle, has assessed the technical, economic and social feasibility of carbon sequestration in the region. In the second phase, small-scale field tests of sequestration opportunities will be conducted. Theoretically, North America, and the region in particular, which has many coal-fired power plants has the potential to store centuries worth of CO{sub 2} from anthropogenic CO{sub 2} point sources. The additional cost of sequestration to coal-fired power generation could be 10-40% with main part of the costs relating to the energy needed to capture CO{sub 2} and compress it to pipeline pressures. 3 photos.

  2. NATIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION DATABASE AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (NATCARB) FORMER TITLE-MIDCONTINENT INTERACTIVE DIGITAL CARBON ATLAS AND RELATIONAL DATABASE (MIDCARB)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy R. Carr

    2004-07-16

    This annual report describes progress in the third year of the three-year project entitled ''Midcontinent Interactive Digital Carbon Atlas and Relational Database (MIDCARB)''. The project assembled a consortium of five states (Indiana, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky and Ohio) to construct an online distributed Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) covering aspects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) geologic sequestration (http://www.midcarb.org). The system links the five states in the consortium into a coordinated regional database system consisting of datasets useful to industry, regulators and the public. The project has been extended and expanded as a ''NATional CARBon Sequestration Database and Geographic Information System (NATCARB)'' to provide national coverage across the Regional CO{sub 2} Partnerships, which currently cover 40 states (http://www.natcarb.org). Advanced distributed computing solutions link database servers across the five states and other publicly accessible servers (e.g., USGS) into a single system where data is maintained and enhanced at the local level but is accessed and assembled through a single Web portal and can be queried, assembled, analyzed and displayed. This project has improved the flow of data across servers and increased the amount and quality of available digital data. The online tools used in the project have improved in stability and speed in order to provide real-time display and analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration data. The move away from direct database access to web access through eXtensible Markup Language (XML) has increased stability and security while decreasing management overhead. The MIDCARB viewer has been simplified to provide improved display and organization of the more than 125 layers and data tables that have been generated as part of the project. The MIDCARB project is a functional demonstration of distributed management of data systems that cross the boundaries between institutions and geographic areas. The MIDCARB system addresses CO{sub 2} sequestration and other natural resource issues from sources, sinks and transportation within a spatial database that can be queried online. Visualization of high quality and current data can assist decision makers by providing access to common sets of high quality data in a consistent manner.

  3. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity versus turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-09-07

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into four categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), of both the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for five models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. For dead carbon pools, themore »situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This response arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully coupled, biogeochemically coupled, and radiatively coupled 1 % yr?1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, initial productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter-model spread in carbon changes arising from initial conditions is dominated by model disagreement on turnover times, whereas inter-model spread in carbon changes from fractional changes to these terms is dominated by model disagreement on changes to productivity in response to both warming and CO2 fertilization. However, the lack of changing turnover time control on carbon responses, for both live and dead carbon pools, in response to the imposed forcings may arise from a common lack of process representation behind changing turnover times (e.g., allocation and mortality for live carbon; permafrost, microbial dynamics, and mineral stabilization for dead carbon), rather than a true estimate of the importance of these processes.« less

  4. Controls on terrestrial carbon feedbacks by productivity vs. turnover in the CMIP5 Earth System Models

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Koven, C. D.; Chambers, J. Q.; Georgiou, K.; Knox, R.; Negron-Juarez, R.; Riley, W. J.; Arora, V. K.; Brovkin, V.; Friedlingstein, P.; Jones, C. D.

    2015-04-16

    To better understand sources of uncertainty in projections of terrestrial carbon cycle feedbacks, we present an approach to separate the controls on modeled carbon changes. We separate carbon changes into 4 categories using a linearized, equilibrium approach: those arising from changed inputs (productivity-driven changes), and outputs (turnover-driven changes), and apply the analysis separately to the live and dead carbon pools. Using Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations for 5 models, we find that changes to the live pools are primarily explained by productivity-driven changes, with only one model showing large compensating changes to live carbon turnover times. Formore »dead carbon pools, the situation is more complex as all models predict a large reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. This responses arises from the common representation of a broad spectrum of decomposition turnover times via a multi-pool approach, in which flux-weighted turnover times are faster than mass-weighted turnover times. This leads to a shift in the distribution of carbon among dead pools in response to changes in inputs, and therefore a transient but long-lived reduction in turnover times in response to increases in productivity. Since this behavior, a reduction in inferred turnover times resulting from an increase in inputs, is superficially similar to priming processes, but occurring without the mechanisms responsible for priming, we call the phenomenon "false priming", and show that it masks much of the intrinsic changes to dead carbon turnover times as a result of changing climate. These patterns hold across the fully-coupled, biogeochemically-coupled, and radiatively-coupled 1% yr?1 increasing CO2 experiments. We disaggregate inter-model uncertainty in the globally-integrated equilibrium carbon responses to initial turnover times, inital productivity, fractional changes in turnover, and fractional changes in productivity. For both the live and dead carbon pools, inter-model spread in carbon changes arising from initial conditions is dominated by model disagreement on turnover times, whereas inter-model spread in carbon changes from fractional changes to these terms is dominated by model disagreement on changes to productivity in response to both warming and CO2 fertilization. However, the lack of changing turnover time control on carbon responses, for both live and dead carbon pools, in response to the imposed forcings may indicate a common lack of process representation behind changing turnover times (e.g., allocation and mortality for live carbon; permafrost, microbial dynamics, and mineral stabilization for dead carbon), rather than a true estimate of the uncertainty in these processes.« less

  5. Realistic payments could encourage farmers to adopt practices that sequester carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howitt, Richard E; Catala Luque, Rosala; De Gryze, Steven; Wicks, Santhi; Six, Johan

    2009-01-01

    if offered reasonable carbon- sequestration payments. Above,for sequestra- the carbon-sequestration supply curve tion,sunflower contributed carbon sequestration in California in

  6. Drought legacies influence the long-term carbon balance of a freshwater marsh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rocha, Adrian V.; Goulden, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    photosynthetic carbon sequestration, primarily by inhibitingof the maximum annual carbon sequestration observed over aimpact on marsh carbon sequestration. Citation: Rocha, A.

  7. A mixed formulation for a modification to Darcy equation with applications to enhanced oil recovery and carbon-dioxide sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakshatrala, K B

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a modification to Darcy equation by taking into account the dependence of viscosity on the pressure. We present a stabilized mixed formulation for the resulting governing equations. Equal-order interpolation for the velocity and pressure is considered, and shown to be stable (which is not the case under the classical mixed formulation). The proposed mixed formulation is tested using a wide variety of numerical examples. The proposed formulation is also implemented in a parallel setting, and the performance of the formulation for large-scale problems is illustrated using a representative problem. Two practical and technologically important problems, one each on enhanced oil recovery and carbon-dioxide sequestration, are solved using the proposed formulation. The numerical results clearly indicate the importance of considering the role of dependence of viscosity on the pressure.

  8. Uncertainty Discounting for Land-Based Carbon Sequestration Man-Keun Kim

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    uncertain. When depending on land based carbon credits, entities facing limits on their carbon emissions. Introduction Reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), a major greenhouse gas (GHG), is central their emissions (Butt and McCarl, 2004). Various studies have explored the potential of land-based carbon

  9. Geologic carbon sequestration as a global strategy to mitigate CO2 emissions: Sustainability and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-04-01

    Fossil fuels are abundant, inexpensive to produce, and are easily converted to usable energy by combustion as demonstrated by mankind's dependence on fossil fuels for over 80% of its primary energy supply (13). This reliance on fossil fuels comes with the cost of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that exceed the rate at which CO{sub 2} can be absorbed by terrestrial and oceanic systems worldwide resulting in increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration as recorded by direct measurements over more than five decades (14). Carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas linked to global warming and associated climate change, the impacts of which are currently being observed around the world, and projections of which include alarming consequences such as water and food shortages, sea level rise, and social disruptions associated with resource scarcity (15). The current situation of a world that derives the bulk of its energy from fossil fuel in a manner that directly causes climate change equates to an energy-climate crisis. Although governments around the world have only recently begun to consider policies to avoid the direst projections of climate change and its impacts, sustainable approaches to addressing the crisis are available. The common thread of feasible strategies to the energy climate crisis is the simultaneous use of multiple approaches based on available technologies (e.g., 16). Efficiency improvements (e.g., in building energy use), increased use of natural gas relative to coal, and increased development of renewables such as solar, wind, and geothermal, along with nuclear energy, are all available options that will reduce net CO{sub 2} emissions. While improvements in efficiency can be made rapidly and will pay for themselves, the slower pace of change and greater monetary costs associated with increased use of renewables and nuclear energy suggests an additional approach is needed to help bridge the time period between the present and a future when low-carbon energy is considered cheap enough to replace fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one such bridging technology (1). CCS has been the focus of an increasing amount of research over the last 15-20 years and is the subject of a comprehensive IPCC report that thoroughly covers the subject (1). CCS is currently being carried out in several countries around the world in conjunction with natural gas extraction (e.g., 2, 3) and enhanced oil recovery (17). Despite this progress, widespread deployment of CCS remains the subject of research and future plans rather than present action on the scale needed to mitigate emissions from the perspective of climate change. The reasons for delay in deploying CCS more widely are concerns about cost (18), regulatory and legal uncertainty (19), and potential environmental impacts (21). This chapter discusses the long-term (decadal) sustainability and environmental hazards associated with the geologic CO{sub 2} storage (GCS) component of large-scale CCS (e.g., 20). Discussion here barely touches on capture and transport of CO{sub 2} which will occur above ground and which are similar to existing engineering, chemical processing, and pipeline transport activities and are therefore easier to evaluate with respect to risk assessment and feasibility. The focus of this chapter is on the more uncertain part of CCS, namely geologic storage. The primary concern for sustainability of GCS is whether there is sufficient capacity in sedimentary basins worldwide to contain the large of amounts of CO{sub 2} needed to address climate change. But there is also a link between sustainability and environmental impacts. Specifically, if GCS is found to cause unacceptable impacts that are considered worse than its climate-change mitigation benefits, the approach will not be widely adopted. Hence, GCS has elements of sustainability insofar as capacity of the subsurface for CO{sub 2} is concerned, and also in terms of whether the associated environmental risks are acceptable or not to the public.

  10. October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 BioScience 895 Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    October 2004 / Vol. 54 No. 10 · BioScience 895 Articles Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 reduce the concen- tration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Understanding biological and edaphic processes of the 21st century (IPCC 2001a). Management of vegetation and soils for terrestrial carbon sequestration

  11. ORIGINAL PAPER Estimation of tree biomass, carbon pool and net primary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    et al. 2008). Determination of carbon sequestration potential in terrestrial ecosystems throughORIGINAL PAPER Estimation of tree biomass, carbon pool and net primary production of an old Science+Business Media B.V. 2011 Abstract & Background The data on carbon pool and biomass distribution

  12. Studies of the terrestrial O{sub 2} and carbon cycles in sand dune gases and in biosphere 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O{sub 2} composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}.

  13. Carbon mitigation potential and costs of forestry options in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, the Phillippines and Tanzania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, J.

    2008-01-01

    potential for carbon sequestration and emission reductionForestry Options on Carbon Sequestration in India, Workinggas emissions and carbon sequestration in the forest sector

  14. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao, Jingfeng

    2010-01-01

    E. Huxman (2002), Carbon sequestration in a high-elevation,values indicate carbon sequestration. Figure 11. Estimatedvalues indicate carbon sequestration. Figure 10. Predicted

  15. Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Annual Grasslands: Effects of Management and Potential for Climate Change Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryals, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    dynamics and potential carbon sequestration by rangelands.G. E. Schuman. 2007. Carbon sequestration and rangelands: Aconcepts and carbon sequestration in cropland soils. Soil &

  16. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Don DePaolo: Geo and Bio Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Don DePaolo:

    2010-09-01

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  17. Carbon Cycle 2.0: Don DePaolo: Geo and Bio Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don DePaolo:

    2010-02-16

    Feb. 4, 2010: Humanity emits more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future.

  18. Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Davis; A.L. Graham; H.W. Parker; J.R. Abbott; M.S. Ingber; A.A. Mammoli; L.A. Mondy; Quanxin Guo; Ahmed Abou-Sayed

    2005-12-07

    Maximizing Storage Rate and Capacity and Insuring the Environmental Integrity of Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Geological Formations The U.S. and other countries may enter into an agreement that will require a significant reduction in CO2 emissions in the medium to long term. In order to achieve such goals without drastic reductions in fossil fuel usage, CO2 must be removed from the atmosphere and be stored in acceptable reservoirs. The research outlined in this proposal deals with developing a methodology to determine the suitability of a particular geologic formation for the long-term storage of CO2 and technologies for the economical transfer and storage of CO2 in these formations. A novel well-logging technique using nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) will be developed to characterize the geologic formation including the integrity and quality of the reservoir seal (cap rock). Well-logging using NMR does not require coring, and hence, can be performed much more quickly and efficiently. The key element in the economical transfer and storage of the CO2 is hydraulic fracturing the formation to achieve greater lateral spreads and higher throughputs of CO2. Transport, compression, and drilling represent the main costs in CO2 sequestration. The combination of well-logging and hydraulic fracturing has the potential of minimizing these costs. It is possible through hydraulic fracturing to reduce the number of injection wells by an order of magnitude. Many issues will be addressed as part of the proposed research to maximize the storage rate and capacity and insure the environmental integrity of CO2 sequestration in geological formations. First, correlations between formation properties and NMR relaxation times will be firmly established. A detailed experimental program will be conducted to determine these correlations. Second, improved hydraulic fracturing models will be developed which are suitable for CO2 sequestration as opposed to enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Although models that simulate the fracturing process exist, they can be significantly improved by extending the models to account for nonsymmetric, nonplanar fractures, coupling the models to more realistic reservoir simulators, and implementing advanced multiphase flow models for the transport of proppant. Third, it may be possible to deviate from current hydraulic fracturing technology by using different proppants (possibly waste materials that need to be disposed of, e.g., asbestos) combined with different hydraulic fracturing carrier fluids (possibly supercritical CO2 itself). Because current technology is mainly aimed at enhanced oil recovery, it may not be ideally suited for the injection and storage of CO2. Finally, advanced concepts such as increasing the injectivity of the fractured geologic formations through acidization with carbonated water will be investigated. Saline formations are located through most of the continental United States. Generally, where saline formations are scarce, oil and gas reservoirs and coal beds abound. By developing the technology outlined here, it will be possible to remove CO2 at the source (power plants, industry) and inject it directly into nearby geological formations, without releasing it into the atmosphere. The goal of the proposed research is to develop a technology capable of sequestering CO2 in geologic formations at a cost of US $10 per ton.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  20. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  1. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  2. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  3. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Fine Particles for Ocean and Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Golomb; David Ryan; Eugene Barry

    2007-01-08

    Since the submission of our last Semi-annual Report, dated September 2006, the research objectives of this Co-operative Agreement shifted toward geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide. In the period September 2006-February 2007, experiments were conducted in a High-Pressure Batch Reactor (HPBR) for creating emulsions of liquid carbon dioxide (/CO{sub 2})-in-water stabilized by fine particles for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Also, emulsions were created in water of a binary mixture of liquid carbon dioxide and liquid hydrogen sulfide (/H{sub 2}S), called Acid Gas (AG). This leads to the possibility of safe disposal of AG in deep geologic formations, such as saline aquifers. The stabilizing particles included pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), unprocessed flyash, collected by an electrostatic precipitator at a local coal-fired power plant, and pulverized siderite (FeCO{sub 3}). Particle size ranged from submicron to a few micrometers. The first important finding is that /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S freely mix as a binary liquid without phase separation. The next finding is that the mixture of /CO{sub 2} and /H{sub 2}S can be emulsified in water using fine particles as emulsifying agents. Such emulsions are stable over prolonged periods, so it should not be a problem to inject an emulsion into subterranean formations. The advantage of injecting an emulsion into subterranean formations is that it is denser than the pure liquid, therefore it is likely to disperse in the bottom of the geologic formation, rather than buoying upward (called fingering). In such a fashion, the risk of the liquids escaping from the formation, and possibly re-emerging into the atmosphere, is minimized. This is especially important for H{sub 2}S, because it is a highly toxic gas. Furthermore, the emulsion may interact with the surrounding minerals, causing mineral trapping. This may lead to longer sequestration periods than injecting the pure liquids alone.

  4. Restoring Sustainable Forests on Appalachian Mined Lands for Wood Product, Renewable Energy, Carbon Sequestration, and Other Ecosystem Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burger, James A

    2006-09-30

    Concentrations of CO{sub 2} in the Earth’s atmosphere have increased dramatically in the past 100 years due to deforestation, land use change, and fossil fuel combustion. These humancaused, higher levels of CO{sub 2} may enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect and may contribute to climate change. Many reclaimed coal-surface mine areas in the eastern U.S. are not in productive use. Reforestation of these lands could provide societal benefits, including sequestration of atmospheric carbon. The goal of this project was to determine the biological and economic feasibility of restoring high-quality forests on the tens of thousands of hectares of mined land and to measure carbon sequestration and wood production benefits that would be achieved from large-scale application of forest restoration procedures. We developed a mine soil quality model that can be used to estimate the suitability of selected mined sites for carbon sequestration projects. Across the mine soil quality gradient, we tested survival and growth performance of three species assemblages under three levels of silvicultural. Hardwood species survived well in WV and VA, and survived better than the other species used in OH, while white pine had the poorest survival of all species at all sites. Survival was particularly good for the site-specific hardwoods planted at each site. Weed control plus tillage may be the optimum treatment for hardwoods and white pine, as any increased growth resulting from fertilization may not offset the decreased survival that accompanied fertilization. Grassland to forest conversion costs may be a major contributor to the lack of reforestation of previously reclaimed mine lands in the Appalachian coal-mining region. Otherwise profitable forestry opportunities may be precluded by these conversion costs, which for many combinations of factors (site class, forest type, timber prices, regeneration intensity, and interest rate) result in negative land expectation values. Improved technology and/or knowledge of reforestation practices in these situations may provide opportunities to reduce the costs of converting many of these sites as research continues into these practices. It also appears that in many cases substantial payments, non-revenue values, or carbon values are required to reach “profitability” under the present circumstances. It is unclear when, or in what form, markets will develop to support any of these add-on values to supplement commercial forestry revenues. However, as these markets do develop, they will only enhance the viability of forestry on reclaimed mined lands, although as we demonstrate in our analysis of carbon payments, the form of the revenue source may itself influence management, potentially mitigating some of the benefits of reforestation. For a representative mined-land resource base, reforestation of mined lands with mixed pine-hardwood species would result in an average estimated C accumulation in forms that can be harvested for use as wood products or are likely to remain in the soil C pool at ~250 Mg C ha{sup -1} over a 60 year period following reforestation. The “additionality” of this potential C sequestration was estimated considering data in scientific literature that defines C accumulation in mined-land grasslands over the long term. Given assumptions detailed in the text, these lands have the potential to sequester ~180 Mg C ha{sup -1}, a total of 53.5 x 10{sup 6} Mg C, over 60 years, an average of ~900,000 Mg C / yr, an amount equivalent to about 0.04% of projected US C emissions at the midpoint of a 60-year period (circa 2040) following assumed reforestation. Although potential sequestration quantities are not great relative to potential national needs should an energy-related C emissions offset requirement be developed at some future date, these lands are available and unused for other economically valued purposes and many possess soil and site properties that are well-suited to reforestation. Should such reforestation occur, it would also produce ancillary benefits by providing env

  5. Carbon sequestration monitoring with acoustic double-difference waveform inversion: A case study on SACROC walkaway VSP data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fehler, Michael [MIT; Malcolm, Alison [MIT; Yang, Di [MIT

    2011-01-01

    Geological carbon sequestration involves large-scale injection of carbon dioxide into underground geologic formations and is considered as a potential approach for mitigating global warming. Changes in reservoir properties resulting from the CO{sub 2} injection and migration can be characterized using waveform inversions of time-lapse seismic data. The conventional approach for analysis using waveform tomography is to take the difference of the images obtained using baseline and subsequent time-lapse datasets that are inverted independently. By contrast, double-difference waveform inversion uses timelapse seismic datasets to jointly invert for reservoir changes. We apply this method to a field time-lapse walkaway VSP data set acquired in 2008 and 2009 for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at an enhanced oil recovery field at SACROC, Texas. The double-difference waveform inversion gives a cleaner and more easily interpreted image of reservoir changes, as compared to that obtained with the conventional scheme. Our results from the applicatoin of acoustic double-difference waveform tomography shows some zones with decreased P-wave velocity within the reservoir due to CO{sub 2} injection and migration.

  6. North America's net terrestrial carbon exchange with the atmosphere 1990-2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, Anthony W.; Andres, Robert; Davis, Kenneth J.; Hafer, M.; Hayes, Daniel J.; Huntzinger, Deborah N.; de Jong, Bernardus; Kurz, Werner; McGuire, A. David; Vargas, Rodrigo; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Woodall, Chris W.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific understanding of the global carbon cycle is required for developing national and international policy to mitigate fossil-fuel CO2 emissions by managing terrestrial carbon uptake. Toward that understanding and as a contribution to the REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP) project, this paper provides a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America over the period (1990-2009). This synthesis is based on results from three different methods: atmospheric inversion, inventory-based methods and terrestrial biosphere modeling. All methods indicate that the North America land surface was a sink for atmospheric CO2, with a net transfer from atmosphere to land. Estimates ranged from -890 to -280 Tg C yr-1, where the atmospheric inversion estimate forms the lower bound of that range (a larger land-sink) and the inventory-based estimate the upper (a smaller land sink). Integrating across estimates, a “best” estimates (i.e., measures of central tendency) are -472 ± 281 Tg C yr-1 based on the mean and standard deviation of the distribution and -360 Tg C yr-1 (with an interquartile range of -496 to -337) based on the median. Considering both the fossil-fuel emissions source and the land sink, our analysis shows that North America was, however, a net contributor to the growth of CO2 in the atmosphere in the late 20th and early 21st century. The continent’s CO2 source to sink ratio for this time period was likely in the range of 4:1 to 3:1.

  7. Spatially-explicit impacts of carbon capture and sequestration on water supply and demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathre, Roger

    2014-01-01

    T, Hausmann C. 2011. Fresh water generation from aquifertreating saline formation waters. Energy Procedia 4: 2269-desalinating produced formation water associated with carbon

  8. EA-1898: Southwest Regional Partnership on Carbon Sequestration Phase III Gordon Creek Project near Price, Utah in Carbon County

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal for Phase III field deployment to demonstrate commercial-scale carbon storage technologies.This Phase III large-scale carbon dioxide injection project will combine science and engineering from many disciplines to successfully sequester and monitor carbon storage. [NOTE: This EA has been cancelled].

  9. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN APPLICATIONS FOR MODELING AND ASSESSING CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN SALINE AQUIFERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, John

    2014-08-31

    This project was a computer modeling effort to couple reservoir simulation and ED/RSM using Sensitivity Analysis, Uncertainty Analysis, and Optimization Methods, to assess geologic, geochemical, geomechanical, and rock-fluid effects and factors on CO2 injectivity, capacity, and plume migration. The project objective was to develop proxy models to simplify the highly complex coupled geochemical and geomechanical models in the utilization and storage of CO2 in the subsurface. The goals were to investigate and prove the feasibility of the ED/RSM processes and engineering development, and bridge the gaps regarding the uncertainty and unknowns of the many geochemical and geomechanical interacting parameters in the development and operation of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration and storage sites. The bottleneck in this workflow is the high computational effort of reactive transport simulation models and large number of input variables to optimize with ED/RSM techniques. The project was not to develop the reactive transport, geomechanical, or ED/RSM software, but was to use what was commercially and/or publically available as a proof of concept to generate proxy or surrogate models. A detailed geologic and petrographic mineral assemblage and geologic structure of the doubly plunging anticline was defined using the USDOE RMOTC formations of interest data (e.g., Lower Sundance, Crow Mountain, Alcova Limestone, and Red Peak). The assemblage of 23 minerals was primarily developed from literature data and petrophysical (well log) analysis. The assemblage and structure was input into a commercial reactive transport simulator to predict the effects of CO2 injection and complex reactions with the reservoir rock. Significant impediments were encountered during the execution phase of the project. The only known commercial reactive transport simulator was incapable of simulating complex geochemistry modeled in this project. Significant effort and project funding was expended to determine the limitations of both the commercial simulator and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) R&D simulator, TOUGHREACT available to the project. A simplified layer cake model approximating the volume of the RMOTC targeted reservoirs was defined with 1-3 minerals eventually modeled with limited success. Modeling reactive transport in porous media requires significant computational power. In this project, up to 24 processors were used to model a limited mineral set of 1-3 minerals. In addition, geomechanical aspects of injecting CO2 into closed, semi-open, and open systems in various well completion methods was simulated. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) as a storage method was not modeled. A robust and stable simulation dataset or base case was developed and used to create a master dataset with embedded instructions for input to the ED/RSM software. Little success was achieved toward the objective of the project using the commercial simulator or the LBNL simulator versions available during the time of this project. Several hundred realizations were run with the commercial simulator and ED/RSM software, most having convergence problems and terminating prematurely. A proxy model for full field CO2 injection sequestration utilization and storage was not capable of being developed with software available for this project. Though the chemistry is reasonably known and understood, based on the amount of effort and huge computational time required, predicting CO2 sequestration storage capacity in geologic formations to within the program goals of ±30% proved unsuccessful.

  10. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO.sub.2 sequestration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G. (Harriman, TN); Palmer, Donald A. (Oliver Springs, TN); Anovitz, Lawrence M. (Knoxville, TN); Beard, James S. (Martinsville, VA)

    2012-02-14

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  11. Carbonation of metal silicates for long-term CO2 sequestration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blencoe, James G; Palmer, Donald A; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Beard, James S

    2014-03-18

    In a preferred embodiment, the invention relates to a process of sequestering carbon dioxide. The process comprises the steps of: (a) reacting a metal silicate with a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide to produce a hydroxide of the metal formerly contained in the silicate; (b) reacting carbon dioxide with at least one of a caustic alkali-metal hydroxide and an alkali-metal silicate to produce at least one of an alkali-metal carbonate and an alkali-metal bicarbonate; and (c) reacting the metal hydroxide product of step (a) with at least one of the alkali-metal carbonate and the alkali-metal bicarbonate produced in step (b) to produce a carbonate of the metal formerly contained in the metal silicate of step (a).

  12. Geological Sequestration of CO2 by Hydrous Carbonate Formation with Reclaimed Slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Von L. Richards; Kent Peaslee; Jeffrey Smith

    2008-02-06

    The concept of this project is to develop a process that improves the kinetics of the hydrous carbonate formation reaction enabling steelmakers to directly remove CO2 from their furnace exhaust gas. It is proposed to bring the furnace exhaust stream containing CO2 in contact with reclaimed steelmaking slag in a reactor that has an environment near the unit activity of water resulting in the production of carbonates. The CO2 emissions from the plant would be reduced by the amount sequestered in the formation of carbonates. The main raw materials for the process are furnace exhaust gases and specially prepared slag.

  13. Influence of Rock Types on Seismic Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Carbonate Reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mammadova, Elnara

    2012-10-19

    Although carbonates hold more than 60 percent of the world's oil reserves, they, nevertheless, exhibit much lower average recovery factor values than terrigenous sandstone reservoirs. Thus, utilization of advanced enhanced oil recovery (EOR...

  14. DOE Releases Report on Techniques to Ensure Safe, Effective Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has created a comprehensive new document that examines existing and emerging techniques to monitor, verify, and account for carbon dioxide stored in geologic formations.

  15. Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration from the Mexican oil industry : an action plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacy, Rodolfo

    2005-01-01

    Climate change has become an important focus of international environmental negotiations. In response, global energy corporations have been looking for practical ways of reducing their industrial carbon dioxide (CO?) ...

  16. Experimental and simulation studies of sequestration of supercritical carbon dioxide in depleted gas reservoirs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Jeong Gyu

    2004-09-30

    he feasibility of sequestering supercritical CO2 in depleted gas reservoirs. The experimental runs involved the following steps. First, the 1 ft long by 1 in. diameter carbonate core is inserted into a viton Hassler sleeve and placed inside...

  17. DOE Seeks Proposals to Increase Investment in Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has issued a Funding Opportunity Announcement soliciting projects to capture and sequester carbon dioxide from industrial sources and to put CO2 to beneficial use.

  18. Nocturnal cold air drainage and pooling in a tropical forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goulden, M. L.; Miller, S. D.; da Rocha, H. R.

    2006-01-01

    Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddyof terrestrial carbon sequestration [Tans et al. , 1990].

  19. Uncertainty quantification for the impact of injection rate fluctuation on the geomechanical response of geological carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bao, Jie; Chu, Yanjun; Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Fang, Yilin

    2014-02-02

    We present an analysis of the geomechanical effects of injection rate fluctuations for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). Initially, we present analytical solutions for the effects of injection rate fluctuations on CO2 fluid pressure spatial distribution and temporal evolution for a typical injection scenario. Numerical calculations are performed using a finite element method to investigate the effects of injection rate fluctuations on geomechanical deformation, stresses, and potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. The numerical method was first validated by the fluid pressure distribution’s good agreement with the analytical solution. It was shown that for any Gaussian fluctuations of injection rate Q with given mean Q ? and variance ?_Q, the coefficients of variance for fluid pressure (?_p=?_p?p ? ), deformation (?_u=?_u?u ? ), and stresses (?_?=?_??? ? ) increase linearly with the coefficient of variance for injection rate (?_Q=?_Q?Q ? ). The proportional constants are identified, and the fluctuations have the most pronounced effect on the geomechanical stresses, and, therefore, on the potential failure of the aquifer and caprock layers. Instead of expensive computational simulation, this study provides an efficient tool to estimate the geomechanical response variance to injection rate fluctuation. A failure analysis was presented based on the numerical results, where probability of failure was estimated for fluctuating injection rates with different mean and variance during the entire injection period. It was found that with increasing injection rate fluctuation, the failure probability increases significantly. Therefore, the risk associated with injection rate fluctuations should be carefully evaluated.?

  20. Low Cost Open-Path Instrument for Monitoring Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide at Sequestration Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William Goddard

    2008-09-30

    In the past 48 months of the project, we have accomplished all objectives outlined in the proposal. In the first year, we demonstrated the technology for remote sensing on a bench top scale. The core electronics are designed and fabricated. We achieved results that will safely deliver the specifications outlined in the proposal. In the 2nd year, 2 major technical tasks outlined in the Statement of Objectives, i.e. Build a field test ready prototype of a long-range CO2 monitor, and characterize its performance in the short term and demonstrate that the monitor characteristics meet the goals set in the initial proposal, have been accomplished. We also conducted simulation work that defines the different deployment strategies for our sensors at sequestration sites. In the 3rd year, Specifications and Testing protocols have been developed for the CO2 monitor. 1% accuracy had been demonstrated in short period tests ({approx}1 hour). Unattended system operation and stability over a period of a week has been demonstrated with and without EDFA (laser power amplifier). The sensitivity of the instrument to CO2 leaks has been demonstrated. In the 4th no-cost extension year, we further field tested the system and the experience we accumulated give us a clear picture of what else are needed for final field deployment. These results have shown all the objectives of the project have been fulfilled. In July 2008, along with our commercial partner we won the DOE STTR phase I award to commercialize the instrument developed in this project - a testimony to the achievement of this research.

  1. Site Development, Operations, and Closure Plan Topical Report 5 An Assessment of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin. Phase III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finley, Robert; Payne, William; Kirksey, Jim

    2015-06-01

    The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) has partnered with Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) and Schlumberger Carbon Services to conduct a large-volume, saline reservoir storage project at ADM’s agricultural products processing complex in Decatur, Illinois. The Development Phase project, named the Illinois Basin Decatur Project (IBDP) involves the injection of 1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) into a deep saline formation of the Illinois Basin over a three-year period. This report focuses on objectives, execution, and lessons learned/unanticipated results from the site development (relating specifically to surface equipment), operations, and the site closure plan.

  2. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. (eds.) (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. (Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia)

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests' carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980's in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country's total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  3. Carbon emissions and sequestration in forests: Case studies from seven developing countries. Volume 4: Mexico: Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makundi, W.; Sathaye, J. [eds.] [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Cerutti, O.M.; Ordonez, M.J.; Minjarez, R.D. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico) Centro de Ecologia

    1992-08-01

    Estimates of carbon emissions from deforestation in Mexico are derived for the year 1985 and for two contrasting scenarios in 2025. Carbon emissions are calculated through an in-depth review of the existing information on forest cover deforestation mtes and area affected by forest fires as well as on forests` carbon-related biological characteristics. The analysis covers both tropical -- evergreen and deciduous -- and temperate -- coniferous and broadleaf -- closed forests. Emissions from the forest sector are also compared to those from energy and industry. Different policy options for promoting the sustainable management of forest resources in the country are discussed. The analysis indicates that approximately 804,000 hectares per year of closed forests suffered from major perturbations in the mid 1980`s in Mexico, leading to an annual deforestation mte of 668,000 hectares. Seventy five percent of total deforestation is concentrated in tropical forests. The resulting annual carbon balance is estimated in 53.4 million tons per year, and the net committed emissions in 45.5 million tons or 41% and 38%, respectively, of the country`s total for 1985--87. The annual carbon balance from the forest sector in 2025 is expected to decline to 16.5 million tons in the low emissions scenario and to 22.9 million tons in the high emissions scenario. Because of the large uncertainties in some of the primary sources of information, the stated figures should be taken as preliminary estimates.

  4. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-04-26

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-07-29

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-28

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. There is a direct correlation between measured total organic carbon content and the adsorptive capacity of the shale; CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity increases with increasing organic carbon content. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  7. Effect of Oxygen Co-Injected with Carbon Dioxide on Gothic Shale Caprock-CO2-Brine Interaction during Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2013-09-16

    Co-injection of oxygen, a significant component in CO2 streams produced by the oxyfuel combustion process, can cause a significant alteration of the redox state in deep geologic formations during geologic carbon sequestration. The potential impact of co-injected oxygen on the interaction between synthetic CO2-brine (0.1 M NaCl) and shale caprock (Gothic shale from the Aneth Unit in Utah) and mobilization of trace metals was investigated at ~10 MPa and ~75 °C. A range of relative volume percentages of O2 to CO2 (0, 1, 4 and 8%) were used in these experiments to address the effect of oxygen on shale-CO2-brine interaction under various conditions. Major mineral phases in Gothic shale are quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and pyrite. During Gothic shale-CO2-brine interaction in the presence of oxygen, pyrite oxidation occurred extensively and caused enhanced dissolution of calcite and dolomite. Pyrite oxidation and calcite dissolution subsequently resulted in the precipitation of Fe(III) oxides and gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O). In the presence of oxygen, dissolved Mn and Ni were elevated because of oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The mobility of dissolved Ba was controlled by barite (BaSO4) precipitation in the presence of oxygen. Dissolved U in the experimental brines increased to ~8–14 ?g/L, with concentrations being slightly higher in the absence of oxygen than in the presence of oxygen. Experimental and modeling results indicate the interaction between shale caprock and oxygen co-injected with CO2 during geologic carbon sequestration can exert significant impacts on brine pH, solubility of carbonate minerals, stability of sulfide minerals, and mobility of trace metals. The major impact of oxygen is most likely to occur in the zone near CO2 injection wells where impurity gases can accumulate. Oxygen in CO2-brine migrating away from the injection well will be continually consumed through the reactions with sulfide minerals in deep geologic formations.

  8. Abundant and Stable Char Residues in Soils: Implications for Soil Fertility and Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    Abundant and Stable Char Residues in Soils: Implications for Soil Fertility and Carbon Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States § Department of Crop and Soil, Ames, Iowa 50011, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Large-scale soil application

  9. Variations in carbon exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere due to CO{sub 2} evaluation and climate change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, M.; Woodward, F.I.

    1997-12-31

    The global carbon budget for atmospheric CO{sub 2} can`t been balanced, a sink of 1 to 3 Gt C yr{sup -1} has not yet been clearly identified. Without a good account for the fate of the miss carbon, prediction of future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and climate change will remain uncertain. It is suggested that terrestrial ecosystems may take up the miss carbon. To validate this hypothesis and to improve the estimates of the carbon sink or source strength requires a direct investigation of the carbon exchange of terrestrial ecosystems and its response to atmospheric CO{sub 2} elevation and climate change at the global scale. In this study, a highly aggregated model was developed on the basis of photosynthesis, plant growth, litter production and soil organic carbon decomposition. And the model was use to predict the variations in carbon fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere from 1860 to 2020. In our estimates, climate change alone does not cause a significant variation in net primary production (NPP), but results in a reduction in net ecosystem production (NEP) by 50% thus, a decrease in the total carbon storage, since 1960s. Climate change happened undercuts the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems taking up atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Without climate change, CO{sub 2} elevation enhances NPP and NEP steadily. NPP is enhanced by 26% and NEP is increased from about 1.0 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 1860s to 4.0 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 2020s. The combined CO{sub 2} elevation and climate change increase the global annual NPP from 46.0 Gt C in 1860s to 57.0 Gt C in 2010s. NEP is increased to 2.1 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 1980s and about 3.6 Gt C yr{sup -1} in 2010s. The increase occurs in both the northern middle-high latitudes and tropical regions. Taking land use change into account, terrestrial ecosystems are nearly carbon-balanced before 1950s, but afterwards they become a significant sink of about 1.6 Gt C yr{sup -1} for atmospheric CO{sub 2}.

  10. Leakage and Sepage of CO2 from Geologic Carbon SequestrationSites: CO2 Migration into Surface Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curt M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.

    2005-06-17

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the capture of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and its storage in deep geologic formations. One of the concerns of geologic carbon sequestration is that injected CO{sub 2} may leak out of the intended storage formation, migrate to the near-surface environment, and seep out of the ground or into surface water. In this research, we investigate the process of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage into saturated sediments and overlying surface water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands, and continental shelf marine environments. Natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are well studied and provide insight into the expected transport mechanisms and fate of seepage fluxes of similar magnitude. Also, natural CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes are pervasive in surface water environments at levels that may mask low-level carbon sequestration leakage and seepage. Extreme examples are the well known volcanic lakes in Cameroon where lake water supersaturated with respect to CO{sub 2} overturned and degassed with lethal effects. Standard bubble formation and hydrostatics are applicable to CO{sub 2} bubbles in surface water. Bubble-rise velocity in surface water is a function of bubble size and reaches a maximum of approximately 30 cm s{sup -1} at a bubble radius of 0.7 mm. Bubble rise in saturated porous media below surface water is affected by surface tension and buoyancy forces, along with the solid matrix pore structure. For medium and fine grain sizes, surface tension forces dominate and gas transport tends to occur as channel flow rather than bubble flow. For coarse porous media such as gravels and coarse sand, buoyancy dominates and the maximum bubble rise velocity is predicted to be approximately 18 cm s{sup -1}. Liquid CO{sub 2} bubbles rise slower in water than gaseous CO{sub 2} bubbles due to the smaller density contrast. A comparison of ebullition (i.e., bubble formation) and resulting bubble flow versus dispersive gas transport for CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} at three different seepage rates reveals that ebullition and bubble flow will be the dominant form of gas transport in surface water for all but the smallest seepage fluxes or shallowest water bodies. The solubility of the gas species in water plays a fundamental role in whether ebullition occurs. We used a solubility model to examine CO{sub 2} solubility in waters with varying salinity as a function of depth below a 200 m-deep surface water body. In this system, liquid CO{sub 2} is stable between the deep regions where supercritical CO{sub 2} is stable and the shallow regions where gaseous CO{sub 2} is stable. The transition from liquid to gaseous CO{sub 2} is associated with a large change in density, with corresponding large change in bubble buoyancy. The solubility of CO{sub 2} is lower in high-salinity waters such as might be encountered in the deep subsurface. Therefore, as CO{sub 2} migrates upward through the deep subsurface, it will likely encounter less saline water with increasing capacity to dissolve CO{sub 2} potentially preventing ebullition, depending on the CO{sub 2} leakage flux. However, as CO{sub 2} continues to move upward through shallower depths, CO{sub 2} solubility in water decreases strongly leading to greater likelihood of ebullition and bubble flow in surface water. In the case of deep density-stratified lakes in which ebullition is suppressed, enhanced mixing and man-made degassing schemes can alleviate the buildup of CO{sub 2} and related risk of dangerous rapid discharges. Future research efforts are needed to increase understanding of CO{sub 2} leakage and seepage in surface water and saturated porous media. For example, we recommend experiments and field tests of CO{sub 2} migration in saturated systems to formulate bubble-driven water-displacement models and relative permeability functions that can be used in simulation models.

  11. Center for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    climate change, reduced GHGs, improved air quality, CO2 reduction & sequestration, and carbon offsets. #12 for the development of a technology for the carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in non-air entrained concreteCenter for By-Products Utilization CO2 SEQUESTRATION IN NON-AIR ENTRAINED CONCRETE By Tarun R. Naik

  12. Comprehensive Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Subalpine Forest Ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Richard Y.

    , carbon sequestration, ecosystem, multi-tier, multi-modal, multi-scale, self organized, sensor array to comprehensively monitor ecosystem carbon sequestration. The network consists of CO2, Weather (pressureComprehensive Monitoring of CO2 Sequestration in Subalpine Forest Ecosystems and Its Relation

  13. Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration Project U. S. Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResourcelogo and mastheadLake Charles Carbon Capture and

  14. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  15. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dail, David Bryan

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  16. EA-1886: Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership- Phase III: Large Volume CO2 Injection-Site Characterization, Well Drilling, and Infrastructure Development, Injection, MVA, and Site Closure, Kevin Dome, Toole County, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal for the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnership to demonstrate the viability and safety of CO2 storage in a regionally significant subsurface formation in Toole County, Montana and to promote the commercialization of future anthropogenic carbon storage in this region.

  17. A Study of the Abundance and 13C/12C Ratio of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide to Advance the Scientific Understanding of Terrestrial Processes Regulating the Global Carbon Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen C. Piper

    2005-10-15

    The primary goal of our research program, consistent with the goals of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program and funded by the terrestrial carbon processes (TCP) program of DOE, has been to improve understanding of changes in the distribution and cycling of carbon among the active land, ocean and atmosphere reservoirs, with particular emphasis on terrestrial ecosystems. Our approach is to systematically measure atmospheric CO2 to produce time series data essential to reveal temporal and spatial patterns. Additional measurements of the 13C/12C isotopic ratio of CO2 provide a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, our research also involved interpretations of the observations by models, measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water, and of CO2 in air near growing land plants.

  18. Formation Damage due to CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ibrahim Mohamed 1984-

    2012-10-25

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration is defined as the removal of gas that would be emitted into the atmosphere and its subsequent storage in a safe, sound place. CO2 sequestration in underground formations is currently being considered to reduce...

  19. Terrestrial carbon cycle & introduction to box modeling.2/15 & 2/17 Chemistry of Earth's oceans II2/10

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Terrestrial carbon cycle & introduction to box modeling.2/15 & 2/17 Chemistry of Earth's oceans II2 - stratospheric chemistry2/1 Chemistry of Earth's atmosphere I - review of chemical kinetics. HW #1 handed out to be discussed include chemistry of the solar nebula, accretion of the Earth and terrestrial planets, estimates

  20. Transport of Organic Contaminants Mobilized from Coal through Sandstone Overlying a Geological Carbon Sequestration Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Lirong; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Bacon, Diana H.; Shewell, Jesse L.

    2014-02-01

    Column experiments were conducted using a wetted sandstone rock installed in a tri-axial core holder to study the flow and transport of organic compounds mobilized by scCO2 under simulated geologic carbon storage (GCS) conditions. The sandstone rock was collected from a formation overlying a deep saline reservoir at a GCS demonstration site. Rock core effluent pressures were set at 0, 500, or 1000 psig and the core temperature was set at 20 or 50°C to simulate the transport to different subsurface depths. The concentrations of the organic compounds in the column effluent and their distribution within the sandstone core were monitored. Results indicate that the mobility though the core sample was much higher for BTEX compounds than for naphthalene. Retention of organic compounds from the vapor phase to the core appeared to be primarily controlled by partitioning from the vapor phase to the aqueous phase. Adsorption to the surfaces of the wetted sandstone was also significant for naphthalene. Reduced temperature and elevated pressure resulted in greater partitioning of the mobilized organic contaminants into the water phase.

  1. Final Report on "Rising CO2 and Long-term Carbon Storage in Terrestrial Ecosystems: An Empirical Carbon Budget Validation"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Patrick Megonigal; Bert G. Drake

    2010-08-27

    The primary goal of this report is to report the results of Grant DE-FG02-97ER62458, which began in 1997 as Grant DOE-98-59-MP-4 funded through the TECO program. However, this project has a longer history because DOE also funded this study from its inception in 1985 through 1997. The original grant was focused on plant responses to elevated CO2 in an intact ecosystem, while the latter grant was focused on belowground responses. Here we summarize the major findings across the 25 years this study has operated, and note that the experiment will continue to run through 2020 with NSF support. The major conclusions of the study to date are: (1 Elevated CO2 stimulated plant productivity in the C3 plant community by ~30% during the 25 year study. The magnitude of the increase in productivity varied interannually and was sometime absent altogether. There is some evidence of down-regulation at the ecosystem level across the 25 year record that may be due to interactions with other factors such as sea-level rise or long-term changes in N supply; (2) Elevated CO2 stimulated C4 productivity by <10%, perhaps due to more efficient water use, but C3 plants at elevated CO2 did not displace C4 plants as predicted; (3) Increased primary production caused a general stimulation of microbial processes, but there were both increases and decreases in activity depending on the specific organisms considered. An increase in methanogenesis and methane emissions implies elevated CO2 may amplify radiative forcing in the case of wetland ecosystems; (4) Elevated CO2 stimulated soil carbon sequestration in the form of an increase in elevation. The increase in elevation is 50-100% of the increase in net ecosystem production caused by elevated CO2 (still under analysis). The increase in soil elevation suggests the elevated CO2 may have a positive outcome for the ability of coastal wetlands to persist despite accelerated sea level rise; (5) Crossing elevated CO2 with elevated N causes the elevated CO2 effect to diminish, with consequences for change in soil elevation.

  2. The role of optimality in characterizing CO2 seepage from geological carbon sequestration sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortis, Andrea; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Benson, Sally M.

    2008-09-15

    Storage of large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in deep geological formations for greenhouse gas mitigation is gaining momentum and moving from its conceptual and testing stages towards widespread application. In this work we explore various optimization strategies for characterizing surface leakage (seepage) using near-surface measurement approaches such as accumulation chambers and eddy covariance towers. Seepage characterization objectives and limitations need to be defined carefully from the outset especially in light of large natural background variations that can mask seepage. The cost and sensitivity of seepage detection are related to four critical length scales pertaining to the size of the: (1) region that needs to be monitored; (2) footprint of the measurement approach, and (3) main seepage zone; and (4) region in which concentrations or fluxes are influenced by seepage. Seepage characterization objectives may include one or all of the tasks of detecting, locating, and quantifying seepage. Each of these tasks has its own optimal strategy. Detecting and locating seepage in a region in which there is no expected or preferred location for seepage nor existing evidence for seepage requires monitoring on a fixed grid, e.g., using eddy covariance towers. The fixed-grid approaches needed to detect seepage are expected to require large numbers of eddy covariance towers for large-scale geologic CO{sub 2} storage. Once seepage has been detected and roughly located, seepage zones and features can be optimally pinpointed through a dynamic search strategy, e.g., employing accumulation chambers and/or soil-gas sampling. Quantification of seepage rates can be done through measurements on a localized fixed grid once the seepage is pinpointed. Background measurements are essential for seepage detection in natural ecosystems. Artificial neural networks are considered as regression models useful for distinguishing natural system behavior from anomalous behavior suggestive of CO{sub 2} seepage without need for detailed understanding of natural system processes. Because of the local extrema in CO{sub 2} fluxes and concentrations in natural systems, simple steepest-descent algorithms are not effective and evolutionary computation algorithms are proposed as a paradigm for dynamic monitoring networks to pinpoint CO{sub 2} seepage areas.

  3. The North American Carbon Program Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project Part 1: Overview and experimental design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huntzinger, D.N.; Schwalm, C.; Michalak, A.M; Schaefer, K.; King, A.W.; Wei, Y.; Jacobson, A.; Liu, S.; Cook, R.; Post, W.M.; Berthier, G.; Hayes, D.; Huang, M.; Ito, A.; Lei, H.; Lu, C.; Mao, J.; Peng, C.H.; Peng, S.; Poulter, B.; Riccuito, D.; Shi, X.; Tian, H.; Wang, W.; Zeng, N.; Zhao, F.; Zhu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) have become an integral tool for extrapolating local observations and understanding of land-atmosphere carbon exchange to larger regions. The North American Carbon Program (NACP) Multi-scale synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) is a formal model intercomparison and evaluation effort focused on improving the diagnosis and attribution of carbon exchange at regional and global scales. MsTMIP builds upon current and past synthesis activities, and has a unique framework designed to isolate, interpret, and inform understanding of how model structural differences impact estimates of carbon uptake and release. Here we provide an overview of the MsTMIP effort and describe how the MsTMIP experimental design enables the assessment and quantification of TBM structural uncertainty. Model structure refers to the types of processes considered (e.g. nutrient cycling, disturbance, lateral transport of carbon), and how these processes are represented (e.g. photosynthetic formulation, temperature sensitivity, respiration) in the models. By prescribing a common experimental protocol with standard spin-up procedures and driver data sets, we isolate any biases and variability in TBM estimates of regional and global carbon budgets resulting from differences in the models themselves (i.e. model structure) and model-specific parameter values. An initial intercomparison of model structural differences is represented using hierarchical cluster diagrams (a.k.a. dendrograms), which highlight similarities and differences in how models account for carbon cycle, vegetation, energy, and nitrogen cycle dynamics. We show that, despite the standardized protocol used to derive initial conditions, models show a high degree of variation for GPP, total living biomass, and total soil carbon, underscoring the influence of differences in model structure and parameterization on model estimates.

  4. EA-1835: Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) Phase II Michigan Basin Project in Chester Township, Michigan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide approximately $65.5 million in financial assistance in a cost-sharing arrangement with the project proponent, MRCSP. MRCSP's proposed project would use CO2 captured from an existing natural gas processing plant in Chester Township, pipe it approximately 1 mile to an injection well, and inject it into a deep saline aquifer for geologic sequestration. This project would demonstrate the geologic sequestration of 1,000,000 metric tons of CO2 over a 4-year period. The project and EA are on hold.

  5. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Chris; Bacon, Diana

    2014-09-07

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could resultmore »from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely conduits for brine and CO2 leaks. Leakage uncertainty was based on hypothetical injection of CO2 for 50 years at a rate of 5 million tons per year into a depleted oil/gas reservoir with high permeability and, one or more wells provided leakage pathways from the storage reservoir to the overlying aquifer. This scenario corresponds to a storage site with historical oil/gas production and some poorly completed legacy wells that went undetected through site evaluation, operations, and post-closure. For the aquifer systems and leakage scenarios studied here, CO2 and brine leakage are likely to drive pH below and increase total dissolved solids (TDS) above the “no-impact thresholds;” and the subsequent plumes, although small, are likely to persist for long periods of time in the absence of remediation. In these scenarios, however, risk to human health may not be significant for two reasons. First, our simulated plume volumes are much smaller than the average inter-well spacing for these representative aquifers, so the impacted groundwater would be unlikely to be pumped for drinking water. Second, even within the impacted plume volumes little water exceeds the primary maximum contamination levels.« less

  6. Key factors for determining groundwater impacts due to leakage from geologic carbon sequestration reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan A.; Keating, Elizabeth; Mansoor, Kayyum; Dai, Zhenxue; Sun, Yunwei; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney; Brown, Christopher F.; Bacon, Diana H.

    2014-10-01

    The National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) is developing a science-based toolset for the analysis of potential impacts to groundwater chemistry from CO2 injection (www.netldoe.gov/nrap). The toolset adopts a stochastic approach in which predictions address uncertainties in shallow groundwater and leakage scenarios. It is derived from detailed physics and chemistry simulation results that are used to train more computationally efficient models, referred to here as reduced-order models (ROMs), for each component system. In particular, these tools can be used to help regulators and operators understand the expected sizes and longevity of plumes in pH, TDS, and dissolved metals that could result from a leakage of brine and/or CO2 from a storage reservoir into aquifers. This information can inform, for example, decisions on monitoring strategies that are both effective and efficient. We have used this approach to develop predictive reduced-order models for two common types of reservoirs, but the approach could be used to develop a model for a specific aquifer or other common types of aquifers. In this paper we describe potential impacts to groundwater quality due to CO2 and brine leakage, discuss an approach to calculate thresholds under which no impact to groundwater occurs, describe the time scale for impact on groundwater, and discuss the probability of detecting a groundwater plume should leakage occur. To facilitate this, multi-phase flow and reactive transport simulations and emulations were developed for two classes of aquifers, considering uncertainty in leakage source terms and aquifer hydrogeology. We targeted an unconfined fractured carbonate aquifer based on the Edwards aquifer in Texas and a confined alluvium aquifer based on the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas, which share characteristics typical of many drinking water aquifers in the United States. The hypothetical leakage scenarios centered on the notion that wellbores are the most likely conduits for brine and CO2 leaks. Leakage uncertainty was based on hypothetical injection of CO2 for 50 years at a rate of 5 million tons per year into a depleted oil/gas reservoir with high permeability and, one or more wells provided leakage pathways from the storage reservoir to the overlying aquifer. This scenario corresponds to a storage site with historical oil/gas production and some poorly completed legacy wells that went undetected through site evaluation, operations, and post-closure. For the aquifer systems and leakage scenarios studied here, CO2 and brine leakage are likely to drive pH below and increase total dissolved solids (TDS) above the “no-impact thresholds;” and the subsequent plumes, although small, are likely to persist for long periods of time in the absence of remediation. In these scenarios, however, risk to human health may not be significant for two reasons. First, our simulated plume volumes are much smaller than the average inter-well spacing for these representative aquifers, so the impacted groundwater would be unlikely to be pumped for drinking water. Second, even within the impacted plume volumes little water exceeds the primary maximum contamination levels.

  7. CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and John Kadyszewski Winrock International Ecosystem Services Unit 1621 N. Kent St, Suite 1200 Arlington no legal liability for the information in this report; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved

  8. Carbon Sequestration.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from thecarbon capture

  9. Sandia Energy - Carbon Sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygen GenerationTechnologies |Education

  10. Characterization of Siberian Arctic coastal sediments: Implications for terrestrial organic carbon export

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    pyrolysis-GC/MS of the sedimentary organic carbon (SOC) indicated an increase in the freshness for carbon. As such, large quantities of soil organic carbon are stored in the region. It is estimated

  11. An Investigation of CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saldin, Dilano

    An Investigation of CO2 Sequestration through Mineralization Conference on Sustainable Construction area and increased availability of CO2 for rapid carbonation. The hardened and carbonated materials Slag #12;Carbonation Chemistry Dissolution of CO2 in water. CO2(g) CO2(aq) Formation of carbonic acid

  12. DE-SC0004118 (Wong & Lindquist). Final Report: Changes of Porosity, Permeability and Mechanical Strength Induced by Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WONG, TENG-FONG; Lindquist, Brent

    2014-09-22

    In the context of CO{sub 2} sequestration, the overall objective of this project is to conduct a systematic investigation of how the flow of the acidic, CO{sub 2} saturated, single phase component of the injected/sequestered fluid changes the microstructure, permeability and strength of sedimentary rocks, specifically limestone and sandstone samples. Hydromechanical experiments, microstructural observations and theoretical modeling on multiple scales were conducted.

  13. RECS student sequestration program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-12-31

    The 2007 Research Experiment in Carbon Sequestration (RECS) met at the Montana State University (MSU) and a variety of field sites over the 10-day period of July 29 - Aug 10. This year's group consisted of 17 students from graduate and doctoral programs in the United States and Canada, as well as early career professionals in fields related to carbon mitigation. Appropriately, because greenhouse gas reduction and storage is a global problem, the group included seven international students, from France, Iran, Paraguay, Turkey, Russia and India. Classroom talks featured experts from academia, government, national laboratories, and the private sector, who discussed carbon capture and storage technologies and related policy issues. Then, students traveled to Colstrip, Montana to visit PPL Montana's coal-fired power plant and view the local geology along the Montana/Wyoming border. Finally, students spent several days in the hands-on work at ZERT, using carbon dioxide detection and monitoring equipment. 1 photo.

  14. Drilling, Completion, and Data Collection Plans An Assessment of Geological Carbon Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin: Phase III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkewicz, Nicholas; Kirksey, Jim; Finley, Robert

    2015-05-01

    Executive Summary The Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) is managed by the Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium (MGSC) and is led by the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) at the University of Illinois. The project site is located on the Archer Daniels Midland Company (ADM) property in Decatur, Illinois, and is a fully integrated carbon capture and storage (CCS) project that uses CO? captured from the ethanol-producing fermentation process at the ADM corn-processing plant (Finley et. al., 2013). IBDP has a goal of injecting one million tonnes of CO? into the basal sands of the Mt. Simon Sandstone over a three-year period. This is a multifaceted project, and this report details the planning and results of the drilling, completions, well testing, log data acquisition, and the Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) aspects of the project. Three deep wells were planned for the IBDP: • The injection well: Injection Well #1 (CCS1); • The monitoring well (both in-zone and above seal): Verification Well #1 (VW1); and • The geophone monitoring well: Geophysical Monitoring Well #1 (GM1). The detailed plans for these wells are attached to the appendices of this document. The wells were drilled successfully with little deviation from the original plans. The biggest change from the plan to execution was the need to adjust for larger-than-expected loss of circulation in the Potosi section of the Knox Formation. The completions reports also attached to this document detail the well constructions as they were actually built. Injectivity testing was carried out, and the perforating plans were adjusted based on the results. Additional perforations and acidizing were performed as a result of the injectivity testing. The testing plans are detailed in this report along with the actual testing results. The injectivity testing results were used in the modeling and simulation efforts. Detailed HSE plans were developed and implemented during the planning and execution phases of the project. The implementation included an HSE Bridging Document, which served to unify the HSE policies of the project partners and key subcontractors. The HSE plan and actual HSE results are presented in this document. There were no recordable HSE incidents during the project. A detailed logging program was developed based on project needs. The log data were acquired in accordance with the plan, and both the plan and log results are presented in this report. Log data were heavily utilized by the research staff, modelers, reservoir engineers, and for technical and permitting efforts. 5 Several key lessons were learned during the project: • Safety in operations and execution is paramount and is only achieved through proper planning and behavior control. The certainty of this was reinforced through implementation of this lesson and the resultant flawless HSE performance during the project. • Losses of drilling fluid circulation were larger than anticipated within the Potosi Formation. Circulation was only recovered through cementing the loss zones. • When possible, minimizing complexity in permit requirements and well designs is preferable. • The size of the wells were outside of the standard experience and expertise typical within the basin, and therefore required substantial planning and ramp-up of contractors and partners to meet project objectives. • With multiple stakeholders and research partners, establishing objectives and requirements early and adhering to change request procedures throughout the project are critical to manage competing data and sampling objectives that may be detrimental to overall progress. The well construction and completion operations were successfully executed, with all wells built in a manner that achieved excellent wellbore integrity. Log planning involved a number of stakeholders and technical specialists. Data collection from logging, coring, and testing was excellent. Time and effort spent with the associated contractors and suppliers to develop a well plan beyond normal scope proved highly success

  15. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-12-01

    The studies summarized herein were conducted during 2009–2014 to investigate the utility of the Knox Group and St. Peter Sandstone deeply buried geologic strata for underground storage of carbon dioxide (CO2), a practice called CO2 sequestration (CCS). In the subsurface of the midwestern United States, the Knox and associated strata extend continuously over an area approaching 500,000 sq. km, about three times as large as the State of Illinois. Although parts of this region are underlain by the deeper Mt. Simon Sandstone, which has been proven by other Department of Energy-funded research as a resource for CCS, the Knox strata may be an additional CCS resource for some parts of the Midwest and may be the sole geologic storage (GS) resource for other parts. One group of studies assembles, analyzes, and presents regional-scale and point-scale geologic information that bears on the suitability of the geologic formations of the Knox for a CCS project. New geologic and geo-engineering information was developed through a small-scale test of CO2 injection into a part of the Knox, conducted in western Kentucky. These studies and tests establish the expectation that, at least in some locations, geologic formations within the Knox will (a) accept a commercial-scale flow rate of CO2 injected through a drilled well; (b) hold a commercial-scale mass of CO2 (at least 30 million tons) that is injected over decades; and (c) seal the injected CO2 within the injection formations for hundreds to thousands of years. In CCS literature, these three key CCS-related attributes are called injectivity, capacity, and containment. The regional-scale studies show that reservoir and seal properties adequate for commercial-scale CCS in a Knox reservoir are likely to extend generally throughout the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Information distinguishing less prospective subregions from more prospective fairways is included in this report. Another group of studies report the results of reservoir flow simulations that estimate the progress and outcomes of hypothetical CCS projects carried out within the Knox (particularly within the Potosi Dolomite subunit, which, in places, is highly permeable) and within the overlying St. Peter Sandstone. In these studies, the regional-scale information and a limited amount of detailed data from specific boreholes is used as the basis for modeling the CO2 injection process (dynamic modeling). The simulation studies were conducted progressively, with each successive study designed to refine the conclusions of the preceding one or to answer additional questions. The simulation studies conclude that at Decatur, Illinois or a geologically similar site, the Potosi Dolomite reservoir may provide adequate injectivity and capacity for commercial-scale injection through a single injection well. This conclusion depends on inferences from seismic-data attributes that certain highly permeable horizons observed in the wells represent laterally persistent, porous vuggy zones that are vertically more common than initially evident from wellbore data. Lateral persistence of vuggy zones is supported by isotopic evidence that the conditions that caused vug development (near-surface processes) were of regional rather than local scale. Other studies address aspects of executing and managing a CCS project that targets a Knox reservoir. These studies cover well drilling, public interactions, representation of datasets and conclusions using geographic information system (GIS) platforms, and risk management.

  16. Recovery Act: Geologic Sequestration Training and Research Walsh...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    simulation, and (6) development of an advanced undergraduategraduate level course on coal combustion and gasification, climate change, and carbon sequestration. Four graduate...

  17. Successful Sequestration and Enhanced Oil Recovery Project Could...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the energy industry, and the general public with reliable information about industrial carbon sequestration and enhanced oil recovery." In the first phase of the research...

  18. Assessing leakage detectability at geologic CO2 sequestration sites using the probabilistic collocation method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Zhiming

    detectability at geologic carbon sequestration sites under parameter uncertainty. Uncertainty quantification (UQ and natural features, which consti- tute one of the greatest threats to the integrity of carbon sequestration for reducing greenhouse gas emission. A primary goal of geologic carbon sequestration is to ensure

  19. ECONOMIC MODELING OF CO2 CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION Sean Biggs, Howard Herzog, John Reilly, Henry Jacoby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of carbon capture and sequestration technologies using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model. We model two of the most promising carbon capture and sequestration technologies, one, technological, and social issues of carbon capture and sequestration technologies. In 1997, the President

  20. ORIGINAL PAPER Changes in carbon density for three old-growth forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a living laboratory for studying forest carbon sequestration under natural environmental conditions that forest landscapes on Changbai Mountain are indeed carbon sinks. Keywords Carbon sequestration . China provide baselines that reveal the potential for continued carbon sequestration in many places where

  1. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system - Part 2: Impact on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fang; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Levis, Samuel

    2014-03-07

    Fire is the primary terrestrial ecosystem disturbance agent on a global scale. It affects carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems by emitting carbon to atmosphere directly and immediately from biomass burning (i.e., fire direct effect), and by changing net ecosystem productivity and land-use carbon loss in post-fire regions due to biomass burning and fire-induced vegetation mortality (i.e., fire indirect effect). Here, we provide the first quantitative assessment about the impact of fire on the net carbon balance of global terrestrial ecosystems for the 20th century, and investigate the roles of fire direct and indirect effects. This study is done by quantifying the difference between the 20th century fire-on and fire-off simulations with NCAR community land model CLM4.5 as the model platform. Results show that fire decreases net carbon gain of the global terrestrial ecosystems by 1.0 Pg C yr-1 average across the 20th century, as a results of fire direct effect (1.9 Pg C yr-1) partly offset by indirect effect (-0.9 Pg C yr-1). Fire generally decreases the average carbon gains of terrestrial ecosystems in post-fire regions, which are significant over tropical savannas and part of forests in North America and the east of Asia. The general decrease of carbon gains in post-fire regions is because fire direct and indirect effects have similar spatial patterns and the former (to decrease carbon gain) is generally stronger. Moreover, the effect of fire on net carbon balance significantly declines prior to ~1970 with trend of 8 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire indirect effect and increases afterward with trend of 18 Tg C yr-1 due to increasing fire direct effect.

  2. Continental-scale comparisons of terrestrial carbon sinks estimated from satellite data and ecosystem modeling 19821998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myneni, Ranga B.

    (tundra and boreal) sinks for atmospheric CO2. Published by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Ecosystems; Remote sensing; Ocean climate 1. Introduction Less than 50% of the carbon emitted). This is the so-called ``missing sink'' for carbon dioxide emissions. Measured atmospheric CO2, 13 C, and O2/N2

  3. Forest biomes are major reserves for terrestrial carbon, and major components of global primary productivity.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    (World Energy Council, Nature 390, p. 215) and increasing at a rate of about 0·1 Gt year­1 primary productivity. The carbon balance of forests is determined by a number of component processes in the carbon balance of each biome are also reviewed, and the evidence for a carbon sink in each forest biome

  4. Secretary Chu Announces $3 Billion Investment for Carbon Capture...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Billion Investment for Carbon Capture and Sequestration Secretary Chu Announces 3 Billion Investment for Carbon Capture and Sequestration December 4, 2009 - 12:00am Addthis...

  5. Systematic assessment of terrestrial biogeochemistry in coupled climate-carbon models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Mirin A (2007) Combined climate and carbon-cycle effects ofcycle are a robust constraint at a large spatial scale on the combined

  6. Age of riverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primary production in tropics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    exchange of carbon and water in an Amazonian rain forest, J.rains. The lack of variability in ? 14 C VP values between the rising water

  7. Effect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firoozabadi, Abbas

    ) in deep saline aquifers is considered one of the most effective methods for carbon sequestration., 48, W09539, doi:10.1029/2012WR011939.* 1. Introduction [2] Carbon sequestration in deep salineEffect of permeability anisotropy on buoyancy-driven flow for CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers

  8. Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration in Agriculture and Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    for presentation at DOE First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration, May 14-17, 2001, Washington D.C. #12 sequestration generally refers to the absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through photosyntheticEconomic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: Comparative Role for Soil Sequestration

  9. 25July/August 2004 Journal of Forestry arbon sequestration is becom-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon sequestration through forest growth provides a low-cost approach for meeting state and national sampling a specific forest. Keywords: climate change; sequestration ABSTRACT How to Estimate Forest Carbon25July/August 2004 · Journal of Forestry C arbon sequestration is becom- ing an increasingly

  10. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  11. Mobilization of Metals from Eau Claire Siltstone and the Impact of Oxygen under Geological Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Krogstad, Eirik J.; Newburn, Matthew K.; Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-09-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) has been proposed as a viable strategy to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission; however, the increased cost that will be incurred by fossil energy production facilities is a deterrent to implementation of this technology. Allowing impurities in the effluent CO2 stream could result in significant financial and energy savings for CO2 capture and separation. However, impurities such as O2 have the potential to influence the redox state and alter the geochemical interactions that occur within GCS reservoirs, which increases the concern for CO2 and brine leakage from the storage reservoir as well as the overlying groundwater contamination. In this work, to investigate the impact of O2 co-injected with CO2 on the geochemical interactions, especially the trace metal mobilization from a GCS reservoir rock, batch studies were conducted with Eau Claire siltstone collected from CO2 sequestration sites. The rock was reacted with synthetic brines in contact with either 100% CO2 or a mixture of 95 mole% CO2-5 mole% O2 at 10.1 MPa and 75 °C. Both microscopic and spectroscopic measurements, including 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy, Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and chemical extraction were combined in this study to investigate reaction mechanisms. The Eau Claire siltstone contains quartz (52 wt%), fluorapatite (40%), and aluminosilicate (5%) as major components, and dolomite (2%), pyrite (1%), and small-particle-/poorly-crystalline Fe-oxides as minor components. With the introduction of CO2 into the reaction vessel containing rock and brine, the leaching of small amounts of fluorapatite, aluminosilicate, and dolomite occurred. Trace metals of environmental concern, including Pb, As, Cd, and Cu were detected in the leachate with concentrations up to 400 ppb in the CO2-brine-rock reaction system within 30 days. In the presence of O2, the mobilization of Pb, Cd, and Cu was significantly enhanced, whereas As concentrations decreased, compared with the reaction system without oxygen. The presence of oxygen resulted in the formation of secondary Fe-oxides which appear to be Fe(II)-substituted P-containing ferrihydrite. Although the rock contained only 1.04 wt% total Fe, oxidative dissolution of pyrite, leaching and oxidation of structural Fe(II) in fluorapatite, and precipitation of Fe-oxides significantly decreased the pH in brine with oxygen(pH 3.3-3.7), compared with the reaction system without oxygen (pH 4.2-4.4). In the CO2-rock-brine system without O2, the majority of As remained in the rock, with about 1.1% of the total As being released from intrinsic Fe-oxides to the aqueous phase. The release behavior of As to solution was consistent with competitive adsorption between phosphate/fluoride and As on Fe-oxide surfaces. In the presence of O2 the mobility of As was reduced due to enhanced adsorption onto both intrinsic and secondary Fe-oxide surfaces.When O2 was present, the dominant species in solution was the less toxic As(V). This work will advance our understanding of the geochemical reaction mechanisms that occur under GCS conditions and help to evaluate the risks associated with geological CO2 sequestration.

  12. Reducing risk in basin scale sequestration: A Bayesian model selection framework for improving detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seto, C.J.

    Geological CO[subscript 2] sequestration is a key technology for mitigating atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations while providing low carbon energy. Deployment of sequestration at scales necessary for a material ...

  13. Optimization of Mineral Activation for CO2 sequestration Hui X. Ou, McNair Scholar, Pennsylvania State University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    mineral carbonates, has proved to be a promising concept for permanent CO2 sequestration. However provide incremental improvements, and therefore, carbon sequestration technologies must be developed to achieve zero emissions (DOE, 1999). Carbon sequestration refers to the removal and long-term storage

  14. Techno-economic analysis of sour gas oxy-fuel combustion power cycles for carbon capture and sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakroun, Nadim Walid

    2014-01-01

    The world's growing energy demand coupled with the problem of global warming have led us to investigate new energy sources that can be utilized in a way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions than traditional fossil fuel power ...

  15. Ozone effects on net primary production and carbon sequestration in the conterminous United States using a biogeochemistry model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felzer, Benjamin Seth.; Kicklighter, David W.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Wang, Chien.; Zhuang, Qianlai.; Prinn, Ronald G.

    The effects of air pollution on vegetation may provide an important control on the carbon cycle that has not yet been widely considered. Prolonged exposure to high levels of ozone, in particular, has been observed to inhibit ...

  16. Evaluating aerosol direct radiative effects on global terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    loading normally induces lower solar energy arriving at the land surface whereas plant photosynthesis of diffuse solar radiation for plant carbon uptake. Comparing with direct-beam solar radiation, diffuse solar to quantify aerosol effects on downward solar radiation. Simulations with and without considering the aerosol

  17. The terrestrial carbon inventory on the Savannah River Site: Assessing the change in Carbon pools 1951-2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Zhaohua; Trettin, Carl, C.; Parresol, Bernard, R.

    2011-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has changed from an agricultural-woodland landscape in 1951 to a forested landscape during that latter half of the twentieth century. The corresponding change in carbon (C) pools associated land use on the SRS was estimated using comprehensive inventories from 1951 and 2001 in conjunction with operational forest management and monitoring data from the site.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2004-08-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library are being sampled to collect CO{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples have been acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log has been acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 4.62 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 19 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 86 scf/ton in the Lower Huron Member of the shale. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  19. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2005-01-01

    Devonian gas shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky. In the shale, natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces. This is analogous to methane storage in coal beds, where CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. Drill cuttings from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library were sampled to determine CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption isotherms. Sidewall core samples were acquired to investigate CO{sub 2} displacement of methane. An elemental capture spectroscopy log was acquired to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and mineralogy. Average random vitrinite reflectance data range from 0.78 to 1.59 (upper oil to wet gas and condensate hydrocarbon maturity range). Total organic content determined from acid-washed samples ranges from 0.69 to 14 percent. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities at 400 psi range from a low of 14 scf/ton in less organic-rich zones to more than 136 scf/ton. Initial estimates based on these data indicate a sequestration capacity of 5.3 billion tons of CO{sub 2} in the Lower Huron Member of the Ohio Shale of eastern Kentucky and as much as 28 billion tons total in the deeper and thicker parts of the Devonian shales in Kentucky. Should the black shales of Kentucky prove to be a viable geologic sink for CO{sub 2}, their extensive occurrence in Paleozoic basins across North America would make them an attractive regional target for economic CO{sub 2} storage and enhanced natural gas production.

  20. Natural migration rates of trees: Global terrestrial carbon cycle implications. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon, A.M.

    1996-06-01

    The paper discusses the forest-ecological processes which constrain the rate of response by forests to rapid future environmental change. It establishes a minimum response time by natural tree populations which invade alien landscapes and reach the status of a mature, closed canopy forest when maximum carbon storage is realized. It considers rare long-distance and frequent short-distance seed transport, seedling and tree establishment, sequential tree and stand maturation, and spread between newly established colonies.