Sample records for terrain roughness terrain

  1. Speed Map for Autonomous Rovers over Rough Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Jonathan Edau

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grid Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .considered obstacles [27] Grid Map showing Tile Size, Cellspeed map. It also covers grid maps and terrain roughness,

  2. BAYESIAN METHOD FOR SEGMENTATION OF SAR IMAGES IN ROUGH TERRAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    BAYESIAN METHOD FOR SEGMENTATION OF SAR IMAGES IN ROUGH TERRAIN Marco Caparrini1 , Klaus Seidel1 are the basis for radiometric correction. Considering SAR images, the huge amount of processing for geographic and geometric calibration and registration that is needed prior to analysis is well established. Nonetheless

  3. Design of a chain flail mower for leveling rough terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores, Aaron (Aaron N.)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The flail mower is a piece of agricultural equipment that uses bladed attachments rotating around a drum to cut down bushes and grassy terrain. One major drawback to the flail mower is the rapid wear that happens almost ...

  4. Urbanizing terrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romanos, Christoforos

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Urban "sprawl"in the East Attica area of Athens has dramatically changed the former rural economy in a manner consistent with the urbanizing terrain's underlying properties: agricultural subdivisions, existing centres, ...

  5. Development of a Hybrid Powered 2D Biped Walking Machine Designed for Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Bryce C.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    has built a three legged 2D biped walking machine to be used as a test stand for studying rough terrain walking. The specific aim of this research is to investigate how biped walkers can best maintain walking stability when acted upon by small...

  6. Development of the Robotic Touch foot Sensor for 2D walking Robot, for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hunwoo

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of the Robotic Touch foot Sensor for 2D walking Robot, for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion By HUNWOO LEE Submitted to the graduate degree program in Mechanical Engineering and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas... ________________________________ Professor Robert Umholtz Date Defended: June 5, 2012 ii The Thesis Committee for HUNWOO LEE certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: Development of the Robotic Touch Foot Sensor for 2D Walking Robot...

  7. Terrainosaurus: realistic terrain synthesis using genetic algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saunders, Ryan L.

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ), are solid evidence that believable terrain can be visualized in real-time with current technology. Terrain generation, in contrast, has received comparatively little treatment in the literature. Fractal-based techniques are the most prevalent, because... noted, fractal methods for terrain generation are limited in the types of terrain they can simulate, and one generally has to resort to elevation maps digitized from the real world to get more interesting and believable terrain models. In this thesis, I...

  8. Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Carlos

    Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations Ph. D. Student: Christopher captures the hydrology is important for determining the effectiveness of a terrain simplification technique also present a novel ter- rain simplification algorithm based on the compression of hydrology features

  9. Terrain Characterization and Classification with a Mobile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Johann

    , commonly known categories, such as gravel, sand, or as- phalt. Terrain characterization, on the other hand aims at associating terrain with well-defined categories, such as gravel, sand, or dirt. A related for a turn is lower when driving over sand or wet grass than when driving on packed dirt or asphalt. In order

  10. Maps and Mapping Lab 6: Terrain Representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Keith

    Maps and Mapping Lab 6: Terrain Representation OBJECTIVES Representing the earth's relief on a two. In this exercise, we will examine some ways that terrain can be represented on a map and in digital form. You exaggeration using Google Earth. MATERIALS USGS Quadrangle map, Ruler, Pencil, Calculator, Google Earth (4

  11. Terrain Trafficability Characterization with a Mobile Robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Johann

    for a turn is lower when driving over sand or wet grass than when driving on packed dirt or asphalt tests we collected data on a variety of different terrains, such as gravel, sand, asphalt, grass

  12. Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Evaluating Hydrology Preservation of Simplified Terrain Representations Jonathan Muckella , Marcus network. A quan- titative measurement of how accurately a drainage network captures the hydrology to preserve the important hydrology features. This method and other simplification schemes are then evaluated

  13. Alteration of Terrain Permits (New Hampshire)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This permit is required whenever a project proposes to disturb more than 100,000 square feet of contiguous terrain (50,000 square feet if any portion of project is within protected shoreland), or...

  14. High performance robotic traverse of desert terrain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittaker, William (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents tentative innovations to enable unmanned vehicle guidance for a class of off-road traverse at sustained speeds greater than 30 miles per hour. Analyses and field trials suggest that even greater navigation speeds might be achieved. The performance calls for innovation in mapping, perception, planning and inertial-referenced stabilization of components, hosted aboard capable locomotion. The innovations are motivated by the challenge of autonomous ground vehicle traverse of 250 miles of desert terrain in less than 10 hours, averaging 30 miles per hour. GPS coverage is assumed to be available with localized blackouts. Terrain and vegetation are assumed to be akin to that of the Mojave Desert. This terrain is interlaced with networks of unimproved roads and trails, which are a key to achieving the high performance mapping, planning and navigation that is presented here.

  15. Intelligent terrain avoidance agent for General Aviation Free Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gesting, Paul

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Flight into Terrain. A simplistic conditional logic model was created and tested on a two-dimensional terrain slice. Then this algorithm was implemented with the dynamics of a Commander 700, a twin-engine general aviation aircraft. This algorithm...

  16. Creating Standards for Winter Terrain Parks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and tested by local ski pros Some NSAA guidelines: Terrain Park Manual Landing slope = take off angle Landing)- showed analytic design to limit EFH Shealy, et al.(2010)- experimentally measured rider variability becomes where is the velocity perpendicular to the landing surface. v v v How to measure

  17. Adaptive Streaming and Rendering of Large Terrains using Strip Masks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Adaptive Streaming and Rendering of Large Terrains using Strip Masks Joachim Pouderoux Jean-Eudes Marvie IPARLA Project (LaBRI - INRIA Futurs) University of Bordeaux, France Abstract Terrain rendering is an important factor in the rendering of virtual scenes. If they are large and detailed, digital terrains can

  18. TERRAIN ESTIMATION USING INTERNAL SENSORS Debangshu Sadhukhan, Carl Moore, Emmanuel Collins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Emmanuel

    was successful in identifying gravel, packed dirt, and grass. KEY WORDS Mobile robot, terrain identification. For our research "sensing terrain" means determining the type of terrain, i.e.: gravel, sand, asphalt, mud

  19. Ris-PhD-Report Complex Terrain and Wind Lidars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    calculations over the same terrains. The lidar performance was also simulated with the commercial software WAs;#12;Author: Ferhat Bingöl Title: Complex terrain and wind lidars Division: Wind Energy Division Risø-PhD-52 and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated

  20. Hydrology-Aware Constrained Triangulation of Terrain Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franklin, W. Randolph

    Hydrology-Aware Constrained Triangulation of Terrain Data Jonathan Muckella , Marcus Andradeb , W present a new data structure for simplifing terrain that captures hydrology significant features using. This allows better compression ratios the standard Triangu- lated Irregular Networks with highier hydrology

  1. Terrain sensing and estimation for dynamic outdoor mobile robots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward, Christopher Charles

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many applications, mobile robots are required to travel on outdoor terrain at high speed. Compared to traditional low-speed, laboratory-based robots, outdoor scenarios pose increased perception and mobility challenges ...

  2. Feature-based Terrain Editing From Complex Sketches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tasse, Flora Ponjou; Emilien, Arnaud; Cani, Marie-Paule; Hahmann, Stefanie; Dodgson, Neil

    2014-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    with plausible details.160 Cohen et al. [10] and Watanabe et al. [11] present the first161 terrain modelling interfaces that take as input a 2D silhouette162 stroke directly drawn on a 3D terrain model. They only han-163 dle a single silhouette stroke... -junctions. Our method is also able to han-637 dle complex mountains where ridges are not as well-defined as638 they are on smooth landscapes. An example of this is shown639 in Figure 10. Our proposed approach differs from other sketch-640 based methods...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - all terrain vehicles Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    terrain vehicles Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: all terrain vehicles Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 EHS 2-14 December 2008 DEPARTMENT...

  4. Nathan Holmberg Modeling of Turbulent Water over Natural Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, James R.

    Nathan Holmberg 2514355 1 Modeling of Turbulent Water over Natural Terrain Project Report Abstract of this project is to try to model flowing water in rivers, over waterfalls etc with the intent that the model can to represent certain effects, such as the motion of deep water waves to the exclusion of all else, to more

  5. MARS TERRAIN IMAGE CLASSIFICATION USING CARTESIAN GENETIC PROGRAMMING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Thomas

    MARS TERRAIN IMAGE CLASSIFICATION USING CARTESIAN GENETIC PROGRAMMING J. Leitner, S. Harding, A. F to human designed approaches, a great deal of progress has been made using machine learning techniques to perform classification from images. In this work, we demonstrate the first known use of Cartesian Genetic

  6. Digital Terrain Modeling Ayman F. Habib ENGO 573: Chapter 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    Photography (Tropical) SPOT Satellite Aerial Photography (Urban) Satellite Stereo SAR (RADARSAT) Airborne orthogonally projected maps. · Procedure: ­ Interior orientation. · Calibration procedure. ­ Exterior a calibration procedure. #12;10 Digital Terrain Modeling Ayman F. Habib 19 Test Field for Camera Calibration

  7. MESOSCALE MODELLING OF WIND ENERGY OVER NON-HOMOGENEOUS TERRAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pielke, Roger A.

    MESOSCALE MODELLING OF WIND ENERGY OVER NON-HOMOGENEOUS TERRAIN (ReviewArticle) Y. MAHRER.1. OBSERVATIONALAPPROACHES Evaluations of wind energy based on wind observations (usually surface winds) at well, the resolution of the wind energy pattern throughout an extended area by this methodology requires a large number

  8. I/O-Efficient Computation of Water Flow Across a Terrain University of Aarhus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeh, Norbert

    of the terrain. In reality, water does collect in the terrain's basins, particularly during heavy rainfallI/O-Efficient Computation of Water Flow Across a Terrain Lars Arge MADALGO University of Aarhus. Over time, water collects in the basins of T , forming lakes that spill into ad- jacent basins. Our

  9. Atmospheric studies in complex terrain: a planning guide for future studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to assist the US Department of Energy in Conducting its atmospheric studies in complex terrain (ASCOT0 by defining various complex terrain research systems and relating these options to specific landforms sites. This includes: (1) reviewing past meteorological and diffusion research on complex terrain; (2) relating specific terrain-induced airflow phenomena to specific landforms and time and space scales; (3) evaluating the technical difficulty of modeling and measuring terrain-induced airflow phenomena; and (4) avolving severdal research options and proposing candidate sites for continuing and expanding field and modeling work. To evolve research options using variable candidate sites, four areas were considered: site selection, terrain uniqueness and quantification, definition of research problems and research plans. 36 references, 111 figures, 20 tables.

  10. Mapping textures on 3d terrains: a hybrid cellular automata approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinvhal, Swapnil

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    ?. Benati [7] showed that cellular automata can be used to model phenomena typical of living communities like reproduction, self-organization and a complex evolution. An interesting relation between fractals and cellular automata has been discussed... automata approach to represent a model. This gives the advantage of direct texture simulation on the model. II.c Terrain Generation Fractals [57] have been used to generate terrains by many terrain generation engines like fracPlanet [1] and Frac...

  11. The chaotic terrain of Elysium Planitia, Mars: a mapping and geomorphic analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, Sara Layne

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Ground Ice Eolian Processes in Elysium Planitia. GEOMORPHIC ANALYSIS OF GALAXIA CHAOS AND SURROUNDING TERRAIN. 8 11 14 23 25 28 28 31 37 39 41 43 44 Phase A: The Upland Surface Phase B: The Fractured Lobes. Lobe 1 Lobe 2 Lobe 3 Lobe... 4 Phase C: The Subdued Terrain. Phase D: The Knobby Terrain SUMMARY OF THE PHASES POSSIBLE ORIGINS FOR ELYSIUM'S CHAOTIC TERRAIN. 44 47 48 56 62 68 72 84 90 . 102 Collapse Mechanisms Associated With Water and Ice. Volcanic Processes...

  12. A Uniform Sky Illumination Model to Enhance Shading of Terrain and Urban Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, James

    . Brookville, NY 11050 USA (516) 299-2652 Patrick.Kennelly@liu.edu Fax: (516) 299-3945 and A. James Stewart (Foley et al. 1990). Cartographers consider the same factors when shading terrain. Imhof (1982) discussed reflector (Foley et al. 1990; Weibel and Heller 1991; Zhou 1992). Because most terrain elements behave more

  13. Active Ankle Response for a 2-D Biped Robot with Terrain Contact Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hitschmann, Francis Lee

    2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Active Ankle Response for a 2-D Biped Robot with Terrain Contact Sensing By Francis Hitschmann Submitted to the graduate degree program in Mechanical Engineering and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas School... certifies that this is the approved Version of the following thesis: Active Ankle Response for a 2-D Biped Robot with Terrain Contact Sensing Committee: Chairperson* Date Approved...

  14. Rapid gravity and gravity gradiometry terrain corrections via an adaptive quadtree mesh discretization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapid gravity and gravity gradiometry terrain corrections via an adaptive quadtree mesh discretization Kristofer Davis1,2 M. Andy Kass1 Yaoguo Li1 1 Center for Gravity, Electrical, and Magnetic Studies of gravity gradiometry surveys utilising an adaptive quadtree mesh discretization. The data- and terrain

  15. FOREST-AIR FLUXES OF CARBON, WATER AND ENERGY OVER NON-FLAT TERRAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Xuhui

    FOREST-AIR FLUXES OF CARBON, WATER AND ENERGY OVER NON-FLAT TERRAIN XUHUI LEE and XINZHANG HU-air exchange of carbon, water, and energy was conducted at a mid-latitude, mixed forest on non-flat terrain to address this question, we conducted a field experiment on energy and carbon exchanges in a mixed forest

  16. Park Profiler/Jump Analyzer Practical method for determining terrain park jump performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for best practices in terrain park management, design, maintenance, and operations to maximize user. Management II. Planning and Design III. Operations and Maintenance US Terrain Park Council #12;a. start. transition: 1. radial acceleration 1second x v0 above transition d

  17. Energetically Optimal Travel across Terrain: Visualizations and a New Metric of Geographic Distance with Archaeological Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Zoë J.

    Energetically Optimal Travel across Terrain: Visualizations and a New Metric of Geographic Distance the energetically least cost path is shown in blue. This visualization shows how least cost paths often follow propose new methods for terrain visualization and analysis based on measuring paths of least caloric

  18. BEHAVIOR OF RADON PROGENY NEAR OUTDOOR SURFACES IN CONTRASTING TERRAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. D. Schery; P. T. Wasiolek; Y. Li

    Federal legislation expresses a long-term goal of reducing indoor radon to levels comparable to those outdoors. A thorough understanding of the behavior of radon and its progeny in the outdoor environment is therefore important We report near-surface measurements of radon, attached-to-aerosol progeny, and unattachcd-toaerosol progeny in the contrasting environments of the forested hill country of Oak Ridge, TN and the desert sands of White Sands National Monument, NM. Vertical progeny gradients are greater at White Sands due to a smoother terrain, and dose levels tend to be lower due to lower radon flux from the gypsum sand. Both sites show a significant diurnal variation of dose rate with a maximum occurring usually in the early morning. Correlation of dose rate variation with radon variation is surprisingly small suggesting the importance of other factors such as progeny deposition and aerosol concentration in controlling outdoor dose.

  19. Improvements in Terrain-Based Road Vehicle Localization By Initializing an Unscented Kalman Filter Using Particle Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    the computational cost of the previous terrain- based localization algorithm. In order to localize a vehicle alongImprovements in Terrain-Based Road Vehicle Localization By Initializing an Unscented Kalman Filter of a road vehicle along a one-mile test track and 7 kilometer span of a highway using terrain

  20. Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 April 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) Page 2 #12;Interim report Page 3 Table measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) Page 4 Foreword From May 2003 through April 2005Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - all-terrain mobile platform Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mobile platform Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: all-terrain mobile platform Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Susanne Boll, Universitt...

  2. Terrain Perception for DEMO III P. Bellutta, R. Manduchi, L Matthies, K. Owens, A. Rankin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manduchi, Roberto

    XUV in- cludes a LADAR, a radar, and color and infrared (FLIR) cameras (visible on the front and implementation of algorithms for terrain per- ception at JPL. Only passive sensors (color and FLIR cameras

  3. The design of a frame for an all terrain, lever propelled wheelchair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walton, John Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis outlines the process of designing a frame for the Leveraged Freedom Chair (LFC) Prime, an all-terrain levered powered wheelchair designed to improve the mobility of disabled individuals. This design allows for ...

  4. Modelling of wind turbine wakes in complex terrain using computational fluid dynamics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makridis, Alexandros

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis focuses on modelling of wind turbine wakes when they are affected by real complex terrain features, such as hills and forests, and also examines the effect of the rotational momentum imparted to the downstream ...

  5. An Algorithm for the Visualization of a Terrain with Objects FLVIO SZENBERG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as houses, vehicles, and transmission lines, thus allowing a simulated flight. For the objects, described and rapidly, aerial images of terrain with objects such as houses, vehicles, and transmission lines, thus

  6. Multiphase production through hilly terrain pipelines in Cusiana oilfield, Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, T.J.; Fairhurst, C.P.; Nelson, C.J.; Becerra, H.; Bailey, R.S.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cusiana oilfield in Colombia is currently producing about 180,000 bpd through a complex multiphase flowline network. The terrain of the area is very hilly, with substantial elevation changes along the length of the lines. Prediction of pressure drop using industry standard correlations has been very variable in its accuracy. A revised pressure drop method, including the effect of slug formation and decay, has been produced, with appreciably better performance. Field data on flow regime characteristics from several of the lines are presented to show a transition from surging/slugging to a steady {open_quote}homogeneous{close_quote} flow at relatively low mixture velocity. The effect of slug flow on slugcatcher performance has also been assessed, both by direct measurement, and by use of a dynamic simulator. The simulator is used to test new control schemes prior to implementation. At low flowing velocities one line has been seen to undergo large pressure swings and to exhibit slug production due to liquid accumulation and sweepout. This effect is described, and re-produced using a transient simulator.

  7. Subsidence of residual soils in a karst terrain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drumm, E.C.; Kane, W.F.; Ben-Hassine, J.; Scarborough, J.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Ketelle, R.H. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Siting and operating landfills for solid waste disposal in eastern Tennessee that can operate with minimum impact on groundwater is problematic. The operational requirement of thick, excavational soils and the regulatory requirement of a buffer between disposal units and an aquifer result in siting most operating East Tennessee landfills in outcrop areas of the Knox Group. However, the common occurrence of karst terrain and sinkholes in the Knox Group indicates the vulnerability of such sites to rapid groundwater recharge and flow and the potential for subsidence or collapse of soil into bedrock cavities. To address the potential for subsidence or collapse of soils at the East Chestnut Ridge site on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the following activities and analyses were completed: The locations of karst features on the site were determined by field reconnaissance; several sinkholes were selected for detailed examination; soil boring, sampling, and physical testing were performed in soils located within, adjacent to, and outside of sinkholes to characterize soil strength at various depths; detailed plane surveys were made for 11 sinkholes to measure accurately their dimension and shape for use in determining profile functions for subsidence basins at the site; The stress-deformation response of a typical soil profile overlying a hypothetical bedrock cavity was analyzed numerically for a range of soil thickness and a range of cavity radii. A consistent estimate of the relationship between subsidence basin dimension, soil thickness, and cavity radius has been derived. 30 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Low-cost multi-terrain autonomous vehicle for hostile environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, M. L., LLNL

    1996-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes an innovative and unique autonomous vehicle being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for versatile use in hostile environments. Conventional vehicles used in decommissioning and decontaminating, police activity, and unmanned military operations typically are designed with four-wheels or track in contact with the environment. Although four-wheel and track vehicles work well, they are limited in negotiating saturated terrain, steep hills and soft soils. The Spiral Track Autonomous Robot (STAR) is a versatile and maneuverable multi-terrain mobile vehicle that uses the latest available computer technology and two Archimedes screws, in contact with the local environment to intelligently negotiate a hostile environment.

  9. Speed Map for Autonomous Rovers over Rough Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loh, Jonathan Edau

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    presented here: fuzzy logic, reactive control, and machineto speed control is to utilize fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic wascontrol, this is a new area of research where reactive speed controller, fuzzy logic,

  10. Melt and collapse of buried water ice: An alternative hypothesis for the formation of chaotic terrains on Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Melt and collapse of buried water ice: An alternative hypothesis for the formation of chaotic: T. Spohn Keywords: Mars chaotic terrain heat flux outflow channel Chaotic terrains if these features can form by melting and collapse of buried water ice in a confined basin. 2D thermal modelling

  11. Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 465472 Predicting terrain contours using a feed-forward neural network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Sheng

    Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence 16 (2003) 465­472 Predicting terrain contours in pneumatic systems and they are difficult to prevent completely. This caused problems during the testing. 2. Prediction of unknown terrain The legs of the robot needed to be lifted at the end

  12. How to use CFD for Wind in Terrain ... real-life experience!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : · Turbulence modelling / numerical methods · Inclusion of wind turbine wake · Temperature stratification 2 study 3. Construction and operation 4. Wind turbine breakdown! 5. Wind measurements / CFD simulations1 How to use CFD for Wind in Terrain ... real-life experience! CFD day at Suzlon, October 2007 A

  13. Using Immersive 3D Terrain Models For Fusion Of UAV Surveillance Imagery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scerri, Paul

    Using Immersive 3D Terrain Models For Fusion Of UAV Surveillance Imagery Sean Owens , Katia Sycara and Paul Scerri Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA Teams of small and micro UAVs a single operator to utilize data from several UAVs and interact with the data in a more natural and less

  14. Coupled Carbon/Water Fluxes in Complex Terrain, Water-Limited Forests Investigators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walden, Von P.

    Coupled Carbon/Water Fluxes in Complex Terrain, Water-Limited Forests Investigators: Karen Humes of quantifying the magnitude, timing, distribution and coupling of carbon and water fluxes in mountainous forestlands. This includes one segment of the continuum of carbon and water flow from the "forest to the sea

  15. An Experimental Investigation on the Wake Interference of Wind Turbines Sited Over Complex Terrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    1 An Experimental Investigation on the Wake Interference of Wind Turbines Sited Over Complex, 50011 An experimental study was conducted to investigate the interferences of wind turbines sited over conducted in a large wind tunnel with of wind turbine models sited over a flat terrain (baseline case

  16. CO2 transport over complex terrain Jielun Sun a,*, Sean P. Burns a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Britton B.

    CO2 transport over complex terrain Jielun Sun a,*, Sean P. Burns a , Anthony C. Delany a , Steven P; accepted 15 February 2007 Abstract CO2 transport processes relevant for estimating net ecosystem exchange investigated during a pilot experiment. We found that cold, moist, and CO2- rich air was transported downslope

  17. Real-time Rendering of Complex Vector Data on 3d Terrain Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    Real-time Rendering of Complex Vector Data on 3d Terrain Models M. Schneider, M. Guthe, and R of buildings, streets and runway (from left to right). Abstract. In this paper we present a hybrid technique model. The first part of this hybrid technique is a texture-based approach that is especially suited

  18. Building Local Terrain Maps Using SpatioTemporal Classification for Semantic Robot Localization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zell, Andreas

    of the environment. We describe how to efficiently integrate the classification results of each time stepBuilding Local Terrain Maps Using Spatio­Temporal Classification for Semantic Robot Localization Stefan Laible1 and Andreas Zell1 Abstract-- The correct classification of the surrounding ter- rain

  19. LOD-Sprite Technique for Accelerated Terrain Rendering Baoquan Chen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Baoquan

    LOD-Sprite Technique for Accelerated Terrain Rendering Baoquan Chen1 SUNY at Stony Brook J. Edward present a new rendering technique, termed LOD-sprite render- ing, which uses a combination of a level-of-detail (LOD) represen- tation of the scene together with reusing image sprites (previously rendered images

  20. Modeling conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain with WAsP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the vertical wind speed W changes linearly with the downwind position x. This could crudely mimic the flow over to be homogeneous in order to deduce the horizontal wind speed. However, in mountainous or complex terrain this assumption is not valid implying an erroneous wind speed. The magnitude of this error is measured

  1. Coastal Wave Generation and Wave Breaking over Terrain: Two Problems in Mesoscale Wave Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Tingting

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and idealized numerical modeling. The linear theory for ow without terrain shows that the solution depends on two parameters: a nondimensional coastal width L and a nondimensional wind speed U. For U 6= 0 the solution is composed of three distinct wave branches...

  2. Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

  3. Final Report of the Grant: ''Vertical Transport and Mixing in Complex Terrain Airsheds''

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harindra Joseph Fernando James Anderson Don Boyer Neil Berman

    2004-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable stratification associated with nocturnal thermal circulation in areas of complex terrain leads to interesting and important phenomena that govern local meteorology and contaminant dispersion. Given that most urban areas are in complex topography, understanding and prediction of such phenomena are of immediate practical importance. This project dealt with theoretical, laboratory, numerical and field experimental studies aimed at understanding stratified flow and turbulence phenomena in urban areas, with particular emphasis on flow, turbulence and contaminant transport and diffusion in such flows. A myriad of new results were obtained and some of these results were used to improve the predictive capabilities of the models.

  4. Saving the soil: AgriLife units work to improve traning terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orth, Melanie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    quality of supply reservoirs. The revegetation project began in 2003, and project members started evaluating the addition of composted dairy manure to primary training areas as a management practice. Compost enhances soil quality and promotes...Saving the soil AgriLife units work to improve training terrain Story by Melanie Orth txH2O | pg. 9 Heavy tanks and armored vehicles that have continually rolled over the 67,000-acre West Range at Fort Hood for the past 60 years have...

  5. Saving the soil: AgriLife units work to improve training terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orth, Melanie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saving the soil AgriLife units work to improve training terrain Story by Melanie Orth txH2O | pg. 9 Heavy tanks and armored vehicles that have continually rolled over the 67,000-acre West Range at Fort Hood for the past 60 years have... accelerated soil erosion. Fort Hood, the largest active duty armored post in the U.S. Armed Services and located near Killeen in central Texas, uses the range as the primary training and maneuver area for two armored divisions. The Texas Water...

  6. Tornadoes over complex terrain: an analysis of the 28th August 1999 tornadic event in eastern Spain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero, Romu

    Tornadoes over complex terrain: an analysis of the 28th August 1999 tornadic event in eastern Spain Fi´sica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca 07071, Spain b Instituto Nacional de Meteorologi´a, Centre Meteorolo`gic a les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Spain c IMEDEA, UIB-CSIC, Palma de

  7. Microscope maps the graphene terrain A. E. Curtin, W. G. Cullen, M. S. Fuhrer, (Maryland MRSEC DMR 0520471)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    Microscope maps the graphene terrain A. E. Curtin, W. G. Cullen, M. S. Fuhrer, (Maryland MRSEC DMR in the electrical potential on the surface of graphene on silicon carbide, shown here as different colors. KPM identifies single layer graphene (SLG), bilayer graphene (BLG), and two types of interfacial layer (IL1

  8. A Survey of Procedural Methods for Terrain Modelling Ruben M. Smelik, Klaas Jan de Kraker and Saskia A. Groenewegen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bidarra, Rafael

    such as terrain elevation and growth of plants in the 1980s and 1990s and extended its focus to urban environments or not at all. The integration and adjustment of existing procedural methods in such a way that they can Research (NWO) and the Netherlands ICT Research and Innovation Authority (ICT Regie). #12;current modelling

  9. 11.1 DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD TO RESOLVE COMPLEX TERRAIN IN THE WEATHER RESEARCH AND FORECASTING MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini Katopodes

    11.1 DEVELOPMENT OF AN IMMERSED BOUNDARY METHOD TO RESOLVE COMPLEX TERRAIN IN THE WEATHER RESEARCH AND FORECASTING MODEL Katherine A. Lundquist1 , Fotini K. Chow 2 , Julie K. Lundquist 3 , and Jeffery D. Mirocha 3 in urban areas are profoundly influenced by the presence of build- ings which divert mean flow, affect

  10. The new WAsP flow model: a fast, linearized Mixed Spectral-Integration model applicable to complex terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . There is interest in placing wind turbines in hilly and mountainous areas, due to the potentially high speed commercial PC-based tool to estimate wind resources at a potential wind turbine site, given a set of wind challenge for the wind energy industry is the prediction of the wind resource in complex terrain

  11. Shear Wave Velocity Structure of Southern African Crust: Evidence for Compositional Heterogeneity within Archaean and Proterozoic Terrains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kgaswane, E M; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Dirks, P H H M; Durrheim, R J; Pasyanos, M E

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Crustal structure in southern Africa has been investigated by jointly inverting receiver functions and Rayleigh wave group velocities for 89 broadband seismic stations spanning much of the Precambrian shield of southern Africa. 1-D shear wave velocity profiles obtained from the inversion yield Moho depths that are similar to those reported in previous studies and show considerable variability in the shear wave velocity structure of the lower part of the crust between some terrains. For many of the Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the shield, S velocities reach 4.0 km/s or higher over a substantial part of the lower crust. However, for most of the Kimberley terrain and adjacent parts of the Kheis Province and Witwatersrand terrain, as well as for the western part of the Tokwe terrain, mean shear wave velocities of {le} 3.9 km/s characterize the lower part of the crust along with slightly ({approx}5 km) thinner crust. These findings indicate that the lower crust across much of the shield has a predominantly mafic composition, except for the southwest portion of the Kaapvaal Craton and western portion of the Zimbabwe Craton, where the lower crust is intermediate-to-felsic in composition. The parts of the Kaapvaal Craton underlain by intermediate-to-felsic lower crust coincide with regions where Ventersdorp rocks have been preserved, and thus we suggest that the intermediate-to-felsic composition of the lower crust and the shallower Moho may have resulted from crustal melting during the Ventersdorp tectonomagmatic event at c. 2.7 Ga and concomitant crustal thinning caused by rifting.

  12. Wind Regimes in Complex Terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, Kevin R [ORNL

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research was designed to provide an understanding of physical wind mechanisms within the complex terrain of the Great Valley of Eastern Tennessee to assess the impacts of regional air flow with regard to synoptic and mesoscale weather changes, wind direction shifts, and air quality. Meteorological data from 2008 2009 were analyzed from 13 meteorological sites along with associated upper level data. Up to 15 ancillary sites were used for reference. Two-step complete linkage and K-means cluster analyses, synoptic weather studies, and ambient meteorological comparisons were performed to generate hourly wind classifications. These wind regimes revealed seasonal variations of underlying physical wind mechanisms (forced channeled, vertically coupled, pressure-driven, and thermally-driven winds). Synoptic and ambient meteorological analysis (mixing depth, pressure gradient, pressure gradient ratio, atmospheric and surface stability) suggested up to 93% accuracy for the clustered results. Probabilistic prediction schemes of wind flow and wind class change were developed through characterization of flow change data and wind class succession. Data analysis revealed that wind flow in the Great Valley was dominated by forced channeled winds (45 67%) and vertically coupled flow (22 38%). Down-valley pressure-driven and thermally-driven winds also played significant roles (0 17% and 2 20%, respectively), usually accompanied by convergent wind patterns (15 20%) and large wind direction shifts, especially in the Central/Upper Great Valley. The behavior of most wind regimes was associated with detectable pressure differences between the Lower and Upper Great Valley. Mixing depth and synoptic pressure gradients were significant contributors to wind pattern behavior. Up to 15 wind classes and 10 sub-classes were identified in the Central Great Valley with 67 joined classes for the Great Valley at-large. Two-thirds of Great Valley at-large flow was defined by 12 classes. Winds flowed on-axis only 40% of the time. The Great Smoky Mountains helped create down-valley pressure-driven winds, downslope mountain breezes, and divergent air flow. The Cumberland Mountains and Plateau were associated with wind speed reductions in the Central Great Valley, Emory Gap Flow, weak thermally-driven winds, and northwesterly down sloping. Ridge-and-valley terrain enhanced wind direction reversals, pressure-driven winds, as well as locally and regionally produced thermally-driven flow.

  13. Spotlight SAR interferometry for terrain elevation mapping and interferometric change detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichel, P.H.; Ghiglia, D.C.; Jakowatz, C.V. Jr. [and others

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we employ an approach quite different from any previous work; we show that a new methodology leads to a simpler and clearer understanding of the fundamental principles of SAR interferometry. This methodology also allows implementation of an important collection mode that has not been demonstrated to date. Specifically, we introduce the following six new concepts for the processing of interferometric SAR (INSAR) data: (1) processing using spotlight mode SAR imaging (allowing ultra-high resolution), as opposed to conventional strip-mapping techniques; (2) derivation of the collection geometry constraints required to avoid decorrelation effects in two-pass INSAR; (3) derivation of maximum likelihood estimators for phase difference and the change parameter employed in interferometric change detection (ICD); (4) processing for the two-pass case wherein the platform ground tracks make a large crossing angle; (5) a robust least-squares method for two-dimensional phase unwrapping formulated as a solution to Poisson`s equation, instead of using traditional path-following techniques; and (6) the existence of a simple linear scale factor that relates phase differences between two SAR images to terrain height. We show both theoretical analysis, as well as numerous examples that employ real SAR collections to demonstrate the innovations listed above.

  14. Rapid gravity and gravity gradiometry terrain correction via adaptive quadtree mesh discretization Kristofer Davis, M. Andy Kass, and Yaoguo Li, Center for Gravity, Electrical and Magnetic Studies, Colorado School

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rapid gravity and gravity gradiometry terrain correction via adaptive quadtree mesh discretization Kristofer Davis, M. Andy Kass, and Yaoguo Li, Center for Gravity, Electrical and Magnetic Studies, Colorado School of Mines SUMMARY We present a method for modeling the terrain response in gravity and gravity

  15. Cite as: Lundquist, J.K., F. K. Chow, J. D. Mirocha, and K.A. Lundquist, 2007: An Improved WRF for Urban-Scale and Complex-Terrain Applications. American Meteorological Society's 7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini Katopodes

    method (IBM) approach to account for the effects of urban geometries and complex terrain. Companion of flow and dispersion in complex geometries such as urban areas, as well as new simulation capabilities for Urban-Scale and Complex-Terrain Applications. American Meteorological Society's 7 th Symposium

  16. The Complexity of Rivers in Triangulated Terrains Pankaj Agarwal 1 Mark de Berg 2 Prosenjit Bose 3 Katrin Dobrint 2 Marc van Kreveld 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bose, Prosenjit

    The Complexity of Rivers in Triangulated Terrains Pankaj Agarwal 1 Mark de Berg 2 Prosenjit Bose 3 \\Theta(n 3 ) worst­case complexity, where complexity is measured in the number of line segments that make into the stream. Road building, logging, or other activities carried out in a watershed all have the potential

  17. Proceedings IEEE Visualization '99, pages 291298, cIEEE Computer Society Press, 1999. LOD-Sprite Technique for Accelerated Terrain Rendering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swan II, J. Edward

    -Sprite Technique for Accelerated Terrain Rendering Baoquan Chen½ SUNY at Stony Brook J. Edward Swan II¾ Naval rendering technique, termed LOD-sprite render- ing, which uses a combination of a level-of-detail (LOD) represen- tation of the scene together with reusing image sprites (previously rendered images). Our primary

  18. Parallelized Distributed Embedded Control System for 2D Walking Robot for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strunk, Gavin

    2010-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    , parallelized, embedded control system was developed to provide the control structure for the Jaywalker. This system was chosen for its ability to execute simultaneous tasks efficiently. The two level control system provides a first level to implement a higher...

  19. Analysis, design, and control of an omnidirectional mobile robot in rough terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Udengaard, Martin Richard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An omnidirectional mobile robot is able, kinematically, to move in any direction regardless of current pose. To date, nearly all designs and analyses of omnidirectional mobile robots have considered the case of motion on ...

  20. Modeling SF{sub 6} plume dispersion in complex terrain and meteorology with a limited data set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalk, W.W. III

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early actions of emergency responders during hazardous material releases are intended to assess contamination and potential public exposure. As measurements are collected, an integration of model calculations and measurements can assist to better understand the situation. This study applied a high resolution version of the operational 3-D numerical models used by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to a limited meteorological and tracer data set to assist in the interpretation of the dispersion pattern on a 140 km scale. The data set was collected from a tracer release during the morning surface inversion and transition period in the complex terrain of the Snake River Plain near Idaho Falls, Idaho in November 1993 by the United States Air Force. Sensitivity studies were conducted to determine model input parameters that best represented the study environment. These studies showed that mixing and boundary layer heights, atmospheric stability, and rawinsonde data are the most important model input parameters affecting wind field generation and tracer dispersion. Numerical models and limited measurement data were used to interpret dispersion patterns through the use of data analysis, model input determination, and sensitivity studies. Comparison of the best-estimate calculation to measurement data showed that model results compared well with the aircraft data, but had moderate success with the few surface measurements taken. The moderate success of the surface measurement comparison, may be due to limited downward mixing of the tracer as a result of the model resolution determined by the domain size selected to study the overall plume dispersion. 8 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Asynchronous deterministic rendezvous in bounded terrains$

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilcinkas, David

    . c LIF, Universit´e de Provence, 13453 Marseille, France. Abstract Two mobile agents (robots) have. Robots are modeled as points, and each of them is equipped with a compass. Compasses of robots may be incoherent. Robots construct their routes, but the actual walk of each robot is decided by the adversary

  2. Overland flow time of concentration on flat terrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chibber, Paramjit

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Li, and Benjamin Brown. I am also thankful to my friends for their moral support. These include Gaurav Garg, Srikanth Koka and Ashish Agrawal. vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT...

  3. Optimizing Robust Limit Cycles for Legged Locomotion on Unknown Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tedrake, Russ

    periodic control input, for many possible one-step solution trajectories (using ground profiles drawn from scheme can recover the known deadbeat open- loop control solution for the Spring Loaded Inverted Pendulum. Dai and R. Tedrake are with the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab, Massachusetts

  4. Terrain relative localization for lunar entry, descent, and landing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hale, Matthew J., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As exploration of the solar system continues, the need for the capability to land a spacecraft very accurately on a planetary body has become apparent. Due to limitations on the achievable accuracy of inertial navigation ...

  5. ASRS Database Report Set Controlled Flight Toward Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be limited. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and its ASRS current contractor, Booz Allen Hamilton, specifically disclaim any responsibility for any interpretation which may be made by others

  6. Topological Landscapes: A Terrain Metaphor for Scientific Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Gunther H.; Bremer, Peer-Timo; Pascucci, Valerio

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    engine and nu- cleon datasets. In both cases considerations similar to those for the hydrogenengine dataset and the largest average error (error weighted by size of the area) is 1.4% for the hydrogen

  7. The Trans/National Terrain of Anishinaabe Law and Diplomacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauerkemper, Joseph; Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our Fire Survives the Storm: A Cherokee Literary History.Our Fire Survives the Storm: A Cherokee Literary History (

  8. Benthic Terrain Modeler: Interpreting the Bathymetric Environment Shaun Walbridge1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    interactively with an environment such as IPython 6 . Finally, the project now includes an extensive testing

  9. Terrain Based Vehicle Orientation Estimation Combining Vision and Inertial Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    and yaw. A kinematic Kalman filter modeling an inertial navigation system then uses the scene matching/IMU system, the roll, pitch and yaw estimates from vision/IMU Kalman filter show an agreement with a (2 Park, PA, 16802 sbrennan@psu.edu Abstract A novel method for estimating vehicle roll, pitch and yaw

  10. Ultrasensitive directional microphone arrays for military operations in urban terrain.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, Neal A.; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Parker, Eric Paul; Resnick, Paul James; Okandan, Murat; Serkland, Darwin Keith

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acoustic sensing systems are critical elements in detection of sniper events. The microphones developed in this project enable unique sensing systems that benefit significantly from the enhanced sensitivity and extremely compact foot-print. Surface and bulk micromachining technologies developed at Sandia have allowed the design, fabrication and characterization of these unique sensors. We have demonstrated sensitivity that is only available in 1/2 inch to 1 inch studio reference microphones--with our devices that have only 1 to 2mm diameter membranes in a volume less than 1cm{sup 3}.

  11. High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Mapping Of Volcanic Terrain, Yellowstone

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHi Gtel Jump to: navigation,Solar Power PlantWellsNational Park |

  12. Resisting globalization- ATTAC in France: local discourses, global terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leonard, Marie des Neiges

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The debate over the "globalization" process has been influenced by the emergence of social movements who deplore this process. This research focuses on the French social movement ATTAC (Action for a Tobin Tax for the Aid of Citizens...

  13. Near Time-optimal Constrained Trajectory Planning on Outdoor Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukhatme, Gaurav S.

    interactions are usually unaccounted for. Kinodynamic planning in real-time is also difficult and currently

  14. PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy ResourcesLoading map...(UtilityCounty,Orleans County,PPP Equipment Corporation Jump to:

  15. Walking and Running of a Quadruped Robot on Irregular Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    -Communications Tokyo, Japan #12;2 Aichi Expo. Prototype Robot Exhib. Jun.9-19, 2005 House keeping dog in a garden (rush bound of the cyclic period of walking TomCat [Jul. 2003] #12;11 Passive Dynamic Walking A walking CPG? ·passive dynamic walk ·spring-damper neural system model (CPG + reflexes) passive dynamics

  16. Hydrological Evaluation of Septic Disposal Field Design in Sloping Terrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    . Steenhuis7 Abstract: The most common form of onsite domestic wastewater treatment in the United States; Slopes; Wastewater treatment; Waste disposal. Introduction The most common form of onsite wastewater treatment is the septic system Wastewater 1991 . Over 50 million people in the United States use septic

  17. Mythical Terrain and the Building of Mexico’s UNAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davids, René

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the Environment in Mexico, 2005. No. 14: Kevin P.Trueba, El Pedregal de San Angel. Mexico City: UniversidadNacional Autónoma de Mexico (1995). 5. See Mario Pani and

  18. Survey of Terrain Guarding and Art Gallery The terrain guarding problem and art gallery problem are two ar-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krohn, Erik

    show how this strategy has to be changed for molecules with a large hyperpolarizability. Finally, we 2

  19. Design of robotic quadruped legs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKenzie, Jacob Elijah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prized for their performance on prepared surfaces, wheeled vehicles are often limited in mobility by rough and unstructured terrain. Conversely, systems that rely on legs have shown promising rough terrain performance but ...

  20. Submitted for Publication to SOLAR ENERGY PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID TERRAIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    Submitted for Publication to SOLAR ENERGY PRODUCING SATELLITE-DERIVED IRRADIANCES IN COMPLEX ARID spectrum. #12;Submitted for Publication to SOLAR ENERGY In its simplest description the model amounts wavelengths in the visible spectral range (0.55-0.75 µm) corresponding to the peak of the solar radiation

  1. Calibration, Terrain Reconstruction and Path Planning for a Planetary Exploration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollefeys, Marc

    and localization of the rover. The lat- ter makes use of four Light Emitting Diodes on the rover payload cab

  2. GPS-FREE TERRAIN-BASED VEHICLE TRACKING PERFORMANCE AS A FUNCTION OF INERTIAL SENSOR CHARACTERISTICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    , the vehicle tracking performance of these algorithms using low-cost inertial sensors with inferior low-cost inertial sensors with inferior specifications are used. However, the precision of vehicle. The results also indicate that as sensor cost increases, the variance in vehicle tracking error asymptotically

  3. Surface Stresses and Turbulent Fluxes: Problems in Mesoscale Modeling over Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Turbulent mixing in breaking waves (Epifanio and Qian, 2008) LES for breaking mountain wave Flow past a hill) = Dx Ly (u, v, w) = Dy One kinematic condition (no flow through the boundary): w = u h x + v h y at the boundary and combine with the kinematic condition Lx ui,j,0 vi,j,0 wi,j,0 = f (Dx i,j , interior) , Ly

  4. all-terrain lunar exploration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behind changes in the lunar exosphere when the Moon passes through the penumbra and umbra of the Earth during a lunar eclipse. The dusty turbulent environment due to planetary...

  5. Human estimation of slope, distance, and height of terrain in simulated lunar conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oravetz, Christopher

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As NASA's Vision for Space Exploration seeks to explore mountainous regions near the southern pole through frequent, long excursions, astronauts will require accurate navigational assistance. Current and future technology, ...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF A DYNAMIC POWER LINE RATING CONCEPT FOR IMPROVED WIND ENERGY INTEGRATION OVER COMPLEX TERRAIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S Myers; Tyler B Phillips; Inanc Senocak; Phil Anderson

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of power line to be based on real-time conductor temperature dependent on local weather conditions. In current practice overhead power lines are generally given a conservative rating based on worst case weather conditions. Using historical weather data collected over a test bed area, we demonstrate there is often additional transmission capacity not being utilized with the current static rating practice. We investigate a new dynamic line rating methodology using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine wind conditions along transmission lines at dense intervals. Simulated results are used to determine conductor temperature by calculating the transient thermal response of the conductor under variable environmental conditions. In calculating the conductor temperature, we use both a calculation with steady-state assumption and a transient calculation. Under low wind conditions, steady-state assumption predicts higher conductor temperatures that could lead to curtailments, whereas transient calculations produce conductor temperatures that are significantly lower, implying the availability of additional transmission capacity.

  7. Online Submission ID: vis-1177 Analyzing Terrain Surfaces to Synthesize and Visualize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Mike

    abut each other, so that no land is wasted on gaps and no fuel is wasted on overlapping areas neural equation. A complete coverage tractor path is autonomously generated from the dynamic activity. If they are "too close" together, plowed areas of the field will overlap and waste fuel. Also, too much overlap

  8. The effects of cultural noise on controlled source electromagnetic resonses of subsurface fractures in resistive terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Roland Anthony Savio

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . .............................................................................. 14 3.1 Magnetic field B1 fluxing through loop C2 due to current flow I1 in loop C1............................................................................ 19 3.2 Primary and secondary fields associated with a system... 1 KHz and 2 KHz.................................................................................................. 54 4.9 Mutual inductance for model series C for frequency 0.5 KHz .................. 56 4.10 Primary magnetic field BP...

  9. Design and editing 2.5-dimensional terrain in StarLogo TNG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wendel, Daniel J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    StarLogo TNG is "The Next Generation" in block-based decentralized programming for modeling and simulation software. Its aim is to make computer programming more appealing for students in middle school and high school. ...

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - all-terrain vehicle accidents Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemistry ; Biology and Medicine 3 U of L Campus AccidentIncident Report Automobile AccidentIncident Page 1 of 2 University of Lethbridge Summary: U of L Campus...

  11. all-terrain vehicle injuries: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and efficiency can be observed depending on the size of compressors. Typically, a larger compressor results in higher fuel cell power density at the cost of fuel cell efficiency...

  12. all-terrain vehicle crashes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This strains electrical grid components, especially low-voltage transformers which can overheat and fail while serving consumers ' homes. Meanwhile, the EVs ' electrical storage...

  13. The Inverting Effect of Curvature in Winter Terrain Park Jump Takeoffs J. A. McNeil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ackery, et al. [6] found evidence of an increasing incidence of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord

  14. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of snow in mountainous terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musselman, Keith Newton

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    beam radiation. At every photo / depth sensor location,2.4b but at all 24 photo / snow depth sensor locations isless than the photo-derived 24-sensor mean SVF 90° (0.24;

  15. Flight Simulator Evaluation of an Integrated Synthetic and Enhanced Vision System for Terrain Avoidance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaber, David B.

    -time EVS sensor imagery: a. Inset of alpha-blending of FLIR on PFD; b. Optimal Fusion of FLIR and SVIS; and c. Integration of FLIR on HUD raster channel. The particular study presented in this paper focused on

  16. The research and design of a low cost, all terrain, mechanically advantageous wheelchair for developed markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judge, Benjamin Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a case for a paradigm shift in the way mobility technology is approached in the United States. Spawning from the research of developing world wheelchair technology, a conceptual design for a capable ...

  17. Effects of climate, physical erosion, parent mineralogy, and dust on chemical erosion rates in mountainous terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrier, Ken

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pit mine, and in 1948 a smelter was added to the site. It isor as finer particles in smelter stack emissions. We have

  18. header for SPIE use Real-Time Weather Data on Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Chris

    behave in the presence of hills or mountains and other features. Keywords: Real-time visualization into a global geospatial structure based on a forest of quadtrees [Dav98, Dav99, Fau00]. Even the volumetric

  19. Live Webinar on the Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in Complex Terrain

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On April 21, 2014 from 3:00 to 5:00 PM EST the Wind Program will hold a live webinar to provide information to potential applicants for this Funding Opportunity Announcement. There is no cost to...

  20. E-Print Network 3.0 - arid terrains tanami Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    75 A simple hydrologic framework for simulating wetlands in climate and earth system models Summary: the lowlands even in arid climates. The low requirement of forcing and...

  1. Optimal Complete Terrain Coverage using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Anqi Xu, Chatavut Viriyasuthee, and Ioannis Rekleitis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rekleitis, Ioannis

    in a bounded environment, while: · avoiding a set of obstacle regions with arbitrary shape · preventing from of coverage using an aerial vehicle has many applications, including: environmental inspection, search] for the general class of non-holonomic robots. We compute a set of waypoints outlining the desired cover- age path

  2. Effects of climate, physical erosion, parent mineralogy, and dust on chemical erosion rates in mountainous terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrier, Ken

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bryan, K. , 1927. The ”Palouse soil” problem. USGS Bulletinin the Channeled Scablands and Palouse of Washington State.dust-producing engine of the Palouse loess, USA. Quaternary

  3. The coupled development of terrain and vegetation : the case of semiarid grasslands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Cervantes, Javier Homero, 1977-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of vegetation in semiarid landscapes organizes as a function of moisture availability, which is often mediated by the form of the land surface. Simultaneously the processes that shape the land surface are ...

  4. E-Print Network 3.0 - andesitic terrains dominica Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and sequences of Miocene basaltic andesite lavas (Tpb). Stone... depositsMCoarse, unconsolidated debris composed of local bedrock, particularly basaltic ... Source: Faulds, James...

  5. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics A General Approach to Terrain Relative Navigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roumeliotis, Stergios I.

    the requirements of future planetary exploration missions. I. Introduction ASA's roadmap for solar system feature tracker can handle large changes in scale and orientation that are typical during planetary

  6. A Benthic Terrain Classification Scheme for American Samoa Accepted for publication in Marine Geodesy, 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    , invasive species, security training activities, offshore oil and gas exploration, and coral bleaching the western Pacific. #12;3 Introduction The high productivity of coral reef ecosystems demands a quantifiable to increasing coastal populations (Culliton 1998). Natural and anthropogenic processes threaten natural

  7. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of snow in mountainous terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Musselman, Keith Newton

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and McMillen, R.T. , 1984. Solar radiation within an oak--J.P. et al. , 2004. Solar radiation transmission through1992. Analysis of solar radiation data for Port Harcourt,

  8. Effects of climate, physical erosion, parent mineralogy, and dust on chemical erosion rates in mountainous terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrier, Ken

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kinetics. In: Reviews in Mineralogy. Vol. 31 of Developmentsthe tropical North Atlantic – Mineralogy. Marine Geology 37,and single-particle mineralogy of a thick Chinese loess-

  9. High compliance all-terrain transport and heavy cargo hybrid bicycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pino, Andres (Andres J.)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research involved the design and manufacture of a prototype for a hybrid bicycle system. The design called for a vehicle capable of being used in a mode where normal bicycle operation is possible while being reconfigurable ...

  10. High compliance all-terrain transport and heavy cargo hybrid bicycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto-Fernández, Orlando

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A design project was carried out which involved the design, manufacturing, and assembly of a hybrid bicycle. The bicycle was required to operate between two modes, one that permitted fast transport of the operator from one ...

  11. High-Resolution Large-Eddy Simulations of Scalar Transport in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Flow over Complex Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Fotini Katopodes

    of Electric Power Industry, Chiba, Japan FOTINI KATOPODES CHOW Department of Civil and Environmental to the choice of numerical simulation parameters than is typically needed for mean wind field predictions. Large-eddy simulation is used in a mesoscale setting, providing modeling advantages through the use of robust turbulence

  12. Sesso Temtica: Aplicaes Geolgicas e Geomorfolgicas de Anlise Digital de Terreno (Geological and Geomorphological Applications of Digital Terrain Analysis)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    suas relações espaciais. A Análise Digital de Terreno, ou geomorfometria, fornece a base para dados geofísicos. Esta sessão será uma excelente oportunidade para apresentar e discutir os avanços mais de dados levantados por VANTs - a experiência do DNPM Dra. Cristina Bicho (DNPM) 11:10 12:00 Projeto

  13. Funneling Algorithms for Multi-Scale Optimization on Rugged Terrains Angelo Lucia*, Peter A. DiMaggio and Praveen Depa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Angelo

    for estimating binary interaction parameters for the Non- Random Two-Liquid (NRTL) equation for activity

  14. New active safety device dedicated to light all-terrain vehicle stability: Application to quad bike and off-road

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . It consists in using Predictive Functional Control (PFC) so as to compute, on-line, the maximum vehicle and braking control [3] and [2]), they appear to be poorly relevant for fast off-road motion context (since]. It consists in the on-line adaptation of tire cornering stiffnesses, representative of grip conditions, based

  15. This study presents an adaptive solution to topographic feature extraction from digital terrain model. First, a slope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jie

    not directly support geospatial query and analysis. Finding interesting objects or features in DTM-based geospatial analysis such as dimension calculation and buffering. Finally, comparing with object precision drop in the adaptive method. Introduction Recent advances in geospatial data collection technology

  16. Conductive incubation and the origin of dome-and-keel structure in Archean granite-greenstone terrains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandiford, Mike

    Conductive incubation and the origin of dome-and-keel structure in Archean granite August 2003; accepted 24 October 2003; published 27 January 2004. [1] The Archean East Pilbara Granite duration, following the burial of radiogenic granitic crust beneath the accumulated greenstone pile

  17. DETENTE PAR SAIGNEE DE VOffiS PROFONDES: UNE METHODE EFFICACE POUR LA LUTTE CONTRE LES COUPS DE TERRAINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    heavage m deep coal mines may be alleviated using extensive floor slottmg before mining operadons Start be produced before the seam is worked. Subsequently die slot is monitored over dme to assess its effecdveness

  18. Examination of Errors in Near-Surface Temperature and Wind from WRF Numerical Simulations in Regions of Complex Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Zhaoxia

    -surface atmospheric conditions are very important in many applications such as wind energy, agriculture, aviationExamination of Errors in Near-Surface Temperature and Wind from WRF Numerical Simulations of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah XUEBO ZHANG Computational Engineering and Science, University of Utah, Salt

  19. Immersed Boundary Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Over Complex Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundquist, Katherine Ann

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in today’s numerical weather prediction models is stillability of a numerical weather prediction model to predictthe context of numerical weather prediction models. The two-

  20. EuroCG 2010, Dortmund, Germany, March 2224, 2010 Guarding 1.5D Terrains with Demands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matijevic, Domagoj

    , Croatia, domagoj AT mathos.hr Department of Mathematics, J.J. Strossmayer University, Osijek, Croatia

  1. Final Technical Report: Development of the DUSTRAN GIS-Based Complex Terrain Model for Atmospheric Dust Dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Rutz, Frederick C.; Shaw, William J.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Chapman, Elaine G.; Hoopes, Bonnie L.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Activities at U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) training and testing ranges can be sources of dust in local and regional airsheds governed by air-quality regulations. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory just completed a multi-year project to develop a fully tested and documented atmospheric dispersion modeling system (DUST TRANsport or DUSTRAN) to assist the DoD in addressing particulate air-quality issues at military training and testing ranges.

  2. Isolating Effects of Water Table Dynamics, Terrain, and Soil Moisture Heterogeneity on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Coupled Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rihani, Jehan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    depth (PBLD), (b) vertical wind speed (w), (c) latent heatdepth (PBLD), (b) vertical wind speed (w), (c) latent heatdepth (PBLD) and (b) vertical wind speed (w) versus water

  3. Immersed Boundary Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Over Complex Terrain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundquist, Katherine Ann

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind Energy Association Windpower 2008 Conference, AmericanWind Energy Association Windpower 2006 Conference, American

  4. Isolating Effects of Water Table Dynamics, Terrain, and Soil Moisture Heterogeneity on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Coupled Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rihani, Jehan

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    boundary conditions of wind, potential temperature, andvariables such as winds, potential temperature, rainfall,variables such as wind speed, potential temperature, and

  5. Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

  6. A Rough Logic Formalism for Fuzzy Controllers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Tsau Young

    A Rough Logic Formalism for Fuzzy Controllers: A Hard and Soft Computing View T.Y. Lin Department are the design goal. Several new applications are identified. KEYWORDS: control, fuzzy logic, modal logic, rough process, called rough logic government, is proposed. In this process, fuzzy logic is viewed

  7. Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kämpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

  8. Simplified models for mask roughness induced LER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick

    2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The ITRS requires < 1.2nm line-edge roughness (LER) for the 22nm half-pitch node. Currently, we can consistently achieve only about 3nm LER. Further progress requires understanding the principle causes of LER. Much work has already been done on how both the resist and LER on the mask effect the final printed LER. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which system-level effects such as mask surface roughness, illumination conditions, and defocus couple to speckle at the image plane, and factor into LER limits. Presently, mask-roughness induced LER is studied via full 2D aerial image modeling and subsequent analysis of the resulting image. This method is time consuming and cumbersome. It is, therefore, the goal of this research to develop a useful 'rule-of-thumb' analytic model for mask roughness induced LER to expedite learning and understanding.

  9. Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S. [UK Research Centre in NDE, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

  10. Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide Membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide...

  11. ROUGHNESS LENGTHS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, C.

    2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface roughness values for the areas surrounding the H, D and N-Area meteorological towers were computed from archived 2010 meteorological data. These 15-minute-averaged data were measured with cup anemometers and bidirectional wind vanes (bivanes) 61 m above the surface. The results of the roughness calculation using the standard deviation of elevation angle {sigma}{sub E}, and applying the simple formula based on tree canopy height, gave consistent estimates for roughness around the H-Area tower in the range of 1.76 to 1.86 m (95% confidence interval) with a mean value of 1.81 m. Application of the {sigma}{sub E} method for the 61-m level at D and N-Areas gave mean values of 1.71 and 1.81 with confidence ranges of 1.62-1.81 and 1.73-1.88 meters, respectively. Roughness results are azimuth dependent, and thus are presented as averages over compass sectors spanning 22.5 degrees. Calculated values were compared to other methods of determining roughness, including the standard deviation of the azimuth direction, {sigma}{sub A}, and standard deviation of the wind speed, {sigma}{sub U}. Additional data was obtained from a sonic anemometer at 61-m on the H-Area tower during a period of a few weeks in 2010. Results from the sonic anemometer support our use of {sigma}{sub E} to calculate roughness. Based on the H-Area tower results, a surface roughness of 1.8 m using is recommended for use in dispersion modeling applications that consider the impacts of a contaminant release to individuals along the Site boundary. The canopy surrounding the H-Area tower is relatively uniform (i.e., little variance in roughness by upwind direction), and data supplied by the U.S. Forest Service at Savannah River show that the canopy height and composition surrounding the H-Area tower is reasonably representative of forested areas throughout the SRS reservation. For dispersion modeling analyses requiring assessments of a co-located worker within the respective operations area, recommended area-specific values range from 0.3 m for E Area to 0.7 m for A Area at the Savannah River National Laboratory. These area-specific values, summarized in Table 4-1, were determined using the Environmental Protection Agency's AERSURFACE computer algorithm.

  12. Parameterizing energy conversion on rough topography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner, Sally

    Parameterizing energy conversion on rough topography using bottom pressure sensors to measure form and mixing U0 Form drag pressure Tidal energy conversion Form drag causes: - internal wave generation - eddy Sound, WA Point Three Tree Previous work McCabe et al., 2006 > Measured the internal form drag

  13. Correlating toughness and roughness in ductile fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponson, Laurent; Osovski, Shmulik; Bouchaud, Elisabeth; Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three dimensional calculations of ductile crack growth under mode I plane strain, small scale yielding conditions are carried out using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progres- sively cavitating plastic solid with two populations of void nucleating second phase particles. Full field solutions are obtained for three dimensional material microstructures characterized by ran- dom distributions of void nucleating particles. Crack growth resistance curves and fracture surface roughness statistics are calculated using standard procedures. The range of void nucleating particle volume fractions considered give rise to values of toughness, JIC, that vary by a factor of four. For all volume fractions considered, the computed fracture surfaces are self-affine over a size range of about two orders of magnitude with a roughness exponent of 0.54 $\\pm$ 0.03. For small void nucleating particle volume fractions, the mean large particle spacing serves as a single dominant length scale. In this regime, the c...

  14. Smith-Purcell Radiation from Rough Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevorkian, Zh S

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation of a charged particle moving parallel to a inhomogeneous surface is considered. Within a single formalism periodic and random gratings are examined. For the periodically inhomogeneous surface we derive new expressions for the dispersion relation and the spectral-angular intensity. In particular, for a given observation direction two wavelengths are emitted instead of one wavelength of the standard Smith-Purcell effect. For a rough surface we show that the main contribution to the radiation intensity is given by surface polaritons induced on the interface between two media. These polaritons are multiply scattered on the roughness of surface and convert into real photons. The spectral-angular intensity is calculated and its dependence on different parameters is revealed.

  15. A fast direct numerical simulation method for characterising hydraulic roughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Daniel; MacDonald, Michael; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jimenez & Moin 1991). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct DNSs with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for character...

  16. Rough-Fuzzy MLP: Modular Evolution, Rule Generation, and Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Sushmita

    Terms--Soft computing, knowledge-based fuzzy networks, rough sets, genetic algorithms, pattern recently for pattern classification, is such an example combining both rough sets and fuzzy setsRough-Fuzzy MLP: Modular Evolution, Rule Generation, and Evaluation Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE

  17. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    74 ii Soil Moisture Sensors: Decagon ECH2O Capacitance133 A.10 Soil types corresponding to each75 Soil Moisture and Temperature Probe

  18. A climatic basis for microrefugia: the influence of terrain S O L O M O N Z . D O B R O W S K I *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobrowski, Solomon

    to understanding present day biotic response to anthropogenic warming (Noss, 2001; Pearson, 2006; Provan & Bennet; Provan & Bennet, 2008). The purported utilization of microrefugia has far- reaching implications

  19. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    red indicates “water towers” generated by kinematic wavethe kinematic wave equation will begin to collect water onred indicates “water towers” generated by kinematic wave

  20. Assessment of the renewable groundwater resources of Wadi El-Arish, Sinai, Egypt, by using remote sensing, digital terrain elevation, and meteorological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gheith, H. M.; Sultan, M. I.

    2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors show that the most popular method to simulate Bose-Einstein (BE) interference effects predicts negligible correlations between identical pions originating from the hadronic decay of different W's produced in e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} {yields} W{sup +}W{sup {minus}} {yields} 4 jets at typical linear collider energies.

  1. IEEE TRANS. AEROSP. ELECTRON. SYST., VOL. 43, NO. 4, PP. 1617-1624, OCT. 2007 1617 Terrain-Based Simulation of IEEE 802.11a and b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Leon, Phillip

    path loss, coverage, and medium access control (MAC) throughput in a corporate office environment using for proximity wireless networks on the Martian surface. The radio frequency (RF) environment on the Martian), is found to be much more adversely affected in the multipath environment. The DEM-based simulation

  2. MESOSCALENUMERICAL MODELING OF POLLUTANT TRANSPORT IN COMPLEX TERRAIN R. A. Pielke1j2, R..W. Arritt2, M. Segall, M. D. Moranl, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pielke, Roger A.

    -case impacts of power plant plumes on U.S. National Park lands in south Florida is presented based that synoptic baroclinicity, mesoscale thermal circulations, and boundary-layer turbulence can separately of the polluted air. Both a mathematical description and examples of numerical model simulations are used

  3. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compressible numerical weather prediction model incompressible numerical weather prediction model withcompressible numerical weather prediction model in

  4. Analysis of wind shear models and trends in different terrains M.L. Ray *, A.L. Rogers, and J.G. McGowan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    of characterizing the wind shear at a given site for a utility scale wind turbine cannot be overemphasized. It is important to understand because it directly impacts the power available at different wind turbine hub heights and strongly influences the cyclic loading on the turbine blades. For decades, academic

  5. Soil moisture in complex terrain: quantifying effects on atmospheric boundary layer flow and providing improved surface boundary conditions for mesoscale models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Megan Hanako

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    direction, (b) wind speed, (c) potential temperature, and (Airport of potential temperature, wind speed, winderrors (bias) for potential temperature, wind speed, wind

  6. Surface roughness of anodized titanium coatings.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Chinn, Douglas Alan

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of grade five 6Al4V titanium alloy were coated with two commercial fluoropolymer anodizations (Tiodize and Canadize) and compared. Neither coating demonstrates significant outgassing. The coatings show very similar elemental analysis, except for the presence of lead in the Canadize coating, which may account for its lower surface friction in humid environments. Surface roughness has been compared by SEM, contact profilometry, optical profilometry, power spectral density and bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF). The Tiodize film is slightly smoother by all measurement methods, but the Canadize film shows slightly less scatter at all angles of incidence. Both films exhibited initial friction coefficients of 0.2 to 0.4, increasing to 0.4 to 0.8 after 1000 cycles of sliding due to wear of the coating and ball. The coatings are very similar and should behave identically in most applications.

  7. Topology of Surfaces Modelling Bridges and Tunnels in 3D-GIS Early Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    : Well known errors are buildings floating above the terrain, buildings which are sunk in the terrain, for example, buildings are sunk in the terrain, a noise emission simulation tool will provide false results

  8. The effect of roughness on aerosol deposition in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chavez, Mario Cesar

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    all of the experiments conducted for this study. I admire his practicality, kind gestures, and work ethic. I will treasure all those times spent at Riverside campus and the WIPP site. I thank Mr. William Vance Payne for all of his help. His.... 50 55 63 66 VI IMPLICATION FOR WIPP 75 Pressure Drop and Roughness . . Sampling Line and Shrouded Probe Cleaning Interval. . . . . Roughness Measurement Procedure 75 80 87 VII CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . 88 Roughness...

  9. Effects of Atomic Scale Roughness at Metal/insulator Interfaces...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Work Function. Effects of Atomic Scale Roughness at Metalinsulator Interfaces on Metal Work Function. Abstract: We evaluate the performance of different van der Waals (vdW)...

  10. Fuzzy Rough Positive Region based Nearest Neighbour Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gent, Universiteit

    of the main subjects in machine learning and pattern recognition, with applications in fields like spam theory to improve the FNN classifier. Fuzzy rough set theory was designed to model imperfect knowledgeFuzzy Rough Positive Region based Nearest Neighbour Classification Nele Verbiest, Chris Cornelis

  11. Case Generation Using Rough Sets with Fuzzy Representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitra, Pabitra

    , granular computing, rough-fuzzy hybridization, soft computing, pattern recognition, data mining. æ 1 for case generation. Fuzzy set theory is used for linguistic representation of patterns, thereby producing a fuzzy granulation of the feature space. Rough set theory is used to obtain dependency rules which model

  12. Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have reported on our recent MCNPX simulation results of energy deposition for a group of 8 scintillation detectors, coupled with various rough surface patterns. The MCNPX results generally favored the detectors with various rough surface patterns. The observed MCNPX results are not fully explained by this work.

  13. FRACTAL DESCRIPTION OF ROUGH SURFACES FOR HAPTIC DISPLAY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    FRACTAL DESCRIPTION OF ROUGH SURFACES FOR HAPTIC DISPLAY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT system using fractals. A background on traditional methods for describing surface roughness is given. Fractals are used to characterize one- dimensional surface profiles using two parameters, the amplitude

  14. Measurement of normal contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chongpu Zhai; Sébastien Bevand; Yixiang Gan; Dorian Hanaor; Gwénaëlle Proust; Bruno Guelorget; Delphine Retraint

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of roughness and fractality on the normal contact stiffness of rough surfaces. Samples of isotropically roughened aluminium surfaces are considered. The roughness and fractal dimension were altered through blasting using different sized particles. Subsequently, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was applied to the surfaces in order to modify the surface at the microscale. The surface topology was characterised by interferometry based profilometry. The normal contact stiffness was measured through nanoindentation with a flat tip utilising the partial unloading method. We focus on establishing the relationships between surface stiffness and roughness, combined with the effects of fractal dimension. The experimental results, for a wide range of surfaces, showed that the measured contact stiffness depended very closely on surfaces' root mean squared (RMS) slope and their fractal dimension, with correlation coefficients of around 90\\%, whilst a relatively weak correlation coefficient of 57\\% was found between the contact stiffness and RMS roughness.

  15. Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

  16. Transport Theory for Shallow Water Propagation with Rough Boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorsos, Eric I.; Henyey, Frank S.; Elam, W. T.; Hefner, Brian T.; Reynolds, Stephen A.; Yang Jie [Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

    2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    At frequencies of about 1 kHz and higher, forward scattering from a rough sea surface (and/or a rough bottom) can strongly affect shallow water propagation and reverberation. The need exists for a fast, yet accurate method for modeling such propagation where multiple forward scattering occurs. A transport theory method based on mode coupling is described that yields the first and second moments of the field. This approach shows promise for accurately treating multiple forward scattering in one-way propagation. The method is presently formulated in two space dimensions, and Monte-Carlo rough surface PE simulations are used for assessing the accuracy of transport theory results.

  17. Effect of Surface Roughness on Wind Turbine Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehrmann, Robert Schaefer

    2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind farm operators observe production deficits as machines age. Quantifying deterioration on individual components is difficult, but one potential explanation is accumulation of blade surface roughness. Historically, wind turbine airfoils were...

  18. Hypersonic Measurements of Roughness-Induced Transient Growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Nicole Susanne

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of surface roughness on boundary-layer disturbance growth and laminar-to-turbulent transition are not well understood, especially in hypersonic boundary layers. The transient growth mechanism that produces algebraic growth of stream wise...

  19. Ice friction: The effects of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kietzig, Anne-Marie; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.; Englezos, Peter [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity on ice friction is studied systematically over a wide range of temperature and sliding speeds using several metallic interfaces. Hydrophobicity in combination with controlled roughness at the nanoscale is achieved by femtosecond laser irradiation to mimic the lotus effect on the slider's surface. The controlled roughness significantly increases the coefficient of friction at low sliding speeds and temperatures well below the ice melting point. However, at temperatures close to the melting point and relatively higher speeds, roughness and hydrophobicity significantly decrease ice friction. This decrease in friction is mainly due to the suppression of capillary bridges in spite of the presence of surface asperities that facilitate their formation. Finally, grooves oriented in the sliding direction also significantly decrease friction in the low velocity range compared to scratches and grooves randomly distributed over a surface.

  20. Influence of surface roughness and waviness upon thermal contact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yovanovich, M. Michael

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work deals with the phenomenon of thermal resistance between contacting solids. Attention is directed towards contiguous solids possessing both surface roughness and waviness. When two such surfaces are brought together ...

  1. PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Hart F.

    PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH Abstract. We use a wave packet the Simons Foundation (# 266371 to Hart Smith). 1 #12;2 HART F. SMITH H¨ormander's theorem [9] on propagation

  2. The thermal Casimir effect for rough metallic plates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Bimonte

    2007-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a new theory of thermal Casimir effect, holding for the experimentally important case of metallic surfaces with a roughness having a spatial scale smaller than the skin depth. The theory is based on a simple phenomenological model for a rough conductor, that explicitly takes account of the fact that ohmic conduction in the immediate vicinity of the surface of a conductor is much impeded by surface roughness, if the amplitude of roughness is smaller than the skin depth. As a result of the new model, we find that surface roughness strongly influences the magnitude of the thermal correction to the Casimir force, independently of the plates separation. Our model, while consistent with recent accurate measurements of the Casimir force in the submicron range, leads to a new prediction for the not yet observed thermal correction to the Casimir force at large plates separation. Besides the thermal Casimir problem, our model is relevant for the correct theoretical interpretation of current experiments probing other proximity effects between conductors, like radiative heat transfer and quantum friction.

  3. Inhomogeneous Cooling of the Rough Granular Gas in Two Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudhir N. Pathak; Dibyendu Das; R. Rajesh

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the inhomogeneous clustered regime of a freely cooling granular gas of rough particles in two dimensions using large-scale event driven simulations and scaling arguments. During collisions, rough particles dissipate energy in both the normal and tangential directions of collision. In the inhomogeneous regime, translational kinetic energy and the rotational energy decay with time $t$ as power-laws $t^{-\\theta_T}$ and $t^{-\\theta_R}$. We numerically determine $\\theta_T \\approx 1$ and $\\theta_R \\approx 1.6$, independent of the coefficients of restitution. The inhomogeneous regime of the granular gas has been argued to be describable by the ballistic aggregation problem, where particles coalesce on contact. Using scaling arguments, we predict $\\theta_T=1$ and $\\theta_R=1$ for ballistic aggregation, $\\theta_R$ being different from that obtained for the rough granular gas. Simulations of ballistic aggregation with rotational degrees of freedom are consistent with these exponents.

  4. ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB, W& M College; Xu, Chen [JLAB, W& M College

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

  5. Visualization of Membrane Fusion, One Particle at a Time Jason Otterstrom,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to a number of model systems have resulted in a new experimental paradigm and open up considerable membranes from two initially separate bilayers is an energetically favorable one, there are many energetic. Significant energetic barriers separating these intermediates make the energetic landscape a rough terrain

  6. Mars Robotic Outpost Papers "We can all go to Mars-the Mars Outpost Proposal" Louis Friedman and Bruce Murray, the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, Robert G.

    and handling -ISRU plant deployment -internal habitat servicing "Automation and Robotics for Human Mars sampling from aerial vehicles -in situ propellants and vehicles that use them -subsurface and submersible vehicle concepts -high speed, rough terrain, sensing and processing for autonomous navigation and data

  7. Compiled Multi-Lab Geochemistry Synoptic Survey (LANL, ORNL, LBNL), Barrow, Alaska; 2012

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Brent Newman; Heather Throckmorton

    To assess the effects of microtopography and depth on ground water geochemistry in arctic polygonal terrain.

  8. Title: Aerodynamic and Scalar Roughness over Snow and Sea Ice In Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, the aerodynamic roughness, z0, is the artificial height

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: Aerodynamic and Scalar Roughness over Snow and Sea Ice Abstract: In Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, the aerodynamic roughness, z0, is the artificial height above the surface at which the wind speed the theory and measurement of the aerodynamic and scalar roughness lengths over snow and sea ice. The data

  9. Studies of the 3D surface roughness height

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris [Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Ezermalas str. 6k, Riga (Latvia)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

  10. Calculating Very Rough Market Share Using the Canadian Business Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael

    Calculating Very Rough Market Share Using the Canadian Business Database If you cannot find market market share using the company information provided in the Canadian Business Database (CBD), an online - it should be considered a last resort for this information. STEP 1: ACCESS THE CANADIAN BUSINESS DATABASE 1a

  11. Large deviations for rough paths of fractional Brownian motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millet, Annie

    limit theorem. Stochastic modeling deals basically with rough path controls. Indeed, the ground-breaking It^o's theory on stochastic differential equations is based on Brownian motion, which has almost surely nowhere differentiable sam- ple paths but only -H¨older continuous ones, with ]0, 1 2 [. Note

  12. Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson; B. Lorenz; A. I. Volokitin

    2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the noncontact regions. We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

  13. Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuester, Matthew Scott

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    - Distributed Receptivity . . . . . 6 2. FACILITY DESCRIPTION - THE KLEBANOFF–SARIC WIND TUNNEL 11 2.1 Test Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Fan and Motor... of this dissertation describes the Klebanoff–Saric Wind Tunnel facility, which was used for this experiment. Section 3 describes the experimental setup (roughness design and the flat plate model) and defines the metrics by which the flow field is decomposed...

  14. Dimensional variation and roughness of LIGA fabricated microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egert, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wood, R. [Microelectronics Center of North Carolina, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Malek, C.K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the dimensional variation and sidewall roughness of features on PMMA micro- components fabricated by deep x-ray lithography in order to assess the effect of dimensional variation on subsequent assembly operations. Dimensional measurements were made using a stylus profilometer with a repeatability in step height of better than 0.01 {mu}m. Roughness measurements were made with the same profilometer scanning in a direction perpendicular to the length of the parts. 22 {mu}m and 54 {mu}m features exhibited dimensional variations described by a Gaussian distribution with standard deviations of 0.202 {mu}m and 0.381 {mu}m, respectively. This corresponds to a maximum relative variation of between 0.6% and 0.9%. Sidewall roughnesses were found to be in the range of 0.02 {mu}m to 0. 03 {mu}m, an insignificant contribution to the total variation when compared to overall dimensional variation. Several potential sources of this variation are discussed, but no single cause was identified as the source of the significant dimensional variation observed here.

  15. Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability, and porosity on the boiling critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hanley, Harry

    The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on the critical heat flux (CHF) of water were examined using engineered surfaces. Values explored were 0, 5, 10, and 15??m for Rz (roughness), <5°, ?75°, ...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - angle deposited nano-rough Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nano-rough Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: angle deposited nano-rough Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Advanced techniques for glancing...

  17. Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers John M. Buffington1 that bed-surface grain size is responsive to hydraulic roughness caused by bank irregularities, bars condition of low hydraulic roughness. For a given 0bf , channels with progressively greater hydraulic

  18. Scaling laws governing the roughness of the swash edge line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ed. Bormashenko; A. Musin; R. Grynuov

    2014-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The physics of swash i.e. a layer of water that washes up on the beach after an incoming wave has broken is complicated and intriguing. It includes perplexed hydrodynamic and sediment transport events. In our paper we address to the roughness of the moving swash boundary at which a beach, water and air meet. We treat the behavior of this boundary as an interfacial phenomenon, without going into details of formation of edge waves and beach cusps, covered broadly in literature. This "crude" approach turns out to be productive and revealing the resemblance of the swash line with a broad diversity of effects arising from the random pinning of moving boundaries.

  19. The effects of the substrate surface roughness on graphene plasmons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyon, Keenan A.; Miskovic, Zoran L. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, N2L 3G1, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effects of variation in the gap size between mono-layer graphene and a substrate with a randomly rough surface on the linear response of graphene’s ? electron bands within the approximation of Dirac fermions. We adopt the electrostatic Green’s function developed by Rahman and Maradudin [Phys. Rev. B 21, 2137–2143 (1980)] for the surface of a dielectric medium, which exhibits a Gaussian distributed height profile and combine it with the polarization function of graphene described as a zero-thickness planar layer at a fixed distance from the mean position of the substrate surface. We specifically consider the effects of a random gap size on the two-dimensional sheet plasmon mode in heavily doped graphene, both on its dispersion relation in the long-wavelength limit and its broadening due to Landau damping in the continuum of inter-band electron-hole excitations at shorter wavelengths.

  20. Lglise I., Migge B., 2005, Pour une tude des contacts de langues en synchronie : quelques exemples tirs du terrain guyanais, Trace n47, CEMCA, Mexico, pp. 113-131.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    'existence de langues et de cultures séparées dans lesquelles des systèmes linguistiques indépendants n, extrait de données sur les langues créoles à base anglaises parlées en Guyane française et au Surinam, qui

  1. Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken [Nagaoka University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-2188 (Japan); Ogata, Masayoshi [Macoho Co., Ltd. 525 Kanawa, Isurugi-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2032 JAPAN (Japan)

    2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.

  2. Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobus A. van Meel; Harald A. Posch

    2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamical instability of rough hard-disk fluids in two dimensions is characterized through the Lyapunov spectrum and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, $h_{KS}$, for a wide range of densities and moments of inertia $I$. For small $I$ the spectrum separates into translation-dominated and rotation-dominated parts. With increasing $I$ the rotation-dominated part is gradually filled in at the expense of translation, until such a separation becomes meaningless. At any density, the rate of phase-space mixing, given by $h_{KS}$, becomes less and less effective the more the rotation affects the dynamics. However, the degree of dynamical chaos, measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, is only enhanced by the rotational degrees of freedom for high-density gases, but is diminished for lower densities. Surprisingly, no traces of Lyapunov modes were found in the spectrum for larger moments of inertia. The spatial localization of the perturbation vector associated with the maximum exponent however persists for any $I$.

  3. On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Eric

    On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds M. A. Donelan,1 B. K. Haus January 2004; accepted 13 August 2004; published 28 September 2004. [1] The aerodynamic friction between, the ``aerodynamic roughness'') increases with the wind speed. Can one merely extrapolate this wind speed tendency

  4. Maximum Class Separability for Rough-Fuzzy C-Means Based Brain MR Image Segmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Sankar Kumar

    Maximum Class Separability for Rough-Fuzzy C-Means Based Brain MR Image Segmentation Pradipta Maji of brain MR images. The RFCM algorithm comprises a judicious integration of the of rough sets, fuzzy sets with vagueness and incompleteness in class definition of brain MR images, the membership function of fuzzy sets

  5. EFFECT OF CONTACT VISCOSITY AND ROUGHNESS ON INTERFACE STIFFNESS AND WAVE PROPAGATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    EFFECT OF CONTACT VISCOSITY AND ROUGHNESS ON INTERFACE STIFFNESS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Anil Misra1 and asperity properties compete in determining the stiffness behavior, and consequently, the wave propagation widely used to investigate plane wave propagation through contacts between two rough solids [see

  6. A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    , Resources, Roughness, Coastal Sea Areas, Waves, Rødsand 1 INTRODUCTION Large offshore wind farms are beingA FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has to compensate the additional

  7. Near-field heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we focus on the surface roughness correction to the near-field radiative heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a material with a rough surface utilizing a direct perturbation theory up to second order in the surface profile. We discuss the different distance regimes for the local density of states above the rough material and the heat flux analytically and numerically. We show that the heat transfer rate is larger than that corresponding to a flat surface at short distances. At larger distances it can become smaller due to surface polariton scattering by the rough surface. For distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface profile, we show that the results converge to a proximity approximation, whereas in the opposite limit the rough surface can be replaced by an equivalent surface layer.

  8. AN AUTOMATED SYSTEM FOR SYSTEMATIC TESTING OF LOCOMOTION ON HETEROGENEOUS GRANULAR MEDIA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Daniel I.

    robotic locomotors like PackBot or RHex (Figure 1a) travel across these "flowable" types of terrain [1]). Figure 1 Natural heterogeneous terrain. (a) RHex robot traveling across heterogeneous gravel substrate

  9. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Shirey, David L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  10. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Travis Wade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GRYPHON: LCA of electric vs. diesel all-terrain vehicles CEEN 523 December 11, 2013 999 1453 University, Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report PROJECT GRYPHON: LCA of electric vs. diesel all-terrain vehicles ............................................................................................. 7 3 Diesel Vehicle

  11. Optimization of central receiver concentrated solar thermal : site selection, heliostat layout & canting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noone, Corey J. (Corey James)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, two new models are introduced for the purposes of (i) locating sites in hillside terrain suitable for central receiver solar thermal plants and (ii) optimization of heliostat field layouts for any terrain. ...

  12. The effect of ice crystal surface roughness on the retrieval of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Yu

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of the surface roughness of ice crystals is not routinely accounted for in current cloud retrieval algorithms that are based on pre-computed lookup libraries. In this study, we investigate the effect of ice crystal surface roughness...

  13. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) 10.1007/s00138-002-0097-7 Machine Vision and Applications (2003) 14: 514 Machine Vision and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollefeys, Marc

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the planetary terrain is computed, and for controlling the motion of the rover, using light emitting diodes

  14. Larzillire, Pnloe (2007) Islamisme et nationalisme dans les Territoires palestiniens de la premire la seconde Intifada in Khoury, G., Mouchy, N. (dir.), Etats et Socits de l'Orient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    factions de gauche, on assiste, sur le terrain de la mobilisation politique, à une quasi-disparition du

  15. THESE DE DOCTORAT DE L'UNIVERSITE PIERRE ET MARIE CURIE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Téhéran puis sur le terrain, avec un grand merci à Hamid Nazari et Mohammad Foroutan, grâce à qui les

  16. Shingo Shimoda Unit leader

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazama, Hokto

    terrain using potential fields", Robotica, Vol.25, pp.409-424, 2007 [6] Shingo Shimoda, Takashi Kubota

  17. THE OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howat, Ian M.

    ) and built patented 3D models of terrain which prefigured today's "3D printing." In the concluding part

  18. Sound characteristics of a pipe with dynamically rough A. Romanova, K. V. Horoshenkov and S. J. Tait

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Sound characteristics of a pipe with dynamically rough boundary A. Romanova, K. V. Horoshenkov the acoustic field in the pipe above a dynamically rough water surface can provide a better understanding interacting with pipe wall roughness. This work presents results from a novel experimental setup, which allows

  19. Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

  20. Thermoelectric characteristic of the rough InN/GaN core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Chao-Wei; Wu, Yuh-Renn, E-mail: yrwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis to model the thermoelectric (TE) effects of the rough InN/GaN core-shell nanowires (NWs) with wire diameter ranging from 25?nm to 100?nm is proposed. The elastic continuum model is employed to calculate the phonon dispersion relation curves and the related phonon group velocity. Within the framework of Boltzmann transport equations and relaxation time approximation, the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, electronic thermal conductivity, and the lattice thermal conductivity is obtained. Simulation results indicate that TE properties of the rough InN/GaN core-shell NWs are strongly affected by the surface roughness and the diameter of NWs. The optimized condition of the proposed rough InN/GaN core-shell TE NWs is studied in this paper and the highest ZT obtained in the calculation is 0.8598 at 300?K and 1.713 at 1000?K.

  1. On Sea Surface Roughness Parameterization and Its Effect on Tropical Cyclone Structure and Intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yuqing

    On Sea Surface Roughness Parameterization and Its Effect on Tropical Cyclone Structure and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 Yihong Duan National 10, 2009 (Revised) Dateline Revised for Advances in Atmospheric Sciences Corresponding author

  2. Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernitsas, Michael M. (Saline, MI); Raghavan, Kamaldev (Houston, TX)

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

  3. The impact assessment of eccentric installation and roughness change in piping on the orifice flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishi, Y.; Eguchi, Y.; Nishihara, T.; Kanai, T.; Kondo, M. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry CRIEPI, 2-11-1 Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In orifice flowmeters used in nuclear power plants, requirements for the inner surface roughness of upstream piping and eccentric installation exist depending on certain standards. If these cannot be satisfied based on the installation condition, an appropriate error margin must be considered, although this remains to be clarified. In this research, quantitative data concerning the relative error of orifice flowmeters were obtained during experiments with the parameters of the inner surface roughness of upstream piping and the installation eccentricity of the orifice hole. The maximum Reynolds number of the experimental facility is about 1.6x10{sup 6}. In orifice flowmeters, the flow rate is calculated based on the differential pressure between upstream and downstream orifices and the peculiar discharge coefficient C. The latter value shows an upward trend with increasing roughness of piping, while change of 0.3% of C was observed in terms of roughness (case 2), which approaches the limits of the JIS standard. With significant roughness (Case 3) that exceeds five times the JIS standard, C is shown to have increased by about 1%. No influence was observed by varying the direction of eccentric installation, hence this was fixed and the amount of eccentricity was considered. Change in C of about 0.25% was observed when around twice the standard level of eccentricity was applied. The error margin data under conditions exceeding the JIS standard for the orifice flowmeter was obtained. (authors)

  4. Validity of the thin mask approximation in extreme ultraviolet mask roughness simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naulleau, Patrick; George, Simi

    2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown that reflector phase roughness on the lithographic mask is a significant concern due to the image plan speckle it causes and the resulting line-edge roughness on imaged features. Modeling results have recently been used to determine the requirements for future production worthy masks yielding the extremely stringent specification of 50 pm rms roughness. Owing to the scale of the problem in terms of memory requirements, past modeling results have all been based on the thin mask approximation. EUV masks, however, are inherently three dimensional in nature and thus the question arises as to the validity of the thin mask approximation. Here we directly compare image plane speckle calculation results using the fast two dimensional thin mask model to rigorous finite-difference time-domain results and find the two methods to be comparable.

  5. The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional turbulent soap-film flows with rough boundaries (an analogue of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness $r$, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of $f\\propto\\textrm{Re}^{-1/2}$ in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of $\\textrm{Re}^{-1/4}$. For large Re, $f \\sim r$ in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.

  6. Surface roughness of stainless-steel mirrors for focusing soft x rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W

    2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x rays in grazing-incidence reflection. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface,polished and coated with gold, is discussed in detail. A comparison is made to a polished,gold-coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. We used the surface height distributions, measured with an interferometric microscope and complemented by atomic-force microscope measurements, to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity were verified by soft-x-ray measurements.

  7. Rough Set Dependency Analysis in Evaluation Studies An Application in the Study of Repeated Heart Attacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Düntsch, Ivo

    of repeated heart attacks. 1 Introduction In many cases it is not possible to obtain complete ­ or certain analysis can be applied to an investi- gation into the causes of repeated heart attacks con- ductedRough Set Dependency Analysis in Evaluation Studies ­ An Application in the Study of Repeated Heart

  8. Numerical simulation of noise generated by multi asperity contact between rough surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . The validation of the method is then discussed by comparison with the finite element software Abaqus and someNumerical simulation of noise generated by multi asperity contact between rough surfaces V.H. Dang at the interface that convert a part of the kinetic energy of the sliding solid into acoustical energy. 1

  9. Rough-Fuzzy C-Medoids Algorithm and Selection of Bio-Basis for Amino Acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Sankar Kumar

    of protein data sets. Index Terms--Pattern recognition, data mining, c-medoids algorithm, fuzzy sets, rough Pradipta Maji and Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In most pattern recognition algorithms, amino acids pattern recognition algorithms to analyze these biological subsequences is that they cannot recognize

  10. Soft data mining, computational theory of perceptions, and rough-fuzzy approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Sankar Kumar

    is described from pattern recognition point of view along with the relevance of soft computing. Key features of the computational theory of perceptions and its significance in pattern recognition and knowledge dis- covery, and its modeling through rough-fuzzy integration are discussed. Merits of fuzzy granular computation

  11. Class-dependent rough-fuzzy granular space, dispersion index and classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Sankar Kumar

    granular computing Soft computing Pattern recognition Remote sensing a b s t r a c t A new rough-fuzzy model for pattern classification based on granular computing is described in the present article. In this model, we propose the formulation of class-dependent granules in fuzzy environment. Fuzzy membership

  12. Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Roughly one out of every four accidents (25%) involves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Roughly one out of every four accidents (25%) involves at an unsafe speed · Failure to check mirrors often Fleet Safety: Backing Accidents Safety Tip #2 Accidents hurt-- safety doesn't. All backing accidents are preventable. The key is to plan ahead to avoid backing

  13. Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706 PARTICIPANT ORGANIZATION NAME: CNRS Synthetic 2nd year report Related with Work Package............ HYDRO-THERMAL FLOW in the influence of a realistic geometry of the fracture on its hydro-thermal response. Several studies have

  14. FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

    FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

  15. Geometrical and transport properties of single fractures: influence of the roughness of the fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Geometrical and transport properties of single fractures: influence of the roughness of the fracture walls H. Auradou Univ Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, F-91405. Lab FAST, Bat reviews the main features of the transport properties of single fractures. A particular attention paid

  16. Atmospheric Momentum Roughness Applied to Stage-Discharge Relationships in Flood Plains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­Weisbach formula is modified to account for vegetative resistance by application of surface roughness lengths appropriate friction factors. Schlicting 1955 reviews the relationship between the Ni- kuradsse's equivalent 1996 developed and calibrated procedures to estimate flow resistance based on the Colebrook

  17. Importance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    sites. The first large offshore wind farms are currently being built in several countries in EuropeImportance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark Abstract The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilisation

  18. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josten, N.E.; Svoboda, J.M.

    1999-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency. 13 figs.

  19. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josten, Nicholas E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency.

  20. Estimation of the aerodynamic roughness length in arid and semi-arid regions over the globe with the ERS scatterometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aires, Filipe

    Estimation of the aerodynamic roughness length in arid and semi-arid regions over the globe 2005. [1] Estimates of the aerodynamic roughness lengths z0 in arid and semi-arid regions: Prigent, C., I. Tegen, F. Aires, B. Marticorena, and M. Zribi (2005), Estimation of the aerodynamic

  1. 486 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 7, JULY 2007 Estimation of Roughness-Induced Power Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Leung

    it to predict the roughness effect on power loss. Index Terms--Power absorption, power spectral density (PSD significant additional power loss that can be detrimental for insertion loss limited designs. We recently interconnect surfaces and use it to estimate corresponding roughness-induced power loss. The 2-D PSD

  2. Soft X-ray reflectometry applied to the evaluation of surface roughness variation during the deposition of thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1645 Soft X-ray reflectometry applied to the evaluation of surface roughness variation during). The surface roughness evolution was calculated as a function of thickness from the soft X-ray reflectance Abstracts 07.60H - 68.20 - 68.55 - 78.65 Introduction. Soft X-ray reflectometry (SXR) was introduced

  3. X-ray resonant magnetic scattering from structurally and magnetically rough interfaces in multilayered systems. I. Specular reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haskel, Daniel

    X-ray resonant magnetic scattering from structurally and magnetically rough interfaces formulation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces is given for specular/Fe multilayer. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.224409 PACS number s : 75.70.Cn, 61.10.Kw I. INTRODUCTION X-ray

  4. Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY); Wang, Hsin-Pang (Rexford, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

  5. Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrés Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garzó

    2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

  6. Single-layer MoS{sub 2} roughness and sliding friction quenching by interaction with atomically flat substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quereda, J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Castellanos-Gomez, A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Agraït, N. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rubio-Bollinger, G., E-mail: gabino.rubio@uam.es [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally study the surface roughness and the lateral friction force in single-layer MoS{sub 2} crystals deposited on different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, mica, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Roughness and sliding friction measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy. We find a strong dependence of the MoS{sub 2} roughness on the underlying substrate material, being h-BN the substrate which better preserves the flatness of the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The lateral friction also lowers as the roughness decreases, and attains its lowest value for MoS{sub 2} flakes on h-BN substrates. However, it is still higher than for the surface of a bulk MoS{sub 2} crystal, which we attribute to the deformation of the flake due to competing tip-to-flake and flake-to-substrate interactions.

  7. Anomalous scaling and super-roughness in the growth of CdTe polycrystalline films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angélica S. Mata; Silvio C. Ferreira, Jr.; Igor R. B. Ribeiro; Sukarno O. Ferreira

    2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    CdTe films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine doped tin oxide by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) were studied through the interface dynamical scaling theory. Direct measures of the dynamical exponent revealed an intrinsically anomalous scaling characterized by a global roughness exponent $\\alpha$ distinct from the local one (the Hurst exponent $H$), previously reported [Ferreira \\textit{et al}., Appl. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{88}, 244103 (2006)]. A variety of scaling behaviors was obtained with varying substrate temperature. In particular, a transition from a intrinsically anomalous scaling regime with $H\

  8. EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that increasing surface roughness increases the maximum fuel and helium temperatures as do increases in gap width. However, maximum coolant temperature variation due to increased gap width is not changed by surface roughness.

  9. Turbulent Friction in Rough Pipes and the Energy Spectrum of the Phenomenological Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Gioia; Pinaki Chakraborty

    2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical experiments on turbulent friction in rough pipes were performed by J. Nikuradse in the 1930's. Seventy years later, they continue to defy theory. Here we model Nikuradse's experiments using the phenomenological theory of Kolmog\\'orov, a theory that is widely thought to be applicable only to highly idealized flows. Our results include both the empirical scalings of Blasius and Strickler, and are otherwise in minute qualitative agreement with the experiments; they suggest that the phenomenological theory may be relevant to other flows of practical interest; and they unveil the existence of close ties between two milestones of experimental and theoretical turbulence.

  10. Investigation of wall friction in noncircular ducts with a rough liner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler, John Charles

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Civil ~Rn i , I nd , p. 166, P h Ay, 1DDD 2. R k'*1, R M * i, M*ch d I' G 1 ti A~n 1 Viley and. Sons, Inc. , New York, p. 66, 1950, H *I ci er, P. G. , ~atd, P~, d Ai. ~G* d't'* 19: 127(19rr. 7). O; Johnaon, Guy, Jr. , Determination oi' the ~pandit...INVESTIGATION OZ 7('ALL FRICTION IN NONCIHCULAR DUCTS VIITH A ROUGH LINEH A Thesis John Charles Tyler Submitted. to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  11. Improved detection of rough defects for ultrasonic NDE inspections based on finite element modeling of elastic wave scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettit, J. R. [Rolls-Royce Nuclear, PO BOX 2000, Derby, UK, DE21 7XX and Research Centre for NDE, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Walker, A. [Rolls-Royce Nuclear, PO BOX 2000, Derby DE21 7XX (United Kingdom); Lowe, M. J. S. [Research Centre for NDE, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Defects which posses rough surfaces greatly affect ultrasonic wave scattering behaviour, often reducing the magnitude of reflected signals. Ultrasonic inspections rely upon this response for detecting and sizing flaws. For safety critical components reliable characterisation is crucial. Therefore, providing an accurate means to predict reductions in signal amplitude is essential. An extension of Kirchhoff theory has formed the basis for the UK power industry inspection justifications. However, it is widely recognised that these predictions are pessimistic owing to analytical approximations. A numerical full field modelling approach does not fall victim to such limitations. Here, a Finite Element model is used to aid in setting a non-conservative reporting threshold during the inspection of a large pressure vessel forging that might contain embedded rough defects. The ultrasonic response from multiple rough surfaces defined by the same statistical class is calculated for normal incident compression waves. The approach is validated by comparing coherent scattering with predictions made by Kirchhoff theory. At lower levels of roughness excellent agreement is observed, whilst higher values confirm the pessimism of Kirchhoff theory. Furthermore, the mean amplitude in the specular direction is calculated. This represents the information obtained during an inspection, indicating that reductions due to increasing roughness are significantly less than the coherent component currently being used.

  12. Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

  13. Light scattering by a rough surface of human skin. 1. The luminance factor of reflected light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barun, V V [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus); Ivanov, A P [B.I.Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, we have studied the angular structure of the luminance factor of light reflected by the rough skin surface with large-scale relief elements, illuminated by a directed radiation beam incident at an arbitrary angle inside or outside the medium. The parameters of the surface inhomogeneities are typical of human skin. The calculated angular dependences are interpreted from the point of view of the angular distribution function of micro areas. The results obtained can be used for solving direct and inverse problems in biomedical optics, in particular for determining the depth of light penetration into a biological tissue, for studying the light action spectra on tissue chromophores under the in vivo conditions, for developing diagnostic methods of structural and biophysical parameters of a medium, and for optimising the mechanisms of interaction of light with biological tissues under their noninvasive irradiation through skin. (biomedical optics)

  14. Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Cardone; T. Durante; S. A. Nazarov

    2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

  15. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  16. Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ting

    2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

  17. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for FocusingSoft X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi,Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W.

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x-rays in grazing incidence reflection. The substrate is bent to an elliptical shape with large curvature and high stresses in the substrate require a strong elastic material. Conventional material choices of silicon or of glass will not withstand the stress required. The use of steel allows the substrates to be polished and installed flat, using screws in tapped holes. The ultra-high-vacuum bender mechanism is motorized and computer controlled. These mirrors are used to deliver focused beams of soft x-rays onto the surface of a sample for experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). They provide an illumination field that can be as small as the mirror demagnification allows, for localized study, and can be enlarged, under computer control,for survey measurements over areas of the surface up to several millimeters. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, which limits the minimum achievable focused spot size is discussed in detail. Comparison is made to a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. Surface measurements are presented as power spectral densities, as a function of spatial frequency. The surface height distributions measured with an interferometric microscope, and complemented by atomic force microscope measurements, are used to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity are verified by soft x-ray measurements.

  18. 2007-07-27

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    phenomena and building the foundation for a clear and consistent understanding of this new energy terrain. Beyond this, precision measurements from the ILC could act as a...

  19. (DOE/EIS-0285/SA-12): Supplement Analysis for the Transmission...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    managers. The subject corridor traverses mountainous terrain mostly owned by large timber companies. During routine patrols, tall, encroaching trees and vegetation issues...

  20. An analytical and simulation study of wireless ad hoc networks with and without cooperation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ip, Louisa Pui Sum

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    terrain, replacing the batteries for nodes might not bepower, and replacing the batteries of the nodes may not beare usually operated by batteries and have limited power

  1. Spatially distributed temperatures at the base of two mountain snowpacks measured

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dozier, Jeff

    imaging (FLIR) can provide meter-scale temperature resolution in fairly complex terrain (Loheide, FLIR also requires consideration of spatial, temporal and angular variability in emissivity

  2. adaptive fast walking: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electro conditions for stable dynamic walking on irregular terrain in general, and we design the mechanical system and the neural system by comparing biological concepts with...

  3. E-Print Network 3.0 - adaptive planning target Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MT-Adaptive A*, Planning with the Freespace Assump- tion, Target, Unknown Terrain, Video Games 1... . To this end, we extend Adaptive A*, an incremental heuristic search method,...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Utility, MunicipalPublic Utility, Utility Savings Category: Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics Alteration of Terrain Permits (New Hampshire) This permit is required whenever a...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FOR CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    will include pick-up trucks, small all-terrain vehicles including Cushman Tracksters, laser measuring devices, ropes, and chainsaws. All travel will be confined to existing ROW...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW FOR CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION DETERMINATION

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    terrain damage, the maintenance crew repairs the damage. To comply with the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, maintenance work should be scheduled outside the March 1 through July 31...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - azufres mexico geothermal Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    geothermal. These technologies... and geothermal energy are relevant to Denmark. Hydro Hydro has little potential in the low lying terrain of Den Source: Ris National...

  8. Variation of urban momentum roughness length with land use in the upwind source area, as observed in two UK cities.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    in two UK cities. G.G.Rooney (gabriel.rooney@metoffice.com), I.D.Longley and J.F.Barlow Met Office Field fraction of different cover types, Birmingham 20 4 roughness lengths against wind direction, Salford 21 5 in building wakes to its blended final state at some height above the urban canopy, for a real city, tests

  9. 1216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 5, MAY 2009 Wave Propagation in a Randomly Rough

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Leung

    and the power loss. The derived result is expressed in terms of a double Sommerfeld integral. The double propagation and power loss are illustrated as a function of roughness characteristics and waveguide thickness thickness, the waveguide model shows signif- icantly different power loss as compared to the plane

  10. Linear Algebra Research Project Rough Draft Nick Davis Camera Transformations in OpenGL ES 2.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marzuola, Jeremy

    Linear Algebra Research Project Rough Draft Nick Davis Camera Transformations in OpenGL ES 2.0 Since the advent of the analog computer the power of visual display has played an integral part graphical output, including components designed solely for calculating graphics (Graphics Processing Units

  11. Lattice Boltzmann simulations in microfluidics: probing the no-slip boundary condition in hydrophobic, rough, and surface nanobubble laden microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Harting; Christian Kunert; Jari Hyväluoma

    2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution we review recent efforts on investigations of the effect of (apparent) boundary slip by utilizing lattice Boltzmann simulations. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to treat fundamental questions in microfluidics by investigating fluid flow in hydrophobic and rough microchannels as well as over surfaces covered by nano- or microscale gas bubbles.

  12. IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  13. An atomic force microscopy-based method for line edge roughness measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Bardet, B. [CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA LTM, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    With the constant decrease of semiconductor device dimensions, line edge roughness (LER) becomes one of the most important sources of device variability and needs to be controlled below 2 nm for the future technological nodes of the semiconductor roadmap. LER control at the nanometer scale requires accurate measurements. We introduce a technique for LER measurement based upon the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this technique, the sample is tilted at about 45 Degree-Sign and feature sidewalls are scanned along their length with the AFM tip to obtain three-dimensional images. The small radius of curvature of the tip together with the low noise level of a laboratory AFM result in high resolution images. Half profiles and LER values on all the height of the sidewalls are extracted from the 3D images using a procedure that we developed. The influence of sample angle variations on the measurements is shown to be small. The technique is applied to the study of a full pattern transfer into a simplified gate stack. The images obtained are qualitatively consistent with cross-section scanning electron microscopy images and the average LER values agree with that obtained by critical dimension scanning electron microscopy. In addition to its high resolution, this technique presents several advantages such as the ability to image the foot of photoresist lines, complex multi-layer stacks regardless of the materials, and deep re-entrant profiles.

  14. Systematic analysis of Persson's contact mechanics theory of randomly rough elastic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf B. Dapp; Nikolay Prodanov; Martin H. Müser

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We systematically check explicit and implicit assumptions of Persson's contact mechanics theory. It casts the evolution of the pressure distribution ${\\rm Pr}(p)$ with increasing resolution of surface roughness as a diffusive process, in which resolution plays the role of time. The tested key assumptions of the theory are: (a) the diffusion coefficient is independent of pressure $p$, (b) the diffusion process is drift-free at any value of $p$, (c) the point $p=0$ acts as an absorbing barrier, i.e., once a point falls out of contact, it never reenters again, (d) the Fourier component of the elastic energy is only populated if the appropriate wave vector is resolved, and (e) it no longer changes when even smaller wavelengths are resolved. Using high-resolution numerical simulations, we quantify deviations from these approximations and find quite significant discrepancies in some cases. For example, the drift becomes substantial for small values of $p$, which typically represent points in real space close to a contact line. On the other hand, there is a significant flux of points reentering contact. These and other identified deviations cancel each other to a large degree, resulting in an overall excellent description for contact area, contact geometry, and gap distribution functions. Similar fortuitous error cancellations cannot be guaranteed under different circumstances, for instance when investigating rubber friction. The results of the simulations may provide guidelines for a systematic improvement of the theory.

  15. Variation of Solar Attenuation with Height in CAPLTER The atmosphere over rural and urbanized areas differs in many ways in relation to terrain influences and human-induced variations (e.g., heat, humidity, wind, and pollution). The sun's energy penetrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    on amounts of solar energy that are accumulated at any given time. These controls range from extraterrestrial of variability cascade into plant productivity, solar energy technology, and urban climate processes, in generalVariation of Solar Attenuation with Height in CAPLTER Abstract The atmosphere over rural

  16. Colloid deposition on non-ideal porous media: The influences of collector shape and roughness on the single-collector efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saiers, James

    Colloid deposition on non-ideal porous media: The influences of collector shape and roughness on the single-collector efficiency James E. Saiers School of Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven changes in mineral-grain shape and surface roughness influence the single-collector contact efficiency (h

  17. Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the NACA 4415 airfoil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, M.J.; Reuss Ramsay, R.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A NACA 4415 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from {minus}10{degree} to +40{degree} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, these were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Steady state results of the NACA 4415 testing at Reynolds number of 1.25 million showed a baseline maximum lift coefficient of 1.30 at 12.3{degree} angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 20% and increased the 0.0090 minimum drag coefficient value by 62%. The zero lift pitching moment of {minus}0.0967 showed a 13% reduction in magnitude to {minus}0.0842 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude, and both unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall is delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack is increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack. In addition, with LEGR, the hysteresis behavior persisted into lower angles of attack than for the clean case.

  18. An experimental investigation of silicon wafer surface roughness and its effect on the full strength of plated metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spiers, G.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plated silicon wafers with surface roughness ranging from 0.4 to 130 microinches were subjected to tensile pull strength tests. Electroless Ni/electroless Cu/electroplated Cu and electroless Ni/electroplated Cu were the two types of plate contacts tested. It was found that smoother surfaces had higher pull strength than rougher, chemically etched surfaces. The presence of the electroless Cu layer was found to be important to adhesion. The mode of fracture of the contact as it left the silicon was studied, and it was found that in almost all cases separation was due to fracture of the bulk silicon phase. The correlation between surface roughness and mode of contact failure is presented and interpreted.

  19. Atomic intermixing and interface roughness in short-period InAs/GaSb superlattices for infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashuach, Y.; Lakin, E.; Kaufmann, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Saguy, C. [Solid State Institute, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zolotoyabko, E., E-mail: zloto@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Solid State Institute, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of advanced characterization methods, including high-resolution X-ray diffraction (measurements and simulations), cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is applied to quantify the interface roughness and atomic intermixing (in both cation and anion sub-lattices) in short period (6–7?nm) InAs/GaSb superlattices intended for mid-wavelength (M) and long-wavelength (L) infrared detectors. The undesired atomic intermixing and interface roughness in the L-samples were found to be considerably lower than in the M-samples. In all specimens, anion intermixing is much higher than that in the cation sub-lattice. Possible origins of these findings are discussed.

  20. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, W. S., E-mail: liuweicheng@zju.edu.cn; Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, J. [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, J. K. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  1. Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability and porosity on boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux and optimization of boiling surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hanley, Harrison Fagan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) were examined using carefully-engineered surfaces. All test surfaces were prepared on ...

  2. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics AIAA-01-4597

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manduchi, Roberto

    -situ volcanic rocks on the surface can indicate not only a source region, but can also be #12;American Institute of A are reserved by the copyright owner. AUTONOMOUS ROCK DETECTION FOR MARS TERRAIN Authors: V. Gor, R. Castano, R rock detection process for Martian terrain. A rock detection algorithm, based on this framework

  3. 0 Riso-R-434 Wind Speed and Direction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    meteorological statistics for the area as it was considered a possible site for a nuclear power plant. \\ \\ Duringm I 0 Riso-R-434 t Wind Speed and Direction Changes due to Terrain Effects revealed-4000 Roskilde, Denmark May 1983 #12;RISÃ?-R-434 WIND SPEED AND DIRECTION CHANGES DUE TO TERRAIN EFFECTS

  4. 8, 1084110872, 2008 Non-stationary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 8, 10841­10872, 2008 Non-stationary dispersion on complex terrain J. L. Palau et al. Title on complex terrain under summer conditions J. L. Palau 1 , G. P´erez-Landa 2 , and M. M. Mill´an 1 1 Fundaci ­ Published: 5 June 2008 Correspondence to: J. L. Palau (jlp@confluencia.biz) Published by Copernicus

  5. CSc-165 Spring 2014 Week 9(b) Adjusting avatar position in Height Maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Scott

    extends AbstractInputAction { private SceneNode avatar; private float s = 0.01f; private Terrain camera code example 4[b]) MoveForwardAction.java: import sage.input.action.AbstractInputAction; import graphicslib3D.Point3D; import graphicslib3D.Matrix3D; import sage.terrain.*; public class MoveForwardAction

  6. Geomorphic Evaluation of Radar Imagery of Southeastern Panama and Northwestern Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Anthony J.

    1971-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    directly from radar imagery . • • • • . • • • . • • . • • Radar chips from the four major landform regions in Darien Province I Panama: plains, low hills I high hills, and mountains. • • • . • . • • . • . . . Comparison of radar imagery and topographic...-Derived Terrain Slope (a) Data for Darien Province I Panama - Plains. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 132 Cumulative Frequency Curves of Radar-Derived Terrain Slope (a) Data for Darien Province I Panama - Low Hills. • . . • • • . . • • . . • • • . 133...

  7. Using the ARPS WSR-88D Data Remapper Keith Brewster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

    variables dealing with the grid spacing, grid location, vertical stretching, terrain and map projection an ARPS terrain-following Cartesian grid. The program reads data from WSR-88D archive level-II tapes, from velocity (ms-1 ) interpolated to the three-dimensional ARPS grid. Optionally, the user may also direct

  8. Soil mineralogy trends in California landscapes R.C. Graham a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Soil mineralogy trends in California landscapes R.C. Graham a, , A.T. O'Geen b a Soil & Water soil mineralogical trends: 1) granitic terrain of the Peninsular Ranges, 2) granitic terrain of life. Inherent soil fertility issues are often directly linked to soil mineralogy (e.g., Page et al

  9. The Bolund Experiment Design of Measurement Campaign using CFD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    determination of mean wind, wind gradients and turbulence intensity on potential wind turbine positions complex terrain for reliable estimation of power production and wind turbine loads. · Development of remote sensing techniques (Lidar) for measuring wind conditions in complex terrain, including

  10. Frequency-Rank Correlations of Rhodopsin Mutations with Tuned Hydropathic Roughness Based on Self-Organized Criticality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Phillips

    2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of disease-linked mutations of membrane proteins is especially simple in rhodopsin, where they are well-studied, as they are responsible for retinitis pigmentosa, RP (retinal degeneration). Here we show that the frequency of occurrence of single RP mutations is strongly influenced by their posttranslational survival rates, and that this survival correlates well (82%) with a long-range, non-local hydropathic measure of the roughness of the water interfaces of ex-membrane rhodopsin based on self-organized criticality (SOC). It is speculated that this concept may be generally useful in studying survival rates of many mutated proteins.

  11. The role of an interface on Ni film removal and surface roughness after irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed thin film removal from glass substrates after the irradiation of Ni films with femtosecond laser pulses in air. It was found that the material removal threshold and laser-induced morphology are dependent on film thickness. With decreasing thickness, material removal transitions from intra-film separation to removal at the Ni-glass interface. The Gaussian energy distribution of the laser pulse allows for intra-film separation in the annular region of the crater and interface separation in the center. We propose a model to explain these data as well as the observed increased surface roughness in the interfacial removal regions.

  12. Roughness analysis applied to niobium thin films grown on MgO(001) surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. B. Beringer, W. M. Roach, C. Clavero, C. E. Reece, R. A. Lukaszew

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes surface studies to address roughness issues inherent to thin film coatings deposited onto superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. This is particularly relevant for multilayered thin film coatings that are being considered as a possible scheme to overcome technical issues and to surpass the fundamental limit of ?50??MV/m accelerating gradient achievable with bulk niobium. In 2006, a model by Gurevich [ Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 012511 (2006)] was proposed to overcome this limit that involves coating superconducting layers separated by insulating ones onto the inner walls of the cavities. Thus, we have undertaken a systematic effort to understand the dynamic evolution of the Nb surface under specific deposition thin film conditions onto an insulating surface in order to explore the feasibility of the proposed model. We examine and compare the morphology from two distinct Nb/MgO series, each with its own epitaxial registry, at very low growth rates and closely examine the dynamical scaling of the surface features during growth. Further, we apply analysis techniques such as power spectral density to the specific problem of thin film growth and roughness evolution to qualify the set of deposition conditions that lead to successful SRF coatings.

  13. Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

  14. D etailed m odeling ofreactive flow s th rough geologicm edia is necessary to understand a num ber of environm entalproblem s of national

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Richard

    fluids and geologic seq uestration of CO2 in deep reservoirs. Such problem s generally req uire sim s to th e surface , for e xam ple , th rough abandone d w e lls and fracture s in cap rock s. Accurate

  15. Discrepancy between Subcritical and Fast Rupture Roughness: A Cumulant Analysis N. Mallick, P.-P. Cortet, S. Santucci,* S. G. Roux, and L. Vanel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roux, Stephane

    Discrepancy between Subcritical and Fast Rupture Roughness: A Cumulant Analysis N. Mallick, P the slow (subcritical) and the fast growth regime. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.255502 PACS numbers: 62, crack growth starts in a subcritical regime where the growth is slow (v 10ÿ5­10ÿ2 m sÿ1) and reaches

  16. COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1), Jrgen Hjstrup(2), Sren Larsen(2), Rebecca Barthelmie(2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Large offshore wind farms are being built in several countries in Europe. The economic viabilityCOMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1 of such projects depends on the favourable wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has

  17. Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

  18. Autonomous underwater vehicle navigation and mapping in dynamic, unstructured environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunz, Clayton Gregory

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a system for automatically building 3-D optical and bathymetric maps of underwater terrain using autonomous robots. The maps that are built improve the state of the art in resolution by an order of ...

  19. The opportunistic green : building on Toronto's utility corridor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahimi, Kamyar

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Green Line or hydro corridors of Toronto are sprawling lengths of continuous, mostly vacant land used for the primary purpose of transmitting electricity. They are unusual terrain, physically sparse but culturally ...

  20. Numerical simulation of the 16-19 October 1994 southeast Texas heavy rain event: precipitation results and diagnosis of the lifting mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petroski, Thomas John

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period 16-19 October 1994, a mesoscale convective system (MCS) developed within a weakly forced large-scale environment over relatively flat terrain. This resulted in extreme rainfall totals and subsequent widespread flash flooding...

  1. E N G I N E E R I N G T H E F U T U R E O F R O B O T I C S Highly mobile &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Abhinav

    , reconnaissance, surveillance, and work in hazardous environments A removable battery pack is the only component-wheeled Mini Crusher easily tackles gravel and other challenging terrain and literally turns on a dime. #12;

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft industry Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    OF THE CONTROLLED FLIGHT INTO TERRAIN Summary: 4-D.1 3 Industry task force. Appendix 4-D, section 4-D.1.1 12;Revision 14.0 4 1. AIRCRAFT... ......

  3. 758-60 751-54 TAKU SHUTTLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Beluga Field Ice Rink Townshend Point THOMPSON DRIVE TROTH YEDDHA' PARK HULBERT NANOOK TERRAIN PARK Nerland McIntosh Stevens Ice Arena Lola Tilly Student Recreation Center WestRidge Research Wickersham

  4. How to Include Zebras in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Jaswinder Pal

    Cellular... So far in class, you've talked a lot about cellular service: ­ Cellular towers receive voice antennas available ­ Looking at 802.11 or VHF transmission Difficult terrain Power generation & storage

  5. be virtually impossible to construct land lines and microwave networks in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brewer, Eric A.

    ) with a microwave radio transmission tail is not suit- able for very harsh terrain, or for locations that are more. The use of microwave repeater towers, requiring line- of-sight from one tower to the next, was ruled out

  6. Universit Paris VI -Pierre et Marie Curie -UFR des Sciences de la Vie Discipline : Ocanologie Biologique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Lenfant, Marion Jarraya, Suzanne Mills, Serge Planes, Jean-Pierre Pointier, Jocelyne Blanc, Jean d'eau. Merci à Thierry Lison de Loma, pour son aide sur le terrain à Raiatea, et pour avoir bien

  7. Landscapes as references for design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batchelor, James P

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a study of the ways in which the forms in landscapes - natural terrain adapted and inhabited - can serve as references in architectural design. As references for design, landscapes provide a richness of responses ...

  8. 2013 NISE Awards Summary Table

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research m917 3,000,000 BER Climate Research Turbulence over Complex Terrain: a Wind Energy Perspective Kristin Persson, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory jcesr 4,000,000...

  9. Urban Reclamation in São Paulo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskinazi, Victor

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The urbanized terrain of São Paulo is characterized by wasteful landscapes on peripheral areas of the metropolitan agglomeration, and decaying landscapes of waste in the core of the city. If on the one hand, the increasingly ...

  10. airborne lidar mapping: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A minimum height of 1 m was applied to define woody understorey. Critical to this process were a Digital Terrain Model (extracted from the leaf-off last return LiDAR data)...

  11. Universit Paul-Valry Montpellier 3 UFR des Sciences conomiques, mathmatiques et sociales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    recherche issus du terrain. Il s'agit de présenter les dynamiques actuelles du travail et de tracer le lien field reports and search results. It presents the current dynamics of work and marks out the link

  12. Antonio Diaz-Calderon Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Alonzo

    @jpl.nasa.gov Alonzo Kelly The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University On-Line Stability Margin and Attitude which move heavy loads, accelerate or brake aggressively, turn at speed, or operate on sloped terrain

  13. Between nature and artifice : The Landscape Architecture Research Office (1966-1979)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Catherine F. (Catherine Fae)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cambridge in the 1960s was a locus of experimentation and research in new computing technologies -from the production of transportation models for New England to the design of war games simulating the vagaries of the terrain ...

  14. Estimation of ground reaction force and zero moment point on a powered ankle-foot prosthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez Villalpando, Ernesto Carlos

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercially available ankle-foot prostheses are passive when in contact with the ground surface, and thus, their mechanical properties remain fixed across different terrains and walking speeds. The passive nature of these ...

  15. Rampart craters on Ganymede: Their implications for fluidized ejecta emplacement Joseph BOYCE1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    on Ganymede have the overall ejecta morphology similar to Martian double-layer ejecta (DLE and the concentration of Martian DLE craters on the northern lowlands suggests that these terrains may share key

  16. Control of a Powered Ankle–Foot Prosthesis Based on a Neuromuscular Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geyer, Hartmut

    Control schemes for powered ankle-foot prostheses rely upon fixed torque-ankle state relationships obtained from measurements of intact humans walking at target speeds and across known terrains. Although effective at their ...

  17. Micro-home ownership in a mega-metropolis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacCarroll, Christian D. (Christian David)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a means to keep pace with today's globally networked society, the home is reconceived as a portable, transformable device that adapts and reconfigures itself to coexist within a range of changing terrains. Ownership ...

  18. Axel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abad-Manterola, Pablo

    Recent scientific findings suggest that some of the most interesting sites for future exploration of planetary surfaces lie in terrains that are currently inaccessible to conventional robotic rovers. To provide robust and ...

  19. A parametric analysis of the start-up procedure and flight characteristics of a gliding autogyro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Michael, 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, Draper Laboratory is in the development stages of a gliding autogyro airdrop system. The goal of the project is to design a platform capable of placing small, high value items into urban terrain. Theoretically, ...

  20. Tradespace model for planetary surface exploration hopping vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunio, Phillip M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Robotic planetary surface exploration, which has greatly benefited humankind's scientific knowledge of the solar system, has to date been conducted by sedentary landers or by slow, terrain-limited rovers. However, there ...

  1. URBAN MODELING FROM LIDAR DATA IN AN INTEGRATED GIS ENVIRONMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shan, Jie

    are analyzed and possible solutions are proposed by fusing lidar data with other image data. Study shows: it allows rapid generation large-scale DTM (digital terrain model); is daylight independent; is relatively

  2. Geometric and Radiometric Calibration of RADARSAT Images David Small, Francesco Holecz, Erich Meier, Daniel Nesch, and Arnold Barmettler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Small, David

    geometry pixel (which can grow to over a kilometre in steep terrain!) are considered. The utility near the centre of both images, with Lake Zürich, Lake Zug, and Lake Lucerne prominently visible. Note

  3. What can I do with this degree? AREAS EMPLOYERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Planning Environmental Impact Terrain and Land Use PHYSICAL/ENVIRONMENTAL Federal government Publishers or companies in insurance, environmental work, transportation, communications and international trade language, history, customs, and culture. #12;(Geography, Page 2) STRATEGIESEMPLOYERS CARTOGRAPHY Mosaics

  4. Lunar TecTonics New LROC images show recent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, James

    zones around alien suns may depend on cHemistry Trace elements in stars may influence the evolution explorers and the terrain that they dis- covered. It is the first atlas of the most remote mountain range

  5. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 27712785, 2005 www.atmos-chem-phys.org/acp/5/2771/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of meteorological scales to forecast air pollution scenarios on coastal complex terrain J. L. Palau, G. P- pages of the research projects ECLAP; MAP-Riviera; ES- Correspondence to: J. L. Palau (jlp

  6. J Glob Optim DOI 10.1007/s10898-007-9206-5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Angelo

    conformations of united atom n-alkane models for diesel, home heating, and residual fuel oils. The terrain of petroleum or hydrocarbon fuels such as home heating and diesel fuels is a nag- ging and costly problem

  7. Robust Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Parafoils under Wind Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    How, Jonathan P.

    A key challenge facing modern airborne delivery systems, such as parafoils, is the ability to accurately and consistently deliver supplies into di cult, complex terrain. Robustness is a primary concern, given that environmental ...

  8. ~mcupkric EnviroMvnr Vol. IS. No. IO, pp. 1969-2002. 1984 Pnnted in Great Britain.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    ~mcupkric EnviroMvnr Vol. IS. No. IO, pp. 1969-2002. 1984 Pnnted in Great Britain. ocKJ4-6981/84 13 diffusion, stratified flow, wind tunnel, towing tank, complex terrain, air pollution. NOMENCLATURE constant

  9. On-Line Rectification of Sport Sequences with Moving Cameras

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piater, Justus H.

    2 1 CIMAT, A.C., Jalisco S/N 36240 Guanajuato, GTO., Mexico 2 Institut Montefiore, University into a real-world coordinate system, in a frame attached to the terrain field, a process generally referred

  10. Project EARTH-12-PPS1: Weathering Rates in the Critical Zone: Soil Erosion, River Chemistry and Climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Project EARTH-12-PPS1: Weathering Rates in the Critical Zone: Soil Erosion, River Chemistry., Assessing the role of climate on uranium and lithium isotope behaviour in rivers draining a basaltic terrain

  11. B'Seder : the design of a social medium for Polish and Jewish communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wojtowicz, Ian (Ian Stanislaw)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    "The history of the Polish-Jewish relationship is...the embattled terrain of several collective memories, each with its claim to moral legitimacy, and each charged with fierce and sometimes vehement feelings." These contested ...

  12. The earthquake of 250 A.D. in Augusta Raurica, A real event with a 3D site-effect?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oprsal, Ivo

    and geotechnical mapping of the unconsolidated sediments. Important parameters such as the thickness and composition of the unconsolidated sediments, the terrain topography and the topography of the bedrock surface

  13. A LANDSCAPE POTENTIAL CHARACTERIZATION: SPATIAL TEMPLATE OF PEDESTRIAN AMBIENT FIELDS WITHIN THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A LANDSCAPE POTENTIAL CHARACTERIZATION: SPATIAL TEMPLATE OF PEDESTRIAN AMBIENT FIELDS WITHIN delineate ambiences with identifiable characteristics, thus characterizing landscape perception-sensorial planning and design process. Keywords Landscape analysis, open spaces, isovist, sensory Digital Terrain

  14. Niwot Ridge CRN Station Up & On-Line.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niwot Ridge CRN Station Up & On-Line. I made a decision after the Science Panel Review to put tree removal Wind Speed 3, terrain elevation change Solar Radiation 3, solar shading to west #12;

  15. Hierarchical occlusion culling for arbitrarily-meshed height fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmondson, Paul Michael

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    .................................................................................................................69 VITA ................................................................................................................................73 viii LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1. Terrain sample datasets...........................................40 Figure 13. A screenshot of the implementation system. ..................................................47 Figure 14. The Ashby Gap dataset...................................................................................49 Figure 15. The Mt...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - alaskan coastal villages Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on those villages. Due to the rugged terrain and lack of a roadway system, supplying rural Alaskan... in Figure 6 shows that wind speeds of up to class 7 occur along the ......

  17. ATV Safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, David

    2004-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    All-terrain vehicles are very popular for off-road recreation. However, the number of injuries and deaths from ATV accidents is growing rapidly. This publication lists the causes of injuries and fatalities, discusses Texas ATV laws, and provides...

  18. CX-001380: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Idaho National Laboratory - Off-Road All Terrain Vehicle Use in Support of Engineering SurveysCX(s) Applied: B3.1Date: 03/31/2010Location(s): IdahoOffice(s): Idaho Operations Office, Nuclear Energy

  19. Tibet Train

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: They said it couldn't be done! The terrain was too barren, the mountains too lofty, the task too ambitious. But the Railroad at the Top of the World linking China with Tibet is proceeding apace. Not ...

  20. Motion Planning for a Legged Vehicle Based on Optical Sensor Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and terrain adaptation. But problems arise if the exception handling dominates the normal walking process if aborted. It is described in chapter 3. 2 Related Work There exist many control systems for walking robots

  1. Quantification of Salt Marsh Carbon Stocks: Integration of Remote Sensing Data and Techniques with Field Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulawardhana, Ranjani W

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    in this study show the capability of remote sensing data for the characterization of salt marsh terrain and vegetation heights and the estimation of above-ground biomass quantities. The best biomass prediction models using lidar heights reported considerably...

  2. The determination of the turbulent intensities in a transitional flow from a smooth to a rough wall with zero pressure gradient in a two-dimensional channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islam, Obaidul

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE DETERMINATION OF THE TURBULENT INTENSITIES IN A TRANSITIONAL FLOW FROM A SMOOTH TO A ROUGH WALL WITH ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHANNEL A Thesis By Ol3AIDU I. ISLAM Submitted to the Graduate School of. tire Agricultural... WALL WITH ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL. GHANNEL A Thesis By OBAIDUL ISLAM Approved as to style and content by: F / F Ghairma p'f mm tg Head of Department May 1963 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Texas...

  3. IMPACT OF DIELECTRIC PARAMETERS ON THE REFLECTIVITY OF 3C-SiC WAFERS WITH A ROUGH SURFACE MORPHOLOGY IN THE RESTSTRAHLEN REGION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.A.A. Engelbrecht; E. Janzén; A. Henry; I.J. van Rooyen

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A layer-on-substrate model is used to obtain the infrared reflectance for 3C-SiC with a rough surface morphology. The effect of varying dielectric parameters of the “damaged layer” on the observed reflectivity of the 3C-SiC in the reststrahlen region is assessed. Different simulated reflectance spectra are obtained to those if the dielectric parameters of the “substrate” were varied. Most notable changes in the shape of the simulated reststrahlen peak are observed for changes in the high frequency dielectric constant, the phonon damping constant, the phonon frequencies and “thickness” of damaged surface layer.

  4. COMIT FRANAIS D'HISTOIRE DE LA GOLOGIE -Troisime srie -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    (COFRHIGEO) (séance du 25 novembre 1992) Un géologue d'avant-garde. Il n'est que temps de rendre pleinement leur piémont, il y distingue sur des bases rationnelles dans le sous-sol, quatre "ordres" de terrains monti terziari (correspondant à des collines) ; et les terrains du "quatrième ordre" (il quatro ordine

  5. Impact of surface roughness on the electrical parameters of industrial high efficiency NaOH-NaOCl textured multicrystalline silicon solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, P.K. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Pujahari, R.M. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Kaur, Harpreet [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Advanced Institute of Technology and Management, Palwal 121105, Haryana (India); Singh, Devi [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Varandani, D.; Mehta, B.R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution (1:1 ratio by volume) based texturization process at 80-82 C is an easy, low cost and comparatively new and convenient option for fabrication of any multicrystalline silicon (mC-Si) solar cell. In the present study atomic force microscope is used to observe the intragrain surface in a miniscule area (3 {mu}m x 3 {mu}m) of NaOH-NaOCl textured surface by two and three dimensional analysis, roughness analysis and section analysis. The r.m.s value of the surface parameter of 7.0 nm ascertains the smoothness of the textured surface and further the surface reflectivity is minimized to 4-6% in the 500-1000 nm wavelength range by a proper silicon nitride anti-reflection coating. Comparing with the standard HF-HNO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}COOH acid textured cell, the NaOH-NaOCl textured cell shows a comparatively lower value of series resistance of 7.17 m{omega}, higher value of shunt resistance of 18.4 {omega} to yield a fill factor of 0.766 leading to more than 15% cell efficiency in the industrial cell processing line. This AFM study yields different surface roughness parameters for the NaOH-NaOCl textured wafers which can be used as a reference standard for optimized texturing. (author)

  6. Obstacle detection for autonomous navigation : an LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padilla, Denise D.

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the analytical and experimental efforts for the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled 'Obstacle Detection for Autonomous Navigation'. The principal goal of this project was to develop a mathematical framework for obstacle detection. The framework provides a basis for solutions to many complex obstacle detection problems critical to successful autonomous navigation. Another goal of this project was to characterize sensing requirements in terms of physical characteristics of obstacles, vehicles, and terrain. For example, a specific vehicle traveling at a specific velocity over a specific terrain requires a sensor with a certain range of detection, resolution, field-of-view, and sufficient sensitivity to specific obstacle characteristics. In some cases, combinations of sensors were required to distinguish between different hazardous obstacles and benign terrain. In our framework, the problem was posed as a multidimensional, multiple-hypothesis, pattern recognition problem. Features were extracted from selected sensors that allow hazardous obstacles to be distinguished from benign terrain and other types of obstacles. Another unique thrust of this project was to characterize different terrain classes with respect to both positive (e.g., rocks, trees, fences) and negative (e.g., holes, ditches, drop-offs) obstacles. The density of various hazards per square kilometer was statistically quantified for different terrain categories (e.g., high desert, ponderosa forest, and prairie). This quantification reflects the scale, or size, and mobility of different types of vehicles. The tradeoffs between obstacle detection, position location, path planning, and vehicle mobility capabilities were also to be characterized.

  7. Surface figure and roughness tolerances for NIF optics and the interpretation of the gradient, P-V wavefront and RMS specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aikens, D M; English, R E; House, W; Lawson, J K; Nichols, M A; Whistler, W T

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a high energy laser system such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the ability to focus light into as small a spot as possible at the highest possible fluence is highly dependent on the quality of the optics used in the system. Typically, surface form errors and transmitted and reflected wavefront errors are specified in terms of a peak-to-valley wavefront error (P-V), or occasionally in terms of an RMS wavefront error (RMS) 1 . It has been shown, however, that the parameter that most closely correlates with beam focusability is neither of these, but the RMS of the gradients of the wavefront error (RMS Gradient). Further, the spatial frequency of the wavefront error plays a significant role in the way that a given error effects the performance of the laser system, so careful attention must be paid to how the spatial filtering is both specified and accomplished. Since ISO 10110 has no specific provisions for a gradient specification, LLNL has developed its own notation and procedures for these critical specifications. In evaluating surface figure errors as specified by the NIF drawings, modern phase modulating interferometers (PMI) will be used. In addition to performing QA testing of the optics, LLNL intends to utilize the software capabilities of the instruments to obtain the information to model the wavefront of the 131 passes through various optical elements comprising the NIF front end. Tests will be performed and documented after coating and as installed in the specified mechanical mounts. This paper describes the evaluation of the wavefront error for NIF small optics including specifications over a given spatial period callout, the proper low pass filtering of the data and the allowable filtering and settings that can be applied to obtain proper wavefront data. This paper also describes the origin and evolution of other NIF wavefront and roughness specifications, and gives examples. Since the wavefront requirements and hence the specifications vary for the different systems in the NIF, we will focus on one system, the injection laser system (ILS) or ''front end''. Also discussed will be the metrology and data manipulation requirements for the large aperture optics. Finally, clarification will be given to the differences between various versions of the RMS wavefront and roughness specifications allowed in ISO 10110, and how they contrast to the RMS roughness specifications used in ANSI-Y14.5.

  8. Film Growth and Surface Roughness with Fluctuating Covalent Bonds in Evaporating Aqueous Solution of Reactive Hydrophobic and Polar Groups: A Computer Simulation Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihai Yang; Adam Seyfarth; Sam Bateman; Ras B. Pandey

    2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer simulation model is proposed to study film growth and surface roughness in aqueous ($A$) solution of hydrophobic ($H$) and hydrophilic ($P$) groups on a simple three dimensional lattice of size $L_x \\times L_y \\times L_z$ with an adsorbing substrate. Each group is represented by a particle with appropriate characteristics occupying a unit cube (i.e., eight sites). The Metropolis algorithm is used to move each particle stochastically. The aqueous constituents are allowed to evaporate while the concentration of $H$ and $P$ is constant. Reactions proceed from the substrate and bonded particles can hop within a fluctuating bond length. The film thickness ($h$) and its interface width ($W$) are examined for hard-core and interacting particles for a range of temperature ($T$). Simulation data show a rapid increase in $h$ and $W$ is followed by its non-monotonic growth and decay before reaching steady-state equilibrium ($h_s, W_s$) in asymptotic time step limit. The growth can be described by power-laws, e.g., $h \\propto t^{\\gamma}, W \\propto t^{\\beta}$ with a typical value of $\\gamma \\approx 2, \\beta \\approx 1$ in initial time regime followed by $\\gamma \\approx 1.5, \\beta \\approx 0.8$ at $T = 0.5$. For hard-core system, the equilibrium film thickness ($h_s$) and surface roughness ($w_s$) seem to scale linearly with the temperature, i.e., $h_s = 6.206 + 0.302 T, W_s = 1,255 + 0.425 T$ at low $T$ and $h_s = 6.54 + 0.198 T, W_s = 1.808 + 0.202 T$ at higher $T$. For interacting functional groups in contrast, $h_s$ and $W_s$ decay rapidly followed by a slow increase on raising the temperature.

  9. 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.1.5 IMPACT OF THE REAR SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON INDUSTRIAL-TYPE PERC SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -generation industrial solar cells as stated in the International Technology Roadmap [3]. An industrial PERC process flow27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.1.5 IMPACT OF THE REAR SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON INDUSTRIAL-TYPE PERC SOLAR CELLS C.Kranz1 , S. Wyczanowski1 , S

  10. Roughly 15,000 patents a month are issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).1 By law, these are supposed to cover only "novel" and "nonobvious" inventions, but an average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    1347 Roughly 15,000 patents a month are issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).1 By law­20 hours of patent examiner time,2 and a substantial proportion of the few patents later fully evaluated the issuance of many ques- tionable patents. Responding to such concerns, the Supreme Court recently made

  11. Temperature-dependent tensile strength, surface roughness diagnostics, and magnetic support and positioning of polymer ICF shells. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honig, A.

    1995-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    During the course of this grant, we perfected emissivity and accommodation coefficient measurements on polymer ICF shells in the temperature range 250 to 350 K. Values for polystyrene shells are generally between 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -3}, which are very advantageous for ICF at cryogenic temperatures. Preliminary results on Br doped target shells indicate an accommodation coefficient, presumably associated with surface roughness on an atomic scale, about an order of magnitude larger than for ordinary polystyrene target shells. We also constructed apparatus with optical access for low temperature tensile strength and emissivity measurements, and made preliminary tests on this system. Magnetic shells were obtained both from GDP coating and from doping styrene with 10 manometer size ferromagnetic particles. The magnetic properties were measured through electron spin resonance (ESR). These experiments confirm the applicability of the Curie law, and establish the validity of using ESR measurements to determine shell temperature in the low temperature regime from 4K to 250K, thus complementing our presently accessible range. The high electron spin densities (> 10{sup 20}/CM{sup 3}) suggest magnetic levitation should be feasible at cryogenic temperatures. This work has resulted in two conference presentations, a Technical Report, a paper to be published in Fusion Technology, and a Master`s Thesis.

  12. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission in-flight reprioritization).

  13. Rough Paths Theory Fabrice Baudoin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    set of lifted paths x? : [0,1] ? GN (Rd) with respect to the distance in p-variation ... as we will see, admits a canonical lift in ?p ..... esV etV = esV +tV = etV esV .

  14. Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall L. Headrick

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55° to 35°. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35° away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4° misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

  15. THE MARS HOPPER: AN IMPULSE DRIVEN, LONG RANGE, LONG-LIVED MOBILE PLATFORM UTILIZING IN-SITU MARTIAN RESOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. O'Brien; Mark McKay; Brian Gross; JOnathan Webb

    2001-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements for performance by planetary exploration missions are increasing. Landing at a single location to take data is no longer sufficient. Due to the increasing cost, the missions that provide mobile platforms that can acquire data at displaced locations are becoming more attractive. Landers have also had limited range due to power limitations, limited lifetime of subsystems and the inability to negotiate rough terrain. The Center for Space Nuclear Research has designed an instrumented platform that can acquire detailed data at hundreds of locations during its lifetime - a Mars Hopper. The Mars Hopper concept utilizes energy from radioisotopic decay in a manner different from any existing radioisotopic power sources—as a thermal capacitor. By accumulating the heat from radioisotopic decay for long periods, the power of the source can be dramatically increased for short periods. Thus, a radioisotopic thermal rocket (RTR) is possible. The platform will be able to “hop” from one location to the next every 5-7 days with a separation of 5-10 km per hop. Each platform will weigh around 50 kgs unfueled which is the condition at deployment. Consequently, several platforms may be deployed on a single launch from Earth. With a lifetime estimated at 5-7 years, the entire surface of Mars can be mapped in detail by a couple dozen platforms. In addition, Hoppers can collect samples and deliver them to the Mars Science Laboratory for more detailed analysis. The design and performance of the Mars Hopper will be discussed.

  16. Highway Geology Symposium Santa Fe, 2008 HGS Session 5 -Paper 5.2 Page 1 of 21

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haneberg, William C.

    59th Highway Geology Symposium Santa Fe, 2008 HGS Session 5 - Paper 5.2 Page 1 of 21 59 TH HIGHWAY GEOLOGY SYMPOSIUM 2008 Santa Fe, New Mexico SESSION 5 PAPER #5.2 REVISITING AN OLD PROJECT WITH NEW TECHNOLOGY-- DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELING AND MULTI-LAYERED VIRTUAL GEOLOGIC HAZARD MAPPING ALONG A PROPOSED

  17. Thirty-meter digital elevation models (DEMs) produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are widely available and com-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abstract Thirty-meter digital elevation models (DEMs) produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, and slope classes gen- erated from sample 10-meter drainage-enforced (DE) DEMs and 30-meter DEMs. We found increasing resolution from 30 meters to 10 me- ters, particularly in flatter terrain; (2) streams and HU

  18. Scalable Coordination for Wireless Sensor Networks: SelfConfiguring Localization Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heidemann, John

    networks: tuning density to trade operational quality against lifetime; using multi­ ple sensor modalities, water, soil, chemistry); condition based maintenance; smart spaces; military surveillance; preci­ sion) or inhospitable terrain (toxic or urban locations). The above requirements impose substantial physical constraints

  19. Icarus 154, 145161 (2001) doi:10.1006/icar.2001.6666, available online at http://www.idealibrary.com on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Head III, James William

    Global Surveyor data. The new data show that the centers of symmetry of the polar cap deposits in map view (which include both the lay- ered terrain and residual ice) are offset from the current rotational (e.g., lobes in young craters, kettle-like depressions, candi- date residual mantles overlying polar

  20. MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steenburgh, Jim

    MOUNTAIN WEATHER PREDICTION: PHENOMENOLOGICAL CHALLENGES AND FORECAST METHODOLOGY Michael P. Meyers of the American Meteorological Society Mountain Weather and Forecasting Monograph Draft from Friday, May 21, 2010 of weather analysis and forecasting in complex terrain with special emphasis placed on the role of humans

  1. Regional transport and dilution during high pollution episodes in southeastern France: Summary of findings from the ESCOMPTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menut, Laurent

    industrialized suburbs (oil plants in the Fos-Berre area) are major pollutant sources which cause frequent activity and when sea-breeze circulation redistributes pollutants further north in the countryside entrainment at the top of the sea-breeze or at the front and venting along the sloped terrain. The crucial

  2. CFD simulation of neutral ABL flows Xiaodong Zhang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Title: CFD simulation of neutral ABL flows Division: Aero-elastic Design ­ Wind Energy Division Risø flow field over different terrains employing Fluent 6.3 software. How accurate the simulation could.5 Comparison and conclusion 22 3.6 Closure 24 4 CFD Simulation of the Askervein Hill 24 4.1 Simulation

  3. Tropical Cyclone Report Hurricane Irene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and did not affect the island. The hurricane moved very close to the north coast of Hispaniola on 23's circulation with the high terrain of Hispaniola likely delayed additional intensification. As it moved away from Hispaniola early on 24 August, however, Irene began to strengthen. It became a category 3

  4. Session: Wind resources and site characterisation 1 (BT1.3) Track: Technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The validation is based on meteorological and wind farm production data from about 10 wind farms, situated) application of the results for improved wind farm power production predictions as well as wind resource on meteorological and wind turbine data from about 10 wind farms in complex terrain. The wind farm sites are located

  5. Guides in Cotton Irrigation on the High Plains.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, N. P.; Thaxton, E. L. Jr.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    United States cotton crop and one-third the total Texas crop. The terrain is level and, 1 tiltrefore, is suited to large-scale, high-speed, aecl~anized operation. The soils have a high de- tree of inherent fertility and produce good yields r cotton...

  6. Impacts of Typhoon Track and Island Topography on the Heavy Rainfalls in Taiwan Associated with Morakot (2009)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an important impact on low-level convergence and the upstream water vapor supply (e.g., Chang 1982; Chang et alImpacts of Typhoon Track and Island Topography on the Heavy Rainfalls in Taiwan Associated in producing the observed heavy rainfalls. The terrain slope, strength of the horizontal winds, and mid

  7. Initializing An Unscented Kalman Filter Using A Particle Filter Adam J. Dean, Jack W. Langelaan, and Sean N. Brennan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    estimate; however, the computational cost of estimating the vehicle position using a PF with thousands. The method is applied to estimating the position of a road vehicle along a one-mile test track using terrain-based localization where the pitch response of the vehicle is compared to a pre- measured pitch map of the test track

  8. TAKU SHUTTLE YUKON DRIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ickert-Bond, Steffi

    Point Beluga Field Ice Rink Townshend Point TROTH YEDDHA' PARK HULBERT NANOOK TERRAIN PARK Facilities Nerland McIntosh Stevens Ice Arena Lola Tilly Wickersham Police Fire Dept Police Fire Dept MacLean House Nerland McIntosh Stevens Ice Arena Lola Tilly Student Recreation Center Wickersham Police Fire Dept Police

  9. Ordering points for incremental TIN construction from James J. Little and Ping Shi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Little, Jim

    Ordering points for incremental TIN construction from DEMs James J. Little and Ping Shi Department approximations to terrain surfaces (TINs) from dense digital elevation models(DEMs) adds points to an initial in the current TIN, the worst fitting point, in terms of vertical distance, is selected. The order of insertion

  10. Draft August 2007 WILDLAND FIRE PROBABILITIES ESTIMATED FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westerling, Anthony L.

    . An alternative source of fire weather data for the NFDRS is global or regional scale weather analysis in digital the Experimental Climate Prediction Center at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The monthly average Fosberg of terrain, weather and fuel conditions represented by standard fuel models. Fuel moisture models use weather

  11. at Western University With escalating concerns about global energy shortages and the impact of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    of knowledge related to renewable forms of energy, including solar and wind power, and biofuels. Western siting, terrain effects and wake array effects · Helps address multi-faceted energy problems, including grid connectivity and solar- and wind-distributed nodes, as well as green energy policy

  12. Convective Snowbands Downstream of the Rocky Mountains in an Environment with Conditional, Dry Symmetric, and Inertial Instabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    Convective Snowbands Downstream of the Rocky Mountains in an Environment with Conditional, Dry quickly equatorward. The bands occurred downstream of complex terrain on the anticyclonic-shear side banners downstream of mountains, and in association with frontogenetical ascent along two baroclinic zones

  13. 47 TH CONFERENCE ON SENIOR ENGINEERING DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Doncker, Elise

    , Chemical Engineering, and Imaging TIME ROOM/DEPARTMENT TOPIC 8:30 D-201 IME Re-design of a modern fuel Improving Core Making Technology Autonomous Robotics Chassis Design The Effects of Clear Toner on the Color Embedded Systems Control System Experiment Suite Modular Hydraulic System Test Bench All Terrain Vehicle

  14. Integration Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Abhinav

    , these field tests are helping to demon- strate and influence the use of autonomous vehicles in the future. UPI autonomous ground vehicle platforms available today. Ft. Carson, CO, August 2006Ft. Carson, CO, August 2006 unmanned vehicle, "SPINNER," that couples extreme terrainability with fuel efficiency, survivability

  15. Design Project -SIE 2010 Inventaire des missions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    miscanthus Mise en place d'un outil d'aide à la décision pour la gestion des sites contaminés: le cas de la gestion des parcelles de terrain contaminées autour de l'ancienne usine de Metaleurop Nord en se: NOx, particules fines, Zn, Al, CO2, NH3 et Atrazine (pesticides) Mesures au niveau régional Gestion

  16. Comparison of the Performance Redictions of a 2009 IECC Code-Compliant House Using IC3 (Ver.3.12.1), REM/Rate (Ver.13.00), EnergyGauge (Ver. 2.8.05) and ResCHECK (Ver. 4.4.3.1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating Season Infiltration Value 7 ACH 50 SLA 0.00036 Cooling Season Infiltration Value 7 ACH 50 Shelter Class 4 2009 IECC Verification Tested Terrain Parameter Suburban Sheilding Coefficient Suburban Ventilation Air None REScheck (4.4.3) EnergyGauge (2...

  17. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayward, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Shirey, David L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  18. Fault Tolerance and Recovery of Scientific Workflows on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Re-mapper NIDS Radar Re-mapper Radar data (Level II) Surface data, upper air mesonet data and wind profiler data Radar data (Level III) Satellite data ADAS Terrain Preprocessor 3D Model Data Interpolator performance ­ both involve measures of behavior over time · Large, complex workflows are sensitive to failures

  19. JUNE 2000 327J A M E S E T A L . 2000 American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuter, Sandra

    and Visualization over Complex Terrain* CURTIS N. JAMES, STACY R. BRODZIK, HARRY EDMON, ROBERT A. HOUZE JR: the data stream from an operational radar, 3D topographical information, and the NCAR Zebra data visualization and integration software. MountainZebra operates routinely on a 3D data stream from the National

  20. Berkeley's Longest Paths or, why I took so long to graduate1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Geoffrey J.

    neatly tucked into the East Bay hills right across from the Golden Gate Bridge. With its varied terrain the Bay and a bit of the Golden Gate Bridge. On The Rock, above it all (20 min.): This is my favorite at the North Gate (Hearst Ave. and Euclid Ave.) and walk north on Euclid about 8 blocks. Past Bayview Place you

  1. Geographia Technica, Special Issue, 2010, pp. 90 to 95 AUTOMATED SMALL-SCALE RELIEF SHADING: A NEW METHOD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jenny, Bernhard

    for the generalization of digital elevation models specifically designed to process digital elevation data visible at small scales. Small- scale shaded relief derived automatically from high-resolution digital are applied to digital terrain data, important ridges and valley edges are blurred, and their characteristic

  2. Prediction of kriging errors 601 Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 601612 (2005)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hung, I-Kuai

    Prediction of kriging errors 601 Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 601­612 (2005) Earth Surface Processes and Landforms Earth Surf. Process. Landforms 30, 601). The construction of continuous surfaces including the digital elevation and terrain models (DEM, DTM) can

  3. Route profile analysis system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullenhoff, D.J.; Wilson, S.W.

    1982-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for recording terrain profile information is disclosed. The system accurately senses incremental distances traveled by a vehicle along with vehicle inclination, recording both with elapsed time. The incremental distances can subsequently be differentiated with respect to time to obtain acceleration. The computer acceleration can then be used to correct the sensed inclination.

  4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR PV COST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be recovered through variable, volume-based charges per kilowatt-hour (kWh). At the same time, however, someEXECUTIVE SUMMARY: RETHINKING STANDBY & FIXED COST CHARGES REGULATORY & RATE DESIGN PATHWAYS TO DEEPER SOLAR PV COST REDUCTIONS The Current Terrain In recent years, electric utilities have experienced

  5. The Interruption of Alpine Foehn by a Cold Front. Part I: Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gohm, Alexander

    propagation speed wf 1 m/s Inclination of the frontal surface is wf /uf 1/7.5 8° Freitag (1990 in valleys Interaction with local winds (e.g., foehn) foehn cold front Cold front in complex terrain ? ? #12 in Inn and Wipp Valley Temperature slope profile Doppler wind lidar in Wipp Valley #12;6 of 13 Case study

  6. Integrating the Army Geospatial Enterprise: Synchronizing Geospatial-Intelligence to the Dismounted James E. Richards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    1 Integrating the Army Geospatial Enterprise: Synchronizing Geospatial. #12;2 [This Page Intentionally Left Blank] #12;3 Army`s Geospatial Architecture: delivering Geospatial-Intelligence of complex and urban terrain to the dismounted Soldier by James E. Richards ABSTRACT The Army`s Geospatial

  7. Initial Experimental Study on Dynamic Interaction Between an Amputee and a Powered Ankle-Foot Prostheses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, Hugh

    Initial Experimental Study on Dynamic Interaction Between an Amputee and a Powered Ankle available ankle-foot prostheses are completely passive, and consequently, their mechanical properties remain fixed with walking speed and terrain. Conversely, normal human ankle stiffness varies within each gait

  8. METEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGYMETEOROLOGY 280280280280 Intro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain MeteorologyIntro to Mountain Meteorology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Craig

    and mesoscale wind and precipitation processes in mountainous terrain. 3. the surface energy budgets that lead and behavior evaluate mountain weather impacts on snow pack behavior Required Texts/Readings Mountain review and a term paper. Assignments will include both in-class and take home components and will include

  9. VEHICLE STATE ESTIMATION USING VISION AND INERTIAL MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, Sean

    , pitch and yaw. A kinematic Kalman filter modeling an inertial navigation system then uses the scene: A novel method for estimating vehicle roll, pitch and yaw using machine vision and inertial sensors versus those from a high-quality GPS/INS system. Keywords: Terrain Aided Localization, Inertial

  10. Proceedings of Fifth NRIFD Symposium November 30-December 2, 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of over 22,000 km2 . An average of 1 billion US dollars was spent on suppression each year by the Federal systems use additional information on fuel, terrain and weather. Specific fire danger and fire behavior restoration of ecosystem health and reduction of the risk of damaging fire. In 2003 a record area was burned

  11. ICARUS 132, 321343 (1998) ARTICLE NO. IS985897

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Vicki

    ICARUS 132, 321­343 (1998) ARTICLE NO. IS985897 Ribbon Terrain Formation, Southwestern Fortuna at southwestern Fortuna Tessera; we extend our favors an upwelling model for highland plateau formation Fortuna Tessera) trough walls are parallel and matched and would exhibit a close fit if the trough

  12. Journal of Geological Society of Sri Lanka Vol. 15 (2013), 69-83 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY POTENTIAL IN SRI LANKA: A PRELIMINARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Alan G.

    Journal of Geological Society of Sri Lanka Vol. 15 (2013), 69-83 69 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY POTENTIAL faults or hot dry rock that would help geothermal energy development. Data show three regions, metamorphic terrains INTRODUCTION Geothermal energy development in Sri Lanka has been considered

  13. CVGIP: IMAGE UNDERSTANDING Vol. 59, No. 2. March, pp. 171-182, 1994

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yong Jung

    Features from Elevation Maps IN So KWEON Department of Automation and Design Engineering, KAIST, Seoul. 130 astheautonomousnavigationinnatural terrain and the automation of map making process require high- level scene descriptions as well been studied in two research areas: in robotics, autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) route planning

  14. 5, 1196512030, 2005 Dispersion on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 11965­12030, 2005 Dispersion on complex terrain under winter conditions J. L. Palau et al-resolution mesoscale and Lagrangian particle models J. L. Palau1 , G. P´erez-Landa1 , J. Meli´a2 , D. Segarra2 , and M November 2005 ­ Published: 22 November 2005 Correspondence to: J. L. Palau (jlp@confluencia.biz) © 2005

  15. 433Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 1. Objectives and context of MAP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houze Jr., Robert A.

    of high-resolution numerical weather prediction, hydrological, and coupled models in mountainous terrain field program could provide the measurements needed to fully validate numerical weather prediction) To improve the numerical prediction of moist pro- cesses over and in the vicinity of complex topog- raphy

  16. Path Analysis Models of an Autonomous Agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Path Analysis Models of an Autonomous Agent in a Complex Environment Paul R. Cohen, David M. Hart AFOSR-91-0067. #12;1 Phoenix Phoenix is a simulated environment populated by autonomous agents) the e orts of all, a reboss. Fires burn in unpredictable ways due to wind speed and direction, terrain

  17. Path Analysis Models of an Autonomous Agent in a Complex Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    25 Path Analysis Models of an Autonomous Agent in a Complex Environment Paul R. Cohen, David M populated by autonomous agents. It is a simulation of forest fires in Yellowstone National Park in unpredictable ways due to wind speed and direction, terrain and elevation, fuel type and moisture content

  18. McDonnell InternationalMcDonnell International Scholars Academy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miyashita, Yasushi

    Cardinals #12;AND JUST A LITTLE MORE · Lots of distinctive neighborhoods · Terrain: Gently rolling hills forests, rivers, and canoeing ABOUT WASHINGTONABOUT WASHINGTON UNIVERSITYUNIVERSITY · Established in 1853 · Suburban location, Metro access to City · Adjacent to Forest Park walking paths· Adjacent to Forest Park

  19. Rappropriation des donnes et droit la rediffusion La rutilisation des donnes en dehors de la plateforme Facebook a t beaucoup discute selon l'angle de la

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    plateforme Facebook a été beaucoup discutée selon l'angle de la vie privée et de la nécessité d données des utilisateurs à des entreprises, la licence octroyée à Facebook étant transférable. A force d'abus répétés sur le terrain de la vie privée, le débat à propos de Facebook ignore largement la question de l

  20. Photogrammetric Image Registration (PIR) of MTI Imagery P. Pope and J. Theiler*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theiler, James

    Photogrammetric Image Registration (PIR) of MTI Imagery P. Pope and J. Theiler* Space and Remote Imager (MTI) satellite. The photogrammetric image registration (PIR) method consists of two main parts. The PIR method uses mathematical models of the sensor, its trajectory, timing, and the terrain to mimic

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, TO APPEAR. 1 A Hybrid Conditional Random Field for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, Kevin Patrick

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, TO APPEAR. 1 A Hybrid Conditional Random Field of buildings, vegetations, cars, and natural terrain features over large regions. However, in many applications generative) probabilistic model, we call it a hybrid Conditional Random Field. We show that a MAP estimate

  2. (1) Determine how topography is related to the spatial distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and cool dry summers. Dominant tree species include Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), western hemlock and 3). Terrain is rugged and steep, with a dense network of streams and a climate with warm wet winters-fire salvage b. Stand Basal Area vs Dead Wood Volume 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 Volume

  3. Placement of Traffic Barriers on Roadside and Median Slopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferdous, Md Rubiat

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    on the findings obtained from crash tests performed on flat terrain. For barriers placed on roadside and median slopes, vehicle impact height varies depending on the trajectory of the vehicle along the ditch section and lateral offset of the barrier. Thus...

  4. Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small-and medium-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    Range imaging: a new method for high-resolution topographic measurements in small- and medium is a useful complement or alternative to existing methods for high-resolution measurements in small- to medium has led to a dramatic increase in terrain information and opened up new opportunities for hydro- logic

  5. Ph.D. opportunity in northern hydrometeorology This project will support a Ph.D. student who will explore the amplification of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dery, Stephen

    will explore the amplification of climate change in the water towers of the Quesnel River Basin (QRB-ice/albedo feedback, in the water towers of the QRB. Multiple datasets will be used in this project. Of note, space. The receipt of direct solar radiation at the surface varies greatly in space and time over complex terrain

  6. Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Spring 2009 Dynamic Loading Analysis and Redesign for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    effectively on smooth terrain, these machines lose their effectiveness when operating in environments and Redesign for the Hip Joint of the Bipedal Machine Overview Current construction machines available of the construction industry · Researched Biomechanics data to determine joint reaction forces in humans while walking

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Equation of state and pressure-induced structural changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vocadlo, Lidunka

    ), with dislocations in thrust terrains, as a component of cold desert salt deposits (Keys and Williams 1981 igneous rocks (Hardie 1991). Commercially, mirabilite has been acknowledged as a possible thermal storage a significant problem for the construction industry by virtue of its role in the weathering Electronic

  8. Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 1 Virtual Robotics Challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2/6/2013 E. Krotkov Introduction Qual-3 SDF world files govern Downslope in radians, not #12 terrain and objects that constitute the environment) will be available as SDF world files as soon in the SDF world files and in this document, the dimensions in the SDF world files shall govern. Similarly

  9. Hierarchical Lighting Simulation for Outdoor Scenes Katja Daubert, Hartmut Schirmacher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    energy exchanges in outdoor scenes for the first time, including terrain and botanical models as well algorithms, which permit efficient and elegant solutions. In particular,we show that complex geometry can algorithms for outdoor scenes suffer from the sheer geometric and lighting complexity of such environments

  10. Robust Physics-Based Locomotion Using Low-Dimensional Planning Igor Mordatch Martin de Lasa Aaron Hertzmann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    , foot step locations and modes of travel must be jointly selected to set up the next step. For example, footsteps, and transitions are automatically generated, based on user- specified goals, such as direction, step length, and step duration. In the above example, a user steers the biped across uneven terrain

  11. REFERENCE: Introduction to Remote Sensing. James B.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    Temperature #12;ACTIVE REMOTE SENSING The sensor illuminates the terrain with its own energy, then records the reflected energy as it has been altered by the earth's surface. #12;SIDE-LOOKING AIRBORNE RADAR SLAR #12 JUAN VENICE #12;EARTH TOPOGRAPHY USING MULTISPECTRAL SCANNERS MT. PINATUBO MT. EVEREST #12;APPLICATIONS

  12. www.wasp.dk Long-term (1-20 years) prediction of wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;4 www.wasp.dk European Wind Atlas www.wasp.dk Geostrophic winds #12;5 www.wasp.dk Thermal winds www.wasp.dk Background · European Wind Atlas, Vol. II: Measurements and Modelling in Complex Terrain. Multi-partner EU). Exploring the limits of WAsP: the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. Proc. 1996 European Union

  13. AN URBAN SURFACE EXCHANGE PARAMETERISATION FOR MESOSCALE MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    boundary layer, Urban climato- logy, Urban energy balance. 1. Introduction The main reason floor) and vertical (walls) surfaces on the wind speed, temperature and turbulent kinetic energy in a bidimensional case of a city over flat terrain. The new parameterisation is shown to be able to reproduce

  14. Modular Topology Control and Energy Model for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jay Yang, Shanchieh

    Modular Topology Control and Energy Model for Wireless Ad Hoc Sensor Networks Niranjan in a harsh terrain typically are battery operated and, therefore, require energy efficient network protocols. In order to ease the analysis of the energy usage of proposed network protocols, this paper proposes

  15. Eurographics Workshop on Natural Phenomena (2005) E. Galin, P. Poulin (Editors)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    .g. water trans- portation or wind. On the other hand some algorithms gen- erate the eroded terrain from are simply displaced around the actual point if the local inclination is greater than a specified material be dissolved, transported and deposited. Now in the simulation, depending on the local inclination and water

  16. Sir John Retcliffe (Hermann Goedsche)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prodinger, Helmut

    Sir John Retcliffe (Hermann Goedsche) Sebastopol Historisch-politischer Roman aus der Gegenwart unserer Leser, welchen nicht ein Plan der Umgegend von Sebastopol zur Hand ist, eine kurze aber nothwen- dige Scizzirung des Terrains und der Festung gegeben haben. Sebastopol liegt, wie früher erwähnt

  17. Licence de GEOSCIENCES Portail BGC (Biologie Gosciences chimie)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    structuration est similaire ce qui favorise des passerelles d'un portail à l'autre. L'architecture de la Mention Géochimie ou (CNAM) (6ECTS) Géodyn. (3 ECTS) Envir. Séd. (3ECTS) Terrain 2 (3 ECTS) Anglais (3 ECTS) UE

  18. Landscape Automata for Search Based Procedural Content Generation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashlock, Dan

    Landscape Automata for Search Based Procedural Content Generation. Daniel Ashlock and Cameron Mc be used for terrain generation or other procedural content generation. Landscape automata are evolvable state-conditioned quadtrees with embedded decay parameters. Landscape automata are used to both match

  19. 5, 17971828, 2005 photochemistry in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the processes leading to episodes of atmospheric pollution, both in summer and in winter. Atmospheric prediction terrain. This model is coupled to the TAPOM 1.5.2 atmospheric chemistry (Transport and Air POllution Model/1797/ SRef-ID: 1680-7375/acpd/2005-5-1797 European Geosciences Union Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

  20. Pre-burning wxperiments commence in August 2008. A controlled burning takes place late September 2008 and field observations continues untill at least

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of climate change for the Mediterranean region suggest that intensity and length of summer drought periods will further increase and that annual precipitation will further decrease. These changes in climate Archipelago National Park Climate: Mediterranean. Rainfall ~350 mm. Air temp of about 20°C Terrain: Pianosa

  1. Cold and dry processes in the Martian Arctic: Geomorphic observations at the Phoenix landing site and comparisons with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marchant, David R.

    , and thermal contraction crack polygon morphologies strikingly similar to terrestrial sublimation polygons, all, and largely driven by sublimation of buried ice (either pore ice, excess ice, or both) are shaping, perchlorate, and pH soil chemistry comparable to that observed in terrestrial cold and arid terrains [Boynton

  2. ASES Proc. Solar 2010, Phoenix, AZ HIGH PERFORMANCE MSG SATELLITE MODEL FOR OPERATIONAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    terrain affects exploitation of solar energy. In this article we present innovative features of MSG area of interest, which extends from North Europe to North Africa. The satellite data calibration© ASES ­ Proc. Solar 2010, Phoenix, AZ HIGH PERFORMANCE MSG SATELLITE MODEL FOR OPERATIONAL SOLAR

  3. PRESS RELEASE February 28, 2012 COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Ning

    _______________________________________________________ Inventing the Landscape: Italy and Painters from Thomas Jones to Corot A Lecture by Anna Ottani Cavina's words. A painted landscape is never simply a mirror of the actual terrain; it is inevitably a landscape the maintenance of academic excellence at home and abroad. This new Distinguished Visiting Professorship agreement

  4. JULY 1997 1197B E L E T S K Y E T A L . 1997 American Meteorological Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vertical levels. The models are driven with an impulsive wind stress imitating the passage of a weather than the inviscid analytic solution wave speed. In the case of strong wind forcing, the thermocline in the Great Lakes. One is the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) with a terrain-following (sigma) vertical coordinate

  5. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 69176946, 2010 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/6917/2010/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    and aerosols over central Mexico during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, with multiple spatial resolutions and emission/terrain scenar- ios. Our analysis focuses on quantifying the sub-grid vari- ability (SGV) of trace that a simulation with 3-km horizon- tal grid spacing adequately reproduces the overall transport and mixing

  6. Watch a stumbling toddler and you'll see that we struggle to learn how to control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -cushioned Styrofoam ball and videotaped them as they sauntered across the top of the ball. At the same time translations of the ball using motion sensors. They filmed the insects walking in a straight line demands, enabling such a robot to march across the rugged terrain that thwarts wheeled robots. 10.1242/jeb

  7. Visual Control of an Autonomous Indoor Robotic Blimp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Bob

    in this chapter. Autonomous aerial vehicles have been an attractive platform for a wide range of applications, especially since they don't have the terrain limitations the autonomous ground vehicles face. They have been kind of autonomous aerial vehicles; they are wingless and have the ability to hover. This makes them

  8. Editorial Manager(tm) for Remote Sensing of Environment Manuscript Draft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (Emeritus) 9 Inst. Physische Geographie, University of Freiburg, Germany 10 National Snow and Ice Data development by GLIMS is geared toward mapping clean-ice and debris-covered glaciers; terrain classification are compatible with and expanded from those of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). These technology efforts

  9. Multispectral imaging contributions to global land ice measurements from space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kääb, Andreas

    , Germany j National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado, 449 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309, USA k development by GLIMS is geared toward mapping clean- ice and debris-covered glaciers; terrain classification are compatible with and expanded from those of the World Glacier Inventory (WGI). These technology efforts

  10. Statistical representation of mountain shading Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(6), 10451050 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    self-shaded or shaded by remote topography as functions of solar elevation and time of day. These expressions are in good agreement with results from a terrain shading model. Keywords: solar radiation, topography, surface energy balance, statistical parameterisation Introduction Solar radiation is a major

  11. Icarus 177 (2005) 425437 www.elsevier.com/locate/icarus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are relevant to Europa, then convection in Europa's ice shell can produce chaos-like structures at the surface in an ice shell: Implications for Europa Adam P. Showman , Lijie Han Department of Planetary Sciences, uplifts, and disrupted chaos terrains that have been suggested to result from convection in the ice shell

  12. Virtual Fieldwork Using Google Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith-Konter, Bridget

    Buchanan-Dunlop © 2008 Google © 2008 Ricardo Sgrillo All rights reserved cover design by rob `at.3 Overlay Features 26 5.4 Terrain Integration 27 5.5 Creating an Image Overlay 28 Section 6 - Importing Links 74 Appendix 2 - Google Earth Quick Guide 75 Appendix 3 - Glossary 77 Appendix 4 - Rich Text

  13. Mountain Precipitation and Hydrology in the Middle East Ronald. B. Smith*, Jason Evans*, Robert Oglesby**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Jason

    Mountain Precipitation and Hydrology in the Middle East Ronald. B. Smith*, Jason Evans*, Robert shadow effect. Recent studies have tried to quantify this effect on Alpine terrain [Smith et al. 2003a model of this is the response to heating in a steady stratified stream [Smith and Lin, 1982

  14. I/O-Efficient Algorithms for Contour Line Extraction and Planar Graph Blocking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars; Murali, T. M.; Kasturi R., Varadarajan; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For a polyhedral terrain C, the contour at z-coordinate h, denoted Ch, is defined to be the intersection of the plane z = h with C. In this paper, we study the contour-line extraction problem, where we want to preprocess C into a data structure so...

  15. PAPERS ON TERRITORIAL INTELLIGENCE AND GOVERNANCE PARTICIPATORY ACTION-RESEARCH AND TERRITORIAL DEVELOPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to water, gas, electric or phone networks, etc. Finally, as regards environment, uncontrolled urban sprawl farming activities by influencing the price of terrains, etc. However on the other hand, it does not seem. On a quantitative point of view, the increase of the households in the suburbs (decrease of the

  16. 2. BACKGROUND This chapter presents the background information required to understand later chapters in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    85] [BMW87]. Procedural descriptions of motion, often based on real­world data and observations, can to environments different from the one in which they are obtained. Varying terrain and collisions are two examples of such potentially desirable changes. As the demand for fully interactive environments increases, this i

  17. Session: Wind resources and site characterisation 2 (DW3.5) Track: Technical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    including wind shear, turbulence intensities etc., at potential wind turbine positions. - ApplicationSession: Wind resources and site characterisation 2 (DW3.5) Track: Technical THE BOLUND EXPERIMENT - A NEW DATASET OF LOCAL WIND CONDITIONS IN COMPLEX TERRAIN (abstract-ID: 357) Jeppe Johansen (Risø DTU

  18. Multi-Robot Area Patrol under Frequency Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaminka, Gal A.

    ], and hazardous 1 #12;waste removal [25]. Some specific applications of interest involve surveillance to protect or supervise it" [1]. If the entire terrain cannot be monitored at all times, each location mostly been done in ad-hoc fashion, without a formal analysis of the qual- ity of the task in light

  19. Feasibility Study for an Autonomous UAV -Magnetometer System -- Final Report on SERDP SEED 1509:2206

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roelof Versteeg; Mark McKay; Matt Anderson; Ross Johnson; Bob Selfridge; Jay Bennett

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area scanning is a multi-level one, in which medium altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry followed by surface investigations using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be effective for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements means that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus, other systems are needed allowing for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it would be safer for the operators, cheaper in initial and O&M costs, and more effective in terms of site characterization. However, while UAV data acquisition from fixed wing platforms for large (> 200 feet) stand off distances is relatively straight forward, a host of challenges exist for low stand-off distance (~ 6 feet) UAV geophysical data acquisition. The objective of SERDP SEED 1509:2006 was to identify the primary challenges associated with a low stand off distance autonomous UAV magnetometer platform and to investigate whether these challenges can be resolved successfully such that a successful UAV magnetometer platform can be constructed. The primary challenges which were identified and investigated include: 1. The feasibility of assembling a payload package which integrates magnetometers, accurate positioning systems (DGPS, height above ground measurement), obstacle avoidance systems, power infrastructure, communications and data storage as well as auxiliary flight controls 2. The availability of commercial UAV platforms with autonomous flight capability which can accommodate this payload package 3. The feasibility of integrating obstacle avoidance controls in UAV platform control 4. The feasibility of collecting high quality magnetic data in the vicinity of an UAV.

  20. X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocko, B.M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    Chen2 *, Raul Diaz Delgado1 , Wenjie Liang1 , Erik C. Garnett1 , Mark Najarian3 , Arun Majumdar2 used are not often easy to scale to practically useful dimensions. Here we report the electrochemical

  2. Micromechanical modeling of rough interface behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Shiping

    2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    is highly nonlinear and does not follow the Hertz power law. It was also shown that the shear behavior of the interfaces under constant normal stress exhibits two distinct regimes during shear loading. In the small shear displacement regime, the smooth...

  3. A Rough Road Leads To The Stars

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β-ResearchNew MethodAlp ofA Review

  4. Effect of Roughness Geometry on Wetting and Dewetting of Rough PDMS Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Susan

    was studied as model for print surfaces used in additive manufacturing and printed electronics. A smooth PDMS on decline for over a decade,9 printing has evolved and has become a manufacturing technology for flexible are keys to a successful implementation of ink printing in manufacturing. Arias et al.4 showed that balance

  5. Real-time method for establishing a detection map for a network of sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Hung D; Koch, Mark W; Giron, Casey; Rondeau, Daniel M; Russell, John L

    2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for establishing a detection map of a dynamically configurable sensor network. This method determines an appropriate set of locations for a plurality of sensor units of a sensor network and establishes a detection map for the network of sensors while the network is being set up; the detection map includes the effects of the local terrain and individual sensor performance. Sensor performance is characterized during the placement of the sensor units, which enables dynamic adjustment or reconfiguration of the placement of individual elements of the sensor network during network set-up to accommodate variations in local terrain and individual sensor performance. The reconfiguration of the network during initial set-up to accommodate deviations from idealized individual sensor detection zones improves the effectiveness of the sensor network in detecting activities at a detection perimeter and can provide the desired sensor coverage of an area while minimizing unintentional gaps in coverage.

  6. Process for structural geologic analysis of topography and point data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eliason, Jay R. (Richland, WA); Eliason, Valerie L. C. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantitative method of geologic structural analysis of digital terrain data is described for implementation on a computer. Assuming selected valley segments are controlled by the underlying geologic structure, topographic lows in the terrain data, defining valley bottoms, are detected, filtered and accumulated into a series line segments defining contiguous valleys. The line segments are then vectorized to produce vector segments, defining valley segments, which may be indicative of the underlying geologic structure. Coplanar analysis is performed on vector segment pairs to determine which vectors produce planes which represent underlying geologic structure. Point data such as fracture phenomena which can be related to fracture planes in 3-dimensional space can be analyzed to define common plane orientation and locations. The vectors, points, and planes are displayed in various formats for interpretation.

  7. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1985, this research has examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain, summarized the field studies and analyses of dry deposition and resuspension conducted in past years, and begun participation in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain; Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants; and Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation (PRECP).

  8. Cooperative control of a squad of mobile vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, C.; Feddema, J.; Klarer, P.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tasks such as the localization of chemical sources, demining, perimeter control, surveillance and search and rescue missions are usually performed by teams of people. At least conceptually, large groups of relatively cheap mobile vehicles outfitted with sensors should be able to automatically accomplish some of these tasks. Sandia National Labs is currently developing a swarm of semi-autonomous all terrain vehicles for remote cooperative sensing applications. This paper will describe the capabilities of this system and outline some of its possible applications. Cooperative control and sensing strategies will also be described. Eight Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers (RATLERs) have been built at Sandia as a test platform for cooperative control and sensing applications. This paper will first describe the hardware capabilities of the RATLER system. Then it will describe the basic control algorithm for GPS based navigation and obstacle avoidance. A higher level cooperative control task will then be described.

  9. ANEMOS: A computer code to estimate air concentrations and ground deposition rates for atmospheric nuclides emitted from multiple operating sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.W.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Begovich, C.L.; Hermann, O.W.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This code estimates concentrations in air and ground deposition rates for Atmospheric Nuclides Emitted from Multiple Operating Sources. ANEMOS is one component of an integrated Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System (CRRIS) developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in performing radiological assessments and in developing radiation standards. The concentrations and deposition rates calculated by ANEMOS are used in subsequent portions of the CRRIS for estimating doses and risks to man. The calculations made in ANEMOS are based on the use of a straight-line Gaussian plume atmospheric dispersion model with both dry and wet deposition parameter options. The code will accommodate a ground-level or elevated point and area source or windblown source. Adjustments may be made during the calculations for surface roughness, building wake effects, terrain height, wind speed at the height of release, the variation in plume rise as a function of downwind distance, and the in-growth and decay of daughter products in the plume as it travels downwind. ANEMOS can also accommodate multiple particle sizes and clearance classes, and it may be used to calculate the dose from a finite plume of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides passing overhead. The output of this code is presented for 16 sectors of a circular grid. ANEMOS can calculate both the sector-average concentrations and deposition rates at a given set of downwind distances in each sector and the average of these quantities over an area within each sector bounded by two successive downwind distances. ANEMOS is designed to be used primarily for continuous, long-term radionuclide releases. This report describes the models used in the code, their computer implementation, the uncertainty associated with their use, and the use of ANEMOS in conjunction with other codes in the CRRIS. A listing of the code is included in Appendix C.

  10. An analysis of the distribution of rainfall and some rainfall associations for selected stations in Western Colombia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, David Gordon

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 10, 000 mm. This would make the region one of' the major rainfall sones of the world. The application oi' the normal distribution to annual rainfall and the square-root normal distribution to monthly rainfall at tropical stations has been... annual rainfall for each available station in Western Colombia was plotted and isohyets drawn for 500-mm intervals. Generally, the isohyets were posi- tioned around gross terrain features. For stations with short length of record and for areas with a...

  11. Geology and kinematics of a clay-rich landslide with an undulatory slip surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lantz, James Robert

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in thickness from 1 to 3 meters, and exhibits an i. rregular channel geometry, largely controlled by bedrock inhomogeneity in a structurally complex Franciscan terrain (highly deformed clay- shale). In map view, the landslide has an "hourglass" configuration... internal deformation. Maximum slide mass thicken- ing of 30-40y is associated with the basal step. Lithologic variations within the slide mass (i. e. erratic distribution of a sandy gravel unit) do not affect the steady-state profile, which is largely...

  12. Hanford atmospheric dispersion data: 1960 through June 1967

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nickola, P.W.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Glantz, C.S.; Kerns, R.E.

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume presents dispersion and supporting meteorological data from experiments conducted over relatively flat terrain at Hanford, Washington from January 1960 through June 1967. The nature of the experiments, the sampling grids, and the tracer techniques used are described in the narrative portion of the document. Appendices contain the time-integrated concentrations for samplers within the plumes, summaries of the concentration distributions across the plumes, and wind and temperature profile data for each release period. 18 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  13. agir au Sud avec le Sud et

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    moyen et long termes. Les zones littorales subissent une pollution accrue et font l'objet d sciences de Ho Chi Minh Ville ont lancé un programme financé par la Fondation Air liquide sur la capacité, du terrain vers le marché » au Kenya, a rassemblé, sous l'égide du ministère des Mines et de l

  14. Estimating the Wind Resource in Uttarakhand: Comparison of Dynamic Downscaling with Doppler Lidar Wind Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Pukayastha, A.; St. Martin, C.; Newsom, R.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous estimates of the wind resources in Uttarakhand, India, suggest minimal wind resources in this region. To explore whether or not the complex terrain in fact provides localized regions of wind resource, the authors of this study employed a dynamic down scaling method with the Weather Research and Forecasting model, providing detailed estimates of winds at approximately 1 km resolution in the finest nested simulation.

  15. Himalayan Journal of Sciences Volume 5, Issue 7 (Special Issue), 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himalayan Association for the Advancement of Science

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Roorkee Roorkee, INDIA Sponsored by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, India Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Indian National Science Academy... Himalayan Proterozoic Sedimentary Belt adjacent to the Main Central Thrust (MCT), (iv) cooling and exhumation of the terrain due to tectonics and/or monsoon precipitation and ensuing erosion, (v) deposition and evolution of the Himalayan foreland basins...

  16. Discordances ontologiques et questions d'interoprabilit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    liens, et en quoi elles sont pertinentes pour les sciences sociales. Mots clés : Epistémologie, ontologie, interopérabilité, intégration de schémas, homologie structurale Summary : Beyond the search terrain d'étude ethnologique. Après avoir quelque peu précisé ces deux questions, ainsi que les liens qu

  17. Movement & Sport Sciences (2013) n 81-1, pp. 37-47 [Tapez un texte

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    corporel en situation motrice Michel Récopé, Hélène Fache, Simon Boyer, Géraldine Rix-Lièvre Laboratoire l'esquisse d'un modèle de la coordination de vécus corporels en situation motrice. Mots clés corporel en situation motrice Des mobiles imposés par le terrain La question du vécu corporel s'est imposée

  18. Communiqu de presse -27 fvrier 2013 Expdition Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contreforts du Mont Wilhelm, ils ont inventorié la biodiversité négligée de cette région- clé mais sous sur le terrain. Les travaux de tri et d'identification des spécimens ont à peine commencé, et il des piégeages similaires dans une forêt de plaine). Les schémas de répartition de la biodiversité ne

  19. COMIT FRANAIS D'HISTOIRE DE LA GOLOGIE -Troisime srie -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    . Les sables, épanchés et remaniés sur la plaine, s'y montrent avec leurs caractères véritables ; ils ne auteurs de la Carte géologique de France" (il s'agit de ce que nous appelons les Sables de Lozère). En 1872, avec Alfred Potier, il publie à l'Académie des Sciences (t.74, p. 1262) une note sur le terrain

  20. Le robinier, Robinia pseudoacacia L., une espce fixatrice d'azote intressante ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    terrains meubles. Il est capable de fixer J'azote atmosphérique grâce à des nodules racinaires dont le toutefois que l'altitude ne soit pas trop élevée car c'est avant tout une espèce des plaines et des collines limitées (GOURRET, 1975 ; MOIROUD & CAPEI.LANO, 1981).). #12;Aussi il nous a paru utile d'entreprendre une

  1. Wheeled hopping robot

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  2. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  3. Technical Report 2014-15 Lugre Tire Model for HMMWV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Negrut, Dan

    . An example of an all-terrain tire that can be used on HMMWV is depicted in figure 1. Figure 1. A Goodyear tire 37/12.50R17LT (http://www.goodyear.com/). Tires can be modelled in a number of ways in computerTechnical Report 2014-15 Lugre Tire Model for HMMWV Aki Mikkola October 21, 2014 #12;2 Abstract

  4. Mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spletzer, Barry Louis; Nho, Hyuchul C.; Salton, Jonathan Robert

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past decade, a great deal of effort has been focused in research and development of versatile robotic ground vehicles without understanding their performance in a particular operating environment. As the usage of robotic ground vehicles for intelligence applications increases, understanding mobility of the vehicles becomes critical to increase the probability of their successful operations. This paper describes a framework based on conservation of energy to predict the maximum mobility of robotic ground vehicles over general terrain. The basis of the prediction is the difference between traction capability and energy loss at the vehicle-terrain interface. The mission success of a robotic ground vehicle is primarily a function of mobility. Mobility of a vehicle is defined as the overall capability of a vehicle to move from place to place while retaining its ability to perform its primary mission. A mobility analysis tool based on the fundamental principle of conservation of energy is described in this document. The tool is a graphical user interface application. The mobility analysis tool has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. The tool is at an initial stage of development. In the future, the tool will be expanded to include all vehicles and terrain types.

  5. Transport of tracers and pollutants from the Geysers Geothermal Resource Area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orgill, M.M.; Lee, R.N.; Schreck, R.I.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An initial analysis of both surface and aerial SF/sub 6/ tracer data from the Geysers illustrates the importance that terrain, vertical wind shear, time-varying winds and stability have on the downwind distribution of cooling tower effluents during the daytime. Atmospheric stability and near surface winds above 3 m/s results in fumigation and surface impaction of a portion of cooling tower plumes on downwind surfaces and terrain. Vertical wind shear and possible gravity waves in upper-levels (approx. 1800 to 2000 m m.s.l), in addition, to terrain influences assist in distributing plumes horizontally and in the vertical at relative short (approx. 10 to 20 km) distances from the source. Small quantities of gaseous sulfur, primarily H/sub 2/S, are transported up to 20 km or more from the Geysers area. A variety of trace materials such as sulfate, copper, zinc, arsenic, bromine, lead, antimony, selenium and barium appear to be enriched over background levels and transported downwind from the Geysers Area at times.

  6. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of dynamic acquisition, i.e. survey mission inflight reprioritization). We describe and report on a one year effort with as primary goal to provide a recommendation to SERDP for a path forward in the implementation of one or more autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms. This recommendation (which is provided in chapter 6) is based on the following three elements a) An assessment on the applicability of autonomous rotorcraft magnetometer systems to the current DoD site inventory, and an initial assessment of which type(s) of autonomous unmanned magnetometer rotorcraft platforms (in terms of performance characteristics such as payload, altitude, obstacle avoidance, production rate and flight time) would be most relevant to this inventory (chapter 3); b) An evaluation of the feasibility of assembling such platforms from commercial components (unmanned rotorcraft, control systems and sensors – both magnetometer sensors and supporting sensors). This evaluation included several highly successful field tests (chapter 4 and 5); c) A recommendation of the path forward, which includes a detailed outline of the efforts required in the design, assembly and testing of different modular platforms (chapter 6)

  7. Simple data filtering in rough set systems Ivo Dntsch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Düntsch, Ivo

    of medical indicators for the risk of a heart attack, while p is a combined measure of psychological of a heart attack within a predefined time span, and we code 1 ­ HEART ATTACK, 0 ­ NO HEART ATTACK What

  8. To our roughly 6,800 new and continuing international

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Boiler Out! The Boiler Out! Volunteer Program provides interna- tional students with opportu- nities. Currently, the Boiler Out! cohort repre- sents the diversity of Pur- due's student body, consist- ing of more than 100 stu- dents and representing 19 countries! To learn more about Boiler Out!, view

  9. Elastic–Plastic Spherical Contact Modeling Including Roughness Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, L.; Etsion, I.; Talke, F. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilevel model for elastic–plastic contact between ajunction growth of an elastic–plastic spherical contact. J.nite element based elastic–plastic model for the contact of

  10. Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

  11. Analysis of the scattering by an unbounded rough surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Specifically, we consider the scattering of a time-harmonic wave field, ... of analytical solution in the form of an infinite series but also to an ...

  12. Analysis of the Scattering by an Unbounded Rough Surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    solution, in the form of an infinite series, is deduced by using a boundary perturbation ... with the mathematical analysis of the solution for an acoustic wave scat-.

  13. Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

  14. NEAR-FIELD IMAGING OF INFINITE ROUGH SURFACES 1 ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    cal exploration (e.g., oil and gas exploration), and medical imaging (e.g., breast cancer detection). However, there is a resolution limit to the sharpness of details

  15. Immersive Planar Display using Roughly Aligned Projectors Ramesh Raskar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    ://www.cs.unc.edu/~raskar/Planar/ Abstract When a projector is oblique with respect to a planar dis- playsurface, it creates keystoning is not perpendicular to the display screen, the resultant image is keystoned and ap- pears distorted (Fig 1). We rectangular images (b) Oblique projectors create keystoned images. positioned in large display systems, after

  16. Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of Rough Silicon Allon I. Hochbaum1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    .nature.com/nature 2 #12;Thermal contact resistance The thermal contact resistance of the Pt-C pads was tested was the same before and after the second Pt-C bonding, indicating that the thermal contact resistance of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3 Department of Materials Science

  17. On the rough folding landscape of green fluorescent protein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Benjamin Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. (2008). Understanding protein folding: small proteins inG. (1997). Theory of protein folding: the energy landscapeenergy landscape of protein folding: a synthesis. Proteins

  18. What rough beast? Synthetic Biology and the Future of Biosecurity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohr, Scott C.

    Synthetic biology seeks to create modular biological parts that can be assembled into useful devices, allowing the modification of biological systems with greater reliability, at lower cost, with greater speed, and by a ...

  19. Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching. |EndecahemeEMSLImaging the BrainIce Crystal

  20. Rough Rock, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginiaRoosevelt Gardens is°

  1. Rough and Ready Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginiaRoosevelt Gardens is°and Ready Biomass Facility Jump to:

  2. File:Wind rough example.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6Theoretical vs Actual Data Lesson Planrough example.pdf Jump

  3. Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2 Computational Physics andComputer Sciences andMembrane

  4. Surface Orbital 'Roughness' in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxide | Advanced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline GalliumSuppression of conductivity inBatteries -Photon

  5. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, Gregory H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0.5. Over the range from 0.5 to 4.5 cm the shock KE is attenuated by a factor of {approx}70, while its momentum is changed little. The shock and particle velocity falls by a factor of 200 while the mass increases by a factor of 730. In the limit of very porous media u {approx} 1/M, so KE {approx} 1/M, which falls by a factor of {approx}600, while momentum Mu does not change at all. Figure 2 shows the KE, Mu, u, and M for a material with a porosity of 1.05, for which the KE changes little. In the limit of media of very low porosity, u {approx} 1/{radical}M, so KE is constant while Mu {approx} {radical}M, which increases by a factor of 15. Thus, if the goal is to reduce the peak pressure from strong explosions below, very porous materials, which strongly reduce pressure but do not increase momentum, are preferred to non-porous materials, which amplify momentum but do not decrease pressure. These predictions are in qualitative accord with the results of experiments at Los Alamos in which projectiles from high velocity, large caliber cannons were stopped by one to two sandbags. The studies were performed primarily to determine the effectiveness of sand in stopping fragments of various sizes, but could be extended to study sand's effectiveness in attenuating blast pressure. It would also be useful to test the above predictions on the effectiveness of media with higher porosity. Water barriers have been discussed but not deployed in previous retrofit survivability studies for overseas embassies. They would detect the flash from the mine detonation below, trigger a thin layer of explosive above a layer of water, and drive water droplets into the approaching blast wave. The blast loses energy in evaporating the droplets and loses momentum in slowing them. Under favorable conditions that could attenuate the pressure in the blast enough to prevent the penetration or disruption of the vehicle. However, such barriers would depend on prompt and reliable detonation detection and water droplet dispersal, which have not been tested. There is a large literature on the theoretical effec

  6. Effect of Weight and Roadway Grade on the Fuel Economy of Class-8 Frieght Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franzese, Oscar [ORNL; Davidson, Diane [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006-08, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in collaboration with several industry partners, collected real-world performance and situational data for long-haul operations of Class-8 trucks from a fleet engaged in normal freight operations. Such data and information are useful to support Class-8 modeling of combination truck performance, technology evaluation efforts for energy efficiency, and to provide a means of accounting for real-world driving performance within combination truck research and analyses. The present study used the real-world information collected in that project to analyze the effects that vehicle speed and vehicle weight have on the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks. The analysis focused on two type of terrains, flat (roadway grades ranging from -1% to 1%) and mild uphill terrains (roadway grades ranging from 1% to 3%), which together covered more than 70% of the miles logged in the 2006-08 project (note: almost 2/3 of the distance traveled on mild uphill terrains was on terrains with 1% to 2% grades). In the flat-terrain case, the results of the study showed that for light and medium loads, fuel efficiency decreases considerably as speed increases. For medium-heavy and heavy loads (total vehicle weight larger than 65,000 lb), fuel efficiency tends to increase as the vehicle speed increases from 55 mph up to about 58-60 mph. For speeds higher than 60 mph, fuel efficiency decreases at an almost constant rate with increasing speed. At any given speed, fuel efficiency decreases and vehicle weight increases, although the relationship between fuel efficiency and vehicle weight is not linear, especially for vehicle weights above 65,000 lb. The analysis of the information collected while the vehicles were traveling on mild upslope terrains showed that the fuel efficiency of Class-8 trucks decreases abruptly with vehicle weight ranging from light loads up to medium-heavy loads. After that, increases in the vehicle weight only decrease fuel efficiency slightly. Fuel efficiency also decreases significantly with speed, but only for light and medium loads. For medium-heavy and heavy, FE is almost constant for speeds ranging from 57 to about 66 mph. For speeds higher than 66 mph, the FE decreases with speed, but at a lower rate than for light and medium loads. Statistical analyses that compared the fuel efficiencies obtained when the vehicles were traveling at 59 mph vs. those achieved when they were traveling at 65 mph or 70 mph indicated that the former were, on average, higher than the latter. This result was statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level (note: the Type II error i.e., the probability of failing to reject the null hypothesis when the alternative hypothesis is true was 18% and 6%, respectively).

  7. The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poulos, G.S.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

  8. Modeling of air currents in the Gulf Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.

    1992-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability modeled the wind flow in the Gulf Region in order to make projections of the Kuwait oil fires pollution dispersion. Extensive meteorological models incorporating explicit terrain influences to the flow fields were routinely employed through a six month international assessment support effort organized by the World Meteorological Organization and US scientific research agencies. Results show generally close agreement with visible imagery of the smoke plumes as detected by meteorological satellites. However, there are some examples of significant disagreement or failure of the meteorological models. These failures are most likely directly linked to missing or unavailable weather observations.

  9. Gestion du compromis autonomie energetique-observabilite d'un reseau de capteurs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Martin d'H`eres didier.georges@grenoble-inp.fr R´esum´e-- Le probl`eme ´etudi´e dans cet article concerne'autonomie maximale du r´eseau). Le probl`eme de la surveillance de la diffusion d'un polluant at- mosph capteurs sont diss´emin´es de mani`ere al´eatoire sur le terrain [4]. Nous consid´erons le probl`eme de la

  10. A review of "British and Irish Experiences and Impressions of Central Europe, c. 1560-1688" by David Worthington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janik, Jakub

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    studying the period to dismiss the book as one solely for those examining armed con ict. David Worthington. British and Irish Experiences and Impressions of Central Europe, c. 1560-1688. Ashgate, 2012. xxii + 232 pp. ?65.00. Review by #1...;#28;#11;#23; #1;#28;#29;#22;#11;, #1;#28;#6;#22;#31;#30;#30;#24;#29;#22;#28;#29; #23;#29;#22;#27;#31;#25;#21;#22;#20;#26;, #11;#25;#28;#11;?#18;, #3;#24;#30;#28;#29;#8;. #14;ough ?Central Europe? remains relatively unexplored terrain for most western historians...

  11. A study of winter precipitation areas in relation to several indicators of vertical motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuelberg, Henry Ernest

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    is moving over sloping terrain obtains an induced vertical component of velocity. The magnitude of t' he vertical com- ponent is directly related to the wind speed near the ground and to the angle of inclination of the slope in the direction of flow...) Relative Humidity: Values at 25-mb intervals were obtained by interpolation of data given at the contact points. A 107. rms error is likely in the data. The error would appear also in dew- point temperatures which were provided on the tape. 5) Wind...

  12. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1984 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to assess, describe, and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to study the impacts of contaminants on local, regional, and global climates. The contaminants being investigated are those resulting from the development and use of conventional resources (coal, gas, oil, and nuclear power) as well as alternative energy sources. The description of the research is organized into 3 sections: (1) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT); (2) Boundary Layer Meteorology; and (3) Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants. Separate analytics have been done for each of the sections and are indexed and contained in the EDB. (MDF)

  13. Aircraft Observations of the Marine Boundary Layer Adjustment near Point Arguello, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parish, Thomas R.; Rahn, David A.; Leon, David

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .g., Parish 2000). Several authors (e.g., Dorman 1985; Samelson 1992; Burk et al. 1999; Haack et al. 2001) represent the fluid system near the coast in terms of a two-layer shallow water model with the coastal terrain serving as a lateral boundary. The Froude... of the layer. Discontinuities such as hy- draulic jumps can result as the flow transitions from supercritical (Fr. 1) to subcritical (Fr, 1). As the flow in the MBL impinges on coastal points, significant modulation of the MBL height and wind field occurs...

  14. Upcoming Funding Opportunity for Wind Forecasting Improvement Project in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept. ofUSA RS BasicInitiativeEngines |IndustryComplex Terrain |

  15. Site survey method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oldham, J.G.; Spencer, C.R.; Begley, C.L.; Meyer, H.R.

    1991-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures.

  16. Cooperative UAV-Based Communications Backbone for Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, R S

    2001-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to investigate the use of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) as mobile, adaptive communications backbones for ground-based sensor networks. In this type of network, the UAVs provide communication connectivity to sensors that cannot communicate with each other because of terrain, distance, or other geographical constraints. In these situations, UAVs provide a vertical communication path for the sensors, thereby mitigating geographic obstacles often imposed on networks. With the proper use of UAVs, connectivity to a widely disbursed sensor network in rugged terrain is readily achieved. Our investigation has focused on networks where multiple cooperating UAVs are used to form a network backbone. The advantage of using multiple UAVs to form the network backbone is parallelization of sensor connectivity. Many widely spaced or isolated sensors can be connected to the network at once using this approach. In these networks, the UAVs logically partition the sensor network into sub-networks (subnets), with one UAV assigned per subnet. Partitioning the network into subnets allows the UAVs to service sensors in parallel thereby decreasing the sensor-to-network connectivity. A UAV services sensors in its subnet by flying a route (path) through the subnet, uplinking data collected by the sensors, and forwarding the data to a ground station. An additional advantage of using multiple UAVs in the network is that they provide redundancy in the communications backbone, so that the failure of a single UAV does not necessarily imply the loss of the network.

  17. Wind Power Opportunities in St. Thomas, USVI: A Site-Specific Evaluation and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lantz, E.; Warren, A.; Roberts, J. O.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This NREL technical report utilizes a development framework originated by NREL and known by the acronym SROPTTC to assist the U.S. Virgin Islands in identifying and understanding concrete opportunities for wind power development in the territory. The report covers each of the seven components of the SROPTTC framework: Site, Resource, Off-take, Permitting, Technology, Team, and Capital as they apply to wind power in the USVI and specifically to a site in Bovoni, St. Thomas. The report concludes that Bovoni peninsula is a strong candidate for utility-scale wind generation in the territory. It represents a reasonable compromise in terms of wind resource, distance from residences, and developable terrain. Hurricane risk and variable terrain on the peninsula and on potential equipment transport routes add technical and logistical challenges but do not appear to represent insurmountable barriers. In addition, integration of wind power into the St. Thomas power system will present operational challenges, but based on experience in other islanded power systems, there are reasonable solutions for addressing these challenges.

  18. Operational forecasting based on a modified Weather Research and Forecasting model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundquist, J; Glascoe, L; Obrecht, J

    2010-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate short-term forecasts of wind resources are required for efficient wind farm operation and ultimately for the integration of large amounts of wind-generated power into electrical grids. Siemens Energy Inc. and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with the University of Colorado at Boulder, are collaborating on the design of an operational forecasting system for large wind farms. The basis of the system is the numerical weather prediction tool, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model; large-eddy simulations and data assimilation approaches are used to refine and tailor the forecasting system. Representation of the atmospheric boundary layer is modified, based on high-resolution large-eddy simulations of the atmospheric boundary. These large-eddy simulations incorporate wake effects from upwind turbines on downwind turbines as well as represent complex atmospheric variability due to complex terrain and surface features as well as atmospheric stability. Real-time hub-height wind speed and other meteorological data streams from existing wind farms are incorporated into the modeling system to enable uncertainty quantification through probabilistic forecasts. A companion investigation has identified optimal boundary-layer physics options for low-level forecasts in complex terrain, toward employing decadal WRF simulations to anticipate large-scale changes in wind resource availability due to global climate change.

  19. Synthetic aperture radar and interferometry development at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems require broad-area imaging at high resolutions. Many times the imagery must be acquired in inclement weather or during night as well as day. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides such a capability. SAR systems take advantage of the long-range propagation characteristics of radar signals and the complex information processing capability of modern digital electronics to provide high resolution imagery. SAR complements photographic and other optical imaging capabilities because of the minimum constrains on time-of-day and atmospheric conditions and because of the unique responses of terrain and cultural targets to radar frequencies. Interferometry is a method for generating a three-dimensional image of terrain. The height projection is obtained by acquiring two SAR images from two slightly differing locations. It is different from the common method of stereoscopic imaging for topography. The latter relies on differing geometric projections for triangulation to define the surface geometry whereas interferometry relies on differences in radar propagation times between the two SAR locations. This paper presents the capabilities of SAR, explains how SAR works, describes a few SAR applications, provides an overview of SAR development at Sandia, and briefly describes the motion compensation subsystem.

  20. Variability of wind power near Oklahoma City and implications for siting of wind turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessler, E.; Eyster, R.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from five sites near Oklahoma City were examined to assess wind power availability. Wind turbines of identical manufacture were operated at three of the sites, one of which was also equipped with anemometers on a 100-ft tower. Comprehensive anemometric data were available from the other two sites. The study indicates that the average wind speed varies substantially over Oklahoma's rolling plains, which have often been nominally regarded as flat for purposes of wind power generation. Average wind differences may be as much as 5 mph at 20 ft above ground level, and 7 mph at 100 ft above ground level for elevation differences of about 200 ft above mean sea level, even in the absence of substantial features of local terrain. Local altitude above mean sea level seems to be as influential as the shape of local terrain in determining the average wind speed. The wind turbine used at a meteorologically instrumented site in the study produced the power expected from it for the wind regime in which it was situated. The observed variations of local wind imply variations in annual kWh of as much as a factor of four between identical turbines located at similar heights above ground level in shallow valleys and on hilltops or elevated extended flat areas. 17 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.