Sample records for terms definition atmospheric

  1. Crop Insurance Terms and Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stokes, Kenneth; Waller, Mark L.; Outlaw, Joe; Barnaby, G. A. Art

    2008-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is a glossary of terms used by the crop insurance industry. There are definitions for terms used in crop insurance documents and for terms pertaining to coverage levels, farming, reports, units and parties to contracts....

  2. LCLS USERS' ORGANIZATION CHARTER AND BY-LAWS A. Terms and definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    LCLS USERS' ORGANIZATION CHARTER AND BY-LAWS A. Terms and definitions Several definitions and acronyms used in this document are defined below LCLS Linac Coherent Light Source LCLS/UO LCLS Users' Organization LCLS/UOEC LCLS Users' Organization Executive Committee SLAC Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

  3. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I. Interim definition of terms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.D.; Dong, R.G.

    1980-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents interim definitions of terms in the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). Intent is to establish a common-based terminology integral to the probabilistic methods that predict more realistically the behavior of nuclear power plants during an earthquake. These definitions are a response to a request by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards at its meeting held November 15-16, 1979.

  4. Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores from Arctic, and comparisonD dissertation February 2004 #12;Long-term records of atmospheric deposition of mercury in peat cores from Arctic in southern Ontario recorded by peat cores from three bogs: comparison with natural "background" values (past

  5. Atmospheric neutrino oscillation analysis with solar terms in Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokyo, University of

    Atmospheric neutrino oscillation analysis with solar terms in Super-Kamiokande Yumiko Takenaga neutrino events in Super-Kamiokande. In this thesis, the atmospheric neutrino data from the Super-Kamiokande-I (1996-2001) and Super- Kamiokande-II (2003-2005) are summarized and used in the oscillation analysis

  6. Uncertainties associated with the definition of a hydrologic source term for the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.K.; Esser, B.K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thompson, J.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Environmental Restoration Division is seeking to evaluate groundwater contamination resulting from 30 years of underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This evaluation requires knowledge about what radioactive materials are in the groundwater and how they are transported through the underground environment. This information coupled with models of groundwater flow (flow paths and flow rates) will enable predictions of the arrival of each radionuclide at a selected receptor site. Risk assessment models will then be used to calculate the expected environmental and human doses. The accuracy of our predictions depends on the validity of our hydrologic and risk assessment models and on the quality of the data for radionuclide concentrations in ground water at each underground nuclear test site. This paper summarizes what we currently know about radioactive material in NTS groundwater and suggests how we can best use our limited knowledge to proceed with initial modeling efforts. The amount of a radionuclide available for transport in groundwater at the site of an underground nuclear test is called the hydrologic source term. The radiologic source term is the total amount of residual radionuclides remaining after an underground nuclear test. The hydrologic source term is smaller than the radiologic source term because some or most of the radionuclide residual cannot be transported by groundwater. The radiologic source term has been determined for each of the underground nuclear tests fired at the NTS; however, the hydrologic source term has been estimated from measurements at only a few sites.

  7. Vocabulary of Definitions | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Definitions Vocabulary of Definitions 800 Terms for Surface Chemical Analysis - ISO This information is provided through the cooperation of EMSL and the ASTM E42...

  8. Definition of Total Energy budget equation in terms of moist-air Enthalpy surface flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquet, Pascal

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncertainty exists concerning the proper formulation of surface heat fluxes, namely the sum of "sensible" and "latent" heat fluxes, and in fact concerning these two fluxes if they are considered as separate fluxes. In fact, eddy flux of moist-air energy must be defined as the eddy transfer of moist-air specific enthalpy ($\\overline{w' h'}$), where the specific enthalpy ($h$) is equal to the internal energy of moist air plus the pressure divided by the density (namely $h = e_{\\rm int} + p/\\rho$). The fundamental issue is to compute this local (specific) moist-air enthalpy ($h$), and in particular to determine absolute reference value of enthalpies for dry air and water vapour $(h_d)_{\\rm ref}$ and $(h_v)_{\\rm ref}$. New results shown in Marquet (QJRMS 2015, arXiv:1401.3125) are based on the Third-law of Thermodynamics and can allow these computations. In this note, this approach is taken to show that Third-law based values of moist-air enthalpy fluxes is the sum of two terms. These two terms are similar to wha...

  9. Dosimetric Factors Associated With Long-Term Dysphagia After Definitive Radiotherapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudell, Jimmy J.; Schaner, Philip E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Desmond, Renee A. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Meredith, Ruby F.; Spencer, Sharon A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bonner, James A., E-mail: jabonner@uabmc.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Intensification of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for head-and-neck cancer may lead to increased rates of dysphagia. Dosimetric predictors of objective findings of long-term dysphagia were sought. Methods and Materials: From an institutional database, 83 patients were identified who underwent definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, after exclusion of those who were treated for a second or recurrent head-and-neck primary lesion, had locoregional recurrence at any time, had less than 12 months of follow-up, or had postoperative radiotherapy. Dosimetric parameters were analyzed relative to three objective endpoints as a surrogate for severe long-term dysphagia: percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube dependence at 12 months, aspiration on modified barium swallow, or pharyngoesophageal stricture requiring dilation. Results: Mean dose greater than 41 Gy and volume receiving 60 Gy (V{sub 60}) greater than 24% to the larynx were significantly associated with PEG tube dependence and aspiration. V{sub 60} greater than 12% to the inferior pharyngeal constrictor was also significantly associated with increased PEG tube dependence and aspiration. V{sub 65} greater than 33% to the superior pharyngeal constrictor or greater than 75% to the middle pharyngeal constrictor was associated with pharyngoesophageal stricture requiring dilation. Conclusions: Doses to the larynx and pharyngeal constrictors predicted long-term swallowing complications, even when controlled for other clinical factors. The addition of these structures to intensity-modulated radiotherapy optimization may reduce the incidence of dysphagia, although cautious clinical validation is necessary.

  10. SECTION SEVEN DEFINITION OF TERMS Additional Subject Group of related modules within an academic discipline which is taken in addition to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    SECTION SEVEN DEFINITION OF TERMS Additional Subject Group of related modules within an academic(s). Single / Double / Triple module Unit of study with a value of 10/20/30 credits. Subject Group of related modules within one academic discipline. Timetable Group Groups within which a module's teaching and other

  11. Definitions of Marketing Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Extension Service.. Dean McCorkle and Kevin Dhuyvetter* Cash Market Cash marketing basis ? the difference be- tween a cash price and a futures price of a par- ticular commodity on a given futures exchange. It is calculated as: Basis = cash price - futures...

  12. Definitions of Marketing Terms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCorkle, Dean; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C.

    2008-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    projected livestock base weight (after shrink) and actual sale weight (pay weight). Price slides are necessary because heavi- er weight cattle usually sell for a lower price per hundredweight than lighter weight cattle. Retained ownership ? vertically... Extension Service.. Dean McCorkle and Kevin Dhuyvetter* Cash Market Cash marketing basis ? the difference be- tween a cash price and a futures price of a par- ticular commodity on a given futures exchange. It is calculated as: Basis = cash price - futures...

  13. Glacial ice composition: A potential long-term record of the chemistry of atmospheric deposition, Wind River Range, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naftz, D.L. (Geological Survey, Cheyenne, WY (United States)); Rice, J.A. (South Dakota State Univ., Brookings (United States)); Ranville, J.R. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

    1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During a reconnaissance study, ice samples were collected from Knife Point glacier to determine if glaciers in the Wind River Range Could provide a long-term record of the chemical composition of wet deposition. Eight annual ice layers comprising the years 1980-1987 were identified. The concentration of calcium, chloride, and sulfate in the annual-weighted wet deposition samples collected at the National Atmospheric deposition Program (NADP) station near Pinedale, Wyoming, showed a significant, positive correlation to the concentration of the same major ions in composite samples from the annual ice layers. results of the study imply that continuous ice cores reaching to the deeper parts of glaciers in the Wind River Range could provide long-term records of the chemical composition of wet deposition.

  14. Long-Term, Autonomous Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Using an Ormosil Nanocomposite-Based Optical Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisholoy Goswami

    2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to construct a prototype carbon dioxide sensor that can be commercialized to offer a low-cost, autonomous instrument for long-term, unattended measurements. Currently, a cost-effective CO2 sensor system is not available that can perform cross-platform measurements (ground-based or airborne platforms such as balloon and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)) for understanding the carbon sequestration phenomenon. The CO2 sensor would support the research objectives of DOE-sponsored programs such as AmeriFlux and the North American Carbon Program (NACP). Global energy consumption is projected to rise 60% over the next 20 years and use of oil is projected to increase by approximately 40%. The combustion of coal, oil, and natural gas has increased carbon emissions globally from 1.6 billion tons in 1950 to 6.3 billion tons in 2000. This figure is expected to reach 10 billon tons by 2020. It is important to understand the fate of this excess CO2 in the global carbon cycle. The overall goal of the project is to develop an accurate and reliable optical sensor for monitoring carbon dioxide autonomously at least for one year at a point remote from the actual CO2 release site. In Phase I of this project, InnoSense LLC (ISL) demonstrated the feasibility of an ormosil-monolith based Autonomous Sensor for Atmospheric CO2 (ASAC) device. All of the Phase I objectives were successfully met.

  15. SEC. 203. TRIBAL PARTNERSHIP PROGRAM. (a) DEFINITION OF INDIAN TRIBE.--In this section, the term ``Indian tribe'' has the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    ``Indian tribe'' has the meaning given the term in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education and the heads of other Federal agencies, the Secretary may study and determine the feasibility of carrying out) are located primarily within Indian country (as defined in section 1151 of title 18, United States Code

  16. Source Term Estimation of Radioxenon Released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactors Using Measured Air Concentrations and Atmospheric Transport Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Biegalski, S. [Univ. of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Bowyer, Ted W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooper, Matthew W. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haas, Derek A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Korpach, E. [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Yi, Jing [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Miley, Harry S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rishel, Jeremy P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ungar, R. Kurt [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); White, Brian [Radiation Protection Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Woods, Vincent T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems designed to monitor airborne radionuclides released from underground nuclear explosions detected radioactive fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in March 2011. Atmospheric transport modeling (ATM) of plumes of noble gases and particulates were performed soon after the accident to determine plausible detection locations of any radioactive releases to the atmosphere. We combine sampling data from multiple International Modeling System (IMS) locations in a new way to estimate the magnitude and time sequence of the releases. Dilution factors from the modeled plume at five different detection locations were combined with 57 atmospheric concentration measurements of 133-Xe taken from March 18 to March 23 to estimate the source term. This approach estimates that 59% of the 1.24×1019 Bq of 133-Xe present in the reactors at the time of the earthquake was released to the atmosphere over a three day period. Source term estimates from combinations of detection sites have lower spread than estimates based on measurements at single detection sites. Sensitivity cases based on data from four or more detection locations bound the source term between 35% and 255% of available xenon inventory.

  17. Communication Definitions... general definition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Ian L.

    Communication Definitions... general definition "the process of conveying information from a sender to a receiver with the use of a medium in which the communicated information is understood the same way by both sender and receiver" (Wikipedia)! Biological communication Action by one organism (individual

  18. A NEW SYNTHETIC LIBRARY OF THE NEAR-INFRARED Ca II TRIPLET INDICES. I. INDEX DEFINITION, CALIBRATION, AND RELATIONS WITH STELLAR ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, W.; Luo, A. L.; Zhao, Y. H., E-mail: wdu@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: lal@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Adopting the SPECTRUM package, which is a stellar spectral synthesis program, we have synthesized a comprehensive set of 2890 near-infrared (NIR) synthetic spectra with a resolution and wavelength sampling similar to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the forthcoming Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) spectra. During the synthesis, we applied the 'New grids of ATLAS9 Model Atmosphere' to develop a grid of local thermodynamic equilibrium model atmospheres for effective temperatures (T{sub eff}) ranging from 3500 to 7500 K, for surface gravities (log g) from 0.5 to 5.0 dex, for metallicities ([Fe/H]) from -4.0 to 0.5 dex, and for solar ([{alpha}/Fe] = 0.0 dex) and non-solar ([{alpha}/Fe] = +0.4 dex) abundances. This synthetic stellar library is composed of 1350 solar scaled abundance (SSA) and 1530 non-solar scaled abundance (NSSA) spectra, grounding on which we have defined a new set of NIR Ca II triplet indices and an index CaT as the sum of the three. These defined indices were automatically measured on every spectrum of the synthetic stellar library and calibrated with the indices computed on the observational spectra from the INDO-U.S. stellar library. In order to check the effect of {alpha}-element enhancement on the so-defined Ca II indices, we compared indices measured on the SSA spectra with those on the NSSA ones at the same trine of stellar parameters (T{sub eff}, log g, [Fe/H]); luckily, little influences of {alpha}-element enhancement were found. Furthermore, comparisons of our synthetic indices with the observational ones from measurements on the INDO-U.S. stellar library, the SDSS-DR7 and SDSS-DR8 spectroscopic survey are presented, respectively, for dwarfs and giants in specific. For dwarfs, our synthetic indices could well reproduce the behaviors of the observational indices versus stellar parameters, which verifies the validity of our index definitions for dwarfs. For giants, the consistency between our synthetic indices and the observational ones does not appear to be as good. However, a new synthetic library of NIR Ca II indices has been founded for deeper studies on the NIR wave band of stellar spectra, and this library is particularly appropriate for the SDSS and the forthcoming LAMOST stellar spectra. We have regressed the strength of the CaT index as a function of stellar parameters for both dwarfs and giants after a series of experimental investigations into relations of the indices with stellar parameters. For dwarfs, log g has little effect on the indices, while [Fe/H] and T{sub eff} play a role together. The leading factor is probably [Fe/H], which changes the strength of the indices by a positive trend. For giants, log g starts to influence the strength of the indices by a negative trend for the metal-poor, and even impact deeply for the metal-rich; besides, [Fe/H] and T{sub eff} still matter. In addition, we briefly discussed the major differences between our Ca II triplet indices and the CaHK doublet indices. Ultimately, a supplemental experiment was carried out to show that spectral noises do have effects on our set of NIR Ca II indices. However, the influence is not weak enough to be ignored if the signal-to-noise ratio falls below 20.

  19. FISH AND WILDLIFE PROGRAM G-1 December 14, 1994 The definitions in this list have no legal significance and are provided only for clarification of terms used

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GLOSSARY FISH AND WILDLIFE PROGRAM G-1 December 14, 1994 GLOSSARY The definitions in this list have fish in the water of a particular stream before their release into that stream. Act -- See Northwest of different elements of the system are better understood. adult equivalent population The number of fish

  20. Genomic definition of species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of this paper is the definition of species based on the assumption that genome is the fundamental level for the origin and maintenance of biological diversity. For this view to be logically consistent it is necessary to assume the existence and operation of the new law which we call genome law. For this reason the genome law is included in the explanation of species phenomenon presented here even if its precise formulation and elaboration are left for the future. The intellectual underpinnings of this definition can be traced to Goldschmidt. We wish to explore some philosophical aspects of the definition of species in terms of the genome. The point of proposing the definition on these grounds is that any real advance in evolutionary theory has to be correct in both its philosophy and its science.

  1. Definitions Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Hans

    Definitions Calibration Parameter Dynamics Monte Carlo Simulation Concluding Remarks Using the SABR Model Jason Vinar Ameriprise Workshop 2012 Jason Vinar Using the SABR Model #12;Definitions Calibration which attempts to capture the volatility smile. This project will consist of Calibrating the SABR model

  2. 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    key terms and details assumptions and references used in the Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints (2010 MECS) Definitions and Assumptions for the Manufacturing Energy and...

  3. Evaluation of Surface Flux Parameterizations with Long-Term ARM Observations Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    , China YANGANG LIU AND SATOSHI ENDO Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (Manuscript received at the Southern Great Plains site by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Mea- surement program and Forecasting (WRF) model and three U.S. general circulation models (GCMs). The unprecedented 7-yr

  4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................4 DEFINITIONS OF KEY TERMS .........................................................................6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    ) means the chemical compound containing one atom of carbon and two atoms of oxygen. (2) "Carbon dioxide) "Global Warming Potential factor" (GWP) means the radiative forcing impact of one mass-based unit. For instance, methane (CH4) has a GWP of 23, meaning that every gram of methane will trap 23 times as much

  5. Industry Terms and Definitions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation, search OpenEIHesperia,IDGWPIndiantown, Florida:

  6. Welcome to the College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences! The following instructions will help you complete your registration for Fall Term.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    will help you complete your registration for Fall Term. BEGIN HERE Have you signed up for your ONID account' 2. Select `Register/Add/Drop Classes' 3. Submit `Fall 2013' and enter your registration PIN 4. Use `Class Search' on the `Add/Drop Classes' page 5. Select courses (including lecture, recitation, and lab

  7. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  8. Definitions of dwelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olgyay, Victor W. (Victor Wayne)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Home is an elusive concept. In one manner it is highly specific and individual in its definition, and in other aspects it is ubiquitous, present in our every act. In this thesis I explore several possible definitions of ...

  9. ATMOSPHERIC SOURCE TERMS FOR THE IDAHO CHEMICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .................................................................. 2-25 2.7.3 Description of the Scrubber

  10. Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality. Baer DR, BJ...

  11. ‘Model’ or ‘tool’? New definitions for translational research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sive, Hazel

    The term ‘model’ often describes non-human biological systems that are used to obtain a better understanding of human disorders. According to the most stringent definition, an animal ‘model’ would display exactly the same ...

  12. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

  13. INTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? #12;WHAT ISTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE? #12;#12;1-D MODEL ATMOSPHERE · Averaged over space and time · GoodINTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE D. Shaun Bloomfield Trinity College Dublin #12;OUTLINE · What is the solar atmosphere? · How is the solar atmosphere observed? · What structures exist and how do they evolve

  14. Power/Privilege Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Major; People's Institute for Survival and Beyond, New Orleans 2. Power is the ability to define reality and to convince other people that it is their definition. ~ Dr. Wade Nobles 3. Power is the capacity to act. 4 different cultures. [JL] RACISM Racism is race prejudice plus power [See Racist]. People's Institute calls

  15. 3 Library Regulations Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    3 Library Regulations Definitions In Regulation 3: 'Library' means the University Library as defined in Regulation 3.1; 'Library staff' means the staff of the University Library; 'Librarian' means the University Librarian and Head of Information Resources Directorate or nominee; `Library Committee' means

  16. Definitions Numbered Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Definitions · Numbered Space ­ a single space marked with a number and reserved for a single permit 24/7 · Unnumbered Space ­ a space which can be used by any customer allowed to park in that lot. High Low Average Question 4: If I buy a staff permit for an UNNUMBERED* space in a non-gated surface

  17. Definitions and motivation More theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duval, Art

    Definitions and motivation Examples More theory The Importance of being Equivalent: The Ubiquity of being Equivalent: #12;Definitions and motivation Examples More theory Fractions Geometry Real life Equivalent: #12;Definitions and motivation Examples More theory Fractions Geometry Real life Summary Equality

  18. Motivation and definitions Dimension theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climenhaga, Vaughn

    Motivation and definitions Dimension theory Results: old and new Multifractal analysis of Birkhoff averages #12;Motivation and definitions Dimension theory Results: old and new Outline 1 Motivation and definitions A multifractal decomposition Example 2 Dimension theory Quantifying level sets A dynamically

  19. Definitions and motivation More theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duval, Art

    Definitions and motivation Examples More theory Equivalence relations in mathematics, K-16+ Art;Definitions and motivation Examples More theory Fractions Geometry Real life One reason fractions are hard 2 3 Duval Equivalence relations in mathematics, K-16+ #12;Definitions and motivation Examples More theory

  20. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Mirizzi; D. Montanino; P. D. Serpico

    2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ``vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle theta_23).

  1. Information systems definition architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calapristi, A.J.

    1996-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Information Systems Definition architecture evaluated information Management (IM) processes in several key organizations. The intent of the study is to identify improvements in TWRS IM processes that will enable better support to the TWRS mission, and accommodate changes in TWRS business environment. The ultimate goals of the study are to reduce IM costs, Manage the configuration of TWRS IM elements, and improve IM-related process performance.

  2. Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications Soot Nanostructure: Definition, Quantification, and Implications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER)...

  3. Notes and Definitions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxideDocumentationThreeNewsfuelNotes and Definitions

  4. Forecast of surface layer meteorological parameters at Cerro Paranal with a mesoscale atmospherical model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lascaux, Franck; Fini, Luca

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article aims at proving the feasibility of the forecast of all the most relevant classical atmospherical parameters for astronomical applications (wind speed and direction, temperature) above the ESO ground-base site of Cerro Paranal with a mesoscale atmospherical model called Meso-Nh. In a precedent paper we have preliminarily treated the model performances obtained in reconstructing some key atmospherical parameters in the surface layer 0-30~m studying the bias and the RMSE on a statistical sample of 20 nights. Results were very encouraging and it appeared therefore mandatory to confirm such a good result on a much richer statistical sample. In this paper, the study was extended to a total sample of 129 nights between 2007 and 2011 distributed in different parts of the solar year. This large sample made our analysis more robust and definitive in terms of the model performances and permitted us to confirm the excellent performances of the model. Besides, we present an independent analysis of the model p...

  5. Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, Robin

    Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Robin questions. #12;Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Definition and Proof Definition and proof -- but they are not in predicate logic or type theory. #12;Proof and Definition in Logic and Type Theory Methods of Definition

  6. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea Definitions Key Terms

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea Definitions Key TermsCrude

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea Definitions Key TermsCrudeAPI

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputsTotal Stocks Definitions Key Terms

  10. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  11. How atmospheric ice forms | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric ice forms How atmospheric ice forms Released: September 08, 2014 New insights into atmospheric ice formation could improve climate models This study advances our...

  12. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  13. Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

  14. Social Media Ad Metrics Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    these metrics to encourage growth through consistency. Social media speaks to a new way of understanding howSocial Media Ad Metrics Definitions Released May 2009 #12;Social Media Metrics Definitions © 2008 & Social Media Committee. About the IAB's User-Generated Content & Social Media Committee: The User

  15. GRAPH THEORY STUDY GUIDE 1. Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Joshua N.

    GRAPH THEORY STUDY GUIDE 1. Definitions Definition 1 (Partition of A). A set A = A1, ..., Ak. Definition 2 (Vertex set). The set of vertices in a graph denoted by V (G). Definition 3 (Edge set). The set of edges in a graph denoted by E(G). Definition 4 (Order). the number of vertices of a graph G written |G

  16. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ;Origins of Atmospheres · Outgassing ­ Volcanoes expel water, CO2, N2, H2S, SO2 removed by the Fme convecFon reaches deserts #12;Water and Ice Clouds #12;H2SO4

  17. On the Definition of Gauge Field Operators in Lattice Gauge-Fixed Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Giusti; M. L. Paciello; S. Petrarca; B. Taglienti; M. Testa

    1998-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the problem of defining the gluon field on the lattice in terms of the natural link variables. Different regularized definitions are shown, through non perturbative numerical computation, to converge towards the same continuum renormalized limit.

  18. On the Definition of Gauge Field Operators in Lattice Gauge-Fixed Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Giusti; M. L. Paciello; S. Petrarca; B. Taglienti; M. Testa

    1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We address the problem of defining the gauge four-potential on the lattice, in terms of the natural link variables. Different regularized definitions are shown, through non perturbative numerical computation, to converge towards the same continuum renormalized limit.

  19. Review of sour service definitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, D.R.; Boah, J.K. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Case histories and laboratory test data are presented to compare the predictive utility of NACE MR0175 with three alternatives. With some exceptions, the MR0175 definition is useful and conservative for most cases. The definition based on water phase pH and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) partial pressure, proposed in European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) pub. 16, is not recommended since it does not predict sulfide stress cracking (SSC) in refining environments and presents higher risk of SSC of sweet service materials in certain Arabian Gulf production environments. A modified definition of sour service is proposed, which uses the MR0175 definition except in cases of very low water phase pH. 47 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modeling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Sebastian

    Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modeling. Seoleun Shin Sebastian Reich Jason Frank August 19, 2011 Abstract We develop a hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle-mesh (HPM) method for efficient long-term numerical integration of the atmosphere. In the HPM method, the hydro

  1. Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modeling.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Jason

    Hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle mesh (HPM) methods for atmospheric modeling. Seoleun Shin Sebastian Reich Jason Frank March 17, 2011 Abstract We develop a hydrostatic Hamiltonian particle mesh (HPM) method for efficient long-term numerical integration of the atmosphere. In the HPM method, the hydro

  2. EMSL - Atmospheric Aerosol Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scienceatmospheric The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model...

  3. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  4. Atmospheric Dynamics II Instructor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AT602 Atmospheric Dynamics II 2 credits Instructor: David W. J. Thompson davet: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition, Academic Press (recommended) · Marshall, J., and Plumb, R. A., 2008: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text, Academic Press. · Vallis, G. K

  5. Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature

  6. A theory of jet definition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fyodor V. Tkachov

    2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic framework for jet definition is developed from first principles of physical measurement, quantum field theory, and QCD. A jet definition is found which: is theoretically optimal in regard of both minimization of detector errors and inversion of hadronization; is similar to a cone algorithm with dynamically negotiated jet shapes and positions found via shape observables that generalize the thrust to any number of axes; involves no ad hoc conventions; allows a fast computer implementation [hep-ph/9912415]. The framework offers an array of options for systematic construction of quasi-optimal observables for specific applications.

  7. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  8. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  9. Atmospheric Science: An introductory survey 1. Introduction to the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Sound Convergence Zone #12;Terrain effects #12;Von Karman vortex streets #12;Atmosphere in Earth system

  10. Field Definitions, Spectrum and Universality in Effective String Theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. D. Hari Dass; Peter Matlock

    2006-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown, by explicit calculation, that the third-order terms in inverse string length in the spectrum of the effective string theories of Polchinski and Strominger are also the same as in Nambu-Goto theory, in addition to the universal Luescher terms. While the Nambu-Goto theory is inconsistent outside the critical dimension, the Polchinski-Strominger theory is by construction consistent for any space-time dimension. In the analysis of the spectrum, care is taken not to use any field redefinition, as it is felt that this has the potential to obscure important points. Nevertheless, as field redefinition is an important tool and the definition of the field should be made precise, a careful analysis of the choice of field definition leading to the terms in the action is also presented. Further, it is shown how a choice of field definition can be made in a systematic way at higher orders. To this end the transformation of measure involved is calculated, in the context of effective string theory, and thereby a quantum evaluation made of equivalence of theories related by a field redefinition. It is found that there are interesting possibilities resulting from a redefinition of fluctuation field.

  11. Overturning and wind driven circulation in a low-order ocean-atmosphere model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Veen, Lennaert

    july 2002 Abstract A low-order ocean-atmosphere model is presented which combines coupling through heat exchange at the interface and wind stress forcing. The coupling terms are derived from the boundary conditions and the forcing terms of the constituents. Both the ocean and the atmosphere model are based

  12. Entropy and Energy: Toward a Definition of Physical Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    usefulness of entropy-energy definition of sustainability asEntropy and Energy: Toward a Definition of Physicaland energy should be included in the desired definition of

  13. A Natural Definition of Random Language Keith Wansbrough*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wansbrough, Keith

    Introduction Algorithmic Information Theory (AIT) provides definitions of randomness for strings A Natural Definition of Random Language Keith Wansbrough* October 13, 1995 Abstract We propose a natural definition

  14. Atmospheric Neutrinos at Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Scholberg; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1998, the Super-Kamiokande announced evidence for the observation of neutrino oscillations based on measurements of the atmospheric neutrino flux. This paper presents the updated results for fully and partially-contained events with 736 days of data, as well as upward-going muon results and a global analysis. Preliminary interpretations of the results in terms of various two-flavor oscillation hypotheses are presented.

  15. Definitions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract Management FermiDavid Turner David3 |A Sign In About | Careers |

  16. Definitions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITIONPortal Decision Support forDeep InsightsLANS

  17. Dynamics of Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    transfer ­ Solar heating of surface, and atmosphere via dust absorption ­ Infrared CO2 band cooling (especially around 667 cm-1) ­ nonLTE near-infrared heating of CO2 and nonLTE cooling effects above ~60-80 km. Baroclinic waves, scales, heat and momentum transport, seasonal occurrence. Qualitative treatment

  18. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    . Along with this growth came a new building on campus and a new name: the Laboratory for Atmospheric of the Sun to the outermost fringes of the solar system. With LASP's continuing operations role in the planet traditional and stable approach based on federal agency funding of research grant

  19. SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Course Syllabus and Lecture Schedule Instructor: Lynn Russell, 343 NH, 534-4852, lmrussell@ucsd.edu Text: Thermodynamics of Atmospheres of Thermodynamics (Work, Heat, First Law, Second Law, Heat Capacity, Adiabatic Processes) 5-Oct F Hurricane Example

  20. 13 Lyapunov stability Definition 13.1 (Positive definite). We say that V (x, y) is positive definite, if V (x, y) 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karageorgis, Paschalis

    13 Lyapunov stability Definition 13.1 (Positive definite). We say that V (x, y) is positive definite, if V (x, y) 0 at all points and if equality holds only at the origin. Definition 13.2 (Lyapunov functions). Suppose that V (x, y) is continuous and positive definite. Then we say that V is a Lyapunov

  1. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  2. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  3. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  4. Boundary definition of a multiverse measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raphael Bousso; Ben Freivogel; Stefan Leichenauer; Vladimir Rosenhaus

    2010-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose to regulate the infinities of eternal inflation by relating a late time cut-off in the bulk to a short distance cut-off on the future boundary. The light-cone time of an event is defined in terms of the volume of its future light-cone on the boundary. We seek an intrinsic definition of boundary volumes that makes no reference to bulk structures. This requires taming the fractal geometry of the future boundary, and lifting the ambiguity of the conformal factor. We propose to work in the conformal frame in which the boundary Ricci scalar is constant. We explore this proposal in the FRW approximation for bubble universes. Remarkably, we find that the future boundary becomes a round three-sphere, with smooth metric on all scales. Our cut-off yields the same relative probabilities as a previous proposal that defined boundary volumes by projection into the bulk along timelike geodesics. Moreover, it is equivalent to an ensemble of causal patches defined without reference to bulk geodesics. It thus yields a holographically motivated and phenomenologically successful measure for eternal inflation.

  5. Glossary of CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms and acronyms. Environmental Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This glossary contains CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The CERCLA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended and related federal rulemakings. The RCRA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and related federal rulemakings. The TSCA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Toxic Substances and Control Act (TSCA) and related federal rulemakings. Definitions related to TSCA are limited to those sections in the statute and regulations concerning PCBs and asbestos.Other sources for definitions include additional federal rulemakings, assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), guidance and informational documents prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DOE Orders. The source of each term is noted beside the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before July 1, 1993.

  6. Satellite power system concept development and evaluation program system definition technical assessment report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of the system definition studies conducted by NASA as a part of the Department of Energy/National Aeronautics and Space Administration SPS Concept Development and Evaluation Program are summarized. The purpose of the system definition efforts was to identify and define candidate SPS concepts and to evaluate the concepts in terms of technical and cost factors. Although the system definition efforts consisted primarily of evaluation and assessment of alternative technical approaches, a reference system was also defined to facilitate economic, environmental, and societal assessments by the Department of Energy. This reference system was designed to deliver 5 GW of electrical power to the utility grid. Topics covered include system definition; energy conversion and power management; power transmission and reception; structures, controls, and materials; construction and operations; and space transportation.

  7. Definition RX Evaluate Kernels K-2d K-1d Change By definition undefined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theiler, James

    Definition RX Evaluate Kernels K-2d K-1d Change By def·i·ni·tion undefined Adventures in anomaly Alamos National Laboratory Research supported by the United States Department of Energy through the Los Alamos Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. #12;Theiler LA-UR-14-24429 Definition

  8. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric Heat

  9. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric

  10. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR SEPARATION BYAbrasion andArticle)Atmospheric

  11. A Natural Definition of Random Language Keith Wansbrough \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wansbrough, Keith

    definition. 1 Introduction Algorithmic Information Theory (AIT) provides definitions of randomnessA Natural Definition of Random Language Keith Wansbrough \\Lambda October 13, 1995 Abstract We propose a natural definition of random language, based on the standard AIT definitions of random string

  12. atmospheres thin atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  13. Introduction In the past two centuries, atmospheric methane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    of methane in the atmosphere is controlled by oxidation, mainly in chemical reaction with the hydroxyl by the combination of pre-industrial methane concentration levels from ice cores and bottom-up estimates based important terms in the global methane budget. Anthropogenic source estimates are mainly based on socio

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: atmospheric chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  15. ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

  16. ATMOSPHERIC ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241 Error analysis of backscatter;accepted 14 February 1997 Abstract Ice sphere backscatter has been calculated using both Mie theory as a reasonable approximation for rv 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction Cirrus clouds play

  17. Pushing the Frontier of High-Definition Ion Mobility Spectrometry...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Frontier of High-Definition Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using FAIMS. Pushing the Frontier of High-Definition Ion Mobility Spectrometry Using FAIMS. Abstract: Differential ion...

  18. BLOCK DIAGONALLY DOMINANT POSITIVE DEFINITE APPROXIMATE FILTERS AND SMOOTHERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BLOCK DIAGONALLY DOMINANT POSITIVE DEFINITE APPROXIMATE FILTERS AND SMOOTHERS Running title: BLOCK the loss of positive definiteness in the approximate equations. Therefore previous analyses have

  19. Entropy and Energy: Toward a Definition of Physical Sustainability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermanowicz, Slawomir W

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of entropy-energy definition of sustainability as well asand Energy: Toward a Definition of Physical Sustainabilityto assess the sustainability is based on the energy. This

  20. Mathematical definition of quantum field theory on a manifold

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Stoyanovsky

    2009-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a mathematical definition of quantum field theory on a manifold, and definition of quantization of a classical field theory given by a variational principle.

  1. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  2. Definition of a 'Zero Net Energy' Community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlisle, N.; Van Geet, O.; Pless, S.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides a definition for a net zero-energy community. A community that offsets all of its energy use from renewables available within the community's built environment.

  3. Department of Bioengineering Definition of Biomedical Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a discipline that advances knowledge in engineering, biology and medicine, and improves human health throughDepartment of Bioengineering Definition of Biomedical Engineering Biomedical engineering cross-disciplinary activities that integrate the engineering sciences with the biomedical sciences

  4. Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Energy Pathways #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Atmosphere or performing any work. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission or water. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission Atmosphere

  5. Quantal Definition of the Weak Equivalence Principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel Camacho; Arturo Camacho-Guardian

    2008-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work analyzes the meaning of the Weak Equivalence Principle in the context of quantum mechanics. A quantal definition for this principle is introduced. This definition does not require the concept of trajectory and relies upon the phase shift induced by a gravitational field in the context of a quantum interference experiment of two coherent beams of particles. In other words, it resorts to wave properties of the system and not to classical concepts as the idea of trajectory.

  6. A General Systems Theory for Atmospheric Flows and Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover pattern and inverse power law form for power spectra of meteorological parameters such as windspeed, temperature, rainfall etc. Inverse power law form for power spectra indicate long-range spacetime correlations or non-local connections and is a signature of selforganised criticality generic to dynamical systems in nature such as river flows, population dynamics, heart beat patterns etc. The author has developed a general systems theory which predicts the observed selforganised criticality as a signature of quantumlike chaos in dynamical systems. The model predictions are (i) The fractal fluctuations can be resolved into an overall logarithmic spiral trajectory with the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the internal structure. (ii) The probability distribution represents the power (variance) spectrum for fractal fluctuations and follows universal inverse power law form incorporating the golden mean. Such a result that the additive amplitudes of eddies when squared represent probability distribution is observed in the subatomic dynamics of quantum systems such as the electron or photon. Therefore the irregular or unpredictable fractal fluctuations exhibit quantumlike chaos. (iii) Atmospheric aerosols are held in suspension by the vertical velocity distribution (spectrum). The atmospheric aerosol size spectrum is derived in terms of the universal inverse power law characterizing atmospheric eddy energy spectrum. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement with the following two experimentally determined atmospheric aerosol data sets, (i) SAFARI 2000 CV-580 Aerosol Data, Dry Season 2000 (CARG) (ii) World Data Centre Aerosols data sets for the three stations Ny {\\AA}lesund, Pallas and Hohenpeissenberg.

  7. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi and Yan Feng Climate Research Section Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory #12;Outline Atmospheric Aerosols and gas phase heterogeneous reactions Regional Scales and Atmospheric Aerosols Regional Scale Aerosols: Ganges Valley Aerosol

  8. Rigorous and General Definition of Thermodynamic Entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gian Paolo Beretta; Enzo Zanchini

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical foundations of a variety of emerging technologies --- ranging from the applications of quantum entanglement in quantum information to the applications of nonequilibrium bulk and interface phenomena in microfluidics, biology, materials science, energy engineering, etc. --- require understanding thermodynamic entropy beyond the equilibrium realm of its traditional definition. This paper presents a rigorous logical scheme that provides a generalized definition of entropy free of the usual unnecessary assumptions which constrain the theory to the equilibrium domain. The scheme is based on carefully worded operative definitions for all the fundamental concepts employed, including those of system, property, state, isolated system, environment, process, separable system, system uncorrelated from its environment, and parameters of a system. The treatment considers also systems with movable internal walls and/or semipermeable walls, with chemical reactions and/or external force fields, and with small numbers of particles. The definition of reversible process is revised by introducing the new concept of scenario. The definition of entropy involves neither the concept of heat nor that of quasistatic process; it applies to both equilibrium and nonequilibrium states. The role of correlations on the domain of definition and on the additivity of energy and entropy is discussed: it is proved that energy is defined and additive for all separable systems, while entropy is defined and additive only for separable systems uncorrelated from their environment; decorrelation entropy is defined. The definitions of energy and entropy are extended rigorously to open systems. Finally, to complete the discussion, the existence of the fundamental relation for stable equilibrium states is proved, in our context, for both closed and open systems.

  9. Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winguth, Arne

    Long-term effects of anthropogenic CO2 emissions simulated with a complex earth system model Uwe earth system model con- sisting of an atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean general

  10. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Abstract: The exact mechanisms by...

  11. Pottebaum et al. Event Definition for Intelligent Resource Management Event Definition for the Application of Event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paliouras, George

    of resource management (use case and demand side) and event processing (technology and supply side). MethodsPottebaum et al. Event Definition for Intelligent Resource Management Event Definition for the Application of Event Processing to Intelligent Resource Management Jens Pottebaum University of Paderborn, C

  12. Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry) FCH 511 Fall 2013 Theodore S/explaining the trends in J as a function of altitude and solar zenith angle. The second involves analyzing real

  13. THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A [Haberle et al., 1993a; Larsen et al., 2002; Hinson et al., 2008]. At night, convection is inhibited

  14. A Vertical Grid Module for Baroclinic Models of the Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drake, John B [ORNL

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vertical grid of an atmospheric model assigns dynamic and thermo- dynamic variables to grid locations. The vertical coordinate is typically not height but one of a class of meteorological variables that vary with atmo- spheric conditions. The grid system is chosen to further numerical approx- imations of the boundary conditions so that the system is terrain following at the surface. Lagrangian vertical coordinates are useful in reducing the numerical errors from advection processes. That the choices will effect the numercial properties and accuracy is explored in this report. A MATLAB class for Lorentz vertical grids is described and applied to the vertical struc- ture equation and baroclinic atmospheric circulation. A generalized meteo- rolgoical coordinate system is developed which can support ?, isentropic ? vertical coordinate, or Lagrangian vertical coordinates. The vertical atmo- spheric column is a MATLAB class that includes the kinematic and ther- modynamic variables along with methods for computing geopoentials and terms relevant to a 3D baroclinc atmospheric model.

  15. 2014 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Assumptions A number of key terms are used to interpret the manufacturing energy and carbon footprints. The terms associated with the energy footprint analysis are...

  16. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  17. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  18. Terms and Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Terms and...

  19. Document Type: Subject Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Major, Arkady

    Title: Authors: Source: Document Type: Subject Terms: Abstract: Full Text Word Count: ISSN at creating team results. In fact, it's priceless. Managers in Western corporations have received a lifetime

  20. Root Cause Analysis: Terms and Definitions, Accimaps, MES, SOL and WBA Peter Bernard Ladkin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ladkin, Peter B.

    include the Piper Alpha oil-rig accident, the Kings Cross underground-station fire, and the Ladbroke Grove railway collision, all investigated by commissions headed by the judge Lord Cullen, and in Australia

  1. Low impact development practices terms and definitions developed by Regional language bank partners 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    are permeable pavers, pervious concrete, porous asphalt and gravel. 11. stormwater runoff using rain gardens, planters, swales, porous pavement, tree canopy and other methods. #12;10. porous pavement - Surface to walk, drive or park

  2. Interpretation of the atmospheric muon charge ratio in MINOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Philip Schreiner; Maury Goodman

    2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    MINOS is the first large magnetic detector deep underground and is the first to measure the muon charge ratio with high statistics in the region near 1 TeV.\\cite{bib:adamson} An approximate formula for the muon charge ratio can be expressed in terms of $\\epsilon_\\pi$ = 115 GeV, $\\epsilon_K$ = 850 GeV and $\\ec$. The implications for K production in the atmosphere will be discussed.

  3. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1985 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of atmospheric research at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are to describe and predict the nature and fate of atmospheric contaminants and to develop an understanding of the atmospheric processes contributing to their distribution on local, regional, and continental scales. In 1985, this research has examined the transport and diffusion of atmospheric contaminants in areas of complex terrain, summarized the field studies and analyses of dry deposition and resuspension conducted in past years, and begun participation in a large, multilaboratory program to assess the precipitation scavenging processes important to the transformation and wet deposition of chemicals composing ''acid rain.'' The description of atmospheric research at PNL is organized in terms of the following study areas: Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain; Dispersion, Deposition, and Resuspension of Atmospheric Contaminants; and Processing of Emissions by Clouds and Precipitation (PRECP).

  4. JOINT DEGREE PROGRAMS DEFINITION AND POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    1 JOINT DEGREE PROGRAMS DEFINITION AND POLICY: Within the fields of medicine and law, dual training for such complementary training can be demonstrated, the creation of a formal "Joint" degree program in which students or MD) offered at Penn State may be warranted. Such Joint degree programs enhance the educational

  5. Pink Eye Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Pink Eye ­ Conjunctivitis Definition, Symptoms and Causes Pink eye is the common name given to inflammation of the conjunctiva of the eye. It is otherwise called conjunctivitis. The conjunctiva is the transparent membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the whites of the eyes. Very small, superficial blood

  6. Business Practice Manual for Definitions & Acronyms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    Janaury 21, 2011 #12;CAISO Business Practice Manual BPM for Definitions & Acronyms Version 76 Last Revised: March 31, 2009 BPM Owner: Mike Dozier BPM Owner's Title: Senior Counsel Revision History Version Date Description 2 2009-12-18 Incorporating payment acceleration language submitted in BPM PRR 122

  7. Evolutionary Algorithms for Definition Extraction Claudia Borg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Gordon J.

    Evolutionary Algorithms for Definition Extraction Claudia Borg Dept. of I.C.S. University of Malta claudia.borg@um.edu.mt Mike Rosner Dept. of I.C.S. University of Malta mike.rosner@um.edu.mt Gordon Pace Dept. of Computer Science University of Malta gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract Books and other text

  8. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1980 to the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environment. Part 3. Atmospheric sciences.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elderkin, C.E.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Separate absracts were prepared for the 15 sections of this progress report which is a description of atmospheric research at PNL organized in terms of the following energy technologies: coal, gas and oil; fission and fusion; and oil shale. (KRM)

  9. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  10. Volume 116B, number 4 PHYSICSLETTERS 14 October 1982 CHARGE DEFINITION IN NON-ABEL[AN GAUGE THEORIES ~

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Volume 116B, number 4 PHYSICSLETTERS 14 October 1982 CHARGE DEFINITION IN NON-ABEL[AN GAUGE THEORIES ~ L.F. ABBOTT and S. DESER Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02254, USA Received 9 June 1982 Conserved gauge-invariant electric and magnetic charges are defined for non-abelian gauge theories in terms

  11. Annual resources report. [Glossary on technical terms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is separated into the following sections: acknowledgments; a table of contents; a list of tables and figures; a glossary; an introduction; an overview of the role of energy resources in New Mexico; separate sections on oil and gas, coal, electrical generation, uranium, and geothermal energy; a section on the geologic setting of oil and gas, coal, and uranium; an appendix of additional tables pertaining to oil and gas development; and a listing of selected references. The glossary is a brief listing of technical terms used in the report with simplified definitions for the reader's use. The overview contains highlights of data found in the report as well as comparisons of New Mexico's resources with those of other states and the nation. In general, each section covering a resource area describes reserves, production, prices, consumption, transportation, employment, and revenue statistics over the past ten or more years and projections to the year 2000.

  12. Contamination of Dark Matter Experiments from Atmospheric Magnetic Dipoles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Bueno; M. Masip; P. Sánchez-Lucas; N. Setzer

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Dark matter collisions with heavy nuclei (Xe, Ge, Si, Na) may produce recoils observable at direct-search experiments. Given that some of these experiments are yielding conflicting information, however, it is worth asking if physics other than dark matter may produce similar nuclear recoils. We examine under what conditions an atmospherically-produced neutral particle with a relatively large magnetic dipole moment could fake a dark matter signal. We argue that a very definite flux could explain the signals seen at DAMA/LIBRA, CDMS/Si and CoGeNT consistently with the bounds from XENON100 and CDMS/Ge. To explore the plausibility of this scenario, we discuss a concrete model with 10-50 MeV sterile neutrinos that was recently proposed to explain the LSND and MiniBooNE anomalies.

  13. Definitional Reflection and the Completion Peter Schroeder-Heister *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroeder-Heister, Peter

    /11-1, and by Esprit Basic Research Working Group 7232 (GENTZEN). #12;334 which is the completed definition

  14. Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprint Definitions and Assumptions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    More Documents & Publications Understanding Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints, October 2012 2010 Manufacturing Energy and Carbon Footprints: Definitions...

  15. A comparison of world-wide uses of severe reactor accident source terms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ang, M.L. [NNC Ltd., Knutsford (United Kingdom); Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Kersting, E.J.; Friederichs, H.G. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany); Lee, R.Y. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Meyer-Heine, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Powers, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soda, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Sweet, D. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The definitions of source terms to reactor containments and source terms to the environment are discussed. A comparison is made between the TID-14844 example source term and the alternative source term described in NUREG-1465. Comparisons of these source terms to the containments and those used in France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom are made. Source terms to the environment calculated in NUREG-1500 and WASH-1400 are discussed. Again, these source terms are compared to those now being used in France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. It is concluded that source terms to the containment suggested in NUREG-1465 are not greatly more conservative than those used in other countries. Technical bases for the source terms are similar. The regulatory use of the current understanding of radionuclide behavior varies among countries.

  16. Preference Term List

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yih-Min

    · Subject Bibliography Library #12; 1/2 · Edit Preferences #12; 2/2 · Library ­ PreferencesDisplay Fields · ­ PreferencesDuplicates · ­ PreferencesFind Full Text · PreferencesReference Types #12;? #12;Journal term list() · Bibliography() · Footnotes() · #12;15 4.Journal Article "Insert Field" #12;16 5. : "Reference Types ""Insert

  17. HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucklidge, Alastair

    become fragmented and twisted, and where they generate the necessary energy to heat the solar coronaHEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS David Alexander and Neal E. Hurlburt Lockheed Martin Solar, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 9EW, UK Abstract We present our results of a hybrid model of sunspots

  18. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  19. Michael Rupen EVLA Phase II Definition Aug 23 25, 2001.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groppi, Christopher

    Michael Rupen EVLA Phase II Definition Meeting Aug 23 ­ 25, 2001. 1 EVLA Phase II Scientific Overview Michael P. Rupen #12;Michael Rupen EVLA Phase II Definition Meeting Aug 23 ­ 25, 2001. 2 New the resolution · Always available! #12;Michael Rupen EVLA Phase II Definition Meeting Aug 23 ­ 25, 2001. 3 NMA

  20. Formal definition of POTENTIAL ENERGY (valid for conservative forces only)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    page - 16 Formal definition of POTENTIAL ENERGY (valid for conservative forces only) Given one type of conservative force F UB - UA= - = - Definition of 'Potential energy difference" conserv #12;page - 17 the definition of the "potential energy difference UB - UA " as equal to negative value of the work W done

  1. Language Definitions as Rewrite Theories Andrei Arusoaie1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Language Definitions as Rewrite Theories Andrei Arusoaie1 , Dorel Lucanu1 , Vlad Rusu2 , Traian languages. It includes software tools for compiling K language definitions to Maude rewrite theories transformation of language definitions that enables the symbolic execution of programs, i.e., the exe- cution

  2. Definite Descriptions, Focus Shift, and a Theory of Discourse Interpretation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poesio, Massimo

    Definite Descriptions, Focus Shift, and a Theory of Discourse Interpretation Massimo Poesio Centre of situations and their hierarchical organization. 1 Ingredients of a Theory of Definite Description Inter­ pretation A theory of definite description (DD) interpretation must build on a general theory of discourse

  3. NIH WORKING DEFINITION OF BIOINFORMATICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    NIH WORKING DEFINITION OF BIOINFORMATICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY July 17, 2000 The following working definition of bioinformatics and computational biology were developed by the BISTIC Definition Liu Preamble Bioinformatics and computational biology are rooted in life sciences as well as computer

  4. Atmospheric dispersion and the radiological consequences of normal airborne effluents from a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, D.; Yang, L. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Sun, C.Z. [Suhou Nuclear Research Inst., Suzhou (China)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The relationship between the consequences of the normal exhaust of radioactive materials in air from nuclear power plants and atmospheric dispersion is studied. Because the source terms of the exhaust from a nuclear power plant are relatively low and their radiological consequences are far less than the corresponding authoritative limits, the atmospheric dispersion models, their various modifications, and selections of relevant parameters have few effects on those consequences. In the environmental assessment and siting, the emphasis should not be placed on the consequence evaluation of routine exhaust of nuclear power plants, and the calculation of consequences of the exhaust and atmospheric field measurements should be appropriately, simplified. 12 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Edinburgh Research Explorer Comparison of models for estimation of long-term exposure to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, Andrew J.

    -term exposure to air pollution in cohort studies' Atmospheric Environment, vol 62, pp. 530-539., 10.1016/j to Air Pollution in Cohort Studies Beverland, I.J.* Department of Civil Engineering, University.L. and Agius, R.M. (2012) Comparison of models for estimation of long-term exposure to air pollution in cohort

  6. The Definition and Classification of Universes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjorken, J.

    2004-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We assume that the concept of a multiverse makes sense, and suggest a specific, standardized definition for member universes which are similar to our own. Central to this description is the definition of size, which is taken to be the asymptotic value, at large times, of the inverse Hubble constant. Thus the cosmological constant plays a central role in defining the properties of the subset of universes similar to our own. We then assume that vacuum parameters and coupling constants of the standard model are dependent upon the size of a universe, and propose a specific form for the dependence. Anthropic considerations then limit the size of habitable universes (as we understand that concept) to be within a factor two of our own. Implications of this picture for understanding the standard-model ''hierarchy problem'' are discussed, as are general issues of falsifiability and/or verifiability of these ideas.

  7. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabolch, Aaron [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent [Department of Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hammer, Gary [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doherty, Gerard [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  8. (Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (PAFBC))

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This first Quarterly Technical Progress Report presents the results of work accomplished during the period April 19 through July 24,1988. The overall objective of the program is the development of a pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) technology to burn coal and to provide heat and steam to commercial, institutional, and small industrial applications at a reasonable price in an environmentally acceptable manner. the program scope consisted of two tasks; the first was to establish preliminary feasibility by the use of theoretical and state-of-the-art information. This task was completed during the first quarter of the contract period and a topical report entitled, Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed combustion (PAFBC) - Preliminary Feasibility Study'' was prepared as a decision point to proceed'' deliverable in accordance with the terms of the contract. This first quarterly progress report therefore covers the contract activities subsequent to the approval of the feasibility study and the decision to proceed with the Task 2 effort. As the initial quarterly technical progress report, this document includes a subsection on background which will be omitted in subsequent reports. All effort during this period was devoted to the design and analysis of the PAFBC. Design drawings were prepared and fabrication and procurement initiated. Quotations were evaluated and a fabrication contract awarded. A site adjacent to the MTCI building was chosen for the installation of the PAFBC. Some ancillary components were purchased, renovated, and tested. Some delays in delivery of components have resulted in some schedule delay. It is anticipated that the program pace will accelerate as soon as parts are received and installation and assembly are initiated. 10 figs.,1 tab.

  9. Universal Quantification for Self-Organized Criticality in Atmospheric Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mary Selvam

    1997-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fluctuations on all scales(space-time) ranging from climate(kilometers/years) to turbulence(millimeters/seconds) manifested as fractal geometry to the global cloud cover pattern concomitant with inverse power law form for power spectra of temporal fluctuations. Selfsimilar fluctuations implying long-range correlations are ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature and are identified as signatures of self-organized criticality in atmospheric flows. Also, mathematical models for simulation and prediction of atmospheric flows are nonlinear and computer realizations give unrealistic solutions because of deterministic chaos, a direct consequence of finite precision round-off error doubling for each iteration of iterative computations incorporated in long-term numerical integration schemes used for model solutions An alternative non-deterministic cell dynamical system model predicts, (a): the observed self organized criticality as a consequence of quantumlike mechanics governing flow dynamics,.(b):atmospheric flows trace an overall logarithmic spiral trajectory with the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the internal structure,(c): eddy circulation structure follows Kepler's third law of planetary motion and results in inverse square law form for centripetal acceleration. The inertial masses representing the eddy circulation therefore follow laws analogous to the Newton's inverse square law for gravitation. The model is similar to a superstring model for subatomic dynamics which unifies quantum mechanical and classical concept and incorporates gravitational forces along with nuclear and electromagnetic forces.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  11. Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhle, J.

    The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

  12. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  13. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  14. atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps heatCh4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances...

  15. atmospheric energy redistribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  16. atmospheric pressure surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 27 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  17. COMPOSITIONAL DIVERSITY IN THE ATMOSPHERES OF HOT NEPTUNES, WITH APPLICATION TO GJ 436b

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses, J. I. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Line, M. R. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Visscher, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Richardson, M. R. [Rice University, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States); Nettelmann, N.; Fortney, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Barman, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Stevenson, K. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Madhusudhan, N., E-mail: jmoses@spacescience.org [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neptune-sized extrasolar planets that orbit relatively close to their host stars—often called {sup h}ot Neptunes{sup —}are common within the known population of exoplanets and planetary candidates. Similar to our own Uranus and Neptune, inefficient accretion of nebular gas is expected produce hot Neptunes whose masses are dominated by elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. At high atmospheric metallicities of 10-10,000 times solar, hot Neptunes will exhibit an interesting continuum of atmospheric compositions, ranging from more Neptune-like, H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres to more Venus-like, CO{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres. We explore the predicted equilibrium and disequilibrium chemistry of generic hot Neptunes and find that the atmospheric composition varies strongly as a function of temperature and bulk atmospheric properties such as metallicity and the C/O ratio. Relatively exotic H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, and even O{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres are possible for hot Neptunes. We apply our models to the case of GJ 436b, where we find that a CO-rich, CH{sub 4}-poor atmosphere can be a natural consequence of a very high atmospheric metallicity. From comparisons of our results with Spitzer eclipse data for GJ 436b, we conclude that although the spectral fit from the high-metallicity forward models is not quite as good as the best fit obtained from pure retrieval methods, the atmospheric composition predicted by these forward models is more physically and chemically plausible in terms of the relative abundance of major constituents. High-metallicity atmospheres (orders of magnitude in excess of solar) should therefore be considered as a possibility for GJ 436b and other hot Neptunes.

  18. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  19. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  20. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  1. Margin of Safety Definition and Examples Used in Safety Basis Documents and the USQ Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beaulieu, R. A.

    2013-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nuclear Safety Management final rule, 10 CFR 830, provides an undefined term, margin of safety (MOS). Safe harbors listed in 10 CFR 830, Table 2, such as DOE?STD?3009 use but do not define the term. This lack of definition has created the need for the definition. This paper provides a definition of MOS and documents examples of MOS as applied in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) approved safety basis for an existing nuclear facility. If we understand what MOS looks like regarding Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) parameters, then it helps us compare against other parameters that do not involve a MOS. This paper also documents parameters that are not MOS. These criteria could be used to determine if an MOS exists in safety basis documents. This paper helps DOE, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and its contractors responsible for the safety basis improve safety basis documents and the unreviewed safety question (USQ) process with respect to MOS.

  2. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  3. New wind input term consistent with experimental, theoretical and numerical considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. E. Zakharov; D. Resio; A. Pushkarev

    2012-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We offer a new method for determining the wind source term for energy and momentum fluxes transfer from the atmosphere to the wind-driven sea. This new source-term formulation is based on extensive analysis of experimental data collected at different sites around the world. It is shown that this new wind source term to be consistent both with numerical solution of exact equation for resonant four-wave interactions and available experimental data.

  4. Long Term by Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatestCenterLogging in Logging inLogisticsLong Term

  5. GENERAL TERMS & CONDITIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental AssessmentsGeoffrey Campbell isOklahoma City,GENERAL TERMS &

  6. Effects on the atmosphere of a major nuclear exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Committee on the Atmospheric Effects of Nuclear Explosions addressed the following charge: (1) determine the manner in which the atmosphere of the earth would be modified by a major exchange of nuclear weapons and, insofar as the current state of knowledge and understanding permits, give a quantitative description of the more important of the changes; and (2) recommend research and exploratory work appropriate to a better understanding of the question. Recent calculations by different investigators suggest that the climatic effects from a major nuclear exchange could be large in scale. Although there are enormous uncertainties involved in the calculations, the committee believes that long-term climatic effects with severe implications for the biosphere could occur, and these effects should be included in any analysis of the consequences of nuclear war. The estimates are necessarily rough and can only be used as a general indication of the seriousness of what might occur.

  7. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea Definitions Key

  8. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea Definitions KeyReceipts by

  9. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea Definitions KeyReceipts

  10. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea Definitions

  11. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea DefinitionsRail between PAD

  12. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea DefinitionsRail between

  13. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea DefinitionsRail

  14. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea DefinitionsRailTanker and

  15. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea DefinitionsRailTanker

  16. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksArea DefinitionsRailTankerImports

  17. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksAreaChargeInput Definitions Key

  18. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksAreaChargeInput Definitions

  19. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal StocksAreaChargeInputYield Definitions

  20. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputs & Utilization Definitions Key

  1. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputs & Utilization Definitions

  2. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputsTotal Stocks Definitions Key

  3. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputsTotal Stocks Definitions KeyPrices,

  4. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputsTotal Stocks Definitions

  5. Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. CoalInputsTotal Stocks DefinitionsWeekly

  6. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy...

  7. atmospheric research community: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Geosciences Websites Summary: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research CIGNA DENTAL PREFERRED PROVIDER INSURANCE EFFECTIVE...

  8. Advanced Gasifier Pilot Plant Concept Definition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steve Fusselman; Alan Darby; Fred Widman

    2005-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results from definition of a preferred commercial-scale advanced gasifier configuration and concept definition for a gasification pilot plant incorporating those preferred technologies. The preferred commercial gasifier configuration was established based on Cost Of Electricity estimates for an IGCC. Based on the gasifier configuration trade study results, a compact plug flow gasifier, with a dry solids pump, rapid-mix injector, CMC liner insert and partial quench system was selected as the preferred configuration. Preliminary systems analysis results indicate that this configuration could provide cost of product savings for electricity and hydrogen ranging from 15%-20% relative to existing gasifier technologies. This cost of product improvement draws upon the efficiency of the dry feed, rapid mix injector technology, low capital cost compact gasifier, and >99% gasifier availability due to long life injector and gasifier liner, with short replacement time. A pilot plant concept incorporating the technologies associated with the preferred configuration was defined, along with cost and schedule estimates for design, installation, and test operations. It was estimated that a 16,300 kg/day (18 TPD) pilot plant gasifier incorporating the advanced gasification technology and demonstrating 1,000 hours of hot-fire operation could be accomplished over a period of 33 months with a budget of $25.6 M.

  9. Definition of heavy oil and natural bitumen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.F.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Definition and categorization of heavy oils and natural bitumens are generally based on physical or chemical attributes or on methods of extraction. Ultimately, the hydrocarbon's chemical composition will govern both its physical state and the extraction technique applicable. These oils and bitumens closely resemble the residuum from wholecrude distillation to about 1,000/degree/F; if the residuum constitutes at least 15% of the crude, it is considered to be heavy. In this material is concentrated most of the trace elements, such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen, and metals, such as nickel and vanadium. A widely used definition separates heavy oil from natural bitumen by viscosity, crude oil being less, and bitumen more viscous than 10,000 cp. Heavy crude then falls in the range 10/degree/-20/degree/ API inclusive and extra-heavy oil less than 10/degree/ API. Most natural bitumen is natural asphalt (tar sands, oil sands) and has been defined as rock containing hydrocarbons more viscous than 10,000 cp or else hydrocarbons that may be extracted from mined or quarried rock. Other natural bitumens are solids, such as gilsonite, grahamite, and ozokerite, which are distinguished by streak, fusibility, and solubility. The upper limit for heavy oil may also be set at 18/degree/ API, the approximate limit for recovery by waterflood.

  10. Pulse atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the program is the development of a pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) technology to burn coal and to provide heat and steam to commercial, institutional, and small industrial applications at a reasonable price in an environmentally acceptable manner. During this reporting period, a total of eight shakedown and debugging coal combustion tests were performed in the AFBC. A start-up procedure was established, system improvements implemented, and preliminary material and heat balances made based on these tests. The pulse combustor for the AFBC system was fabricated and installed and a series of tests was conducted on the system. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate -AdvancedMIRTBD525AdaptingWaterTerryAtmospheric

  12. Definition et unites Sources d'energie primaire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravelet, Florent

    D´efinition et unit´es Sources d'´energie primaire L'´energie dans une perspective historique Etat Laboratoire DynFluid, Arts et M´etiers-ParisTech 19 f´evrier 2014 F. Ravelet Energies #12;D´efinition et unit Energies #12;D´efinition et unit´es Sources d'´energie primaire L'´energie dans une perspective historique

  13. Optimization Online - Semi-definite relaxations for optimal control ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu Claeys

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 28, 2014 ... Abstract: Converging hierarchies of finite-dimensional semi-definite relaxations have been proposed for state-constrained optimal control ...

  14. Modified definition of group velocity and electromagnetic energy conservation equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changbiao Wang

    2015-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical definition of group velocity has two flaws: (a) the group velocity can be greater than the phase velocity in a non-dispersive, lossless, non-conducting, anisotropic uniform medium; (b) the definition is not consistent with the principle of relativity for a plane wave in a moving isotropic uniform medium. To remove the flaws, a modified definition is proposed. A criterion is set up to identify the justification of group velocity definition. A "superluminal power flow" is constructed to show that the electromagnetic energy conservation equation cannot uniquely define the power flow if the principle of Fermat is not taken into account.

  15. BLOCK DIAGONALLY DOMINANT POSITIVE DEFINITE APPROXIMATE FILTERS AND SMOOTHERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BLOCK DIAGONALLY DOMINANT POSITIVE DEFINITE APPROXIMATE FILTERS AND SMOOTHERS Running title: BLOCKÆciently small as to preclude the loss of positive de#12;niteness in the approximate equations. Therefore

  16. On the definition of velocity in doubly special relativity theories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piotr Kosinski; Pawel Maslanka

    2002-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the definition of particle velocity in doubly relativity theories. The general formula relating velocity and four-momentum of particle is given.

  17. Redundant axioms in the definition of Bregman functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan 22, 2002 ... REDUNDANT AXIOMS IN THE DEFINITION OF BREGMAN ...... some new results on the theory of Bregman functions, Mathematics of ...

  18. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Proc. of Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods (2001) :16 Optical Emissions from Proton Aurora

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proc. of Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods (2001) :1­6 Optical Emissions from Proton Aurora D of proton aurora. The Doppler-shifted hydrogen emission lines can be inter- preted in terms of the mean in electron aurora, the relative brightness of emis- sion features differs from that in electron aurora

  20. Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    Atmosphere-crust coupling and carbon sequestration on the young Mars Professor Martin R. Lee1 *, Dr the idea that CO2 was `scrubbed' by precipitation of carbonate minerals within the planet's crust - a reaction termed `carbonation'. This project will seek evidence for carbonation by analysis of martian

  1. Laser Spectroscopic Trace-Gas Sensor Networks for Atmospheric Monitoring Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    a laser based chemical sensing technology with wide-area autonomous wireless sensor networking@princeton.edu ABSTRACT Laser-based atmospheric trace-gas sensors have great potential for long-term, real such as CO2, NOx, and methane with exceptionally high specificity. Categories and Subject Descriptors C.3

  2. Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

  3. Genomic definition of species. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crkvenjakov, R.; Drmanac, R.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A genome is the sum total of the DNA sequences in the cells of an individual organism. The common usage that species possess genomes comes naturally to biochemists, who have shown that all protein and nucleic acid molecules are at the same time species- and individual-specific, with minor individual variations being superimposed on a consensus sequence that is constant for a species. By extension, this property is attributed to the common features of DNA in the chromosomes of members of a given species and is called species genome. Our proposal for the definition of a biological species is as follows: A species comprises a group of actual and potential biological organisms built according to a unique genome program that is recorded, and at least in part expressed, in the structures of their genomic nucleic acid molecule(s), having intragroup sequence differences which can be fully interconverted in the process of organismal reproduction.

  4. The Antarctic Circumpolar Productivity Belt Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Follows, Mick

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Productivity Belt T. Ito Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere] We illustrate the mechanisms controlling the spatial patterns of biological productivity of enhanced export production, figuratively termed as the Antarctic Circumpolar Productivity Belt. As observed

  5. Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferber, M.; Graves, G.A. Jr.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Land-based gas turbines are significantly different from automotive gas turbines in that they are designed to operate for 50,000 h or greater (compared to 5,000--10,000 h). The primary goal of this research is to determine the long-term survivability of ceramic materials for industrial gas turbine applications. Research activities in this program focus on the evaluation of the static tensile creep and stress rupture (SR) behavior of three commercially available structural ceramics which have been identified by the gas turbine manufacturers as leading candidates for use in industrial gas turbines. For each material investigated, a minimum of three temperatures and four stresses will be used to establish the stress and temperature sensitivities of the creep and SR behavior. Because existing data for many candidate structural ceramics are limited to testing times less than 2,000 h, this program will focus on extending these data to times on the order of 10,000 h, which represents the lower limit of operating time anticipated for ceramic blades and vanes in gas turbine engines. A secondary goal of the program will be to investigate the possibility of enhancing life prediction estimates by combining interrupted tensile SR tests and tensile dynamic fatigue tests in which tensile strength is measured as a function of stressing rate. The third goal of this program will be to investigate the effects of water vapor upon the SR behavior of the three structural ceramics chosen for the static tensile studies by measuring the flexural strength as a function of stressing rate at three temperatures.

  6. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metals added from these aerosols to the bioassay incubationsreleased to seawater from the aerosol filters after Author4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition CHEMISTRY

  7. Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment ­ expanding urban populations, rapid EDITORS Eric Paulos Intel Research eric@paulos.net Tom Jenkins Royal College of Art thomas

  8. Characterizing orbit uncertainty due to atmospheric uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, Matthew Paul

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is implemented to model errors in the atmospheric density model. This study shows that the Kalman filter computes a believable and more realistic covariance....

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improving our understanding of how clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and the effects of these interactions on climate. Photo courtesy Argonne National...

  10. Physics Potential of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of future high statistics atmospheric neutrino experiments is considered, having in mind currently discussed huge detectors of various technologies (water Cerekov, magnetized iron, liquid Argon). I focus on the possibility to use atmospheric data to determine the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The sensitivity to the $\\theta_{23}$-octant of atmospheric neutrinos is competitive (or even superior) to long-baseline experiments. I discuss the ideal properties of a fictitious atmospheric neutrino detector to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  11. Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshiyuki Toshito; the Super-Kamiokande collaboration

    2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present atmospheric neutrino results from a 79 kiloton year (1289 days) exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector. Our data are well explained by $\

  12. atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  13. atmosphere: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  14. atmospherics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  15. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  16. Parallization of Stellar Atmosphere Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hoeflich

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel computing has turned out to be the enabling technology to solve complex physical systems. However, the transition from shared memory, vector computers to massively parallel, distributed memory systems and, recently, to hybrid systems poses new challenges to the scientist. We want to present a cook-book (with a very strong, personal bias) based on our experience with parallization of our existing codes. Some of the general tools and communication libraries are discussed. Our approach includes a mixture of algorithm, domain and physical module based parallization. The advantages, scalability and limitations of each are discussed at some examples. We want show that it becomes easier to write parallel code with increasing complexity of the physical problem making stellar atmosphere codes beyond the classical assumptions very suitable.

  17. Equivalence Relations Definition of a relation on a set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singman, David

    Equivalence Relations Definition of a relation on a set Let A be any set. Any subset have 1R1, 2R3, 3R1, 2 R2, 3 R2, etc. #12;A special kind of relation- an Equivalence relation There is a type of relation, it's known as an equivalence relation, which is particularly useful. Definition

  18. EXTENDING THE DEFINITION OF ENTROPY TO NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ## of #. Our definition is based on energy exchanged, uses the microscopic dynamics of the system, and agreesEXTENDING THE DEFINITION OF ENTROPY TO NONEQUILIBRIUM STEADY STATES. by David Ruelle* Abstract. We forces # and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover­Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume

  19. Research Product 0-4186-P1 Definition of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Research Product 0-4186-P1 Definition of the "Cradle-to-Grave" Pavement Management Process Zhanmin in the definition given earlier, pavement management is in fact a process that starts from the conception-effective manner; it combines solid engi- neering principles with sound business practices and economic theory

  20. 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Definition of Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Definition of Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the art and science improvements in technologies for protecting the environment. While many definitions for nanotechnology exist Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), a U.S. Government research and development (R&D) program established

  1. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, T.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)); Shemansky, D.E. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  2. Intercomparison study of atmospheric mercury models: 1. Comparison of models with short-term measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the Irish west coast. The modelled concentrations of total particulate mercury (TPM) were generally 358, Roskilde, Denmark d NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, 1315 East West Highway, Silver Spring MD 20910 Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Tzarigradsko chaussee 66, 1785 Sofia, Bulgaria h Swedish

  3. Salvage HDR Brachytherapy for Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Previous Definitive Radiation Therapy: 5-Year Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chien Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, San Diego, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Core, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Department of Urology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Urology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Roach, Mack; Nash, Marc; Gottschalk, Alexander; Chang, Albert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Hsu, I-Chow, E-mail: IHsu@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California—San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Evaluate efficacy and toxicity of salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) for locally recurrent prostate cancer after definitive radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 52 consecutively accrued patients undergoing salvage HDRB between 1998 and 2009 for locally recurrent prostate cancer after previous definitive RT. After pathologic confirmation of locally recurrent disease, patients received 36 Gy in 6 fractions. Twenty-four patients received neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before salvage, and no patients received adjuvant hormonal therapy. Determination of biochemical failure after salvage HDRB was based on the Phoenix definition. Overall survival (OS) and bF distributions were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate analyses were performed to identify predictors of biochemical control. Acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (version 4), were documented. Results: Median follow-up after salvage HDRB was 59.6 months. The 5-year OS estimate was 92% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 80%-97%) with median survival not yet reached. Five-year biochemical control after salvage was 51% (95% CI: 34%-66%). Median PSA nadir postsalvage was 0.1 (range: 0-7.2) reached at a median of 10.2 months after completing HDRB. As for complications, acute and late grade 3 GU toxicities were observed in only 2% and 2%, respectively. No grade 2 or higher acute GI events and 4% grade 2 GI late events were observed. On univariate analysis, disease-free interval after initial definitive RT (P=.07), percent of positive cores at the time of diagnosis (P=.08), interval from first recurrence to salvage HDRB (P=.09), and pre-HDRB prostate-specific antigen (P=.07) were each of borderline significance in predicting biochemical control after salvage HDRB. Conclusions: Prostate HDRB is an effective salvage modality with relatively few long-term toxicities. We provide potential predictors of biochemical control for prostate salvage HDRB.

  4. Formulas & definitions to know Formulas & definitions that will be provided if Distance formula in 3 dimensions compab = ab

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    Formulas & definitions to know Formulas & definitions that will be provided if needed Distance formula in 3 dimensions compab = a·b |a| Equation of a sphere W = F · D (work, force, distance) Vector of differentiability for a function of two variables arc length formula, arc length function the graph of a function

  5. Doctoral Programs Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    University of Michigan Space Research Building 2455 Hayward Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 aoss Katherine E. White, Ann Arbor ©The Regents of the University of Michigan Research areas Atmospheric Science Atmospheric Dynamics Climate, Climate Modeling & Climate Change Clouds & Precipitation Paleoclimate, Ice

  6. Human effects on the global atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, H.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  7. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sukyoung

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013) Published online in Wiley Online Library Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *Correspondence to: C. Yoo, Center for Atmosphere). A number of studies have shown that the MJO plays an important role in modulating the extratropical cir

  8. ATOMIC IONIZATION AND OPACITIES IN PULSAR ATMOSPHERES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATOMIC IONIZATION AND OPACITIES IN PULSAR ATMOSPHERES Hydrogen Atmospheres J. VENTURA Physics.g. Pavlov et al., 1995; Zavlin et al., 1995, 1996; #12; 2 J. VENTURA ET AL. Rajagopal and Romani, 1996 the past three years. As is well known (Canuto and Ventura, 1977; Ruder et al., 1994), the external strong

  9. Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE00 atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honda, M; Kajita, T; Kasahara, K; Midorikawa, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we extend the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux~\\cite{hkkm2004,hkkms2006,hkkm2011} to the sites in polar and tropical regions. In our earliest full 3D-calculation~\\cite{hkkm2004}, we used DPMJET-III~\\cite{dpm} for the hadronic interaction model above 5~GeV, and NUCRIN~\\cite{nucrin} below 5~GeV. We modified DPMJET-III as in Ref.~\\cite{hkkms2006} to reproduce the experimental muon spectra better, mainly using the data observed by BESS group~\\cite{BESSTeVpHemu}. In a recent work~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we introduced JAM interaction model for the low energy hadronic interactions. JAM is a nuclear interaction model developed with PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System)~\\cite{phits}. In Ref.~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we could reproduce the observed muon flux at the low energies at balloon altitude with DPMJET-III above 32 GeV and JAM below that better than the combination of DPMJET-III above 5~GeV and NUCRIN below that. Besides the interaction model, we have also improved the calculation sche...

  10. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  11. First order theories for nonmonotone inductive definitions: recursively inaccessible and Mahlo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jäger, Gerhard

    First order theories for nonmonotone inductive definitions: recursively inaccessible and Mahlo Gerhard J¨ager Abstract In this paper first order theories for nonmonotone inductive definitions theories of) several specific nonmonotone inductive definitions which are interesting in the context

  12. President's Message: Mid Term Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Robert

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NEWSLETTER President’s Message Mid-Term Report What have wegoals outlined in my first message was to bolster membership

  13. National Biomedical Tracer Facility: Project definition study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heaton, R.; Peterson, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, P. [Smith (P.A.) Concepts and Designs (United States)

    1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is an ideal institution and New Mexico is an ideal location for siting the National Biomedical Tracer Facility (NBTF). The essence of the Los Alamos proposal is the development of two complementary irradiation facilities that combined with our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities and waste handling and disposal facilities provide a low cost alternative to other proposals that seek to satisfy the objectives of the NBTF. We propose the construction of a 30 MeV cyclotron facility at the site of the radiochemical facilities, and the construction of a 100 MeV target station at LAMPF to satisfy the requirements and objectives of the NBTF. We do not require any modifications to our existing radiochemical processing hot cell facilities or our waste treatment and disposal facilities to accomplish the objectives of the NBTF. The total capital cost for the facility defined by the project definition study is $15.2 M. This cost estimate includes $9.9 M for the cyclotron and associated facility, $2.0 M for the 100 MeV target station at LAMPF, and $3.3 M for design.

  14. Phase Space and Jet Definitions in SCET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Man-Yin Cheung; Michael Luke; Saba Zuberi

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss consistent power counting for integrating soft and collinear degrees of freedom over arbitrary regions of phase space in the soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), and illustrate our results at one loop with several jet algorithms: JADE, Sterman-Weinberg and k_T. Consistently applying SCET power-counting in phase space, along with non-trivial zero-bin subtractions, prevents double-counting of final states. The resulting phase-space integrals over soft and collinear regions are individually ultraviolet divergent, but the phase-space ultraviolet divergences cancel in the sum. Whether the soft and collinear contributions are individually infrared safe depends on the jet definition. We show that while this is true at one loop for JADE and Sterman-Weinberg, the k_T algorithm does not factorize into individually infrared safe soft and collinear pieces in dimensional regularization. We point out that this statement depends on the ultraviolet regulator, and that in a cutoff scheme the soft functions are infrared safe.

  15. Long-Term Cycles in the History of Life: Periodic Biodiversity in the Paleobiology Database

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melott, Adrian L.

    2008-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    the two data sets. A combined analysis, additionally using the Sepkoski database as downloaded from Supplementary Information in [1] was done by a generalization of the power spectrum, called the cross-spectrum [11,13] of the two detrended series...- term stress. Some stress may also result from increased exposure to Solar ultraviolet-B radiation penetrating the atmospheric ozone layer, depleted by chemical changes from the ionizing cosmic rays [19]. Long-term stress can increase the severity...

  16. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  17. The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

  18. Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical. Atmospheric aerosols have profound effects on the environment through several physicochemical processes on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Understanding aerosol atmospheric chemistry and its environmental

  19. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  20. Long-Term Climate Change Commitment and Reversibility: An EMIC Intercomparison KIRSTEN ZICKFELD,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matsumoto, Katsumi

    Long-Term Climate Change Commitment and Reversibility: An EMIC Intercomparison KIRSTEN ZICKFELD. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, RAS, Moscow, Russia f Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact of Intermediate Complexity (EMICs) undertaken in support of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC

  1. An examination of short-and long-term airground temperature coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beltrami, Hugo

    atmosphere appear to be coupled. Longer-term records ( f 30 years) from selected climatological stations the combinations of surface air temper- atures (SAT), proxy data and geothermal data. Cli- matic inferences from geothermal data themselves 0921-8181/$ - see front matter D 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10

  2. Modelling and numerical approximation of a 2.5D set of equations for mesoscale atmospheric processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalise, Dante

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The set of 3D inviscid primitive equations for the atmosphere is dimensionally reduced by a Discontinuous Galerkin discretization in one horizontal direction. The resulting model is a 2D system of balance laws where with a source term depending on the layering procedure and the choice of coupling fluxes, which is established in terms of upwind considerations. The "2.5D" system is discretized via a WENO-TVD scheme based in a flux limiter centered approach. We study four tests cases related to atmospheric phenomena to analyze the physical validity of the model.

  3. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oceanography and Meteorology Building.The Doppler weather radar on the roof of the building is a campus Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R).This radar is used in national and international

  4. Aerosol source term in high pressure melt ejection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brockmann, J.E.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized ejection of melt from a reactor pressure vessel has been identified as an important element of a severe reactor accident. Copious aerosol production is observed when thermitically generated melts pressurized with nitrogen or carbon dioxide to 1.3 to 17 MPa are ejected into an air atmosphere. Aerosol particle size distributions measured in the tests have modes of about 0.5, 5, and > 10 ..mu..m. Mechanisms leading to formation of these multimodal size distributions are suggested. This aerosol is a potentially important fission product source term that has not been considered in previous severe accident analyses.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  6. atmospheric pressure ionization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Atmospheric Pressure, in Vivo, and Imaging Mass. For example, atmospheric pressure infrared MALDI (AP IR-MALDI), capable of producing ions from small ionization (DESI),5...

  7. atmospheric carbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide (N2O) 13 Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 13 Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Geosciences Websites Summary: Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon...

  8. atmospheric oxygenation recorded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cores may contain high quality records of atmospheric deposition. The qualitative Short, Daniel 3 Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation Geosciences Websites...

  9. atmospheric optical turbulence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Atmospheric Turbulence and its Influence on Adaptive Optics Physics Websites Summary: Atmospheric Turbulence and its Influence on Adaptive Optics...

  10. atmospheric ion measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Atmospheric CERN Preprints Summary: We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

  12. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne Particle Analysis. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne...

  13. A Volcanologist'S Review Of Atmospheric Hazards Of Volcanic Activity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    atmospheric hazards caused by explosive volcanic activity. The hazard posed by fine silicate ash with long residence time in the atmosphere is probably much less serious than...

  14. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health...

  15. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963....

  16. atmospheric global electric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion this paper. Key Words aerosol deposition, climate change, deserts Abstract Atmospheric inputs of iron sources of iron are...

  17. atmospheric dispersion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 3 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  18. atmospheric dispersion calculations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 4 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  19. atmospheric dispersion experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 2 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  20. atmospheric climate model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Russell, Lynn 10 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Environmental...

  1. atmosphere box model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GloveBoxes Glove boxes allow the user to perform operations in an atmosphere 8 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research PO Box 3000 Boulder, Colorado 80307 Geosciences...

  2. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

  3. atmospheric modeling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Atmosphere and Ocean...

  4. atmospheric co2 content: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  5. atmospheric chemistry simulations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  6. atmospheric sciences exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 8 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  7. atmospheric chemistry project: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  8. atmospheric co2 concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  9. atmospheric co2 concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  10. atmospheric co2 laser: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  11. atmospheric loading effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large solar proton Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 7 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  12. atmospheric chemistry programme: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  13. atmospheric co2 measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  14. atmospheric co2 variations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  15. atmospheric chemistry experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  16. atmospheric science people: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 9 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  17. atmospheric chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  18. atmospheric sciences: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 8 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  19. atmospheric co2 mixing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  20. atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

  1. atmospheric deposition microbial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  2. atmospheric deposition nutrient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  3. Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmosphere Model Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model CCSM-sprabhat.png Global warming will likely change the statistics of tropical cyclones and hurricanes. In this...

  4. Investigating the maintenance of the mouse definitive adrenal cortex 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    and Cyp11b1 that encode the enzymes aldosterone synthase and 11?-hydroxylase, which catalyze the terminal reactions in the production of aldosterone and corticosterone, respectively. This thesis aims to investigate the maintenance of the definitive mouse...

  5. The Web Services Vision Definition of Web Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheverst, Keith

    1 The Web Services Vision Overview Definition of Web Services Key concepts Difference from traditional web model Context Service-oriented architecture Distributed computing Overview Microsoft .NET vision Web Services Difference from traditional web model Context Service-oriented architecture

  6. California PRC Section 21065.5, Definitions for Geothermal Exploratory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: California PRC Section 21065.5, Definitions for Geothermal Exploratory ProjectLegal Abstract...

  7. Towards Automatic Extraction of Definitions Claudia Borg1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Gordon J.

    Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Malta 2 Department of Computer Science, University of Malta {claudia.borg|mike.rosner|gordon.pace}@um.edu.mt Abstract. Definition extraction can be useful

  8. The fundamental theorem of Galois theory Definition 1. A polynomial ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental theorem of Galois theory. Definition 1. A polynomial in K[X] (K a field) is separable if it has no multiple roots in any field containing K. An ...

  9. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Definition Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report defines the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem (PWSS). This subsystem definition report fully describes and identifies the system boundaries of the PWSS. This definition provides a basis for developing functional, performance, and test requirements (i.e., subsystem specification), as necessary, for the PWSS. The resultant PWSS specification will include the sampling requirements to support the transfer of waste from the DSTs to the Privatization Contractor during Phase 1 of Waste Feed Delivery.

  10. Adaptive control for Mars atmospheric flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Carolina Isabel

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    landing accuracy requirements for a manned space vehicle make it necessary to ?y a controlled entry trajectory rather than a more robust ballistic entry trajectory used for some robotic missions. The large variations in Mars atmospheric properties make a...

  11. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large portion of the microscopic particles floating in the air originate from incomplete combustion of coal and oil and from dust storms. Once in the atmosphere, they can have...

  12. HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

  13. The porous atmosphere of eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nir J. Shaviv

    2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the wind generated by the great 20 year long super-Eddington outburst of eta-Carinae. We show that using classical stellar atmospheres and winds theory, it is impossible to construct a consistent wind model in which a sufficiently small amount of mass, like the one observed, is shed. One expects the super-Eddington luminosity to drive a thick wind with a mass loss rate substantially higher than the observed one. The easiest way to resolve the inconsistency is if we alleviate the implicit notion that atmospheres are homogeneous. An inhomogeneous atmosphere, or "porous", allows more radiation to escape while exerting a smaller average force. Consequently, such an atmosphere yields a considerably lower mass loss rate for the same total luminosity. Moreover, all the applications of the Eddington Luminosity as a strict luminosity limit should be revised, or at least reanalyzed carefully.

  14. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal Interactions, same A) the surface temperature,Tg, increases. WOW! Simple #12;Temperature vs. time in an Early Epoch

  15. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS AT707 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., Holton, J. R., Leovy, C. B., Academic Press, 489 pp. · Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, 2006 Review Articles: · Haynes, P. H., 2005: Stratospheric Dynamics. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 37, 263­ 293

  16. Loan Terms | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms Loan Terms The following terms are

  17. Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

  18. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  19. Trace analysis of atmospheric organic bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dwayne C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chromatographic fractions for NS analyses ( 121) and its use as a thin layer chromatography (TLC) adsorbent ( 122). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends its use in the analysis of many industrial vapors ( 113 - 120... analysis of atmospheric organic bases were investigated; the study included (1) the analysis of submarine charcoal filter bed samples for nitrogen bases and (2) the use of metallic tetraphenylporphines (TPP) as specific adsorbents for atmospheric...

  20. Quantum light in the turbulent atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Semenov; W. Vogel

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonclassical properties of light propagating through the turbulent atmosphere are studied. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the probability distribution of the transmission coefficient, which characterizes the effects of the atmosphere on the quantum state of light, can be reconstructed by homodyne detection. Nonclassical photon-statistics and, more generally, nonclassical Glauber-Sudarshan functions appear to be more robust against turbulence for weak light fields rather than for bright ones.

  1. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Chart Gallery for April 2015 Short-Term Energy Outlook U.S. Energy Information Administration Independent Statistics & Analysis 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 Jan 2014...

  3. Calendar Year study term 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    laboratory and research facilities Carleton's laboratory and computer facilities are unparalleled association with, government organizations such as the National Research Council Canada. Your co Study Term 5 Dynamics of Machinery Mechanics of Solids II Systems and Simulation Electrical

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    day Forecast -1.0 2012 2013 2014 OPEC countries North America Russia and Caspian Sea Latin America North Sea Other Non-OPEC Source: Short-Term Energy Outlook, November 2013 -1 0...

  5. The influence of atmospheric pressure on landfill methane emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czepiel, P.M.; Shorter, J.H.; Mosher, B.; Allwine, E.; McManus, J.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Kolb, C.E.; Lamb, B.K

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Landfills are the largest source of anthropogenic methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions to the atmosphere in the United States. However, few measurements of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions have been reported. Here, we present the results of a multi-season study of whole landfill CH{sub 4} emissions using atmospheric tracer methods at the Nashua, New Hampshire Municipal landfill in the northeastern United States. The measurement data include 12 individual emission tests, each test consisting of 5-8 plume measurements. Measured emissions were negatively correlated with surface atmospheric pressure and ranged from 7.3 to 26.5 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} min{sup -1}. A simple regression model of our results was used to calculate an annual emission rate of 8.4x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These data, along with CH{sub 4} oxidation estimates based on emitted landfill gas isotopic characteristics and gas collection data, were used to estimate annual CH{sub 4} generation at this landfill. A reported gas collection rate of 7.1x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} and an estimated annual rate of CH{sub 4} oxidation by cover soils of 1.2x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1} resulted in a calculated annual CH{sub 4} generation rate of 16.7x10{sup 6} m{sup 3} CH{sub 4} year{sup -1}. These results underscore the necessity of understanding a landfill's dynamic environment before assessing long-term emissions potential.

  6. Implications of atmospheric test fallout data for nuclear winter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, G.H. III

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-test fallout data were used to determine admissable-dust particle-size distributions for nuclear-winter studies. The research was originally motivated by extreme differences noted in the magnitude and longevity of dust effects predicted by particle-size distributions routinely used in fallout predictions versus those used for nuclear-winter studies. Three different sets of historical data were analyzed: (1) stratospheric burden of strontium-90 and tungsten-185, 1954-1967 (92 contributing events); (2) continental US strontium-90 fallout through 1958 (75 contributing events); (3) local fallout from selected Nevada tests (16 events). The contribution of dust to possible long-term climate effects following a nuclear exchange depends strongly on the particle-size distribution. The distribution affects both the atmospheric residence time and optical depth. One-dimensional models of stratospheric/tropospheric fallout removal were developed and used to identify optimum particle distributions. Results indicate that particle distributions that properly predict bulk stratospheric activity transfer tend to be somewhat smaller than number size distributions used in initial nuclear winter studies. In addition, both /sup 90/Sr and /sup 185/W fallout behavior is better predicted by the log normal distribution function than the prevalent power-law hybrid function.

  7. On the numerical treatment of problems in atmospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aro, C.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemical-radiative-transport (CRT) models are vital in performing research on atmospheric chemical change. Even with the enormous computing capability delivered by massively parallel systems, extended three dimensional CRT simulations are still not computationally feasible. The major obstacle in a CRT model is the nonlinear ODE system describing the chemical kinetics in the model. These ODE systems are usually very stiff and account for anywhere from 75% to 90% of the CPU time required to run a CRT model. In this study, a simple explicit class of time stepping method is developed and demonstrated to be useful in treating chemical ODE systems without the use of a Jacobian matrix. These methods, called preconditioned time differencing methods, are tested on small mathematically idealized problems, box model problems, and full 2-D and 3-D CRT models. The methods are found to be both fast and memory efficient. Studies are performed on both vector and parallel systems. The preconditioned time differencing methods are established as a viable alternative to the more common backward differentiation formulas in terms of CPU speed across architectural platforms.

  8. 0.0.1 Saturated models What follows is the main definition of model theory.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    0.0.1 Saturated models What follows is the main definition of model theory. Definition: Let x's an algebraically closed field. It's also 1-saturated. Understanding a theory is understanding its types. Definition there is only 1 variable.) However, there is clearly no element satisfying these statements in N. Definition

  9. Short-range atmospheric dispersion of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cortis, A.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a numerical study aimed at quantifying the effects of concentration-dependent density on the spread of a seeping plume of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere such as could arise from a leaking geologic carbon sequestration site. Results of numerical models can be used to supplement field monitoring estimates of CO{sub 2} seepage flux by modelling transport and dispersion between the source emission and concentration-measurement points. We focus on modelling CO{sub 2} seepage dispersion over relatively short distances where density effects are likely to be important. We model dense gas dispersion using the steady-state Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with density dependence in the gravity term. Results for a two-dimensional system show that a density dependence emerges at higher fluxes than prior estimates. A universal scaling relation is derived that allows estimation of the flux from concentrations measured downwind and vice versa.

  10. Term statistics Zipf's law text statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jianguo

    Term statistics Zipf's law text statistics October 20, 2014 text statistics 1 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Overview 1 Term statistics 2 Zipf's law text statistics 2 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Outline 1 Term statistics 2 Zipf's law text statistics 3 / 19 #12;Term statistics Zipf's law Model

  11. New nonlinear mechanisms of midlatitude atmospheric low-frequency variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract

  12. Summary Much attention is focused today on predicting how plants will respond to anticipated changes in atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ehleringer, Jim

    isotope ratio, global change, intercellular carbon dioxide. Gases released by volcanoes, including H2S, NH that are eventually removed from solution by carbonate pre- cipitation. In addition, photosynthesis removed CO2 from are the processes resulting in long-term removal of carbon from the atmosphere to the lithosphere. Although

  13. Definition of Terms Part 772page 1 Export Administration Regulations Bureau of Industry and Security July 16, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "Airship"..........................6 "All compensations available" .........................6 "Allocated

  14. Long-Term Stewardship Study

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms Loan TermsLong Island HTSand

  15. Magnetized Atmospheres around Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zane; R. Turolla; A. Treves

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed investigation of atmospheres around accreting neutron stars with high magnetic field ($B\\gtrsim 10^{12}$ G) and low luminosity ($L\\lesssim 10^{33}$ erg/s). We compute the atmospheric structure, intensity and emergent spectrum for a plane-parallel, pure hydrogen medium by solving the transfer equations for the normal modes coupled to the hydrostatic and energy balance equations. The hard tail found in previous investigations for accreting, non-magnetic neutron stars with comparable luminosity is suppressed and the X-ray spectrum, although still harder than a blackbody at the star effective temperature, is nearly planckian in shape. Spectra from accreting atmospheres, both with high and low fields, are found to exhibit a significant excess at optical wavelengths above the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the X-ray continuum.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  17. Super Kamiokande results: atmospheric and solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ishitsuka; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric neutrino and solar neutrino data from the first phase of Super-Kamiokande (SK-I) are presented. The observed data are used to study atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations. Zenith angle distributions from various atmospheric neutrino data samples are used to estimate the neutrino oscillation parameter region. In addition, a new result of the $L/E$ measurement is presented. A dip in the $L/E$ distribution was observed in the data, as predicted from the sinusoidal flavor transition probability of neutrino oscillation. The energy spectrum and the time variation such as day/night and seasonal differences of solar neutrino flux are measured in Super-Kamiokande. The neutrino oscillation parameters are strongly constrained from those measurements.

  18. A Community Atmosphere Model with Superparameterized Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, David; Branson, Mark; Wang, Minghuai; Ghan, Steven J.; Craig, Cheryl; Gettelman, A.; Edwards, Jim

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1999, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) scientists Wojciech Grabowski and Piotr Smolarkiewicz created a "multiscale" atmospheric model in which the physical processes associated with clouds were represented by running a simple high-resolution model within each grid column of a lowresolution global model. In idealized experiments, they found that the multiscale model produced promising simulations of organized tropical convection, which other models had struggled to produce. Inspired by their results, Colorado State University (CSU) scientists Marat Khairoutdinov and David Randall created a multiscale version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). They removed the cloud parameterizations of the CAM, and replaced them with Khairoutdinov's high-resolution cloud model. They dubbed the embedded cloud model a "super-parameterization," and the modified CAM is now called the "SP-CAM." Over the next several years, many scientists, from many institutions, have explored the ability of the SP-CAM to simulate tropical weather systems, the day-night changes of precipitation, the Asian and African monsoons, and a number of other climate processes. Cristiana Stan of the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Interactions found that the SP-CAM gives improved results when coupled to an ocean model, and follow-on studies have explored the SP-CAM's utility when used as the atmospheric component of the Community Earth System Model. Much of this research has been performed under the auspices of the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes, a National Science Foundation (NSF) Science and Technology Center for which the lead institution is CSU.

  19. Measuring Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations with Neutrino Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivone F. M. Albuquerque; George F. Smoot

    2001-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino telescopes with large detection volumes can demonstrate that the current indications of neutrino oscillation are correct or if a better description can be achieved with non-standard alternatives. Observations of contained muons produced by atmospheric neutrinos can better constrain the allowed region for oscillations or determine the relevant parameters of non-standard models. We analyze the possibility of neutrino telescopes measuring atmospheric neutrino oscillations. We suggest adjustments to improve this potential. An addition of four densely-instrumented strings to the AMANDA II detector makes observations feasible. Such a configuration is competitive with current and proposed experiments.

  20. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  1. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P. (Murrysville, PA); Woods, Robert W. (New Kensington, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  2. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3: Atmospheric and climate research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the Environmental Sciences Division of OHER, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program continues DOE`s long-term commitment to understanding the local, regional, and global effects of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and analytical studies in the Atmospheric Chemistry Program emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, photochemically produced oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The atmospheric studies in Complex Terrain Program applies basic research on atmospheric boundary layer structure and evolution over inhomogeneous terrain to DOE`s site-specific and generic mission needs in site safety, air quality, and climate change. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements, the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics, and Quantitative Links program to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The description of ongoing atmospheric and climate research at PNL is organized in two broad research areas: atmospheric research; and climate research. This report describes the progress in fiscal year 1993 in each of these areas. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Zero Energy Buildings: A Critical Look at the Definition; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torcellini, P.; Pless, S.; Deru, M.; Crawley, D.

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A net zero-energy building (ZEB) is a residential or commercial building with greatly reduced energy needs through efficiency gains such that the balance of energy needs can be supplied with renewable technologies. Despite the excitement over the phrase ''zero energy'', we lack a common definition, or even a common understanding, of what it means. In this paper, we use a sample of current generation low-energy buildings to explore the concept of zero energy: what it means, why a clear and measurable definition is needed, and how we have progressed toward the ZEB goal.

  4. Atmospheric studies in complex terrain: a planning guide for future studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to assist the US Department of Energy in Conducting its atmospheric studies in complex terrain (ASCOT0 by defining various complex terrain research systems and relating these options to specific landforms sites. This includes: (1) reviewing past meteorological and diffusion research on complex terrain; (2) relating specific terrain-induced airflow phenomena to specific landforms and time and space scales; (3) evaluating the technical difficulty of modeling and measuring terrain-induced airflow phenomena; and (4) avolving severdal research options and proposing candidate sites for continuing and expanding field and modeling work. To evolve research options using variable candidate sites, four areas were considered: site selection, terrain uniqueness and quantification, definition of research problems and research plans. 36 references, 111 figures, 20 tables.

  5. Atmospheric Mercury Concentrations Near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir - Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. L. Abbott

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elemental and reactive gaseous mercury (EGM/RGM) were measured in ambient air concentrations over a two-week period in July/August 2005 near Salmon Falls Creek Reservoir, a popular fishery located 50 km southwest of Twin Falls, Idaho. A fish consumption advisory for mercury was posted at the reservoir in 2002 by the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare. The air measurements were part of a multi-media (water, sediment, precipitation, air) study initiated by the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 to identify potential sources of mercury contamination to the reservoir. The sampling site is located about 150 km northeast of large gold mining operations in Nevada, which are known to emit large amounts of mercury to the atmosphere (est. 2,200 kg/y from EPA 2003 Toxic Release Inventory). The work was co-funded by the Idaho National Laboratory’s Community Assistance Program and has a secondary objective to better understand mercury inputs to the environment near the INL, which lies approximately 230 km to the northeast. Sampling results showed that both EGM and RGM concentrations were significantly elevated (~ 30 – 70%, P<0.05) compared to known regional background concentrations. Elevated short-term RGM concentrations (the primary form that deposits) were likely due to atmospheric oxidation of high EGM concentrations, which suggests that EGM loading from upwind sources could increase Hg deposition in the area. Back-trajectory analyses indicated that elevated EGM and RGM occurred when air parcels came out of north-central and northeastern Nevada. One EGM peak occurred when the air parcels came out of northwestern Utah. Background concentrations occurred when the air was from upwind locations in Idaho (both northwest and northeast). Based on 2003 EPA Toxic Release Inventory data, it is likely that most of the observed peaks were from Nevada gold mine sources. Emissions from known large natural mercury sources in that area cannot account for the observed EGM peaks due to their diffuse source geometry and the large (170 km) transport distance involved. The EGM peak originating from northwestern Utah air may be from three known mercury sources west of Salt Lake City (Kennecott, US Magnesium, Clean Harbors Aragonite) and/or the 1600 MW coal-fired Intermountain Power plant near Delta. However, the relative importance of these short-term peaks for long-term watershed mercury loading (critical factor affecting fish concentrations) is not known, and there is a need to better quantify the annual frequency and magnitude of these different inputs over a longer period of time.

  6. Microlensing Effects in Atmospheres of Substars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Berdina; A. A. Minakov

    2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the present work is the study of focusing properties of atmospheres of substars that is necessary for adequate interpreting of observational data and for solving the inverse problem consisting in recovery parameters of 'microlenses' (substars) and sources (quasars). Amplification factor for a quasar image as projected onto the field of microlenses-substars was computed for optical and radio wavelengths.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rodriguez, Sebastien [Laboratoire AIM, Universite Paris 7/CNRS/CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp (France); Le Mouelic, Stephane [Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique, CNRS, UMR-6112, Universite de Nantes, 44000 Nantes (France); Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clark, Roger [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Phil [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jaumann, Ralf [Institute of Planetary Exploration, Deutsche Zentrum, fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  8. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  9. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  10. Air Resources Laboratory Atmospheric Tracer Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The continuous (near real time) sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 ) analyzers are portable systems that make measurements of atmospheric SF6 concentrations with a response time of just under one second. The rapid response time in Gaussian plume transport and dispersion models. The SF6 analyzers include a computer controlled calibration

  11. 1999 Gordon Research Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Storm, C.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atmospheric Chemistry was held at Salve Regina University in Newport, Rhode Island, June 13-18, 1999. The conference was well attended with 151 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both US and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students.

  12. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS3 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide oasis3 prism 2­2, June 2004 Sophie Valcke 1 to realize a coupled simulation with OASIS3. The aim of OASIS3 is to provide a flexible and user friendly. OASIS3 synchronizes the exchanges of coupling fields between the models being coupled, and performs 2D

  13. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS3 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide oasis3 prism 2­3, August 2004 Sophie Valcke 1 to realize a coupled simulation with OASIS3. The aim of OASIS3 is to provide a flexible and user friendly. OASIS3 synchronizes the exchanges of coupling fields between the models being coupled, and performs 2D

  14. Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OASIS 2.0 Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil User's Guide and Reference Manual November 1995 Laurent for the straightforward use of OASIS 2.0. As far as we know, it is the best way to use it! The aim of OASIS is to provide been particularly emphasized in the OASIS design. The use of OASIS does not change the way the models

  15. Analysis methods for Atmospheric Cerenkov Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathieu de Naurois

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Three different analysis techniques for Atmospheric Imaging System are presented. The classical Hillas parameters based technique is shown to be robust and efficient, but more elaborate techniques can improve the sensitivity of the analysis. A comparison of the different analysis techniques shows that they use different information for gamma-hadron separation, and that it is possible to combine their qualities.

  16. Ch.6 Atmospheric and Oceanic Circulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Learning Objective Four: Driving forces of wind #12;Driving Forces within the Atmosphere Gravity. #12;Pressure gradient determines wind speed #12; The Coriolis force is an effect of Earth's rotation direction due to the pressure gradient force alone #12;Geostrophic Wind Pressure gradient force + Coriolis

  17. Exploring the Deep... Ocean-Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Climate oscillations 97 #12;Storing energy To understand how solar radiation affects large-scale processes), and biosphere (living organisms) that are driven by solar energy. The ocean and the atmosphere have the greatest on the others. To fully understand the dynamics of our climate, we must examine the global energy balance

  18. Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

  19. The mean molecular mass of Titan's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    , Mars, Mars #12;Science Questions · Mean molecular mass (µ) -> Chemical composition · How did Titan form? · Current reservoirs of volatiles · Ethane/methane puddles/ocean · Thermal structure of atmosphere #12, delicate, etc ­ T/p sensors are simple, cheap, reliable · Is it possible to know µ based on simple

  20. Characterizing Titan's Upper Atmosphere Using the Titan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    methane chemical losses. INMS Data T-GITM Bell et al. [2010b] #12;Constraints on Escape · Parameter Sweep-Thermosphere Model (GITM) · 3-D, non-hydrostatic, altitude-based atmospheric model ­ Compressible Navier (TVD) MUSCL Scheme. ­ Block-based Massively Parallel Framework ­ Updating with 4th order Runge

  1. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS ATS 708 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Academic Integrity Policy as found in the General Catalog (http://www.catalog.colostate.edu/FrontPDF/1, 1987, Andrews, Holton, Leovy, Academic Press. · Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, 2006, Vallis Articles (alphabetically): · Baldwin et al., 2001: The quasi-biennial oscillation. Rev. Geophys., 39, 1979

  2. THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    THE LOWER SOLAR ATMOSPHERE ROBERT J. RUTTEN Sterrekundig Instituut, Postbus 80 000, NL­3508 TA, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract. This "rapporteur" report discusses the solar photosphere and low does not seem to jeopardize precise determination of solar abundances in classical fashion. It is still

  3. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  4. Propagation of strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fei Wu; Ren-Xin Xu; Bo-Qiang Ma

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A new model for the description of the behaviour of strangelets in the Earth's atmosphere is presented. Strangelet fission induced by collision with air nuclei is included. It is shown that strangelets with certain parameters of initial mass and energy may reach depths near sea level, which can be examined by ground-based experiments.

  5. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: Atmospheres RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    convection to start from more levels · Simple modification of convective parameterization Correspondence to of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM4), we show that the overall accuracy in the diurnal simulation of convective rise to diurnal cycles in cloud amount [May et al., 2012] and relative humidity [Soden, 2000] which

  6. Land and Atmospheric Science GRAD STUDENT HANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    , transport, and fate of pollutants in soil, air, and water; improving and protecting land, air, and water, Policy and Management Agricultural Industries and Marketing The Department occupies the entire Soil are predominantly occupied by Soil Morphology and Genesis, Environmental Biophysics, and Atmospheric Sciences, plus

  7. Outstanding Long-Term Liabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomass and Biofuels BiomassOutstanding-Long-Term-Liabilities Sign

  8. Virtual Chassis for Snake Robots: Definition and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choset, Howie

    Full paper Virtual Chassis for Snake Robots: Definition and Applications David Rollinson*, Austin Buchan and Howie Choset The Robotics Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Avenue the motion of a snake robot is difficult. This is in part because the internal shape changes that the robot

  9. The development of high definition television : an ecology of games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil, Suzanne Chambliss

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study is an analysis of the forces that shaped the overall character of a new US television system, high definition or HDTV, between the early 1980s and 2010, with a primary focus on the period leading up the Federal ...

  10. Patent License for OpenSSL 1. Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogaway, Phillip

    Patent License for OpenSSL 1. Definitions 1.1 "Licensor" means Phillip Rogaway. orOne Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-8562. 1.2 "Licensed Patents" means any patent that claims priority to United States Patent Application No. 09/918,615 entitled "Method and Apparatus for Facilitating Efficient

  11. Seismic Tomography: Definitions Lapo Boschi (lapo@erdw.ethz.ch)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boschi, Lapo

    Tomography Seismic tomography is the science of interpreting seismic measurements (seismograms) to derive; that is to say, solve the seismological inverse problem. Seismic data and their interpretation Seismic stationsSeismic Tomography: Definitions Lapo Boschi (lapo@erdw.ethz.ch) September 14, 2009 Seismic

  12. WICT PROCEEDINGS, DECEMBER 2008 1 Definition Characterisation through Genetic Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Gordon J.

    Borg Dept. of Artificial Intelligence University of Malta claudia.borg@um.edu.mt Mike Rosner Dept. of Artificial Intelligence University of Malta mike.rosner@um.edu.mt Gordon J. Pace Dept. of Computer Science University of Malta gordon.pace@um.edu.mt Abstract The identification of definitions from natural lan- guage

  13. A possible definition of a {\\it Realistic} Physics Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Gisin

    2014-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A definition of a {\\it Realistic} Physics Theory is proposed based on the idea that, at all time, the set of physical properties possessed (at that time) by a system should unequivocally determine the probabilities of outcomes of all possible measurements.

  14. Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Terms of Reference Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Renewable Energy Specifications, Testing and Certification Terms of Reference Agency...

  15. Calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux using the interaction model calibrated with atmospheric muon data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S.; Sanuki, T

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the 'modified DPMJET-III' model explained in the previous paper [T. Sanuki et al., preceding Article, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).], we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux. The calculation scheme is almost the same as HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).], but the usage of the 'virtual detector' is improved to reduce the error due to it. Then we study the uncertainty of the calculated atmospheric neutrino flux summarizing the uncertainties of individual components of the simulation. The uncertainty of K-production in the interaction model is estimated using other interaction models: FLUKA'97 and FRITIOF 7.02, and modifying them so that they also reproduce the atmospheric muon flux data correctly. The uncertainties of the flux ratio and zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrino flux are also studied.

  16. Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term Durability of Advanced Aftertreatment Systems Impact of Biodiesel on the Near-term Performance and Long-term...

  17. EAS/CEE 6795 Atmospheric Aerosols Fall 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    EAS/CEE 6795 Atmospheric Aerosols Fall 2011 Mon Wed Fri ­ 11 concepts of aerosol physics with applications to atmospheric aerosols. Text Book: Hinds, Aerosol Technology: Properties, behavior and measurement of airborne particles

  18. iDirector with Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols iDirector with Alex Laskin: Atmospheric aerosols Released: September 03, 2014 iDirector with Alex Laskin iDirector interview with EMSL scientist...

  19. Planetary, Atmospheric, and Environmental Applications of Physics Frank Mills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ying

    Planetary, Atmospheric, and Environmental Applications of Physics Frank Mills Atomic and Molecular solar energy production Evaluating, forecasting, and managing suburb-scale distributed solar electricity production My research applies physics to a range of problems in planetary, atmospheric, and environmental

  20. atmospheric water transport: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stenzel, Oliver J 2009-01-01 2 Atmospheric Water Vapor Transport and the Water Balance of North America: Part I CiteSeer Summary: The atmospheric water vapor flux divergence and...

  1. CollegeofEarth,Ocean, andAtmosphericSciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Chemistry for Environmental Sciences 490 Environmental Conservation & Sustainability 577 Environmental, and Atmospheric Sciences Environmental Sciences Earth Sciences Geology Option Geography Option Earth Systems Sciences or Environmental Sciences** The new College of Earth Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (CEOAS) has

  2. Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres, Part 0: General introduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEC Technical Committee

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Recommendation has been prepared by IEC Technical Committee No. 31, Electrical Apparatus for Explosive Atmospheres; It forms one of a series of publications dealing with electrical apparatus for use in explosive gas atmospheres. This particular...

  3. atmospheric radon-222 concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    data on the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and on the magnitude of fossil-fuel combustion between the trends in fossil-fuel burning and the trends in atmospheric...

  4. Mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere feedbacks in boundary current systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Isolating Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere in the KuroshioSST coupler . . . . Chapter 3 Mesoscale Ocean-Atmosphere4.2 Impact of Mesoscale SST on Precipitation Chapter 4 vi

  5. A Temperature and Abundance Retrieval Method for Exoplanet Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhusudhan, Nikku

    We present a new method to retrieve molecular abundances and temperature profiles from exoplanet atmosphere photometry and spectroscopy. We run millions of one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere models in order to cover the large ...

  6. Land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy (Timothy Wallace)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present work on several topics related to land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium: the first two research chapters invoke ideas related to land-atmosphere interaction to better understand ...

  7. Trends and inferred emissions of atmospheric high molecular weight perfluorocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, Diane Jean

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric observations and atmospheric observation-based global emission estimates are presented for the five high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs): decafluorobutane (C 4 F 1 0 ), dodecafluoropentane (C5 F1 2 ), ...

  8. A Superstring Theory for Fractal Spacetime, Chaos and Quantumlike Mechanics in Atmospheric Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam; Suvarna Fadnavis

    1998-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit long-range spatiotemporal correlations manifested as the fractal geometry to the global cloud cover pattern concomitant with inverse power law form for spectra of temporal fluctuations. Such non-local connections are ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature and are identified as signatures of self-organized criticality A recently developed cell dynamical system model for atmospheric flows predicts the observed self-organized criticality as intrinsic to quantumlike mechanics governing flow dynamics. The model predicts the following: (a) The flow structure consists of an overall logarithmic spiral trajectory with the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern for the internal structure. (b) The universal algorithm for self-organized criticality is expressed in terms of the universal Feigenbaum's constants. (c) The Feigenbaum's constants are expressed as functions of the golden mean. (d) The quantum mechanical constants ' fine structure constant' and 'ratio of proton mass to electron mass' which are pure numbers and obtained by experimental observations only, are now derived in terms of the Feigenbaum's constant a. (e) Atmospheric flow structure follows Kepler's third law of planetary motion. Therefore Newton's inverse square law for gravitation applies to eddy masses also. The centripetal acceleration representing inertial masses (of eddies) are equivalent to gravitational masses. Fractal structure to the space-time continuum can be visualized as a nested continuum of vortex (eddy) circulations whose inertial masses obey Newton's inverse square law of gravitation. The model concepts are equivalent to a superstring model for subatomic dynamics which incorporates gravitational forces.

  9. Long-Term Environmental Stewardship

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatestCenterLogging in Logging inLogisticsLongLong-Term

  10. Standard Terms and Conditions | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarshipSpiraling Laser Pulses Could VideoAboutStandard Terms

  11. atmosphere research launch: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 research staff and postdoctoral scientists More than 5M per, climate change, radar meteorology, tropical meteorology Atmospheric Chemistry - fundamental...

  12. atmospheric sciences program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Certification for Atmospheric Sciences Undergraduate Students The Computational Science and Engineering certificate program is designed to provide ATMS under- graduate...

  13. antioxidant impacting atmospheric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    impacts on marine biogeochemistry Zender, Charles 13 Impacts of herbaceous bioenergy crops on atmospheric volatile organic composition and potential consequences...

  14. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  15. Short-term effects of Gamma Ray Bursts on oceanic photosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penate, Liuba; Cardenas, Rolando; Agusti, Susana

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We continue our previous work on the potential short-term influence of a gamma ray bursts on Earth's biosphere, focusing on the only important short-term effect on life: the ultraviolet flash which occurs as a result of the retransmission of the {\\gamma} radiation through the atmosphere. Thus, in this work we calculate the ultraviolet irradiances penetrating the first hundred meters of the water column, for Jerlov's ocean water types I, II and III. Then we estimate the UV flash potential for photosynthesis inhibition, showing that it can be important in a considerable part of the water column with light enough for photosynthesis to be done, the so called photic zone.

  16. The Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric Heating and Temperature AARON DONOHOE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Battisti, David

    The Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric Heating and Temperature AARON DONOHOE Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts DAVID S. BATTISTI Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University) ABSTRACT The seasonal cycle of the heating of the atmosphere is divided into a component due to direct

  17. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Learned, John

    Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3 Contents Abstract 2 1 Introduction 6 1.1 Problem background

  18. School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology Strategic Plan March 1 opportunities. Vision The vision of the School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences is: To lead in innovative research and educate the future leaders in earth and atmospheric sciences for the 21st century, within

  19. Atmospheric perturbations of large-scale nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computer simulation of the injection into the atmosphere of a large quantity of smoke following a nuclear war are described. The focus is on what might happen to the smoke after it enters the atmosphere and what changes, or perturbations, could be induced in the atmospheric structure and circulation by the pressure of a large quantity of smoke. 4 refs., 7 figs. (ACR)

  20. ANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    composition, radiative effects and transport of atmospheric aerosols and related atmospheric pollutanANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL Project ABC Science consequences of the haze involve regional and global climate change, impacts on ecosystem, the water cycle

  1. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STACEE Collaboration; D. A. Williams; D. Bhattacharya; L. M. Boone; M. C. Chantell; Z. Conner; C. E. Covault; M. Dragovan; P. Fortin; D. Gingrich; D. T. Gregorich; D. S. Hanna; G. Mohanty; R. Mukherjee; R. A. Ong; S. Oser; K. Ragan; R. A. Scalzo; D. R. Schuette; C. G. Theoret; T. O. Tumer; F. Vincent; J. A. Zweerink

    2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  2. Performance of the STACEE Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, D A; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gingrich, D M; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mohanty, G B; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Oser, S M; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schütte, D R; Theoret, C G; Tümer, T O; Vincent, F; Zweerink, J A

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is located at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The field of solar tracking mirrors (heliostats) around a central receiver tower is used to direct Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers onto secondary mirrors on the tower, which in turn image the light onto cameras of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE Collaboration has previously reported a detection of the Crab Nebula with approximately 7 standard deviation significance, using 32 heliostats (STACEE-32). This result demonstrates both the viability of the technique and the suitability of the site. We are in the process of completing an upgrade to 48 heliostats (STACEE-48) en route to an eventual configuration using 64 heliostats (STACEE-64) in early 2001. In this paper, we summarize the results obtained on the sensitivity of STACEE-32 and our expectations for STACEE-48 and STACEE-64.

  3. Improved detection of atmospheric turbulence with SLODAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Goodwin; Charles Jenkins; Andrew Lambert

    2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss several improvements in the detection of atmospheric turbulence using SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR). Frequently, SLODAR observations have shown strong ground-layer turbulence, which is beneficial to adaptive optics. We show that current methods which neglect atmospheric propagation effects can underestimate the strength of high altitude turbulence by up to ~ 30%. We show that mirror and dome seeing turbulence can be a significant fraction of measured ground-layer turbulence, some cases up to ~ 50%. We also demonstrate a novel technique to improve the nominal height resolution, by a factor of 3, called Generalized SLODAR. This can be applied when sampling high-altitude turbulence, where the nominal height resolution is the poorest, or for resolving details in the important ground-layer.

  4. Atmospheric rivers as Lagrangian coherent structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garaboa, Daniel; Huhn, Florian; Perez-Muñuzuri, Vicente

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that filamentous Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) over the Northern Atlantic Ocean are closely linked to attracting Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the large scale wind field. LCSs represent lines of attraction in the evolving flow with a significant impact on all passive tracers. Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE), we extract LCSs from a two-dimensional flow derived from water vapor flux of atmospheric reanalysis data and compare them to the three-dimensional LCS obtained from the wind flow. We correlate the typical filamentous water vapor patterns of ARs with LCSs and find that LCSs bound the filaments on the back side. Passive advective transport of water vapor from tropical latitudes is potentially possible.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  6. Extraction of Freshwater and Energy from Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Author offers and researches a new, cheap method for the extraction of freshwater from the Earth atmosphere. The suggected method is fundamentally dictinct from all existing methods that extract freshwater from air. All other industrial methods extract water from a saline water source (in most cases from seawater). This new method may be used at any point in the Earth except Polar Zones. It does not require long-distance freshwater transportation. If seawater is not utilized for increasing its productivity, this inexpensive new method is very environment-friendly. The author method has two working versions: (1) the first variant the warm (hot) atmospheric air is lifted by the inflatable tube in a high altitude and atmospheric steam is condenced into freswater: (2) in the second version, the warm air is pumped 20-30 meters under the sea-surface. In the first version, wind and solar heating of air are used for causing air flow. In version (2) wind and propeller are used for causing air movment. The first method does not need energy, the second needs a small amount. Moreover, in variant (1) the freshwater has a high pressure (>30 or more atm.) and can be used for production of energy such as electricity and in that way the freshwater cost is lower. For increasing the productivity the seawater is injected into air and solar air heater may be used. The solar air heater produces a huge amount of electricity as a very powerful electricity generation plant. The offered electricity installation in 100 - 200 times cheaper than any common electric plant of equivalent output. Key words: Extraction freshwater, method of getting freshwater, receiving energy from atmosphere, powerful renewal electric plant.

  7. Geochemistry of Surface-Atmosphere Interactions on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Withers, Paul

    state of the surface? #12;Carbonates on Venus ¥ CaCO3+SiO2 = CaSiO3+CO2(g) ¥ Psurface = Pbuffer. ¥ S in lower atmosphere is kinetically controlled ¥ CaCO3 + SO2 = CaSO4 + CO removes SO2 , deposits CaSO4 ¥ Fe rates ¥ Need more data, new spacecraft instruments #12;Handy Minerals ¥ SiO2 Quartz ¥ CaCO3 Calcite ¥ Ca

  8. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    Carbondioxideatmosphericburden,PgC Land use Fossil CO2 from land use emissions ­ not fossil fuel combustion ­ was the dominant CO2 Comparison of CO2 mixing ratio from fossil fuel combustion and land use changes 400 380 360 340 cores 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 Forcing,Wm -2 #12;ATMOSPHERIC CO2 EMISSIONS Time series 1700

  9. Clustering of Aerosols in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Elperin; N. Kleeorin; M. A. Liberman; V. L'vov; I. Rogachevskii

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A mechanism of formation of small-scale inhomogeneities in spatial distributions of aerosols and droplets associated with clustering instability in the atmospheric turbulent flow is discussed. The particle clustering is a consequence of a spontaneous breakdown of their homogeneous space distribution due to the clustering instability, and is caused by a combined effect of the particle inertia and a finite correlation time of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper a theoretical approach proposed in Phys. Rev. E 66, 036302 (2002) is further developed and applied to investigate the mechanisms of formation of small-scale aerosol inhomogeneities in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The theory of the particle clustering instability is extended to the case when the particle Stokes time is larger than the Kolmogorov time scale, but is much smaller than the correlation time at the integral scale of turbulence. We determined the criterion of the clustering instability for the Stokes number larger than 1. We discussed applications of the analyzed effects to the dynamics of aerosols and droplets in the atmospheric turbulent flow.

  10. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM); Henins, Ivars (Los Alamos, NM); Babayan, Steve E. (Huntington Beach, CA); Hicks, Robert F. (Los Angeles, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  11. INVERSE SPECTRAL AND SCATTERING THEORY FOR THE HALF-LINE LEFT DEFINITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INVERSE SPECTRAL AND SCATTERING THEORY FOR THE HALF-LINE LEFT DEFINITE STURM-LIOUVILLE PROBLEM C will prove some uniqueness results for inverse spec- tral theory and inverse scattering for the left definite is via the inverse spectral theory for the left definite problem, which also is not very well developed

  12. On the definition of velocity in theories with two observer-independent scales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Mignemi

    2003-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We argue that a consistent definition of the velocity of a particle in generalizations of special relativity with two observer-independent scales should be independent from the mass of the particle. This request rules out the definition $v_i=\\partial p_0/\\partial p_i$, but allows for other definitions proposed in the literature.

  13. A DEFINITION OF "DEGREE OF CONFIRMATION" CARL G. HEMPEL AND PAUL OPPENHEIM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    -method of settling the issue seems to consist in actually constructing an explicit and general definition and theory, and ,vith emphasis on the general methodological issues, a theory of 98 #12;DEFINITION OF "DEGREEA DEFINITION OF "DEGREE OF CONFIRMATION" CARL G. HEMPEL AND PAUL OPPENHEIM 1. The problem

  14. arXiv:1110.0908v1 Employing the perturbative definition of the Higgs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maas, Axel

    mass in and beyond perturbation theory The precise definition of the mass of a particle is a highly non) gauge theories. The most direct definition of the mass of a particle is just given by the (timearXiv:1110.0908v1 [hep­lat] 5 Oct 2011 Employing the perturbative definition of the Higgs mass

  15. Indoor-Atmospheric Radon-Related Radioactivity Affected by a Change of Ventilation Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, T

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present author has kept observation for concentrations of atmospheric radon, radon progeny and thoron progeny for several years at the campus of Fukushima Medical University. Accidentally, in the midst of an observation term, i.e., February 2005, the facility management group of the university changed a strategy for the manner of ventilation, probably because of a recession: (I) tidy everyday ventilation of 7:30-24:00 into (II) shortened weekday ventilation of 8:00-21:00 with weekend halts. This change of ventilation manner brought a clear alteration for the concentrations of radon-related natural radioactivity in indoor air. The present paper concerns an investigation of the effect of the ventilation strategy on the indoor-atmospheric radon-related radioactivity.

  16. Carbon oxidation state as a metric for describing the chemistry of atmospheric organic aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Kroll, Jesse H.; Donahue, Neil M.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Kessler, Sean H.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Altieri, Katye E.; Mazzoleni, Lynn R.; Wozniak, Andrew S.; Bluhm, Hendrik; Mysak, Erin R.; Smith, Jared D.; Kolb, Charles E.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A detailed understanding of the sources, transformations, and fates of organic species in the environment is crucial because of the central roles that organics play in human health, biogeochemical cycles, and Earth's climate. However, such an understanding is hindered by the immense chemical complexity of environmental mixtures of organics; for example, atmospheric organic aerosol consists of at least thousands of individual compounds, all of which likely evolve chemically over their atmospheric lifetimes. Here we demonstrate the utility of describing organic aerosol (and other complex organic mixtures) in terms of average carbon oxidation state (OSC), a quantity that always increases with oxidation, and is readily measured using state-of-the-art analytical techniques. Field and laboratory measurements of OSC , using several such techniques, constrain the chemical properties of the organics and demonstrate that the formation and evolution of organic aerosol involves simultaneous changes to both carbon oxidation state and carbon number (nC).

  17. A Numerical Study of Methods for Moist Atmospheric Flows: Compressible Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duarte, Max; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Bell, John B; Romps, David M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate different numerical techniques for evolving moist atmospheric flows within a fully compressible framework. In the standard numerical approach, the choice of variables is motivated by those that remain invariant in dry adiabatic flow, phase transitions are treated as an external energy source, and the physically-irrelevant fast acoustic modes are decoupled during the numerical integration. For the purposes of this study, we consider the compressible Euler equations in terms of the primitive thermodynamic variables, namely density, momentum, and total energy of moist air, without any special numerical treatment of the fast acoustic dynamics. This allows us to incorporate consistent moist thermodynamic properties throughout the numerical solution, and to thoroughly investigate both the standard two-step splitting approach for moist atmospheric flows as well as a fully coupled technique based on the use of variables that are conserved in moist flows, i.e. total energy of moist air and total water c...

  18. Technical forum: Review of sour service definitions. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntyre, D.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, the author replies to the European Federation of Corrosion`s (EFC`s) comments on his original article ``Review of Sour Service Definitions`` published in the August 1996 issue of MP. EFC`s comments are welcome; they list for MP readers the disturbing number of literature, laboratory, and field failures that EFC had to label as irrelevant in defense of the nonsour service description for Region 1 of its pH vs. H{sub 2}S diagram. EFC wants their Publication 16 read and considered on its merits. Potential users of the publication should also read and consider these allegedly irrelevant studies on their merits. It is vital to generate a true industry consensus on this topic, since whatever sour service definition is codified in the ISO standard will be a fixture in the industry for many years to come.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  20. Representative Atmospheric Plume Development for Elevated Releases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Miley, Harry S.; Prichard, Andrew W.

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric explosion of a low-yield nuclear device will produce a large number of radioactive isotopes, some of which can be measured with airborne detection systems. However, properly equipped aircraft may not arrive in the region where an explosion occurred for a number of hours after the event. Atmospheric conditions will have caused the radioactive plume to move and diffuse before the aircraft arrives. The science behind predicting atmospheric plume movement has advanced enough that the location of the maximum concentrations in the plume can be determined reasonably accurately in real time, or near real time. Given the assumption that an aircraft can follow a plume, this study addresses the amount of atmospheric dilution expected to occur in a representative plume as a function of time past the release event. The approach models atmospheric transport of hypothetical releases from a single location for every day in a year using the publically available HYSPLIT code. The effective dilution factors for the point of maximum concentration in an elevated plume based on a release of a non-decaying, non-depositing tracer can vary by orders of magnitude depending on the day of the release, even for the same number of hours after the release event. However, the median of the dilution factors based on releases for 365 consecutive days at one site follows a power law relationship in time, as shown in Figure S-1. The relationship is good enough to provide a general rule of thumb for estimating typical future dilution factors in a plume starting at the same point. However, the coefficients of the power law function may vary for different release point locations. Radioactive decay causes the effective dilution factors to decrease more quickly with the time past the release event than the dilution factors based on a non-decaying tracer. An analytical expression for the dilution factors of isotopes with different half-lives can be developed given the power law expression for the non-decaying tracer. If the power-law equation for the median dilution factor, Df, based on a non-decaying tracer has the general form Df=a?×t?^(-b) for time t after the release event, then the equation has the form Df=e^(-?t)×a×t^(-b) for a radioactive isotope, where ? is the decay constant for the isotope.

  1. Sandia photovoltaic systems definition and application experiment projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, G.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compilation is given of the abstracts and visual material used in presentation at the Fourth Photovoltaic Systems Definition and Applications Projects Integration Meeting held at the Marriott Hotel, April 12-14, 1983, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The meeting provided a forum for detailed analyses on recently completed and current activities. These activities include systems research, balance-of-system technology development, residential experimentation, and evaluation of intermediate-sized applications.

  2. Photochemistry in Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres II: H2S and SO2 Photochemistry in Anoxic Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu; Bains, William

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H2S and SO2) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H2S and SO2 are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H2, N2, and CO2 atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of element...

  3. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  4. On detecting biospheres from thermodynamic disequilibrium in planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krissansen-Totton, Joshua; Catling, David C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemical disequilibrium has been proposed as a method for detecting extraterrestrial biospheres from exoplanet observations. Chemical disequilibrium is potentially a generalized biosignature since it makes no assumptions about particular biogenic gases or metabolisms. Here, we present the first rigorous calculations of the thermodynamic chemical disequilibrium in the atmospheres of Solar System planets, in which we quantify the difference in Gibbs free energy of an observed atmosphere compared to that of all the atmospheric gases reacted to equilibrium. The purely gas phase disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere, as measured by this available Gibbs free energy, is not unusual by Solar System standards and smaller than that of Mars. However, Earth's atmosphere is in contact with a surface ocean, which means that gases can react with water, and so a multiphase calculation that includes aqueous species is required. We find that the disequilibrium in Earth's atmosphere-ocean system (in joules per mole o...

  5. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds". I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars size to 10 Earth-mass. The states are: globally ice covered (Tsnet absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surfa...

  6. Atmospheric particulate emissions from dry abrasive blasting using coal slag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaskar Kura; Kalpalatha Kambham; Sivaramakrishnan Sangameswaran; Sandhya Potana [University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal slag is one of the widely used abrasives in dry abrasive blasting. Atmospheric emissions from this process include particulate matter (PM) and heavy metals, such as chromium, lead, manganese, nickel. Quantities and characteristics of PM emissions depend on abrasive characteristics and process parameters. Emission factors are key inputs to estimate emissions. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of blast pressure, abrasive feed rate, and initial surface contamination on total PM (TPM) emission factors for coal slag. Rusted and painted mild steel surfaces were used as base plates. Blasting was carried out in an enclosed chamber, and PM was collected from an exhaust duct using U.S. Environment Protection Agency source sampling methods for stationary sources. Results showed that there is significant effect of blast pressure, feed rate, and surface contamination on TPM emissions. Mathematical equations were developed to estimate emission factors in terms of mass of emissions per unit mass of abrasive used, as well as mass of emissions per unit of surface area cleaned. These equations will help industries in estimating PM emissions based on blast pressure and abrasive feed rate. In addition, emissions can be reduced by choosing optimum operating conditions. 40 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Syngas Production from Propane Using Atmospheric Non-thermal Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouni, Fakhreddine; Cormier, Jean Marie; 10.1007/s11090-009-9166-2

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane steam reforming using a sliding discharge reactor was investigated under atmospheric pressure and low temperature (420 K). Non-thermal plasma steam reforming proceeded efficiently and hydrogen was formed as a main product (H2 concentration up to 50%). By-products (C2-hydrocarbons, methane, carbon dioxide) were measured with concentrations lower than 6%. The mean electrical power injected in the discharge is less than 2 kW. The process efficiency is described in terms of propane conversion rate, steam reforming and cracking selectivity, as well as by-products production. Chemical processes modelling based on classical thermodynamic equilibrium reactor is also proposed. Calculated data fit quiet well experimental results and indicate that the improvement of C3H8 conversion and then H2 production can be achieved by increasing the gas fraction through the discharge. By improving the reactor design, the non-thermal plasma has a potential for being an effective way for supplying hydrogen or synthesis gas.

  8. Chaotic characteristics of corona discharges in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan Xiangyu; Zhang Qiaogen; Wang Xiuhuan; Sun Fu; Zha Wei; Jia Zhijie [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 West Xianning Road, Xi'an 710049 (China)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equations of the system in an attempt to give the underlying dynamic mechanism based on the nonlinear V-I characteristics of the point-plane corona discharges. The results show that the chaotic phenomenon is found in the corona circuit by the experimental study and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The basic dynamic characteristics, including the Lyapunov exponent, the existence of the strange attractors, and the equilibrium points, are also found and analyzed in the development process of the corona circuit. Moreover, the time series of the corona current pulses obtained in the experiment is used to demonstrate the chaotic characteristics of the corona current based on the nonlinear dynamic circuit theory and the experimental basis. It is pointed out that the corona phenomenon is not a purely stochastic phenomenon but a short term deterministic chaotic activity.

  9. Causes and Implications of Persistent Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Biases in Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, Forrest M [ORNL] [ORNL; Randerson, James T. [University of California, Irvine] [University of California, Irvine; Arora, Vivek K. [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada] [Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Meteorological Service of Canada; Bao, Qing [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics] [State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Cadule, Patricia [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment] [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment; Ji, Duoying [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing] [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, Beijing; Jones, Chris D. [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office] [Hadley Centre, U.K. Met Office; Kawamiya, Michio [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC)] [Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC); Khatiwala, Samar [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY] [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, NY; Lindsay, Keith [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)] [National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR); Obata, Atsushi [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan] [Meteorological Research Institute, Japan; Shevliakova, Elena [Princeton University] [Princeton University; Six, Katharina D. [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany] [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg, Germany; Tjiputra, Jerry F. [Uni Climate, Uni Research] [Uni Climate, Uni Research; Volodin, Evgeny M. [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow] [Institute of Numerical Mathematics, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow; Wu, Tongwen [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing] [China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The strength of feedbacks between a changing climate and future CO2 concentrations are uncertain and difficult to predict using Earth System Models (ESMs). We analyzed emission-driven simulations--in which atmospheric CO2 levels were computed prognostically--for historical (1850-2005) and future periods (RCP 8.5 for 2006-2100) produced by 15 ESMs for the Fifth Phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Comparison of ESM prognostic atmospheric CO2 over the historical period with observations indicated that ESMs, on average, had a small positive bias in predictions of contemporary atmospheric CO2. Weak ocean carbon uptake in many ESMs contributed to this bias, based on comparisons with observations of ocean and atmospheric anthropogenic carbon inventories. We found a significant linear relationship between contemporary atmospheric CO2 biases and future CO2 levels for the multi-model ensemble. We used this relationship to create a contemporary CO2 tuned model (CCTM) estimate of the atmospheric CO2 trajectory for the 21st century. The CCTM yielded CO2 estimates of 600 {plus minus} 14 ppm at 2060 and 947 {plus minus} 35 ppm at 2100, which were 21 ppm and 32 ppm below the multi-model mean during these two time periods. Using this emergent constraint approach, the likely ranges of future atmospheric CO2, CO2-induced radiative forcing, and CO2-induced temperature increases for the RCP 8.5 scenario were considerably narrowed compared to estimates from the full ESM ensemble. Our analysis provided evidence that much of the model-to-model variation in projected CO2 during the 21st century was tied to biases that existed during the observational era, and that model differences in the representation of concentration-carbon feedbacks and other slowly changing carbon cycle processes appear to be the primary driver of this variability. By improving models to more closely match the long-term time series of CO2 from Mauna Loa, our analysis suggests uncertainties in future climate projections can be reduced.

  10. Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Total termination of term rewriting is undecidable Hans Zantema Utrecht University, Department Usually termination of term rewriting systems (TRS's) is proved by means of a monotonic well­founded order. If this order is total on ground terms, the TRS is called totally terminating. In this paper we prove that total

  11. Atmospheric Feedbacks over the Tropical Pacific in Observations and Atmospheric General Circulation Models: An Extended

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Dezheng

    that the bias is likely linked to a weaker relationship between the short-wave cloud forcing is a long-standing tropical bias in the CGCMs. The early hypotheses attribute this problem to the errors;4 errors may induce excessive equatorial upwelling upon coupling. The surface heating from the atmospheric

  12. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wielgus, M; S?dowski, A; Narayan, R; Abramowicz, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  13. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wielgus; W. Klu?niak; A. S?dowski; R. Narayan; M. Abramowicz

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  14. Understanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guang Jun

    in response to El Nin~o warming. The vast cloud cover in the region leads to much stronger cloud greenhouse effect in longwave radiation (longwave cloud radiative forcing) and cloud shielding effect in shortwaveUnderstanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric

  15. The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laroussi, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

  16. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)] [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States); Ann Stepp, Mary [Medical School, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States)] [Medical School, George Washington University, Washington DC 20052 (United States); Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony [Childrens National Medical Center, Washington DC 20010 (United States)] [Childrens National Medical Center, Washington DC 20010 (United States); Trink, Barry [Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)] [Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, Department of Otolaryngology, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205 (United States)

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  17. Atmospheric Results from Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results from a 282 kiloton-year exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector to atmospheric neutrinos are presented. The data when fit both by themselves and in conjunction with constraints from the T2K and reactor neutrino experiments show a weak, though insignificant, preference for the normal mass hierarchy at the level of ~1 sigma. Searches for evidence of oscillations into a sterile neutrino have resulted in limits on the parameters governing their mixing, |U_mu4}|^2 <0.041 and |U_tau4|^2 < 0.18 at 90% C.L. A similar search for an indication of Lorentz-invariance violating oscillations has yielded limits three to seven orders of magnitude more stringent than existing measurements. Additionally, analyses searching for an excess of neutrinos in the atmospheric data produced from the annihilation of dark matter particles in the galaxy and sun have placed tight limits on the cross sections governing their annihilation and scattering.

  18. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  19. Black holes, cuspy atmospheres, and galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In cuspy atmospheres, jets driven by supermassive black holes (BHs) offset radiative cooling. The jets fire episodically, but often enough that the cuspy atmosphere does not move very far towards a cooling catastrophe in the intervals of jet inactivity. The ability of energy released on the sub-parsec scale of the BH to balance cooling on scales of several tens of kiloparsecs arises through a combination of the temperature sensitivity of the accretion rate and the way in which the radius of jet disruption varies with ambient density. Accretion of hot gas does not significantly increase BH masses, which are determined by periods of rapid BH growth and star formation when cold gas is briefly abundant at the galactic centre. Hot gas does not accumulate in shallow potential wells. As the Universe ages, deeper wells form, and eventually hot gas accumulates. This gas soon prevents the formation of further stars, since jets powered by the BH prevent it from cooling, and it mops up most cold infalling gas before many stars can form. Thus BHs set the upper limit to the masses of galaxies. The formation of low-mass galaxies is inhibited by a combination of photo-heating and supernova-driven galactic winds. Working in tandem these mechanisms can probably explain the profound difference between the galaxy luminosity function and the mass function of dark halos expected in the cold dark matter cosmology.

  20. The United States has put more CO2 into the atmosphere than anybody else, but without too much trouble we now can take the lead in slowing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    coal-fired power plants, which produce just over half of U.S. electricity and much more CO2 than any this argument they probably think in terms of familiar air pollution, such as sulfur dioxide. Once it enters the atmosphere, normal pollution stays there only a few hours or days. Carbon dioxide is not like that. Much

  1. Test plan for long-term, low-temperature oxidation of BWR spent fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einziger, R.E.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary studies indicated the need for more spent fuel oxidation data in order to determine the probable behavior of spent fuel in a tuff repository. Long-term, low-temperature testing was recommended in a comprehensive technical approach to (1) confirm the findings of the short-term thermogravimetric analysis tests; (2) evaluate the effects of variables such as burnup, atmospheric moisture,and fuel type on the oxidation rate; and (3) extend the oxidation data base to representative repository temperatures and better define the temperature dependence of the operative oxidation mechanisms. This document presents the test plan to study the effects of atmospheric moisture and temperature on oxidation rate and phase formation using a large number of boiling-water reactor fuel samples. Tests will run for up to two years, use characterized fragmented and pulverized fuel samples, cover a temperature range of 110{degree}C to 175{degree}C, and be conducted with an atmospheric moisture content ranging from <{minus}55{degree}C to {approximately}80{degree}C dew point. After testing, the samples will be examined and made available for leaching testing. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Endoglin potentiates nitric oxide synthesis to enhance definitive hematopoiesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nasrallah, Rabab; Knezevic, Kathy; Thai, Thuan; Thomas, Shane R.; Göttgens, Berthold; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie; Pimanda, John E.

    2015-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    potential. We also show using an ES cell line engineered to over-express ENG under Doxycycline (Dox) control that ENG drives the acceleration of hemogenic commitment of FLK1+ cells and definitive hematopoiesis and that it does so by increasing nitric... (Kyba et al., 2002) in which ENG is linked to GFP via a 2A peptide to facilitate monitoring (Fig. S7). The addition of Dox at day 0 of ES cell differentiation resulted in the induction of GFP and sustained surface expression of ENG (Fig. S8A (i) - (ii...

  3. DOE Nuclear Weapon Reliability Definition: History, Description, and Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, D.L.; Cashen, J.J.; Sjulin, J.M.; Bierbaum, R.L.; Kerschen, T.J.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapon reliability assessment process is to provide a quantitative metric that reflects the ability of the weapons to perform their intended function successfully. This white paper is intended to provide insight into the current and long-standing DOE definition of nuclear weapon reliability, which can be summarized as: The probability of achieving the specified yield, at the target, across the Stockpile-To-Target Sequence of environments, throughout the weapon's lifetime, assuming proper inputs.

  4. Internationally Standardized Cost Item Definitions for Decommissioning of Nuclear Installations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucien Teunckens; Kurt Pflugrad; Candace Chan-Sands; Ted Lazo

    2000-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA) have agreed to jointly prepare and publish a standardized list of cost items and related definitions for decommissioning projects. Such a standardized list would facilitate communication, promote uniformity, and avoid inconsistency or contradiction of results or conclusions of cost evaluations for decommissioning projects carried out for specific purposes by different groups. Additionally, a standardized structure would also be a useful tool for more effective cost management. This paper describes actual work and result thus far.

  5. Computational costs of data definition at the quantum - classical interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chris Fields

    2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Model-independent semantic requirements for user specification and interpretation of data before and after quantum computations are characterized. Classical computational costs of assigning classical data values to quantum registers and to run-time parameters passed across a classical-to-quantum application programming interface are derived. It is shown that the classical computational costs of data definition equal or exceed the classical computational cost of solving the problem of interest for all applications of quantum computing except computations defined over the integers and the simulation of linear systems with linear boundary conditions.

  6. Generalized definition of time delay in scattering theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Gerard; R. Tiedra de Aldecoa

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We advocate for the systematic use of a symmetrized definition of time delay in scattering theory. In two-body scattering processes, we show that the symmetrized time delay exists for arbitrary dilated spatial regions symmetric with respect to the origin. It is equal to the usual time delay plus a new contribution, which vanishes in the case of spherical spatial regions. We also prove that the symmetrized time delay is invariant under an appropriate mapping of time reversal. These results are also discussed in the context of classical scattering theory.

  7. DOE Seeks Comment on Definition of Showerhead | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"WaveInteractions andDefinition of Showerhead DOE Seeks Comment on

  8. Oregon - ORS 439.300 - Definitions | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer PlantMunhall,Missouri: EnergyExcellenceOfficeOhio:OpowerOrchard Lake439.300 - Definitions

  9. Common Data Set 2013-2014 Common Data Set Definitions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    immediate and long-term academic and vocational goals. Accelerated program: Completion of a college program extra courses during the regular academic term. Admitted student: Applicant who is offered admission are re-entering after a lapse of a few years. American Indian or Alaska Native: A person having origins

  10. Can we learn something more on oscillations from atmospheric neutrinos?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that for long-baseline experiments using a Mt water Cerenkov detector atmospheric neutrino data provide a powerful method to resolve parameter degeneracies. In particular, the combination of long-baseline and atmospheric data increases significantly the sensitivity to the neutrino mass hierarchy and the octant of $\\theta_{23}$. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility to use $\\mu$-like atmospheric neutrino data from a big magnetized iron calorimeter to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  11. Recent Atmospheric Neutrino Results from Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Himmel, Alexander

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Super-Kamiokande experiment has collected more than 11 live-years of atmospheric neutrino data. Atmospheric neutrinos cover a wide phase space in both energy and distance travelled, the parameters relevant for studying neutrino oscillations. We present here recent measurements of the three-flavor neutrino oscillation parameters using this atmospheric neutrino data, as well as new limits on mixing with a fourth sterile neutrino state.

  12. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  13. 4, 32853315, 2007 Predicting long-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    is rain-fed and strongly affected by acid atmospheric deposition, the other spring- fed and only to the rain-fed will be limited to only the acid-tolerant stone- fly, caddisfly and dipteran taxa of the rain-fed branch, and predict future recovery up to 2050 under current proposed emissions levels

  14. The Ratio of Helium- to Hydrogen-Atmosphere White Dwarfs: Direct Evidence for Convective Mixing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. -E. Tremblay; P. Bergeron

    2007-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the ratio of helium- to hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf stars as a function of effective temperature from a model atmosphere analysis of the infrared photometric data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey combined with available visual magnitudes. Our study surpasses any previous analysis of this kind both in terms of the accuracy of the Teff determinations as well as the size of the sample. We observe that the ratio of helium- to hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs increases gradually from a constant value of ~0.25 between Teff = 15,000 K and 10,000 K to a value twice as large in the range 10,000 > Teff > 8000 K, suggesting that convective mixing, which occurs when the bottom of the hydrogen convection zone reaches the underlying convective helium envelope, is responsible for this gradual transition. The comparison of our results with an approximate model used to describe the outcome of this convective mixing process implies hydrogen mass layers in the range log M_H/M_tot = -10 to -8 for about 15% of the DA stars that survived the DA to DB transition near Teff ~ 30,000 K, the remainder having presumably more massive layers above log M_H/M_tot ~ -6.

  15. Energy transport, overshoot, and mixing in the atmospheres of very cool stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -G. Ludwig

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed hydrodynamical model atmospheres for mid M-type main-, as well as pre-main-sequence objects. Despite the complex chemistry encountered in such cool atmospheres a reasonably accurate representation of the radiative transfer is possible. The detailed treatment of the interplay between radiation and convection in the hydrodynamical models allows to study processes usually not accessible within the framework conventional model atmospheres. In particular, we determined the efficiency of the convective energy transport, and the efficiency of mixing by convective overshoot. The convective transport efficiency expressed in terms of an equivalent mixing-length parameter amounts to values around ~2 in the optically thick, and ~2.8 in the optically thin regime. The thermal structure of the formally convectively stable layers is little affected by convective overshoot and wave heating, i.e. stays close to radiative equilibrium. Mixing by convective overshoot shows an exponential decline with geometrical distance from the Schwarzschild stability boundary. The scale height of the decline varies with gravitational acceleration roughly as g^(-1/2), with 0.5 pressure scale heights at log(g)=5.0.

  16. atmospheric transparency studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressures lower than 0.1 bar, transparency to thermal radiation allows shortwave heating to dominate, creating a stratosphere. At higher pressures, atmospheres become...

  17. atmosphere model validation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predictability over eastern Australia in JJASON This research aims to improve intra Marshall, Andrew 3 Early validation analyses of atmospheric profiles from CiteSeer...

  18. atmospheric aerosol characteristics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  19. atmospheric aerosol aggregates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  20. atmospheric aerosol processes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  1. atmospheric aerosol size: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  2. affect atmospheric aerosols: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  3. atmospheric aerosol characterisation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  4. atmospheric aerosols apports: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  5. aerosol atmospheric interactions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  6. atmospheric aerosol samples: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  7. atmospheric aerosol particle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a...

  8. atmospheric aerosol particles: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a...

  9. atmospheric aerosol properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  10. atmospheric aerosol optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size Distribution Physics (arXiv) Summary: Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fractal spacetime fluctuations manifested as the fractal geometry to global cloud cover...

  11. atmospheric aerosol concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a...

  12. aerosols influencing atmospheric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and other anthropogenic influences have substantially altered the composition and size-distribution of atmospheric aerosol particles over the last century. This, in turn,...

  13. atmospheric corrected satellite: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DENSITY ESTIMATION USING SATELLITE PRECISION ORBIT EPHEMERIDES University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: The current atmospheric density models are not capable...

  14. atmospheric pressure phenomena: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and structure compared well by atmospheric bores and solitons strongly depend upon the life cycle of these phenomena. 1. Introduction One Geerts, Bart 344 Flight Path Planning...

  15. atmospheric electrical activity: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we review the literature on calculations of atmospheric neutrinos over the full range of energy, but with particular attention to the aspects important for neutrino oscillations....

  16. atmospheric deposition studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise Physics (arXiv) Summary: We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena...

  17. atmospheric pressure study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise Physics (arXiv) Summary: We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena...

  18. atmospheric deposition study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Explosion At The Polar Arctic Sunrise Physics (arXiv) Summary: We attempt is to provide accumulated evidence and qualitative understanding of the associated atmospheric phenomena...

  19. atmospheric dispersion study: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: -resting global circulation of air masses is the unequal distribution of solar heat flux to the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is...

  20. DESCRIPTION OF A SPECTRAL ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MONITORING NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spectral atmospheric radiation data. The large cylindricalexisting integrated net radiation data is of impor- tance,infrared radiation intensities. The data is permanently

  1. atmospheric wind sensor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sensor Chaudhuri, Surajit 6 ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE MODELING AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WIND ENERGY Geosciences Websites Summary: Introduction Wind turbines sit at the very...

  2. atmospheric infrared sounder: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI)Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Li, Jun 4 Ozone Profile Retrieval from an Advanced Infrared Sounder:...

  3. atmospheric observatory uao: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of a 1 kiloton heavy water Cherenkov detector able to detect and reconstruct high-energy muons created from cosmic ray showers and atmospheric neutrino interactions. By...

  4. atmospheric sound: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Applications of Atmospheric Soundings from Geostationary Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: products can help nowcasting, an improved clear-sky physical...

  5. atmospheric radiocarbon monitoring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Comparison of the predicted to observed scattered light intensity by the fluorescence detector measuresAtmospheric Monitoring with Tunable UV Lasers John A.J. Matthews University...

  6. atmospheric modeling based: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar activity. The upward- and downward-moving component of the atmospheric neutron flux are considered separately. The energy spectra calculated using these equations were...

  7. atmospheric electrons due: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Atmospheric Electrons Compared with Data from HEAT CiteSeer Summary: The GEANTFLUKA detector simulation and particle interaction package was used to develop a Monte Carlo...

  8. atmospheric physical chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1999, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Ph.D. in Chemistry 8 Course Syllabus ATMO 613: Advanced Atmospheric Chemistry (Spring 2014) Geosciences Websites Summary:...

  9. NSRD-2015-TD01, Technical Report for Calculations of Atmospheric...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    NSRD-2015-TD01, Technical Report for Calculations of Atmospheric Dispersion at Onsite Locations for DOE Nuclear Facilities NSRD-2015-TD01, Technical Report for Calculations of...

  10. atmospheric cherenkov effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype...

  11. atmospheric control systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  12. atmospheric administration key: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    warming, ocean chemistry, carbon cycle Abstract CO2 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere Matsumoto,...

  13. atmospheric sulfur budget: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shongwe R. G. Graversen G, the energy-budget for Autumn 2006 in Europe is estimated. Atmospheric energy- transport convergence over Haak, Hein 79 Exploring the...

  14. atmospheric sampling program: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Water, Atmosphere, Ecosystems, Education and Research Program 12;I-WATER Funding I-WATER is funded by the National Science Foundation IGERT program IGERT is...

  15. ON THE STABILITY OF SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kopparla, Pushkar [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the stability of super-Earth atmospheres around M stars using a seven-parameter, analytical framework. We construct stability diagrams in the parameter space of exoplanetary radius versus semimajor axis and elucidate the regions in which the atmospheres are stable against the condensation of their major constituents, out of the gas phase, on their permanent nightside hemispheres. We find that super-Earth atmospheres that are nitrogen-dominated (Earth-like) occupy a smaller region of allowed parameter space, compared to hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, because of the dual effects of diminished advection and enhanced radiative cooling. Furthermore, some super-Earths which reside within the habitable zones of M stars may not possess stable atmospheres, depending on the mean molecular weight and infrared photospheric pressure of their atmospheres. We apply our stability diagrams to GJ 436b and GJ 1214b, and demonstrate that atmospheric compositions with high mean molecular weights are disfavored if these exoplanets possess solid surfaces and shallow atmospheres. Finally, we construct stability diagrams tailored to the Kepler data set, for G and K stars, and predict that about half of the exoplanet candidates are expected to harbor stable atmospheres if Earth-like conditions are assumed. We include 55 Cancri e and CoRoT-7b in our stability diagram for G stars.

  16. atmospheric general circulation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    II. THE CLIMATIC SYSTEM Climate is defined is the basic engine which transforms solar heating into the energy of the atmospheric motions and determines Lucarini, Valerio...

  17. atmosphere revitalization system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mars, Venus and Titan. Atmospheric electricity has controversially been implicated in climate on Earth; here, a comparative approach is employed to review the role of...

  18. atmospheric composition change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of this century (IPCC 2007). 12;Figure 1: The "greenhouse" effect When radiative energy becomes absorbedGlobal Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations By: Edward B. Mondor...

  19. atmospheric longwave radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: 72010 1 The atmosphere absorbs part of the outgoing longwave energy Incoming solar radiation; Aerosol effects from IPCC 2001; CO2+ The Greenhouse Effect The White House...

  20. atmospheric cloud physics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scale energy generation. Selvam, A M 2000-01-01 58 Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 64 (2002) 19731978 www.elsevier.comlocatejastp Biology and...

  1. atmospheric neutron environments: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    component of the atmospheric neutron flux are considered separately. The energy spectra calculated using these equations were found to be in good agreement with data...

  2. atmospheric layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  3. atmospheric pressure corona: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  4. atmospheric pressure plasmas: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  5. atmosphere boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  6. atmospheric pressure measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  7. atmospheric superficial layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  8. atmospheric pressure radio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  9. atmospheric boundary layer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  10. atmospheric pressure plasma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  11. atmospheric models final: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature received 25 October 2013, in final form 24 July 2014) ABSTRACT The wind speed response to mesoscale SST (COAMPS) atmospheric models. The SST- induced wind response...

  12. atmospheric boundary layers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature The wind speed response to mesoscale SST variability is investigated over the Agulhas Return Current...

  13. atmospheric pressure field: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric conditions. Our module is capable of measuring temperature, pressure, wind speed, and particle concentration. The module will take measurements every minute and the...

  14. atmospheric exposure chambers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dominick 16 atmospheres CiteSeer Summary: (Manuscript received in final form October 29, 2006) AbstractIn this work the theoretical relationship between the clear-sky...

  15. atmospheric greenhouse effect: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Surface. This process is the natural greenhouse effect. The earths surface receives solar energy and energy reradiated 9 Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse...

  16. atmospheric greenhouse gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  17. Effects of atmospheres on bonding characteristics of silver and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature. To investigate the effects of atmospheres on the bonding characteristics of ceramic joints brazed with Ag-CuO braze filler metals, alumina joints prepared using a...

  18. atmospheric environment measurement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of statistical and systematic errors a perpetual challenge. In all these projects, the environment is turned into a detector medium or a target. The atmosphere is probably the...

  19. atmospheric fine particulate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interlaced by concentrations of stronger magnetic field at the interface between the umbra and the outer field-free atmosphere. Calculated synthetic images show dark cores like...

  20. atmospheric fine elemental: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interlaced by concentrations of stronger magnetic field at the interface between the umbra and the outer field-free atmosphere. Calculated synthetic images show dark cores like...