Sample records for term world oil

  1. 5 World Oil Trends WORLD OIL TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    5 World Oil Trends Chapter 1 WORLD OIL TRENDS INTRODUCTION In considering the outlook for California's petroleum supplies, it is important to give attention to expecta- tions of what the world oil market. Will world oil demand increase and, if so, by how much? How will world oil prices be affected

  2. World Oil: Market or Mayhem?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James L.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world oil market is regarded by many as a puzzle. Why are oil prices so volatile? What is OPEC and what does OPEC do? Where are oil prices headed in the long run? Is “peak oil” a genuine concern? Why did oil prices ...

  3. Figure 4. World Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. World Oil Prices" " (2007 dollars per barrel)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,2029,2030...

  4. World Oil Transit Chokepoints

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

  5. Angola: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that prospects of Angola, free of political complications, are certain to bring a flurry of interest from oil firms and could mean an influx of foreign capital. Licensing will be under production-sharing terms, but incentives may be offered due to increased risks inherent in deeper water. Long term security and stability remain uncertain. In addition to Unita and previously communist MPLA, new factions from 16 years of civil war are gaining support and increasing possibilities for violence. Oil firms consider production-sharing terms high and current price cap clauses keep them from realizing benefits from price increases after contracts are signed. However, geology and exploration successes have overshadowed concerns.

  6. World Oil Prices in AEO2007 (released in AEO2007)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the long term, the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 (AEO) projection for world oil prices -- defined as the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners -- is similar to the AEO2006 projection. In the near term, however, AEO2007 projects prices that are $8 to $10 higher than those in AEO2006.

  7. World Oil Prices in AEO2006 (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World oil prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO) reference case are substantially higher than those in the AEO2005 reference case. In the AEO2006 reference case, world crude oil prices, in terms of the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners, decline from current levels to about $47 per barrel (2004 dollars) in 2014, then rise to $54 per barrel in 2025 and $57 per barrel in 2030. The price in 2025 is approximately $21 per barrel higher than the corresponding price projection in the AEO2005 reference case.

  8. Kuwait: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that the major event in Kuwait today is the ongoing effort to control blowouts stemming from Iraqi demolition of oil wells and producing facilities last February. A total of 732 wells---about two- thirds of all wells in Kuwait---were blown up. All but 80 caught on fire.

  9. Iraq: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that no reliable information on Iraqi E and P operations and only a few reports on oil field facilities damage have been available since last August. Most of what is known originated from the Middle East Economic Survey (MEES), the authoritative newsletter covering the Middle East. According to MEES reports in major northern oil fields (Kirkuk, Bai Hasan and Jambur) is put at 800,000 bpd. The northern fields and the pipeline system through Turkey to the Mediterranean Sea that serves as an export outlet for the area apparently were not damaged much by coalition air strikes or subsequent fighting by the Kurds. Last May production was estimated at 250,000 bpd, presumably from northern fields. If and when U.N. sanctions are lifted, Iraq should be able to export promptly through the Turkish line.

  10. Chad: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on Mango 1, which is an exploration well started in September 1990 on a block adjacent to Lake Chad by Esso, Chevron and Shell was suspended after the coup in that nation's capital later in the year. The small Sedigi oil field, discovered in the 70s, will be developed with a pipeline to a 3,000-bpd refinery. Improved relations with Libya and future internal stability may further open the door to exploration.

  11. PEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    liquid fuels: 1) Improved Oil Recovery (IOR) can marginally increase production from existing reservoirs oil production declines from reservoirs that are past their peak production: 2) Heavy oil / oil sandsPEAKING OF WORLD OIL PRODUCTION: IMPACTS, MITIGATION, & RISK MANAGEMENT Robert L. Hirsch, SAIC

  12. Who Are the Major Players Supplying the World Oil Market?

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy in Brief article on the world supply of oil through ownership of national oil companies and, for some governments, their membership in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

  13. World Oil Price Cases (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World oil prices in Annual Energy Outlook 2005 are set in an environment where the members of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) are assumed to act as the dominant producers, with lower production costs than other supply regions or countries. Non-OPEC oil producers are assumed to behave competitively, producing as much oil as they can profitability extract at the market price for oil. As a result, the OPEC member countries will be able effectively to set the price of oil when they can act in concert by varying their aggregate production. Alternatively, OPEC members could target a fixed level of production and let the world market determine the price.

  14. Papua New Guinea: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on oil exploration which is booming in Papua New Guinea (PNG) following a rash of license applications and farm-ins. Most activity is onshore, but success is beginning to drift offshore. Currently, 40 petroleum prospecting licenses (PPL) and one producing license are active, and eight more PPL applications are being considered. PNG is expected to become an oil exporter by September 1992 when initial production is expected from Iagifu, Hedina and Agogo fields.

  15. An MBendi Profile: World: Oil And Gas Industry -Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion -C.J.Campbell -Revised February 2002 Search for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An MBendi Profile: World: Oil And Gas Industry - Peak Oil: an Outlook on Crude Oil Depletion - C - Contact Us - Newsletter Register subscribe to our FREE newsletter World: Oil And Gas Industry - Peak Oil the subsequent decline. q Gas, which is less depleted than oil, will likely peak around 2020. q Capacity limits

  16. Peaking of world oil production: Impacts, mitigation, & risk management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, R.L. (SAIC); Bezdek, Roger (MISI); Wendling, Robert (MISI)

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The peaking of world oil production presents the U.S. and the world with an unprecedented risk management problem. As peaking is approached, liquid fuel prices and price volatility will increase dramatically, and, without timely mitigation, the economic, social, and political costs will be unprecedented. Viable mitigation options exist on both the supply and demand sides, but to have substantial impact, they must be initiated more than a decade in advance of peaking.... The purpose of this analysis was to identify the critical issues surrounding the occurrence and mitigation of world oil production peaking. We simplified many of the complexities in an effort to provide a transparent analysis. Nevertheless, our study is neither simple nor brief. We recognize that when oil prices escalate dramatically, there will be demand and economic impacts that will alter our simplified assumptions. Consideration of those feedbacks will be a daunting task but one that should be undertaken. Our aim in this study is to-- • Summarize the difficulties of oil production forecasting; • Identify the fundamentals that show why world oil production peaking is such a unique challenge; • Show why mitigation will take a decade or more of intense effort; • Examine the potential economic effects of oil peaking; • Describe what might be accomplished under three example mitigation scenarios. • Stimulate serious discussion of the problem, suggest more definitive studies, and engender interest in timely action to mitigate its impacts.

  17. Neutral zone: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the Neutral Zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, much in the news during the Gulf war, that returned to production in June when offshore output resumed at a rate of 100,000 bpd. By this month, offshore production should have attained near its pre-war level of 250,000 bpd. Because of war damage onshore, production will not be restarted onshore for some time. Neutral Zone oil is jointly owned by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Texaco's Getty unit operates some 900 mostly pumping wells in South Umm Gudair, Wafra and South Fawaris onshore fields. However, only about 50 were producing 130,000 bpd last August when Iraqis invaded. Japan's Arabian Oil Co. operates 165 wells-all flowing-in offshore Khafji, Hout and Lulu fields that have a maximum productive capacity of about 300,000 bpd.

  18. Metabolic paths in world economy and crude oil price

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Picciolo, Francesco; Ruzzenenti, Franco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1983 Hamilton demonstrated the correlation between the price of oil and gross national product for the U.S. economy. A prolific literature followed exploring the potential correlation of oil prices with other important indices like inflation, industrial production, and food prices, using increasingly refined tools. Our work sheds new light on the role of oil prices in shaping the world economy by investigating the metabolic paths of value across trade between 1960 and 2010, by means of Markov Chain analysis. We show that the interdependence of countries' economies are strictly (anti)correlated to the price of oil. We observed a remarkably high correlation of 0.85, unmatched by any former study addressing the correlation between oil price and major economic indicators.

  19. Fact #578: July 6, 2009 World Oil Reserves, Production, and Consumptio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Consumption, 2007 The United States was responsible for 8% of the world's petroleum production, held 2% of the world's crude oil reserves, and consumed 24% of the...

  20. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at the world price of oil and prices of gasoline and otherincremental pro?ts when oil prices rise come from both U.S.the recent increases in oil prices and attempts to clarify

  1. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    industry means that all oil demand pushes up the price ofearly 1980s drove down oil demand by 7% worldwide betweento suggest that the demand side of the world oil market or

  2. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com Future world oil production: growth, plateau, or peak?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    are dominant: oil (33.2% of world's total energy demand), coal (27.0%), and natural gas (21.1%) [1]. Refined as a feedstock for the petrochemical industry (T Ren, Petrochemicals from oil, natural gas, coal and biomass. Increasing demand for oil from China and other emerging market economies pushed world oil demand higher

  3. Oil Prices and Terms of Trade.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirfacihi, Azar

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? One of the central issues in international macroeconomics is relative price movements and their sources. One such price is the price of crude oil.… (more)

  4. Future world oil production: Growth, plateau, or peak?1 Larry Hughes and Jacinda Rudolph

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughes, Larry

    Energy Systems 2010 #12;Future world oil production: Growth, plateau, or peak? Larry Hughes2 and Jacinda governments to reduce their energy intensity (6), the growth in oil production resumed in the mid-1980s World Energy Outlook, production is projected to increase to 103.8 million barrels of oil a day by 2030

  5. On the relationship between world oil prices and GCC stock markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    On the relationship between world oil prices and GCC stock markets Mohamed El Hedi Arouri Associate ABSTRACT We provide comprehensive evidence on the relationship between oil prices and stock mar- kets to be more sensitive to negative than to positive oil shocks. Keywords: oil prices, stock markets, GCC

  6. Markets during world oil supply crises: an analysis of industry, consumer, and governmental response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erfle, Stephen; Pound, John; Kalt, Joseph

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of the response of American markets to supply crises in world oil markets is presented. It addresses four main issues: the efficiency of the operation of American oil markets during oil supply crises; the problems of both economic efficiency and social equity which arise during the American adaptation process; the propriety of the Federal government's past policy responses to these problems; and the relationship between perceptions of the problems caused by world oil crises and the real economic natures of these problems. Specifically, Chapter 1 presents a theoretical discussion of the effects of a world supply disruption on the price level and supply availability of the world market oil to any consuming country including the US Chapter 2 provides a theoretical and empirical analysis of the efficiency of the adaptations of US oil product markets to higher world oil prices. Chapter 3 examines the responses of various groups of US oil firms to the alterations observed in world markets, while Chapter 4 presents a theoretical explanation for the price-lagging behavior exhibited by firms in the US oil industry. Chapter 5 addresses the nature of both real and imagined oil market problems in the US during periods of world oil market transition. (MCW)

  7. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  8. Update: World average retail gasoline and diesel prices. Crude oil falls, but consumer taxes rise

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil prices plunged to five year lows late in 1993. However, examination of consumer petroleum product prices around the world reveals that consumers in many countries did not enjoy a consequent drop.

  9. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2008 (released in AEO2008)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) defines the world oil price as the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil delivered in Cushing, Oklahoma. Since 2003, both "above ground" and "below ground" factors have contributed to a sustained rise in nominal world oil prices, from $31 per barrel in 2003 to $69 per barrel in 2007. The AEO2008 reference case outlook for world oil prices is higher than in the AEO2007 reference case. The main reasons for the adoption of a higher reference case price outlook include continued significant expansion of world demand for liquids, particularly in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, which include China and India; the rising costs of conventional non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) supply and unconventional liquids production; limited growth in non-OPEC supplies despite higher oil prices; and the inability or unwillingness of OPEC member countries to increase conventional crude oil production to levels that would be required for maintaining price stability. The Energy Information Administration will continue to monitor world oil price trends and may need to make further adjustments in future AEOs.

  10. Finding new reserves of oil and gas As the world's reserves of oil and gas become exhausted, we urgently need to find new

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    Finding new reserves of oil and gas As the world's reserves of oil and gas become exhausted, we urgently need to find new fields to answer our energy needs. Oil companies are keen to use novel techniques) techniques represent arguably the most significant technological advance in the field of oil exploration

  11. Role of modern climate and hydrology in world oil preservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szatmari, P. (Petrobras Research Center, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The accumulation of oil requires a favorable source, a reservoir, good seal-rock quality, and suitably timed thermal history and structuring. The accumulated oil, especially its light fractions, may be subsequently removed by hydrologically controlled processes such as water washing, biodegradation, and tilting of the oil-water contact. These processes are dependent on the climate. In regions that have become increasingly cold or dry during late Cenozoic time, low rainfall, low ground-water flow rates, and low input of nutrients and microorganisms have protected the oil; in warm or temperate rainy climates, high flow rates and high input of nutrients and microorganisms have led to partial or total removal of oil. Thus, most of the rich (>500,000 barrels/day) oil provinces on land are in cold or dry regions, where water is recharged in highlands that receive little rain (<500 mm/yr), such as Texas, Oklahoma, Wyoming, Alaska's North Slope, California, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, the Middle East, the Volga-Ural basin, and western Siberia. Where upland recharge areas are warm or temperate and rainy, as in the eastern United States, western Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, Brazil, India, and most of China, rich oil provinces on land (outside young deltas) are rare, and biodegradation is widespread. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  12. PAPER NO. rtos-A118 International Conference on Oil Shale: “Recent Trends In Oil Shale”, 7-9 November 2006, Amman,Jordan WORLD OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jialin Qian; Jianqiu Wang

    This paper mainly describes the world’s commercial oil shale retorting technologies, including lump oil shale and particulate oil shale retorting technologies. Fushun Type Retorting, Petrosix Retorting, and Kiviter Retorting are illustrated as the examples of lump oil shale retorting; Galoter

  13. (D. Merriam, U of Kansas, ed) Predicting the Peak in World Oil Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfred J. Cavallo

    recently predicted that world oil production could continue to increase for more than three decades, based on the recent US Geological Survey (USGS) evaluation of world oil resources and a simple, transparent model. However, it can be shown that this model is not consistent with actual oil production records in many different regions, particularly that of the US, from which it was derived. A more careful application of the EIA model, using the same resource estimates, indicates that at best non-OPEC oil production can increase for less than two decades, and should begin to decline at the latest sometime between 2015 and 2020. OPEC will at this point completely control the world oil market and will need to meet increased demand as well as compensate for declining production of non-OPEC producers. OPEC could control the market even sooner than this, given its much larger share of proven oil reserves, probable difficulties in transforming non-OPEC undiscovered reserves into proven reserves, and the converging interests of all oil producers as reserves are depleted. This has significant implications for the world economy and for US national security.

  14. World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

  15. The Decline in World Oil Reserves Predicted by the Parabolic Projection of Future Production and Discoveries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John H. Walsh

    The expected changes in world reserves of conventional oil were interpreted in terms of the standard convention defining resources and reserves. According to this convention, oil is produced exclusively from reserves which in turn are replenished only by discoveries. The change in reserves over one year is thus the sum of discoveries less the production for that year. The total discoveries were taken as the sum from two different sources: those arising from the normal exploration process and those that contribute to the Reserves Addition specified in the Year 2000 Assessment of the U.S. Geological Survey. These two quantities may change over time in opposite directions and it is this attribute that distinguishes this paper from previous studies. The production projection taken from the previous underlying paper was based upon the Mean Value published in the Year 2000 Assessment of the U.S. Geological Survey. This paper also follows the earlier one in interpreting the Reserves Addition in two different ways that represent opposite boundary conditions. In Case 1, the Reserves Addition was only assumed active after the peak in production has passed and in Case 2, it was assumed to

  16. Simulation study of the impact of world oil prices on the development of the Libyan economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abosedra, S.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this study was to determine quantitatively how sensitive and vulnerable the Libyan economy's aggregates are to fluctuations in world oil prices. In order to achieve the goal, a macroeconomic model of the Libyan economy was constructed using annual data from 1962-1978. The model contains 36 relations, of which 19 are behavioral equations and 17 are identities. The model was validated by both historical simulation and a one-period out-of-sample forecast. Having established the predictive ability of the model, alternative future scenarios of the Libyan economy were examined from 1980-1987 by performing an ex-ante simulation for this period. This simulation was divided into two sections. The first covers the period 1980-1983, for which actual data for Libyan oil prices and the volume of Libyan oil exports are available. The second section covers the period 1984-1987. In this section the future of the Libyan economy was simulated under a basic price scenario which reflects the most likely forecast regarding the world oil price level from 1984-1987. In addition, a sensitivity analysis was performed by establishing a new scenario for the world oil price level from 1984-1987. A comparison the results of these simulations shows the effects resulting from changes in the world oil price level on the Libyan economy.

  17. The Politics of Mexico’s Oil Monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizar, Richard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    based on the current oil reserves and oil production? 2) Forto either increase its oil reserves or decrease its oilthe world in terms of oil reserves by having 16,041 million

  18. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  19. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question.

  20. MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas) Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Glyn

    MEMORIAL UNIVERSITY OF NEWFOUNDLAND Three-year Term Appointment in Process (Oil and Gas with oil and gas specialization at the assistant- or associate professor-level, commencing April 12, 2010 in the area of oil and gas, and process engineering, to supervise graduate students, to participate in other

  1. World heavy crude and bitumen riches, 1988: half the world's oil future is mortgaged by low prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cover graph shows a glimpse of the future: the world's next offering to civilization. No one knows how much, and just when, great amounts of heavy crude oil resources will be developed. Even less is speculated about bitumen resources. But speculation is not required to reach the conclusion that non-conventional oil must be developed in the Western Hemisphere -- and soon. Considerable data are presented in this issue to reinforce this conclusion. This issues also contains the following: (1) refining netback data series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore, as of Dec. 9 and Dec. 20, 1988; and (2) ED fuel price/tax series for countries of both the Western and Eastern Hemisphere, Dec. 1988 edition. 9 figures, 11 tables.

  2. Naturally fractured reservoirs contain a significant amount of the world oil reserves. A number of these reservoirs contain several

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arbogast, Todd

    Summary Naturally fractured reservoirs contain a significant amount of the world oil reserves. A number of these reservoirs contain several billion barrels of oil. Accurate and efficient reservoir this implementation has led to a unique and powerful reservoir simulator that can be used by small and large oil

  3. Short-term microbial testing of shale oil materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, T.K.; Epler, J.L.; Guerin, M.R.; Clark, B.R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Paraho/Sohio Shale Oil was found to be mutagenic in the Ames assay when assayed with the frameshift strain TA98 and incorporating metabolic activation with rat liver homogenates (Aroclor induced S-9). The mutagenic activity was contributed by the organic constituents of the basic and the neutral fractions. Hydrotreatment of the shale oil abolished the mutagenic activity. Results obtained in the yeast assay supported these observations. Refined oil samples from Paraho/Sohio refinery were not mutagenic. The samples rank for their mutagenic activity as coal oils > shale oil > natural petroleum crudes.

  4. Using futures prices to filter short-term volatility and recover a latent, long-term price series for oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herce, Miguel Angel

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil prices are very volatile. But much of this volatility seems to reflect short-term,transitory factors that may have little or no influence on the price in the long run. Many major investment decisions should be guided ...

  5. International Association for Energy Economics ? | 37 Canadian Oil Sands: Current Projects and Plans, and Long-term Prospects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuliya Pidlisna

    Oil sands reserves are found in several locations around the world, including Venezuela, USA, and the Russian Federation. The largest oil sands operations are in the province of Alberta, Canada (Ordorica-

  6. A BREAF OVERVIEW OF MOTOR FUELS FROM SHALE OIL OF KUKERSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Oja

    conventional oil) have existed since before World War II. While long-term full-scale applications had in most

  7. Long-Term Ecosystem Response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    extending now for more than 14 years (2­5). The release of 42 million liters of Alaskan North Slope crudeLong-Term Ecosystem Response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Charles H. Peterson,1 * Stanley D. Rice The ecosystem response to the 1989 spill of oil from the Exxon Valdez into Prince William Sound, Alaska, shows

  8. Volume 29, Issue 2 On the short-term influence of oil price changes on stock markets in gcc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Volume 29, Issue 2 On the short-term influence of oil price changes on stock markets Rouen & LEO Abstract This paper examines the short-run relationships between oil prices and GCC stock to oil price shocks. To account for the fact that stock markets may respond nonlinearly to oil price

  9. Y. Yiliyasi and D. Berleant, "World oil reserves data: information quality assessment and analysis," 16th International Conference on Information Quality, Nov. 18-20, 2011, Adelaide, Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berleant, Daniel

    Y. Yiliyasi and D. Berleant, "World oil reserves data: information quality assessment and analysis a framework for assessing the information quality of world oil reserves data. The framework is applied of oil reserve data. Keywords: Data Quality, Information Quality, Information Quality Framework

  10. Assessing world energy in the wake of the Iran/Iraq war: an oil shortage proves elusive. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randol, W.L.; Verleger, P.K. Jr.; Clayman, M.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reassessment of world energy supplies was made in the wake of curtailed exports during the Iran/Iraq war and the corresponding increase in world oil prices, the drop in oil consumption, the widening economic recession, and US decontrol of oil. The report concludes that present worldwide levels of oil production are adequate to satisfy projected levels of consumption through 1981. This leaves the world energy system in balance even if oil exports from Iran and Iraq remain at minimal levels for the year. Past overestimation of demand makes it more likely that this year's consumption will fall short of the projection. The way in which Saudi Arabia's output is cut will be the key to oil pricing in 1981, the authors feel, but the likely approach will be a gradual reduction in production that will allow the Saudis to regain control of OPEC. The effects of a receding demand for oil have been intensified by high US interest rates and the spreading recession. The effect of immediate decontrol of petroleum is likely to compound the trend for reduced consumption and a corresponding increase in efficiency. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Assessment of Long-Term Research Needs for Shale-Oil Recovery (FERWG-III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penner, S.S.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of E. Frieman (Director, Office of Energy Research) and G. Fumich, Jr. (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Fuels), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on shale-oil recovery. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of critical research areas that affect the long-term prospects for shale-oil availability. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  12. Estimating long-term world coal production with logit and probit transforms David Rutledge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinreb, Sander

    from measurements of coal seams. We show that where the estimates based on reserves can be testedEstimating long-term world coal production with logit and probit transforms David Rutledge form 27 October 2010 Accepted 27 October 2010 Available online 4 November 2010 Keywords: Coal reserves

  13. Bioconversion of Heavy oil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinbakk, Sandra

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??70 % of world?s oil reservoirs consist of heavy oil, and as the supply of conventional oil decreases, researchers are searching for new technologies to… (more)

  14. Oil price shocks and their short-and long-term effects on the Chinese economy Weiqi Tang a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthews, Adrian

    Oil price shocks and their short- and long-term effects on the Chinese economy Weiqi Tang a , Libo-correction model Oil-price shocks Price transmission mechanisms Investment Output Producer/consumer price index of oil-price shocks for the developed economies. However, there has been a lack of similar empirical

  15. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    increases in the price of crude oil during the last half ofdollar-denominated price of crude oil increased about 50%.month contract) price per gallon of crude oil and gasoline

  16. Insights from a Simple Hotelling Model of the World Oil Market C.-Y. Cynthia Lina1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    data used in this study were acquired with the help of Brian Greene and with funds from the Littauer Kennedy School Pre-Doctoral Fellowship in energy policy. All errors are my own. #12;1 1 INTRODUCTION. In a 1980-1981 study by Stanford University's Energy Modeling Forum of ten prominent models of the world oil

  17. EIA model documentation: World oil refining logistics demand model,``WORLD`` reference manual. Version 1.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This manual is intended primarily for use as a reference by analysts applying the WORLD model to regional studies. It also provides overview information on WORLD features of potential interest to managers and analysts. Broadly, the manual covers WORLD model features in progressively increasing detail. Section 2 provides an overview of the WORLD model, how it has evolved, what its design goals are, what it produces, and where it can be taken with further enhancements. Section 3 reviews model management covering data sources, managing over-optimization, calibration and seasonality, check-points for case construction and common errors. Section 4 describes in detail the WORLD system, including: data and program systems in overview; details of mainframe and PC program control and files;model generation, size management, debugging and error analysis; use with different optimizers; and reporting and results analysis. Section 5 provides a detailed description of every WORLD model data table, covering model controls, case and technology data. Section 6 goes into the details of WORLD matrix structure. It provides an overview, describes how regional definitions are controlled and defines the naming conventions for-all model rows, columns, right-hand sides, and bounds. It also includes a discussion of the formulation of product blending and specifications in WORLD. Several Appendices supplement the main sections.

  18. Progress report to the National Science Foundation for the period July 1, 1980 to December 31, 1981 of the project on cartel behavior and exhaustible resource supply : a case study of the world oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Energy Studies Program (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The M.I.T. World Oil Project has been developing forecasting methods that integrate the following considerations which influence investment in oil capacity and the level of oil exports: (1) the geology and microeconomics ...

  19. I. Canada EIA/ARI World Shale Gas and Shale Oil Resource Assessment I. CANADA SUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    by this resource study. Figure I-1 illustrates certain of the major shale gas and shale oil basins in

  20. Cost, Conflict and Climate: U.S. Challenges in the World Oil Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Severin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    incremental income from oil production inside the U.S. “U.S.that it would expand oil production in the U.S. by more thanthe wealth created by oil production in the U.S. o?sets the

  1. Econometric Modelling of World Oil Supplies: Terminal Price and the Time to Depletion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaddes, Kamiar

    2012-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper develops a novel approach by which to identify the price of oil at the time of depletion; the so-called terminal price of oil. It is shown that while the terminal price is independent of both GDP growth and the price elasticity of energy...

  2. IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY IN MISSISSIPPIAN CARBONATE RESERVOIRS OF KANSAS - NEAR TERM - CLASS 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy R. Carr; Don W. Green; G. Paul Willhite

    2000-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report describes progress during the final year of the project entitled ''Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas''. This project funded under the Department of Energy's Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of the project was development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated, including PfEFFER spreadsheet log analysis software. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. A summary of demonstration phase at the Schaben and Ness City North sites demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies and technologies. At the Schaben Field, a total of 22 additional locations were evaluated based on the reservoir characterization and simulation studies and resulted in a significant incremental production increase. At Ness City North Field, a horizontal infill well (Mull Ummel No.4H) was planned and drilled based on the results of reservoir characterization and simulation studies to optimize the location and length. The well produced excellent and predicted oil rates for the first two months. Unexpected presence of vertical shale intervals in the lateral resulted in loss of the hole. While the horizontal well was not economically successful, the technology was demonstrated to have potential to recover significant additional reserves in Kansas and the Midcontinent. Several low-cost approaches were developed to evaluate candidate reservoirs for potential horizontal well applications at the field scale, lease level, and well level, and enable the small independent producer to identify efficiently candidate reservoirs and also to predict the performance of horizontal well applications.

  3. Final report to the National Science Foundation for the period July 1, 1978 to June 30, 1980 of project on cartel behavior and exhaustible resource supply : a case study of the world oil market.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M.I.T. World Oil Project.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The M.I.T. World Oil Project has been developing improved methods and data for analysis of the future course of the world oil market. Any forecast of this market depends on analysis of the likely demand for oil imports by ...

  4. Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Waste oils offer a tremendous recycling potential. An important, dwindling natural resource of great economic and industrial value, oil products are a cornerstone of our modern industrial society. Petroleum is processed into a wide variety of products: gasoline, fuel oil, diesel oil, synthetic rubber, solvents, pesticides, synthetic fibres, lubricating oil, drugs and many more ' (see Figure 1 1. The boilers of Amercian industries presently consume about 40 % of the used lubricating oils collected. In Ontario, the percentage varies from 20 to 30%. Road oiling is the other major use of collected waste oils. Five to seven million gallons (50-70 % of the waste oil col1ected)is spread on dusty Ontario roads each summer. The practice is both a wasteful use of a dwindling resource and an environmental hazard. The waste oil, with its load of heavy metals, particularly lead, additives including dangerous polynuclear aromatics and PCBs, is carried into the natural environment by runoff and dust to contaminate soils and water courses.2 The largest portion of used oils is never collected, but disappears into sewers, landfill sites and backyards. In Ontario alone, approximately 22 million gallons of potentially recyclable lube oil simply vanish each year. While oil recycling has ad-114 Oil

  5. The domestic natural gas and oil initiative. Energy leadership in the world economy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two key overarching goals of this Initiative are enhancing the efficiency and competitiveness of U.S. industry and reducing the trends toward higher imports. These goals take into account new Federal policies that reflect economic needs, including economic growth, deficit reduction, job creation and security, and global competitiveness, as well as the need to preserve the environment, improve energy efficiency, and provide for national security. The success of this Initiative clearly requires coordinated strategies that range far beyond policies primarily directed at natural gas and oil supplies. Therefore, this Initiative proposes three major strategic activities: Strategic Activity 1 -- increase domestic natural gas and oil production and environmental protection by advancing and disseminating new exploration, production, and refining technologies; Strategic Activity 2 -- stimulate markets for natural gas and natural-gas-derived products, including their use as substitutes for imported oil where feasible; and Strategic Activity 3 -- ensure cost-effective environmental protection by streamlining and improving government communication, decision making, and regulation. Finally, the Initiative will reexamine the costs and benefits of increase oil imports through a broad new Department of Energy study. This study will form the basis for additional actions found to be warranted under the study.

  6. Africa: Unrest and restrictive terms limit abundant potential. [Oil and gas exploration and development in Africa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper summarizes the drilling and exploration activity of the oil and gas industries of Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, the Congo, Angola, and South Africa. Information is provided on current and predicted trends in well drilling activities (both onshore and offshore), numbers of new wells, footage information, production statistics and what fields accounted for this production, and planned new exploration activities. The paper also describes the current status of government policies and political problems affecting the oil and gas industry.

  7. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Walton; D. McCune; D.W. Green; G.P. Willhite; L. Watney; M. Michnick; R. Reynolds

    1997-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to study waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone. The major tasks undertaken are reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database; volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance; reservoir modeling; identification of operational problems; identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors; and identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process.

  9. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Walton; D. McCune; D.W. Green; G.P. Willhite; L. Watney; R. Reynolds; m. Michnick

    1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to study waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone. The major tasks undertaken are reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database; volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance; reservoir modeling; identification of operational problems; identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors; and identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process.

  10. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Walton; D. McCune; D.W. Green; G.P. Willhite; L. Watney; M. Cichnick; R. Reynolds

    1998-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to study waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone. The major tasks undertaken are reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database; volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance; reservoir modeling; identification of operational problems; identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors; and identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process.

  11. World Crude Oil Prices

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:short version)ec 1827 Table 7.2c43

  12. Heavy Oil Upgrading from Electron Beam (E-Beam) Irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Daegil

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -heavy oil, and oil shale. Tremendous amounts of heavy oil resources are available in the world. Fig. 1.1 shows the total world oil reserves, and indicates that heavy oil, extra heavy oil, and bitumen make up about 70% of the world?s total oil resources...

  13. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    nations began to seek out oil reserves around the world. 3on the limited global oil reserves and spiking prices. Manyto the largest proven oil reserves, making up 61 percent of

  14. War curbs oil exports by Iran and Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A discussion of the effects of the war between Iran and Iraq on oil exports from the area covers damage (extent unknown) to the Abadan, Iran, and Basra, Iraq, oil refineries, to the Iraqi petrochemical complex under construction at Basra, to oil export terminals at Kharg Island and Mina-al-Bakr, and to other oil facilities; war-caused reductions in oil production, refining, shipping, and export, estimated at 2.05-3.35 million bbl/day; the possible effects of the war on OPEC's decisions concerning oil production and pricing; the significance of the Strait of Hormuz for the export of oil by several countries in addition to the belligerents; the U.S. and non-Communist oil stocks which might enable the world to avoid an oil shortage if the war is ended in the near future; and the long-term effects of the war on Iran's and Iraq's oil industries.

  15. Oil market in international and Norwegian perspectives.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singsaas, Julia Nazyrova

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Crude oil is the most important energy source in global perspective. About 35 percent of the world’s primary energy consumption is supplied by oil, followed… (more)

  16. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas - Near-term, Class I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Reynolds, Rodney R.; McCune, A. Dwayne; Michnick, Michael J.; Walton, Anthony W.; Watney, W. Lynn

    2000-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involved two demonstration projects, one in a Marrow reservoir located in the southwestern part of the state and the second in the Cherokee Group in eastern Kansas. Morrow reservoirs of western Kansas are still actively being explored and constitute an important resource in Kansas. Cumulative oil production from the Morrow in Kansas is over 400,000,000 bbls. Much of the production from the Morrow is still in the primary stage and has not reached the mature declining state of that in the Cherokee. The Cherokee Group has produced about 1 billion bbls of oil since the first commercial production began over a century ago. It is a billion-barrel plus resource that is distributed over a large number of fields and small production units. Many of the reservoirs are operated close to the economic limit, although the small units and low production per well are offset by low costs associated with the shallow nature of the reservoirs (less than 1000 ft. deep).

  17. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas Near Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhlte, C.P.; Walton, A.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by North American Resources Company. The Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period I involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2. Budget Period 2 objectives consisted of the design, construction, and operation of a field-wide waterflood utilizing state-of-the-art, off-the-shelf technologies in an attempt to optimize secondary oil recovery. To accomplish these objectives the second budget period was subdivided into five major tasks. The tasks were (1) design and construction of a waterflood plant, (2) design and construction of a water injection system, (3) design and construction of tank battery consolidation and gathering system, (4) initiation of waterflood operations and reservoir management, and (5) technology transfer. In the Savonburg Project, the reservoir management portion involves performance evaluation. This work included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) identification of operational problems, (3) identification of near wellbore problems such as plugging caused from poor water quality, (4) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (5) preliminary identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process i.e., polymer augmented waterflooding or infill drilling (vertical or horizontal wells). To accomplish this work the initial budget period was subdivided into four major tasks. The tasks included (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) waterplant optimization, (3) wellbore cleanup and pattern changes, and (4) field operations. This work was completed and the project has moved into Budget Period 2. The Budget Period 2 objectives consisted of continual optimization of this mature waterflood in an attempt to optimize secondary and tertiary oil recovery. To accomplish these objectives the second budget period was subdivided into six major tasks. The tasks were (1) waterplant development, (2) profile modification treatments, (3) pattern changes, new wells and wellbore cleanups, (4) reservoir development (polymer flooding), (5) field operations, and (6) technology transfer.

  18. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Walton; Don W. Green; G. Paul Whillhite; L. Schoeling; L. Watney; M. Michnick; R. Reynolds

    1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by North American Resources Company. The Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are 1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, 2) waterflood optimization, and 3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included 1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, 2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, 3) reservoir modeling, 4) laboratory work, 5) identification of operational problems, 6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and 7) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were 1) geological and engineering analysis, 2) laboratory testing, and 3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2. Budget Period 2 objectives consisted of the design, construction, and operation of a field-wide waterflood utilizing state-of-the-art, off-the-shelf technologies in an attempt to optimize secondary oil recovery. To accomplish these objectives the second budget period was subdivided into five major tasks. The tasks were 1) design and construction of a waterflood plant, 2) design and construction of a water injection system, 3) design and construction of tank battery consolidation and gathering system, 4) initiation of waterflood operations and reservoir management, and 5) technology transfer. Tasks 1-3 have been completed and water injection began in October 1995. In the Savonburg Project, the reservoir management portion involves performance evaluation. This work included 1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, 2) identification of operational problems, 3) identification of near wellbore problems such as plugging caused from poor water quality, 4) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and 5) preliminary identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process i.e., polymer augmented waterflooding or infill drilling (vertical or horizontal wells). To accomplish this work the initial budget period was subdivided into four major tasks. The tasks included 1) geological and engineering analysis, 2) waterplant optimization, 3) wellbore cleanup and pattern changes, and 4) field operations. This work was completed and the project has moved into Budget Period 2. The Budget Period 2 objectives consisted of continual optimization of this mature waterflood in an attempt to optimize secondary and tertiary oil recovery. To accomplish these objectives the second budget period is subdivided into six major tasks. The tasks were 1) waterplant development, 2) profile modification treatments, 3) pattern changes, new wells and wellbore cleanups, 4) reservoir development (polymer flooding), 5) field operations, and 6) technology transfer.

  19. A view of short term biological testing of petroleum lube oil base stocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepinske, G.J. (Calumet Industries, Inc., Chicago, IL (US))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological activity of petroleum products has been the subject of continuing scientific studies for several decades. Even prior to 1960, documentation existed which related petroleum products to skin cancer in workers and experimental animals. The Hazard Communication Standard, published in 1983, brought about a general awareness of the situation which had previously been considered an esoteric subject by many. Lube oil refiners who were now required by the Department of Labor to evaluate the potential hazards of their product could look to the IARC Monographs for some direction. Unfortunately, this document is a scientific compendium not worded suitably to become the basis for law, nor was it intended for that purpose. Questions concerning definitions were raised. The author discusses examples of two widely different naphthenic raw distillates. For the evaluation of new candidate distillates this paper presents the key variables which need to be studied.

  20. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; McCune, D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L.; Willhite G.P.

    1999-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. Te Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2.

  1. Improved Oil Recovery in Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near-Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Don W.; McCune, A.D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. Te Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. In the Stewart Project, the reservoir management portion of the project conducted during Budget Period 1 involved performance evaluation. This included (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) volumetric analysis to evaluate production performance, (3) reservoir modeling, (4) laboratory work, (5) identification of operational problems, (6) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (7) Identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. To accomplish these objectives the initial budget period was subdivided into three major tasks. The tasks were (1) geological and engineering analysis, (2) laboratory testing, and (3) unitization. Due to the presence of different operators within the field, it was necessary to unitize the field in order to demonstrate a field-wide improved recovery process. This work was completed and the project moved into Budget Period 2.

  2. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated reservoirs of Kansas--near-term. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Common oil field problems exist in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs in Kansas. The problems are poor waterflood sweep efficiency and lack of reservoir management. The poor waterflood sweep efficiency is due to (1) reservoir heterogeneity, (2) channeling of injected water through high permeability zones or fractures, and (3) clogging of injection wells due to solids in the injection water. In many instances the lack of reservoir management results from (1) poor data collection and organization, (2) little or no integrated analysis of existing data by geological and engineering personnel, (3) the presence of multiple operators within the field, and (4) not identifying optimum recovery techniques. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by North American Resources Company. This field was in the latter stage of primary production at the beginning of this project and is currently being waterflooded as a result of this project. The Nelson Lease (an existing waterflood) is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. The objective is to increase recovery efficiency and economics in these type of reservoirs. The technologies being applied to increase waterflood sweep efficiency are (1) in situ permeability modification treatments, (2) infill drilling, (3) pattern changes, and (4) air flotation to improve water quality. The technologies being applied to improve reservoir management are (1) database development, (2) reservoir simulation, (3) transient testing, (4) database management and (5) integrated geological and engineering analysis. Results of these two field projects are discussed.

  3. Improved Oil Recovery In Fluvial Dominated Deltaic Reservoirs of Kansas - Near Term

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Don W.; McCune, D.; Michnick, M.; Reynolds, R.; Walton, A.; Watney, L.; Willhite, G. Paul

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Common oil field problems exist in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs in Kansas. The problems are poor waterflood sweep efficiency and lack of reservoir management. The poor waterflood sweep efficiency is due to (1) reservoir heterogeneity, (2) channeling of injected water through high permeability zones or fractures, and (3) clogging of injection wells due to solids in the injection water. In many instances the lack of reservoir management results from (1) poor data collection and organization, (2) little or no integrated analysis of existing data by geological and engineering personnel, (3) the presence of multiple operators within the field, and (4) not identifying optimum recovery techniques. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. This field was in the latter stage of primary production at the beginning of this project and is currently being waterflooded as a result of this project. The Nelson Lease (an existing waterflood) is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. The objective is to increase recovery efficiency and economics in these types of reservoirs. The technologies being applied to increase waterflood sweep efficiency are (1) in situ permeability modification treatments, (2) infill drilling, (3) pattern changes, and (4) air flotation to improve water quality. The technologies being applied to improve reservoir management are (1) database development, (2) reservoir simulation, (3) transient testing, (4) database management, and (5) integrated geological and engineering analysis.

  4. Source Term Modeling for Evaluating the Potential Impacts to Groundwater of Fluids Escaping from a Depleted Oil Reservoir Used for Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years depleted oil reservoirs have received special interest as carbon storage reservoirs because of their potential to offset costs through collaboration with enhanced oil recovery projects. Modeling is currently being conducted to evaluate potential risks to groundwater associated with leakage of fluids from depleted oil reservoirs used for storage of CO2. Modeling results reported here focused on understanding how toxic organic compounds found in oil will distribute between the various phases within a storage reservoir after introduction of CO2, understanding the migration potential of these compounds, and assessing potential groundwater impacts should leakage occur. Two model scenarios were conducted to evaluate how organic components in oil will distribute among the phases of interest (oil, CO2, and brine). The first case consisted of 50 wt.% oil and 50 wt.% water; the second case was 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil. Several key organic compounds were selected for special attention in this study based upon their occurrence in oil at significant concentrations, relative toxicity, or because they can serve as surrogate compounds for other more highly toxic compounds for which required input data are not available. The organic contaminants of interest (COI) selected for this study were benzene, toluene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and anthracene. Partitioning of organic compounds between crude oil and supercritical CO2 was modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state over temperature and pressure conditions that represent the entire subsurface system (from those relevant to deep geologic carbon storage environments to near surface conditions). Results indicate that for a typical set of oil reservoir conditions (75°C, and 21,520 kPa) negligible amounts of the COI dissolve into the aqueous phase. When CO2 is introduced into the reservoir such that the final composition of the reservoir is 90 wt.% CO2 and 10 wt.% oil, a significant fraction of the oil dissolves into the vapor phase. As the vapor phase moves up through the stratigraphic column, pressures and temperatures decrease, resulting in significant condensation of oil components. The heaviest organic components condense early in this process (at higher pressures and temperatures), while the lighter components tend to remain in the vapor phase until much lower pressures and temperatures are reached. Based on the model assumptions, the final concentrations of COI to reach an aquifer at 1,520 kPa and 25°C were quite significant for benzene and toluene, whereas the concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons that reach the aquifer were very small. This work demonstrates a methodology that can provide COI source term concentrations in CO2 leaking from a reservoir and entering an overlying aquifer for use in risk assessments.

  5. "Angola Is Not Just about Oil, War and Poverty": Reflections on Angolan Soccer, Nationalism and the Run to the 2006 World Cup Finals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cleveland, Todd

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    only for its prodigious oil reserves, protracted civil war (for its prodigious oil reserves, protracted civil war (1975-

  6. WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL AND OIL UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR · FISH ON OF FISH MEAL AND OIL , ESPECIALLY DUR ING 1953 TO 1959, THE PRI NC IPAL MARKET S FOR THE PRODUCTS- DICATE WHAT IS INCLUDED BESIDES FISHMEAL AND FISH BODY OIL. #12;WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE IN FISH MEAL

  7. The effect of biofuel on the international oil market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochman, Gal; Rajagopal, Deepak; Zilberman, David D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    world consumption of crude oil, consumption grew from 2005mark). Although consumption of crude oil in the Middle East,

  8. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Julia. “ World Stocks Sag as Oil Price Surges. ” The NewCollapse: Grain and Oil,” On the Issues, Am. Enterpriseet. al. , “Unrelenting Oil Addiction,” Russ. in Global

  9. Libyan oil industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waddams, F.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three aspects of the growth and progress of Libya's oil industry since the first crude oil discovery in 1961 are: (1) relations between the Libyan government and the concessionary oil companies; (2) the impact of Libyan oil and events in Libya on the petroleum markets of Europe and the world; and (3) the response of the Libyan economy to the development of its oil industry. The historical review begins with Libya's becoming a sovereign nation in 1951 and traces its subsequent development into a position as a leading world oil producer. 54 references, 10 figures, 55 tables.

  10. Class III Mid-Term Project, "Increasing Heavy Oil Reserves in the Wilmington Oil Field Through Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Thermal Production Technologies"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Hara

    2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to increase heavy oil reserves in slope and basin clastic (SBC) reservoirs through the application of advanced reservoir characterization and thermal production technologies. The project involved improving thermal recovery techniques in the Tar Zone of Fault Blocks II-A and V (Tar II-A and Tar V) of the Wilmington Field in Los Angeles County, near Long Beach, California. A primary objective has been to transfer technology that can be applied in other heavy oil formations of the Wilmington Field and other SBC reservoirs, including those under waterflood. The first budget period addressed several producibility problems in the Tar II-A and Tar V thermal recovery operations that are common in SBC reservoirs. A few of the advanced technologies developed include a three-dimensional (3-D) deterministic geologic model, a 3-D deterministic thermal reservoir simulation model to aid in reservoir management and subsequent post-steamflood development work, and a detailed study on the geochemical interactions between the steam and the formation rocks and fluids. State of the art operational work included drilling and performing a pilot steam injection and production project via four new horizontal wells (2 producers and 2 injectors), implementing a hot water alternating steam (WAS) drive pilot in the existing steamflood area to improve thermal efficiency, installing a 2400-foot insulated, subsurface harbor channel crossing to supply steam to an island location, testing a novel alkaline steam completion technique to control well sanding problems, and starting on an advanced reservoir management system through computer-aided access to production and geologic data to integrate reservoir characterization, engineering, monitoring, and evaluation. The second budget period phase (BP2) continued to implement state-of-the-art operational work to optimize thermal recovery processes, improve well drilling and completion practices, and evaluate the geomechanical characteristics of the producing formations. The objectives were to further improve reservoir characterization of the heterogeneous turbidite sands, test the proficiency of the three-dimensional geologic and thermal reservoir simulation models, identify the high permeability thief zones to reduce water breakthrough and cycling, and analyze the nonuniform distribution of the remaining oil in place. This work resulted in the redevelopment of the Tar II-A and Tar V post-steamflood projects by drilling several new wells and converting idle wells to improve injection sweep efficiency and more effectively drain the remaining oil reserves. Reservoir management work included reducing water cuts, maintaining or increasing oil production, and evaluating and minimizing further thermal-related formation compaction. The BP2 project utilized all the tools and knowledge gained throughout the DOE project to maximize recovery of the oil in place.

  11. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  12. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil sands comprise 30% of the world’s oil reserves andthe crude oil reserves in Canada’s oil sands deposits are30% of total world oil reserves (Alboudwarej et al. , 2006)

  13. Chinaâs Oil Diplomacy with Russia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jiun-chuan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In Chinaâs view, it is necessary to get crude oil and oil pipeline. Under Russia and China strategic partnership, China tries to obtain âlong term… (more)

  14. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10% of the world’s known oil reserves. 13 Russia holds the141 No new major oil reserves have been found since 2000,aggregation oil prices and foreign reserves have about the

  15. US military expenditures to protect the use of Persian Gulf oil for motor vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    70% of the world’s proven oil reserves, and the Persian Gulfto the largest proven oil reserves in the world (Jointthe region’s huge reserves of oil, and that as a result US

  16. Libya: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that Libya is moving forward with plans to sell most of its crude as refined products and should have the capacity to handle most of its production, about 1.3 million bpd, by the mid-90s. Production was increased after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, and peak capacity could be over 1.5 million bopd. Exploration pace is still increasing but U.S. sanctions have taken their toll. Gas projects are advancing as officials push to develop and utilize more domestic gas reserves. Libya has commissioned a new gas processing plant in Sahl gas field in Sirte basin and plans are under way for development of Tahaddi field, Libya's largest gas field with 9 Tcf.

  17. Iran: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that at the end of its war with Iraq, Iran embarked on an urgent program to restore its productive capacity. This effort has been hindered by lack of hard currency and, hence, technology, parts, equipment, etc. Iran has been trying to improve relations with the U.S, over the past two years. Recently, the embargo on importing Iranian crude into the U.S. was lifted. Over the past year and a half, Iran accumulated enough money to resume imports of U.S. and other foreign drilling equipment. However, drilling has remained at a low level. Also, efforts to boost output have been slowed by war damage both on and offshore---particularly the latter---and serious BHP declines in major onshore fields that can only be corrected by ultra- high cost gas injection projects. Currently, large injection projects are only operating in three major fields: Gachsaran, Ahwaz and Marun.

  18. Cursed Resources? Political Conditions and Oil Market Volatility*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, Paul N.

    a country's political conditions affect oil production within its borders. We show production, with very democratic regimes exhibiting less volatility in their oil production than more of oil production volatility. Our finding has implications both for understanding world oil markets

  19. Modeling of Energy Production Decisions: An Alaska Oil Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leighty, Wayne

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Weimer, D.L. (1984) Oil prices shock, market response,OPEC behavior and world oil prices (pp. 175-185) London:many decades. Recent high oil prices have caused oil-holding

  20. Role of speculation in short-term US oil crude prices and gasoline price variability of the 2000s and the role of monetary policy price stability interventions.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norris, Leah C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The objectives of this study were to analyze the short-run impact of futures contract prices on crude oil prices, the impact of crude oil… (more)

  1. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas -- Near term. Quarterly report, June 30--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1995-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas and in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in the project. General topics to be addressed will be (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation; (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. The reservoir management portion of the project will involve performance evaluation and will include such work as (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) identification of operational problems, (3) identification of near wellbore problems, (4) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (5) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. The waterflood optimization portion of the project involves only the Nelson Lease. It will be based on the performance evaluation and will involve (1) design and implementation of a water cleanup system for the waterflood, (2) application of well remedial work such as polymer gel treatments to improve vertical sweep efficiency, and (3) changes in waterflood patterns to increase sweep efficiency. Finally, it is planned to implement an improved recovery process on both field demonstration sites.

  2. e n e r g y Unconventional Oil Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuck In A Rock; A Hard Place; M. Engemann; Michael T. Owyang

    Highly variable oil prices and increasing world demand for oil have led producers to look for alternative sources of transportation fuel. Two popular alternatives are oil sands (aka tar sands) and oil shale. However, obtaining usable oil from oil sands or oil shale is more capital-intensive and more expensive than obtaining oil from conventional reserves. At what price of oil do these alternatives become cost-effective? Oil Sands Oil sands are a mixture of sand, water, clay and heavy, viscous oil called bitumen. The largest known deposits of oil sands are in Alberta, Canada, and the Orinoco Oil

  3. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas - near-term. Quarterly report, April 1 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites, Stewart Field, and Savonburg Field, operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. General topics to be addressed are: (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation; (2) waterflood optimization; and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. For the Stewart Field project, work is summarized for the last quarter on waterflood operations and reservoir management. For the Savonburg Field project, work on water plant development, and pattern changes and wellbore cleanup are briefly described.

  4. Soviet Union oil sector outlook grows bleaker still

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the outlook for the U.S.S.R's oil sector which grows increasingly bleak and with it prospects for the Soviet economy. Plunging Soviet oil production and exports have analysts revising near term oil price outlooks, referring to the Soviet oil sector's self-destructing and Soviet oil production in a freefall. County NatWest, Washington, citing likely drops in Soviet oil production and exports (OGJ, Aug. 5, p. 16), has jumped its projected second half spot price for West Texas intermediate crude by about $2 to $22-23/bbl. Smith Barney, New York, forecasts WTI postings at $24-25/bbl this winter, largely because of seasonally strong world oil demand and the continued collapse in Soviet oil production. It estimates the call on oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries at more than 25 million b/d in first quarter 1992. That would be the highest level of demand for OPEC oil since 1980, Smith Barney noted.

  5. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas near term Class 2. Annual report, September 18, 1994--March 15, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, T.R.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This annual report describes progress during the second year of the project entitled {open_quotes}Improved Oil Recovery in Mississippian Carbonate Reservoirs in Kansas{close_quotes}. This project funded under the Department of Energy`s Class 2 program targets improving the reservoir performance of mature oil fields located in shallow shelf carbonate reservoirs. The focus of this project is development and demonstration of cost-effective reservoir description and management technologies to extend the economic life of mature reservoirs in Kansas and the mid-continent. As part of the project, several tools and techniques for reservoir description and management were developed, modified and demonstrated. These include: (1) a new approach to subsurface visualization using electric logs ({open_quotes}Pseudoseismic{open_quotes}); (2) a low-cost easy-to-use spreadsheet log analysis software (PfEFFER); and (3) an extension of the BOAST-3 computer program for full field reservoir simulation. The world-wide-web was used to provide rapid and flexible dissemination of the project results through the Internet. Included in this report is a summary of significant project results at the demonstration site (Schaben Field, Ness County, Kansas). These results include an outline of the reservoir description based on available and newly acquired data and reservoir simulation results. Detailed information is available on-line through the Internet. Based on the reservoir simulation, three infill wells will be drilled to validate the reservoir description and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed reservoir management strategies. The demonstration phase of the project has just begun and will be presented in the next annual report.

  6. Changing patterns of world energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todd, S.H.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The substantial increases in oil prices since 1973 have had tremendous impacts on world energy, and particularly on oil consumption. These impacts have varied across regions and energy types. As shown in a table, from 1960 through 1973 the real price of internationally traded crude oil, as measured in constant US dollars, changed very little. In this stable oil price environment, Free World energy consumption grew at 5.3% per year and oil use rose at 7.5% per year, increasing its share of Free World energy consumption from 43 to 56%. 6 tables.

  7. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas -- Near-term. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; McCune, D.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. The Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. Progress is described for the Stewart field on the following tasks: design/construct waterflood plant; design/construct injection system; design/construct battery consolidation and gathering system; waterflood operations and reservoir management; and technology transfer. Progress for the Savonburg Field includes: water plant development; profile modification treatments; pattern changes and wellbore cleanup; reservoir development (polymer flooding); field operations; and technology transfer.

  8. Costs of U.S. Oil Dependence: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For thirty years, dependence on oil has been a significant problem for the United States. Oil dependence is not simply a matter of how much oil we import. It is a syndrome, a combination of the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to higher oil prices and oil price shocks and a concentration of world oil supplies in a small group of oil producing states that are willing and able to use their market power to influence world oil prices. Although there are vitally important political and military dimensions to the oil dependence problem, this report focuses on its direct economic costs. These costs are the transfer of wealth from the United States to oil producing countries, the loss of economic potential due to oil prices elevated above competitive market levels, and disruption costs caused by sudden and large oil price movements. Several enhancements have been made to methods used in past studies to estimate these costs, and estimates of key parameters have been updated based on the most recent literature. It is estimated that oil dependence has cost the U.S. economy $3.6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars) since 1970, with the bulk of the losses occurring between 1979 and 1986. However, if oil prices in 2005 average $35-$45/bbl, as recently predicted by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, oil dependence costs in 2005 will be in the range of $150-$250 billion. Costs are relatively evenly divided between the three components. A sensitivity analysis reflecting uncertainty about all the key parameters required to estimate oil dependence costs suggests that a reasonable range of uncertainty for the total costs of U.S. oil dependence over the past 30 years is $2-$6 trillion (constant 2000 dollars). Reckoned in terms of present value using a discount rate of 4.5%, the costs of U.S. oil dependence since 1970 are $8 trillion, with a reasonable range of uncertainty of $5 to $13 trillion.

  9. Oil Market Assessment

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

  10. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C. (Whitehall, PA); Foster, Edward P. (Macungie, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  11. U. S. Military Expenditures to Protect the Use of Persian Gulf Oil for Motor Vehicles: Report #15 in the series: The Annualized Social Cost of Motor-Vehicle Use in the United States, based on 1990-1991 Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the world's proven oil reserves 2 , and the countries ofof the world’s proven oil reserves it typically has producedthe largest proven oil reserves in the world. For example,

  12. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    world’s largest natural gas reserves, about twice that oftotal recoverable reserves. 139 Gas fields are declining asgas. 12 Russia has around 6% to 10% of the world’s known oil reserves.

  13. www.fightbac.o anola oil is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ca co Th Ca "Canola" c which is Addition Ca he Ca in Th ca Ca m C know? anola oil is ooking oils. he average anola oil is comes fro s another nal Inform anola oil is eart healthy anola oil is n the world. he part of th anola meal anola oil ca many crop va ano the lowest . canola see a good sou m

  14. Oil and Global Adjustment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brad Setser

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current account surplus of the world’s major oil exporting economies – defined as the IMF’s fuel-exporting emerging economies plus Norway – increased from $110b to about $500b between 2002 and 2006. 2 In 2006, the current account surplus of the Gulf

  15. DEMOCRACY OVER A BARREL: OIL, REGIME CHANGE AND WAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl, Terry

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the third largest proven oil reserves in the world; it maythird biggest known crude oil reserves. “This is a nationalGulf monarchies, where oil reserves per capita are 43 times

  16. Crude Existence: The Politics of Oil in Northern Angola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, Kristin

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tion. A drop in world oil prices, coupled with a decrease indisbursements declined and oil prices dropped sharply inThe drastic drop in oil prices and further agricultural

  17. Drunk On Oil: Russian Foreign Policy 2000-2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brugato, Thomas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    World Stocks Sag as Oil Price Surges. ” The New York Times,Second, the increase in oil prices may make Russia moreof action. Nevertheless, oil prices still have a significant

  18. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tar sands/ extra-heavy oil and shale have zero Resource-D. J. and Cecchine, G. Oil shale development in the Unitedresources of some world oil-shale deposits. Technical Report

  19. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. J. and Cecchine, G. Oil shale development in the Unitedresources of some world oil-shale deposits. Technical Reportfor CO2 evolved from oil shale. Fuel Processing Technology,

  20. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    crude oil production, global energy demand, the estimated reserves and resources at Syncrude, views that the world will need oil for decades to come, the expectations regarding oil sands productive capacityCanadian Oil Sands: Canada's Energy Advantage 0 #12;Forward looking information 1 In the interest

  1. Crude oil prices and petroleum inventories : remedies for a broken oil price forecasting model.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimstad, Dan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The empirical relationship between crude oil prices and petroleum inventories has been exploited in a number of short-term oil price forecasting models. Some of the… (more)

  2. GEAR Tech-21 Hello World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    GEAR Tech-21 Hello World Throughout the activity, look for and record the definitions - Important Terms #12;GEAR Tech-21 Hello World Share what you did! What did you learn? Process what

  3. The World Energy Problem -What Should We be Doing? FPA Annual Meeting, Washington 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydrates1462.23GAS Shale Oil, Bitumen and Heavy Oil% of 11180.22OIL Unconv. Conventional1483.50OIL + NGLs and Resources," John Sheffield. #12;Projected World Energy Demand in Gtoe (Gigatonnes of oil energy equivalent 1995 & 2004 Note proved recoverable: Coal: 567 (1995) and 643 (2004). Oil: 141 (1995) and 148 (2004

  4. THE WASTE OIL INFLUENCE AND RISKS ON ENVIRONMENT IN REFER TO BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajfa Musemi?; Azra Baši?

    The main impurities usually present in used oil are various organic acid, polymer residua, metal particles arisen by wear and tear parts of lubricated equipment like: lead, chromium, nickel, cadmium, aluminum, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), mercaptans, various halogenated compounds, soot, sand, dust and microbes. In addition, but with less frequency, waste oils may contain high-harmful polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated terphenyls (PCT) or polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). Waste oil can have a number of significant, short-term and long-term impacts on the environment if they are treated or managed in an uncontrolled manner. Oil prevents the penetration of oxygen into the water, thereby makes violation the conditions of life of many species. Taking into account that Bosnia and Herzegovina interspersed with a large number of surface and groundwater, and paying attention to the fact that water contains only 1-2 mg per liter of lubricating oils are not suitable for drinking, it is obvious that the risks short-and long-term impact for the entire huge living world are present. An existing initial database of oil distributors, importers, manufacturers and users in Bosnia and Herzegovina has been analyzed, on the base of the lubricants related practice waste oil generation. Key words: waste oil, risks, environmental impact assessment, PCBs.

  5. How Increased Crude Oil Demand by China and India Affects the International Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the world crude oil market. More specifically, we study the implications for pricing, OPEC production of the Crude Oil Market The global crude oil market can be analysed by considering how quantity and price crude oil prices in the world move together (the price differences are due to different oil quality

  6. OIL SHALE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fields (in-situ Combustion Approach; M. V. Kök; G. Guner; S. Bagci?

    Seyitömer, Himmeto?lu and Hat?lda? oil shale deposits. The results demonstrate that these oil shales are

  7. Results of the IEA Round Robin on Viscosity and Aging of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils: Long-Term Tests and Repeatability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Oasmaa, Anja; Meier, Dietrich; Preto, Fernando; Bridgwater, Anthony V.

    2012-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An international round robin study of the viscosity and aging of fast pyrolysis bio-oil has been undertaken recently and this work is an outgrowth from that effort. Two bio-oil samples were distributed to the laboratories for aging tests and extended viscosity studies. The accelerated aging test was defined as the change in viscosity of a sealed sample of bio-oil held for 24 h at 80 °C. The test was repeated 10 times over consecutive days to determine the repeatability of the method. Other bio-oil samples were placed in storage at three temperatures, 21 °C, 4 °C and -17 °C for a period up to a year to evaluate the change in viscosity. The variation in the results of the aging test was shown to be low within a given laboratory. Storage of bio-oil under refrigeration can minimize the amount of change in viscosity. The accelerated aging test gives a measure of change similar to that of 6-12 months of storage at room temperature. These results can be helpful in setting standards for use of bio-oil, which is just coming into the marketplace.

  8. Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

  9. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  10. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  11. US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports US Crude Oil Production Surpasses Net Imports Source: Energy Information Administration Short Term Energy Outlook. Chart by Daniel...

  12. Oil shale technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S. (Akron Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale is undoubtedly an excellent energy source that has great abundance and world-wide distribution. Oil shale industries have seen ups and downs over more than 100 years, depending on the availability and price of conventional petroleum crudes. Market forces as well as environmental factors will greatly affect the interest in development of oil shale. Besides competing with conventional crude oil and natural gas, shale oil will have to compete favorably with coal-derived fuels for similar markets. Crude shale oil is obtained from oil shale by a relatively simple process called retorting. However, the process economics are greatly affected by the thermal efficiencies, the richness of shale, the mass transfer effectiveness, the conversion efficiency, the design of retort, the environmental post-treatment, etc. A great many process ideas and patents related to the oil shale pyrolysis have been developed; however, relatively few field and engineering data have been published. Due to the vast heterogeneity of oil shale and to the complexities of physicochemical process mechanisms, scientific or technological generalization of oil shale retorting is difficult to achieve. Dwindling supplied of worldwide petroleum reserves, as well as the unprecedented appetite of mankind for clean liquid fuel, has made the public concern for future energy market grow rapidly. the clean coal technology and the alternate fuel technology are currently of great significance not only to policy makers, but also to process and chemical researchers. In this book, efforts have been made to make a comprehensive text for the science and technology of oil shale utilization. Therefore, subjects dealing with the terminological definitions, geology and petrology, chemistry, characterization, process engineering, mathematical modeling, chemical reaction engineering, experimental methods, and statistical experimental design, etc. are covered in detail.

  13. Towards a more coherent oil policy in Russia? S. Boussena,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Towards a more coherent oil policy in Russia? S. Boussena, Professor, University of Grenoble II of Russia on the world oil scene. The first is the development of its oil production (over 9 Mb/d in 2004. Will Russia be a key variable in world energy balances? Could Russia ­ as some suggest and even desire

  14. Tactile robotic mapping of unknown surfaces: An application to oil well exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazzini, Francesco

    World oil demand and advanced oil recovery techniques have made it economically attractive to rehabilitate previously abandoned oil wells. This requires relatively fast mapping of the shape and location of the down-hole ...

  15. Risk analysis in oil and gas projects : a case study in the Middle East

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zand, Emad Dolatshahi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Global demand for energy is rising around the world. Middle East is a major supplier of oil and gas and remains an important region for any future oil and gas developments. Meanwhile, managing oil and gas projects are ...

  16. E-Print Network 3.0 - abandoned in-situ oil Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...33 10. In-situ shale-oil resources of some world oil-shale deposits... in 33 countries are estimated at 409 billion tons of in-situ shale oil,...

  17. Oil history, potential converge in Azerbaijan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narimanov, A.A. [State Oil Co. of Azerbaijan, Baku (Azerbaijan); Palaz, I. [Amoco Production Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Azerbaijan, the oldest known oil producing region in the world, still holds great potential for new discoveries and increased production. A multi-billion dollar production sharing agreement was recently signed with a consortium of primarily western oil companies to develop three oil fields in the Caspian Sea. Soon, Azerbaijan will offer new exploration acreage both offshore and onshore. This paper describes the history of oil production in Azerbaijan, offshore developments, tectonics, stratigraphy, petroleum traps, mud volcanoes, and short summaries of several oil producing areas. Current production is about 9 million tons/yr of oil and 7 billion cu m/yr of natural gas.

  18. 61. Nelson, D. C. Oil Shale: New Technologies Defining New Opportunities. Presented at the Platts Rockies Gas & Oil Conference, Denver, CO, April

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kulp, Mark

    61. Nelson, D. C. Oil Shale: New Technologies Defining New Opportunities. Presented at the Platts I, II Modeling of the In-Situ Production of Oil from .',1 l ',".1" Oil Shale ilil 'I' 'I~ :' l of conventional oil reserves amidst increasing liquid fuel demand in the world have renewed interest in oil shale

  19. A REVIEW OF PREVIOUS USGS WORLD ENERGY ASSESSMENTS1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    oil and natural gas. Click here or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY) for conventional oil plus natural gas. Click here or on this symbol in the toolbar to return. U.S. GEOLOGICAL (USGS) periodically conducts geology-based assessments of the oil and gas resources of the world

  20. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY By USGS World Energy Assessment Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    petroleum and reserve growth for oil, gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL). Figures Figure ES-1. Graph showing estimates of reserve growth and undiscovered resources. [in Billion Barrels of Oil Equivalent (BBOE conventional oil, gas and NGL in BBOE. For each commodity, the estimated reserve growth from the 2000 World

  1. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  2. Powering the World: Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    A ir, water, soil, food, biomas s Energy Solar,wi nd, geothermal, fossil, nucle ar,hydro Economy in that the energy concealed in nature is unlocked, what is unlocked is transformed, what is transformed is stored up that it may be on call for a further ordering." Technology is a "standing-reserve" of energy for humans

  3. STEO January 2013 - world oil prices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStoriesSANDIA REPORTSORNRecovery ActRSTEM

  4. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  5. International Oil Supplies and Demands. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world`s dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group`s thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  6. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas - near - term. Technical progress report, June 17, 1994--June 17, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Common oil field problems exist in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs in Kansas. The problems are poor waterflood sweep and lack of reservoir management. The poor waterflood sweep efficiency is due to (1) reservoir heterogeneity, (2) channeling of injected water through high permeability zones or fractures, and (3) clogging of water injection wells with solids as a result of poor water quality. In many instances the lack of reservoir management is due to lack of (1) data collection and organization, (2) integrated analysis of existing data by geological and engineering personnel, and (3) identification of optimum recovery techniques. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in the project. The Stewart Field (on the latter stage of primary production) is located in Finney County, Kansas, and was operated by Sharon Resources, Inc. and is now operated by North American Resources Company. The Nelson Lease (an existing waterflood) is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. The objective is to increase recovery efficiency and economics in these type of reservoirs. The technologies being applied to increase waterflood sweep efficiency are (1) in situ permeability modification treatments, (2) infill drilling, (3) pattern changes, and (4) air flotation to improve water quality. The technologies being applied to improve reservoir management are (1) database development, (2) reservoir simulation, (3) transient testing, (4) database management, and (5) integrated geological and engineering analysis.

  7. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas - Near-term. Annual report, June 18, 1993--June 18, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Common oil field problems exist in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs in Kansas. The problems are poor waterflood sweep and lack of reservoir management. The poor waterflood sweep efficiency is due to (1) reservoir heterogeneity, (2) channeling of injected water through high permeability zones or fractures, and (3) clogging of water injection wells with solids as a result of poor water quality. In many instances the lack of reservoir management is due to lack of (1) data collection and organization, (2) integrated analysis of existing data by geological and engineering personnel, and (3) identification of optimum recovery techniques. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in the project. The Nelson Lease (an existing waterflood) is located in Allen County, Kansas in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. The Stewart Field (on the latter stage of primary production) is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by Sharon Resources, Inc. The objective is to increase recovery efficiency and economics in these type of reservoirs. The technologies being applied to increase waterflood sweep efficiency are (1) in situ permeability modification treatments, (2) infill drilling, (3) pattern changes, and (4) air flotation to improve water quality. The technologies being applied to improve reservoir management are (1) database development, (2) reservoir simulation, (3) transient testing, (4) database management, and (5) integrated geological and engineering analysis.

  8. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  9. Running Out of and Into Oil: Analyzing Global Oil Depletion and Transition Through 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2003-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a risk analysis of world conventional oil resource production, depletion, expansion, and a possible transition to unconventional oil resources such as oil sands, heavy oil and shale oil over the period 2000 to 2050. Risk analysis uses Monte Carlo simulation methods to produce a probability distribution of outcomes rather than a single value. Probability distributions are produced for the year in which conventional oil production peaks for the world as a whole and the year of peak production from regions outside the Middle East. Recent estimates of world oil resources by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), the World Energy Council (WEC) and Dr. C. Campbell provide alternative views of the extent of ultimate world oil resources. A model of oil resource depletion and expansion for twelve world regions is combined with a market equilibrium model of conventional and unconventional oil supply and demand to create a World Energy Scenarios Model (WESM). The model does not make use of Hubbert curves but instead relies on target reserve-to-production ratios to determine when regional output will begin to decline. The authors believe that their analysis has a bias toward optimism about oil resource availability because it does not attempt to incorporate political or environmental constraints on production, nor does it explicitly include geologic constraints on production rates. Global energy scenarios created by IIASA and WEC provide the context for the risk analysis. Key variables such as the quantity of undiscovered oil and rates of technological progress are treated as probability distributions, rather than constants. Analyses based on the USGS and IIASA resource assessments indicate that conventional oil production outside the Middle East is likely to peak sometime between 2010 and 2030. The most important determinants of the date are the quantity of undiscovered oil, the rate at which unconventional oil production can be expanded, and the rate of growth of reserves and enhanced recovery. Analysis based on data produced by Campbell indicates that the peak of non-Middle East production will occur before 2010. For total world conventional oil production, the results indicate a peak somewhere between 2020 and 2050. Key determinants of the peak in world oil production are the rate at which the Middle East region expands its output and the minimum reserves-to-production ratios producers will tolerate. Once world conventional oil production peaks, first oil sands and heavy oil from Canada, Venezuela and Russia, and later some other source such as shale oil from the United States must expand if total world oil consumption is to continue to increase. Alternative sources of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, such as coal or natural gas are also possible resources but not considered in this analysis nor is the possibility of transition to a hydrogen economy. These limitations were adopted to simplify the transition analysis. Inspection of the paths of conventional oil production indicates that even if world oil production does not peak before 2020, output of conventional oil is likely to increase at a substantially slower rate after that date. The implication is that there will have to be increased production of unconventional oil after that date if world petroleum consumption is to grow.

  10. World energy consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historical and projected world energy consumption information is displayed. The information is presented by region and fuel type, and includes a world total. Measurements are in quadrillion Btu. Sources of the information contained in the table are: (1) history--Energy Information Administration (EIA), International Energy Annual 1992, DOE/EIA-0219(92); (2) projections--EIA, World Energy Projections System, 1994. Country amounts include an adjustment to account for electricity trade. Regions or country groups are shown as follows: (1) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), US (not including US territories), which are included in other (ECD), Canada, Japan, OECD Europe, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, other Europe, and other OECD; (2) Eurasia--China, former Soviet Union, eastern Europe; (3) rest of world--Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and other countries not included in any other group. Fuel types include oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear, and other. Other includes hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, biomass, wind, and other renewable sources.

  11. Saudi Aramco describes crisis oil flow hike

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    On Aug. 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait and triggered one of the most severe crises in the world's oil supplies since World War II. Within a few days of the invasion, Iraqi and Kuwaiti oil exports were embargoed, and almost 4.6 million b/d oil of production was removed from world markets. This shortfall amounted to about 20% of total Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries production at the time and could have proven disastrous to the world's industrial and financial well-being. However, there was no disruption to the major economies of the world. This paper reports that the primary reason for the cushioning of this impact was the massive expansion in production undertaken by Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco).

  12. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas, Near-term. Third quarterly report, January 1, 1994--April 1, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas and in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in the project. The Nelson Lease (an existing waterflood) is located in Allen County, Kansas in the N.E. Savonburg Field. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas. General topics to be addressed will be (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. The reservoir management portion of the project will involve performance evaluation and will include such work as (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) identification of operational problems, (3) identification of near wellbore problems, (4) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (5) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. The waterflood optimization portion of the project involves only the Nelson Lease. It will be based on the performance evaluation and will involve (1) design and implementation of a water cleanup system for the waterflood, (2) application of well remedial work such as polymer gel treatments to improve vertical sweep efficiency, and (3) changes in waterflood patterns to increase sweep efficiency. Finally, it is planned to implement an improved recovery process, possibly polymer augmented waterflooding on both field demonstration sites. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: engineering and geological analysis; water plant development; pattern changes and wellbore cleanup; field operations; laboratory testing; and utilization.

  13. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas -- near-term. Eighth quarterly report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1995-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas and in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in the project. The Nelson Lease (an existing waterflood) is located in Allen County, Kansas in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. The Stewart Field (on latter stage of primary production) is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by North American Resources Company General topics to be addressed will be (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration, of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. The reservoir management portion of the project will involve performance evaluation and will include such work as (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) identification of operational problems, (3) identification of near wellbore problems, (4) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and 5) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. The waterflood optimization portion of the project involves only the Nelson Lease. It will be based on the performance evaluation and will involve (1) design and implementation of a water cleanup system for the waterflood, (2) application of well remedial work such as polymer gel treatments to improve vertical sweep efficiency, and (3) changes in waterflood patterns to increase sweep efficiency. Finally, it is planned to implement an improved recovery process on both field demonstration sites.

  14. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas -- near-term. Seventh quarterly report, February 1, 1995--April 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; Schoeling, L.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1995-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas and in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in the project. The Nelson Lease (an existing waterflood) is located in Allen County, Kansas in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. The Stewart Field (on latter stage of primary production) is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by Sharon Resources, Inc. General topics to be addressed will be (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. The reservoir management portion of the project will involve performance evaluation and will include such work as (1) reservoir characterization and the development of a reservoir database, (2) identification of operational problems, (3) identification of near wellbore problems, (4) identification of unrecovered mobile oil and estimation of recovery factors, and (5) identification of the most efficient and economical recovery process. The waterflood optimization portion of the project involves only the Nelson Lease. It will be based on the performance evaluation and will involve (1) design and implementation of a water cleanup system for the waterflood, (2) application of well remedial work such as polymer gel treatments to improve vertical sweep efficiency, and (3) changes in waterflood patterns to increase sweep efficiency. Finally, it is planned to implement an improved recovery process, possibly polymer augmented waterflood: on both field demonstration sites.

  15. ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL: ANALYZING GLOBAL OIL DEPLETION AND TRANSITION THROUGH Government or any agency thereof. #12;#12;ORNL/TM-2003/259 RUNNING OUT OF AND INTO OIL: ANALYZING GLOBAL OIL ...................................................................................................................1 2. WORLD OIL RESOURCE ESTIMATES

  16. Oil Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory William Wilson , Phil Birkin , and Uwe Aickelin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    Oil Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory William Wilson , Phil Birkin , and Uwe Aickelin School concepts for an immune inspired algorithm to evaluate and predict oil price time se- ries data Analysis of oil price trends The price of WTI crude oil (a world marker price for oil price movements

  17. Improved oil recovery in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs of Kansas -- Near-term. Quarterly progress report, October 1--December 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.; Walton, A.; McCune, D.; Reynolds, R.; Michnick, M.; Watney, L.

    1997-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to address waterflood problems of the type found in Morrow sandstone reservoirs in southwestern Kansas and in Cherokee Group reservoirs in southeastern Kansas. Two demonstration sites operated by different independent oil operators are involved in this project. The Stewart Field is located in Finney County, Kansas and is operated by PetroSantander, Inc. The Nelson Lease is located in Allen County, Kansas, in the N.E. Savonburg Field and is operated by James E. Russell Petroleum, Inc. General topics to be addressed are (1) reservoir management and performance evaluation, (2) waterflood optimization, and (3) the demonstration of recovery processes involving off-the-shelf technologies which can be used to enhance waterflood recovery, increase reserves, and reduce the abandonment rate of these reservoir types. Progress in the Stewart field project is described for the following tasks: design/construct waterflood plant; design/construct injection system; design/construct battery consolidation and gathering system; waterflood operations and reservoir management; and technology transfer. Progress in the Savonburg field project is described for the following tasks: profile modification treatments; pattern changes and wellbore cleanup; reservoir development (polymer flooding); and technology transfer.

  18. OFFICE OF RESPONSE AND RESTORATION ! EMERGENCY RESPONSE DIVISION Deepwater Horizon Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the environment of the Gulf of Mexico since April 20. This document describes the potential forms the oil may take) oil is a South Louisiana sweet crude oil (crude oil is termed sweet if it is low in sulfur). Like all crude oils, MS252 oil is a complex mixture of thousands of chemical compounds. Of those thousands

  19. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada An Emerging Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    of the oil sands over the next 25 years. The use of the term "reserves" in the global context is really, royalty and regulatory regimes and the accuracy of the estimates of Canadian Oil Sands' reserves volumes1 Canadian Oil Sands: Canada ­ An Emerging Energy Superpower 0 University of Alberta February 8

  20. Oil Price and the Dollar Virginie Coudert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Oil Price and the Dollar Virginie Coudert , Val´erie Mignon , Alexis Penot§ 6th April 2005 Abstract The aim of this paper is to test whether a stable long-term relationship exists between oil prices and causality study between the two variables. Our results indicate that causality runs from oil prices

  1. Maps of crude oil futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masters, C.D.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Crude Oil Futures presentation shows their concept of the quantity of oil possibly present (the combination of conventional demonstrated reserves plus undiscovered recoverable resources) within the areas outlined. The Crude Oil Futures is not as an exploration map but as a perspective on the distribution of world oil. The occurrence of oil is, after all, a function of particular geologic factors that are not everywhere present. Furthermore, large amounts of oil can occur only where the several necessary independent variables (geologic factors) combine optimally. In the Western Hemisphere, similar minimal crude oil futures are shown for North America and South America. This similarity is a reflection not of similar geology but rather of the fact that most of the oil has already been produced from North America, whereas South America as a whole (except for Venezuela) possesses a geology less likely to produce oil. In Europe, Africa, and Asia, four regions are dominant: the Middle East, Libya, North Sea, and west Siberia. Paleogeography and source rock distribution were keys to this distribution - the Middle East and Libya reflecting the Tethyan association, and the North Sea and west Siberia benefitting from the Late Jurassic marine transgression into geographic environments where ocean circulation was restricted by tectonic events.

  2. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  3. Short-Term Energy Outlook September 2013

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    September 2013 1 September 2013 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) Highlights Monthly average crude oil prices increased for the fourth consecutive month in August 2013, as...

  4. Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Dudley

    Oil production models with normal rate curves Dudley Stark School of Mathematical Sciences Queen;Abstract The normal curve has been used to fit the rate of both world and U.S.A. oil production. In this paper we give the first theoretical basis for these curve fittings. It is well known that oil field

  5. World Biofuels Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alfstad,T.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report forms part of a project entitled 'World Biofuels Study'. The objective is to study world biofuel markets and to examine the possible contribution that biofuel imports could make to help meet the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA). The study was sponsored by the Biomass Program of the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), U.S. Department of Energy. It is a collaborative effort among the Office of Policy and International Affairs (PI), Department of Energy and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The project consisted of three main components: (1) Assessment of the resource potential for biofuel feedstocks such as sugarcane, grains, soybean, palm oil and lignocellulosic crops and development of supply curves (ORNL). (2) Assessment of the cost and performance of biofuel production technologies (NREL). (3) Scenario-based analysis of world biofuel markets using the ETP global energy model with data developed in the first parts of the study (BNL). This report covers the modeling and analysis part of the project conducted by BNL in cooperation with PI. The Energy Technology Perspectives (ETP) energy system model was used as the analytical tool for this study. ETP is a 15 region global model designed using the MARKAL framework. MARKAL-based models are partial equilibrium models that incorporate a description of the physical energy system and provide a bottom-up approach to study the entire energy system. ETP was updated for this study with biomass resource data and biofuel production technology cost and performance data developed by ORNL and NREL under Tasks 1 and 2 of this project. Many countries around the world are embarking on ambitious biofuel policies through renewable fuel standards and economic incentives. As a result, the global biofuel demand is expected to grow very rapidly over the next two decades, provided policymakers stay the course with their policy goals. This project relied on a scenario-based analysis to study global biofuel markets. Scenarios were designed to evaluate the impact of different policy proposals and market conditions. World biofuel supply for selected scenarios is shown in Figure 1. The reference case total biofuel production increases from 12 billion gallons of ethanol equivalent in 2005 to 54 billion gallons in 2020 and 83 billion gallons in 2030. The scenarios analyzed show volumes ranging from 46 to 64 billion gallons in 2020, and from about 72 to about 100 billion gallons in 2030. The highest production worldwide occurs in the scenario with high feedstock availability combined with high oil prices and more rapid improvements in cellulosic biofuel conversion technologies. The lowest global production is found in the scenario with low feedstock availability, low oil prices and slower technology progress.

  6. Dilmaya's World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan, Macfarlane

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    burning on a funeral pyre. I had never lived for more than a day or in a world without toilets or toilet papers, where there was no central heating and no window glass to keep out the cold Himalayan winds. * * * Short of finding the very... infancy to puberty in a remote Himalayan village. So Dilmaya allowed this, as well as encouraging our love for her sons and husband. All this was achieved while she looked after us physically and stretched her mind and body to the limits...

  7. Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Worldwide supplies of conventional oil will soon reach a peak production rate and begin an irreversible long-term decline. Options to augment liquid fuel supplies in the United States have once again begun to focus on oil shale as long-term source of reliable, affordable, and secure oil. The United

  8. Maximum of oil output of a treadle-powered peanut oil press

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Ravi M. (Ravi Mahendra)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The manual processing of food products has become a substantial part of the daily routine of a typical household in the developing world. Consumption of oil is an essential part of an individual's diet and thus, the ...

  9. Oil spills - increasing US dependence on oil imports heightens risks to environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Calamitous oil spills in recent years have focused attention on the devastation the world`s leading energy source can wreak on the environment. In Alaska, the 1989 grounding of the supertanker Exxon Valdez in Prince William Sound caused the worst U.S. oil spill ever and promoted Congress to pass stringent oil-pollution legislation. In the Persian Gulf, {open_quotes}eco-terroism{close_quotes} committed by Iraqi forces during the gulf war left hundreds of wells burning and oil free-flowing out of Kuwait`s refineries and oil-shipping terminals. With the United States and much of the global community increasingly dependent on petroleum moved by supertankers, oil spills will continue to threaten the environment for the foreseeable future.

  10. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .in the Venezuelan Oil Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity: Evidence from the Oil Industry . .

  11. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and

  12. Peak Population: Timing and Influences of Peak Energy on the World and the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warner, Kevin 1987-

    2012-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Peak energy is the notion that the world’s total production of usable energy will reach a maximum value and then begin an inexorable decline. Ninety-two percent of the world’s energy is currently derived from the non-renewable sources (oil, coal...

  13. JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a twin screw extruder using a 2 mm die at 190 rpm, and a 3 mm die at 348 rpm. Analyses of the extrudatesJOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY Vol. 41, No. S1 February, 2010 Twin Screw Extrusion, soybean oil, vitamin and mineral mix). The blends were moisture balanced to 15% db, then extruded

  14. E-Print Network 3.0 - active plant oils Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plant 765 MW Narva Oil Plant 1,3 M bbl Narva Open Pit Mine Mines total annual... of oil shale fired capacity world largest ... Source: Utah, University of - Center for the...

  15. High-Temperature Nuclear Reactors for In-Situ Recovery of Oil from Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world is exhausting its supply of crude oil for the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel). However, the United States has sufficient oil shale deposits to meet our current oil demands for {approx}100 years. Shell Oil Corporation is developing a new potentially cost-effective in-situ process for oil recovery that involves drilling wells into oil shale, using electric heaters to raise the bulk temperature of the oil shale deposit to {approx}370 deg C to initiate chemical reactions that produce light crude oil, and then pumping the oil to the surface. The primary production cost is the cost of high-temperature electrical heating. Because of the low thermal conductivity of oil shale, high-temperature heat is required at the heater wells to obtain the required medium temperatures in the bulk oil shale within an economically practical two to three years. It is proposed to use high-temperature nuclear reactors to provide high-temperature heat to replace the electricity and avoid the factor-of-2 loss in converting high-temperature heat to electricity that is then used to heat oil shale. Nuclear heat is potentially viable because many oil shale deposits are thick (200 to 700 m) and can yield up to 2.5 million barrels of oil per acre, or about 125 million dollars/acre of oil at $50/barrel. The concentrated characteristics of oil-shale deposits make it practical to transfer high-temperature heat over limited distances from a reactor to the oil shale deposits. (author)

  16. Vision: Knowledge for a better world -Internationally Outstanding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    ;«World leading in Ocean Space»: AMOS/IVT/IME will give contributions to three main industries in Norway: Maritime Offshore Oil and Gas Fishery and Aquaculture These 3 industries are contributing to more than 70 and sustailable infrastructure and built environment Sustain Norway's position as world leader of the oceans Value

  17. An Investigation into the Derived Demand for Land in Palm Oil Production.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Jia Li

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Over the years, the world industry of oil palm has been rapidly increasing in the tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America. One of the… (more)

  18. 5/10/10 7:27 AMExtreme caution required in Gulf Oil-spill clean up: Berkeley expert Page 1 of 8http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/world-news/extreme-caution-required-in-gulf-oil-spill-clean-up-berkeley-expert_100358851.html

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    .bayrestorators.com Hazardous Waste Transportation and Disposal 24/7 Spill Response 800.988.4424 www.HCIENV.com Wonder-required-in-gulf-oil-spill-clean-up-berkeley-expert_100358851.html Monday Legendary singer Lena Horne dies aged 92 Angela Kaye Mason Prince Harry Earns Wings

  19. Impact of 1973 Oil Embargo and 2005 Katrina on Energy Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mehta, P.

    influence that they had on the world through oil. One of the many results of the oil embargo was higher oil prices all through out the western world, particularly North America. The embargo forced to consider many things about energy..., such as the cost and supply, which up to 1973 no one had worried about. Although the embargo ended only years after it began in 1973, the Oil Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) nations had quadrupled the price of oil in the west. The rising oil prices...

  20. Oil Dependence: The Value of R{ampersand}D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past quarter century the United States` dependence on oil has cost its economy on the order of $5 trillion. Oil dependence is defined as economically significant consumption of oil, given price inelastic demand in the short and long run and given the ability of the OPEC cartel to use market power to influence oil prices. Although oil prices have been lower and more stable over the past decade, OPEC still holds the majority of the world`s conventional oil resources according to the best available estimates. OPEC`s share of the world oil market is likely to grow significantly in the future,restoring much if not all of their former market power. Other than market share, the key determinants of OPEC`s market power are the long and short run price elasticities of world oil demand and supply. These elasticities depend critically on the technologies of oil supply and demand, especially the technology of energy use in transportation. Research and development can change these elasticities in fundamental ways, and given the nature of the problem,the government has an important role to play in supporting such research.

  1. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the fourth quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service.

  2. Hydrotreating of oil from eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scinta, J.; Garner, J.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale provides one of the major fossil energy reserves for the United States. The quantity of reserves in oil shale is less than the quantity in coal, but is much greater (by at least an order of magnitude) than the quantity of crude oil reserves. With so much oil potentially available from oil shale, efforts have been made to develop techniques for its utilization. In these efforts, hydrotreating has proved to be an acceptable technique for upgrading raw shale oil to make usuable products. The present work demonstrated the use of the hydrotreating technique for upgrading an oil from Indiana New Albany oil shale.

  3. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  4. U. S. Military Expenditures to Protect the Use of Persian Gulf Oil for Motor Vehicles: Report #15 in the series: The Annualized Social Cost of Motor-Vehicle Use in the United States, based on 1990-1991 Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark; Murphy, James

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    there to protect world oil demand” (in Plesch et al. , 2005,instability related to U.S. demand for oil. Although to ourassociated with U.S. demand for Persian Gulf oil. If this is

  5. Characteristics of North Sea oil reserve appreciation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, G. C.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In many petroleum basins, and especially in more mature areas, most reserve additions consist of the growth over time of prior discoveries, a phenomenon termed reserve appreciation. This paper concerns crude oil reserve ...

  6. Volatility in natural gas and oil markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pindyck, Robert S.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using daily futures price data, I examine the behavior of natural gas and crude oil price volatility since 1990. I test whether there has been a significant trend in volatility, whether there was a short-term increase in ...

  7. Growth of Hereford-Kedah Kelantan calves fed oil palm fronds and palm kernel cake based diet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Growth of Hereford-Kedah Kelantan calves fed oil palm fronds and palm kernel cake based diet I Lumpur, Malaysia Being one of the world's leading producers of palm oil, Malaysia has a total of two million hectares of land under oil palm cultivation. The palm oil mills yield a number of by

  8. Combustion of oil on water: an experimental program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study determined how well crude and fuel oils burn on water. Objectives were: (1) to measure the burning rates for several oils; (2) to determine whether adding heat improves the oils' combustibility; (3) to identify the conditions necessary to ignite fuels known to be difficult to ignite on ocean waters (e.g., diesel and Bunker C fuel oils); and (4) to evaluate the accuracy of an oil-burning model proposed by Thompson, Dawson, and Goodier (1979). Observations were made about how weathering and the thickness of the oil layer affect the combustion of crude and fuel oils. Nine oils commonly transported on the world's major waterways were tested. Burns were first conducted in Oklahoma under warm-weather conditions (approx. 30/sup 0/C) and later in Ohio under cold-weather conditions (approx. 0/sup 0/C to 10/sup 0/C).

  9. 2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses Yu-Lin Chang & Leo Oey # Springer-Verlag 2011 Abstract An accurate method for long-term (weeks to months) projections of oil spill released at the northern Gulf of Mexico spill site is demonstrated during the 2010 oil spill

  10. Modelling the costs of non-conventional oil: A case study of Canadian bitumen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Méjean, A; Hope, Chris

    in conventional deposits. The longer- term problem of climate change arises from the fuller and longer-term use of coal, and of unconventional deposits such as heavy oils, tar sands and oil shales.” (Grubb, 2001) As conventional oil becomes scarcer, the transport... , it is not mobile at reservoir conditions, (Cupcic, 2003): density Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock rich in organic matter, (USGS, 2005): oil shales contain kerogen, which is a solid, insoluble organic material...

  11. World nuclear outlook 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  12. World nuclear outlook 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  13. OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Juan

    About OGEL OGEL (Oil, Gas & Energy Law Intelligence): Focussing on recent developments in the area of oil-gas-energy law, regulation, treaties, judicial and arbitral cases, voluntary guidelines, tax and contracting, including the oil-gas- energy geopolitics. For full Terms & Conditions and subscription rates

  14. Near Shore Submerged Oil Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, submerged oil refers to near shore oil which has picked up sediments You Should Know About Submerged Oil 1. Submerged oil is relatively uncommon: DWH oil is a light crude

  15. Oil spill response resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muthukrishnan, Shankar

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. TABLE OF CONTENTS . . Vn INTRODUCTION. . Oil Pollution Act. Oil Spill Response Equipment . . OB JECTIVES . 12 LITERATURE REVIEW. United States Contingency Plan. . Response Resources Definition of Clean in Context to an Oil Spill. Oil... this fitle. Title IV expands federal authority in managing oil spill clean up operations and amends the provisions for oil spill clean up under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. It also called for Oil spill plans for vessels and facilities starting...

  16. SOVENT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY FOR IN-SITU UPGRADING OF HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munroe, Norman

    2009-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With the depletion of conventional crude oil reserves in the world, heavy oil and bitumen resources have great potential to meet the future demand for petroleum products. However, oil recovery from heavy oil and bitumen reservoirs is much more difficult than that from conventional oil reservoirs. This is mainly because heavy oil or bitumen is partially or completely immobile under reservoir conditions due to its extremely high viscosity, which creates special production challenges. In order to overcome these challenges significant efforts were devoted by Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University and The Center for Energy Economics (CEE) at the University of Texas. A simplified model was developed to assess the density of the upgraded crude depending on the ratio of solvent mass to crude oil mass, temperature, pressure and the properties of the crude oil. The simplified model incorporated the interaction dynamics into a homogeneous, porous heavy oil reservoir to simulate the dispersion and concentration of injected CO2. The model also incorporated the characteristic of a highly varying CO2 density near the critical point. Since the major challenge in heavy oil recovery is its high viscosity, most researchers have focused their investigations on this parameter in the laboratory as well as in the field resulting in disparaging results. This was attributed to oil being a complex poly-disperse blend of light and heavy paraffins, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes, which have diverse behaviors at reservoir temperature and pressures. The situation is exacerbated by a dearth of experimental data on gas diffusion coefficients in heavy oils due to the tedious nature of diffusivity measurements. Ultimately, the viscosity and thus oil recovery is regulated by pressure and its effect on the diffusion coefficient and oil swelling factors. The generation of a new phase within the crude and the differences in mobility between the new crude matrix and the precipitate readily enables removal of asphaltenes. Thus, an upgraded crude low in heavy metal, sulfur and nitrogen is more conducive for further purification.

  17. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  18. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. I strongly urge that the forecasts recognize the high oil prices and gas prices experienced in 2008 and not treat them as an unusual occurrence in the next 20 years. In the long term with cap and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I strongly urge that the forecasts recognize the high oil prices and gas prices experienced in 2008 and the development of carbon capture and storage applied to new coal fired generating stations, gas prices will only go up. Gas from the Rockies will move east as quickly as transport is available. To the extent

  20. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Information Administration, “World Petroleum Consumption,Energy Information Administration, “World Petroleum Consumption,

  1. Reviewing the Design of DAML+OIL: An Ontology Language for the Semantic Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Harmelen, Frank

    the RDF semantics. ­ DAML+OIL thus uses RDF syntax, but not RDF semantics. ­ Would like DAML+OIL semanticsBell Labs Reviewing the Design of DAML+OIL: An Ontology Language for the Semantic Web Ian Horrocks ¤ Definitions of terms, e.g., Student Description Logics (DLs) ¤ Formal semantics ¤ Practical inference ¤ OIL

  2. Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    geology and gas-phase (methane) seepage for the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, one of the worldORIGINAL Geologic control of natural marine hydrocarbon seep emissions, Coal Oil Point seep field's largest and best-studied marine oil and gas seep fields, located over a producing hydrocarbon reservoir

  3. Industrial Use of Fish Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Industrial Use of Fish Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES #12;Industrial Use of Fish Oils UNITED STATES DEPART MENT OF THE INTERIOR 16 IIndustrial Use of Fish Oils INTRODUCTION The world's waters annually produce a tremendous harwst

  4. Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green River

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gani, M. Royhan

    Chapter 3 Lake Level Controlled Sedimentological 1:'_i 'I I Heterogenity of Oil Shale, Upper Green email: mgani@uno.edu t",. The Green River Formation comprises the world's largest deposit of oil-shale characterization of these lacustrine oil-shale deposits in the subsurface is lacking. This study analyzed ~300 m

  5. Simulation of subsea production pipeline stream to evaluate and address the flow assurance issues of waxy crude oil.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Ashfaq

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The modern world is heavily dependent on crude oil and its associated products and the petroleum industry has taken responsibility to meet the rising consumer… (more)

  6. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those… (more)

  7. ENERGY CONTENT OF WORLD TRADE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gernot Wagner

    This paper constructs a comprehensive dataset of oil and total energy embedded in world trade of manufacturing goods for 73 countries from 1978 to 2000. Applying the data to debates on the dependency on foreign energy sources makes clear that achieving complete energy independence in the foreseeable future is unlikely to be feasible and may not be desirable. Applying it to the discussion of environmental Kuznets curves (EKCs) highlights an important distinction between production and consumption of energy. Richer countries use relatively less energy in their industrial production yet still consume relatively large amounts of energy indirectly. A further investigation largely excludes structural shifts of production in and out of the manufacturing sector as an explanation for the downward-sloping portion of the EKC. Country-level analyses add caveats but show tentative support for the cross-country conclusions.

  8. Crude Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries0 0 0 0 0

  9. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    business of having some oil in inventory, which is referredKnowledge of all the oil going into inventory today for salebe empty, because inventories of oil are essential for the

  10. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Michael T. Klare, Blood and Oil: The Dangers of America’sDowns and Jeffrey A. Bader, “Oil-Hungry China Belongs at BigChina, Africa, and Oil,” (Council on Foreign Relations,

  11. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 5. Monthly oil production for Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait,day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq Kuwait Figure 6.and the peak in U.S. oil production account for the broad

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton Junedirectly. Understanding Crude Oil Prices* James D. Hamilton

  13. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crudein predicting quarterly real oil price change. variable real

  14. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    per day. Monthly crude oil production Iran Iraq KuwaitEIA Table 1.2, “OPEC Crude Oil Production (Excluding Lease2008, from EIA, “Crude Oil Production. ” Figure 16. U.S.

  15. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2004. “OPEC’s Optimal Crude Oil Price,” Energy Policy 32(2),percent change in real oil price. Figure 3. Price of crude023 Understanding Crude Oil Prices James D. Hamilton June

  16. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural Gas, Heating Oil and Gasoline,” NBER Working Paper.2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),

  17. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    capability to secure oil transport security. Additionally,international oil agreements: 1) ensuring energy security;security, and many argue that as the second-largest consumer of oil

  18. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China made an Iranian oil investment valued at $70 billion.across Iran, China’s oil investment may exceed $100 billionthese involving investment in oil and gas, really undermine

  19. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,Mexico, Italy, France, Canada, US, and UK. Figure 10. Historical Chinese oil

  20. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by this point, China’s demand Oil Demand vs. Domestic Supplycurrent pace of growth in oil demand as staying consistentand predictions of oil supply and demand affected foreign

  1. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Income on Energy and Oil Demand,” Energy Journal 23(1),2006. “China’s Growing Demand for Oil and Its Impact on U.S.in the supply or demand for oil itself could be regarded as

  2. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007”. comparison, Mexico used 6.6— Chinese oil consumption17. Oil production from the North Sea, Mexico’s Cantarell,

  3. Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Worldwide supplies of conventional oil will soon reach a peak production rate and begin an irreversible long-term decline. Options to augment liquid fuel supplies in the United States have once again begun to focus on oil shale as long-term source of reliable, affordable, and secure oil. The United States government has long recognized the strategic potential of the nation’s vast oil shale resources to support national security. President Taft in 1912 established an Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves and charged that office with ensuring oil for naval military operations. This office continues to oversee the United States strategic interest in oil shale. America’s 2 trillion barrel oil shale resource is recognized as having the same production potential as Canada’s tar sands. Tar sand production, initiated in the 1960s, has increased steadily to more than 1 million per barrels/day and is moving toward a near-term goal of 2.5 million barrels per day by 2017. This amount of oil is equivalent to the volume of oil currently imported by the United States from Middle East countries. Tar sands production has enabled Canada to add 174 billion barrels to its recoverable oil reserves, making Canada’s proved reserves second only to those of Saudi Arabia.

  4. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY); Lin, Mow (Rocky Point, NY)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil.

  5. Biochemically enhanced oil recovery and oil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.

    1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to the preparation of new, modified organisms, through challenge growth processes, that are viable in the extreme temperature, pressure and pH conditions and salt concentrations of an oil reservoir and that are suitable for use in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The modified microorganisms of the present invention are used to enhance oil recovery and remove sulfur compounds and metals from the crude oil. 62 figures.

  6. jeteas.scholarlinkresearch.org Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Applied Sciences (JETEAS) 3(1):33-37(ISSN: 2141-7016) A Comparative Study of Soya Bean Oil and Palm Kernel Oil as Alternatives to Transformer Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. T. Henshaw

    This study investigated the use of soya bean oil and palm kernel oil as alternatives to mineral oil in a transformer system. Crude samples of these oils and their blend in varied proportions were tested for dielectric strength, pour point, flash point, kinematic viscosity, density and moisture content. The results showed that soya bean oil and palm kernel oil have good properties to act as insulating and cooling liquid in a transformer. These properties could be further improved when the oils are refined and purified. Soya bean oil and palm kernel oil have dielectric strengths of 39 kV and 25 kV respectively in their crude states compared with transformer (mineral) oil which has a maximum dielectric strength of 50 kV. Blend of soya bean oil and palm kernel oil showed synergy only in pour point and viscosity. The results of the study further showed that soya bean oil and palm kernel oil and their blends have very high flash points of 234°C and 242°C respectively. In terms of economic costs and environmental considerations, soya bean oil and palm kernel oil appear to be viable alternatives to transformer oils

  7. Aggregation and transport kinetics of crude oil and sediment in estuarine waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sterling, Michael Conroy, Jr.

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling the transport and fate of spilled crude oil is important for estimating short and long-term toxicity effects in coastal ecosystems. This research project investigates the partitioning of hydrocarbons from a surface crude oil slick...

  8. CDOM Optical Properties Near DWH Site, Gulf of Mexico: Post Oil Spill.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhi

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The Deep Water Horizon (DWH) oil spill resulted in the largest accidental release of crude oil in U.S. waters with both short- and long-term effects… (more)

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook April 2014

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2013 2014 2015 OPEC countries North America Russia and Caspian Sea Latin America North Sea Other Non-OPEC World Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Production Growth...

  10. OIL & GAS INSTITUTE Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    OIL & GAS INSTITUTE CONTENTS Introduction Asset Integrity Underpinning Capabilities 2 4 4 6 8 9 10 COMPETITIVENESS UNIVERSITY of STRATHCLYDE OIL & GAS INSTITUTE OIL & GAS EXPERTISE AND PARTNERSHIPS #12;1 The launch of the Strathclyde Oil & Gas Institute represents an important step forward for the University

  11. Eco Oil 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Earl; Brenda Clark

    2009-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the processes, challenges, and achievements of researching and developing a biobased motor oil.

  12. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption would be reduced and incentives for production increased whenever the price of crude oil

  13. World Shale Resources

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    with crude oil approaching the 1970 all-time high of 9.6 million barrels per day * Light-duty vehicle energy use declines sharply reflecting slowing growth in vehicle miles...

  14. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowland, P.J. (Rowland (P.) Associates (United States))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 ( OPA'') and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy's Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry's behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  15. World Elephant Centre:.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rota, M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The World Elephant Centre tackles two problems of our time, in a global relevance framework. In fact, it is not only a typical case of… (more)

  16. What in the World are Possible Worlds?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dondero, Mark

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    talk of possible worlds? In this thesis, I will attempt to outline the most significant and well-recognized view in this debate: that of David Lewis. Through my discussion of him, I will find occasion to discuss some alternative views that have arisen...

  17. For the first 15 years of my life, I lived in the shadow of the oil and gas fields of South Louisiana and became accustomed to the oil indus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    For the first 15 years of my life, I lived in the shadow of the oil and gas fields of South Louisiana and became accustomed to the oil indus- try and the people involved in this business. I of this world. My father worked for Humble Oil (which was acquired later by Exxon) and we moved from place

  18. AN ENGINE OIL LIFE ALGORITHM.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bommareddi, Anveshan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??An oil-life algorithm to calculate the remaining percentage of oil life is presented as a means to determine the right time to change the oil… (more)

  19. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is described below. Data Crude oil production data is fromproductivity measure is crude oil production per worker, andwhich is measured as crude oil production per worker, is

  20. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Venezuelan Oil Industry Total Wells Drilled and InvestmentWells Drilled and Investment in the Venezuelan Oil Industryopenness of the oil sector to foreign investment contributes

  1. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Venezuela with Mexico, another major oil pro- ducing countryOil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .

  2. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .Oil Production and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . .2.6: Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico 350 Productivity

  3. On the shortterm influence of oil price changes on stock markets in GCC countries: linear and nonlinear analyses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 On the shortterm influence of oil price changes on stock markets in GCC countries the short-run relationships between oil prices and GCC stock markets. Since GCC countries are major world energy market players, their stock markets may be susceptible to oil price shocks. To account

  4. UAE-Abu Dhabi: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports that production expansion projects remain the focus in Abu Dhabi, with increased drilling operations underway both on and offshore. Only Abu Dhabi Co. for Onshore Operations (Adco) and Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Co. (Adma-Opco) provide any information about activity in the Emirate. Plans call for boosting productive capacity by 1 million bpd to near 3 million bpd. Present sustainable capacity is estimated at 1.8 million bpd by the CIA. This rate has been exceeded recently (it reached over 2 million bpd) to take advantage of higher prices in late 1990 and to make up for the shortfall due to loss of Iraqi and Kuwaiti exports. However, it does not appear higher rates can be sustained for a long period of time. By year-end 1992, sustainable output has been projected to reach 2.3 million bpd.

  5. BIOENERGIZEME INFOGRAPHIC CHALLENGE: Oil Future of the World

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This infographic was created by students from Miami Palmetto Senior High School in Pinecrest, FL, as part of the U.S. Department of Energy-BioenergizeME Infographic Challenge. The BioenergizeME...

  6. World Oils`s 1995 coiled tubing tables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasingly in demand in almost every aspect of today`s E and P market because of flexibility, versatility and economy, coiled tubing is being used for a variety of drilling, completion and production operations that previously required conventional jointed pipe, workover and snubbing units, or rotary drilling rigs. For 1995 the popular coiled tubing tables have been reformatted, expanded and improved to give industry engineering and field personnel additional, more specific selection, operational and installation information. Traditional specifications and dimensions have been augmented by addition of calculated performance properties for downhole workover and well servicing applications. For the first time the authors are presenting this information as a stand-alone feature, separate from conventional jointed tubing connection design tables, which are published annually in the January issue. With almost seven times as much usable data as previous listings, the authors hope that their new coiled tubing tables are even more practical and useful to their readers.

  7. Quantifying the Uncertainty in Estimates of World Conventional Oil Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tien, Chih-Ming

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    judgments have been used to provide useful information in forecasting, decision-making, and assessing risks, and its application 15 15 fields are quite diverse, including aerospace, medicine, the nuclear industry, veterinary science, agriculture...

  8. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  9. Oil Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, WIlliam; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We outline initial concepts for an immune inspired algorithm to evaluate and predict oil price time series data. The proposed solution evolves a short term pool of trackers dynamically, with each member attempting to map trends and anticipate future price movements. Successful trackers feed into a long term memory pool that can generalise across repeating trend patterns. The resulting sequence of trackers, ordered in time, can be used as a forecasting tool. Examination of the pool of evolving trackers also provides valuable insight into the properties of the crude oil market.

  10. Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms Radiation Radiation is energy in transit in the form of high not carry enough energy to separate molecules or remove electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly

  11. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  12. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule1, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description...

  13. Oil and Gas Supply Module

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Onshore Lower 48 Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Offshore Oil and Gas Supply Submodule, Oil Shale Supply Submodule, and Alaska Oil and Gas Supply Submodule. A detailed description of...

  14. REVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appanna, Vasu

    , the majority of applied microbiologi- cal methods of enhanced oil recovery also dete- riorates oil and appearsREVIEW PAPER Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil derived products: a review Natalia A. Yemashova January 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract Biodeterioration of crude oil and oil

  15. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, 2nd quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1994 through the fourth quarter of 1995. Values for the first quarter of 1994, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available. The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1994 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the STIFS. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. The EIA model is available on computer tape from the National Technical Information Service.

  16. Using Oils As Pesticides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogran, Carlos E.; Ludwig, Scott; Metz, Bradley

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Petroleum and plant-derived spray oils show increasing potential for use as part of Integrated Pest Management systems for control of soft-bodied pests on fruit trees, shade trees, woody ornamentals and household plants. Sources of oils, preparing...

  17. Oil and Gas Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tingley, Joseph V.

    Metals Industrial Minerals Oil and Gas Geothermal Exploration Development Mining Processing Nevada, oil and gas, and geothermal activities and accomplishments in Nevada: production statistics, exploration and development including drilling for petroleum and geothermal resources, discoveries of ore

  18. Understanding Crude Oil Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, James Douglas

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    an alternative investment strategy to buying oil today andinvestments necessary to catch up. This was the view o?ered by oilinvestment strategy. date t) in order to purchase a quantity Q barrels of oil

  19. Gas and Oil (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of the Environment has the authority to enact regulations pertaining to oil and gas production, but it cannot prorate or limit the output of any gas or oil well. A permit from the...

  20. China's Global Oil Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Bryan G

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21, 2008. Ying, Wang. “ China, Venezuela firms to co-developApril 21, “China and Venezuela sign oil agreements. ” Chinaaccessed April 21, “Venezuela and China sign oil deal. ” BBC

  1. Oil Sands Feedstocks

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NCUT National Centre for Upgrading Technology 'a Canada-Alberta alliance for bitumen and heavy oil research' Oil Sands Feedstocks C Fairbridge, Z Ring, Y Briker, D Hager National...

  2. Criticality Characteristics of Current Oil Price Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drozdz, Stanislaw; Oswiecimka, Pawel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methodology that recently lead us to predict to an amazing accuracy the date (July 11, 2008) of reverse of the oil price up trend is briefly summarized and some further aspects of the related oil price dynamics elaborated. This methodology is based on the concept of discrete scale invariance whose finance-prediction-oriented variant involves such elements as log-periodic self-similarity, the universal preferred scaling factor lambda=2, and allows a phenomenon of the "super-bubble". From this perspective the present (as of August 22, 2008) violent - but still log-periodically decelerating - decrease of the oil prices is associated with the decay of such a "super- bubble" that has started developing about one year ago on top of the longer-term oil price increasing phase (normal bubble) whose ultimate termination is evaluated to occur in around mid 2010.

  3. Biochemical upgrading of oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premuzic, E.T.; Lin, M.S.

    1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for biochemical conversion of heavy crude oils is provided. The process includes contacting heavy crude oils with adapted biocatalysts. The resulting upgraded oil shows, a relative increase in saturated hydrocarbons, emulsions and oxygenates and a decrease in compounds containing organic sulfur, organic nitrogen and trace metals. Adapted microorganisms which have been modified under challenged growth processes are also disclosed. 121 figs.

  4. BBC WORLD SERVICE TRUST Terms of Reference: Head of Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Group in London on research team integration, study design, analysis and reporting, and will secure to guide project strategies; 2. Conducting qualitative and quantitative research studies to capture of the India office. This includes the effective design and implementation of formative, pre-testing, rapid

  5. Around the World byprivatejet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Taosheng

    AngkorWat, Cambodia Petra or Wadi Rum, Jordan engeti Plain or rongoro Crater, Tanzania The Great Barrier cities of the ancient world at Petra, or explore the lunar-like landscape of Wadi Rum. Cambodia india

  6. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  7. Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries Armen Gholian, Hamed units finish their operations. Considering an oil refinery industry as an example, we not only identify Terms­Demand response, load management, manufactur- ing industries, oil refineries, optimal scheduling

  8. Parameter identification in large-scale models for oil and gas production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Hof, Paul

    Parameter identification in large-scale models for oil and gas production Jorn F.M. Van Doren: Models used for model-based (long-term) operations as monitoring, control and optimization of oil and gas information to the identification problem. These options are illustrated with examples taken from oil and gas

  9. Manufacture of refrigeration oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

    1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

  10. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990.

  11. Testing for market integration crude oil, coal, and natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bachmeier, L.J.; Griffin, J.M. [Texas A& amp; M Univ, College Station, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prompted by the contemporaneous spike in coal, oil, and natural gas prices, this paper evaluates the degree of market integration both within and between crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets. Our approach yields parameters that can be readily tested against a priori conjectures. Using daily price data for five very different crude oils, we conclude that the world oil market is a single, highly integrated economic market. On the other hand, coal prices at five trading locations across the United States are cointegrated, but the degree of market integration is much weaker, particularly between Western and Eastern coals. Finally, we show that crude oil, coal, and natural gas markets are only very weakly integrated. Our results indicate that there is not a primary energy market. Despite current price peaks, it is not useful to think of a primary energy market, except in a very long run context.

  12. Use of naphthenic base stocks in engine oil formulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josefina, V.C.M.; Armando, I.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of naphthenic base stocks in the formulation of engine oils has always been restricted due to certain physico-chemical properties (i.e. low oxidation stability, high volatility, great variation of the viscosity with the temperature) as well as the limited availability of this type of base oil in many parts of the world. This paper summarizes the experimental results followed in the development of a crankcase engine oil formulation SAE 40, API SF/CC with maximum usage of a naphthenic base stock MVIN-170 combined with HVI stocks and conventional additive technologies. The physico-chemical characterization of the MVIN-170 base stock, a conventional processed napthenic oil that Maraven (affiliate of PDVSA) commercializes from Isla Refinery of Curazao, is presented and compared with other napthenic oils coming from other crude sources of processes and with parafinic base stocks of equivalent viscosity.

  13. Improvements of oil-in-water analysis for produced water using membrane filtration.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khor, Ee Huey

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The accuracy of oil-in-water analysis for produced water is increasingly crucial as the regulations for disposal of this water are getting more stringent world wide.… (more)

  14. High-energy photon transport modeling for oil-well logging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Erik D., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear oil well logging tools utilizing radioisotope sources of photons are used ubiquitously in oilfields throughout the world. Because of safety and security concerns, there is renewed interest in shifting to ...

  15. Oil to Coal Conversion of Power and Industrial Facilities in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Causilla, H.; Acosta, J. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Realizing that the use of coal has the potential to offset the effects of world oil prices on the Dominican Republic's economy, the Commission Nacional de Politica Energetica (CNPE) requested Bechtel Power Corporation to study the technical...

  16. Medium Term Planning & Scheduling under Uncertainty for BP Chemicals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    for PTA PX. From crude oil to PTA From crude oil to PX Production Chains: Products & Applications Models for planning medium term operations Monthly production Inventory targets What proportion of demand should be satisfied from which inventory location ? Types of businesses: PX PTA Deterministic model represents: Global

  17. Oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roohi, M.; Aburawi, R.M. [Waha Oil Co., Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sirte Basin is an asymmetrical cratonic basin, situated in the north-central part of Libya. It covers an area of over 350,000km{sup 2} and is one of the most prolific oil-producing basins in the world. Sirte Basin is divided into large NW-SE trending sub-parallel platforms and troughs bounded by deep seated syndepositional normal faults. A very unique combination of thick sediments with rich source rocks in the troughs vs. thinner sediments with prolific reservoir rocks on the platforms accounts for the productivity of the basin. Analysis of oil migration pattern in the Sirte Basin will certainly help to discover the remaining reserves, and this can only be achieved if the important parameter of structural configuration of the basin at the time of oil migration is known. The present paper is an attempt to analyse the time of oil migration, to define the structural picture of the 4 Basin during the time of migration and to delineate the most probable connecting routes between the hydrocarbon kitchens and the oil fields.

  18. Costs of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.

    2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  19. Cost of Oil Dependence: A 2000 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, D.L.; Tishchishyna, N.I.

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil dependence remains a potentially serious economic and strategic problem for the United States. This report updates previous estimates of the costs of oil dependence to the U.S. economy and introduces several methodological enhancements. Estimates of the costs to the U.S. economy of the oil market upheavals of the last 30 years are in the vicinity of $7 trillion, present value 1998 dollars, about as large as the sum total of payments on the national debt over the same period. Simply adding up historical costs in 1998 dollars without converting to present value results in a Base Case cost estimate of $3.4 trillion. Sensitivity analysis indicates that cost estimates are sensitive to key parameters. A lower bound estimate of $1.7 trillion and an upper bound of $7.1 trillion (not present value) indicate that the costs of oil dependence have been large under almost any plausible set of assumptions. These cost estimates do not include military, strategic or political costs associated with U.S. and world dependence on oil imports.

  20. Carcinogenicity Studies of Estonian Oil Shale Soots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Vosamae

    determine the carcinogenicity of Estonian oil shale soot as well as the soot from oil shale fuel oil. All

  1. INTRODUCTION ossil fuels help drive the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sources to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) opera- tions, where it is injected into oil reservoirs.4 Large

  2. Integration of nuclear power with oil sands extraction projects in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finan, Ashley (Ashley E.)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the largest oil reserves in the world is not in the Middle East or in Alaska, but in Canada. This fuel exists in the form of bitumen in Alberta's oil sands. While it takes a tremendous amount of energy to recover ...

  3. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  4. Oilgopoly: a general equilibrium model of the oil-macroeconomy nexus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anton Nakov Y; Banco De Espańa; Galo Nuńo; Banco De Espańa

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saudi Arabia is the largest player in the world oil market. It maintains ample spare capacity, restricts investment in developing reserves, and its output is negatively correlated with other OPEC producers. While this behavior does not …t into the perfect competition paradigm, we show that it can be rationalized as that of a dominant producer with competitive fringe. We build a quantitative general equilibrium model along these lines which is capable of matching the historical volatility of the oil price, competitive and non-competitive oil output, and of generating the observed comovement among the oil price, oil quantities, and U.S. GDP. We use our framework to answer questions on which available models are silent: (1) What are the proximate determinants of the oil price and how do they vary over the cycle? (2) How large are oil pro…ts and what losses do they imply for oil-importers? (3) What do di¤erent fundamental shocks imply for the comovement of oil prices and GDP? (4) What are the general equilibrium e¤ects of taxes on oil consumption or oil production? We …nd, in particular, that the existence of an oil production distortion does not necessarily justify an oil consumption tax di¤erent from zero. 1

  5. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins` heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas` liquid fuels needs.

  6. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, D.K.; Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins cover most of the depositional basins in the Midwest and Eastern United States. These basins produce sweet, paraffinic light oil and are considered minor heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity or 100 to 100,000 cP viscosity) producers. Heavy oil occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Paleozoic Age along the perimeters of the basins in the same sediments where light oil occurs. The oil is heavy because escape of light ends, water washing of the oil, and biodegradation of the oil have occurred over million of years. The Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois, and Michigan basins' heavy oil fields have produced some 450,000 bbl of heavy oil of an estimated 14,000,000 bbl originally in place. The basins have been long-term, major light-oil-producing areas and are served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and with few exceptions limited volumes of sour or heavy crude oils. Since the light oil is principally paraffinic, it commands a higher price than the asphaltic heavy crude oils of California. The heavy oil that is refined in the Midwest and Eastern US is imported and refined at select refineries. Imports of crude of all grades accounts for 37 to >95% of the oil refined in these areas. Because of the nature of the resource, the Appalachian, Black Warrior, Illinois and Michigan basins are not expected to become major heavy oil producing areas. The crude oil collection system will continue to degrade as light oil production declines. The demand for crude oil will increase pipeline and tanker transport of imported crude to select large refineries to meet the areas' liquid fuels needs.

  7. Rising U.S. oil output leads world oil supply growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »SubmitterJ. Norby (2007)Rising Sea Levels Due

  8. Development of 500 kV DC PPLP-insulated oil-filled submarine cable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimori, A. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan); Tanaka, T. [Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Takashima, H. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan)] [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Imajo, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)] [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Hata, R. [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)] [Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Tanabe, T. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Fujikura, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Fujikura, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kakihana, T. [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)] [Hitachi Cable, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines the development of a 500 kV DC oil-filled submarine cable capable of transmitting 2,800 MW with {+-} 500 kV 2800A bipole system. Polypropylene Laminated Paper (PPL) was employed as the insulation material, which is the worlds first application to DC cables. The conductor size is 3,000 mm{sup 2}, which is the largest size for submarine cables ever put into practical use. Through various fundamental and prototype tests, the cable proved to have excellent electrical characteristics for DC voltage as well as transient overvoltage. The cable and accessories are currently undergoing a long-term accelerated aging test as the final confirmation of their reliability and stability.

  9. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 1: World and regional fossil energy dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breazeale, K. [ed.; Isaak, D.T.; Yamaguchi, N.; Fridley, D.; Johnson, C.; Long, S.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report in the Hawaii Energy Strategy Project examines world and regional fossil energy dynamics. The topics of the report include fossil energy characteristics, the world oil industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, refining, products and their uses, history and trends in the global oil market and the Asia-Pacific market; world gas industry including reserves, production, consumption, exporters, importers, processing, gas-based products, international gas market and the emerging Asia-Pacific gas market; the world coal industry including reserves, classification and quality, utilization, transportation, pricing, world coal market, Asia-Pacific coal outlook, trends in Europe and the Americas; and environmental trends affecting fossil fuels. 132 figs., 46 tabs.

  10. better world Scientists and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    hazardous waste, control air pollution and promote environmental health. Because these fields are complex, environmental, mathematical and physical sciences. And Oregon State University is a great place to start building that experience. Here, you can study with world-renowned faculty, participate in groundbreaking

  11. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world`s major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  12. Oil and Gas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This division of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources provides information on the regulation of oil and gas exploration, wells and well spacings, drilling, plugging and abandonment, and...

  13. Activities of the Oil Implementation Task Force, December 1990--February 1991; Contracts for field projects and supporting research on enhanced oil recovery, April--June 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiedemann, H.A. (ed.) (USDOE Bartlesville Project Office, OK (USA))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oil Implementation Task Force was appointed to implement the US DOE's new oil research program directed toward increasing domestic oil production by expanded research on near- or mid-term enhanced oil recovery methods. An added priority is to preserve access to reservoirs that have the largest potential for oil recovery, but that are threatened by the large number of wells abandoned each year. This report describes the progress of research activities in the following areas: chemical flooding; gas displacement; thermal recovery; resource assessment; microbial technology; geoscience technology; and environmental technology. (CK)

  14. Transporting US oil imports: The impact of oil spill legislation on the tanker market. Draft final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowland, P.J. [Rowland (P.) Associates (United States)

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (``OPA``) and an even more problematic array of State pollution laws have raised the cost, and risk, of carrying oil into and out of the US. This report, prepared under contract to the US Department of energy`s Office of Domestic and International Policy, examines the impact of Federal and State oil spill legislation on the tanker market. It reviews the role of marine transportation in US oil supply, explores the OPA and State oil spill laws, studies reactions to OPA in the tanker and tank barge industries and in related industries such as insurance and ship finance, and finally, discusses the likely developments in the years ahead. US waterborne oil imports amounted to 6.5 million B/D in 1991, three-quarters of which was crude oil. Imports will rise by almost 3 million B/D by 2000 according to US Department of energy forecasts, with most of the crude oil growth after 1995. Tanker demand will grow even faster: most of the US imports and the increased traffic to other world consuming regions will be on long-haul trades. Both the number of US port calls by tankers and the volume of offshore lightering will grow. Every aspect of the tanker industry`s behavior is affected by OPA and a variety of State pollution laws.

  15. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reserves. In the data, crude oil reserve addi- tions consistForce and Proven Reserves in the Venezuelan Oil Industry .such as crude oil production, proved reserves, new reserves,

  16. Oil and Gas Production (Missouri)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A State Oil and Gas Council regulates and oversees oil and gas production in Missouri, and conducts a biennial review of relevant rules and regulations. The waste of oil and gas is prohibited. This...

  17. History and some potentials of oil shale cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knutson, C.F.; Smith, R.P.; Russell, B.F. (Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utilization of oil shale as a cement component is discussed. It was investigated in America and Europe during World War I. Additional development occurred in Western Europe, Russia, and China during the 1920s and 1930s. World War II provided further development incentives and a relatively mature technology was in place in Germany, Russia, and China prior to 1980. The utilization of oil shale in cement has taken a number of different paths. One approach has been to utilize the energy in the oil shale as the principal source for the cement plant and to use the combusted shale as a minor constituent of the plant's cement product. A second approach has been to use the combusted shale as a class C or cementitious fly-ash component in portland cement concrete. Other approaches utilizing eastern oil shale have been to use the combusted oil shale with additives as a specialty cement, or to cocombust the oil shale with coal and utilize the sulfur-rich combustion product.

  18. The role of energy efficiency and renewable energies in the future world energy market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheffield, J.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The world population is rising rapidly, notably in the developing countries. Historical trends suggest that increased annual energy use per capita is a good surrogate for the standard of living factors which promote a decrease in population growth rate. If these trends continue, stabilization of the world`s population will require the increased use of all sources of energy as cheap oil and gas are depleted. Improved efficiency of energy use and renewable energy sources will be essential to stabilizing population,while providing a decent standard all over the world.

  19. Third World Ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolan, J.E.; Wheelon, A.D.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ballistic missiles and other means of long-range destruction, traditionally limited to a handful of industrialized nations, are fast becoming a fixture in many regional conflicts. The Third World military buildup is perhaps even more worrisome than its First World prototype, for it is far more likely to find expression in war. There are several reasons why this should be so. In the past decade the number of countries in the missile club has more than doubled, to 18. Many of the new members have been at war or are embroiled in disputes. Unlike the major powers, these countries have not had time enough to perfect systems of command and control over their new strategic forces. They have had little time to learn to manage the complexities of military brinksmanship. Finally, because many regional conflicts overlap, an escalation in the arms race tends to convey itself from one area of tension to another. For many years the big industrialized countries ignored the proliferation of ballistic missiles and sought political advantage by arming their clients. In doing so, they presumed that the bipolar alignment of power would restrain regional conflicts. The preoccupation with East-West issues overshadowed problems in the Third World. Smaller industrialized powers sold missiles to generate revenues to support their own military industries. Meanwhile the developing countries eagerly acquired missiles for the same reasons that had motivated their predecessors: to deter attack, intimidate enemies, build a technological base and win prestige.

  20. Marathon Oil Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    Marine oil shale from the Shenglihe oil shale section in the Qiangtang basin, northern Tibet, China, was dated by the Re-Os technique using Carius Tube digestion, Os distillation, Re extraction by acetone and ICP-MS measure-ment. An isochron was obtained giving an age of 101±24 Ma with an initial

  1. Synthetic aircraft turbine oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, R.

    1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic lubricating oil composition having improved oxidation stability comprising a major portion of an aliphatic ester base oil having lubricating properties, formed by the reaction of pentaerythritol and an organic monocarboxylic acid and containing a phenylnaphthylamine, a dialkyldiphenylamine, a polyhydroxy anthraquinone, a hydrocarbyl phosphate ester and a dialkyldisulfide.

  2. OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT IN CHINA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Qian; J. Wang; S. Li

    In this paper history, current status and forecast of Chinese oil shale indus-try, as well as the characteristics of some typical Chinese oil shales are given.

  3. Peak oil: diverging discursive pipelines.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doctor, Jeff

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Peak oil is the claimed moment in time when global oil production reaches its maximum rate and henceforth forever declines. It is highly controversial as… (more)

  4. Petroleum Oil | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Petroleum Oil Petroleum Oil The production of energy feedstock and fuels requires substantial water input. Not only do biofuel feedstocks like corn, switchgrass and agricultural...

  5. Balancing oil and environment... responsibly.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weimer, Walter C.; Teske, Lisa

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Balancing Oil and Environment…Responsibly As the price of oil continues to skyrocket and global oil production nears the brink, pursuing unconventional oil supplies, such as oil shale, oil sands, heavy oils, and oils from biomass and coal has become increasingly attractive. Of particular significance to the American way is that our continent has significant quantities of these resources. Tapping into these new resources, however, requires cutting-edge technologies for identification, production, processing and environmental management. This job needs a super hero or two for a job of this size and proportion…

  6. Essays on Macroeconomics and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CAKIR, NIDA

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil Production in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . . .and Productivity in Venezuela and Mexico . . . . . . . . OilEllner, ”Organized Labor in Venezuela 1958-1991: Behavior

  7. Effect of oil pollution on fresh groundwater in Kuwait

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Sulaimi, J.; Viswanathan, M.N.; Szekely, F. [Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Safat (Kuwait)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Massive oil fires in Kuwait were the aftermath of the Gulf War. This resulted in the pollution of air, water, and soil, the magnitude of which is unparalleled in the history of mankind. Oil fires damaged several oil well heads, resulting in the flow of oil, forming large oil lakes. Products of combustion from oil well fires deposited over large areas. Infiltrating rainwater, leaching out contaminants from oil lakes and products of combustion at ground surface, can reach the water table and contaminate the groundwater. Field investigations, supported by laboratory studies and mathematical models, show that infiltration of oil from oil lakes will be limited to a depth of about 2 m from ground surface. Preliminary mathematical models showed that contaminated rainwater can infiltrate and reach the water table within a period of three to four days, particularly at the Raudhatain and Umm Al-Aish regions. These are the only regions in Kuwait where fresh groundwater exists. After reaching the water table, the lateral movement of contaminants is expected to be very slow under prevailing hydraulic gradients. Groundwater monitoring at the above regions during 1992 showed minor levels of vanadium, nickel, and total hydrocarbons at certain wells. Since average annual rainfall in the region is only 120 mm/yr, groundwater contamination due to the infiltration of contaminated rainwater is expected to be a long-term one. 13 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Investigation and development of alternative methods for shale oil processing and analysis. Final technical report, October 1979--April 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, R.A.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil shale, a carbonaceous rock which occurs abundantly in the earth`s crust, has been investigated for many years as an alternate source of fuel oil. The insoluble organic matter contained in such shales is termed {open_quotes}Kerogen{close_quotes} from the Greek meaning oil or oil forming. The kerogen in oil shale breaks down into oil-like products when subjected to conditions simulating destructive distillation. These products have been the subject of extensive investigations by several researchers and many of the constituents of shale oil have been identified. (1) Forsman (2) estimates that the kerogen content of the earth is roughly 3 {times} 10{sup 15} tons as compared to total coal reserves of about 5 {times} 10{sup 12}. Although the current cost per barrel estimate for commercial production of shale oil is higher than that of fossil oil, as our oil reserves continue to dwindle, shale oil technology will become more and more important. When oil shale is heated, kerogen is said to undergo chemical transformation to usable oil in two steps (3): Kerogen (in oil shale) 300-500{degrees}C bitumen. Crude shale oil and other products. The crude shale oil so obtained differs from fossil oil in that: (1) kerogen is thought to have been produced from the aging of plant matter over many years; (2) shale oil has a higher nitrogen content than fossil oil; (3) non-hydrocarbons are present to a much greater extent in shale oil; and (4) the hydrocarbons in shale oil are much more unsaturated than those in fossil oil (petroleum).

  9. International oil and gas exploration and development: 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report starts where the previous quarterly publication ended. This first publication of a new annual series contains most of the same data as the quarterly report, plus some new material, through 1991. It also presents historical data covering a longer period of time than the previous quarterly report. Country-level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve-to-production rations (R/P ratios) are listed for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form. The most popular table in the previous quarterly report, a listing of new discoveries, continues in this annual report as Appendix A.

  10. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study examines the potential for separating, upgrading and marketing sodium mineral co-products together with shale oil production. The co-products investigated are soda ash and alumina which are derived from the minerals nahcolite and dawsonite. Five cases were selected to reflect the variance in mineral and shale oil content in the identified resource. In the five cases examined, oil content of the shale was varied from 20 to 30 gallons per ton. Two sizes of facilities were analyzed for each resource case to determine economies of scale between a 15,000 barrel per day demonstration unit and a 50,000 barrel per day full sized plant. Three separate pieces of analysis were conducted in this study: analysis of manufacturing costs for shale oil and co-products; projection of potential world markets for alumina, soda ash, and nahcolite; and determination of economic viability and market potential for shale co-products.

  11. Fluidized bed retorting of eastern oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaire, R.J.; Mazzella, G.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of eastern New Albany oil shale. This is the fourth design study conducted by Foster Wheeler; previous design cases employed the following technologies: Fluidized bed rotating/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. An FCC concept of fluidized bed retorting/combustion of Colorado Mahogany zone shale. Directly heated moving vertical-bed process using Colorado Mahogany zone shale. The conceptual design encompasses a grassroots facility which processes run-of-mine oil shale into a syncrude oil product and dispose of the spent shale solids. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per day of syncrude product, produced from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 15 gallons per ton. Design of the processing units was based on non-confidential published information and supplemental data from process licensors. Maximum use of process and cost information developed in the previous Foster Wheeler studies was employed. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is detailed by plant section and estimates of the annual operating requirements and costs are provided. In addition, process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed. 12 refs., 17 figs., 52 tabs.

  12. MARGINAL EXPENSE OIL WELL WIRELESS SURVEILLANCE MEOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason M. Medizade; John R. Ridgely; Donald G. Nelson

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A marginal expense oil well wireless surveillance system to monitor system performance and production from rod-pumped wells in real time from wells operated by Vaquero Energy in the Edison Field, Main Area of Kern County in California has been successfully designed and field tested. The surveillance system includes a proprietary flow sensor, a programmable transmitting unit, a base receiver and receiving antenna, and a base station computer equipped with software to interpret the data. First, the system design is presented. Second, field data obtained from three wells is shown. Results of the study show that an effective, cost competitive, real-time wireless surveillance system can be introduced to oil fields across the United States and the world.

  13. Oil shale mining processing, uses, and environmental impacts. (Latest citations from the EI compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning oil shale mining and retorting, uses, and related environmental aspects. References discuss pyrolyzed, gasified, and combusted oil shales. Product yields and oil quality, socioeconomic impacts, exploration, reclamation of mined lands, and waste disposal are covered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  14. Report Title: The Economic Impact of Oil and Gas Extraction in New Mexico Type of Report: Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Eric E.

    Report Title: The Economic Impact of Oil and Gas Extraction in New Mexico Type of Report: Technical of oil and gas extraction in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment presented. Historical oil and gas production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. #12

  15. Selected Abstracts & Bibliography of International Oil Spill Research, through 1998

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisiana Applied Oil Spill Research & Development Program Electronic Bibliography

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kuwait, Middle East, oil and gas fields, oil refinery, oil waste, oil well,Equipment Kuwait Oil Co. 1991. Mideast well fire, oil spillKuwait, Persian Gulf, Saudia Arabia, Oil spill, cleanup, oil spills, crude, oil spill incidents, oil spills-pipeline, warfare, oil skimmers, oil wells,

  16. WCI - World Consensus Initiative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert SouthwestTechnologies | Blandine Jerome VelenciaNews CareersStand by:VolunteerWorld

  17. GEAR Tech-21 Hello World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    GEAR Tech-21 Hello World 1 Established Goals Activity Outline Activity Timeline Equipment Needs and predictions that are based on data. At a Glance #12;GEAR Tech-21 Hello World 2 Key Knowledge and Skills;GEAR Tech-21 Hello World 3 Before the Session You must complete this activity before working with your

  18. Vertical composition gradient effects on original hydrocarbon in place volumes and liquid recovery for volatile oil and gas condensate reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo Arias, Juan Manuel

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Around the world, volatile oil and retrograde gas reservoirs are considered as complex thermodynamic systems and even more when they exhibit vertical composition variations. Those systems must be characterized by an equation of state (EOS...

  19. Impacts of oil disturbances: lessons from experience. [1973-1974 Oil Crisis; 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution; 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curlee, T R

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of the impacts of previous oil distrubances can be used to suggest the impacts of future oil disturbances. This paper reviews how the 1973-1974 Oil Crisis, the 1978-1979 Iranian Revolution, and the 1980-1981 Iran-Iraq War impacted the US and world oil markets. Various measures of impacts are considered, such as impacts on physical flows of crude and products, crude and product price changes on the US and world markets, impacts on stocks of crude and products, and impacts on refiners' inputs and outputs. Various macroeconomic indicators, such as gross national product, inflation rates, and unemployment, are also considered. Of particular interest in this study are the impacts that oil disturbances have had (and could have) on the availabilities of particular crude types and the abilities of US refiners to process crudes of various types in the short run. In addition, this paper reviews how the actions of the consuming countries and the major oil companies affected the impacts of past disturbances. The paper briefly discusses the likely causes and impacts of future oil distrubances and summarizes the lessons to be learned from past reactions to oil disturbances.

  20. Daily dispersion model calculations of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Sullivan, T.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W. III (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States)); Greenly, G.D. (IT Corp., Irvine, CA (United States))

    1992-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provided daily forecasts of the position and spatial character of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume to the NSF-coordinated research aircraft missions in the Persian Gulf. ARAC also provided daily plume dispersion products to various nations in the Persian Gulf region under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization for a period of nearly 5 months. Forecasted three dimensional winds were provided to ARAC from the US Air Force Global Weather Central's Relocatable Wind Model (RWM). The RWM winds were spaced approximately 90 km in the horizontal and were located at the surface, 1000 ft., 2000 ft, 5000 ft and every 5000 ft up to 30,000 ft elevation. The forecast periods were 0, 6, 24, and 36 hours from both 0000 and 1200 UTC. A wind field model (MATHEW) corrected for terrain influences on the wind. The smoke plume was dispersed using a three dimensional particle-in-cell code (ADPIC) with buoyant plume rise capability. Multiple source locations were used to represent the burning oil fields. Improved estimates of the source term and emission factors for the smoke were incorporated into the ADPIC calculations as the field measurement data were made available.

  1. Daily dispersion model calculations of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, J.S.; Foster, C.S.; Foster, K.T.; Sullivan, T.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Baskett, R.L.; Nasstrom, J.S.; Schalk, W.W. III [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Pleasanton, CA (United States); Greenly, G.D. [IT Corp., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1992-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provided daily forecasts of the position and spatial character of the Kuwait oil fire smoke plume to the NSF-coordinated research aircraft missions in the Persian Gulf. ARAC also provided daily plume dispersion products to various nations in the Persian Gulf region under the auspices of the World Meteorological Organization for a period of nearly 5 months. Forecasted three dimensional winds were provided to ARAC from the US Air Force Global Weather Central`s Relocatable Wind Model (RWM). The RWM winds were spaced approximately 90 km in the horizontal and were located at the surface, 1000 ft., 2000 ft, 5000 ft and every 5000 ft up to 30,000 ft elevation. The forecast periods were 0, 6, 24, and 36 hours from both 0000 and 1200 UTC. A wind field model (MATHEW) corrected for terrain influences on the wind. The smoke plume was dispersed using a three dimensional particle-in-cell code (ADPIC) with buoyant plume rise capability. Multiple source locations were used to represent the burning oil fields. Improved estimates of the source term and emission factors for the smoke were incorporated into the ADPIC calculations as the field measurement data were made available.

  2. Technology experience and economics of oil shale mining in Estonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exhaustion of fuel-energy resources became an evident problem of the European continent in the 1960s. Careful utilization of their own reserves of coal, oil, and gas (Germany, France, Spain) and assigned shares of imports of these resources make up the strategy of economic development of the European countries. The expansion of oil shale utilization is the most topical problem. The experience of mining oil shale deposits in Estonia and Russia, in terms of the practice and the economic results, is reviewed in this article. The room-and-pillar method of underground mining and the open-cut technology of clearing the ground ensure the fertility of a soil. The economics of underground and open pit oil shale mines is analyzed in terms of natural, organizational, and technical factors. These analyses are used in the planning and management of oil shale mining enterprises. The perspectives of the oil shale mining industry of Estonia and the economic expediency of multiproduction are examined. Recommendations and guidelines for future industrial utilization of oil shale are given in the summary.

  3. World energy: Building a sustainable future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schipper, L.; Meyers, S.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the 20th century draws to a close, both individual countries and the world community face challenging problems related to the supply and use energy. These include local and regional environmental impacts, the prospect of global climate and sea level change associated with the greenhouse effect, and threats to international relations in connection with oil supply or nuclear proliferation. For developing countries, the financial cost of providing energy to provide basic needs and fuel economic development pose an additional burden. To assess the magnitude of future problems and the potential effectiveness of response strategies, it is important to understand how and why energy use has changed in the post and where it is heading. This requires study of the activities for which energy is used, and of how people and technology interact to provide the energy services that are desired. The authors and their colleagues have analyzed trends in energy use by sector for most of the world's major energy-consuming countries. The approach we use considers three key elements in each sector: the level of activity, structural change, and energy intensity, which expresses the amount of energy used for various activities. At a disaggregated level, energy intensity is indicative of energy efficiency. But other factors besides technical efficiency also shape intensity.

  4. Imbibition assisted oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pashayev, Orkhan H.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    analyzed in detail to investigate oil recovery during spontaneous imbibition with different types of boundary conditions. The results of these studies have been upscaled to the field dimensions. The validity of the new definition of characteristic length...

  5. Production of Shale Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loper, R. D.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intensive pre-project feasibility and engineering studies begun in 1979 have produced an outline plan for development of a major project for production of shale oil from private lands in the Piceance Basin in western Colorado. This outline plan...

  6. Oil shale research in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianqiu, W.; Jialin, Q. (Beijing Graduate School, Petroleum Univ., Beijing (CN))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There have been continued efforts and new emergence in oil shale research in Chine since 1980. In this paper, the studies carried out in universities, academic, research and industrial laboratories in recent years are summarized. The research areas cover the chemical structure of kerogen; thermal behavior of oil shale; drying, pyrolysis and combustion of oil shale; shale oil upgrading; chemical utilization of oil shale; retorting waste water treatment and economic assessment.

  7. Annual resources report. [Glossary on technical terms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is separated into the following sections: acknowledgments; a table of contents; a list of tables and figures; a glossary; an introduction; an overview of the role of energy resources in New Mexico; separate sections on oil and gas, coal, electrical generation, uranium, and geothermal energy; a section on the geologic setting of oil and gas, coal, and uranium; an appendix of additional tables pertaining to oil and gas development; and a listing of selected references. The glossary is a brief listing of technical terms used in the report with simplified definitions for the reader's use. The overview contains highlights of data found in the report as well as comparisons of New Mexico's resources with those of other states and the nation. In general, each section covering a resource area describes reserves, production, prices, consumption, transportation, employment, and revenue statistics over the past ten or more years and projections to the year 2000.

  8. Biocatalysis in Oil Refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M. [BP Global Fuels Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

  9. Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henning, Carl D. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  12. Oil and the American Way of Life: Don't Ask, Don't Tell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufmann, Robert (Boston University) [Boston University

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the coming decades, US consumers will face a series of important decisions about oil. To make effective decisions, consumers must confront some disturbing answers to questions they would rather not ask. These questions include: is the US running out of oil, is the world running out of oil, is OPEC increasing its grip on prices, is the US economy reducing its dependence on energy, and will the competitive market address these issues in a timely fashion? Answers to these questions indicate that the market will not address these issues: the US has already run out of inexpensive sources of oil such that rising prices no longer elicit significant increases in supply. The US experience implies that within a couple of decades, the world oil market will change from increasing supply at low prices to decreasing supply at higher prices. As the world approaches this important turning point, OPEC will strengthen its grip on world oil prices. Contrary to popular belief, the US economy continues to be highly dependent on energy, especially inexpensive sources of energy. Together, these trends threaten to undermine the basic way in which the US economy generates a high standard of living.

  13. Government chartered banks step up oil and gas lending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crow, P.

    1994-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    International government chartered banks are playing an increasingly prominent role in lending for world oil and gas development projects. The main players are the World Bank's International Finance Corp. (IFC), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), US Export-Import Bank, and Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC). Those institutions and similar ones are the catalysts for a large number of projects in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and in other nations that are seeking to develop oil and gas resources and build processing plants, pipelines, and distribution networks. Banks also are taking a greater degree of interest in the environmental aspects of projects. In country after country, especially in the developing world, barriers to foreign investment in domestic petroleum sectors are falling. Oil and gas law reforms are under way on each continent. The paper discusses the major players, the World Bank grouped, the Romanian example, the Ex-Im Bank, OPIC, the emphasis on FSU, environmental issues, and new sources of capital in developing countries.

  14. Optimising the Use of Spent Oil Shale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FOSTER, HELEN,JANE

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and high quality, and could… (more)

  15. Oil Prices and Long-Run Risk.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    READY, ROBERT

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??I show that relative levels of aggregate consumption and personal oil consumption provide anexcellent proxy for oil prices, and that high oil prices predict low… (more)

  16. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic wavesbe expected to enhance oil production. INTRODUCTION The hopethe reservoir can cause oil production to increase. Quite

  17. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pride, S.R.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that in a declining oil reservoir, seismic waves sent acrosswells. Because oil reservoirs are often at kilometers orproximity to the oil reservoir. Our analysis suggests there

  18. Non-Edible Plant Oils as New Sources for Biodiesel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arjun B. Chhetri; Martin S. Tango; Suzanne M. Budge; K. Chris Watts

    Abstract: Due to the concern on the availability of recoverable fossil fuel reserves and the environmental problems caused by the use those fossil fuels, considerable attention has been given to biodiesel production as an alternative to petrodiesel. However, as the biodiesel is produced from vegetable oils and animal fats, there are concerns that biodiesel feedstock may compete with food supply in the long-term. Hence, the recent focus is to find oil bearing plants that produce non-edible oils as the feedstock for biodiesel production. In this paper, two plant species, soapnut (Sapindus mukorossi) and jatropha (jatropha curcas, L.) are discussed as newer sources of oil for biodiesel production. Experimental analysis showed that both oils have great potential to be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from cold pressed soapnut seed oil was envisaged as biodiesel source for the first time. Soapnut oil was found to have average of 9.1 % free FA, 84.43 % triglycerides, 4.88 % sterol and 1.59 % others. Jatropha oil contains approximately 14 % free FA, approximately 5 % higher than soapnut oil. Soapnut oil biodiesel contains approximately 85 % unsaturated FA while jatropha oil biodiesel was found to have approximately 80 % unsaturated FA. Oleic acid was found to be the dominant FA in both soapnut and jatropha biodiesel. Over 97 % conversion to FAME was achieved for both soapnut and jatropha oil.

  19. A Guide to Brazil's Oil and Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard A.

    (INMETRO) is responsible for notifying the proposed technical regulations to the World Trade Organization Agency (ANVISA), Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA), the National Petroleum Agency, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP), the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME), as well as the National

  20. Horizontal oil well applications and oil recovery assessment. Technical progress report, April--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, W.J.

    1993-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thousands of horizontal wells are being drilled each year in the U.S.A. and around the world. Horizontal wells have increased oil and gas production rates 3 to 8 times those of vertical wells in many areas and have converted non-economic oil reserves to economic reserves. However, the use of horizontal technology in various formation types and applications has not always yielded anticipated success. The primary objective of this project is to examine factors affecting technical and economic success of horizontal well applications. The project`s goals will be accomplished through six tasks designed to evaluate the technical and economic success of horizontal drilling, highlight current limitations, and outline technical needs to overcome these limitations. Data describing operators` experiences throughout the domestic oil and gas industry will be gathered and organized. Canadian horizontal technology will also be documented with an emphasis on lessons the US industry can learn from Canada`s experience. MEI databases containing detailed horizontal case histories will also be used. All these data will be categorized and analyzed to assess the status of horizontal well technology and estimate the impact of horizontal wells on present and future domestic oil recovery and reserves.

  1. Linkages between the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Didziulis, V.S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To understand the crude oil price determination process it is necessary to extend the analysis beyond the markets for petroleum. Crude oil prices are determined in two closely related markets: the markets for crude oil and the markets for refined products. An econometric-linear programming model was developed to capture the linkages between the markets for crude oil and refined products. In the LP refiners maximize profits given crude oil supplies, refining capacities, and prices of refined products. The objective function is profit maximization net of crude oil prices. The shadow price on crude oil gives the netback price. Refined product prices are obtained from the econometric models. The model covers the free world divided in five regions. The model is used to analyze the impacts on the markets of policies that affect crude oil supplies, the demands for refined products, and the refining industry. For each scenario analyzed the demand for crude oil is derived from the equilibrium conditions in the markets for products. The demand curve is confronted with a supply curve which maximizes revenues providing an equilibrium solution for both crude oil and product markets. The model also captures crude oil price differentials by quality. The results show that the demands for crude oil are different across regions due to the structure of the refining industries and the characteristics of the demands for refined products. Changes in the demands for products have a larger impact on the markets than changes in the refining industry. Since markets for refined products and crude oil are interrelated they can't be analyzed individually if an accurate and complete assessment of a policy is to be made. Changes in only one product market in one region affect the other product markets and the prices of crude oil.

  2. France to host world's first nuclear fusion plant swissinfo June 28, 2005 3:35 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a commercially viable reactor is built, if at all. "We are making scientific history," Janez Potocnik alternative to the world's depleting stocks of oil and gas. The search took on new significance as crude this week reached a record price of $60.95 a barrel in some trading. Next week, a summit of the Group

  3. Building a World of Difference

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Waste?to?Energy Roadmapping Workshop Building a World of Difference Presentation by Patricia Scanlan, Director of Residuals Treatment Technologies, Black & Veatch

  4. HEAVY AND THERMAL OIL RECOVERY PRODUCTION MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; Louis M. Castanier

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Stanford University Petroleum Research Institute (SUPRI-A) conducts a broad spectrum of research intended to help improve the recovery efficiency from difficult to produce reservoirs including heavy oil and fractured low permeability systems. Our scope of work is relevant across near-, mid-, and long-term time frames. The primary functions of the group are to conduct direction-setting research, transfer research results to industry, and educate and train students for careers in industry. Presently, research in SUPRI-A is divided into 5 main project areas. These projects and their goals include: (1) Multiphase flow and rock properties--to develop better understanding of the physics of displacement in porous media through experiment and theory. This category includes work on imbibition, flow in fractured media, and the effect of temperature on relative permeability and capillary pressure. (2) Hot fluid injection--to improve the application of nonconventional wells for enhanced oil recovery and elucidate the mechanisms of steamdrive in low permeability, fractured porous media. (3) Mechanisms of primary heavy oil recovery--to develop a mechanistic understanding of so-called ''foamy oil'' and its associated physical chemistry. (4) In-situ combustion--to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the insitu combustion process. (5) Reservoir definition--to develop and improve techniques for evaluating formation properties from production information. What follows is a report on activities for the past year. Significant progress was made in all areas.

  5. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State's Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  6. Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    Used Oil and Filter Disposal Used Oil: Create a segregated storage area or container. Label the container "Waste Oil Only". Maintain a written log to document all amounts and types of oil added to the container. No solvents, oil contaminated with solvents, PCBs, non-petroleum based oils, or any other

  7. Spot-Oiling Johnsongrass.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, Fred C.; Norris, M. J.; Rea, H. E.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSIO-N SERVICE G. G. Gibson, Director, College Station, Texas [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] I the bast I ir used the low I . .. 1 the fol or mort , needed SPOT-OILING JOHNSONGRASS H. E. Rea, M. J. Norris..., and Fred C. Elliott* Texas A. & M. College System ~HNSONGRASS CAN BE killed to the i ground by the application of 1 / 3 teaspoonful of a herbicidal oil to the crown of each stem. Eradication of established Johnsongrass can be obtained in a single...

  8. Oil | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy UsageAUDITVehicles »Exchange VisitorsforDepartment ofNo FearOfficeOil Oil For the

  9. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Breakout Session 2A—Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Randy Cortright, Founder & Chief Technology Officer, Virent

  10. Enhanced Oil Recovery of Viscous Oil by Injection of Water-in-Oil Emulsion Made with Used Engine Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Xuebing

    2012-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    was proposed for emulsion generation because of several key advantages: more favorable viscosity that results in better emulsion injectivity, soot particles within the oil that readily promote stable emulsions, almost no cost of the oil itself and relatively...

  11. Oil and Gas Program (Tennessee)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oil and Gas section of the Tennessee Code, found in Title 60, covers all regulations, licenses, permits, and laws related to the production of natural gas. The laws create the Oil and Gas...

  12. Oil and Gas Conservation (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Parts 1 and 2 of this chapter contain a broad range of regulations pertaining to oil and gas conservation, including requirements for the regulation of oil and gas exploration and extraction by the...

  13. Physics World Archive Topological insulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johannesson, Henrik

    Physics World Archive Topological insulators Charles Kane, Joel Moore From Physics World February, how- ever, now uncovered a new electronic phase called a topological insulator. Putting the name; this "spin current" is a milestone in the realization of practical "spintronics". Topological insulators have

  14. SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Todd C.

    RECORD OF SERVICE SECOND WORLD WAR THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA VANCOUVER #12;IN MEMORIAM #12$,T'r 113a,. #12;#12;RECORD OF SERVICE IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR THEUNIVERSITY OF BRITISHCOLUMBIA A Supplement to the University of British Columbia War Memorial Manuscript Record. Vancouver, Canada, 1955. #12;Printed

  15. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils olive, corn, soybean, canola in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights

  16. Process for the production of refrigerator oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunihiro, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

    1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a high quality refrigerator oil from an oil fraction boiling at a temperature within boiling point of lubricating oil by contacting said oil fraction with a solvent to extract undesirable components thereby lowering % C..cap alpha.. of said oil fraction, hydrogenating said solvent extracted fraction under the specific conditions, and then contacting said hydrogenated oil with a solid absorbant to remove impurities; said oil fraction being obtained from a low grade naphthenic crude oil.

  17. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  18. Stabilization of Fast Pyrolysis Oil: Post Processing Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Hart, Todd R.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UOP LLC, a Honeywell Company, assembled a comprehensive team for a two-year project to demonstrate innovative methods for the stabilization of pyrolysis oil in accordance with DOE Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DE-PS36-08GO98018, Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil (Bio-oil) Stabilization. In collaboration with NREL, PNNL, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Pall Fuels and Chemicals, and Ensyn Corporation, UOP developed solutions to the key technical challenges outlined in the FOA. The UOP team proposed a multi-track technical approach for pyrolysis oil stabilization. Conceptually, methods for pyrolysis oil stabilization can be employed during one or both of two stages: (1) during the pyrolysis process (In Process); or (2) after condensation of the resulting vapor (Post-Process). Stabilization methods fall into two distinct classes: those that modify the chemical composition of the pyrolysis oil, making it less reactive; and those that remove destabilizing components from the pyrolysis oil. During the project, the team investigated methods from both classes that were suitable for application in each stage of the pyrolysis process. The post processing stabilization effort performed at PNNL is described in this report. The effort reported here was performed under a CRADA between PNNL and UOP, which was effective on March 13, 2009, for 2 years and was subsequently modified March 8, 2011, to extend the term to December 31, 2011.

  19. Nineteenth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains 23 selections. Some of the titles are: Effects of maturation on hydrocarbon recoveries from Canadian oil shale deposits; Dust and pressure generated during commercial oil shale mine blasting: Part II; The petrosix project in Brazil - An update; Pathway of some trace elements during fluidized-bed combustion of Israeli Oil Shale; and Decommissioning of the U.S. Department of Energy Anvil Points Oil Shale Research Facility.

  20. Analysis Patterns for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Zhen; Guangzhen Shao

    We present analysis patterns to describe the structure of oil refineries. The Refinery Produc tion Unit Pattern describes the structure of units and unit groups. The Oil Storage Pattern describes the structure of tanks and tank groups. The Oil Delivery Pattern describes the structure of stations for import and export of oil. The Production Process Pattern describes the productionprocess. The audience for this paper includes analysts, designers, and programmers who are involved in developing Refinery Information Systems.

  1. Oil and Gas Air Heaters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kou, G.; Wang, H.; Zhou, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the relation of hot-air temperature, oil or gas consumption and fresh airflow is determined based on energy equilibrium....

  2. OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL ANALYSIS LAB TRIVECTOR ANALYSIS This test method is a good routine test for the overall condition of the oil, the cleanliness, and can indicate the presence of wear metals that could be coming of magnetic metal particles within the oil. This may represent metals being worn from components (i

  3. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Does Ownership Matter? The Performance and Efficiency of State Oil vs. Private Oil (1987-2006)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, C

    -owned International Oil Companies (IOCs). The dataset, which is based on a survey published by Energy Intelligence and covers 1,001 firm observation years in the period 1987 to 2006, provides a unique corporate perspective on the industry’s development. After... could enter into long-term supply contracts as a temporary measure, but ultimately “the Admiralty should become the independent owner and producer of its own supplies of liquid fuel”.2 In 1914, the British government therefore acquired a controlling...

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  6. Exploiting heavy oil reserves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    North Sea investment potential Exploiting heavy oil reserves Beneath the waves in 3D Aberdeen.hamptonassociates.com pRINTED BY nB GroUP Paper sourced from sustainable forests CONTENTS 3/5 does the north Sea still industry partnership drives research into sensor systems 11 Beneath the waves in 3d 12/13 does

  7. African oil plays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, A.J. (BHP Petroleum, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The vast continent of Africa hosts over eight sedimentary basins, covering approximately half its total area. Of these basins, only 82% have entered a mature exploration phase, 9% have had little or no exploration at all. Since oil was first discovered in Africa during the mid-1950s, old play concepts continue to bear fruit, for example in Egypt and Nigeria, while new play concepts promise to become more important, such as in Algeria, Angola, Chad, Egypt, Gabon, and Sudan. The most exciting developments of recent years in African oil exploration are: (1) the Gamba/Dentale play, onshore Gabon; (2) the Pinda play, offshore Angola; (3) the Lucula/Toca play, offshore Cabinda; (4) the Metlaoui play, offshore Libya/Tunisia; (5) the mid-Cretaceous sand play, Chad/Sudan; and (6) the TAG-I/F6 play, onshore Algeria. Examples of these plays are illustrated along with some of the more traditional oil plays. Where are the future oil plays likely to develop No doubt, the Saharan basins of Algeria and Libya will feature strongly, also the presalt of Equatorial West Africa, the Central African Rift System and, more speculatively, offshore Ethiopia and Namibia, and onshore Madagascar, Mozambique, and Tanzania.

  8. Naphthenic lube oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hettinger Jr., W. P.; Beck, H. W.; Rozman, G. J.; Turrill, F. H.

    1985-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for increasing the volume of lubricating oil base stocks recovered from a crude oil. A fraction having an atmospheric boiling range of about 675/sup 0/ to 1100/sup 0/ F. is recovered by vacuum distillation. This fraction is treated with furfural to extract a hydrocarbon mixture containing at least 50 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons. The raffinate is a lubricating oil base stock very high in paraffinic hydrocarbons and low in naphthenic hydrocarbons. The fraction extracted by the furfural contains at least about 50 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons and less than about 10 volume % paraffinic hydrocarbons. The mixture is hydrotreated to hydrogenate a substantial portion of the aromatic hydrocarbons. The hydrotreated product then is catalytically dewaxed. After removal of low boiling components, the finished lubricating oil base stock has a viscosity of at least about 200 SUS at 100/sup 0/ F., a pour point of less than 20/sup 0/ F. and contains at least 50 volume % of naphthenic hydrocarbons, a maximum of about 40 volume % aromatic hydrocarbons, and a maximum of about 10 volume % paraffinic hydrocarbons.

  9. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin (Westland, MI)

    2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  10. Validating agent based models through virtual worlds.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lakkaraju, Kiran; Whetzel, Jonathan H.; Lee, Jina [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Cardona-Rivera, Rogelio E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC; Bernstein, Jeremy Ray Rhythm [Gaikai, Inc., Aliso Viejo, CA

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the US continues its vigilance against distributed, embedded threats, understanding the political and social structure of these groups becomes paramount for predicting and dis- rupting their attacks. Agent-based models (ABMs) serve as a powerful tool to study these groups. While the popularity of social network tools (e.g., Facebook, Twitter) has provided extensive communication data, there is a lack of ne-grained behavioral data with which to inform and validate existing ABMs. Virtual worlds, in particular massively multiplayer online games (MMOG), where large numbers of people interact within a complex environ- ment for long periods of time provide an alternative source of data. These environments provide a rich social environment where players engage in a variety of activities observed between real-world groups: collaborating and/or competing with other groups, conducting battles for scarce resources, and trading in a market economy. Strategies employed by player groups surprisingly re ect those seen in present-day con icts, where players use diplomacy or espionage as their means for accomplishing their goals. In this project, we propose to address the need for ne-grained behavioral data by acquiring and analyzing game data a commercial MMOG, referred to within this report as Game X. The goals of this research were: (1) devising toolsets for analyzing virtual world data to better inform the rules that govern a social ABM and (2) exploring how virtual worlds could serve as a source of data to validate ABMs established for analogous real-world phenomena. During this research, we studied certain patterns of group behavior to compliment social modeling e orts where a signi cant lack of detailed examples of observed phenomena exists. This report outlines our work examining group behaviors that underly what we have termed the Expression-To-Action (E2A) problem: determining the changes in social contact that lead individuals/groups to engage in a particular behavior. Results from our work indicate that virtual worlds have the potential for serving as a proxy in allocating and populating behaviors that would be used within further agent-based modeling studies.

  11. Geochemical evaluation of oils and source rocks from the Western Siberian basin, U. S. S. R

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Kontorovich, A.E.; Stasova, O. (Siberian Scientific Research Institute for Geology, Geophysics and Mineral Resources, Novobsibirsk (Russian Federation)); Demaison, G.J.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the Western Siberian basin is among the most prolific in the world, there has been disagreement among Soviet geoscientists on the origin of the petroleum within this basin. Screening geochemical analyses were used to select several oils and potential source rocks for a preliminary study using detailed biomarker and supporting geochemistry. Possible sources for this petroleum include rocks of Middle Jurassic, Upper Jurassic, and Lower Cretaceous age. Results indicate that most of the analyzed Western Siberian oils, occurring in reservoirs from Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous in age, are derived from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The locations of the samples in the study generally correspond to the distribution of the most effective oil-generative parts of the Bazhenov Formation. Analyses show that the Bazhenov rock samples contain abundant marine algal and bacterial organic matter, preserved under anoxic depositional conditions. Biomarkers show that thermal maturities of the samples range from the early to late oil-generative window and that some are biodegraded. For example, the Salym No. 114 oil, which flowed directly from the Bazhenov Formation, shows a maturity equivalent to the late oil window. The Van-Egan no. 110 oil shows maturity equivalent to the early oil window and is biodegraded. This oil shows preferential microbial conversion of lower homologs of the 17{alpha}, 21{beta}(H)-hopanes to 25-nor-17{alpha}(H)-hopanes.

  12. The local innovation system of the oil and gas industry in the North Sea : the application of patent data in the study of innovation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Wei, Ph. D

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The North Sea oil province, one of the world's major centers of petroleum and natural gas production, has been in play for four decades. Production rates have approached their peaks in recent years and are expected to ...

  13. Investigation of oil injection into brine for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve : hydrodynamics and mixing experiments with SPR liquids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaneda, Jaime N.; Cote, Raymond O.; Torczynski, John Robert; O'Hern, Timothy John

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was conducted to study a proposed approach for oil reintroduction in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The goal was to assess whether useful oil is rendered unusable through formation of a stable oil-brine emulsion during reintroduction of degassed oil into the brine layer in storage caverns. An earlier report (O'Hern et al., 2003) documented the first stage of the program, in which simulant liquids were used to characterize the buoyant plume that is produced when a jet of crude oil is injected downward into brine. This report documents the final two test series. In the first, the plume hydrodynamics experiments were completed using SPR oil, brine, and sludge. In the second, oil reinjection into brine was run for approximately 6 hours, and sampling of oil, sludge, and brine was performed over the next 3 months so that the long-term effects of oil-sludge mixing could be assessed. For both series, the experiment consisted of a large transparent vessel that is a scale model of the proposed oil-injection process at the SPR. For the plume hydrodynamics experiments, an oil layer was floated on top of a brine layer in the first test series and on top of a sludge layer residing above the brine in the second test series. The oil was injected downward through a tube into the brine at a prescribed depth below the oil-brine or sludge-brine interface. Flow rates were determined by scaling to match the ratio of buoyancy to momentum between the experiment and the SPR. Initially, the momentum of the flow produces a downward jet of oil below the tube end. Subsequently, the oil breaks up into droplets due to shear forces, buoyancy dominates the flow, and a plume of oil droplets rises to the interface. The interface was deflected upward by the impinging oil-brine plume. Videos of this flow were recorded for scaled flow rates that bracket the equivalent pumping rates in an SPR cavern during injection of degassed oil. Image-processing analyses were performed to quantify the penetration depth and width of the oil jet. The measured penetration depths were shallow, as predicted by penetration-depth models, in agreement with the assumption that the flow is buoyancy-dominated, rather than momentum-dominated. The turbulent penetration depth model overpredicted the measured values. Both the oil-brine and oil-sludge-brine systems produced plumes with hydrodynamic characteristics similar to the simulant liquids previously examined, except that the penetration depth was 5-10% longer for the crude oil. An unexpected observation was that centimeter-size oil 'bubbles' (thin oil shells completely filled with brine) were produced in large quantities during oil injection. The mixing experiments also used layers of oil, sludge, and brine from the SPR. Oil was injected at a scaled flow rate corresponding to the nominal SPR oil injection rates. Injection was performed for about 6 hours and was stopped when it was evident that brine was being ingested by the oil withdrawal pump. Sampling probes located throughout the oil, sludge, and brine layers were used to withdraw samples before, during, and after the run. The data show that strong mixing caused the water content in the oil layer to increase sharply during oil injection but that the water content in the oil dropped back to less than 0.5% within 16 hours after injection was terminated. On the other hand, the sediment content in the oil indicated that the sludge and oil appeared to be well mixed. The sediment settled slowly but the oil had not returned to the baseline, as-received, sediment values after approximately 2200 hours (3 months). Ash content analysis indicated that the sediment measured during oil analysis was primarily organic.

  14. Order Code RL33212 CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Russian Oil and Gas Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard A. Gelb

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Russia is a major player in world energy markets. It has more proven natural gas reserves than any other country, is among the top ten in proven oil reserves, is the largest exporter of natural gas, the second largest oil exporter, and the third largest energy consumer. Energy exports have been a major driver of Russia’s economic growth over the last five years, as Russian oil production has risen strongly and world oil prices have been very high. This type of growth has made the Russian economy dependent on oil and natural gas exports and vulnerable to fluctuations in oil prices. Russia’s ability to maintain and expand its capacity to produce and to export energy faces difficulties. Russia’s oil and gas fields are aging. Modern western energy technology has not been fully implemented. There is insufficient export capacity in the crude oil pipeline system controlled by Russia’s state-owned pipeline monopoly, Transneft. And, there is insufficient investment capital for improving and expanding Russian oil and gas production and pipeline systems. The Russian government has moved to take control of the country’s energy supplies. It broke up the previously large energy company Yukos and acquired its

  15. Oil consumption, pollutant emission, oil proce volatility and economic activities in selected Asian Developing Economies.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafiq, Shuddhasattwa

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??It is now well established in the literature that oil consumption, oil price shocks, and oil price volatility may impact the economic activities negatively. Studies… (more)

  16. Just oil? The distribution of environmental and social impacts of oil production and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, D; Connolly, S

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bution of the impacts of oil production and consumption. Theof harmful effects from oil production and use. A criticaland procedural impacts of oil production and consumption

  17. Entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Anand R

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Entrepreneurship is a vehicle of growth and job creation. America has understood it and benefitted most from following this philosophy. Governments around the world need to build and grow their entrepreneurial ecosystems ...

  18. World Air Transport Sustainability Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Statement · Develop a quantitative model to assess the carbon footprint of world aviation, including #12;15 Alternative Fuels ­ Data Required · For each major pathway, we require life-cycle CO2 footprint

  19. At Work in The World

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanc, Paul D. MD; Dolan, Brian PhD

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    history of one particular smelter, I also suggest that muchdeveloping world. Few lead smelters were less seen by theAlice Hamilton visited smelters in Arizona and Missouri, she

  20. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  1. Laboratory weathering and solubility relationships of fluorine and molybdenum in combusted oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Essington, M.E.; Wills, R.A.; Brown, M.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proper management of large volumes of spent oil shale requires an understanding of the mineralogy and the disposal environment chemistry. Simulated laboratory weathering is one method to rapidly and inexpensively assess the long-term potential for spent oil shales to degrade the environment. The objectives of this study were to assess the solubility relationships of fluorine (F) and molybdenum (Mo) in Green River Formation spent oil shale, to examine the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of three combusted oil shales in a laboratory weathering environment using the humidity cell technique, and to examine the data from spent oil shale literature. Combusted oil shales from the Green River Formation and New Albany Shale were used in the examination of the leachate chemistry and mineralogy.

  2. Shale oil recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zerga, Daniel P. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  3. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  6. Microsoft Word - high-oil-price.doc

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S. Crude Oil3 13, 19982,Short Term Energy

  7. Oil Price Volatility

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReservesYear Jan Feb0

  8. Crude Oil Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs (MillionExpectedChangesAdministration Cost and

  9. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  10. Using simple models to describe oil production from unconventional reservoirs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Dong Hee

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Shale oil (tight oil) is oil trapped in low permeability shale or sandstone. Shale oil is a resource with great potential as it is heavily… (more)

  11. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  12. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall Term Spring Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kelvin H.

    CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM FALL 2010 Fall Term Spring Term EGGG 101 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 3 MATH 242 Analytic Geometry & Calculus B 4 MATH 243 Analytic Geometry & Calculus C 4 Critical Reading and Writing 3 Breadth Requirement Elective 1 3 15 17 CHEG 231 Chemical Engineering

  13. CHEMICAL ENGINEERING Fall Term Spring Term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kelvin H.

    CHEG 332 Chemical Engineering Kinetics 3 CHEG 342 Heat and Mass Transfer 3 CHEG 341 Fluid Mechanics 3CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM Fall Term Spring Term EGGG 101 Introduction to Engineering (FYE) 2 CHEG 112 Introduction to Chemical Engineering 3 CHEM 111 General Chemistry 3 CHEM 112 General Chemistry

  14. Isothermal kinetics of new Albany oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, S.D.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From the development of technologies for the utilization of eastern U.S. oil shales, fluidized bed pyrolysis technology is emerging as one of the most promising in terms of oil yield, operating cost, and capital investment. Bench-scale testing of eastern shales has reached a level where scale-up represents the next logical step in the evolution of this technology. A major consideration in this development and an essential part of any fluidized bed reactor scale-up effort--isothermal kinetics-- has largely been ignored for eastern US shale with the exception of a recent study conducted by Richardson et al. with a Cleveland shale. The method of Richardson et al. was used previously by Wallman et al. with western shale and has been used most recently by Forgac, also with western shale. This method, adopted for the present study, entails injecting a charge of shale into a fluidized bed and monitoring the hydrocarbon products with a flame ionization detector (FID). Advantages of this procedure are that fluidized bed heat-up effects are simulated exactly and real-time kinetics are obtained due to the on-line FID. Other isothermal methods have suffered from heat-up and cool-down effects making it impossible to observe the kinetics at realistic operating temperatures. A major drawback of the FID approach, however, is that no differentiation between oil and gas is possible.

  15. Unconventional oil market assessment: ex situ oil shale.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis focused on exploring the economic limitations for the development of western oil shale. The analysis was developed by scaling a known process and… (more)

  16. Accelerating Materials Discovery With World's Largest Database...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expanding the World's Largest Database of Elastic Properties Expanding the World's Largest Database of Elastic Properties NERSC, Materials Project Help Scientists Increase...

  17. OPTICAL FIBER SENSOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICAL OIL RECOVERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anbo Wang; Kristie L. Cooper; Gary R. Pickrell

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient recovery of petroleum reserves from existing oil wells has been proven to be difficult due to the lack of robust instrumentation that can accurately and reliably monitor processes in the downhole environment. Commercially available sensors for measurement of pressure, temperature, and fluid flow exhibit shortened lifetimes in the harsh downhole conditions, which are characterized by high pressures (up to 20 kpsi), temperatures up to 250 C, and exposure to chemically reactive fluids. Development of robust sensors that deliver continuous, real-time data on reservoir performance and petroleum flow pathways will facilitate application of advanced recovery technologies, including horizontal and multilateral wells. This is the final report for the four-year program ''Optical Fiber Sensor Technologies for Efficient and Economical Oil Recovery'', funded by the National Petroleum Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech from October 1, 1999 to March 31, 2003. The main objective of this research program was to develop cost-effective, reliable optical fiber sensor instrumentation for real-time monitoring of various key parameters crucial to efficient and economical oil production. During the program, optical fiber sensors were demonstrated for the measurement of temperature, pressure, flow, and acoustic waves, including three successful field tests in the Chevron/Texaco oil fields in Coalinga, California, and at the world-class oil flow simulation facilities in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Research efforts included the design and fabrication of sensor probes, development of signal processing algorithms, construction of test systems, development and testing of strategies for the protection of optical fibers and sensors in the downhole environment, development of remote monitoring capabilities allowing real-time monitoring of the field test data from virtually anywhere in the world, and development of novel data processing techniques. Comprehensive testing was performed to systematically evaluate the performance of the fiber optic sensor systems in both lab and field environments.

  18. BP Oil Spill November 10, 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    BP Oil Spill Qiyam Tung November 10, 2011 1 Introduction Figure 1: BP Oil spill (source: http://thefoxisblack.com/2010/05/02/the-bp-oil-spill-in-the-gulf-of-mexico/) Last year, there was a major oil spill caused major techniques to minimize the threat once it happened. What kind of damage would an oil spill like this cause

  19. The twentieth oil shale symposium proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book contains 20 selections. Some of the titles are: The technical contributions of John Ward Smith in oil shale research; Oil shale rubble fires: ignition and extinguishment; Fragmentation of eastern oil shale for in situ recovery; A study of thermal properties of Chinese oil shale; and Natural invasion of native plants on retorted oil shale.

  20. Carbo-metallic oil conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, G.D.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a method for catalytically cracking reduced crude oil feeds comprising Conradson carbon in the presence of a premised catalyst temperature of about 760/sup 0/C (1400/sup 0/F). The cracking is carried out to form hydrocarbon products comprising gasoline, which method comprises maintaining the functions of oil feed, Conradson carbon, hydrogen in deposited carbonaceous material, and water addition to the oil feed to be converted in accordance with the relationship of operating parameters for a catalyst to oil ratio in the range of about 4.5 to 7.5.

  1. Oil and macroeconomy in China.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Lin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This paper uses two different approaches to investigate the relationship between the oil price shock and the macroeconomy in China. The first approach is the… (more)

  2. Oil and Gas Exploration (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to activities conducted for the purpose of obtaining geological, geophysical, or geochemical information about oil or gas including seismic activities but excluding...

  3. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, David W. (Morago, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  4. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  5. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  6. Toxicological effects of Kuwaiti oil fires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engi, D.; Boozer, D.D.; Church, H.W.; Einfeld, W.; Gotway, C.A.; Spencer, F.W.; Zak, B.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, P.W. [Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of long-term smoke emissions (from 1 to 3 years) from burning Kuwaiti oil wells has increased concerns regarding personnel exposure and acute and chronic health effects. This document, which is the result of work done in the spring of 1991, addresses those concerns. Part 1 of this document describes follow-on efforts to the pre-war modeling studies of the toxicological hazards to exposed Kuwaiti populations. Part 2 describes a pollutant monitoring program that could be carried out in the summer of 1991 to measure real-time exposure levels and to obtain more detailed information about the pollutant source terms and meteorological conditions that are necessary inputs to model computations.

  7. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  8. DeepwaterHorizonOilSpill DraftPhaseIIEarlyRestorationPlan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    treasure. Its natural resources ­ water, fish, beaches, reefs, marshes, oil and gas ­ are the economic to the resource-dependent economy of the region. While the extent of natural resources impacted by the Deepwater of food, energy and recreation. The Gulf Coast's unique culture and natural beauty are world

  9. European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    European Market Study for BioOil (Pyrolysis Oil) Dec 15, 2006 Doug Bradley President Climate Change Solutions National Team Leader- IEA Bioenergy Task 40- Bio-trade 402 Third Avenue ·Ottawa, Ontario ·Canada K. Market Determining Factors 5. EU Country Perspectives 6. Potential European Markets 6.1. Pulp Mill Lime

  10. Oil burner nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Donald G. (Rockville Center, NY)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

  11. Residential heating oil price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A B CAdministrationheating oil price

  12. Residential heating oil price

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar HomePromisingStories »Submitter A B CAdministrationheating oil

  13. fuel_oil.pdf

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:short version)ec 1827 TableB (11-19-10)Fuel Oil

  14. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries0 0 0 0

  15. Crude Oil Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)Countries08,909

  16. Residual Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on CokersA2. ForJanuary 2013 (Thousand

  17. Oil resources: the key to prosperity or to poverty? : Influence of oil price shocks on spending of oil revenues.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selivanova, Olga

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Abundant natural resources, in particular oil, play an important role in the economics of many countries. The oil price shocks that have been happening continuously… (more)

  18. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.and Biological Treatment of Shale Oil Retort Water, DraftPA (1979). H. H. Peters, Shale Oil Waste Water Recovery by

  19. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature, type of shale and oil content of shale iscontent of the shale, and shale oil content of the rock cantemperatures. Lean and Rich Shale Oil shales vary in their

  20. Membrane degumming of crude vegetable oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Lan

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Crude vegetable oils contain various minor substances like phospholipids, coloring pigments, and free fatty acids (FFA) that may affect quality of the oil. Reduction of energy costs and waste disposal are major concerns for many oil refiners who...

  1. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component Materials," LBL-

  2. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    III, "Method of Breaking Shale Oil-Water Emulsion," U. S.Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedings

  3. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Componentin In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80, Paper No.6-10, 1981 CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A.

  4. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is in intimate contact with oil and shale during In in-situin contact with the oil and shale. These methods and othersWaters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,

  5. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN THE OIL SHALE INDUSTRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, J.P.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waters from Green River Oil Shale," Chem. and Ind. , 1. ,Effluents from In-Situ oil Shale Processing," in Proceedingsin the Treatment of Oil Shale Retort Waters," in Proceedings

  6. CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellman Jr., R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORROSION OF METALS IN OIL SHALE ENVIRONMENTS A. Levy and R.of Metals in In-Situ Oil Shale Retorts," NACE Corrosion 80,Elevated Temperature Corrosion of Oil Shale Retort Component

  7. Crude oil and crude oil derivatives transactions by oil and gas producers.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, He

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This study attempts to resolve two important issues. First, it investigates the diversification benefit of crude oil for equities. Second, it examines whether or not… (more)

  8. The FPGA Hello World Example Martin Schoeberl

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoeberl, Martin

    The FPGA Hello World Example Martin Schoeberl martin@jopdesign.com August 4, 2006 1 Introduction `Hello World' example. What is the `Hello World' program in hardware, in an FPGA? The smallest project entity. In our case hello world 3. In the next dialog box the VHDL source files can be added

  9. World-Systems as Dynamic Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.

    World-Systems as Dynamic Networks Christopher Chase-Dunn Institute for Research on World-Systems on comparative world-systems for the workshop on `analyzing complex macrosystems as dynamic networks" at the Santa Fe Institute, April 29- 30, 2004. (8341 words) v. 4-22-04 1 #12;The comparative world-systems

  10. Tore Bruland Building World Event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tore Bruland Building World Event Representations From Linguistic Representations Thesis of Computer and Information Science c Tore Bruland ISBN 978-82-471-2 (printed version) ISBN 978-82-471-4292-9 (electronic version) ISSN 1503-8181 Doctoral thesis at NTNU, 2013:97 #12;For Kari Marie Bruland (1937

  11. Curating the CIA World Factbook 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buneman, Peter; Müller, Heiko; Rusbridge, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in danger of losing this history. This paper investigates the issues involved in capturing the history of an evolving database and its application to the CIA World Factbook. In particular it shows that there is substantial added value to be gained...

  12. SOFTWAREENGINEERING The World Wide Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, James

    SOFTWAREENGINEERING The World Wide Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning working group on the Web. WEBDAV: IETF Standard for Collaborative Authoring on the Web E. JAMES WHITEHEAD, JR. University remains to be done. What if instead you could simply edit Web documents (or any Web resource) in place

  13. 3D World Building System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  14. 3D World Building System

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This video provides an overview of the Sandia National Laboratories developed 3-D World Model Building capability that provides users with an immersive, texture rich 3-D model of their environment in minutes using a laptop and color and depth camera.

  15. The oil and gas potential of the South Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jusufzade, K.B.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For 150 years, the oil fountains of Baku have fueled the imaginations of oilmen around the world. The phrase {open_quotes}another Baku{close_quotes} often has been used to describe major new discoveries. The production of oil and gas from onshore Azerbaijan and from the shallower waters of the Caspian Sea offers tantalizing evidence for the hydrocarbon yet to be discovered. Today, the Azeri, Guneshli, and Chirag oil fields, with over four billion barrels of recoverable reserves, have refocused the attention of the petroleum industry on Baku. The rapid subsidence of the South Caspian Basin and accumulation of over 20 kilometers of Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic sediments have resulted in that rare combination of conditions ideal for the generation and entrapment of numerous giant oil and gas accumulations. Working with existing geological, geophysical, and geochemical data, SOCAR geologists, geophysicists, and geochemists have identified numerous structural and stratigraphic prospects which have yet to be tested by drilling. In the South Caspian Basin, undrilled prospects remain in relatively shallow water, 200-300 meters. As these shallow-water prospects are exhausted, exploration will shift farther offshore into deeper water, 300-1000 meters. The deepwater region of the South Caspian is unquestionably prospective. Exploration and development of oil and gas fields in water depths in excess of 300 meters will require the joint efforts of international companies and the Azerbaijan petroleum enterprises. In the near future, water depth and drilling depth will not be limiting factors in the exploration of the Caspian Sea. Much work remains to be done; and much oil and gas remain to be found.

  16. Process oil manufacturing process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corman, B.G.; Korbach, P.F.; Webber, K.M.

    1989-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for producing a naphthenic process oil having reduced sulfur, nitrogen and polynuclear aromatics contents from a naphthenic feed containing same and having an atmospheric boiling range of about 650/sup 0/ to about 1200/sup 0/F. comprising: A. passing the feed into a first hydrotreating stage having a hydrotreating catalyst therein, the stage maintained at a temperature of about 600/sup 0/ to about 750/sup 0/F. and at a hydrogen partial pressure of about 400 to about 1500 psig, to convert at least a portion of the sulfur to hydrogen sulfide and the nitrogen to ammonia; B. passing the hydrotreated feed from the first hydrotreating stage in an intermediate stripping stage wherein hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, or both is removed; C. passing the hydrotreated feed from the intermediate stage into a second hydrotreating stage having therein a hydrotreating catalyst selected from the group consisting of nickel-molybdenum, cobalt-molybdenum, nickel-tungsten and mixtures thereof, the second hydrotreating stage maintained at a temperature lower than that of the first hydrotreating stage and at a hydrogen partial pressure ranging between about 400 and about 1,500 psig; D. monitoring the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both of the product exiting the second hydrotreating stage; and, E. adjusting the temperature in the second hydrotreating stage to keep the polynuclear aromatics content, the degree of saturation, or both below a limit suitable for process oil.

  17. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California. Volume 2, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As a part of this larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to California`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole.

  18. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of New Mexico and Wyoming. Volume 4, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of New Mexico and Wyoming. Individual reports for six other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to New Mexico`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the states of New Mexico and Wyoming and the nation as a whole.

  19. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas and Oklahoma. Volume 5, Project on Advanced Oil Recovery and the States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of the IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the states of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma for five other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. The analysis presented in this report is based on the databases and models available in the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS). Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Kansas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technology, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could have even greater benefits to the state and the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, and energy security will benefit both the state of Kansas, Illinois and Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  20. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  1. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate the potential of storing carbon dioxide in depleted oil fields...

  2. Oils and source rocks from the Anadarko Basin: Final report, March 1, 1985-March 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philp, R. P. [School of Geology and Geophysics, Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research project investigated various geochemical aspects of oils, suspected source rocks, and tar sands collected from the Anadarko Basin, Oklahoma. The information has been used, in general, to investigate possible sources for the oils in the basin, to study mechanisms of oil generation and migration, and characterization of depositional environments. The major thrust of the recent work involved characterization of potential source formations in the Basin in addition to the Woodford shale. The formations evaluated included the Morrow, Springer, Viola, Arbuckle, Oil Creek, and Sylvan shales. A good distribution of these samples was obtained from throughout the basin and were evaluated in terms of source potential and thermal maturity based on geochemical characteristics. The data were incorporated into a basin modelling program aimed at predicting the quantities of oil that could, potentially, have been generated from each formation. The study of crude oils was extended from our earlier work to cover a much wider area of the basin to determine the distribution of genetically-related oils, and whether or not they were derived from single or multiple sources, as well as attempting to correlate them with their suspected source formations. Recent studies in our laboratory also demonstrated the presence of high molecular weight components(C{sub 4}-C{sub 80}) in oils and waxes from drill pipes of various wells in the region. Results from such a study will have possible ramifications for enhanced oil recovery and reservoir engineering studies.

  3. The world`s first commercial iron carbide plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prichard, L.C.; Schad, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper traces the development of Nucor`s investigation of clean iron unit processes, namely, direct reduction, and the decision to build and operate the world`s first commercial iron carbide plant. They first investigated coal based processes since the US has abundant coal reserves, but found a variety of reasons for dropping the coal-based processes from further consideration. A natural gas based process was selected, but the failure to find economically priced gas supplies stopped the development of a US based venture. It was later found that Trinidad had economically priced and abundant supplies of natural gas, and the system of government, the use of English language, and geographic location were also ideal. The cost estimates required modification of the design, but the plant was begun in April, 1993. Start-up problems with the plant are also discussed. Production should commence shortly.

  4. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, John B. (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501); Kunchal, S. Kumar (300 Enterprise Bldg., Grand Junction, CO 80501)

    1981-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  5. The Politics of Mexico’s Oil Monopoly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huizar, Richard

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2005), p. 59. Table 5: Oil production in barrels per daynot have much impact in oil production. In fact, oil exportscurrent oil reserves and oil production? 2) For how long can

  6. Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. Oil burners: Crude oil, atomization, and combustion efficiency. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel properties and boiler operations techniques to make maximum use of heavy crude oil, shale oil, and low grade fuels to reduce energy costs in boiler firing. Fuel properties pertain to chemical constituents, viscosity, desulfurization, and processing methods to upgrade the fuels. Operating techniques include atomization, dual-fuel burners, emission characteristics, and cost factors. Combustion efficiency is examined and some citations report on additives or processing techniques to improve the efficiency. The citations also report on studies of health effects in the use of synfuels, mostly as coal liquids to replace oil. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  8. Separation of oil-soluble sulfonates from sulfonated oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ul'yanenko, V.I.; Yur'eva, N.P.; Sergeev, V.P.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors aimed at developing a method for the complete recovery, from oil solutions, of oil-water-soluble sulfonates meeting the specifications, along with oils at least 99% pure, suitable for further processing. As the starting material the authors used an experimental batch of sulfonated and neutralized distillate lube stocks produced by selective solvent treatment. In determining the optimal extraction parameters, the authors investigated the influence of the solvent to original feed (S:F) weight ratio and the influence of the isopropyl alcohol (IPA) concentration on the composition of the sulfonates and oils recovered at 60/sup 0/C with a settling time of 2 h. The optimal conditions for two-stage extraction were found through a study of the influence of temperature and settling time on the compositions of the sulfonates and oils with S:F = 1.2:1 and with an IPA concentration of 40%. The process technology for two-stage recovery of oils and sulfonates from oil solutions was worked out in a pilot unit.

  9. RESEARCH OIL RECOVERY MECHANISMS IN HEAVY OIL RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony R. Kovscek; William E. Brigham

    1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United States continues to rely heavily on petroleum fossil fuels as a primary energy source, while domestic reserves dwindle. However, so-called heavy oil (10 to 20{sup o}API) remains an underutilized resource of tremendous potential. Heavy oils are much more viscous than conventional oils. As a result, they are difficult to produce with conventional recovery methods such as pressure depletion and water injection. Thermal recovery is especially important for this class of reservoirs because adding heat, usually via steam injection, generally reduces oil viscosity dramatically. This improves displacement efficiency. The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties; (2) in-situ combustion; (3) additives to improve mobility control; (4) reservoir definition; and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx. Significant results are described.

  10. Galib, “Biodiesel from jatropha oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazi Mostafijur Rahman; Mohammad Mashud; Md. Roknuzzaman; Asadullah Al Galib

    Abstract — The world is getting modernized and industrialized day by day. As a result vehicles and engines are increasing. But energy sources used in these engines are limited and decreasing gradually. This situation leads to seek an alternative fuel for diesel engine. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine. The esters of vegetables oil animal fats are known as Biodiesel. This paper investigates the prospect of making of biodiesel from jatropha oil. Jatropha curcas is a renewable non-edible plant. Jatropha is a wildly growing hardy plant in arid and semi-arid regions of the country on degraded soils having low fertility and moisture. The seeds of Jatropha contain 50-60 % oil. In this study the oil has been converted to biodiesel by the well-known transesterification process and used it to diesel engine for performance evaluation.

  11. Assessment of oil-shale technology in Brazil. Final technical report, October 27, 1980-July 27, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of an oil shale industry in the United States will require the solution of a variety of technical, economic, environmental, and health and safety problems. This assessment investigates whether US oil shale developers might benefit from the experience gained by the Brazilians in the operation of their Usina Prototipo do Irati oil shale demonstration plant at Sao Mateus do Sul, and from the data generated from their oil shale research and development programs. A chapter providing background information on Brazil and the Brazilian oil shale deposits is followed by an examination of the potential recovery processes applicable to Brazilian oil shale. The evolution of the Brazilian retorting system is reviewed and compared with the mining and retorting proposed for US shales. Factors impacting on the economics of shale oil production in Brazil are reviewed and compared to economic analyses of oil shale production in the US. Chapters examining the consequences of shale development in terms of impact on the physical environment and the oil shale worker complete the report. Throughout the report, where data permits, similarities and differences are drawn between the oil shale programs underway in Brazil and the US. In addition, research areas in which technology or information transfer could benefit either or both countries' oil shale programs are identified.

  12. Navy mobility fuels forecasting system report: World petroleum trade forecasts for the year 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, S.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Middle East will continue to play the dominant role of a petroleum supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to business-as-usual forecasts published by the US Department of Energy. However, interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. US petroleum imports will increase from 46% in 1989 to 49% in 2000. A significantly higher level of US petroleum imports (principally products) will be coming from Japan, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Several regions, the Far East, Japan, Latin American, and Africa will import more petroleum. Much uncertainty remains about of the level future Soviet crude oil production. USSR net petroleum exports will decrease; however, the United States and Canada will receive some of their imports from the Soviet Union due to changes in the world trade patterns. The Soviet Union can avoid becoming a net petroleum importer as long as it (1) maintains enough crude oil production to meet its own consumption and (2) maintains its existing refining capacities. Eastern Europe will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the Middle East.

  13. Treatment of Mercury Contaminated Oil from Sandia National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    First Article Tests of a stabilization method for greater than 260 mg mercury/kg oil were performed under a treatability study. This alternative treatment technology will address treatment of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) organics (mainly used pump oil) contaminated with mercury and other heavy metals. Some of the oil is also co-contaminated with tritium, other radionuclides, and hazardous materials. The technology is based on contacting the oil with a sorbent powder (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Support, SAMMS), proven to adsorb heavy metals, followed by stabilization of the oil/powder mixture using a stabilization agent (Nochar N990). Two variations of the treatment technology were included in the treatability study. The SAMMS (Self-Assembled Mercaptan on Mesoporous Silica) technology was developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for removal and stabilization of RCRA metals (i.e., lead, mercury, cadmium, silver, etc.) and for removal of mercury from organic solvents [1]. The SAMMS material is based on self-assembly of functionalized monolayers on mesoporous oxide surfaces. The unique mesoporous oxide supports provide a high surface area, thereby enhancing the metal-loading capacity. SAMMS material has high flexibility in that it binds with different forms of mercury, including metallic, inorganic, organic, charged, and neutral compounds [1] The material removes mercury from both organic wastes, such as pump oils, and from aqueous wastes. Mercury-loaded SAMMS not only passes TCLP tests, but also has good long-term durability as a waste form because: (1) the covalent binding between mercury and SAMMS has good resistance in ion-exchange, oxidation, and hydrolysis over a wide pH range and (2) the uniform and small pore size of the mesoporous silica prevents bacteria from solubilizing the bound mercury. Nochar's N990 Petrobond (Nochar, Inc., Indianapolis, IN) is an oil stabilization agent, specifically formulated for stabilizing vacuum pump oil, which has fewer volatile organics than many other oils. This material is a non-uniform granular powder that resembles ground Styrofoam plastics. This material has previously been used by itself and in combination with SAMMS to stabilize oil containing low levels of mercury {approx}50 mg/kg in surrogate waste studies [2].

  14. Research on oil recovery mechanisms in heavy oil reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovscek, Anthony R.; Brigham, William E., Castanier, Louis M.

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The research described here was directed toward improved understanding of thermal and heavy-oil production mechanisms and is categorized into: (1) flow and rock properties, (2) in-situ combustion, (3) additives to improve mobility control, (4) reservoir definition, and (5) support services. The scope of activities extended over a three-year period. Significant work was accomplished in the area of flow properties of steam, water, and oil in consolidated and unconsolidated porous media, transport in fractured porous media, foam generation and flow in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media, the effects of displacement pattern geometry and mobility ratio on oil recovery, and analytical representation of water influx.

  15. No Oil: The coming Utopia/Dystopia and Communal Possibilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Timothy

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    supplies of conventional oil, and exploitable supplies of alternative forms of oil and related hydrocarbons, including tar sands and oil shale. Because new supplies of conventional oil are declining steadily, there is quite a lot of activity in the oil... to exploit the huge deposits of oil sands in Canada. Oil sands and oil shale look good because they contain vast amounts of oil. The problem is that of turning the reserves, locked into other geological formations, into useful oil. According to current...

  16. Enhanced oil recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    All energy resources available from a geopressured geothermal reservoir are used for the production of pipeline quality gas using a high pressure separator/heat exchanger and a membrane separator, and recovering waste gas from both the membrane separator and a low pressure separator in tandem with the high pressure separator for use in enhanced oil recovery, or in powering a gas engine and turbine set. Liquid hydrocarbons are skimmed off the top of geothermal brine in the low pressure separator. High pressure brine from the geothermal well is used to drive a turbine/generator set before recovering waste gas in the first separator. Another turbine/generator set is provided in a supercritical binary power plant that uses propane as a working fluid in a closed cycle, and uses exhaust heat from the combustion engine and geothermal energy of the brine in the separator/heat exchanger to heat the propane.

  17. Oil field management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil field management systems and methods for managing operation of one or more wells producing a high void fraction multiphase flow. The system includes a differential pressure flow meter which samples pressure readings at various points of interest throughout the system and uses pressure differentials derived from the pressure readings to determine gas and liquid phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flow. One or both of the gas and liquid phase mass flow rates are then compared with predetermined criteria. In the event such mass flow rates satisfy the predetermined criteria, a well control system implements a correlating adjustment action respecting the multiphase flow. In this way, various parameters regarding the high void fraction multiphase flow are used as control inputs to the well control system and thus facilitate management of well operations.

  18. Savings from new oil furnaces: A study conducted as part of Washington State`s Oil Help Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.

    1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) has been running the Oil Help program for three years. Originally operated as a loan program, Oil Help switched to rebates during the 1987 and 1988. Rebates for oil furnace replacements made up over 70 percent of rebate funds, which totaled about $1.3 million. WSEO Evaluation started research in summer of 1988, with the goal of including 100 new furnace households (with a control group of similar size) in the study. Our intention was to look at long-term oil consumption comparing each household with itself over the two periods. The final study group consists of 43 households and a control group of 87 households. The report begins with a review of related research. A discussion of research methodology, weather normalization procedure, data attrition, and important descriptive details follows. Changes in consumption for the new furnace and control groups are reported and are tested for significance. Finally, we discuss the implications of the results for the cost effectiveness of an oil furnace replacement.

  19. International Oil and Gas Board International Oil and Gas Board...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oil and Gas Board Address Place Zip Website Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi Supreme Petroleum Council Abu Dhabi http www abudhabi ae egovPoolPortal WAR appmanager...

  20. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  1. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mallon, Richard G. (Livermore, CA); Walton, Otis R. (Livermore, CA); Lewis, Arthur E. (Los Altos, CA); Braun, Robert L. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  2. OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL & GAS HISTORY 1 History in California 4 Superior figures refer to references at the end of the essay. OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION California oil was always a valued commodity. When the Spanish explorers landed in California in the 1500s, they found Indians gathering asphaltum (very thick oil) from natural

  3. THE RIMINI PROTOCOL Oil Depletion Protocol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeling, Stephen L.

    Soaring oil prices have drawn attention to the issue of the relative supply and demand for crude oil1 THE RIMINI PROTOCOL an Oil Depletion Protocol ~ Heading Off Economic Chaos and Political Conflict During the Second Half of the Age of Oil As proposed at the 2003 Pio Manzu Conference

  4. EMPLOYEE BENEFIT SERVICE Signature Service Oil Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    UNM Staff EMPLOYEE BENEFIT SERVICE Jiffy Lube Signature Service Oil Change Fast - No Appointment We change your oil with up to 5 quarts of major brand motor oil We install a new oil fi We visually inspect. ASE training programs · Jiffy Lube uses top quality products that meet or exceed vehicle warranty

  5. Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Donnell, Tom

    Estimates of Oil Reserves Jean Laherrere e-mail: jean.laherrere@wanadoo.fr sites: http will solve the present problems on welfare, retirement and they would dearly love to see the reserves of oil or oil reserves is a political act. The SEC, to satisfy bankers and shareholders, obliges the oil

  6. Cheaper oil extraction Taking a closer look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    solvent for commercial-scale enhanced oil recovery to increase the amount of crude oil that canCONTENTS Cheaper oil extraction Taking a closer look at the eye Computational Science takes inside for more details #12;Greener, cheaper oil extraction Geographical and geological concerns

  7. Liens for Oil and Gas Operations (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section contains regulations concerning lien allowances made to operators of oil and gas operations.

  8. Favorable conditions noted for Australia shale oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    After brief descriptions of the Rundle, Condor, and Stuart/Kerosene Creek oil shale projects in Queensland, the competitive advantages of oil shale development and the state and federal governments' attitudes towards an oil shale industry in Australia are discussed. It is concluded that Australia is the ideal country in which to start an oil shale industry.

  9. Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Bureau of Land Management Oil Shale Development Unconventional Fuels Conference University of Utah May 17, 2011 #12;#12;Domestic Oil Shale Resources Primary oil shale resources in the U.S. are in the Green River Formation in Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. 72 % of this oil shale resource is on Federal

  10. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  11. 1 What is Oil ? General information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    such as shale oil or synthetic crude oil from tar sands (see Table 4.1). A whole range of petroleum products69 1 What is Oil ? General information Petroleum is a complex mixture of liquid hydrocarbons in sedimentary rock. Coming from the Latin petra, meaning rock, and oleum, meaning oil, the word "petroleum

  12. Research on Oil Recovery Mechanisms in Heavy Oil Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louis M. Castanier; William E. Brigham

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to increase recovery of heavy oils. Towards that goal studies are being conducted in how to assess the influence of temperature and pressure on the absolute and relative permeability to oil and water and on capillary pressure; to evaluate the effect of different reservoir parameters on the in site combustion process; to develop and understand mechanisms of surfactants on for the reduction of gravity override and channeling of steam; and to improve techniques of formation evaluation.

  13. Your World Magazine - Biofuels: Energy for Your Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biotechnology Institute

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policymakers have been talking for years about measures to cut back how much petroleum we use. Interest has spiked recently, with government and private companies coming together to push forward scientific research and development of alternative fuel products such as ethanol. Biotechnology is helping make alternative energy sources easier - and more affordable - to produce. Most of the world's energy needs are met with oil and natural gas, which come from fossil fuel. No one knows how long the supply can last. Biobased fuels come from natural sources that can be replaced quickly. Along with corn, there are many other grains, grasses, trees, and even agricultural wastes being investigated for their usefulness and environmental friendliness as alternative fuel sources. Careers in this emerging new field emphasize chemistry and engineering. Look into it for a potential career - it's definitely a job full of energy.

  14. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production Zhenyu (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material offshore and the oil industry expects this share to grow continuously in the future. In last decade, oil

  15. Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Gideon

    Oil and Gas CDT Development of a SUNTANS Baroclinic Model for 3D Oil Pollution Tracking Heriot) Key Words Oil Spill, HF Radar, Trajectory Forecasting, Hydrodynamic Modelling, Oil Chemistry Overview In an oil spill emergency, an operational system must forecast ocean and weather conditions in addition

  16. 2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agnello, Arthur M.

    2 SPRAY OILS--BEYOND 2000 Abstract Modern use of petroleum-derived oils as agricultural crop among oils of common origin and manufacture. The importance of the emulsifier used with the oil of these products. Introduction Petroleum oils have been in use as crop protectants for over a hundred years

  17. OilEd: a Reason-able Ontology Editor for the Semantic Web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stevens, Robert

    the full power of an expressive web ontology language (OIL). OilEd uses reasoning to support ontology been merged under the name DAML+OIL, although there are some differences between the approaches usedOilEd: a Reason-able Ontology Editor for the Semantic Web Sean Bechhofer, Ian Horrocks, Carole

  18. OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    OIL IN THE OPEN WATER Oil in the open water may a ect the health of microscopic plants and animals. Far beneath the surface, corals and other deepwater communities might also be a ected. OIL AND HUMAN AND SEDIMENTS · Water quality surveys · Transect surveys to detect submerged oil · Oil plume modeling · Sediment

  19. Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    price shocks and economic downturns. Over the next 30 years oil demand is expected to grow by 60Energy Policy 34 (2006) 515­531 Have we run out of oil yet? Oil peaking analysis from an optimist of conventional oil production from an optimist's perspective. Is the oil peak imminent? What is the range

  20. Terms and Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Dark Fiber Testbed Performance (perfSONAR) Software & Tools Development Partnerships...

  1. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of California: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of California. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, California oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of California and the nation as a whole.

  2. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the United States: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic, social, and political benefits of improved oil recovery to the nation as a whole. Individual reports for major oil producing states have been separately published. The individual state reports include California, Illinois, Kansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, and Wyoming. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, domestic oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the nation as a whole.

  3. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Texas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Texas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Texas` known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Texas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Texas and the nation as a whole.

  4. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Kansas: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Kansas. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to the nation`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Kansas oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit the state of Kansas and the nation as a whole.

  5. An evaluation of known remaining oil resources in the state of Oklahoma: Project on advanced oil recovery and the states. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) has conducted a series of studies to evaluate the known, remaining oil resource in twenty-three (23) states. The primary objective of die IOGCC`s effort is to examine the potential impact of an aggressive and focused program of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) and technology transfer on future oil recovery in the United States. As part of a larger effort by the IOGCC, this report focuses on the potential economic benefits of improved oil recovery in the state of Oklahoma. Individual reports for seven other oil producing states and a national report have been separately published by the IOGCC. Several major technical insights for state and Federal policymakers and regulators can be reached from this analysis. Overall, well abandonments and more stringent environmental regulations could limit economic access to Oklahoma`s known, remaining oil resource. The high risk of near-term abandonment and the significant benefits of future application of improved oil recovery technoloy, clearly point to a need for more aggressive transfer of currently available technologies to domestic oil producers. Development and application of advanced oil recovery technologies could leave even greater benefits to the nation. A collaborative, focused RD&D effort, integrating the resources and expertise of industry, state and local governments, and the Federal government, is clearly warranted. With effective RD&D and a program of aggressive technology transfer to widely disseminate its results, Oklahoma oil production could be maximized. The resulting increase and improvement in production rates, employment, operator profits, state and Federal tax revenues, energy security will benefit both the state of Oklahoma and the nation as a whole.

  6. Oil shale: The environmental challenges III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petersen, K.K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book presents the papers of a symposium whose purpose was to discuss the environmental and socio-economic aspects of oil shale development. Topics considered include oil shale solid waste disposal, modeling spent shale disposal, water management, assessing the effects of oil shale facilities on water quality, wastewater treatment and use at oil shale facilities, potential air emissions from oil shale retorting, the control of air pollutant emissions from oil shale facilities, oil shale air emission control, socioeconomic research, a framework for mitigation agreements, the Garfield County approach to impact mitigation, the relationship of applied industrial hygiene programs and experimental toxicology programs, and industrial hygiene programs.

  7. Engine deposit and pour point studies using canola oil as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strayer, R.C.; Craig, W.K.; Zoerb, G.C.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engine tests conducted during previous investigations have established the viability of using canola oil as a substitute for diesel fuel on a short term basis, but also revealed the need to assess possible combustion chamber deposits from long range testing. Low temperature problems in handling vegetable oils has also been recognized as posing a threat to their use in winter operation. This paper reports a procedure involving a direct comparison of running two different fuels in an engine simultaneously to study deposit problems, and also reports on three attempted methods - fuel blending, fuel heating and fuel additives to reduce the pour point of canola oil. 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World’s First 3D Printed Car (text version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version for the Next Generation Lunch: Revealing the World’s First 3D Printed Car Video.

  9. Method for enhanced oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comberiati, Joseph R. (Morgantown, WV); Locke, Charles D. (Morgantown, WV); Kamath, Krishna I. (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved method for enhanced recovery of oil from relatively "cold" reservoirs by carbon dioxide flooding. In oil reservoirs at a temperature less than the critical temperature of 87.7.degree. F. and at a pore pressure greater than the saturation pressure of carbon dioxide at the temperature of the reservoir, the carbon dioxide remains in the liquid state which does not satisfactorily mix with the oil. However, applicants have found that carbon dioxide can be vaporized in situ in the reservoir by selectively reducing the pore pressure in the reservoir to a value less than the particular saturated vapor pressure so as to greatly enhance the mixing of the carbon dioxide with the oil.

  10. Oil and Gas Conservation (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section establishes the state's interest in encouraging the development, production, and utilization of natural gas and oil resources in a manner which will prevent waste and lead to the...

  11. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  12. Infusing Real World Experiences into ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Napier, Terrence

    Infusing Real World Experiences into ENGINEERING EDUCATION #12;This project is a collaboration with the authors and NAE. #12;Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education 2012 #12;2 Preface The aim

  13. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  14. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Enhanced oil recovery in Rumania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcoana, A.N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the application of the fire-floods to a broad range of Romanian oil reservoirs and crude properties and reviews the field tests of polymer flooding, surfactant flooding and alkaline flooding. A commercial scale project with cyclic steam injection is presented and also the use of the domestic CO/sub 2/ sources to enhanced oil recovery. The results and the difficulties encountered are briefly discussed and also the potential of EOR methods in Romania are presented. 17 refs.

  16. Enhanced oil recovery in Rumania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carcoana, A.N.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wide oil field experience of the Romanian oil men in producing hydrocarbon reservoirs is based on an old tradition, but only after 1945 reservoir engineering studies were started in Romania. Beginning with 1950 conventional recovery methods expanded continually. During the last 10 years, however, the crude oil, as energy resource, has become of tremendous importance. The need for increasing the ultimate oil recovery has been felt in Romania as everywhere else. To attain this goal EOR methods were and are tested and expanded on a commercial scale. The paper describes the application of the fire-floods to a broad range of Romanian oil reservoirs and crude properties and reviews the field tests of polymer flooding, surfactant flooding and alkaline flooding. A commercial scale project with cyclic steam injection is presented and also the use of the domestic CO/sub 2/ sources to enhance oil recovery. The results and the diffuculties encountered are briefly discussed and also the potential of EOR methods in Romania are presented.

  17. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Lane

    2006-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  18. Neal Lane: Science in a Flat World

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Neal Lane

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lane discusses the changes that have taken place in the world since World War II that have made it "flatter," referring to Thomas L. Friedman's book, The World is Flat. Friedman's main premise is that inexpensive telecommunications is bringing about unhampered international competition, the demise of economic stability, and a trend toward outsourcing services, such as computer programming, engineering and science research.

  19. Oil transportation in the global landscape : the Murmansk Oil Terminal and Pipeline proposal evaluated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Ankur, 1976-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oil and transportation have been commingled since the first oil reserves were discovered. The importance of energy, namely oil, and the transportation of that energy from the producers to the consumers is persistently ...

  20. Oil Mist Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, Lloyd

    2009-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.