Sample records for temperature specific conductance

  1. Low temperature proton conducting oxide devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Payzant, Edward A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Speakman, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Greenblatt, Martha (Highland Park, NJ)

    2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550.degree. C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.

  2. Holographic conductivity of zero temperature superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. A. Konoplya; A. Zhidenko

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the recently found by G. Horowitz and M. Roberts (arXiv:0908.3677) numerical model of the ground state of holographic superconductors (at zero temperature), we calculate the conductivity for such models. The universal relation connecting conductivity with the reflection coefficient was used for finding the conductivity by the WKB approach. The dependence of the conductivity on the frequency and charge density is discussed. Numerical calculations confirm the general arguments of (arXiv:0908.3677) in favor of non-zero conductivity even at zero temperature. In addition to the Horowitz-Roberts solution we have found (probably infinite) set of extra solutions which are normalizable and reach the same correct RN-AdS asymptotic at spatial infinity. These extra solutions (which correspond to larger values of the grand canonical potential) lead to effective potentials that also vanish at the horizon and thus correspond to a non-zero conductivity at zero temperature.

  3. Electrical and thermal conductivity of low temperature CVD graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and thermal conductivity of low temperature CVD graphene: the effect of disorder This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article....

  4. Conduction Models Of The Temperature Distribution In The East...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Project well HGP-A are simulated by model studies using a finite element code for conductive heat flow. Three models were generated: a constant temperature source...

  5. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, J [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  6. A study of temperature distributions due to conduction reservoir heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connaughton, Charles Richard

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thermal conductivity with temperature. He showed this effect could be very important in considering a material such as oil shale, where the conductivity of the raw shale may be five times as great as that of the spent shale. Neglecting this variation... conduction model to investigate the in place heating of oil shale by hot gases forced through a fracture. The heat injection rate he considered is much less than would normally be employed for steam injection into permeable reservoirs and is only about...

  7. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, G.H.; Smith, J.L.; Sim, J.W.

    1983-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to a high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  8. Temperature effects on the electronic conductivity of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascaro, Mark Daniel

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The room-temperature electronic conductivity and temperature dependence of conductivity were measured for samples of carbon nanotubes of three types: pristine; functionalized with a nitrobenzene covalent functionalization, ...

  9. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  10. Thermal conductivity and specific heat of sorghum grain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Clinton Frank

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Formation of Test Canister Ice Jacket ~ Sealing Test Canister in Calorimeter. . 43 44 Testing of Samples. Initial Calorimeter Observations. 49 Insertion of Grain Samples into Calorimeter. . . . 50 Final Test Observations Processing of Data. 54... to Contain the Grain Sample 38 for the Determination of Specific Heat 39 12. Top View of Calorimeter. 40 13. Galvanized Iron Cylinder Used to Form the Ice Jacket Around the Test Canister 42 VIII Figures 14. Clamping Device Used to Hold Test Canister...

  11. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G. [Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. 1046 New Holland Ave. Lancaster, PA 17601 (United States)

    2009-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  12. A Discussion of Conductivity Testing in High Temperature Membranes (lessons learned in assessing transport)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation on conductivity testing in high temperature membranes given by Jim Boncella of Los Alamos National Laboratory at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group meeting in October 2005.

  13. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible hydrocarbons, CO, or NO{sub x} and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at low to intermediate temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued. At low temperatures, in particular, it becomes feasible to use ferritic steel for interconnects instead of expensive and brittle ceramic materials such as those based on LaCrO{sub 3}. In addition, sealing the fuel cell becomes easier and more reliable; rapid startup is facilitated; thermal stresses (e.g., those caused by thermal expansion mismatches) are reduced; radiative losses ({approx}T{sup 4}) become minimal; electrode sintering becomes negligible and (due to a smaller thermodynamic penalty) the SOFC operating cycle (heating from ambient) would be more efficient. Combined, all these improvements further result in reduced initial and operating costs. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (> 0.05 S cm{sup -1} at {le} 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of a layer of erbia-stabilized bismuth oxide (ESB) on the oxidizing side and a layer of SDC or GDC on the reducing side, see Fig. 1. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. In this arrangement, the ceria layer protects the bismuth oxide layer from decomposing by shielding it from very low P{sub O{sub 2}}'s and the ESB layer serves to block electronic flux through the electrolyte. This arrangement has two significant advantages over the YSZ/SDC bilayers investigated by others [1, 2]. The first advantage is that SDC is conductive enough to serve as an intermediate temperature SOFC electrolyte. Moreover, ESB is conductive enough to serve as a low temperature electrolyte. Consequently, at worst an SDC/ESB bilayered SOFC should have the conductivity of SDC but with improved efficiency due to the electronic flux barrier provided by ESB. The second advantage is that small (dopant) concentrations of SDC in ESB or ESB in SDC, have been found to have conductivities comparable to the host lattice [3, 4]. Therefore, if solid solutioning occurs at the SDC-ESB interface, it should not be detrimental to the performance of the bilayer. In contrast, solid solutions of SDC and YSZ have been found to be significantly less conductive than SDC or YSZ. Thus, it bears emphasizing that, at this time, only SDC/ESB electrolytes have potential in low temperature SOFC applications.

  14. Temperature Dependence of Conductivity in Graphene Final Project in the Computational Physics course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adler, Joan

    Temperature Dependence of Conductivity in Graphene Final Project in the Computational Physics. The Ohmic resistivity of the graphene electrons is calculated by the nite-temperature Drude-Boltzmann theory of graphene and the experimental results of the temperature dependence of conductivity, there is an extensive

  15. Temperature dependent thermal conductivity increase of aqueous nanofluid with single walled carbon nanotube inclusions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    1 Temperature dependent thermal conductivity increase of aqueous nanofluid with single walled nanofluids, which we then thoroughly characterized by microscopic and spectroscopic methods. Electrical of the nanofluid was also found to increase with increasing temperature. Viscosity of the nanofluids showed

  16. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are the future of energy production in America. They offer great promise as a clean and efficient process for directly converting chemical energy to electricity while providing significant environmental benefits (they produce negligible CO, HC, or NOx and, as a result of their high efficiency, produce about one-third less CO{sub 2} per kilowatt hour than internal combustion engines). Unfortunately, the current SOFC technology, based on a stabilized zirconia electrolyte, must operate in the region of 1000 C to avoid unacceptably high ohmic losses. These high temperatures demand (a) specialized (expensive) materials for the fuel cell interconnects and insulation, (b) time to heat up to the operating temperature and (c) energy input to arrive at the operating temperature. Therefore, if fuel cells could be designed to give a reasonable power output at lower temperatures tremendous benefits may be accrued, not the least of which is reduced cost. The problem is, at lower temperatures the conductivity of the conventional stabilized zirconia electrolyte decreases to the point where it cannot supply electrical current efficiently to an external load. The primary objectives of the proposed research is to develop a stable high conductivity (>0.05 S cm{sup -1} at 550 C) electrolyte for lower temperature SOFCs. This objective is specifically directed toward meeting the lowest (and most difficult) temperature criteria for the 21st Century Fuel Cell Program. Meeting this objective provides a potential for future transportation applications of SOFCs, where their ability to directly use hydrocarbon fuels could permit refueling within the existing transportation infrastructure. In order to meet this objective we are developing a functionally gradient bilayer electrolyte comprised of bismuth oxide on the air side and ceria on the fuel side. Bismuth oxide and doped ceria are among the highest ionic conducting electrolytes and in fact bismuth oxide based electrolytes are the only known solid oxide electrolytes to have an ionic conductivity that meets the program conductivity goal. We have previously demonstrated that this concept works, that a bismuth oxide/ceria bilayer electrolyte provides near theoretical open circuit potential (OCP) and is stable for 1400 h of fuel cell operation under both open circuit and maximum power conditions. More recently, we developed a computer model to determine the defect transport in this bilayer and have found that a bilayer comprised primarily of the more conductive component (bismuth oxide) is stable for 500 C operation. In this first year of the project we are obtaining necessary thermochemical data to complete the computer model as well as initial SOFC results based on thick 1-2 mm single and bilayer ceria/bismuth oxide electrolytes. We will use the computer model to obtain the optimum relative layer thickness as a function of temperature and air/fuel conditions. SOFCs will be fabricated with 1-2 mm single and bilayer electrolytes based on the modeling results, tested for OCP, conductivity, and stability and compared against the predictions. The computer modeling is a continuation of previous work under support from GRI and the student was available at the inception of the contract. However, the experimental effort was delayed until the beginning of the Spring Semester because the contract was started in October, 2 months after the start of our Fall Semester, and after all of the graduate students were committed to other projects. The results from both of these efforts are described in the following two sections: (1) Experimental; and (2) Computer Modeling.

  17. Geometry and temperature dependent thermal conductivity of diamond nanowires: A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melnik, Roderick

    plasma etching of polycrystalline diamond films [7], microwave plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition. For theoretical calculations of proper- ties of nanosized diamond materials, polycrystalline diamond thin filmsGeometry and temperature dependent thermal conductivity of diamond nanowires: A non

  18. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by JAY MATTHEW OCHTERBECK Submitted to the 0%ce of Graduate Studies of Texas AJrM IJniversity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis JA'r '(IATTHEW OCHTERBECK Approved...

  19. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ochterbeck, Jay Matthew

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis by JAY MATTHEW OCHTERBECK Submitted to the 0%ce of Graduate Studies of Texas AJrM IJniversity in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THERMAL CONTACT CONDUCTANCE OF METALLIC COATED SUPERCONDUCTOR/COPPER INTERFACES AT CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES A Thesis JA'r '(IATTHEW OCHTERBECK Approved...

  20. Temperature dependence of conductance fluctuations in quantum Hall multilayers H. A. Walling,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jing

    )]. This surface phase dominates vertical transport at low temperatures that freeze out parallel bulk transport.2 fluctuations in low-temperature, vertical transport through quantum Hall multilayers. The mesas studied dependence of reproduc- ible conductance fluctuations in quantum Hall multilayers. The vertical transport

  1. Determination of temperature-dependent heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cold cap is a layer of reacting glass batch floating on the surface of melt in an all-electric continuous glass melter. The heat needed for the conversion of the melter feed to molten glass must be transferred to and through the cold cap. Since the heat flux into the cold cap determines the rate of melting, the heat conductivity is a key property of the reacting feed. We designed an experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples that monitors the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible is heated at a constant rate. Then we used two methods to calculate the heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the reacting feed: the approximation of the temperature field by polynomial functions and the finite-volume method coupled with least-squares analysis. Up to 680°C, the heat conductivity of the reacting melter feed was represented by a linear function of temperature.

  2. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1987-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers. The in situ reactions: AgNO/sub 3/ + RCHO ..-->.. Ag/sup 0/ + RCOOH and R/sub 3/M ..-->.. M/sup 0/ + 3R, where M = Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high- temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R/sub 3/M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrrone. 3 tabs.

  3. Process for introducing electrical conductivity into high-temperature polymeric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liepins, R.; Jorgensen, B.S.; Liepins, L.Z.

    1993-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature electrically conducting polymers are described. The in situ reactions: AgNO[sub 3] + RCHO [yields] Ag + RCOOH and R[sub 3]M [yields] M + 3R, where M=Au or Pt have been found to introduce either substantial bulk or surface conductivity in high-temperature polymers. The reactions involving the R[sub 3]M were caused to proceed thermally suggesting the possibility of using laser means for initiating such reactions in selected areas or volumes of the polymeric materials. The polymers successfully investigated to date are polyphenylquinoxaline, polytolylquinoxaline, polyquinoline, polythiazole, and pyrone.

  4. Determination of heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed: Extension to high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Jarrett A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pokorny, Richard [Inst. of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czech Republic); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hrma, Pavel R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat conductivity ({lambda}) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating {lambda} of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the {lambda}(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the {lambda}(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap.

  5. Effect of electron temperature anisotropy on near-wall conductivity in Hall thrusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fengkui, E-mail: fengkuizhang@163.com, E-mail: yudaren@hit.edu.cn; Kong, Lingyi; Zhang, Xueyi; Li, Wei [College of Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Yu, Daren, E-mail: fengkuizhang@163.com, E-mail: yudaren@hit.edu.cn [College of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron velocity distribution in Hall thrusters is anisotropic, which not only makes the sheath oscillate in time, but also causes the sheath to oscillate in space under the condition of low electron temperatures. The spatial oscillation sheath has a significant effect on near-wall transport current. In this Letter, the method of particle-in-cell (2D?+?3?V) was adopted to simulate the effect of anisotropic electron temperatures on near-wall conductivity in a Hall thruster. Results show that the electron-wall collision frequency is within the same order in magnitude for both anisotropic and isotropic electron temperatures. The near-wall transport current produced by collisions between the electrons and the walls is much smaller than experimental measurements. However, under the condition of anisotropic electron temperatures, the non-collision transport current produced by slow electrons which reflected by the spatial oscillation sheath is much larger and closes to measurements.

  6. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  7. Subsurface Temperature, Moisture, Thermal Conductivity and Heat Flux, Barrow, Area A, B, C, D

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir

    Subsurface temperature data are being collected along a transect from the center of the polygon through the trough (and to the center of the adjacent polygon for Area D). Each transect has five 1.5m vertical array thermistor probes with 16 thermistors each. This dataset also includes soil pits that have been instrumented for temperature, water content, thermal conductivity, and heat flux at the permafrost table. Area C has a shallow borehole of 2.5 meters depth is instrumented in the center of the polygon.

  8. On the specifics of the electrical conductivity anomalies in PVC nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Vlasov; L. A. Apresyan

    2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A qualitative model describing the "anomalous" features of the conductivity of polymer nanocomposites, in particular, switching to the conducting state in relatively thick (tens of microns or more) of flexible PVC films is considered. In previously published experimental results, change of conductivity by 10 or more orders of magnitude occurred both in the absence of external influences (spontaneously), and under the influence of an applied electric field, as well as other initiating factors (such as uniaxial pressure) . In a model of hopping conduction mechanism it is shown, that switching in the conduction states under the action of external field significantly (by orders of magnitude) below threshold can be associated with a high-resistance state instability that results from the sequence of "shorting" (reversible soft breakdown) of narrow insulating gaps between regions with relatively high conductivity. Increasing the field strength in the remaining insulating gaps ultimately leads to the formation of a conducting channel between the external electrodes and switching conductivity of the composite film sample in a state of high conductivity. This cascade model is essentially based on the transition from the usual description of the charge tunneling through single independent insulating gap to take into account correlations between adjacent gaps. In the frame of developed model other "anomalies" such as exponential dependence of the resistance on the sample thickness, pressure, and other influences can be qualitative explained. An analogy of the model with a cascading breakdown of avalanche transistors is also considered.

  9. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  10. Measuring Frac-pack Conductivity at Reservoir Temperature and High Closure Stress 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Preston X.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    quality and test conditions (Palisch et al. 2007). In 2007, this standard for long-term testing came to be known as the ISO 13503-5 (Kaufman et al. 2007). Seccombe and Anderson (1982) and Reinicke et al. (1985) showed through post-frac analysis... apparatus consists of the following (Fig 2.1): ? A mixing tank - to prepare the cross-linked fluid ? High pressure centrifugal pump ? Heating jacket - to increase the temperature to reservoir conditions ? Modified API RP-61 fracture conductivity cell...

  11. High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance High Temperature Fuel Cell Performance of of Sulfonated Sulfonated Poly(phenylene Poly(phenylene) Proton) Proton Conducting Conducting Polymers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Sandia National Laboratories to the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting held in Honolulu, Hawaii October 8, 2004.

  12. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Simone (Albany, CA); Anders, Andre (Albany, CA); Brown, Ian G. (Berkeley, CA); McLarnon, Frank R. (Orinda, CA); Kong, Fanping (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  13. Investigation of the influence of temperature on the conductive properties of copolymer PVC -PolyAcetylene films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. V. Vlasov; V. I. Kryshtob; T. V. Vlasova; L. A. Apresyan; S. I. Rasmagin

    2013-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of conductivity of partially dehydrochlorinated PVC films, containing in their macromolecules chains of polyene-conjugated bonds (PCB) and representing copolymer PVC-Polyacetylene. In samples with excess of some "threshold" concentration of PCB with increasing temperature it was found conductivity switching on 10 -11 orders of magnitude. Instability of states with high conductivity in the temperature range which depends on the concentration of PCB was detected. Qualitatively, the increase of concentration of PCB was monitored by fixing the fluorescent and absorption spectra.

  14. High-temperature electrically conductive ceramic composite and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, David E. (Knoxville, TN); Gooch, Jack G. (Seymour, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Masters, David R. (Knoxville, TN)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a metal-oxide ceramic composition useful in induction heating applications for treating uranium and uranium alloys. The ceramic composition is electrically conductive at room temperature and is nonreactive with molten uranium. The composition is prepared from a particulate admixture of 20 to 50 vol. % niobium and zirconium oxide which may be stabilized with an addition of a further oxide such as magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, or yttria. The composition is prepared by blending the powders, pressing or casting the blend into the desired product configuration, and then sintering the casting or compact in an inert atmosphere. In the casting operation, calcium aluminate is preferably added to the admixture in place of a like quantity of zirconia for providing a cement to help maintain the integrity of the sintered product.

  15. Low temperature growth of ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests on conductive supports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Yang, Junwei; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Robertson, John [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom)] [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FA (United Kingdom); Oliver, Rachel A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0FS (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0FS (United Kingdom); Bhardwaj, Sunil [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy) [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Trieste I-34149 (Italy); Cepek, Cinzia [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)] [Istituto Officina dei Materiali-CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste I-34149 (Italy)

    2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We grow ultra-high mass density carbon nanotube forests at 450 °C on Ti-coated Cu supports using Co-Mo co-catalyst. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows Mo strongly interacts with Ti and Co, suppressing both aggregation and lifting off of Co particles and, thus, promoting the root growth mechanism. The forests average a height of 0.38 ?m and a mass density of 1.6 g cm{sup ?3}. This mass density is the highest reported so far, even at higher temperatures or on insulators. The forests and Cu supports show ohmic conductivity (lowest resistance ?22 k?), suggesting Co-Mo is useful for applications requiring forest growth on conductors.

  16. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplment au n" 8, Tome 39, aot 1978, page C6-982 PHONON SCATTERING AND THE LINEAR SPECIFIC HEAT TERM IN EPOXY-RESINS AT LOW TEMPERATURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SCATTERING AND THE LINEAR SPECIFIC HEAT TERM IN EPOXY-RESINS AT LOW TEMPERATURES S. Kelham and H.M. Rosenberg. Abstract.- The specific heat and the thermal conductivity of an epoxy--resin has been measured from 0 on the thermal conductivity and speci- fic heat of an epoxy-resin in the range 0.1 to 80 K in which

  17. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that can operate with Stirling engines at 42% efficiency andfor high temperature Stirling engines which operates at 42%turbines such as Stirling engines, while high-temperature (>

  18. Overall plant design specification Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Revision 9 of the ``Overall Plant Design Specification Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor,`` DOE-HTGR-86004 (OPDS) has been completed and is hereby distributed for use by the HTGR Program team members. This document, Revision 9 of the ``Overall Plant Design Specification`` (OPDS) reflects those changes in the MHTGR design requirements and configuration resulting form approved Design Change Proposals DCP BNI-003 and DCP BNI-004, involving the Nuclear Island Cooling and Spent Fuel Cooling Systems respectively.

  19. Measurement of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and viscosity of TiO{sub 2}-water nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duangthongsuk, Weerapun; Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluid is an innovative heat transfer fluid with superior potential for enhancing the heat transfer performance of conventional fluids. Many attempts have been made to investigate its thermal conductivity and viscosity, which are important thermophysical properties. No definitive agreements have emerged, however, about these properties. This article reports the thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids experimentally. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in water with volume concentration of 0.2-2 vol.% are used in the present study. A transient hot-wire apparatus is used for measuring the thermal conductivity of nanofluids whereas the Bohlin rotational rheometer (Malvern Instrument) is used to measure the viscosity of nanofluids. The data are collected for temperatures ranging from 15 C to 35 C. The results show that the measured viscosity and thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased as the particle concentrations increased and are higher than the values of the base liquids. Furthermore, thermal conductivity of nanofluids increased with increasing nanofluid temperatures and, conversely, the viscosity of nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature of nanofluids. Moreover, the measured thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids are quite different from the predicted values from the existing correlations and the data reported by other researchers. Finally, new thermophysical correlations are proposed for predicting the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. (author)

  20. Method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a high temperature super-conducting transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golner, Thomas M.; Mehta, Shirish P.

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for connecting high voltage leads to a super-conducting transformer is provided that includes a first super-conducting coil set, a second super-conducting coil set, and a third super-conducting coil set. The first, second and third super-conducting coil sets are connected via an insulated interconnect system that includes insulated conductors and insulated connectors that are utilized to connect the first, second, and third super-conducting coil sets to the high voltage leads.

  1. The effects of temperature and carbon nanotubes on conducting polymer actuator performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keng, Yenmei

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers serve as electrically conductive actuators via ion diffusion in and out of the polymer when voltages are applied. Their actuation performance can be largely affected by deposition setup, post-deposition ...

  2. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75-80K and 4.5K temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Negm, Yehia (Braintree, MA); Zimmerman, George O. (South Hamilton, MA); Powers, Jr., Robert E. (East Boston, MA); McConeghy, Randy J. (Waxahachie, TX); Kaplan, Alvaro (Brookline, MA)

    1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K. and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizationl arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained.

  3. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75--80K and 4. 5K temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Negm, Y.; Zimmerman, G.O.; Powers, R.E. Jr.; McConeghy, R.J.; Kaplan, A.

    1994-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizational arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained. 12 figures.

  4. STABLE HIGH CONDUCTIVITY BILAYERED ELECTROLYTES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman; Keith L. Duncan

    2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A bilayer electrolyte consisting of acceptor-doped ceria (on the fuel/reducing side) and cubic-stabilized bismuth oxide (on the oxidizing side) was developed. The bilayer electrolyte that was developed showed significant improvement in open-circuit potential versus a typical ceria based SOFC. Moreover, the OCP of the bilayer cells increased as the thickness of the bismuth oxide layer increased relative to the ceria layer. Thereby, verifying the bilayer concept. Although, because of the absence of a suitable cathode (a problem we are still working assiduously to solve), we were unable to obtain power density curves, our modeling work predicts a reduction in electrolyte area specific resistance of two orders of magnitude over cubic-stabilized zirconia and projects a maximum power density of 9 W/m{sup 2} at 800 C and 0.09 W/m{sup 2} at 500 C. Towards the development of the bilayer electrolyte other significant strides were made. Among these were, first, the development of a, bismuth oxide based, oxide ion conductor with the highest conductivity (0.56 S/cm at 800 C and 0.043 S/cm at 500 C) known to date. Second, a physical model of the defect transport mechanisms and the driving forces for the ordering phenomena in bismuth oxide and other fluorite systems was developed. Third, a model for point defect transport in oxide mixed ionic-electronic conductors was developed, without the typical assumption of a uniform distribution of ions and including the effect of variable loads on the transport properties of an SOFC (with either a single or bilayer electrolyte).

  5. Irradiated Materials Testing Complex (IMTL) The Irradiated Materials Testing Laboratory provides the capability to conduct high temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kamat, Vineet R.

    provides the capability to conduct high temperature corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of neutron next to a hot cell. This configuration allows us to disconnect the autoclave from its water loop, maneuver it into the hot cell, where the neutron irradiated specimens can be safely mounted

  6. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proceedings on thermal energy storage and energy conversion;polymer microcomposites for thermal energy storage. SAE SocLow temperature thermal energy storage: a state of the art

  7. Esimation of field-scale thermal conductivities of unsaturated rocks from in-situ temperature data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    vicinity of the heat source, and rock temperature exceededand the dry rock near the heat source. The other differencesources, heat transfer takes place through the wet rock (see

  8. Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    conductivity; United States; USGS Authors Urban, T.C.; Diment, W.H.; Nathenson, M.; Smith, E.P.; Ziagos, J.P.; Shaeffer and M.H. Published Open-File Report - U. S. Geological...

  9. High Temperature Oxidation Resistance and Surface Electrical Conductivity of Stainless Steels with Filtered Arc Cr-Al-N Multilayer and/or Superlattice Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gannon, Paul E.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Deibert, Max; Smith, Richard J.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements for low cost and high-tempurater corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. Candidate coatings must exhibit chemical and thermal-mechanical stability and high electrical conductivity during long-term (>400,000 hrs) exposure to SOFC operatong conditions. The high temperature oxidation resistance and surface electrical donductivity of 304, 440A,a dn Crofer-22 APU steel coupons, with and without multilayer and/or superlattice coatings from a Cr-Al-N system were investigated as a function of exposure in an oxidization atmosphere at high temperatures. The coatins were deposited using large area filtered arc depsition (LAFAD) technology [1], and subsequently annealed in air at 800 degrees C for varying times. Area specific resistance and activation energy for electrical conductivity of oxidized coupons were measured using a 4-point technique with Pt paste for electrical contact between facing oxidized coupon surfaces. The surface compositon, structure and morphology of the coupons were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, XPS, SEM, and AFM techniques. The structure of the CRN/CrAlN multilayered superlattice coatings was characterized by TEM. By altering the architecture of the coating layers, both surface electrical conductivity and oxidation resistance [2] improved signigicantly for some of the coated samples tested up to ~100hrs.

  10. Method of forming a dense, high temperature electronically conductive composite layer on a porous ceramic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical device, containing a solid oxide electrolyte material and an electrically conductive composite layer, has the composite layer attached by: (A) applying a layer of LaCrO[sub 3], YCrO[sub 3] or LaMnO[sub 3] particles, on a portion of a porous ceramic substrate, (B) heating to sinter bond the particles to the substrate, (C) depositing a dense filler structure between the doped particles, (D) shaving off the top of the particles, and (E) applying an electronically conductive layer over the particles as a contact. 7 figs.

  11. Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurement of the electronic thermal conductance channels and heat capacity of graphene at low, Gwf , test the Wiedemann-Franz (wf) law, and infer the electronic heat capacity, with a minimum value of a Coulomb-interacting electron-hole plasma may result in deviations from the Fermi-liquid values of the Mott

  12. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON THE GLASS TRANSITION TEMPERATURE OF EPDM ELASTOMER AND ON THE CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYANILINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, E; Marie Kane, M

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Four formulations of EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) elastomer were exposed to tritium gas initially at one atmosphere and ambient temperature for between three and four months in closed containers. Material properties that were characterized include density, volume, mass, appearance, flexibility, and dynamic mechanical properties. The glass transition temperature was determined by analysis of the dynamic mechanical property data per ASTM standards. EPDM samples released significant amounts of gas when exposed to tritium, and the glass transition temperature increased by about 3 C. during the exposure. Effects of ultraviolet and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of polyaniline films are also documented as complementary results to planned tritium exposures. Future work will determine the effects of tritium gas exposure on the electrical conductivity of polyaniline films, to demonstrate whether such films can be used as a sensor to detect tritium. Surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma rays and ultraviolet light. The results of the gamma and UV experiments will be correlated with the tritium exposure results.

  13. Apparatus and method for controlling the temperature of the core of a super-conducting transformer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golner, Thomas; Pleva, Edward; Mehta, Shirish

    2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for controlling the temperature of a core of a transformer is provided that includes a core, a shield surrounding the core, a cast formed between the core and the shield, and tubing positioned on the shield. The cast directs heat from the core to the shield and cooling fluid is directed through the tubing to cool the shield.

  14. Seebeck Enhancement Through Miniband Conduction in IIIV Semiconductor Superlattices at Low Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    increase the asymmetry between hot and cold electron transport, in favor of hot electrons, increasing­V semiconductor superlattices can be significantly enhanced through miniband transport at low temperatures. Boltzmann transport in the relaxa- tion-time approximation is used to calculate the thermoelectric transport

  15. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  16. Effect of Ca Doping on the Electrical Conductivity of the High-Temperature Proton Conductor LaNbO4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Pena-Martinez, Juan [ORNL; Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Bridges, Craig A [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL; Hodges, Jason P [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sintering properties, crystal structure and electrical conductivity of La1-xCaxNbO4- (x=0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02 and 0.025), prepared by a conventional solid-state method, have been investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). In 2.5% Ca doped samples, a small amount of impurities Ca2Nb2O7 were observed from the XRD patterns. Impedance spectra show that the grain boundary resistance increases with increasing Ca content, while the bulk resistance remains essentially constant below 550 C. Despite the higher degree of grain growth was observed for higher Ca-doping levels, the total conductivity of the La1-xCaxNbO4- series decreases with increasing Ca content from 0.5 to 2.0 mol%. The activation energy for the total conductivity decreases with increasing Ca content from 0.71 eV (x=0) to 0.54 eV (x=0.01) for the high temperature tetragonal phase, then it increases to 0.60 eV for x=0.02. For the monoclinic phase, La0.995Ca0.005NbO4- shows the lowest activation energy of 1.26 eV. These results imply that the solubility of CaO in LaNbO4 is in the range from 0.5 to 1.0 mol%. By increasing the sintering temperature from 1500 C to 1550 C, the proton conductivity of the Ca-doped LaNbO4 was improved with enlarged grain size due to a reduction in the resistive grain boundary contribution.

  17. The Pseudo Specific Heat in SU(2) Gauge Theory Finite Size Dependence and Finite Temperature Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engels, J

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the pseudo specific heat of SU(2) gauge theory near the crossover point on $4^4$ to $16^4$ lattices. Several different methods are used to determine the specific heat. The curious finite size dependence of the peak maximum is explained from the interplay of the crossover phenomenon with the deconfinement transition occurring due to the finite extension of the lattice. We find, that for lattices of size $8^4$ and larger the crossover peak is independent of lattice size at $\\beta_{co}=2.23(2)$ and has a peak height of $C_{V,co}=1.685(10)$. We conclude therefore that the crossover peak is not the result of an ordinary phase transition. Further, the contributions to $C_V$ from different plaquette correlations are calculated. We find, that at the peak and far outside the peak the ratio of contributions from orthogonal and parallel plaquette correlations is different. To estimate the finite temperature influence on symmetric lattices far off the deconfinement transition point we calculate the modulus...

  18. Density dependence of the room temperature thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorham, Caroline S.; Gaskins, John T.; Hopkins, Patrick E., E-mail: phopkins@virginia.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Parsons, Gregory N.; Losego, Mark D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the thermal conductivity of atomic layer deposition-grown amorphous alumina thin films as a function of atomic density. Using time domain thermoreflectance, we measure the thermal conductivity of the thin alumina films at room temperature. The thermal conductivities vary ?35% for a nearly 15% change in atomic density and are substrate independent. No density dependence of the longitudinal sound speeds is observed with picosecond acoustics. The density dependence of the thermal conductivity agrees well with a minimum limit to thermal conductivity model that is modified with a differential effective-medium approximation.

  19. Room temperature p-type conductivity and coexistence of ferroelectric order in ferromagnetic Li doped ZnO nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awan, Saif Ullah, E-mail: saifullah@comsats.edu.pk, E-mail: ullahphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hasanain, S. K. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Anjum, D. H. [Advanced Nanofabrication, Imaging and Characterization Core Lab (ANIC), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Makkah 23599-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Awan, M. S. [Center for Micro and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shah, Saqlain A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Memory and switching devices acquired new materials which exhibit ferroelectric and ferromagnetic order simultaneously. We reported multiferroic behavior in Zn{sub 1?y}Li{sub y}O(0.00?y?0.10) nanoparticles. The analysis of transmission electron micrographs confirmed the hexagonal morphology and wurtzite crystalline structure. We investigated p-type conductivity in doped samples and measured hole carriers in range 2.4?×?10{sup 17}/cc to 7.3?×?10{sup 17}/cc for different Li contents. We found that hole carriers are responsible for long range order ferromagnetic coupling in Li doped samples. Room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops were observed in 8% and 10% Li doped samples. We demonstrated ferroelectric coercivity (remnant polarization) 2.5?kV/cm (0.11 ?C/cm{sup 2}) and 2.8?kV/cm (0.15 ?C/cm{sup 2}) for y?=?0.08 and y?=?0.10 samples. We propose that the mechanism of Li induced ferroelectricity in ZnO is due to indirect dipole interaction via hole carriers. We investigated that if the sample has hole carriers ?5.3?×?10{sup 17}/cc, they can mediate the ferroelectricity. Ferroelectric and ferromagnetic measurements showed that higher electric polarization and larger magnetic moment is attained when the hole concentration is larger and vice versa. Our results confirmed the hole dependent coexistence of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature, which provide potential applications for switchable and memory devices.

  20. Standard test method for conducting drop-weight test to determine nil-ductility transition temperature of ferritic steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature of ferritic steels, 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) and thicker. 1.2 This test method may be used whenever the inquiry, contract, order, or specification states that the steels are subject to fracture toughness requirements as determined by the drop-weight test. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  1. Effect of in-pile degradation of the meat thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the plate-type U-Mo dispersion fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel G. Medvedev

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of in-pile degradation of thermal conductivity on the maximum temperature of the plate-type research reactor fuels has been assessed using the steady-state heat conduction equation and assuming convection cooling. It was found that due to very low meat thickness, characteristic for this type of fuel, the effect of thermal conductivity degradation on the maximum fuel temperature is minor. For example, the fuel plate featuring 0.635 mm thick meat operating at heat flux of 600 W/cm2 would experience only a 20oC temperature rise if the meat thermal conductivity degrades from 0.8 W/cm-s to 0.3 W/cm-s. While degradation of meat thermal conductivity in dispersion-type U-Mo fuel can be very substantial due to formation of interaction layer between the particles and the matrix, and development of fission gas filled porosity, this simple analysis demonstrates that this phenomenon is unlikely to significantly affect the temperature-based safety margin of the fuel during normal operation.

  2. Interferometric signatures of the temperature dependence of the specific shear viscosity in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christopher Plumberg; Ulrich Heinz

    2015-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work has shown that a temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy ratio, $\\eta/s$, influences the collective flow pattern in heavy-ion collisions in characteristic ways that can be measured by studying hadron transverse momentum spectra and their anisotropies. Here we point out that it also affects the pair momentum dependence of the Hanbury-Brown$-$Twiss (HBT) radii (the source size parameters extracted from two-particle intensity interferometry) and the variance of their event-by-event fluctuations. This observation establishes interferometric signatures as useful observables to complement the constraining power of single-particle spectra on the temperature dependence of $\\eta/s$.

  3. Interferometric signatures of the temperature dependence of the specific shear viscosity in heavy-ion collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plumberg, Christopher

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent work has shown that a temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy ratio, $\\eta/s$, influences the collective flow pattern in heavy-ion collisions in characteristic ways that can be measured by studying hadron transverse momentum spectra and their anisotropies. Here we point out that it also affects the pair momentum dependence of the Hanbury-Brown$-$Twiss (HBT) radii (the source size parameters extracted from two-particle intensity interferometry) and the variance of their event-by-event fluctuations. This observation establishes interferometric signatures as useful observables to complement the constraining power of single-particle spectra on the temperature dependence of $\\eta/s$.

  4. Specific effects of cycling stressful temperatures upon phenotypic and genetic variability of size traits in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Debat, Vincent

    of Drosophila melanogaster. We used either cold stress (daily cycle 8­25 C, average 16.5 C) or heat stress with cold stress but a decrease with heat stress. With respect to constant- temperature conditions, evolvability (genetic CV) was increased by daily cold stress, but decreased by daily heat stress. Within

  5. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sack, Lawren

    Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature Leaf hydraulic properties are strongly linked with transpiration and photosynthesis in many species. However, it is not known if gas exchange and hydraulics will have co-ordinated responsesto climate change

  6. Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room. The experiments give thermal diffusivities from which thermal conductivities can be determined, sound speeds not only on the sound speed but also on the thermal diffusivity and acoustic damping of the RTILs

  7. Thermal conductivity of large-grain niobium and its effect on trapped vortices in the temperature range 1.8?5 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondal, Jayanta [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre; Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB; Mittal, Kailash C. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre; Myneni, Ganapati Rao [JLAB

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental investigation of the thermal conductivity of large grain and its dependence on the trapped vortices in parallel magnetic field with respect to the temperature gradient {gradient}T was carried out on four large-grain niobium samples from four different ingots. The zero-field thermal conductivity measurements are in good agreement with the measurements based on the theory of Bardeen-Rickayzen-Tewordt (BRT). The change in thermal conductivity with trapped vortices is analysed with the field dependence of the conductivity results of Vinen et al for low inductions and low-temperature situation. Finally, the dependence of thermal conductivity on the applied magnetic field in the vicinity of the upper critical field H{sub c2} is fitted with the theory of pure type-II superconductor of Houghton and Maki. Initial remnant magnetization in the sample shows a departure from the Houghton?Maki curve whereas the sample with zero trapped flux qualitatively agrees with the theory. A qualitative discussion is presented explaining the reason for such deviation from the theory. It has also been observed that if the sample with the trapped vortices is cycled through T{sub c}, the subsequent measurement of the thermal conductivity coincides with the zero trapped flux results.

  8. Formulas for zero-temperature conductance through a region with interaction and A. Ramsak1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsak, Anton

    -beam li- thography or small metallic grains,1 semiconductor quantum dots,2 or a single large molecule of an atomic-size bridge that forms in the break,3 or even measure the conductance of a single hydrogen

  9. Voltammetry and conductivity of a polyether-pyridinium room temperature molten salt electrolyte and of its polymer electrolyte solutions in polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyati, R.; Murray, R.W. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the synthesis, microelectrode voltammetry, and ionic conductivity of a new room temperature molten salt N-(methoxy(ethoxy){sub 2}ethyl)pyridinium p-toluene sulfonate (abbreviated as[Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][Tos{sup {minus}}]) and of its solution in a hydroxy-terminated polydimethylsiloxane. Both ionically conductive liquids (conductivity = 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1}) exhibit voltammetric potential windows of about 1.5 V. The negative potential limit is determined by the reduction of the [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}] pyridinium species, with subsequent radical coupling to form a voltammetrically observed viologen dimer. The estimated diffusivities of the [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}] species, of a diethyleneglycol-tailed ferrocene redox solute studied, and by application of Nernst-Einstein relation to the ionic charge carriers, all lie in the 10{sup {minus}7} to 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/s range. Viscosities and glass transition thermal observations are reported as is the fit of the temperature dependencies of ionic conductivity in [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][Tos{sup {minus}}] and in [Py(E{sub 3}M){sup +}][TOS{sup {minus}}]/PDMS mixtures to Vogel-Tamman-Fulcher predictions.

  10. Chaotic fluctuation of temperature on environmental interface exchanging energy by visible and infrared radiation, convection and conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. T. Miahilovi?; D. Kapor; M. Budin?evi?

    2007-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The concept of environmental interface is defined and analyzed from the point of view of the possible source of non-standard behaviour. The energy balance equation is written for the interface where all kinds of energy transfer occur. It is shown that under certain conditions, the discrete version of the equation for the temperature time rate turns in to the well-known logistic equation and the conditions for chaotic behaviour are studied. They are determined by the Lyapunov exponent. The realistic situation when the coefficients of the equation vary with time, is studied for the Earth-environment general system.

  11. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C4, supplment au n" 4, Tome 40, avril 1979, page C4-140 Low temperature specific heat of rocksalt thorium compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    temperature specific heat of rocksalt thorium compounds V. Maurice, J. L. Boutard C) and D. Abbe ( n ) SESI with vacancy content in ThC,^x and is minimal for ThC06N04 compared to ThC and ThN. 1. Introduction. -- Thorium://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jphyscol:1979445 #12;LOW TEMPERATURE SPECIFIC HEAT OF ROCKSALT THORIUM COMPOUNDS C4-141 have

  12. Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali chloride salt eutectics for solar thermal-energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Debjyoti

    Enhancement of specific heat capacity of high-temperature silica-nanofluids synthesized in alkali nanoparticles at 1% mass concentration. The specific heat capacity of the nanofluid was enhanced by 14 of nanoparticles at min- ute concentrations are termed as ``nanofluids'' [1­3]. Nanoparticles are defined

  13. Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog Input/Output Module Ambient Temperature Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark D. McKay

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water Power Calculator Temperature and Analog input/output Module Ambient Temperature Testing A series of three ambient temperature tests were conducted for the Water Power Calculator development using the INL Calibration Laboratory’s Tenney Environmental Chamber. The ambient temperature test results demonstrate that the Moore Industries Temperature Input Modules, Analog Input Module and Analog Output Module, ambient temperature response meet or exceed the manufactures specifications

  14. Investigation of Temperature Dependent Optical Modes in GexAs35-xSe65 Thin Films: Structure Specific Raman, FIR and Optical Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Pritam; Joshy, Abin; Sathe, Vasant; Deshpande, Uday; Adarsh, K V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we present a comprehensive study of temperature and composition dependent Raman spectroscopy of GexAs35-xSe65 thin films to understand different structural units responsible for optical properties. Strikingly, our experimental results uncover the ratio of GeSe4/2 tetrahedral and AsSe3/2 pyramidal units in GexAs35-xSe65 thin films and their linear scaling relationship with temperature and x. An important notable outcome of our study is the formation of Se8 rings at lower temperatures. Our experimental results further provide interesting optical features, thermally and compositionally tunable optical absorption spectra. Detailed structure specific FIR data at room temperature also present direct information on the structural units in consistent with Raman data. We foresee that our studies are useful in determining the lightinduced response of these films and also for their potential applications in optics and optoelectronics.

  15. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection...

  16. Mixed Conduction in Rare-Earth Phosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Hannah Leung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conduction  in  Rare-­Earth  Phosphates   by   Hannah  Conduction  in  Rare-­?Earth  Phosphates   by   Hannah  conduction  in  rare  earth  phosphates.  Specifically,  

  17. Temperature effects on the energy bandgap and conductivity effective masses of charge carriers in lead telluride from first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatapathi, S., E-mail: saran@vt.edu; Dong, B., E-mail: bind89@vt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Hin, C., E-mail: celhin@vt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We determined the temperature effects on the electronic properties of lead telluride (PbTe) such as the energy bandgap and the effective masses of charge carriers by incorporating the structural changes of the material with temperature using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Though the first-principles DFT calculations are done at absolute zero temperatures, by incorporating the lattice thermal expansion and the distortion of Pb{sup 2+} ions from the equilibrium positions, we could determine the stable structural configuration of the PbTe system at different temperatures.

  18. A Combined Near-field Scanning Microwave Microscope and Transport Measurement System for Characterizing Dissipation in Conducting and High-Tc Superconducting Films at Variable Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dizon, Jonathan Reyes

    2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Identifying defects and non-superconducting regions in high-temperature superconductors (HTS) is of great importance because they limit the material's capability to carry higher current densities and serve as nucleation ...

  19. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tempe, AZ)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  20. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  1. Decoupling Ionic Conductivity from Structural Relaxation: A Way to Solid Polymer Electrolytes?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agapov, Alexander L [ORNL; Sokolov, Alexei P [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, we studied the temperature dependence of ionic conductivity and structural relaxation in a number of polymers. We demonstrate that temperature dependence of ionic conductivity can be decoupled from structural relaxation in a material specific way. We show that the strength of the decoupling correlates with the steepness of the temperature dependence of structural relaxation in the polymer, i.e., with its fragility. We ascribe the observed result to stronger frustration in chain packing characteristic for more fragile polymers. We speculate that employment of more fragile polymers might lead to design of polymers with higher ionic conductivity.

  2. Acetonitrile Drastically Boosts Conductivity of Ionic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaban, Vitaly V; Kalugin, Oleg N; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply a new methodology in the force field generation (PCCP 2011, 13, 7910) to study the binary mixtures of five imidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) with acetonitrile (ACN). The investigated RTILs are composed of tetrafluoroborate (BF4) anion and dialkylimidazolium cations, where one of the alkyl groups is methyl for all RTILs, and the other group is different for each RTILs, being ethyl (EMIM), butyl (BMIM), hexyl (HMIM), octyl (OMIM), and decyl (DMIM). Specific densities, radial distribution functions, ionic cluster distributions, heats of vaporization, diffusion constants, shear viscosities, ionic conductivities, and their correlations are discussed. Upon addition of ACN, the ionic conductivity of RTILs is found to increase by more than 50 times, that significantly exceeds an impact of most known solvents. Remarkably, the sharpest conductivity growth is found for the long-tailed imidazolium-based cations. This new fact motivates to revisit an application of these binary systems as a...

  3. Conductive Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohnert, G.W.

    2002-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroluminescent devices such as light-emitting diodes (LED) and high-energy density batteries. These new polymers offer cost savings, weight reduction, ease of processing, and inherent rugged design compared to conventional semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic industry has grown more than 30% during the past three years. Lightweight, flexible solar modules are being used by the U.S. Army and Marine Corps for field power units. LEDs historically used for indicator lights are now being investigated for general lighting to replace fluorescent and incandescent lights. These so-called solid-state lights are becoming more prevalent across the country since they produce efficient lighting with little heat generation. Conductive polymers are being sought for battery development as well. Considerable weight savings over conventional cathode materials used in secondary storage batteries make portable devices easier to carry and electric cars more efficient and nimble. Secondary battery sales represent an $8 billion industry annually. The purpose of the project was to synthesize and characterize conductive polymers. TRACE Photonics Inc. has researched critical issues which affect conductivity. Much of their work has focused on production of substituted poly(phenylenevinylene) compounds. These compounds exhibit greater solubility over the parent polyphenylenevinylene, making them easier to process. Alkoxy substituted groups evaluated during this study included: methoxy, propoxy, and heptyloxy. Synthesis routes for production of alkoxy-substituted poly phenylenevinylene were developed. Considerable emphasis was placed on final product yield and purity.

  4. Dissecting holographic conductivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard A. Davison; Blaise Goutéraux

    2015-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The DC thermoelectric conductivities of holographic systems in which translational symmetry is broken can be efficiently computed in terms of the near-horizon data of the dual black hole. By calculating the frequency dependent conductivities to the first subleading order in the momentum relaxation rate, we give a physical explanation for these conductivities in the simplest such example, in the limit of slow momentum relaxation. Specifically, we decompose each conductivity into the sum of a coherent contribution due to momentum relaxation and an incoherent contribution, due to intrinsic current relaxation. This decomposition is different from those previously proposed, and is consistent with the known hydrodynamic properties in the translationally invariant limit. This is the first step towards constructing a consistent theory of charged hydrodynamics with slow momentum relaxation.

  5. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  6. Conduction cooled tube supports

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worley, Arthur C. (Mt. Tabor, NJ); Becht, IV, Charles (Morristown, NJ)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In boilers, process tubes are suspended by means of support studs that are in thermal contact with and attached to the metal roof casing of the boiler and the upper bend portions of the process tubes. The support studs are sufficiently short that when the boiler is in use, the support studs are cooled by conduction of heat to the process tubes and the roof casing thereby maintaining the temperature of the stud so that it does not exceed 1400.degree. F.

  7. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

  8. Low Temperature Proton Conductivity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLosCombustion

  9. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? ) is expressed by k ( + + ) (3 21) where llg? gap conductance (W/mz-'K) kg? ? conductivity of the gas mixture (W/m-'K) d = actual gap dimension (m) gt gz= temperature jump distances at the fuel and cladding surfaces (cm) The value of d in Equation 3. 21...- ?, )+ ( ") 3 (I- ?, ) - ( ? ) 3 1 yvM trMT b 1+ vF g?T a 1-v?a 1-vF (3. 31) and finally, 2aFBF T 2EMC3M 1 1-2va 1-va 1+vM a (3, 32) 21 Once the constants have been determined, Equation 3. 28 can be solved at the fuel particle outer radius to determine...

  10. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carter, J. David; Wang, Xiaoping; Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  11. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John; Krumpelt, Michael; Wang, Xiaoping; Carter, J. David

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  12. Oxygen ion conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vaughey, John (Elmhurst, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Wang, Xiaoping (Downers Grove, IL); Carter, J. David (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An oxygen ion conducting ceramic oxide that has applications in industry including fuel cells, oxygen pumps, oxygen sensors, and separation membranes. The material is based on the idea that substituting a dopant into the host perovskite lattice of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 that prefers a coordination number lower than 6 will induce oxygen ion vacancies to form in the lattice. Because the oxygen ion conductivity of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3 is low over a very large temperature range, the material exhibits a high overpotential when used. The inclusion of oxygen vacancies into the lattice by doping the material has been found to maintain the desirable properties of (La,Sr)MnO.sub.3, while significantly decreasing the experimentally observed overpotential.

  13. On viscosity, conduction and sound waves in the intracluster medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Fabian; C. S. Reynolds; G. B. Taylor; R. J. H. Dunn

    2005-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent X-ray and optical observations of the Perseus cluster indicate that the viscous and conductive dissipation of sound waves is the mechanism responsible for heating the intracluster medium and thus balancing radiative cooling of cluster cores. We discuss this mechanism more generally and show how the specific heating and cooling rates vary with temperature and radius. It appears that the heating mechanism is most effective above 10^7K, which allows for radiative cooling to proceed within normal galaxy formation but will stifle the growth of very massive galaxies. The scaling of the wavelength of sound waves with cluster temperature and feedback in the system are investigated.

  14. Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Multilayered YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low...

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of a Conduction Cooled Thermal Neutron Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heather Wampler; Adam Gerth; Heng Ban; Donna Post Guillen; Douglas Porter; Cynthia Papesch

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Installation of a conduction cooled thermal (low-energy) neutron filter in an existing domestic test reactor would provide the U.S. the capability to test new reactor fuels and materials for advanced fast (high-energy) reactor concepts. A composite consisting of Al3Hf-Al has been proposed for the neutron filter due to both the neutron filtering properties of hafnium and the conducting capabilities of aluminum. Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of the Al3Hf-Al composite is essential for the design of the filtering system. The present objectives are to identify a suitable fabrication technique and to measure the thermophysical properties of the Al3Hf intermetallic, which has not been done previous to this study. A centrifugal casting method was used to prepare samples of Al3Hf. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis were conducted to determine the structural make-up of each of the samples. Thermophysical properties were measured as follows: specific heat by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal diffusivity by a laser flash thermal diffusivity measuring system, thermal expansion by a dilatometer, and thermal conductivity was calculated based on the previous measurements. All measurements were acquired over a temperature range of 90°C - 375°C with some measurements outside these bounds. The average thermal conductivity of the intermetallic Al3Hf (~7 at.% Hf) was found to be ~ 41 W/m-K for the given temperature range. This information fills a knowledge gap in the thermophysical properties of the intermetallic Al3Hf with the specified percentage of hafnium. A model designed to predict composite properties was used to calculate a thermal conductivity of ~177 W/m-K for an Al3Hf-Al composite with 23 vol% Al3Hf. This calculation was based upon the average thermal conductivity of Al3Hf over the specified temperature range.

  16. In-Pile Thermal Conductivity Measurement Method for Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy L. Rempe; Brandon Fox; Heng Ban; Joshua E. Daw; Darrell L. Knudson; Keith G. Condie

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermophysical properties of advanced nuclear fuels and materials during irradiation must be known prior to their use in existing, advanced, or next generation reactors. Thermal conductivity is one of the most important properties for predicting fuel and material performance. A joint Utah State University (USU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) project, which is being conducted with assistance from the Institute for Energy Technology at the Norway Halden Reactor Project, is investigating in-pile fuel thermal conductivity measurement methods. This paper focuses on one of these methods – a multiple thermocouple method. This two-thermocouple method uses a surrogate fuel rod with Joule heating to simulate volumetric heat generation to gain insights about in-pile detection of thermal conductivity. Preliminary results indicated that this method can measure thermal conductivity over a specific temperature range. This paper reports the thermal conductivity values obtained by this technique and compares these values with thermal property data obtained from standard thermal property measurement techniques available at INL’s High Test Temperature Laboratory. Experimental results and material properties data are also compared to finite element analysis results.

  17. Low-to-moderate temperature geothermal resource assessment for Nevada, area specific studies. Final report, June 1, 1980-August 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trexler, D.T.; Koenig, B.A.; Flynn, T.; Bruce, J.L.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hawthorne study area is located in Mineral County, Nevada and surrounds the municipality of the same name. It encompasses an area of approximately 310 sq. km (120 sq. mi), and most of the land belongs to the US Army Ammunition Plant. The energy needs of the military combined with those of the area population (over 5,000 residents) are substantial. The area is classified as having a high potential for direct applications using the evaluation scheme described in Texler and others (1979). A variety of scientific techniques was employed during area-wide resource assessment. General geologic studies demonstrate the lithologic diversity in the area; these studies also indicate possible sources for dissolved fluid constituents. Geophysical investigations include aero-magnetic and gravity surveys which aid in defining the nature of regional, and to a lesser extent, local variations in subsurface configurations. Surface and near-surface structural features are determined using various types of photo imagery including low sun-angle photography. An extensive shallow depth temperature probe survey indicates two zones of elevated temperature on opposite sides of the Walker Lake basin. Temperature-depth profiles from several wells in the study area indicate significant thermal fluid-bearing aquifers. Fluid chemical studies suggest a wide spatial distribution for the resource, and also suggest a meteoric recharge source in the Wassuk Range. Finally, a soil-mercury survey was not a useful technique in this study area. Two test holes were drilled to conclude the area resource assessment, and thermal fluids were encountered in both wells. The western well has measured temperatures as high as 90 C (194 F) within 150 meters (500 ft) of the surface. Temperature profiles in this well indicate a negative temperature gradient below 180 meters (590 ft). The eastern hole had a bottom hole temperature of 61 C (142 F) at a depth of only 120 meters (395 ft). A positive gradient is observed to a total depth in the well. Several conclusions are drawn from this study: the resource is distributed over a relatively large area; resource fluid temperatures can exceed 90 C (194 F), but are probably limited to a maximum of 125 C (257 F); recharge to the thermal system is meteoric, and flow of the fluids in the near surface (< 500 m) is not controlled by faults; heat supplied to the system may be related to a zone of partially melted crustal rocks in the area 25 km (15 mi) south of Hawthorne. Four papers and an introduction are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. (MHR)

  18. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  19. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Kang (Tempe, AZ); Liu, Changle (Tulsa, OK)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  20. DOCUMENTATION SPECIFIC TASK TRAINING PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    DOCUMENTATION APPENDIX SPECIFIC TASK TRAINING PROGRAM Conducted by the ILLINOIS CENTER ............................................................. Coordination of Contract Documents Art.105.05 Appendix Page 14

  1. In-Plane Conductivity Testing Procedures and Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation on conductivity testing was given at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  2. Temperature sensitive surfaces and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, Liang [Richland, WA; Rieke, Peter C [Pasco, WA; Alford, Kentin L [Pasco, WA

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Poly-n-isopropylacrylamide surface coatings demonstrate the useful property of being able to switch charateristics depending upon temperature. More specifically, these coatings switch from being hydrophilic at low temperature to hydrophobic at high temperature. Research has been conducted for many years to better characterize and control the properties of temperature sensitive coatings. The present invention provides novel temperature sensitive coatings on articles and novel methods of making temperature sensitive coatings that are disposed on the surfaces of various articles. These novel coatings contain the reaction products of n-isopropylacrylamide and are characterized by their properties such as advancing contact angles. Numerous other characteristics such as coating thickness, surface roughness, and hydrophilic-to-hydrophobic transition temperatures are also described. The present invention includes articles having temperature-sensitve coatings with improved properties as well as improved methods for forming temperature sensitive coatings.

  3. Tuning the Curie temperature of L1{sub 0} ordered FePt thin films through site-specific substitution of Rh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Dongbin, E-mail: dongbin.xu@seagate.com [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Sun, Cheng-Jun, E-mail: cjsun@aps.anl.gov, E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg; Heald, Steve M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, Gan Moog, E-mail: cjsun@aps.anl.gov, E-mail: msecgm@nus.edu.sg [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhou, Tie-Jun [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Bergman, Anders; Sanyal, Biplab [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In structurally ordered magnetic thin films, the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) of ferromagnetic films depends on the exchange integral of the short range ordered neighboring atoms. The exchange integral may be adjusted by controlling the elemental substitutional concentration at the lattice site of interest. We show how to control the T{sub C} in high anisotropy L1{sub 0} Fe{sub 50}Pt{sub 50} magnetic thin films by substituting Rh into the Pt site. Rh substitution in L1{sub 0} FePt modified the local atomic environment and the corresponding electronic properties, while retaining the ordered L1{sub 0} phase. The analysis of extended x-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectra shows that Rh uniformly substitutes for Pt in L1{sub 0} FePt. A model of antiferromagnetic defects caused by controlled Rh substitution of the Pt site, reducing the T{sub C,} is proposed to interpret this phenomenon and its validity is further examined by ab initio density functional calculations.

  4. Electrical network method for the thermal or structural characterization of a conducting material sample or structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, M.G.

    1993-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for modeling a conducting material sample or structure system, as an electrical network of resistances in which each resistance of the network is representative of a specific physical region of the system. The method encompasses measuring a resistance between two external leads and using this measurement in a series of equations describing the network to solve for the network resistances for a specified region and temperature. A calibration system is then developed using the calculated resistances at specified temperatures. This allows for the translation of the calculated resistances to a region temperature. The method can also be used to detect and quantify structural defects in the system.

  5. Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation and Conductivity Studies of the Non-Arrhenius Conductivity Behavior in Lithium Fast Ion Conducting Sulfide Glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Michael Meyer

    2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As time progresses, the world is using up more of the planet's natural resources. Without technological advances, the day will eventually arrive when these natural resources will no longer be sufficient to supply all of the energy needs. As a result, society is seeing a push for the development of alternative fuel sources such as wind power, solar power, fuel cells, and etc. These pursuits are even occurring in the state of Iowa with increasing social pressure to incorporate larger percentages of ethanol in gasoline. Consumers are increasingly demanding that energy sources be more powerful, more durable, and, ultimately, more cost efficient. Fast Ionic Conducting (FIC) glasses are a material that offers great potential for the development of new batteries and/or fuel cells to help inspire the energy density of battery power supplies. This dissertation probes the mechanisms by which ions conduct in these glasses. A variety of different experimental techniques give a better understanding of the interesting materials science taking place within these systems. This dissertation discusses Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques performed on FIC glasses over the past few years. These NMR results have been complimented with other measurement techniques, primarily impedance spectroscopy, to develop models that describe the mechanisms by which ionic conduction takes place and the dependence of the ion dynamics on the local structure of the glass. The aim of these measurements was to probe the cause of a non-Arrhenius behavior of the conductivity which has been seen at high temperatures in the silver thio-borosilicate glasses. One aspect that will be addressed is if this behavior is unique to silver containing fast ion conducting glasses. more specifically, this study will determine if a non-Arrhenius correlation time, {tau}, can be observed in the Nuclear Spin Lattice Relaxation (NSLR) measurements. If so, then can this behavior be modeled with a new single distribution of activation energies (DAE) to calculate the corresponding conductivity and relaxation rates as a function of temperature and frequency?

  6. Electrical conductivity of segregated network polymer nanocomposites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Yeon Seok

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    . The composites made using the emulsion with higher modulus show lower percolation threshold and higher conductivity. Higher modulus causes tighter packing of carbon black between the polymer particles. When the drying temperature was increased to 80°C...

  7. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids.

  8. Effects of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senor, D.J.; Youngblood, G.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Moore, C.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Trimble, D.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Woods, J.J. [Lockheed Martin, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics were characterized by measuring their thermal diffusivity in the unirradiated, thermal annealed, and irradiated conditions over the temperature range 400 to 1,000 C. The irradiation was conducted in the EBR-II to doses of 33 and 43 dpa-SiC (185 EFPD) at a nominal temperature of 1,000 C. The annealed specimens were held at 1,010 C for 165 days to approximately duplicate the thermal exposure of the irradiated specimens. Thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash method, and was converted to thermal conductivity using density data and calculated specific heat values. Exposure to the 165 day anneal did not appreciably degrade the conductivity of the monolithic or particulate-reinforced composites, but the conductivity of the fiber-reinforced composites was slightly degraded. The crystalline SiC-based materials tested in this study exhibited thermal conductivity degradation of irradiation, presumably caused by the presence of irradiation-induced defects. Irradiation-induced conductivity degradation was greater at lower temperatures, and was typically more pronounced for materials with higher unirradiated conductivity. Annealing the irradiated specimens for one hour at 150 C above the irradiation temperature produced an increase in thermal conductivity, which is likely the result of interstitial-vacancy pair recombination. Multiple post-irradiation anneals on CVD {beta}-SiC indicated that a portion of the irradiation-induced damage was permanent. A possible explanation for this phenomenon was the formation of stable dislocation loops at the high irradiation temperature and/or high dose that prevented subsequent interstitial/vacancy recombination.

  9. Effects of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senor, D.J.; Youngblood, G.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Moore, C.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Trimble, D.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Woods, J.J. [Lockheed Martin, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics were characterized by measuring their thermal diffusivity in the unirradiated, thermal annealed, and irradiated conditions over the temperature range 400 to 1,000 C. The irradiation was conducted in the EBR-II to doses of 33 and 43 dpa-SiC (185 EFPD) at a nominal temperature of 1,000 C. The annealed specimens were held at 1,010 C for 165 days to approximately duplicate the thermal exposure of the irradiated specimens. Thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash method, and was converted to thermal conductivity using density data and calculated specific heat values. Exposure to the 165 day anneal did not appreciably degrade the conductivity of the monolithic or particulate-reinforced composites, but the conductivity of the fiber-reinforced composites was slightly degraded. The crystalline SiC-based materials tested in this study exhibited thermal conductivity degradation after irradiation, presumably caused by the presence of irradiation-induced defects. Irradiation-induced conductivity degradation was greater at lower temperatures, and was typically more pronounced for materials with higher unirradiated conductivity. Annealing the irradiated specimens for one hour at 150 C above the irradiation temperature produced an increase in thermal conductivity, which is likely the result of interstitial-vacancy pair recombination. Multiple post-irradiation anneals on CVD {beta}-SiC indicated that a portion of the irradiation-induced damage was permanent. A possible explanation for this phenomenon was the formation of stable dislocation loops at the high irradiation temperature and/or high dose that prevented subsequent interstitial/vacancy recombination.

  10. HEATING7.3. 1,2, or 3-d Heat Conduction Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Childs, K.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATING7.2I and 7.3 is the most recent developmant in a series of heat-transfer codes and obsoletes all previous versions. HEATING can solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one, two, or three-dimensional Cartesian, cylindrical coordinates or spherical coordinates. A model may include multiple materials, and the thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat of each material may be both time and temperature dependent. The thermal conductivity can be anisotropic. Materials may undergo a change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be input or may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat-generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature, and position, and boundary temperatures may be time and position dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface to environment or surface to surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The boundary condition parameters may be time-and/or temperature dependent. General graybody radiation problems may be modeled with user-defined factors for radiant exchange. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING uses a run time memory allocation scheme to avoid having to recompile to match memory requirements for each specific problem. HEATING utilizes free-form input.

  11. An Innovative High Thermal Conductivity Fuel Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jamil A. Khan

    2009-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of the fuel in today's Light Water Reactors, Uranium dioxide, can be improved by incorporating a uniformly distributed heat conducting network of a higher conductivity material, Silicon Carbide. The higher thermal conductivity of SiC along with its other prominent reactor-grade properties makes it a potential material to address some of the related issues when used in UO2 [97% TD]. This ongoing research, in collaboration with the University of Florida, aims to investigate the feasibility and develop a formal methodology of producing the resultant composite oxide fuel. Calculations of effective thermal conductivity of the new fuel as a function of %SiC for certain percentages and as a function of temperature are presented as a preliminary approach. The effective thermal conductivities are obtained at different temperatures from 600K to 1600K. The corresponding polynomial equations for the temperature-dependent thermal conductivities are given based on the simulation results. Heat transfer mechanism in this fuel is explained using a finite volume approach and validated against existing empirical models. FLUENT 6.1.22 was used for thermal conductivity calculations and to estimate reduction in centerline temperatures achievable within such a fuel rod. Later, computer codes COMBINE-PC and VENTURE-PC were deployed to estimate the fuel enrichment required, to maintain the same burnup levels, corresponding to a volume percent addition of SiC.

  12. Commissioning Specifications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commissioning specifications outline basic requirements of the commissioning process and detail the roles and responsibilities of each party involved. System checklists, startup requirements, and...

  13. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  14. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  15. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  16. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  17. Tailoring the Thermoelectric Behavior of Electrically Conductive Polymer Composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moriarty, Gregory P.

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    fabrication temperatures. These concerns have led research efforts into electrically conductive polymer composites prepared in ambient conditions from aqueous solutions. By combining polymer latex with carbon nanotubes (CNT), electrical conductivity can...

  18. Electron thermal conductivity owing to collisions between degenerate electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. S. Shternin; D. G. Yakovlev

    2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the thermal conductivity of electrons produced by electron-electron Coulomb scattering in a strongly degenerate electron gas taking into account the Landau damping of transverse plasmons. The Landau damping strongly reduces this conductivity in the domain of ultrarelativistic electrons at temperatures below the electron plasma temperature. In the inner crust of a neutron star at temperatures T scattering and becomes competitive with the the electron conductivity due to scattering of electrons by impurity ions.

  19. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NON-REPOSITORY LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC LAYERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. JONES

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This model report addresses activities described in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport Thermal Properties and Analysis Reports Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171708]). The model develops values for thermal conductivity, and its uncertainty, for the nonrepository layers of Yucca Mountain; in addition, the model provides estimates for matrix porosity and dry bulk density for the nonrepository layers. The studied lithostratigraphic units, as identified in the ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM 2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]), are the Timber Mountain Group, the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Yucca Mountain Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, the Topopah Spring Tuff (excluding the repository layers), the Calico Hills Formation, the Prow Pass Tuff, the Bullfrog Tuff, and the Tram Tuff. The deepest model units of the GFM (Tund and Paleozoic) are excluded from this study because no data suitable for model input are available. The parameter estimates developed in this report are used as input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. Specifically, analysis model reports that use product output from this report are: (1) Drift-scale coupled processes (DST and TH seepage) models; (2) Drift degradation analysis; (3) Multiscale thermohydrologic model; and (4) Ventilation model and analysis report. In keeping with the methodology of the thermal conductivity model for the repository layers in ''Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169854]), the Hsu et al. (1995 [DIRS 158073]) three-dimensional (3-D) cubic model (referred to herein as ''the Hsu model'') was used to represent the matrix thermal conductivity as a function of the four parameters (matrix porosity, thermal conductivity of the saturating fluid, thermal conductivity of the solid, and geometric connectivity of the solid). The Hsu model requires input data from each test specimen to meet three specific conditions: (1) Known value for matrix porosity; (2) Known values for wet and dry thermal conductivity; and (3) The location of the measured specimen in relation to the model stratigraphic unit. The only matrix thermal conductivity values developed are limited to fully saturated and dry conditions. The model does not include the effects of convection and thermal radiation in voids. The model does not include temperature dependence of thermal conductivity, porosity, or bulk density.

  20. About influence of gravity on heat conductivity process of the Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. O. Gladkov; Anil Yadav; Saibal Ray; F. Rahaman

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present study it is shown that the interaction of a quasi-static gravitational wave through density fluctuations gives rise to a heat conductivity coefficient and hence temperature. This fact is a very important characteristics to establish a heat equilibrium process of such massive body as the Earth and other Planets. To carry out this exercise general mechanism has been provided, which makes a bridge between classical physics and quantum theory, and specific dependence of heat conductivity coefficient in wide region is also calculated.

  1. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    particles of low conductivity dispersed in a metal matrix of high conductivity. A computer code was developed in order to compute the conductivity of cermet fuels as predicted by existing models and an additional model derived in this work... gas release from the fuel particle and contact resistance at the fuel-matrix interface. A description of the methodology used to construct the model is given in Chapter 3. Comparisons between the analytic predictions and the experimental data...

  2. Experimental Investigation of Propped Fracture Conductivity in Tight Gas Reservoirs Using The Dynamic Conductivity Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero Lugo, Jose 1985-

    2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    deep into the formation, changing the flow pattern from radial to linear flow. The dynamic conductivity test was used for this research to evaluate the effect of closure stress, temperature, proppant concentration, and flow back rates on fracture...

  3. Conductive Channel for Energy Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, Victor V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Vavilov Str. 38, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For many years the attempts to create conductive channels of big length were taken in order to study the upper atmosphere and to settle special tasks, related to energy transmission. There upon the program of creation of 'Impulsar' represents a great interest, as this program in a combination with high-voltage high repetition rate electrical source can be useful to solve the above mentioned problems (N. Tesla ideas for the days of high power lasers). The principle of conductive channel production can be shortly described as follows. The 'Impulsar' - laser jet engine vehicle - propulsion take place under the influence of powerful high repetition rate pulse-periodic laser radiation. In the experiments the CO{sub 2}-laser and solid state Nd:YAG laser systems had been used. Active impulse appears thanks to air breakdown (<30 km) or to the breakdown of ablated material on the board (>30 km), placed in the vicinity of the focusing mirror-acceptor of the breakdown waves. With each pulse of powerful laser the device rises up, leaving a bright and dense trace of products with high degree of ionization and metallization by conductive nano-particles due to ablation. Conductive dust plasma properties investigation in our experiments was produced by two very effective approaches: high power laser controlled ablation and by explosion of wire. Experimental and theoretical results of conductive canal modeling will be presented. The estimations show that with already experimentally demonstrated figures of specific thrust impulse the lower layers of the Ionosphere can be reached in several ten seconds that is enough to keep the high level of channel conductivity and stability with the help of high repetition rate high voltage generator. Some possible applications for new technology are highlighted.

  4. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  5. Electrically conductive diamond electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swain, Greg (East Lansing, MI); Fischer, Anne (Arlington, VA),; Bennett, Jason (Lansing, MI); Lowe, Michael (Holt, MI)

    2009-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive diamond electrode and process for preparation thereof is described. The electrode comprises diamond particles coated with electrically conductive doped diamond preferably by chemical vapor deposition which are held together with a binder. The electrodes are useful for oxidation reduction in gas, such as hydrogen generation by electrolysis.

  6. High temperature storage battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sammells, A.F.

    1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature electrochemical cell is described comprising: a solid-state divalent cation conducting electrolyte; a positive electrode in contact with the electrolyte; a solid-state negative electrode contacting a divalent cation conducting molten salt mediating agent providing ionic mediation between the solid-state negative electrode and the solid-state electrolyte.

  7. Quantized conductance of a suspended graphene nanoconstriction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolaos Tombros; Alina Veligura; Juliane Junesch; Marcos H. D. Guimarães; Ivan J. Vera Marun; Harry T. Jonkman; Bart J. van Wees

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A yet unexplored area in graphene electronics is the field of quantum ballistic transport through graphene nanostructures. Recent developments in the preparation of high mobility graphene are expected to lead to the experimental verification and/or discovery of many new quantum mechanical effects in this field. Examples are effects due to specific graphene edges, such as spin polarization at zigzag edges of a graphene nanoribbon and the use of the valley degree of freedom in the field of graphene valleytronics8. As a first step in this direction we present the observation of quantized conductance at integer multiples of 2e^2/h at zero magnetic field and 4.2 K temperature in a high mobility suspended graphene ballistic nanoconstriction. This quantization evolves into the typical quantum Hall effect for graphene at magnetic fields above 60mT. Voltage bias spectroscopy reveals an energy spacing of 8 meV between the first two subbands. A pronounced feature at 0.6 2e^2/h present at a magnetic field as low as ~0.2T resembles the "0.7 anomaly" observed in quantum point contacts in a GaAs-AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas, having a possible origin in electron-electron interactions.

  8. Quantized conductance of a suspended graphene nanoconstriction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tombros, Nikolaos; Junesch, Juliane; Guimarães, Marcos H D; Marun, Ivan J Vera; Jonkman, Harry T; van Wees, Bart J

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A yet unexplored area in graphene electronics is the field of quantum ballistic transport through graphene nanostructures. Recent developments in the preparation of high mobility graphene are expected to lead to the experimental verification and/or discovery of many new quantum mechanical effects in this field. Examples are effects due to specific graphene edges, such as spin polarization at zigzag edges of a graphene nanoribbon and the use of the valley degree of freedom in the field of graphene valleytronics8. As a first step in this direction we present the observation of quantized conductance at integer multiples of 2e^2/h at zero magnetic field and 4.2 K temperature in a high mobility suspended graphene ballistic nanoconstriction. This quantization evolves into the typical quantum Hall effect for graphene at magnetic fields above 60mT. Voltage bias spectroscopy reveals an energy spacing of 8 meV between the first two subbands. A pronounced feature at 0.6 2e^2/h present at a magnetic field as low as ~0.2T...

  9. Finite Heat conduction in 2D Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lei Yang; Yang Kongqing

    2001-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a 2D hamonic lattices model with missing bond defects, when the capacity ratio of defects is enough large, the temperature gradient can be formed and the finite heat conduction is found in the model. The defects in the 2D harmonic lattices impede the energy carriers free propagation, by another words, the mean free paths of the energy carrier are relatively short. The microscopic dynamics leads to the finite conduction in the model.

  10. Conductive polymeric compositions for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles A. (Mesa, AZ); Xu, Wu (Tempe, AZ)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel chain polymers comprising weakly basic anionic moieties chemically bound into a polyether backbone at controllable anionic separations are presented. Preferred polymers comprise orthoborate anions capped with dibasic acid residues, preferably oxalato or malonato acid residues. The conductivity of these polymers is found to be high relative to that of most conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes. The conductivity at high temperatures and wide electrochemical window make these materials especially suitable as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  11. Hydraulic Conductivity Measurements Barrow 2014

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Katie McKnight; Tim Kneafsey; Craig Ulrich; Jil Geller

    Six individual ice cores were collected from Barrow Environmental Observatory in Barrow, Alaska, in May of 2013 as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE). Each core was drilled from a different location at varying depths. A few days after drilling, the cores were stored in coolers packed with dry ice and flown to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, CA. 3-dimensional images of the cores were constructed using a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner at 120kV. Hydraulic conductivity samples were extracted from these cores at LBNL Richmond Field Station in Richmond, CA, in February 2014 by cutting 5 to 8 inch segments using a chop saw. Samples were packed individually and stored at freezing temperatures to minimize any changes in structure or loss of ice content prior to analysis. Hydraulic conductivity was determined through falling head tests using a permeameter [ELE International, Model #: K-770B]. After approximately 12 hours of thaw, initial falling head tests were performed. Two to four measurements were collected on each sample and collection stopped when the applied head load exceeded 25% change from the original load. Analyses were performed between 2 to 3 times for each sample. The final hydraulic conductivity calculations were computed using methodology of Das et al., 1985.

  12. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, 6-25-13

  13. Electrically conductive material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  14. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  15. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 1, dated 6-25-13, cancels DOE O 422.1. Certified 12-3-14.

  16. Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Order defines the requirements for establishing and implementing Conduct of Operations Programs at Department of Energy (DOE), including National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), facilities and projects. Cancels DOE O 5480.19. Admin Chg 2, dated 12-3-14, cancels Admin Chg 1.

  17. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angell, Charles Austen (Mesa, AZ); Liu, Changle (Midland, MI); Xu, Kang (Montgomery Village, MD); Skotheim, Terje A. (Tucson, AZ)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  18. Super ionic conductive glass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Susman, Sherman (Park Forest, IL); Volin, Kenneth J. (Fort Collins, CO)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A.sub.1+x D.sub.2-x/3 Si.sub.x P.sub.3-x O.sub.12-2x/3, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  19. Electrically conductive alternating copolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.; Jorgensen, B.S.

    1987-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in common organic solvents and are electrically conductive, but which also may be synthesized in such a manner that they become nonconductive. Negative ions from the electrolyte used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer are incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant. A further electrochemical step may be utilized to cause the polymer to be conductive. The monomer repeat unit is comprised of two rings, a pyrrole molecule joined to a thienyl group, or a furyl group, or a phenyl group. The individual groups of the polymers are arranged in an alternating manner. For example, the backbone arrangement of poly(furylpyrrole) is -furan-pyrrole-furan-pyrrole- furan-pyrrole. An alkyl group or phenyl group may be substituted for either or both of the hydrogen atoms of the pyrrole ring.

  20. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, R.; Smith, J.L.; Embury, J.D.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them are disclosed, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps. 10 figs.

  1. High conductivity composite metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhou, Ruoyi (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Embury, John David (Hamilton, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical conductors and methods of producing them, where the conductors possess both high strength and high conductivity. Conductors are comprised of carbon steel and a material chosen from a group consisting of copper, nickel, silver, and gold. Diffusion barriers are placed between these two materials. The components of a conductor are assembled and then the assembly is subjected to heat treating and mechanical deformation steps.

  2. TRANSPORT INVOLVING CONDUCTING FIBERS IN A NON-CONDUCTING MATRIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, D. Greg

    to sev- eral applications including flexible thin-film transistors, PEM fuel cells, and direct energy, particularly Peltier devices, high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity are preferred

  3. Heat Transfer and Cooling Techniques at Low Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baudouy, B

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first part of this chapter gives an introduction to heat transfer and cooling techniques at low temperature. We review the fundamental laws of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) and give useful data specific to cryogenic conditions (thermal contact resistance, total emissivity of materials and heat transfer correlation in forced or boiling flow for example) used in the design of cooling systems. In the second part, we review the main cooling techniques at low temperature, with or without cryogen, from the simplest ones (bath cooling) to the ones involving the use of cryocoolers without forgetting the cooling flow techniques.

  4. Investigation of the effect of gel residue on hydraulic fracture conductivity using dynamic fracture conductivity test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marpaung, Fivman

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ) ............................................................................ 51 Figure B.9: Fracture Conductivity Behavior (Polymer Concentration = 50 lb/Mgal and Gas Rate = 0.5 slm) ............................................................................ 52 Figure B.10: Fracture Conductivity Behavior (Polymer... documented in API RP-61 (1989). The recommended conditions and procedure for the test includes loading a known proppant concentration (generally 2 lb/ft2) uniformly between two steel pistons at ambient temperature, maintaining closure stress for 15 minutes...

  5. Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treiman, Allan H.

    Temperature, Temperature, Earth, geotherm for total global heat flow Venus, geotherm for total global heat flow, 500 Ma #12;Temperature, Temperature, #12;Earth's modern regional continental geotherms Venusian Geotherms, 500 Ma Temperature, Temperature, After Blatt, Tracy, and Owens Petrology #12;Ca2Mg5Si8

  6. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

  7. Keywords: Lagrangian, drifter, temperature sensor, conductivity, gelbstoff, fluorometer, trajectories, Spiekeroog

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

    barrier tidal flats and offshore areas by tidal fluxes. With the intention to design a drifter suitable island from the east, Spiekeroog island (Figure 1). The exploration of coastal currents Oldenburg #12;698 O. Puncken, T. Badewien & R. Reuter This is done with a concept similar to a "message

  8. The Thermal Conductivity of Rocks and Its Dependence Upon Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    unavailable. Authors F. Birch and H. Clark Published Journal American Journal of Science, 1940 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online...

  9. NEW PROTON CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH INORGANIC AND STYRENE GRAFTED AND SULFONATED VDF/CTFE FLUOROPOLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei [ORNL; Payne, Terry L [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creation of new membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating at elevated temperature and low relative humidity (RH) is one of the major challenges in the implementation of the fuel cell technology. New candidate membrane materials are required to efficiently conduct protons at 120oC and RH down to 15%. Based on these criteria, we are working on the development of new membrane materials, which are composites of inorganic proton conductors with a functionalized and cross-linkable Teflon-type polymer. The synthesis of crosslinkable P(VDF-CTFE) copolymer with controllable structure, molecular weight and terminal and side chain silane groups was described in [1]. The chemistry of the synthesis was centered on a specifically designed functional borane initiator containing silane groups. The major role of polymer matrix is to maintain the continuity of charge transfer and to ensure membrane integrity. The primary considerations include sufficient proton conductivity, thermal and chemical stability at elevated temperature, mechanical strength, compatibility with inorganic particulate phases, processibility to form uniform thin film, and cost effectiveness. Several classes of inorganic proton conductors with high water retention capability, including mesoporous materials (sulfated and/or sulfonated alumina, zirconia, titania) and zirconium phosphate of different structure have been chosen as candidate components for the new composite membranes for PEMFC operation at elevated temperatures and reduced RH. The primary requirement to the inorganic phases is the ability to provide high proton conductivity with the minimum amount of water (reduced humidity).

  10. ambient temperature secondary: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q heat loss, C conductance, Tb body temperature, and Ta ambient temperature...

  11. ambient temperature comportement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q heat loss, C conductance, Tb body temperature, and Ta ambient temperature...

  12. ambient temperature creep: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q heat loss, C conductance, Tb body temperature, and Ta ambient temperature...

  13. ambient temperatures conditions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q heat loss, C conductance, Tb body temperature, and Ta ambient temperature...

  14. ambient temperature cured: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q heat loss, C conductance, Tb body temperature, and Ta ambient temperature...

  15. ambient temperature lithium: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q heat loss, C conductance, Tb body temperature, and Ta ambient temperature...

  16. ambient temperature grown: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q heat loss, C conductance, Tb body temperature, and Ta ambient temperature...

  17. ambient temperature rechargeable: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ambient Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: heat production, Q heat loss, C conductance, Tb body temperature, and Ta ambient temperature...

  18. Development Of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes And Results Of...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Temperature Probes And Results Of Temperature Survey Conducted At Desert Peak, Nevada, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  19. Lateral conduction infrared photodetector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Jin K. (Albuquerque, NM); Carroll, Malcolm S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photodetector for detecting infrared light in a wavelength range of 3-25 .mu.m is disclosed. The photodetector has a mesa structure formed from semiconductor layers which include a type-II superlattice formed of alternating layers of InAs and In.sub.xGa.sub.1-xSb with 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.5. Impurity doped regions are formed on sidewalls of the mesa structure to provide for a lateral conduction of photo-generated carriers which can provide an increased carrier mobility and a reduced surface recombination. An optional bias electrode can be used in the photodetector to control and vary a cut-off wavelength or a depletion width therein. The photodetector can be formed as a single-color or multi-color device, and can also be used to form a focal plane array which is compatible with conventional read-out integrated circuits.

  20. Experimental Study of Acid Fracture Conductivity of Austin Chalk Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nino Penaloza, Andrea

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to those in actual acid fracture treatments. After acid etching, fracture conductivity is measured at different closure stresses. This research work presents a systematic study to investigate the effect of temperature, rock-acid contact time and initial...

  1. Acid Fracture and Fracture Conductivity Study of Field Rock Samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Underwood, Jarrod

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    carbonate reservoir were labeled A through F to protect proprietary information included in this research. A 2% potassium chloride solution was used for the acid system and fracture conductivity measurements to prevent clay swelling. Injection temperature...

  2. Method of synthesis of proton conducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando Henry; Einsla, Melinda Lou; Mukundan, Rangachary

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a proton conducting material, comprising adding a pyrophosphate salt to a solvent to produce a dissolved pyrophosphate salt; adding an inorganic acid salt to a solvent to produce a dissolved inorganic acid salt; adding the dissolved inorganic acid salt to the dissolved pyrophosphate salt to produce a mixture; substantially evaporating the solvent from the mixture to produce a precipitate; and calcining the precipitate at a temperature of from about 400.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C.

  3. Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamberd, D.L.

    1996-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

  4. Mössbauer study of conductive oxide glass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuda, Koken; Kubuki, Shiro [Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachi-Oji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Nishida, Tetsuaki, E-mail: nishida@fuk.kindai.ac.jp [Kinki University, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8555 (Japan)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat treatment of barium iron vanadate glass, BaO?Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}?V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, at temperatures higher than crystallization temperature causes a marked decrease in resistivity (?) from several M?cm to several ?cm. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectrum of heat-treated vanadate glass shows a marked decrease in quadrupole splitting (?) of Fe{sup III}, reflecting a structural relaxation, i.e., an increased symmetry of 'distorted' FeO{sub 4} and VO{sub 4} tetrahedra which are connected to each other by sharing corner oxygen atoms. Structural relaxation of 3D-network of vanadate glass accompanies a decrease in the activation energy for the conduction, reflecting a decreased energy gap between the donor level and conduction band. A marked increase in the conductivity was observed in CuO- or Cu{sub 2}O-containing barium iron vanadate glass after heat treatment at 450 °C for 30 min or more. 'n-type semiconductor model combined with small polaron hopping theory' was proposed in order to explain the high conductivity.

  5. POLYMERIC MICROCOMBUSTORS FOR SOLID-PHASE CONDUCTIVE FUELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    combustor for the ignition and reaction of solid conductive fuels. Solid fuels can he made conductive, the hum rate of fuel in the overall combustor can he decoupled from the chemical reaction rate by changing igniter volume density; the combustor housing can be made of a low-temperature, low-cost mate

  6. The Electrical Conductivity Of Partly Ionized Helium Plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sreckovic, Vladimir A.; Ignjatovic, Ljubinko; Mihajlov, A. A. [Institute of Physics, PO Box 57, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we analyzed atoms influence on electro conductivity, partially ionized helium plasma, in temperature region 5 000 K - 40 000 K and pressure 0.1 - 10 atm. Electro conductivity was calculated using 'Frost like' formula and Random Phase Approximation method and Semi-Classical (SC) approximation.

  7. Nanostructured polymer membranes for proton conduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Park, Moon Jeong

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers having an improved ability to entrain water are characterized, in some embodiments, by unusual humidity-induced phase transitions. The described polymers (e.g., hydrophilically functionalized block copolymers) have a disordered state and one or more ordered states (e.g., a lamellar state, a gyroid state, etc.). In one aspect, the polymers are capable of undergoing a disorder-to-order transition while the polymer is exposed to an increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. In some aspects the polymer includes a plurality of portions, wherein a first portion forms proton-conductive channels within the membrane and wherein the channels have a width of less than about 6 nm. The described polymers are capable of entraining and preserving water at high temperature and low humidity. Surprisingly, in some embodiments, the polymers are capable of entraining greater amounts of water with the increase of temperature. The polymers can be used in Polymer Electrolyte Membranes in fuel cells.

  8. Conductive porous scaffolds as potential neural interface materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hedberg-Dirk, Elizabeth L.; Cicotte, Kirsten N.; Buerger, Stephen P.; Reece, Gregory; Dirk, Shawn M.; Lin, Patrick P.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our overall intent is to develop improved prosthetic devices with the use of nerve interfaces through which transected nerves may grow, such that small groups of nerve fibers come into close contact with electrode sites, each of which is connected to electronics external to the interface. These interfaces must be physically structured to allow nerve fibers to grow through them, either by being porous or by including specific channels for the axons. They must be mechanically compatible with nerves such that they promote growth and do not harm the nervous system, and biocompatible to promote nerve fiber growth and to allow close integration with biological tissue. They must exhibit selective and structured conductivity to allow the connection of electrode sites with external circuitry, and electrical properties must be tuned to enable the transmission of neural signals. Finally, the interfaces must be capable of being physically connected to external circuitry, e.g. through attached wires. We have utilized electrospinning as a tool to create conductive, porous networks of non-woven biocompatible fibers in order to meet the materials requirements for the neural interface. The biocompatible fibers were based on the known biocompatible material poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) as well as a newer biomaterial developed in our laboratories, poly(butylene fumarate) (PBF). Both of the polymers cannot be electrospun using conventional electrospinning techniques due to their low glass transition temperatures, so in situ crosslinking methodologies were developed to facilitate micro- and nano-fiber formation during electrospinning. The conductivity of the electrospun fiber mats was controlled by controlling the loading with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). Fabrication, electrical and materials characterization will be discussed along with initial in vivo experimental results.

  9. Cylinder Test Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richard Catanach; Larry Hill; Herbert Harry; Ernest Aragon; Don Murk

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the cylinder testis two-fold: (1) to characterize the metal-pushing ability of an explosive relative to that of other explosives as evaluated by the E{sub 19} cylinder energy and the G{sub 19} Gurney energy and (2) to help establish the explosive product equation-of-state (historically, the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation). This specification details the material requirements and procedures necessary to assemble and fire a typical Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) cylinder test. Strict adherence to the cylinder. material properties, machining tolerances, material heat-treatment and etching processes, and high explosive machining tolerances is essential for test-to-test consistency and to maximize radial wall expansions. Assembly and setup of the cylinder test require precise attention to detail, especially when placing intricate pin wires on the cylinder wall. The cylinder test is typically fired outdoors and at ambient temperature.

  10. Gas Code of Conduct (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Gas Code of Conduct sets forth the standard of conduct for transactions, direct or indirect, between gas companies and their affiliates. The purpose of these regulations is to promote...

  11. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Lei L [ORNL; Pan, Yun-Long [Smart Papers, Hamilton, OH 45013; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Peterson, Robert C. [Miami University, Oxford, OH

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper although it is important to various forms of today s digital printing where heat is used for imaging as well as for toner fusing. This motivates us to investigate the thermal conductivity of paper coating. Our investigation demonstrates that thermal conductivity is affected by the coat weight and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect ink gloss and density. As the coat weight increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the ink gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The ink gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  12. Original article Hydraulic conductance of two co-occuring neotropical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Hydraulic conductance of two co-occuring neotropical understory shrubs December 1999) Abstract ­ Whole plant hydraulic conductance was measured for two co-occuring neotropical hydraulic con- ductance and leaf specific conducance in the drought-avoiding species, P. trigonum, than

  13. Thermal conductivity of electroless nickel-phosphorus alloy plating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.D.

    1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of specific heat, thermal diffusivity, density, and calculated thermal conductivity have been determined for a modified acid bath electroless nickel-12.7 wt% phosphorus alloy between 298 ad 423 K. Thermal conductivity values are about half those of pure nickel.

  14. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Seoul, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Cambridge, MA); Andersson, Anna M. (Uppsala, SE)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  15. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming (Framingham, MA); Chung, Sung-Yoon (Incheon, KR); Bloking, Jason T. (Mountain View, CA); Andersson, Anna M. (Vasteras, SE)

    2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001conductivity at 27.degree. C. of at least about 10.sup.-8 S/cm. The compound can be a doped lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  16. Conductivity and entanglement entropy of high dimensional holographic superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romero-Bermúdez, Aurelio

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dependence of the conductivity and the entanglement entropy on the space-time dimensionality $d$ in two holographic superconductors: one dual to a quantum critical point with spontaneous symmetry breaking, and the other modeled by a charged scalar that condenses at a sufficiently low temperature in the presence of a Maxwell field. In both cases the gravity background is asymptotically Anti de Sitter (AdS). In the large $d$ limit we obtain explicit analytical results for the conductivity at zero temperature and the entanglement entropy by a $1/d$ expansion. We show that the entanglement entropy is always smaller in the broken phase and identify a novel decay of the conductivity for intermediate frequencies. As dimensionality increases, the entanglement entropy decreases, the coherence peak in the conductivity becomes narrower and the ratio between the energy gap and the critical temperature decreases. These results suggest that the condensate interactions become weaker in high spatial dimens...

  17. Lattice thermal conductivity of nanograined half-Heusler solid solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Huiyuan, E-mail: genghuiyuan@hit.edu.cn; Meng, Xianfu; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a phenomenological model of atomic weight, lattice constant, temperature, and grain size to calculate the high-temperature lattice thermal conductivity of nanograined solid solutions. The theoretical treatment developed here is reasonably consistent with the experimental results of n-type MNiSn and p-type MCoSb alloys, where M is the combination of Hf, Zr, and Ti. For disordered half-Heusler alloys with moderated grain sizes, we predict that the reduction in lattice thermal conductivity due to grain boundary scattering is independent of the scattering parameter, which characterizes the phonon scattering cross section of point defects. In addition, the lattice thermal conductivity falls off with temperature as T{sup –1?2} around the Debye temperature.

  18. Heating System Specification Specification of Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Day, Nancy

    Appendix A Heating System Specification /* Specification of Heating System (loosely based */ requestHeat : Room ­? bool; 306 #12; APPENDIX A. HEATING SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 307 /* user inputs */ livingPattern : Room ­? behaviour; setTemp : Room ­? num; heatSwitchOn, heatSwitchOff, userReset : simple

  19. Microscopic mechanism of low thermal conductivity in lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delaire, Olivier A [ORNL; Ma, Jie [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Themicroscopic physics behind low-lattice thermal conductivity of single-crystal rock salt lead telluride (PbTe) is investigated. Mode-dependent phonon (normal and umklapp) scattering rates and their impact on thermal conductivity were quantified by first-principles-based anharmonic lattice dynamics calculations that accurately reproduce thermal conductivity in a wide temperature range. The low thermal conductivity of PbTe is attributed to the scattering of longitudinal acoustic phonons by transverse optical phonons with large anharmonicity and small group velocity of the soft transverse acoustic phonons. This results in enhancing the relative contribution of optical phonons, which are usually minor heat carriers in bulk materials.

  20. Optical Conductivity with Holographic Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary T. Horowitz; Jorge E. Santos; David Tong

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We add a gravitational background lattice to the simplest holographic model of matter at finite density and calculate the optical conductivity. With the lattice, the zero frequency delta function found in previous calculations (resulting from translation invariance) is broadened and the DC conductivity is finite. The optical conductivity exhibits a Drude peak with a cross-over to power-law behavior at higher frequencies. Surprisingly, these results bear a strong resemblance to the properties of some of the cuprates.

  1. Appendix C Conducting Structured Walkthroughs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide describes how to conduct a structured walkthroughs during the lifecycle stages of software engineering projects, regardless of hardware platform.

  2. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, B.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L.; Pederson, L.R.; Weber, W.J.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid mixed-conducting electrolytes in the series La{sub l-x}A{sub x}Co{sub l-y}Fe{sub y}O{sub 3-{delta}} (A = Sr,Ca,Ba) are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as cathodes in fuel cells. All of the compositions studied exhibited very high electrical conductivities. At lower temperatures, conductivities increased with increasing temperature, characterized by activation energies of 0.05 to 0.16 eV that are consistent with a small polaron (localized electronic carrier) conduction mechanism. At higher temperatures, electronic conductivities tended to decrease with increasing temperature, which is attributed to decreased electronic carrier populations associated with lattice oxygen loss. Oxygen ion conductivities were higher than that of yttria stabilized zirconia and increased with the cobalt content and also increased with the extent of divalent A-site substitution. Thermogravimetric studies were conducted to establish the extent of oxygen vacancy formation as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and composition. These vacancy populations strongly depend on the extent of A-site substitution. Passive oxygen permeation rates were established for each of the compositions as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure gradient. For 2.5 mm thick membranes in an oxygen vs nitrogen partial pressure gradient, oxygen fluxes at 900 C ranged from approximately 0.3 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in iron and with low amounts of strontium A-site substitution to approximately 0.8 sccm/cm{sup 2} for compositions high in cobalt and strontium. A-site substitution with calcium instead of strontium resulted in substantially lower fluxes.

  3. Exploding conducting film laser pumping apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ware, Kenneth D. (San Diego, CA); Jones, Claude R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploding conducting film laser optical pumping apparatus. The 342-nm molecular iodine and the 1.315-.mu.m atomic iodine lasers have been optically pumped by intense light from exploding-metal-film discharges. Brightness temperatures for the exploding-film discharges were approximately 25,000 K. Although lower output energies were achieved for such discharges when compared to exploding-wire techniques, the larger surface area and smaller inductance inherent in the exploding-film should lead to improved efficiency for optically-pumped gas lasers.

  4. Ion-/proton-conducting apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Matthew (Penfield, NY); Liu, Dongxia (Rochester, NY)

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A c-axis-oriented HAP thin film synthesized by seeded growth on a palladium hydrogen membrane substrate. An exemplary synthetic process includes electrochemical seeding on the substrate, and secondary and tertiary hydrothermal treatments under conditions that favor growth along c-axes and a-axes in sequence. By adjusting corresponding synthetic conditions, an HAP this film can be grown to a controllable thickness with a dense coverage on the underlying substrate. The thin films have relatively high proton conductivity under hydrogen atmosphere and high temperature conditions. The c-axis oriented films may be integrated into fuel cells for application in the intermediate temperature range of 200-600.degree. C. The electrochemical-hydrothermal deposition technique may be applied to create other oriented crystal materials having optimized properties, useful for separations and catalysis as well as electronic and electrochemical applications, electrochemical membrane reactors, and in chemical sensors.

  5. Enhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Xinxin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction AEnhancement of Topological Insulators Surface Conduction byTopological Insulator

  6. The thermal conductivity of rock under hydrothermal conditions: measurements and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Colin F.; Sass, John H.

    1996-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of most major rock-forming minerals vary with both temperature and confining pressure, leading to substantial changes in the thermal properties of some rocks at the high temperatures characteristic of geothermal systems. In areas with large geothermal gradients, the successful use of near-surface heat flow measurements to predict temperatures at depth depends upon accurate corrections for varying thermal conductivity. Previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of dry rock samples as a function of temperature were inadequate for porous rocks and susceptible to thermal cracking effects in nonporous rocks. We have developed an instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of water-saturated rocks at temperatures from 20 to 350 °C and confining pressures up to 100 MPa. A transient line-source of heat is applied through a needle probe centered within the rock sample, which in turn is enclosed within a heated pressure vessel with independent controls on pore and confining pressure. Application of this technique to samples of Franciscan graywacke from The Geysers reveals a significant change in thermal conductivity with temperature. At reservoir-equivalent temperatures of 250 °C, the conductivity of the graywacke decreases by approximately 25% relative to the room temperature value. Where heat flow is constant with depth within the caprock overlying the reservoir, this reduction in conductivity with temperature leads to a corresponding increase in the geothermal gradient. Consequently, reservoir temperature are encountered at depths significantly shallower than those predicted by assuming a constant temperature gradient with depth. We have derived general equations for estimating the thermal conductivity of most metamorphic and igneous rocks and some sedimentary rocks at elevated temperature from knowledge of the room temperature thermal conductivity. Application of these equations to geothermal exploration should improve estimates of subsurface temperatures derived from heat flow measurements.

  7. Thin transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing thin Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 films. The process comprises the steps of RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a first substrate; coating a second substrate with a CdS layer; contacting the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer with the CdS layer in a water- and oxygen-free environment and heating the first and second substrates and the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 and CdS layers to a temperature sufficient to induce crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer into a uniform single-phase spinel-type structure, for a time sufficient to allow full crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer at that temperature; cooling the first and second substrates to room temperature; and separating the first and second substrates and layers from each other. The process can be conducted at temperatures less than 600.degree. C., allowing the use of inexpensive soda lime glass substrates.

  8. Conductive polymer-based material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, William F. (Utica, OH); Koren, Amy B. (Lansing, MI); Dourado, Sunil K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Dulebohn, Joel I. (Lansing, MI); Hanchar, Robert J. (Charlotte, MI)

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are polymer-based coatings and materials comprising (i) a polymeric composition including a polymer having side chains along a backbone forming the polymer, at least two of the side chains being substituted with a heteroatom selected from oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus and combinations thereof; and (ii) a plurality of metal species distributed within the polymer. At least a portion of the heteroatoms may form part of a chelation complex with some or all of the metal species. In many embodiments, the metal species are present in a sufficient concentration to provide a conductive material, e.g., as a conductive coating on a substrate. The conductive materials may be useful as the thin film conducting or semi-conducting layers in organic electronic devices such as organic electroluminescent devices and organic thin film transistors.

  9. Experimental thermal conductivity and contact conductance of graphite composites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Marian Christine

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphite fiber organic matrix composites were reviewed ics. for potential heat sink applications in the electronics packaging determined the effective transverse and longitudinal thermal industry. This experimental investigation conductivity...

  10. Experimental thermal conductivity and contact conductance of graphite composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Marian Christine

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphite fiber organic matrix composites were reviewed ics. for potential heat sink applications in the electronics packaging determined the effective transverse and longitudinal thermal industry. This experimental investigation conductivity...

  11. Carbon Nanotube Assemblies for Transparent Conducting Electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, Matthew P [ORNL] [ORNL; Gerhardt, Rosario [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this chapter is to introduce readers to the fundamental and practical aspects of nanotube assemblies made into transparent conducting networks and discuss some practical aspects of their characterization. Transparent conducting coatings (TCC) are an essential part of electro-optical devices, from photovoltaics and light emitting devices to electromagnetic shielding and electrochromic widows. The market for organic materials (including nanomaterials and polymers) based TCCs is expected to show a growth rate of 56.9% to reach nearly 20.3billionin2015,whilethemarketfortraditionalinorganictransparentelectronicswillexperiencegrowthwithratesof6.7103 billion in 2015. Emerging flexible electronic applications have brought additional requirements of flexibility and low cost for TCC. However, the price of indium (the major component in indium tin oxide TCC) continues to increase. On the other hand, the price of nanomaterials has continued to decrease due to development of high volume, quality production processes. Additional benefits come from the low cost, nonvacuum deposition of nanomaterials based TCC, compared to traditional coatings requiring energy intensive vacuum deposition. Among the materials actively researched as alternative TCC are nanoparticles, nanowires, and nanotubes with high aspect ratio as well as their composites. The figure of merit (FOM) can be used to compare TCCs made from dissimilar materials and with different transmittance and conductivity values. In the first part of this manuscript, we will discuss the seven FOM parameters that have been proposed, including one specifically intended for flexible applications. The approach for how to measure TCE electrical properties, including frequency dependence, will also be discussed. We will relate the macroscale electrical characteristics of TCCs to the nanoscale parameters of conducting networks. The fundamental aspects of nanomaterial assemblies in conducting networks will also be addressed. We will review recent literature on TCCs composed of carbon nanotubes of different types in terms of the FOM.

  12. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles.

  13. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  14. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for the regeneration of sulfated NOx trap catalysts. Sequential high temperature reduction, low temperature hydrolysis for...

  15. Developing a High Thermal Conductivity Fuel with Silicon Carbide Additives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    baney, Ronald; Tulenko, James

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to increase the thermal conductivity of uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) without significantly impacting its neutronic properties. The concept is to incorporate another high thermal conductivity material, silicon carbide (SiC), in the form of whiskers or from nanoparticles of SiC and a SiC polymeric precursor into UO{sub 2}. This is expected to form a percolation pathway lattice for conductive heat transfer out of the fuel pellet. The thermal conductivity of SiC would control the overall fuel pellet thermal conductivity. The challenge is to show the effectiveness of a low temperature sintering process, because of a UO{sub 2}-SiC reaction at 1,377°C, a temperature far below the normal sintering temperature. Researchers will study three strategies to overcome the processing difficulties associated with pore clogging and the chemical reaction of SiC and UO{sub 2} at temperatures above 1,300°C:

  16. Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, P J; Tan, K Y; Möttönen, M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominating part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting qubits coupled to cavities.

  17. Single-photon heat conduction in electrical circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. J. Jones; J. A. M. Huhtamäki; K. Y. Tan; M. Möttönen

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We study photonic heat conduction between two resistors coupled weakly to a single superconducting microwave cavity. At low enough temperature, the dominating part of the heat exchanged between the resistors is transmitted by single-photon excitations of the fundamental mode of the cavity. This manifestation of single-photon heat conduction should be experimentally observable with the current state of the art. Our scheme can possibly be utilized in remote interference-free temperature control of electric components and environment engineering for superconducting qubits coupled to cavities.

  18. CONDUCTANCE OF NANOSYSTEMS WITH INTERACTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsak, Anton

    -beam lithography or small metallic grains,[1] semiconductor quantum dots,[2] or a single large molecule of an atomic-size bridge that forms in the break,[3] or even measure the conductance of a single hydrogen

  19. Continuous production of conducting polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaige, Terry A. (Terry Alden), 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device to continuously produce polypyrrole was designed, manufactured, and tested. Polypyrrole is a conducting polymer which has potential artificial muscle applications. The objective of continuous production was to ...

  20. Mode dependent lattice thermal conductivity of single layer graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Zhiyong; Yang, Juekuan; Bi, Kedong; Chen, Yunfei, E-mail: yunfeichen@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Design and Manufacture of Micro/Nano Biomedical Instruments and School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulation is performed to extract the phonon dispersion and phonon lifetime of single layer graphene. The mode dependent thermal conductivity is calculated from the phonon kinetic theory. The predicted thermal conductivity at room temperature exhibits important quantum effects due to the high Debye temperature of graphene. But the quantum effects are reduced significantly when the simulated temperature is as high as 1000 K. Our calculations show that out-of-plane modes contribute about 41.1% to the total thermal conductivity at room temperature. The relative contribution of out-of-plane modes has a little decrease with the increase of temperature. Contact with substrate can reduce both the total thermal conductivity of graphene and the relative contribution of out-of-plane modes, in agreement with previous experiments and theories. Increasing the coupling strength between graphene and substrate can further reduce the relative contribution of out-of-plane modes. The present investigations also show that the relative contribution of different mode phonons is not sensitive to the grain size of graphene. The obtained phonon relaxation time provides useful insight for understanding the phonon mean free path and the size effects in graphene.

  1. Plasma conductivity at finite coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babiker Hassanain; Martin Schvellinger

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    By taking into account the full order(\\alpha'^3) type IIB string theory corrections to the supergravity action, we compute the leading finite 't Hooft coupling order(\\lambda^{-3/2}) corrections to the conductivity of strongly-coupled SU(N) {\\cal {N}}=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma in the large N limit. We find that the conductivity is enhanced by the corrections, in agreement with the trend expected from previous perturbative weak-coupling computations.

  2. Long term prediction of far-field heat conduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nassersharif, B.; Ma, L. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three dimensional numerical conduction only heat transfer model was developed to predict repository rock temperatures under the assumption of completely isolated burial. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the values of the thermal properties of the rock medium. Results indicate that rock temperatures at a distance of 100 m from the center of the repository peak at approximately 3000 years. A dry zone was established extending to approximately 80 times the volume of the repository after 10,000 years.

  3. Glass-Like Heat Conduction in Crystalline Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolas, G.S.; Cohn, J.L.; Chakoumakos, B.C.; Slack, G.A.

    1999-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity and structural properties of polycrystalline and single crystal semiconductor type-1 germanium clathrates are reported. Germanium clathrates exhibit thermal conductivities that are typical of amorphous materials. This behavior occurs in spite of their well-defined crystalline structure. The authors employ temperature dependent neutron diffraction data in investigating the displacements of the caged strontium atoms in Sr{sub 8}Ga{sub 16}Ge{sub 30} and their interaction with the polyhedral cages that entrap them. Their aim is to investigate the correlation between the structural properties and the low, glass-like thermal conductivity observed in this compound.

  4. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths.

  5. High temperature superconductor current leads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

    1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

  6. Quantum corrections to conductivity for semiconductors with various structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Alavi; A. Tatar

    2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the magnetic field dependences of the conductivity in heavily doped, strongly disordered 2D quantum well structures within wide conductivity and temperature ranges. We show that the exact analytical expression derived in our previous paper [1], is in better agreement than the existing equation i.e. Hikami(et.al.,) expression [2,3], with the experimental data even in low magnetic field for which the diffusion approximation is valid. On the other hand from theoretical point of view we observe that our equation is also rich because it establishes a strong relationship between quantum corrections to the conductivity and the quantum symmetry su_{q}(2). It is shown that the quantum corrections to the conductivity is the trace of Green function made by a generator of su_{q}(2)algebra. Using this fact we show that the quantum corrections to the conductivity can be expressed as a sum of an infinite number of Feynman diagrams.

  7. Anomalous high ionic conductivity of nanoporous -Li3PS4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zengcai [ORNL] [ORNL; Fu, Wujun [ORNL] [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL] [ORNL; Yu, Xiang [ORNL] [ORNL; Wu, Zili [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL] [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL] [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium-ion conducting solid electrolytes hold the promise for enabling high-energy battery chemistries and circumventing safety issues of conventional lithium batteries1-3. Achieving the combination of high ionic conductivity and broad electrochemical window in solid electrolytes is a grand challenge for the synthesis of battery materials. Herein we show an enhancement of room-temperature lithium-ion conductivity of 3 orders of magnitude by creating nanostructured Li3PS4. This material has a wide (5V) electrochemical window and superior chemical stability against lithium metal. The nanoporous structure of Li3PS4 reconciles two vital effects that enhance ionic conductivity: (1) The reduced dimension to nanometer-sized framework stabilizes the high conduction beta phase that occurs at elevated temperatures1,4; and (2) The high surface-to-bulk ratio of nanoporous -Li3PS4 promotes surface conduction5,6. Manipulating the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes has far-reaching implications for materials design and synthesis in a broad range of applications such as batteries, fuel-cells, sensors, photovoltaic systems, and so forth3,7.

  8. Temperature Data Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, David

    2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Groundwater temperature is sensitive to the competing processes of heat flow from below the advective transport of heat by groundwater flow. Because groundwater temperature is sensitive to conductive and advective processes, groundwater temperature may be utilized as a tracer to further constrain the uncertainty of predictions of advective radionuclide transport models constructed for the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Since heat transport, geochemical, and hydrologic models for a given area must all be consistent, uncertainty can be reduced by devaluing the weight of those models that do not match estimated heat flow. The objective of this study was to identify the quantity and quality of available heat flow data at the NTS. One-hundred-forty-five temperature logs from 63 boreholes were examined. Thirteen were found to have temperature profiles suitable for the determination of heat flow values from one or more intervals within the boreholes. If sufficient spatially distributed heat flow values are obtained, a heat transport model coupled to a hydrologic model may be used to reduce the uncertainty of a nonisothermal hydrologic model of the NTS.

  9. Mechanisms and models of effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Singh, D.; Timofeeva, E. V.; Smith, D. S.; Routbort, J. L.; Univ. of Illinois

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The physical mechanisms and mathematical models of the effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids have long been of interest to the nanofluid research community because the effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids cannot generally be fully explained and predicted by classical effective medium theories. This review article summarizes considerable progress made on this topic. Specifically, the physical mechanisms and mathematical models of the effective thermal conductivities of nanofluids are reviewed, the potential contributions of those physical mechanisms are evaluated, and the comparisons of the theoretical predictions and experimental data are presented along with opportunities for future research.

  10. Specific Learning Difficulties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Jim

    Dyslexia and other Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLDs) A guide for tutors Enabling Services Supporting you to succeed #12;2 Contents Dyslexia Support ............................................................................................................ 3 Recognising students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties................. 4

  11. Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella Oneidensis Strain MR-1 and Other Microorganisms . Electrically Conductive Bacterial Nanowires Produced by Shewanella...

  12. Optical conductivity of curved graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. J. Chaves; T. Frederico; O. Oliveira; W. de Paula; M. C. Santos

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the optical conductivity for an out-of-plane deformation in graphene using an approach based on solutions of the Dirac equation in curved space. Different examples of periodic deformations along one direction translates into an enhancement of the optical conductivity peaks in the region of the far and mid infrared frequencies for periodicities $\\sim100\\,$nm. The width and position of the peaks can be changed by dialling the parameters of the deformation profiles. The enhancement of the optical conductivity is due to intraband transitions and the translational invariance breaking in the geometrically deformed background. Furthemore, we derive an analytical solution of the Dirac equation in a curved space for a general deformation along one spatial direction. For this class of geometries, it is shown that curvature induces an extra phase in the electron wave function, which can also be explored to produce interference devices of the Aharonov-Bohm type.

  13. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  14. Electrical conductivity in oxygen-deficient phases of transition metal oxides from first-principles calculations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondi, Robert James; Desjarlais, Michael Paul; Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Marinella, Matthew

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density-functional theory calculations, ab-initio molecular dynamics, and the Kubo-Greenwood formula are applied to predict electrical conductivity in Ta2Ox (0x5) as a function of composition, phase, and temperature, where additional focus is given to various oxidation states of the O monovacancy (VOn; n=0,1+,2+). Our calculations of DC conductivity at 300K agree well with experimental measurements taken on Ta2Ox thin films and bulk Ta2O5 powder-sintered pellets, although simulation accuracy can be improved for the most insulating, stoichiometric compositions. Our conductivity calculations and further interrogation of the O-deficient Ta2O5 electronic structure provide further theoretical basis to substantiate VO0 as a donor dopant in Ta2O5 and other metal oxides. Furthermore, this dopant-like behavior appears specific to neutral VO cases in both Ta2O5 and TiO2 and was not observed in other oxidation states. This suggests that reduction and oxidation reactions may effectively act as donor activation and deactivation mechanisms, respectively, for VO0 in transition metal oxides.

  15. Mixed anion materials and compounds for novel proton conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poling, Steven Andrew; Nelson, Carly R.; Martin, Steve W.

    2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides new amorphous or partially crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds for use in proton exchange membranes which are able to operate over a wide variety of temperature ranges, including in the intermediate temperature range of about 100 .degree. C. to 300.degree. C., and new uses for crystalline mixed anion chalcogenide compounds in such proton exchange membranes. In one embodiment, the proton conductivity of the compounds is between about 10.sup.-8 S/cm and 10.sup.-1 S/cm within a temperature range of between about -60 and 300.degree. C. and a relative humidity of less than about 12%..

  16. Frit specification development: Letter report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.A.; Hrma, P.R.; Vienna, J.D.; Fini, P.T.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To specify frit for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the relevant requirements and characterization need to be established. The properties and applicable testing will be incorporated into a specification. Several areas have been identified that require consideration in a frit specification: glass processability and acceptability; frit storage and handling; frit slurry rheology; melter feed rheology; canister decontamination; pumping equipment/pipe erosion; frit cooling rate; and glass melting rate. The listed areas are influenced primarily by frit composition, temperature history, particle morphology, particle size, size distribution. and properties that depend on the primary variables such as hardness and frit density. Frit development proceeds in two steps: the first focuses on the waste glass, and the second on the pre-melt (including cold cap) processing.

  17. Electroosmosis in conducting nanofluidic channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Cunlu

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical modeling of electroosmosis through conducting (ideally polarizable) nanochannels is reported. Based on the theory of induced charge electrokinetics, a novel nanofluidic system which possesses both adjustable ion selective characteristics and flexible flow control is proposed. Such nanofluidic devices operate only with very low gate control voltage applied on the conductive walls of nanochannels, and thus even can be energized by normal batteries. We believe that it is possible to use such metal-electrolyte configurations to overcome the difficulties met with conventional metal-isolator-electrolyte systems for nanofluidic applications.

  18. Fourier analysis of conductive heat transfer for glazed roofing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roslan, Nurhana Lyana; Bahaman, Nurfaradila; Almanan, Raja Noorliyana Raja; Ismail, Razidah [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Zakaria, Nor Zaini [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    For low-rise buildings, roof is the most exposed surface to solar radiation. The main mode of heat transfer from outdoor via the roof is conduction. The rate of heat transfer and the thermal impact is dependent on the thermophysical properties of roofing materials. Thus, it is important to analyze the heat distribution for the various types of roofing materials. The objectives of this paper are to obtain the Fourier series for the conductive heat transfer for two types of glazed roofing materials, namely polycarbonate and polyfilled, and also to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for these materials. Ambient and surface temperature data were collected from an empirical field investigation in the campus of Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam. The roofing materials were installed on free-standing structures in natural ventilation. Since the temperature data are generally periodic, Fourier series and numerical harmonic analysis are applied. Based on the 24-point harmonic analysis, the eleventh order harmonics is found to generate an adequate Fourier series expansion for both glazed roofing materials. In addition, there exists a linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the conductive heat transfer for both glazed roofing materials. Based on the gradient of the graphs, lower heat transfer is indicated through polyfilled. Thus polyfilled would have a lower thermal impact compared to polycarbonate.

  19. Intrinsically conducting polymers and copolymers containing triazole moieties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at such temperatures increase the efficiency of the fuel cell, reduce the overall cost by decreasing the required by Elsevier B.V. Keywords: Proton conduction; Triazole; Fuel cell; Proton exchange membrane 1. Introduction The commercialization of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is becoming an increasingly important goal

  20. Electrical Conductivity and Water in the Mantle Steven Constable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Constable, Steve

    + 4O× O + 8Fe· Mg San Quintin Dunite CO2 :CO CO2 :CO Olivine Iron M agnetite7 SCRIPPSINST ITUTION, Ashley Medin, Bob Parker, Jeff Roberts #12;Why mantle electrical conductivity? · Highly senstitive to phase transitions · Sensitive to mantle temperature · Influenced by volatiles and trace materials Water

  1. The Thermal Conductivity of Low Density Concretes Containing Perlite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarbrough, D. W.

    concretes made from Portland cement and perlite has been measured near room temperature using an unguarded linear heat flow apparatus. Perlite based concretes having densities from 44.3 1b/ft 3 to 66.6 1b/ft 3 were found to have thermal conductivities...

  2. Biorheology 44 (2007) 303317 303 The hydraulic conductivity of MatrigelTM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottino, Julio M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biorheology 44 (2007) 303­317 303 IOS Press The hydraulic conductivity of MatrigelTM William J. Mc the specific hydraulic conductivity (K) of MatrigelTM at 1% and 2% concentrations as a function of perfusion to determining the hydraulic conductivity of these membranes. The major components of MatrigelTM are laminin

  3. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, T.E.; Spieker, D.A.

    1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigid, moldable polyurethane foam comprises about 2 to 10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  4. Conducting Your Own Energy Audit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Why should you or anyone be interested in conducting a time intensive energy audit. What equipment is needed? When should you get started? Who should do it? The answer to Why is that energy costs are cutting into a company’s profit every minute...

  5. Electrically conductive rigid polyurethane foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neet, Thomas E. (Grandview, MO); Spieker, David A. (Olathe, KS)

    1985-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A rigid, polyurethane foam comprises about 2-10 weight percent, based on the total foam weight, of a carbon black which is CONDUCTEX CC-40-220 or CONDUCTEX SC, whereby the rigid polyurethane foam is electrically conductive and has essentially the same mechanical properties as the same foam without carbon black added.

  6. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  7. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, Jr., Thomas M. (P.O. Box 4231, Clearwater, FL 33518); Wells, Barbara J. (865 N. Village Dr., Apt. 101B, St. Petersburg, FL 33702)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40.degree. to 365.degree. C. to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  8. Electrically conductive resinous bond and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snowden, T.M. Jr.; Wells, B.J.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of bonding elements together with a bond of high strength and good electrical conductivity which comprises: applying an unfilled polyimide resin between surfaces of the elements to be bonded, heat treating said unfilled polyimide resin in stages between a temperature range of about 40 to 365/sup 0/C to form a strong adhesive bond between said elements, applying a metal-filled polyimide resin overcoat between said elements so as to provide electrical connection therebetween, and heat treating said metal-filled polyimide resin with substantially the same temperature profile as the unfilled polyimide resin. The present invention is also concerned with an adhesive, resilient, substantially void free bonding combination for providing a high strength, electrically conductive adhesive attachment between electrically conductive elements which comprises a major amount of an unfilled polyimide resin and a minor amount of a metal-filled polyimide resin.

  9. High thermal conductivity aluminum nitride ceramic body

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huseby, I. C.; Bobik, C. F.

    1985-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a polycrystalline aluminum nitride ceramic body having a porosity of less than about 10% by volume of said body and a thermal conductivity greater than 1.0 W/cm-K at 22/sup 0/ C., which comprises forming a mixture comprised of aluminum nitride powder and an yttrium additive selected from the group consisting of yttrium, yttrium hydride, yttrium nitride and mixtures thereof, said aluminum nitride and yttrium additive having a predetermined oxygen content, said mixture having a composition wherein the equivalent % of yttrium, aluminum, nitrogen and oxygen shapping said mixture into a compact and sintering said compact at a temperature ranging from about 1850/sup 0/ C. to about 2170/sup 0/ C. in an atmosphere selected from the group consisting of nitrogen, argon, hydrogen and mixtures thereof to produce said polycrystalline body.

  10. Metallic coatings for enhancement of thermal contact conductance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, M.A.; Fletcher, L.S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability of standard electronic modules may be improved by decreasing overall module temperature. This may be accomplished by enhancing the thermal contact conductance at the interface between the module frame guide rib and the card rail to which the module is clamped. Some metallic coatings, when applied to the card rail, would deform under load, increasing the contact area and associated conductance. This investigation evaluates the enhancements in thermal conductance afforded by vapor deposited silver and gold coatings. Experimental thermal conductance measurements were made for anodized aluminum 6101-T6 and electroless nickel-plated copper C11000-H03 card materials to the aluminum A356-T61 rail material. Conductance values for the electroless nickel-plated copper junction ranged from 600 to 2800 W/m(exp 2)K and those for the anodized aluminum junction ranged from 25 to 91 W/m(exp 2)K for contact pressures of 0.172-0.862 MPa and mean junction temperatures of 20-100 C. Experimental thermal conductance values of vapor deposited silver- and gold-coated aluminum A356-T61 rail surfaces indicate thermal enhancements of 1.25-2.19 for the electroless nickel-plated copper junctions and 1.79-3.41 for the anodized aluminum junctions. The silver and gold coatings provide significant thermal enhancement; however, these coating-substrate combinations are susceptible to galvanic corrosion under some conditions. 25 refs.

  11. Carrier dynamics in bulk ZnO. I. Intrinsic conductivity measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at room temperature.3 Thin films of ZnO are useful in transparent transistors and transparent conducting coatings because of their combination of wide band gap, high conductivity, and processability.4

  12. An optimal guarding scheme for thermal conductivity measurement using a guarded cut-bar technique, part 1 experimental study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Changhu Xing [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Colby Jensen [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Charles Folsom [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Heng Ban [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering; Douglas W. Marshall [Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the guarded cut-bar technique, a guard surrounding the measured sample and reference (meter) bars is temperature controlled to carefully regulate heat losses from the sample and reference bars. Guarding is typically carried out by matching the temperature profiles between the guard and the test stack of sample and meter bars. Problems arise in matching the profiles, especially when the thermal conductivitiesof the meter bars and of the sample differ, as is usually the case. In a previous numerical study, the applied guarding condition (guard temperature profile) was found to be an important factor in measurement accuracy. Different from the linear-matched or isothermal schemes recommended in literature, the optimal guarding condition is dependent on the system geometry and thermal conductivity ratio of sample to meter bar. To validate the numerical results, an experimental study was performed to investigate the resulting error under different guarding conditions using stainless steel 304 as both the sample and meter bars. The optimal guarding condition was further verified on a certified reference material, pyroceram 9606, and 99.95% pure iron whose thermal conductivities are much smaller and much larger, respectively, than that of the stainless steel meter bars. Additionally, measurements are performed using three different inert gases to show the effect of the insulation effective thermal conductivity on measurement error, revealing low conductivity, argon gas, gives the lowest error sensitivity when deviating from the optimal condition. The result of this study provides a general guideline for the specific measurement method and for methods requiring optimal guarding or insulation.

  13. Formed Core Sampler Hydraulic Conductivity Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. H.; Reigel, M. M.

    2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A full-scale formed core sampler was designed and functionally tested for use in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to compare properties of the formed core samples and core drilled samples taken from adjacent areas in the full-scale sampler. While several physical properties were evaluated, the primary property of interest was hydraulic conductivity. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the samples from the formed core sampler and those representing the bulk material were noted with respect to the initial handling and storage of the samples. Due to testing conditions, the site port samples were exposed to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions prior to testing whereas the formed core samples were kept in sealed containers with minimal exposure to an uncontrolled environment prior to testing. Based on the results of the testing, no significant differences in porosity or density were found between the formed core samples and those representing the bulk material in the test stand.

  14. Sampling Artifacts from Conductive Silicone Tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timko, Michael T.; Yu, Zhenhong; Kroll, Jesse; Jayne, John T.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Liscinsky, David; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Destaillats, Hugo; Holder, Amara L.; Smith, Jared D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report evidence that carbon impregnated conductive silicone tubing used in aerosol sampling systems can introduce two types of experimental artifacts: 1) silicon tubing dynamically absorbs carbon dioxide gas, requiring greater than 5 minutes to reach equilibrium and 2) silicone tubing emits organic contaminants containing siloxane that adsorb onto particles traveling through it and onto downstream quartz fiber filters. The consequence can be substantial for engine exhaust measurements as both artifacts directly impact calculations of particulate mass-based emission indices. The emission of contaminants from the silicone tubing can result in overestimation of organic particle mass concentrations based on real-time aerosol mass spectrometry and the off-line thermal analysis of quartz filters. The adsorption of siloxane contaminants can affect the surface properties of aerosol particles; we observed a marked reduction in the water-affinity of soot particles passed through conductive silicone tubing. These combined observations suggest that the silicone tubing artifacts may have wide consequence for the aerosol community and should, therefore, be used with caution. Gentle heating, physical and chemical properties of the particle carriers, exposure to solvents, and tubing age may influence siloxane uptake. The amount of contamination is expected to increase as the tubing surface area increases and as the particle surface area increases. The effect is observed at ambient temperature and enhanced by mild heating (<100 oC). Further evaluation is warranted.

  15. EVALUATION OF ZERO-POWER, ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AT JAPAN’S HIGH TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Nozomu Fujimoto; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Atsushi Zukeran

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a 30 MWth, graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor that was constructed with the objectives to establish and upgrade the technological basis for advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) as well as to conduct various irradiation tests for innovative high-temperature research. The core size of the HTTR represents about one-half of that of future HTGRs, and the high excess reactivity of the HTTR, necessary for compensation of temperature, xenon, and burnup effects during power operations, is similar to that of future HTGRs. During the start-up core physics tests of the HTTR, various annular cores were formed to provide experimental data for verification of design codes for future HTGRs. The experimental benchmark performed and currently evaluated in this report pertains to the data available for two zero-power, warm-critical measurements with the fully-loaded HTTR core. Six isothermal temperature coefficients for the fully-loaded core from approximately 340 to 740 K have also been evaluated. These experiments were performed as part of the power-up tests (References 1 and 2). Evaluation of the start-up core physics tests specific to the fully-loaded core (HTTR-GCR-RESR-001) and annular start-up core loadings (HTTR-GCR-RESR-002) have been previously evaluated.

  16. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan (Mississippi State, MS); Shah, Vimal (Houston, TX); Costley, R. Daniel (Mississippi State, MS); Singh, Jagdish P. (Mississippi State, MS)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  17. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105?C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  18. Temperature and electrical memory of polymer fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Jinkai; Zakri, Cécile; Grillard, Fabienne; Neri, Wilfrid; Poulin, Philippe [Centre de Recherche Paul Pascal - CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Avenue Schweitzer, 33600 Pessac (France)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report in this work studies of the shape memory behavior of polymer fibers loaded with carbon nanotubes or graphene flakes. These materials exhibit enhanced shape memory properties with the generation of a giant stress upon shape recovery. In addition, they exhibit a surprising temperature memory with a peak of generated stress at a temperature nearly equal to the temperature of programming. This temperature memory is ascribed to the presence of dynamical heterogeneities and to the intrinsic broadness of the glass transition. We present recent experiments related to observables other than mechanical properties. In particular nanocomposite fibers exhibit variations of electrical conductivity with an accurate memory. Indeed, the rate of conductivity variations during temperature changes reaches a well defined maximum at a temperature equal to the temperature of programming. Such materials are promising for future actuators that couple dimensional changes with sensing electronic functionalities.

  19. Ion/proton-conducting apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Matthew; Xue, Wei

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A c-axis-oriented HAP thin film synthesized by seeded growth on a palladium hydrogen membrane substrate. An exemplary synthetic process includes electrochemical seeding on the substrate, and secondary and tertiary hydrothermal treatments under conditions that favor growth along c-axes and a-axes in sequence. By adjusting corresponding synthetic conditions, an HAP this film can be grown to a controllable thickness with a dense coverage on the underlying substrate. The thin films have relatively high proton conductivity under hydrogen atmosphere and high temperature conditions. The c-axis oriented films may be integrated into fuel cells for application in the intermediate temperature range of 200-600.degree. C. The electrochemical-hydrothermal deposition technique may be applied to create other oriented crystal materials having optimized properties, useful for separations and catalysis as well as electronic and electrochemical applications, electrochemical membrane reactors, and in chemical sensors. Additional high-density and gas-tight HAP film compositions may be deposited using a two-step deposition method that includes an electrochemical deposition method followed by a hydrothermal deposition method. The two-step method uses a single hydrothermal deposition solution composition. The method may be used to deposit HAP films including but not limited to at least doped HAP films, and more particularly including carbonated HAP films. In addition, the high-density and gas-tight HAP films may be used in proton exchange membrane fuel cells.

  20. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J.; Malashevich, Andrei; Disa, Ankit S.; Han, Myung-Guen; Chen, Hanghui; Zhu, Yimei; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Walker, Frederick J.; Ahn, Charles H.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this work, we describe an oxide/ oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly,more »in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7-eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.« less

  1. Conduction at a ferroelectric interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marshall, Matthew S. J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Malashevich, Andrei [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Disa, Ankit S. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Han, Myung-Guen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Chen, Hanghui [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhu, Yimei [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Walker, Frederick J. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Ahn, Charles H. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States);

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical logic elements utilizing the field effect rely on the change in carrier concentration due to the field in the channel region of the device. Ferroelectric-field-effect devices provide a nonvolatile version of this effect due to the stable polarization order parameter in the ferroelectric. In this work, we describe an oxide/ oxide ferroelectric heterostructure device based on (001)-oriented PbZr??.?Ti?.?O?-LaNiO? where the dominant change in conductivity is a result of a significant mobility change in the interfacial channel region. The effect is confined to a few atomic layers at the interface and is reversible by switching the ferroelectric polarization. More interestingly, in one polarization state, the field effect induces a 1.7-eV shift of the interfacial bands to create a new conducting channel in the interfacial PbO layer of the ferroelectric.

  2. Specific Group Hardware

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Group Hardware Specific Group Hardware ALICE palicevo1 The Virtual Organization (VO) server. Serves as gatekeeper for ALICE jobs. It's duties include getting assignments from...

  3. Legacy Management Specific Training

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following courses are specific to Legacy Management Employees, for more information about the courses below or to register for any of these courses please contact Chequita Johnson.

  4. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  5. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, Jack J. (Shirley, NY); Elling, David (Centereach, NY); Reams, Walter (Shirley, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  6. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  7. Design of a variable-conductance vacuum insulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, D K; Potter, T F; Tracy, C E

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes one approach to the design of a variable-conductance vacuum insulation. In this design, the vacuum insulation consists of a permanently sealed, thin sheet steel, evacuated envelope of whatever geometry is required for the application. The steel envelope is supported internally against the atmospheric pressure loads by an array of discrete, low-conductance, ceramic supports, and radiative heat transfer is blocked by layers of thin metal radiation shields. Thermal conductance through this insulation is controlled electronically by changing the temperature of a small metal hydride connected to the vacuum envelope. The hydride reversibly absorbs/desorbs hydrogen to produce a hydrogen pressure typically within the range from less than 10{sup {minus}6} to as much as 1 torr. Design calculations are compared with results from laboratory tests of bench scale samples, and some possible automotive applications for this variable-conductance vacuum insulation are suggested.

  8. A High Conducting Oxide Sulfide Composite Lithium Superionic Conductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan [ORNL] [ORNL; Keum, Jong Kahk [ORNL] [ORNL; Sahu, Gayatri [ORNL] [ORNL; Rondinone, Adam Justin [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Liang, Chengdu [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid superionic conductor was fabricated utilizing the space charge effect between the LLZO and LPS interfaces. This space-charge effect resulted in an improvement over the individual bulk conductivities of the two systems. Sample with higher weight fractions of LLZO are limited by the porosity and grain boundary resistance arising from non-sintered membranes. By combining the properties of LLZO and LPS, the high temperature sintering step has been avoided thus facilitating easier materials processing. The interfacial resistances were also measured to be minimal at ambient conditions. This procedure thus opens a new avenue for improving the ionic conductivity and electrochemical properties of existing solid state electrolytes. High frequency impedance analyses could aid in resolving the ionic conductivity contributions from the space charge layer in the higher conducting composites while mechanical property investigations could illustrate an improvement in the composite electrolyte in comparison with the crystalline LPS membranes.

  9. Lithium-cation conductivity and crystal structure of lithium diphosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voronin, V.I., E-mail: voronin@imp.uran.ru [Institute of Metal Physics Urals Branch RAS, S.Kovalevskoy Street 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Sherstobitova, E.A. [Institute of Metal Physics Urals Branch RAS, S.Kovalevskoy Street 18, 620041 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Blatov, V.A., E-mail: blatov@samsu.ru [Samara Center for Theoretical Materials Science (SCTMS), Samara State University, Ac.Pavlov Street 1, 443011 Samara (Russian Federation); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shekhtman, G.Sh., E-mail: shekhtman@ihte.uran.ru [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry Urals Branch RAS, Akademicheskaya 20, 620990 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical conductivity of lithium diphosphate Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been measured and jump-like increasing of ionic conductivity at 913 K has been found. The crystal structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been refined using high temperature neutron diffraction at 300–1050 K. At 913 K low temperature triclinic form of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms into high temperature monoclinic one, space group P2{sub 1}/n, a=8.8261(4) Å, b=5.2028(4) Å, c=13.3119(2) Å, ?=104.372(6)°. The migration maps of Li{sup +} cations based on experimental data implemented into program package TOPOS have been explored. It was found that lithium cations in both low- and high temperature forms of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} migrate in three dimensions. Cross sections of the migrations channels extend as the temperature rises, but at the phase transition point have a sharp growth showing a strong “crystal structure – ion conductivity” correlation. -- Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} at 950 K. Red balls represent oxygen atoms; black lines show Li{sup +} ion migration channels in the layers perpendicular to [001] direction. Highlights: • Structure of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} has been refined using high temperature neutron diffraction. • At 913 K triclinic form of Li{sub 4}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} transforms into high temperature monoclinic one. • The migration maps of Li{sup +} implemented into program package TOPOS have been explored. • Cross sections of the migrations channels at the phase transition have a sharp growth.

  10. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence (Bellaire, TX); Hearn, Dennis (Houston, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  11. Method for conducting exothermic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  12. Ultrasonic hydrometer. [Specific gravity of electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swoboda, C.A.

    1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed ultrasonic hydrometer determines the specific gravity (density) of the electrolyte of a wet battery, such as a lead-acid battery. The hydrometer utilizes a transducer that when excited emits an ultrasonic impulse that traverses through the electrolyte back and forth between spaced sonic surfaces. The transducer detects the returning impulse, and means measures the time t between the initial and returning impulses. Considering the distance d between the spaced sonic surfaces and the measured time t, the sonic velocity V is calculated with the equation V = 2d/t. The hydrometer also utilizes a thermocouple to measure the electrolyte temperature. A hydrometer database correlates three variable parameters including sonic velocity in and temperature and specific gravity of the electrolyte, for temperature values between 0 and 40/sup 0/C and for specific gravity values between 1.05 and 1.30. Upon knowing two parameters (the calculated sonic velocity and the measured temperature), the third parameter (specific gravity) can be uniquely found in the database. The hydrometer utilizes a microprocessor for data storage and manipulation.

  13. Precise Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application of Transparent Conductive Oxide Coatings for Flat Panel Displays and Photovoltaic Cells Technology available for licensing: New transparent conducting oxide (TCO)...

  14. Fiber/Matrix Interfacial Thermal Conductance Effect on the Thermal Conductivity of SiC/SiC Composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.

    2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    SiC/SiC composites used in fusion reactor applications are subjected to high heat fluxes and require knowledge and tailoring of their in-service thermal conductivity. Accurately predicting the thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites as a function of temperature will guide the design of these materials for their intended use, which will eventually include the effects of 14-MeV neutron irradiations. This paper applies an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach (EMTA) to compute the thermal conductivity of unirradiated SiC/SiC composites. The homogenization procedure includes three steps. In the first step EMTA computes the homogenized thermal conductivity of the unidirectional (UD) SiC fiber embraced by its coating layer. The second step computes the thermal conductivity of the UD composite formed by the equivalent SiC fibers embedded in a SiC matrix, and finally the thermal conductivity of the as-formed SiC/SiC composite is obtained by averaging the solution for the UD composite over all possible fiber orientations using the second-order fiber orientation tensor. The EMTA predictions for the transverse thermal conductivity of several types of SiC/SiC composites with different fiber types and interfaces are compared to the predicted and experimental results by Youngblood et al.

  15. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, M.

    1988-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  16. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  17. Advances in inherently conducting polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aldissi, M.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of polyacetylene as the prototype material led to extensive research on its synythesis and characterization. The techniques that emerged as the most important and promising ones are those that dealt with molecular orientation and that resulted in conductivities almost as high as that of copper. The study of dozens of other materials followed. Interest in conducting polymers stems from their nonclassical optical and electronic properties as well as their potential technological applications. However, some of the factors currently limiting their use are the lack of long-term stability and the need to develop conventional low-cost techniques for easy processing. Therefore, research was extended toward solving these problems, and progress has been recently made in that direction. The synthesis of new materials such as stable and easily processable alkylthiophenes, water-soluble polymers, and multicomponent systems, including copolymers and composites, constitutes an important step forward in the area of synthetic metals. However, a full understanding of materials chemistry and properties requires more work in the years to come. Although, few small-scale applications have proven to be successful, long-term stability and applicability tests are needed before their commercial use becomes reality.

  18. Water-soluble conductive polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aldissi, Mahmoud (Sante Fe, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymers which are soluble in water and are electrically conductive. The monomer repeat unit is a thiophene or pyrrole molecule having an alkyl group substituted for the hydrogen atom located in the beta position of the thiophene or pyrrole ring and having a surfactant molecule at the end of the alkyl chain. Polymers of this class having 8 or more carbon atoms in the alkyl chain exhibit liquid crystalline behavior, resulting in high electrical anisotropy. The monomer-to-monomer bonds are located between the carbon atoms which are adjacent to the sulfur or nitrogen atoms. The number of carbon atoms in the alkyl group may vary from 1 to 20 carbon atoms. The surfactant molecule consists of a sulfonate group, or a sulfate group, or a carboxylate group, and hydrogen or an alkali metal. Negative ions from a supporting electrolyte which may be used in the electrochemical synthesis of a polymer may be incorporated into the polymer during the synthesis and serve as a dopant to increase the conductivity.

  19. Specific light in sculpture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, John William

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specific light is defined as light from artificial or altered natural sources. The use and manipulation of light in three dimensional sculptural work is discussed in an historic and contemporary context. The author's work ...

  20. Redesigning specificity in miniproteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Christina Marie

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work focuses on designing specific miniprotein interactions using computational models and then testing these designs with experiments. Miniproteins are small, autonomously-folding proteins that are excellent for ...

  1. Extraction Utility Design Specification

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Extraction Utility Design Specification January 11, 2011 Document Version 1.9 1 Revision History Date Version Section and Titles Author Summary of Change January 15, 2010 1.0 All...

  2. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  3. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, W.Y.

    1984-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800/sup 0/C), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m/sup 0/C), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800/sup 0/C, a diameter within the range of 20-200 ..mu..m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2 to 4 ..mu..m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  4. High temperature structural insulating material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wayne Y. (Munster, IN)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature structural insulating material useful as a liner for cylinders of high temperature engines through the favorable combination of high service temperature (above about 800.degree. C.), low thermal conductivity (below about 0.2 W/m.degree. C.), and high compressive strength (above about 250 psi). The insulating material is produced by selecting hollow ceramic beads with a softening temperature above about 800.degree. C., a diameter within the range of 20-200 .mu.m, and a wall thickness in the range of about 2-4 .mu.m; compacting the beads and a compatible silicate binder composition under pressure and sintering conditions to provide the desired structural form with the structure having a closed-cell, compact array of bonded beads.

  5. Ionic conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Ni{sub x}V{sub 1?x}O{sub 5.5?3x/2} (0.1 ? x ? 0.2) oxides prepared by a low temperature sol-gel route

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusli, Rolan; Patah, Aep, E-mail: ismu@chem.itb.ac.id; Prijamboedi, Bambang, E-mail: ismu@chem.itb.ac.id; Ismunandar, E-mail: ismu@chem.itb.ac.id [Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Division, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Abrahams, Isaac [Materials Research Institute, School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxides fuel cells (SOFCs) is one technology that could contribute toward future sustainable energy. One of the most important components of an SOFC is the electrolyte, which must have high ionic conductivity. Cation substitution of vanadium in Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11} yields a family of fast oxide ion conducting solids known collectively as the BIMEVOXes (bismuth metal vanadium oxide), which have the potential to be applied as electrolytes in SOFCs. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of Ni concentration, when used as a dopant, on the ionic conductivity of Bi{sub 2}Ni{sub x}V{sub 1?x}O{sub 5.5?3x/2} (BINIVOX) oxides (0.1 ? x ? 0.2) when prepared by a sol gel method. The gels were calcined at 600 °C for 24 h to produce pure BINIVOX. These oxides were found to exhibit the ?-phase structure with tetragonal symmetry in space group I4/mmm. Ionic conductivity of BINIVOX at 300 °C were 6.9 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1}, 1.2 × 10{sup ?3} S cm{sup ?1}, and 8.2 × 10{sup ?4} S cm{sup ?1}, for x = 0.1; 0.15; and 0.2; respectively; and at 600 °C were 1.1 × 10{sup ?1} S cm{sup ?1}, 5.3 × 10{sup ?2} S cm{sup ?1}, and 2.8 ×10{sup ?2} S cm{sup ?1}, for x = 0.1; 0.15; and 0.2; respectively.

  6. Ab-initio Kinetic Monte Carlo Model of Ionic Conduction in Bulk Yttria-stabilized Zirconia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Wei

    oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and oxygen sensor, and hence has been extensively studied. In particular, the necessity of reducing the operating temperature of SOFC without losing ionic conductivity encourages

  7. Enhanced Semiconductor Nanocrystal Conductance via Solution Grown Contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheldon, Matthew T.; Trudeau, Paul-Emile; Mokari, Taleb; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a 100,000-fold increase in the conductance of individual CdSe nanorods when they are electrically contacted via direct solution phase growth of Au tips on the nanorod ends. Ensemble UV-Vis and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate this enhancement does not result from alloying of the nanorod. Rather, low temperature tunneling and high temperature (250-400 K) thermionic emission across the junction at the Au contact reveal a 75percent lower interface barrier to conduction compared to a control sample. We correlate this barrier lowering with the electronic structure at the Au-CdSe interface. Our results emphasize the importance of nanocrystal surface structure for robust device performance and the advantage of this contact method.

  8. Nanomaterial modifications on conductivity of coal conveyer belt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, J.C.; Zhang, Y.G.; Wang, T.T.; Yang, L.F.; Liu, S.M.; Yang, D.H.; Zhang, M.; Gao, X. [Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou (China)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    By analyzing the macro electrical properties and the microscopic structure from SEM of nanomaterials modified mine transmission belt samples. The influences of the filling process of inorganic nano particle-filled rubber and PVC polymer on the physical properties of coal transmission belt is reviewed, as well as PTC and NTC effect on the stability of the physical properties and stability of materials. Influence of nano-materials and polymer materials for rubber and temperature changes in the plastic filled refining process. Crosslinker and major filler changes in the amount and filled plastic chain time on the conductivity of coal conveyer belt is studied. Influence of cure temperature. Cure time on the mechanical performance is studied. The microscopic mechanism of macro conductivity change of conveyer belt is discussed.

  9. Intermediate scalings in holographic RG flows and conductivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jyotirmoy Bhattacharya; Sera Cremonini; Blaise Goutéraux

    2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct numerically finite density domain-wall solutions which interpolate between two $AdS_4$ fixed points and exhibit an intermediate regime of hyperscaling violation, with or without Lifshitz scaling. Such RG flows can be realized in gravitational models containing a dilatonic scalar and a massive vector field with appropriate choices of the scalar potential and couplings. The infrared $AdS_4$ fixed point describes a new ground state for strongly coupled quantum systems realizing such scalings, thus avoiding the well-known extensive zero temperature entropy associated with $AdS_2 \\times \\mathbb{R}^2$. We also examine the zero temperature behavior of the optical conductivity in these backgrounds and identify two scaling regimes before the UV CFT scaling is reached. The scaling of the conductivity is controlled by the emergent IR conformal symmetry at very low frequencies, and by the intermediate scaling regime at higher frequencies.

  10. Lattice thermal conductivity of filled skutterudites: An anharmonicity perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Huiyuan, E-mail: genghuiyuan@hit.edu.cn; Meng, Xianfu; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a phenomenological model to calculate the high-temperature lattice thermal conductivity of filled skutterudite antimonides. The model needs no phonon resonant scattering terms. Instead, we assume that umklapp processes dominate the high-temperature phonon scattering. In order to represent the anharmonicity introduced by the filling atom, we introduce a Gaussian term into the relaxation time of the umklapp process. The developed model agrees remarkably well with the experimental results of RE{sub f}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and RE{sub f}Fe{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (RE?=?Yb, Ba, and Ca) alloys. To further test the validity of our model, we calculate the lattice thermal conductivity of nanostructured or multi-filled skutterudites. The calculation results are also in good agreement with experiment, increasing our confidence in the developed anharmonicity model.

  11. High strength-high conductivity Cu--Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, John D. (Ames, IA); Spitzig, William A. (Ames, IA); Gibson, Edwin D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA)

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an "in-situ" Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite.

  12. High strength-high conductivity Cu-Fe composites produced by powder compaction/mechanical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Spitzig, W.A.; Gibson, E.D.; Anderson, I.E.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A particulate mixture of Cu and Fe is compacted and mechanically reduced to form an ''in-situ'' Cu-Fe composite having high strength and high conductivity. Compaction and mechanical reduction of the particulate mixture are carried out at a temperature and time at temperature selected to avoid dissolution of Fe into the Cu matrix particulates to a harmful extent that substantially degrades the conductivity of the Cu-Fe composite. 5 figures.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF ELEVATED TEMPERATURE PROPERTIES OF HEAT EXCHANGER AND STEAM GENERATOR ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.K. Wright; L.J. Carroll; C.J. Cabet; T. Lillo; J.K. Benz; J.A. Simpson; A. Chapman; R.N. Wright

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant project is considering Alloy 800H and Alloy 617 for steam generator and intermediate heat exchangers. It is envisioned that a steam generator would operate with reactor outlet temperatures from 750 to 800 C, while an intermediate heat exchanger for primary to secondary helium would operate up to an outlet temperature of 950 C. Although both alloys are of interest due in part to their technical maturity, a number of specific properties require further characterization for design of nuclear components. Strain rate sensitivity of both alloys has been characterized and is found to be significant above 600 C. Both alloys also exhibit dynamic strain aging, characterized by serrated flow, over a wide range of temperatures and strain rates. High temperature tensile testing of Alloy 617 has been conducted over a range of temperatures. Dynamic strain aging is a concern for these materials since it is observed to result in reduced ductility for many solid solution alloys. Creep, fatigue, and creep-fatigue properties of Alloy 617 have been measured as well, with the goal of determining the influence of the temperature, strain rate and atmosphere on the creep fatigue life of Alloy 617. Elevated temperature properties and implications for codification of the alloys will be described.

  14. Ultrahigh Specific Impulse Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne Charmeau; Brandon Cunningham; Samim Anghaie

    2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on nuclear thermal propulsion systems (NTP) have been in forefront of the space nuclear power and propulsion due to their design simplicity and their promise for providing very high thrust at reasonably high specific impulse. During NERVA-ROVER program in late 1950's till early 1970's, the United States developed and ground tested about 18 NTP systems without ever deploying them into space. The NERVA-ROVER program included development and testing of NTP systems with very high thrust (~250,000 lbf) and relatively high specific impulse (~850 s). High thrust to weight ratio in NTP systems is an indicator of high acceleration that could be achieved with these systems. The specific impulse in the lowest mass propellant, hydrogen, is a function of square root of absolute temperature in the NTP thrust chamber. Therefor optimizing design performance of NTP systems would require achieving the highest possible hydrogen temperature at reasonably high thrust to weight ratio. High hydrogen exit temperature produces high specific impulse that is a diret measure of propellant usage efficiency.

  15. New equation calculates thermal conductivities of C[sub 1]-C[sub 4] gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaws, C.L.; Lin, X.; Bu, L.; Nijhawan, S. (Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1994-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the design of heat exchangers, heat-transfer coefficients are commonly calculated for individual items. These calculations require knowledge of the thermal conductivities of the species involved. The calculation require knowledge of the thermal conductivities of the species involved. The calculation of the overall heat-transfer coefficient for a heat exchanger also requires thermal conductivity data for the individual species. In fact, thermal conductivity is the fundamental property involved in heat transfer. Ordinarily, thermal conductivities are either measured experimentally or estimated using complex correlations and models. Engineers must search existing literature for the values needed. Here, a compilation of thermal conductivity data for gases is presented for a wide temperature range. Using these data with the accompanying equation will enable engineers to quickly determine values at the desired temperatures. The results are provided in an easy-to-use tabular format, which is especially helpful for rapid calculations using a personal computer or hand-held calculator.

  16. VALIDATION OF A THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FUEL COMPACTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeff Phillips; Colby Jensen; Changhu Xing; Heng Ban

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow measurement system has been built to measure the thermal conductivity of a composite nuclear fuel compact. It is a steady-state measurement device designed to operate over a temperature range of 300 K to 1200 K. No existing apparatus is currently available for obtaining the thermal conductivity of the composite fuel in a non-destructive manner due to the compact’s unique geometry and composite nature. The current system design has been adapted from ASTM E 1225. As a way to simplify the design and operation of the system, it uses a unique radiative heat sink to conduct heat away from the sample column. A finite element analysis was performed on the measurement system to analyze the associated error for various operating conditions. Optimal operational conditions have been discovered through this analysis and results are presented. Several materials have been measured by the system and results are presented for stainless steel 304, inconel 625, and 99.95% pure iron covering a range of thermal conductivities of 10 W/m*K to 70 W/m*K. A comparison of the results has been made to data from existing literature.

  17. Conductance modulation in topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin films with ionic liquid gating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, Jaesung; Banerjee, Karan; Yang, Hyunsoo, E-mail: eleyang@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Brahlek, Matthew; Koirala, Nikesh; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Lee, Seoung-Ki [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of) [School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jong-Hyun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator field effect transistor is investigated by using ionic liquid as an electric double layer gating material, leading to a conductance modulation of 365% at room temperature. We discuss the role of charged impurities on the transport properties. The conductance modulation with gate bias is due to a change in the carrier concentration, whereas the temperature dependent conductance change is originated from a change in mobility. Large conductance modulation at room temperature along with the transparent optical properties makes topological insulators as an interesting (opto)electronic material.

  18. Rural Labor Manual: Guide to the Conduct of Specific Community Educational Programs.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruesink, David C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in an enterprise operated by a member of the family; or 2. Did not work but had jobs or businesses from which they were temporar il absent because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor management disputes... labor require detailed infotmation regarding an employer I s hiring practices, training programs, job turnover, occupational requirements, entry level wage and existing. and/or proj ected .vacancies. In many cases, because of the large number of local...

  19. Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Timothy

    Summary Weusedthreemethodstomeasureboundarylayer conductance to heat transfer (gbH) and water vapor of transpiration). The boundary layer conductance to heat transfer is small enough that leaf temperature can become diffusion, the boundary layer around a leaf also provides resistance to the transfer of heat between a leaf

  20. Thermal conductance of solid-liquid interfaces Scott Huxtable, Zhenbin Ge, David G. Cahill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    on temperature of thetemperature of the nanotube · Assume heat capacity is comparable to graphitegraphite of the conductance? "heat capacity G" vs. "heat conduction G" #12;Comparisons between experiment and simulation capacity to convert time constant to G. For long tubes: [K] CFor long tubes: G = 22 MW m-2 K-1 100-T(liquid

  1. Comparison of a One-Dimensional Model of a High-Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolysis Stack with CFD and Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; G. L. Hawkes

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A one-dimensional model has been developed to predict the thermal and electrochemical behavior of a high-temperature steam electrolysis stack. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The model includes a temperature-dependent area-specific resistance (ASR) that accounts for the significant increase in electrolyte ionic conductivity that occurs with increasing temperature. Model predictions are shown to compare favorably with results obtained from a fully 3-D computational fluid dynamics model. The one-dimensional model was also employed to demonstrate the expected trends in electrolyzer performance over a range of operating conditions including isothermal, adiabatic, constant steam utilization, constant flow rate, and the effects of operating temperature.

  2. The measurement of thermal conductivity of jelly from 25 to 95 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yih-Rong

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    line heat source method, the thermal con- ductivities of a jelly model (unflavored jelly), sugar solution and some commercial jelly products were measured. The studies were conducted in the temperature range from 25 to 95 'C. Thermal conductivity... were developed from experimental data for unflavored jelly and sugar solutions to predict the thermal conductivity of commercially available fruit jellies at various moisture contents. The predicted values obtained were statistically compared...

  3. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  4. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  5. Improvements in Shallow (Two-Meter) Temperature Measurements...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to study influences on shallow temperature measurements related to geological and solar radiation factors specifically, slope orientation, ground composition and albedo. In...

  6. Electronically conductive polymer composites and microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyke, L.S.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composites of electronically conductive polymers with insulating host materials are investigated. A template synthesis method was developed for the production of electronically conductive polymer microstructures. In template synthesis the pores of a porous host membrane act as templates for the polymerization of a conductive polymer. The template synthetic method can be used to form either solid microfibrils or hollow microtubules. The electrochemical properties of conductive polymers produced via the template synthesis method are superior to those of conventionally synthesized conductive polymers. Electronically conductive polymers are used to impart conductivity to non-conductive materials. Two different approaches are used. First, thin film composites of conductive polymers with fluoropolymers are made by the polymerization of conductive polymers onto fluoropolymer films. Modification of the fluoropolymer surface prior to conductive polymer polymerization is necessary to obtain good adhesion between the two materials. The difference in adhesion of the conductive polymer to the modified and unmodified fluoropolymer surfaces can be used to pattern the conductive polymer coating. Patterning of the conductive polymer coating can alternatively be done via UV laser ablation of the conductive polymer. The second method by which conductive polymers were used to impart conductivity to an insulating polymer was via the formation of a graft copolymer. In this approach, heterocyclic monomers grafted to an insulating polyphosphazene backbone were polymerized to yield semiconductive materials. Finally the measurement of electrolyte concentration in polypyrrole and the effects of hydroxide anion on the electrochemical and electrical properties of polypyrrole are described. It is shown that treatment of polypyrrole with hydroxide anion increases the potential window over which polypyrrole is a good electronic conductor.

  7. Baseline Concept Description of a Small Modular High Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans Gougar

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to provide a description of generic small modular high temperature reactors (herein denoted as an smHTR), summarize their distinguishing attributes, and lay out the research and development (R&D) required for commercialization. The generic concepts rely heavily on the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor designs developed in the 1980s which were never built but for which pre-licensing or certification activities were conducted. The concept matured more recently under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, specifically in the areas of fuel and material qualification, methods development, and licensing. As all vendor-specific designs proposed under NGNP were all both ‘small’ or medium-sized and ‘modular’ by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Department of Energy (DOE) standards, the technical attributes, challenges, and R&D needs identified, addressed, and documented under NGNP are valid and appropriate in the context of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) applications. Although the term High Temperature Reactor (HTR) is commonly used to denote graphite-moderated, thermal spectrum reactors with coolant temperatures in excess of 650oC at the core outlet, in this report the historical term High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) will be used to distinguish the gas-cooled technology described herein from its liquid salt-cooled cousin. Moreover, in this report it is to be understood that the outlet temperature of the helium in an HTGR has an upper limit of 950 degrees C which corresponds to the temperature to which certain alloys are currently being qualified under DOE’s ARC program. Although similar to the HTGR in just about every respect, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) may have an outlet temperature in excess of 950 degrees C and is therefore farther from commercialization because of the challenges posed to materials exposed to these temperatures. The VHTR is the focus of R&D under the Generation IV program and its specific R&D needs will be included in this report when appropriate for comparison. The distinguishing features of the HTGR are the refractory (TRISO) coated particle fuel, the low-power density, graphite-moderated core, and the high outlet temperature of the inert helium coolant. The low power density and fuel form effectively eliminate the possibility of core melt, even upon a complete loss of coolant pressure and flow. The graphite, which constitutes the bulk of the core volume and mass, provides a large thermal buffer that absorbs fission heat such that thermal transients occur over a timespan of hours or even days. As chemically-inert helium is already a gas, there is no coolant temperature or void feedback on the neutronics and no phase change or corrosion product that could degrade heat transfer. Furthermore, the particle coatings and interstitial graphite retain fission products such that the source terms at the plant boundary remain well below actionable levels under all anticipated nominal and off-normal operating conditions. These attributes enable the reactor to supply process heat to a collocated industrial plant with negligible risk of contamination and minimal dynamic coupling of the facilities (Figure 1). The exceptional retentive properties of coated particle fuel in a graphite matrix were first demonstrated in the DRAGON reactor, a European research facility that began operation in 1964.

  8. SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIAL FROM THE TONE-BURST EDDY CURRENT THERMOGRAPHY (TBET) TIME-TEMPERATURE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biju, N.; Ganesan, N.; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan [Centre for Nondestructive Evaluation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras (India)

    2010-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, an inversion method is proposed to determine simultaneously the electrical and thermal properties of a given isotropic material from the time-temperature data obtained from the Tone-Burst Eddy current Thermography (TBET). A multi-physics forward model for computing the surface temperature data was used in a Genetic Algorithm (GA) based inversion technique to determine the material properties such as electrical conductivity (sigma), thermal conductivity (k), density (rho), and specific heat (C{sub p}) simultaneously. Different trials were carried out initially with simulated temperature data (with and without noise). A typical case of inversion of anisotropic material properties using a 2D finite element model is also discussed.

  9. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Water with Surfactant Encapsulated and Individualized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    experimentally using a transient hot wire technique at room temperature. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs] Maruyama.S, Kojima.R, Miyauchi.Y, Chiashi.S, Kohno.M, Low temperature synthesis of high purity singleEnhanced Thermal Conductivity of Water with Surfactant Encapsulated and Individualized Single

  10. Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells cations (e.g. ammonium) as electrolytes in fuel cells operating in the temperature range 100­200 uC, where cell operating with optimized electrodes in the same temperature range, while open circuit voltages

  11. THE MULTI-USE STEINEL VARIABLE TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    THE MULTI-USE STEINEL VARIABLE TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED HEAT GUNTEMPERATURE RANGE 212 at the outlet nozzle will bum flesh. Do not tum on Heat Gun with hand in front of nozzle. DO NOT USE NEAR equipment Specifications Temperature Variable from 212" F to 1100° F Watts 1500W Weight 1.5 lbs. Supply

  12. THE MULTI-USE STEINEL VARIABLE TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinfeld, David

    THE MULTI-USE STEINEL VARIABLE TEMPERATURE ELECTRONICALLY CONTROLLED HEAT GUNTEMPERATURE RANGE 212 at the outlet nozzle will bum flesh. Do not tum on Heat Gun with hand in front of nozzle. DO NOT USE NEAR equipment Specifications Temperature Variable from 212° F to 1100° F Watts 1500W Weight 1.5 lbs. Supply

  13. CONDUCTIVE POLYCARBONATE NANOCOMPOSITES with HYBRID NANOFILLERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    CONDUCTIVE POLYCARBONATE NANOCOMPOSITES with HYBRID NANOFILLERS Catherine Smith, Brooks Lively, Wei of polymers. Emerging technologies have demonstrated the crucial need for highly conductive polymer combination between polycarbonate (PC) and hybrid concentrations of CNT and GNP nanofillers was investigated

  14. Central Solenoid Insert Technical Specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N [ORNL; Smirnov, Alexandre [ORNL

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US ITER Project Office (USIPO) is responsible for the ITER central solenoid (CS) contribution to the ITER project. The Central Solenoid Insert (CSI) project will allow ITER validation the appropriate lengths of the conductors to be used in the full-scale CS coils under relevant conditions. The ITER Program plans to build and test a CSI to verify the performance of the CS conductor. The CSI is a one-layer solenoid with an inner diameter of 1.48 m and a height of 4.45 m between electric terminal ends. The coil weight with the terminals is approximately 820 kg without insulation. The major goal of the CSI is to measure the temperature margin of the CS under the ITER direct current (DC) operating conditions, including determining sensitivity to load cycles. Performance of the joints, ramp rate sensitivity, and stability against thermal or electromagnetic disturbances, electrical insulation, losses, and instrumentation are addressed separately and therefore are not major goals in this project. However, losses and joint performance will be tested during the CSI testing campaign. The USIPO will build the CSI that will be tested at the Central Solenoid Model Coil (CSMC) Test Facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Naka, Japan. The industrial vendors (the Suppliers) will report to the USIPO (the Company). All approvals to proceed will be issued by the Company, which in some cases, as specified in this document, will also require the approval of the ITER Organization. Responsibilities and obligations will be covered by respective contracts between the USIPO, called Company interchangeably, and the industrial Prime Contractors, called Suppliers. Different stages of work may be performed by more than one Prime Contractor, as described in this specification. Technical requirements of the contract between the Company and the Prime Contractor will be covered by the Fabrication Specifications developed by the Prime Contractor based on this document and approved by the Company and ITER. The Fabrication Specifications may reflect some national requirements and regulations that are not fully provided here. This document presents the ITER CSI specifications.

  15. Overview of the RRR Nb Specifications and the Evolution of SRF Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Myneni

    2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Maury Tigner’s classical review paper, “RF Superconductivity For Accelerators – Is It A Hollow Promise”# summarizes the pioneering work that was carried out from mid 1960’s to late 1070’s and is a must reading for all the new comers in to SRF world. The specifications of high purity niobium for SRF cavities seem to have evolved between 1979 and 1987. Fine grain high purity niobium has been the material of choice for SRF cavities for the past two decades. The current high RRR niobium material specifications will be reviewed from the historical context. The specification discussions include grain size, ductility, yield strength, thermal conductivity and residual resistance ratio. The effect of each of these material characteristic on the process and performance of the cavities will be explored. The recent progress on the single crystal - large grain niobium technology and its potential impact on the cost and performance of ILC cavities will be discussed. The possible relaxation of specifications, such as residual resistance ratio and Tantalum content will be presented from the perspective of reducing the cavity fabrication costs for industrial applications. Further, a summary of the low temperature mechanical properties of polycrystalline niobium will also be presented.

  16. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  17. Changing fuel specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatt, R.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper will describe the goals, methods, and results of a program designed to expand fuel specifications. The ability to expand fuel specs can provide many advantages to a power company. These would include increased fuel flexibility, better performance and lower fuel cost. The expansion of transportation modes also may enhance the scenario. Although brief, this paper should provide a good understanding of the types of problems that can be encountered, and the cooperative effort necessary to resolve them.

  18. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Tritt, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Uher, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  19. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, Ctirad

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential propertymeasurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectricmaterials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectricmeasurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  20. Final Report - IHLW PCT, Spinel T1%, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity Model Development, VSL-07R1240-4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Albert A.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Landmesser, S. M.; Pegg, I. L.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Cooley, Scott K.; Gan, H.; Kot, W. K.

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the last in a series of currently scheduled reports that presents the results from the High Level Waste (HLW) glass formulation development and testing work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) of the Catholic University of America (CUA) and the development of IHLW property-composition models performed jointly by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL for the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP). Specifically, this report presents results of glass testing at VSL and model development at PNNL for Product Consistency Test (PCT), one-percent crystal fraction temperature (T1%), electrical conductivity (EC), and viscosity of HLW glasses. The models presented in this report may be augmented and additional validation work performed during any future immobilized HLW (IHLW) model development work. Completion of the test objectives is addressed.

  1. Solid velocity correction schemes for a temperature transforming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuwen

    for a temperature transforming model (TTM) for convection controlled solid-liquid phase-change problem. Design ¼ gravitational acceleration, 9.8 m/s2 H ¼ height of the vertical wall (m) k ¼ thermal conductivity (W/(m K)) K, K T * ¼ scaled temperature, T 0 2 T0 m; K T0 c ¼ cold surface temperature, K T0 m ¼ melting (or

  2. Temperature Sensor Tag for Passive UHF RFID Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsherbeni, Atef Z.

    Temperature Sensor Tag for Passive UHF RFID Systems Juha Virtanen, Leena Ukkonen, Toni Björninen of Mississippi University, MS 38677, USA atef@olemiss.edu Abstract--This paper presents a novel temperature is used as the temperature sensitive material instead of the more traditional semi-conducting materials

  3. Temperature Effects on Electrophoresis Anita Rogacs and Juan G. Santiago*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santiago, Juan G.

    Temperature Effects on Electrophoresis Anita Rogacs and Juan G. Santiago* Department of Mechanical: We present a model capturing the important contributors to the effects of temperature on the observable electrophoretic mobilities of small ions, and on solution conductivity and pH. Our temperature

  4. Basal-plane thermal conductivity of few-layer molybdenum disulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Insun; Ou, Eric; Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Pettes, Michael Thompson [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Wu, Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the in-plane thermal conductivity of suspended exfoliated few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) samples that were measured by suspended micro-devices with integrated resistance thermometers. The obtained room-temperature thermal conductivity values are (44–50) and (48–52) W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for two samples that are 4 and 7 layers thick, respectively. For both samples, the peak thermal conductivity occurs at a temperature close to 120?K, above which the thermal conductivity is dominated by intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering although phonon scattering by surface disorders can still play an important role in these samples especially at low temperatures.

  5. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  6. A Low Hysteresis NiTiFe Shape Memory Alloy Based Thermal Conduction Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemanski, J. L.; Krishnan, V. B.; Manjeri, R. Mahadevan; Vaidyanathan, R. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, 32816 (United States); Notardonato, W. U. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, 32899 (United States)

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Shape memory alloys possess the ability to return to a preset shape by undergoing a solid state phase transformation at a particular temperature. This work reports on the development and testing of a low temperature thermal conduction switch that incorporates a NiTiFe shape memory element for actuation. The switch was developed to provide a variable conductive pathway between liquid methane and liquid oxygen dewars in order to passively regulate the temperature of methane. The shape memory element in the switch undergoes a rhombohedral or R-phase transformation that is associated with a small hysteresis (typically 1-2 deg. C) and offers the advantage of precision control over a set temperature range. For the NiTiFe alloy used, its thermomechanical processing, subsequent characterization using dilatometry, differential scanning calorimetry and implementation in the conduction switch configuration are addressed.

  7. Dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol-based nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palabiyik, Ibrahim; Witharana, Sanjeeva; Ding, Yulong; 10.1007/s11051-011-0485-x

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol based nanofluids containing Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were studied in the temperature range of 20 to 80 {\\deg}C. Nanofluids with different concentrations of nanoparticles were formulated by the two-step method without use of dispersants. In contrast to the common belief the average particle size of nanofluids was observed to decrease with increasing temperature. The nanofluids showed excellent stability over the temperature range of interest. Thermal conductivity enhancement for both of studied nanofluids was a non-linear function of concentration while was temperature independent. Theoretical analyses were performed using existing models and comparisons were made with experimental results. The model based on the aggregation theory appears to yield the best fit. Keywords: Nanofluids, Propylene glycol, Alumina nanoparticles, Titania nanoparticles, Thermal conductivity, Dispersion stability.

  8. Dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol-based nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibrahim Palabiyik; Zenfira Musina; Sanjeeva Witharana; Yulong Ding

    2012-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersion stability and thermal conductivity of propylene glycol based nanofluids containing Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were studied in the temperature range of 20 to 80 {\\deg}C. Nanofluids with different concentrations of nanoparticles were formulated by the two-step method without use of dispersants. In contrast to the common belief the average particle size of nanofluids was observed to decrease with increasing temperature. The nanofluids showed excellent stability over the temperature range of interest. Thermal conductivity enhancement for both of studied nanofluids was a non-linear function of concentration while was temperature independent. Theoretical analyses were performed using existing models and comparisons were made with experimental results. The model based on the aggregation theory appears to yield the best fit. Keywords: Nanofluids, Propylene glycol, Alumina nanoparticles, Titania nanoparticles, Thermal conductivity, Dispersion stability.

  9. Summary We investigated hydraulic conductance charac-teristics and associated dry matter production and distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeJong, Theodore

    Summary We investigated hydraulic conductance charac- teristics and associated dry matter') vigor rootstock. `K146-43' and `Hiawatha' rootstocks had 27 and 52% lower mean leaf-specific hydraulic and rootstock, which may be a compensatory response to the differences in leaf specific hydraulic conduc- tance

  10. Communication: Minimum in the thermal conductivity of supercooled water: A computer simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bresme, F., E-mail: f.bresme@imperial.ac.uk [Chemical Physics Section, Department of Chemistry, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom and Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim 7491 (Norway); Biddle, J. W.; Sengers, J. V.; Anisimov, M. A. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, and Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of a computer simulation study of the thermodynamic properties and the thermal conductivity of supercooled water as a function of pressure and temperature using the TIP4P-2005 water model. The thermodynamic properties can be represented by a two-structure equation of state consistent with the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point in the supercooled region. Our simulations confirm the presence of a minimum in the thermal conductivity, not only at atmospheric pressure, as previously found for the TIP5P water model, but also at elevated pressures. This anomalous behavior of the thermal conductivity of supercooled water appears to be related to the maximum of the isothermal compressibility or the minimum of the speed of sound. However, the magnitudes of the simulated thermal conductivities are sensitive to the water model adopted and appear to be significantly larger than the experimental thermal conductivities of real water at low temperatures.

  11. Oak Ridge Site Specific

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently Asked QuestionsDepartment ofDepartment640OrderOREMJanuary 20149Oak RidgeSite Specific

  12. Specific Group Hardware

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebookScholarship Fund3Biology|SolarSpeakers BureauSpecialSpecific Group

  13. Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hash, M.C.; Bloom, I.D.

    1992-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800--1200 C), for example 1000 C, than are typically required (1400 C) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250 C with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4[times]10[sup [minus]2](ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250 to 300 C. 1 figure.

  14. Hot wire needle probe for in-reactor thermal conductivity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JE Daw; JL Rempe; DL Knudson

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity is a key property that must be known for proper design, test, and application of new fuels and structural materials in nuclear reactors. Thermal conductivity is highly dependent on the physical structure, chemical composition, and the state of the material. Typically, thermal conductivity changes that occur during irradiation are measured out-of-pile by Post Irradiated Examination (PIE) using a “cook and look” approach in hot-cells. Repeatedly removing samples from a test reactor to make out-of-pile measurements is expensive, has the potential to disturb phenomena of interest, and only provides understanding of the sample's end state at the time each measurement is made. There are also limited thermophysical property data for advanced fuels. Such data are needed for simulation design codes, the development of next generation reactors, and advanced fuels for existing nuclear plants. Being able to quickly characterize fuel thermal conductivity during irradiation can improve the fidelity of data, reduce costs of post-irradiation examinations, increase understanding of how fuels behave under irradiation, and confirm or improve existing thermal conductivity measurement techniques. This paper discusses recent efforts to develop and evaluate an in-pile thermal conductivity sensor based on a hot wire needle probe. Testing has been performed on samples with thermal conductivities ranging from 0.2 W/m-K to 22 W-m-K in temperatures ranging from 20 °C to 600 °C. Thermal conductivity values measured using the needle probe match data found in the literature to within 5% for samples tested at room temperature, 5.67% for low thermal conductivity samples tested at high temperatures, and 10% for high thermal conductivity samples tested at high temperatures. Experimental results also show that this sensor is capable of operating in various test conditions and of surviving long duration irradiations.

  15. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

  16. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has three main goals: Thin Films Studies, Preparation of Graded Porous Substrates and Basic Electrical Characterization and Testing of Planar Single Cells. During this time period substantial progress has been made in developing low temperature deposition techniques to produce dense, nanocrystalline yttrium-stabilized zirconia films on both dense oxide and polymer substrates. Progress has been made in the preparation and characterization of thin electrolytes and porous LSM substrates. Both of these tasks are essentially on or ahead of schedule. In our proposal, we suggested that the ZrO{sub 2}/Sc system needed to be considered as a candidate as a thin electrolyte. This was because microcrystalline ZrO{sub 2}/Sc has a significantly higher ionic conductivity than YSZ, particularly at the lower temperatures. As a result, some 0.5 micron thick film of ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc on an alumina substrate (grain size 20nm) was prepared and the electrical conductivity measured as a function of temperature and oxygen activity. The Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} certainly has a higher conductivity that either 20nm or 2400nm YSZ, however, electronic conductivity dominates the conductivity for oxygen activities below 10{sup -15}. Whereas for YSZ, electronic conductivity is not a problem until the oxygen activity decreases below 10{sup -25}. These initial results show that the ionic conductivity of 20nm YSZ and 20nm ZrO{sub 2}/16% Sc are essentially the same and the enhanced conductivity which is observed for Sc doping in microcrystalline specimens is not observed for the same composition when it is nanocrystalline. In addition they show that the electronic conductivity of Sc doped ZrO{sub 2} is at least two orders of magnitude higher than that observed for YSZ. The conclusion one reaches is that for 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films, Sc doping of ZrO{sub 2} has no benefits compared to YSZ. As a result, electrolyte films of ZrO{sub 2}/Sc should not be considered as candidates. However, they have the potential of being useful as an interface on the anode side of the electrolyte. NexTech has focused much of its effort during the past few months on establishing tape casting methods for porous LSM substrates. This work, performed under a separate DOE-funded program, involved tape casting formulations comprising LSM powders with bi-modal particle size distributions and fugitive pore forming additives. Sintered LSM substrates with porosities in the 30 to 40 vol% range, and pore sizes of 10 {approx} 20 microns have been prepared. In addition, tape casting formulations involving composite mixtures of LSM and Sm-doped ceria (SDC) have been evaluated. The LSM/SDC cathode substrates are expected to provide better performance at low temperatures. Characterization of these materials is currently underway.

  17. Multisublevel Magnetoquantum Conductance in Single and Coupled Double Quantum Wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyo, Sungkwun Ken; Huang, Danhong

    2001-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the ballistic and diffusive magnetoquantum transport using a typical quantum point contact geometry for single and tunnel-coupled double wires that are wide (less than or similar to1 mum) in one perpendicular direction with densely populated sublevels and extremely confined in the other perpendicular (i.e., growth) direction. A general analytic solution to the Boltzmann equation is presented for multisublevel elastic scattering at low temperatures. The solution is employed to study interesting magnetic-field dependent behavior of the conductance such as a large enhancement and quantum oscillations of the conductance for various structures and field orientations. These phenomena originate from the following field-induced properties: magnetic confinement, displacement of the initial- and final-state wave functions for scattering, variation of the Fermi velocities, mass enhancement, depopulation of the sublevels and anticrossing (in double quantum wires). The magnetoconductance is strikingly different in long diffusive (or rough. dirty) wires from the quantized conductance in short ballistic (or clean) wires. Numerical results obtained for the rectangular confinement potentials in the growth direction are satisfactorily interpreted in terms of the analytic solutions based on harmonic confinement potentials. Some of the predicted features of the field-dependent diffusive and quantized conductances are consistent with recent data from GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs double quantum wires.

  18. Thermal conductivity and heat transfer in superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, G.; Neagu, M.; Borca-Tasciuc, T.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the thermal conductivity and heat transfer processes in superlattice structures is critical for the development of thermoelectric materials and devices based on quantum structures. This work reports progress on the modeling of thermal conductivity of superlattice structures. Results from the models established based on the Boltzmann transport equation could explain existing experimental results on the thermal conductivity of semiconductor superlattices in both in plane and cross-plane directions. These results suggest the possibility of engineering the interfaces to further reduce thermal conductivity of superlattice structures.

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: electronic conducting transition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    electronic conducting transition metal oxides Joint Hire Increases Materials Science Collaboration for Sandia, UNM On September 16, 2014, in Advanced Materials Laboratory,...

  20. Conducting polymer actuator enhancement through microstructuring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroactive conducting polymers, such as polypyrrole, polyaniline, and polythiophenes are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanisms in these materials are based on the diffusion ...

  1. Fabrication and characterization of conducting polymer microwires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saez, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible microwires fabricated from conducting polymers have a wide range of potential applications, including smart textiles that incorporate sensing, actuation, and data processing. The development of garments that ...

  2. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Electronically Conductive Polymer Nanostructures,” Acc.et al. , “Conjugated-Polymer Micro- and Milliactuators for3. Y. Berdichevsky, Y. -H. Lo, “Polymer Microvalve Based on

  3. Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Industry Resource Type: Guidemanual Website: china.lbl.govsiteschina.lbl.govfilesLBNL-3991E.Industrial%20Energy Industrial Energy Audit Guidebook: Guidelines for Conducting...

  4. EPA -- Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Addressing Children's Health through Reviews Conducted Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act EPA -- Addressing Children's Health...

  5. Effect of interfacial interactions on the thermal conductivity and interfacial thermal conductance in tungsten–graphene layered structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagannadham, K., E-mail: jag-kasichainula@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene film was deposited by microwave plasma assisted deposition on polished oxygen free high conductivity copper foils. Tungsten–graphene layered film was formed by deposition of tungsten film by magnetron sputtering on the graphene covered copper foils. Tungsten film was also deposited directly on copper foil without graphene as the intermediate film. The tungsten–graphene–copper samples were heated at different temperatures up to 900?°C in argon atmosphere to form an interfacial tungsten carbide film. Tungsten film deposited on thicker graphene platelets dispersed on silicon wafer was also heated at 900?°C to identify the formation of tungsten carbide film by reaction of tungsten with graphene platelets. The films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. It was found that tungsten carbide film formed at the interface upon heating only above 650?°C. Transient thermoreflectance signal from the tungsten film surface on the samples was collected and modeled using one-dimensional heat equation. The experimental and modeled results showed that the presence of graphene at the interface reduced the cross-plane effective thermal conductivity and the interfacial thermal conductance of the layer structure. Heating at 650 and 900?°C in argon further reduced the cross-plane thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance as a result of formation nanocrystalline tungsten carbide at the interface leading to separation and formation of voids. The present results emphasize that interfacial interactions between graphene and carbide forming bcc and hcp elements will reduce the cross-plane effective thermal conductivity in composites.

  6. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  7. Crevice corrosion repassivation temperatures of highly alloyed stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valen, S.; Gartland, P.O. [SINTEF Corrosion Center, Trondheim (Norway)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to study the repassivation temperature of a highly alloyed austenitic (UNS S31254) and of a highly alloyed duplex (UNS S32750) stainless steel (SS). When initiated at a high temperature, repassivation occurred at a temperature level significantly lower than normally associated with initiation of crevice corrosion. Experimental results combined with computer modeling of crevice corrosion explored the mechanistic aspects. In this respect, the similarity between the hysteresis observed by cyclic polarization and cyclic temperature tests was emphasized.

  8. Electronically conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a conducting oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the conducting oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The conducting metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.17/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The optical response of the conducting oxide materials is proposed to result from the high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity of the conducting metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity. These changes in effective carrier densities and electronic conductivity of conducting metal oxide films and nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary conducting metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  9. Ion-conducting ceramic apparatus, method, fabrication, and applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yates, Matthew (Penfield, NY); Liu, Dongxia (Rochester, NY)

    2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A c-axis-oriented HAP thin film synthesized by seeded growth on a palladium hydrogen membrane substrate. An exemplary synthetic process includes electrochemical seeding on the substrate, and secondary and tertiary hydrothermal treatments under conditions that favor growth along c-axes and a-axes in sequence. By adjusting corresponding synthetic conditions, an HAP this film can be grown to a controllable thickness with a dense coverage on the underlying substrate. The thin films have relatively high proton conductivity under hydrogen atmosphere and high temperature conditions. The c-axis oriented films may be integrated into fuel cells for application in the intermediate temperature range of 200-600.degree. C. The electrochemical-hydrothermal deposition technique may be applied to create other oriented crystal materials having optimized properties, useful for separations and catalysis as well as electronic and electrochemical applications, electrochemical membrane reactors, and in chemical sensors.

  10. The Casimir effect for a stack of conductive planes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khusnutdinov, Nail; Woods, Lilia M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir interaction in a stack of equally spaced infinitely thin layers is investigated within the zero-frequency mode summation method. The response properties are considered to be described by a constant conductivity or by a Drude-Lorentz model with a finite set of oscillators consistent with the optical characteristics for graphite. It is found that the asymptotic distance dependence is affected significantly by the specific response. While the energy is $\\sim 1/d^3$ for the constant conductivity model, the energy exhibits fractional dependence $\\sim 1/d^{5/2}$ for the Drude-Lorentz description. The Casimir force on a plane is also strongly dependent upon the particular plane location in the stack. Furthermore, the calculated Casimir energy within the Drude-Lorentz model yields results in good agreement with measured cohesion energy in graphite.

  11. Origin of Colossal Ionic Conductivity in Oxide Multilayers: Interface Induced Sublattice Disorder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pennycook, Timothy J [ORNL; Beck, Matthew [Vanderbilt University; Varga, Kalman [ORNL; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Pantelides, Sokrates T [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxide ionic conductors typically operate at high temperatures, which limits their usefulness. Colossal room-temperature ionic conductivity was recently discovered in multilayers of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and SrTiO3. Here we report density-functional calculations that trace the origin of the effect to a combination of lattice-mismatch strain and O-sublattice incompatibility. Strain alone in bulk YSZ enhances O mobility at high temperatures by inducing extreme O disorder. In multilayer structures, O-sublattice incompatibility causes the same extreme disorder at room temperature.

  12. Electric conductivity of the quark-gluon plasma investigated using a perturbative QCD based parton cascade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moritz Greif; Ioannis Bouras; Zhe Xu; Carsten Greiner

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric conductivity is sensitive to effective cross sections among the particles of the partonic medium. We investigate the electric conductivity of a hot plasma of quarks and gluons, solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation. In order to extract this transport coefficient, we employ the Green-Kubo formalism and, independently, a method motivated by the classical definition of electric conductivity. To this end we evaluate the static electric diffusion current upon the influence of an electric field. Both methods give identical results. For the first time, we obtain numerically the Drude electric conductivity formula for an ultrarelativistic gas of quarks and gluons employing constant isotropic binary cross sections. Furthermore, we extract the electric conductivity for a system of massless quarks and gluons including screened binary and inelastic, radiative $2\\leftrightarrow 3$ perturbative QCD scattering. Comparing with recent lattice results, we find an agreement in the temperature dependence of the conductivity.

  13. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  14. Proton conducting membrane for fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colombo, Daniel G.; Krumpelt, Michael; Myers, Deborah J.; Kopasz, John P.

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion conducting membrane comprising dendrimeric polymers covalently linked into a network structure. The dendrimeric polymers have acid functional terminal groups and may be covalently linked via linking compounds, cross-coupling reactions, or copolymerization reactions. The ion conducting membranes may be produced by various methods and used in fuel cells.

  15. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shea, John Joseph (Pittsburgh, PA); Djordjevic, Miomir B. (Milwaukee, WI); Hanna, William Kingston (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  16. NUMBER: 1530 TITLE: Code of Student Conduct

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . For the purposes of this Code, the term "University Official" is inclusive of "Faculty Member" as defined in IV 1530 1 NUMBER: 1530 TITLE: Code of Student Conduct APPROVED: August 27, 1970; Revised June 14, 2012 I. BASIS AND RATIONALE FOR A CODE OF STUDENT CONDUCT Old Dominion University

  17. Selected factors influencing GCL hydraulic conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrov, R.J. [Trow Consulting Engineers Ltd., Brampton, Ontario (Canada); Rowe, R.K.; Quigley, R.M. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of confined swell and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on a needle-punched geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) with water as the hydrating medium and reference permeant. Increases in the static confining stress and the needle-punching both restricted GCL swell and contributed to lower bulk GCL void ratios and hence significantly lower hydraulic conductivity values. A well defined linear-log relationship is found between the bulk void ratio and hydraulic conductivity. The number of pore volumes of permeant flow and consequently the level of chemical equilibrium is shown to have a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity. It is shown that there is a decrease in hydraulic conductivity for small amounts of permeant flow for all ethanol/water mixtures examined. At or near chemical equilibrium, low concentration mixtures (25 and 50% ethanol) continued to produce relative decreases in GCL hydraulic conductivity due to the increased viscosity of the permeant; however, highly concentrated mixtures (75 and 100% ethanol) produced relative increases in GCL hydraulic conductivity arising from double layer contraction. The implications are discussed.

  18. The Generalized Switched Accounting or Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Generalized Switched Accounting or Conduction Isaac Zafrany1 1 Technical Support Avant modeling and simulation of PWM converters was extended to include conduction losses. The method covers losses due to the inductor's resistance and due to the voltage drops across the switch and the diode

  19. Proton conducting ceramic membranes for hydrogen separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elangovan, S. (South Jordan, UT); Nair, Balakrishnan G. (Sandy, UT); Small, Troy (Midvale, UT); Heck, Brian (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2011-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-phase proton conducting material comprising a proton-conducting ceramic phase and a stabilizing ceramic phase. Under the presence of a partial pressure gradient of hydrogen across the membrane or under the influence of an electrical potential, a membrane fabricated with this material selectively transports hydrogen ions through the proton conducting phase, which results in ultrahigh purity hydrogen permeation through the membrane. The stabilizing ceramic phase may be substantially structurally and chemically identical to at least one product of a reaction between the proton conducting phase and at least one expected gas under operating conditions of a membrane fabricated using the material. In a barium cerate-based proton conducting membrane, one stabilizing phase is ceria.

  20. The Organic Chemistry of Conducting Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Laren Malcolm [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the last several years, we have examined the fundamental principles of conduction in one-dimensional systems, i.e., molecular “wires”. It is, of course, widely recognized that such systems, as components of electronically conductive materials, function in a two- and three-dimensional milieu. Thus interchain hopping and grain-boundary resistivity are limiting conductivity factors in highly conductive materials, and overall conductivity is a function of through-chain and boundary hopping. We have given considerable attention to the basic principles underlying charge transport (the “rules of the game”) in two-dimensional systems by using model systems which allow direct observation of such processes, including the examination of tunneling and hopping as components of charge transfer. In related work, we have spent considerable effort on the chemistry of conjugated heteropolymers, most especially polythiophens, with the aim of using these most efficient of readily available electroactive polymers in photovoltaic devices.

  1. High temperature mechanical performance of a hot isostatically pressed silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Jenkins, M.G.; Lin, C.K.J. [and others] [and others

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon nitride ceramics are an attractive material of choice for designers and manufacturers of advanced gas turbine engine components for many reasons. These materials typically have potentially high temperatures of usefulness (up to 1400{degrees}C), are chemically inert, have a relatively low specific gravity (important for inertial effects), and are good thermal conductors (i.e., resistant to thermal shock). In order for manufacturers to take advantage of these inherent properties of silicon nitride, the high-temperature mechanical performance of the material must first be characterized. The mechanical response of silicon nitride to static, dynamic, and cyclic conditions at elevated temperatures, along with reliable and representative data, is critical information that gas turbine engine designers and manufacturers require for the confident insertion of silicon nitride components into gas turbine engines. This final report describes the high-temperature mechanical characterization and analyses that were conducted on a candidate structural silicon nitride ceramic. The high-temperature strength, static fatigue (creep rupture), and dynamic and cyclic fatigue performance were characterized. The efforts put forth were part of Work Breakdown Structure Subelement 3.2.1, {open_quotes}Rotor Data Base Generation.{close_quotes} PY6 is comparable to other hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides currently being considered for advanced gas turbine engine applications.

  2. Specification No. 203-HJT-9004 R0 Specification for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Specification No. 203-HJT-9004 R0 Specification for the MERIT Mercury-Jet Experiment Titanium TITANIUM TARGET MODULE COMPONENTS Prepared by: V.B. Graves (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) P. T. Spampinato.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY April 10, 2006 #12;Specification for Ti Alloy Components MERIT High Power Mercury

  3. General Vehicle Performance Specifications for the UPRM AUV Vehicle Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    General Vehicle Performance Specifications for the UPRM AUV Vehicle Specifications Vehicle Characteristics Specification Maximum Depth 700m with 1.5 safety factor Vehicle power 2kWHr Li Ion Rechargeable Transducer 700m rated Paroscientific Depth Sensor will be integrated into the vehicle navigation stream

  4. Finite Temperature Closed Superstring Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We find that the gas of IIA strings undergoes a phase transition into a gas of IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. A gas of free heterotic strings undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless duality transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat but vanishing internal energy at criticality. We examine the consequences of requiring a tachyon-free thermal string spectrum. We show that in the absence of Ramond-Ramond fluxes the IIA and IIB string ensembles are thermodynamically ill-defined. The 10D heterotic superstrings have nonabelian gauge fields and in the presence of a temperature dependent Wilson line background are found to share a stable and tachyon-free ground state at all temperatures starting from zero with gauge group SO(16)xSO(16). The internal energy of the heterotic string is a monotonically increasing function of temperature with a stable and supersymmetric zero temperature limit. Our results point to the necessity of gauge fields in a viable weakly coupled superstring theory. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  5. High Temperature Heat Exchanger Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony E. Hechanova, Ph.D.

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The UNLV Research Foundation assembled a research consortium for high temperature heat exchanger design and materials compatibility and performance comprised of university and private industry partners under the auspices of the US DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative in October 2003. The objectives of the consortium were to conduct investigations of candidate materials for high temperature heat exchanger componets in hydrogen production processes and design and perform prototypical testing of heat exchangers. The initial research of the consortium focused on the intermediate heat exchanger (located between the nuclear reactor and hydrogen production plan) and the components for the hydrogen iodine decomposition process and sulfuric acid decomposition process. These heat exchanger components were deemed the most challenging from a materials performance and compatibility perspective

  6. Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L.; Choi, S. U.S.; Energy Systems; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Korea Inst. of Energy Research

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study provides a detailed literature review and an assessment of results of the research and development work forming the current status of nanofluid technology for heat transfer applications. Nanofluid technology is a relatively new field, and as such, the supporting studies are not extensive. Specifically, experimental results were reviewed in this study regarding the enhancement of the thermal conductivity and convective heat transfer of nanofluids relative to conventional heat transfer fluids, and assessments were made as to the state-of-the-art of verified parametric trends and magnitudes. Pertinent parameters of particle volume concentration, particle material, particle size, particle shape, base fluid material, temperature, additive, and acidity were considered individually, and experimental results from multiple research groups were used together when assessing results. To this end, published research results from many studies were recast using a common parameter to facilitate comparisons of data among research groups and to identify thermal property and heat transfer trends. The current state of knowledge is presented as well as areas where the data are presently inconclusive or conflicting. Heat transfer enhancement for available nanofluids is shown to be in the 15-40% range, with a few situations resulting in orders of magnitude enhancement.

  7. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Gorokhovsky

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

  8. Thermal Conductivity and Seebeck Coefficients of Icosahedral Boron Arsenide Films on Silicon Carbide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Gong; Y Zhang; M Dudley; Y Zhang; J Edgar; P Heard; M Kuball

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity of icosahedral boron arsenide (B{sub 12}As{sub 2}) films grown on (0001) 6H-SiC substrates by chemical vapor deposition was studied by the 3{omega} technique. The room temperature thermal conductivity decreased from 27.0 to 15.3 W/m K as the growth temperature was decreased from 1450 to 1275 C. This is mainly attributed to the differences in the impurity concentration and microstructure, determined from secondary ion mass spectrometry and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Callaway's theory was applied to calculate the temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, and the results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Seebeck coefficients were determined as 107 {micro}V/K and 136 {micro}V/K for samples grown at 1350 C with AsH{sub 3}/B{sub 2}H{sub 6} flow ratio equals to 1:1 and 3:5, respectively.

  9. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morales-Masis, M., E-mail: monica.moralesmasis@epfl.ch; Ding, L.; Dauzou, F. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Jeangros, Q. [Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hessler-Wyser, A. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Interdisciplinary Centre for Electron Microscopy, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Nicolay, S. [Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin-Film Electronics Laboratory (PVLab), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne - EPFL, Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique (CSEM) SA, Rue Jaquet-Droz 1, CH-2002 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50?°C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  10. Effect of Severe Plastic Deformation and Subsequent Heat Treatment on Hardness and Electrical Conductivity of Oxygen-Free High Conductivity (OFHC) Copper, Commercial Pure Copper, and Copper Chromium Alloy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kao, Yi-Tang

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of large amounts of plastic strain on the hardness and electrical conductivity for electrical conductor applications. Different levels of plastic strain and strain orientation combinations were applied by ECAE at room temperature. Heat treatments...

  11. Thermal conductivity studies of metal dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes in water and ethylene glycol based nanofluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, Neetu; Ramaprabhu, S. [Department of Physics, Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL), Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre (NFMTC), Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    High thermal conducting metal nanoparticles have been dispersed on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) outer surface. Structural and morphological characterizations of metal dispersed MWNTs have been carried out using x-ray diffraction analysis, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nanofluids have been synthesized using metal-MWNTs in de-ionized water (DI water) and ethylene glycol (EG) base fluids. It has been observed that nanofluids maintain the same sequence of thermal conductivity as that of metal nanoparticles Ag-MWNTs>Au-MWNTs>Pd-MWNTs. A maximum enhancement of 37.3% and 11.3% in thermal conductivity has been obtained in Ag-MWNTs nanofluid with DI water and EG as base fluids, respectively, at a volume fraction of 0.03%. Temperature dependence study also shows enhancement of thermal conductivity with temperature.

  12. Lattice thermal conductivity of UO{sub 2} using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hyoungchul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); High-Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kaviany, Massoud, E-mail: kaviany@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We applied the non-equilibrium ab-initio molecular dynamics and predict the lattice thermal conductivity of the pristine uranium dioxide for up to 2000?K. We also use the equilibrium classical molecular dynamics and heat-current autocorrelation decay theory to decompose the lattice thermal conductivity into acoustic and optical components. The predicted optical phonon transport is temperature independent and small, while the acoustic component follows the Slack relation and is in good agreement with the limited single-crystal experimental results. Considering the phonon grain-boundary and pore scatterings, the effective lattice thermal conductivity is reduced, and we show it is in general agreement with the sintered-powder experimental results. The charge and photon thermal conductivities are also addressed, and we find small roles for electron, surface polaron, and photon in the defect-free structures and for temperatures below 1500?K.

  13. MEAN TEMPERATURE RISE IN A TARGET Keith Symon LS-99

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by formula (8), which is therefore conservative. The thermal conductivity of tungsten at room temperature is 0.5 calsec cm degC, and about half that at 2000C. The...

  14. A REVIEW OF GLOBAL OCEAN TEMPERATURE OBSERVATIONS: IMPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , mutually reinforcing information from tide gauges and radar altimetry shows that presently, sea level bathythermo- graphs and conductivity-temperature-depth instruments used on Argo floats). A detailed discussion

  15. Increased thermal conductivity monolithic zeolite structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James (Knoxville, TN); Klett, Lynn (Knoxville, TN); Kaufman, Jonathan (Leonardtown, MD)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolith comprises a zeolite, a thermally conductive carbon, and a binder. The zeolite is included in the form of beads, pellets, powders and mixtures thereof. The thermally conductive carbon can be carbon nano-fibers, diamond or graphite which provide thermal conductivities in excess of about 100 W/mK to more than 1,000 W/mK. A method of preparing a zeolite monolith includes the steps of mixing a zeolite dispersion in an aqueous colloidal silica binder with a dispersion of carbon nano-fibers in water followed by dehydration and curing of the binder is given.

  16. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G., E-mail: gerald.faussurier@cea.fr; Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  17. Thermal conductivity of bulk nanostructured lead telluride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hori, Takuma [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Chen, Gang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Shiomi, Junichiro, E-mail: shiomi@photon.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of lead telluride with embedded nanoinclusions was studied using Monte Carlo simulations with intrinsic phonon transport properties obtained from first-principles-based lattice dynamics. The nanoinclusion/matrix interfaces were set to completely reflect phonons to model the maximum interface-phonon-scattering scenario. The simulations with the geometrical cross section and volume fraction of the nanoinclusions matched to those of the experiment show that the experiment has already reached the theoretical limit of thermal conductivity. The frequency-dependent analysis further identifies that the thermal conductivity reduction is dominantly attributed to scattering of low frequency phonons and demonstrates mutual adaptability of nanostructuring and local disordering.

  18. Characterization of macro-length conducting polymers and the development of a conducting polymer rotary motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmid, Bryan D. (Bryan David), 1981-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are a subset of materials within the electroactive polymer class that exhibit active mechanical deformations. These deformations induce stresses and strains that allow for conducting polymers to be used ...

  19. Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capozzoli, Peter M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

  20. Light transmissive electrically conductive oxide electrode formed in the presence of a stabilizing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tran, Nang T. (Cottage Grove, MN); Gilbert, James R. (Maplewood, MN)

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide is doped with a stabilizing gas such as H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. The oxide is formed by sputtering a light transmissive, electrically conductive oxide precursor onto a substrate at a temperature from 20.degree. C. to 300.degree. C. Sputtering occurs in a gaseous mixture including a sputtering gas and the stabilizing gas.

  1. Development, setup and testing of a dynamic hydraulic fracture conductivity apparatus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pongthunya, Potcharaporn

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    gel tank, a series of multistage centrifugal pumps to inject fluid at high pressure, cylindrical heaters and heating jacket to build fluid temperature up to reservoir conditions, a modified API fracture conductivity cell, a load frame to apply... pumps by a small centrifugal pump, flows through cylindrical heaters, and enters the conductivity cell. The fluid flows into a high-pressure vessel and goes into a waste tank. The pressure is controlled by needle valves installed at the outlet...

  2. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  3. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  4. Tunable ionic-conductivity of collapsed Sandia octahedral molecular sieves (SOMS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pless, Jason; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Garino, Terry J.; Axness, Marlene

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This proposal focuses on the synthesis and characterization of ''tunable'' perovskite ceramics with resulting controlled strength and temperature of dielectric constants and/or with ionic conductivity. Traditional methods of synthesis involve high temperature oxide mixing and baking. We developed a new methodology of synthesis involving the (1) low temperature hydrothermal synthesis of metastable porous phases with ''tuned'' stoichiometry, and element types, and then (2) low temperature heat treatment to build exact stoichiometry perovskites, with the desired vacancy concentrations. This flexible pathway can lead to compositions and structures not attainable by conventional methods. During the course of this program, a series of Na-Nb perovskites were synthesized by calcining and collapsing microporous Sandia Octahedral Molecular Sieve (SOMS) phases. These materials were studied by various characterization techniques and conductivity measurements to better delineate stability and stoichiometry/bulk conductivity relationships. The conductivity can be altered by changing the concentration and type of the substituting framework cation(s) or by ion exchange of sodium. To date, the Na{sub 0.9}Mg{sub 0.1}Nb{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} shows the best conductivity.

  5. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Steady Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Steady Heat Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of the material. In the limiting case where x0, the equation above reduces to the differential form: W dx dT k is the only energy interaction; the energy balance for the wall can be expressed: dt dE QQ wall outin). Thermal Conductivity Thermal conductivity k [W/mK] is a measure of a material's ability to conduct heat

  6. Numerical Model for Conduction-Cooled Current Lead Heat Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; /Fermilab; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY

    2011-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).

  7. Modeling tensorial conductivity of particle suspension networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler Olsen; Ken Kamrin

    2015-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant microstructural anisotropy is known to develop during shearing flow of attractive particle suspensions. These suspensions, and their capacity to form conductive networks, play a key role in flow-battery technology, among other applications. Herein, we present and test an analytical model for the tensorial conductivity of attractive particle suspensions. The model utilizes the mean fabric of the network to characterize the structure, and the relationship to the conductivity is inspired by a lattice argument. We test the accuracy of our model against a large number of computer-generated suspension networks, based on multiple in-house generation protocols, giving rise to particle networks that emulate the physical system. The model is shown to adequately capture the tensorial conductivity, both in terms of its invariants and its mean directionality.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vandesteeg, Nathan A. (Nathan Alan)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are known to mechanically respond to electrochemical stimuli and have been utilized as linear actuators. To date, the most successful mechanism for actuation is ionic ingress and egress, though mechanisms ...

  9. LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE LA CONDUCTION LECTRIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    LE JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE ET LE RADIUM LA CONDUCTION ÉLECTRIQUE DES HYDROCARBURES LIQUIDES EN COUCHES hydrocarbures liquides en couches minces, signalé dans un précédent mémoire. Les expériences, faites dans des

  10. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  11. November 15, 2012 Conducting and managing documents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaji, Hajime

    1 November 15, 2012 Conducting and managing documents #12;2 Agenda 1. Basics of copyright 2. Necessary information for citing materials 3. Citation Manager #12;1.Basics of copyright 3 #12;Definitions

  12. Large displacement fast conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Angela Y. (Angela Ying-Ju), 1982-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers are a promising class of electroactive materials that undergo volumetric changes under applied potentials, which make them particularly useful for many actuation applications. Polypyrrole , is one of ...

  13. Conducting polymer nanostructures for biological applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Yevgeny

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis and characterization of conducting copolymer nanofibrils of pyrrolepolypyrrole synthesis was 0.1 M pyrrole monomer dissolved insynthesis Polypyrrole was electropolymerized from a solution of 0.1 M pyrrole (

  14. Development and characterization of conducting polymer actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pillai, Priam Vasudevan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers such as polypyrrole, polythiophene and polyaniline are currently studied as novel biologically inspired actuators. The actuation mechanism of these materials depends upon the motion of ions in and out ...

  15. California: Conducting Polymer Binder Boosts Storage Capacity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - 10:17am Addthis Working with Nextval, Inc., Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed a Conducting Polymer Binder for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. With a...

  16. Nanopatterned Electrically Conductive Films of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentzel, Tamar

    We present the first semiconductor nanocrystal films of nanoscale dimensions that are electrically conductive and crack-free. These films make it possible to study the electrical properties intrinsic to the nanocrystals ...

  17. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  18. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  19. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A. (Conifer, CO); Duenow, Joel N. (Golden, CO); Barnes, Teresa (Evergreen, CO); Coutts, Timothy J. (Golden, CO)

    2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  20. Method and apparatus for producing a carbon based foam article having a desired thermal-conductivity gradient

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC) [Sanford, NC

    2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon based foam article is made by heating the surface of a carbon foam block to a temperature above its graphitizing temperature, which is the temperature sufficient to graphitize the carbon foam. In one embodiment, the surface is heated with infrared pulses until heat is transferred from the surface into the core of the foam article such that the graphitizing temperature penetrates into the core to a desired depth below the surface. The graphitizing temperature is maintained for a time sufficient to substantially entirely graphitize the portion of the foam article from the surface to the desired depth below the surface. Thus, the foam article is an integral monolithic material that has a desired conductivity gradient with a relatively high thermal conductivity in the portion of the core that was graphitized and a relatively low thermal conductivity in the remaining portion of the foam article.

  1. Software Requirements Specification Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation (VISION) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Shropshire; W. H. West

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Software Requirements Specification (SRS) is to define the top-level requirements for a Verifiable Fuel Cycle Simulation Model (VISION) of the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC). This simulation model is intended to serve a broad systems analysis and study tool applicable to work conducted as part of the AFCI (including costs estimates) and Generation IV reactor development studies.

  2. Reexamination of Basal Plane Thermal Conductivity of Suspended Graphene Samples Measured by Electro-Thermal Micro-Bridge Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Insun [University of Texas at Austin; Pettes, Michael [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Lindsay, Lucas R [ORNL; Ou, Eric [University of Texas at Austin; Weathers, Annie [University of Texas at Austin; Moore, Arden [Louisiana Tech University; Yao, Zhen [University of Texas at Austin; Shi, Li [University of Texas at Austin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier s law despite the increase in the apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed thermal conductivity of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about ( 1680 180 )Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about ( 880 60 ) and ( 730 60 ) Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.

  3. On Energy and Entropy Influxes in the Green-Naghdi Type III Theory of Heat Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swantje Bargmann; Antonino Favata; Paolo Podio-Guidugli

    2012-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy-influx/entropy-influx relation in the Green-Naghdi Type III theory of heat conduction is examined within a thermodynamical framework \\`a la Mueller-Liu, where that relation is not specified a priori irrespectively of the constitutive class under attention. It is shown that the classical assumption, i.e., that the entropy influx and the energy influx are proportional via the absolute temperature, holds true if heat conduction is, in a sense that is made precise, isotropic. In addition, it is proven that the standard assumption does not hold in case of transversely isotropic conduction.

  4. Electrical conductivity of the quark-gluon plasma and soft photon spectrum in heavy-ion collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yin, Yi

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I extract the electrical conductivity ?0 of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) and study the effects of magnetic field and chiral anomaly on soft photon azimuthal anisotropy, v?, based on the thermal photon spectrum at 0.4GeVmore »Collaboration, I found that the electrical conductivity at QGP temperature is in the range: 0.4« less

  5. Structural Effects in the Protonic/Electronic Conductivity of Dion-Jacobson Phase Niobate and Tantalate Layered Perovskites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conducting polymers are chemically unstable in the intermediate temperature regime. A number of polymer-inorganic composites and polymers combined with nonaqueous liquid proton conductors have been studied for use betweenStructural Effects in the Protonic/Electronic Conductivity of Dion-Jacobson Phase Niobate

  6. Temperatures and interval geothermal-gradient determinations from wells in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchard, D.C.; Tailleur, I.L.

    1983-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Temperature and related records from 28 wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA) although somewhat constrained from accuracy by data gathering methods, extrapolate to undisturbed formation temperatures at specific depths below permafrost, and lead to calculated geothermal graidents between these depths. Tabulation of the results show that extrapolated undisturbed temperatures range from a minimum of 98/sup 0/F (37/sup 0/C) at 4000 feet (1220 m) to a maximum of 420/sup 0/F (216/sup 0/C) at 20,260 feet (6177 m) and that geothermal gradients range from 0.34/sup 0/F/100' (6/sup 0/C/km) between 4470 feet to 7975 feet (Lisburne No. 1) and 3.15/sup 0/F/100' (57/sup 0/C/km) between 6830 feet to 7940 feet (Drew Point No. 1). Essential information needed for extrapolations consists of: time-sequential bottom-hole temperatures during wire-line logging of intermediate and deep intervals of the borehole; the times that circulating drilling fluids had disturbed the formations; and the subsequent times that non-circulating drilling fluids had been in contact with the formation. In several wells presumed near direct measures of rock temperatures recorded from formation fluids recovered by drill stem tests (DST) across thin (approx. 10-20 foot) intervals are made available. We believe that the results approach actual values close enough to serve as approximations of the thermal regimes in appropriate future investigations. Continuous temperature logs obtained at the start and end of final logging operations, conductivity measurements, and relatively long-term measurements of the recovery from disturbance at shallow depths in many of the wells will permit refinements of our values and provide determination of temperatures at other depths. 4 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods - Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop-point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 °C - DC resistivity at 23 °C and 100 °C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specifies the test methods for filling compounds of electric cables used with telecommunication equipment. Gives the methods for drop-point, separation of oil, lower temperature brittleness, total acid number, absence of corrosive components, permittivity at 23 °C, d.c. resistivity at 23°C and 100°C.

  8. Temperature and composition phase diagram in the iron-based ladder compounds Ba 1 - x Cs x Fe 2 Se 3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hawai, Takafumi; Nambu, Yusuke; Ohgushi, Kenya; Du, Fei; Hirata, Yasuyuki; Avdeev, Maxim; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Sekine, Yurina; Fukazawa, Hiroshi; Ma, Jie; Chi, Songxue; Ueda, Yutaka; Yoshizawa, Hideki; Sato, Taku J.

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the iron-based ladder compounds (Ba,Cs)Fe?Se?. Their parent compounds BaFe?Se? and CsFe?Se? have different space groups, formal valences of Fe, and magnetic structures. Electrical resistivity, specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, x-ray diffraction, and powder neutron diffraction measurements were conducted to obtain a temperature and composition phase diagram of this system. Block magnetism observed in BaFe?Se? is drastically suppressed with Cs doping. In contrast, stripe magnetism observed in CsFe?Se? is not so fragile against Ba doping. A new type of magnetic structure appears in intermediate compositions, which is similar to stripe magnetism of CsFe?Se?, but interladder spin configuration is different. Intermediate compounds show insulating behavior, nevertheless a finite T-linear contribution in specific heat was obtained at low temperatures.

  9. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    batteries. Solar Water Heater Solar water heater is becomingSolar Water Heater heaters, thermal protection for electronics, spacecrafts, and solar

  10. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 Fig. 1.2. Solar power plant operation [Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications AMaterials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

  11. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Water Heater power systems that rely on batteries. Solar Water HeaterSolar water heater is becoming more popular because they are

  12. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    materials (PCM) in solar thermal concentrating technologyeffective and efficient solar thermal electricity generatorbeen considered for solar thermal energy storages. These are

  13. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Janz, G.J. , 1967. Molten Salts Handbook. Academic Press,Newapplication, oils, molten salts and liquid metals are bettercrucible was placed inside a molten salt bath at a desired

  14. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 Fig. 1.2. Solar power plant operation [Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications Afor Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications by Melina

  15. Measuring Frac-pack Conductivity at Reservoir Temperature and High Closure Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandes, Preston X.

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    sands, oil shales and ultra deepwater wells are examples of unconventional reservoirs. Ultra-deepwater reservoirs have the potential to produce billions of barrels of hydrocarbons from the deep buried formations. These reservoirs are usually high...

  16. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    537°C) steam for the steam turbine to generate electricity.as heat sources for steam turbines. Mainly three approachesto Stirling or Brayton steam turbine, moderate to high heat

  17. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are non-compatibility with plastic containers, and moderateCaCl 2 . 6 H 2 O in plastic film containers reported to beare often containers and bags made of metal or plastic [6].

  18. Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Concentrating Solar Power Plant Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roshandell, Melina

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    been considered for solar thermal energy storages. These arePCMs for thermal energy storage in solar driven residentialfluid and thermal energy storage medium in the solar heat

  19. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Conductivity & Temperature Sensor 4119 | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:LandownersLuther, Oklahoma: EnergyMAREC Jump to:2 -

  20. Esimation of field-scale thermal conductivities of unsaturated rocks from in-situ temperature data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.; Birkholzer, Jens T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    times with different heat inputs. The second column in Tableevident that reducing the heat input by 5% results in almostSimilarly, increasing the heat input by 5% results in a

  1. High-Throughput Computational Screening of thermal conductivity, Debye temperature and Gruneisen parameter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curtarolo, Stefano

    , such us the development of new thermoelectric materials1,2 , heat sink materials for ther- mal management and Materials Science, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708, USA 2 Department of Materials Science Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton TX 4 Materials Science

  2. Temperature, thermal-conductivity, and heat-flux data,Raft River area,

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <Maintained ByManagement Inc

  3. The Thermal Conductivity of Rocks and Its Dependence Upon Temperature and

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolarTharaldson Ethanol LLC Jump to:UncertaintySocial36 Sector:

  4. Conduction Models Of The Temperature Distribution In The East Rift Zone Of

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew| Open EnergyInformation Faulds,Concordia,Kilauea

  5. Electrical and thermal conductivities of reduced graphene oxide/polystyrene Wonjun Park, Jiuning Hu, Luis A. Jauregui, Xiulin Ruan, and Yong P. Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yong P.

    conductive polymer composites are used as heat sinks for device packaging requiring a high thermalElectrical and thermal conductivities of reduced graphene oxide/polystyrene composites Wonjun Park. The electrical conductivity (r) of RGO/PS composites with different RGO concentrations at room temperature shows

  6. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 63, NO. 4 (JULY-AUGUST 1998); P. 11371149, 10 FIGS., 1 TABLE. Electrical conductivity of steam-flooded,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knight, Rosemary

    conductivity of steam-flooded, clay-bearing geologic materials David B. Butler and Rosemary J. Knight ABSTRACT the conductivity of a steam zone by providing a surface conduction path that is enhanced strongly by temperature increases. Clay also increases the residual water saturation in a steam zone, further increasing

  7. Conductivity Measurements of Synthesized Heteropoly Acid Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Record, K.A.; Haley, B.T.; Turner, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell technology is receiving attention due to its potential to be a pollution free method of electricity production when using renewably produced hydrogen as fuel. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell H2 and O2 react at separate electrodes, producing electricity, thermal energy, and water. A key component of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane that separates the electrodes. DuPont’s Nafion® is the most commonly used membrane in PEM fuel cells; however, fuel cell dehydration at temperatures near 100°C, resulting in poor conductivity, is a major hindrance to fuel cell performance. Recent studies incorporating heteropoly acids (HPAs) into membranes have shown an increase in conductivity and thus improvement in performance. HPAs are inorganic materials with known high proton conductivities. The primary objective of this work is to measure the conductivity of Nafion, X-Ionomer membranes, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developed Membranes that are doped with different HPAs at different concentrations. Four-point conductivity measurements using a third generation BekkTech? conductivity test cell are used to determine membrane conductivity. The effect of multiple temperature and humidification levels is also examined. While the classic commercial membrane, Nafion, has a conductivity of approximately 0.10 S/cm, measurements for membranes in this study range from 0.0030 – 0.58 S/cm, depending on membrane type, structure of the HPA, and the relative humidity. In general, the X-ionomer with H6P2W21O71 HPA gave the highest conductivity and the Nafion with the 12-phosphotungstic (PW12) HPA gave the lowest. The NREL composite membranes had conductivities on the order of 0.0013 – 0.025 S/cm.

  8. Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ramsey

    2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of thermal conductivity in the host horizon for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. More specifically, the lithostratigraphic units studied are located within the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) and consist of the upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul), the middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn), the lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll), and the lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln). The Tptpul is the layer directly above the repository host layers, which consist of the Tptpmn, Tptpll, and the Tptpln. Current design plans indicate that the largest portion of the repository will be excavated in the Tptpll (Board et al. 2002 [157756]). The main distinguishing characteristic among the lithophysal and nonlithophysal units is the percentage of large scale (cm-m) voids within the rock. The Tptpul and Tptpll, as their names suggest, have a higher percentage of lithophysae than the Tptpmn and the Tptpln. Understanding the influence of the lithophysae is of great importance to understanding bulk thermal conductivity and perhaps repository system performance as well. To assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of thermal conductivity, a model is proposed that is functionally dependent on the volume fraction of lithophysae and the thermal conductivity of the matrix portion of the rock. In this model, void space characterized as lithophysae is assumed to be air-saturated under all conditions, while void space characterized as matrix may be either water- or air-saturated. Lithophysae are assumed to be air-saturated under all conditions since the units being studied are all located above the water table in the region of interest, and the relatively strong capillary forces of the matrix will, under most conditions, preferentially retain any moisture present in the rock.

  9. Renewable Fuel Heating Plant SyStem SpecificationS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Fuel Heating Plant SyStem SpecificationS Manufacturer: Advanced Recycling Equipment efficiency of natural gas combustion) The facility is designed to meet additional future heating loads, so annual output will increase when the Research Support Facility comes online What it will heat

  10. Specification No. 203-HJT-9004 R1 Specification for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    .S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY April 10, 2006 #12;Specification for Titanium Components MERIT High Power Mercury Titanium Components August 14, 2006 #12;Specification for Titanium Components MERIT High Power Mercury MODULE TITANIUM COMPONENTS Prepared by: V.B. Graves (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) P. T. Spampinato (Oak

  11. Mesa Top Photovoltaic Array SyStem SpecificationS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mesa Top Photovoltaic Array SyStem SpecificationS System size: 750 kW (DC, estimated) Characteristics: Single axis tracker photovoltaics, ground mounted Annual output: 1,200 MWh Location: Top of South Table Mountain; NREL Campus; Golden, Colorado Start of operation: Spring 2008 financial terms System

  12. Gas storage carbon with enhanced thermal conductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burchell, Timothy D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rogers, Michael Ray (Knoxville, TN); Judkins, Roddie R. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon fiber carbon matrix hybrid adsorbent monolith with enhanced thermal conductivity for storing and releasing gas through adsorption and desorption is disclosed. The heat of adsorption of the gas species being adsorbed is sufficiently large to cause hybrid monolith heating during adsorption and hybrid monolith cooling during desorption which significantly reduces the storage capacity of the hybrid monolith, or efficiency and economics of a gas separation process. The extent of this phenomenon depends, to a large extent, on the thermal conductivity of the adsorbent hybrid monolith. This invention is a hybrid version of a carbon fiber monolith, which offers significant enhancements to thermal conductivity and potential for improved gas separation and storage systems.

  13. Strings at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1985-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

  14. Compounds for novel proton conducting membranes and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poling, Steven A.; Martin, Steve W.; Sutherland, Jacob T.

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides new compounds for use in proton exchange membranes which are able to operate in a wide variety of temperature ranges, including in the intermediate temperature range of about 100.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., and new and improved methods of making these compounds. The present invention also provides new and improved methods for making chalcogenide compounds, including, but not limited to, non-protonated sulfide, selenide and telluride compounds. In one embodiment, the proton conductivity of the compounds is between about 10.sup.-8 S/cm and 10.sup.-1 S/cm within a temperature range of between about -50 and 500.degree. C.

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Ordered Molecular Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W Evans; J Fish; P Keblinski

    2006-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We use molecular dynamics simulation to investigate thermal transport characteristics of water with various degree of orientational and translational order induced by the application of an electric field. We observe that orientational ordering of the water dipole moments has a minor effect on the thermal conductivity. However, electric-field induced crystallization and associated translational order results in approximately a 3-fold increase of thermal conductivity with respect to the base water, i.e., to values comparable with those characterizing ice crystal structures.

  16. Thermoelectric DC conductivities from black hole horizons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aristomenis Donos; Jerome P. Gauntlett

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An analytic expression for the DC electrical conductivity in terms of black hole horizon data was recently obtained for a class of holographic black holes exhibiting momentum dissipation. We generalise this result to obtain analogous expressions for the DC thermoelectric and thermal conductivities. We illustrate our results using some holographic Q-lattice black holes as well as for some black holes with linear massless axions, in both $D=4$ and $D=5$ bulk spacetime dimensions, which include both spatially isotropic and anisotropic examples. We show that some recently constructed ground states of holographic Q-lattices, which can be either electrically insulating or metallic, are all thermal insulators.

  17. Electrically conductive connection for an electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornack, T.R.; Chilko, R.J.

    1986-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically conductive connection for an electrode assembly of an electrolyte cell in which aluminum is produced by electrolysis in a molten salt is described. The electrode assembly comprises an electrode flask and a conductor rod. The flask has a collar above an area of minimum flask diameter. The electrically conductive connection comprises the electrode flask, the conductor rod and a structure bearing against the collar and the conductor rod for pulling the conductor rod into compressive and electrical contact with the flask. 2 figs.

  18. Electrospun nanofibers with tunable electrical conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuxi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrospinning is a convenient method to produce nanofibers with controlled diameters on the order of tens to hundreds of nanometers. The resulting nonwoven fiber mats are lightweight, highly porous, and have high specific ...

  19. First high-temperature electronics products survey 2005.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Normann, Randy Allen

    2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On April 4-5, 2005, a High-Temperature Electronics Products Workshop was held. This workshop engaged a number of governmental and private industry organizations sharing a common interest in the development of commercially available, high-temperature electronics. One of the outcomes of this meeting was an agreement to conduct an industry survey of high-temperature applications. This report covers the basic results of this survey.

  20. Temperature Correction to Casimir-Lifshitz Free Energy at Low Temperatures: Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simen A. Ellingsen; Iver Brevik; Johan S. H\\oye; Kimball A. Milton

    2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Casimir force and free energy at low temperatures has been the subject of focus for some time. We calculate the temperature correction to the Casimir-Lifshitz free energy between two parallel plates made of dielectric material possessing a constant conductivity at low temperatures, described through a Drude-type dielectric function. For the transverse magnetic (TM) mode such a calculation is new. A further calculation for the case of the TE mode is thereafter presented which extends and generalizes previous work for metals. A numerical study is undertaken to verify the correctness of the analytic results.

  1. Conductance of interacting Aharonov-Bohm systems and A. Ramsak1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsak, Anton

    a generalization of the conduc- tance formula Eq. 1 to systems which explicitly exhibit time reversal asymmetry May 2003; published 15 July 2003 A simple formula for the zero-temperature linear response conductance of an interacting mesoscopic region, threaded by magnetic flux, and attached to noninteracting single-channel leads

  2. Raman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    superconductivity at temperatures polycrystalline boron-doped CVD diamond filmsRaman and conductivity studies of boron doped microcrystalline diamond, facetted nanocrystalline diamond and cauliflower diamond films P.W. May a,*, W.J. Ludlow a , M. Hannaway a , P.J. Heard b , J

  3. Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Graphene growth on glass 1 Synthesis of conducting transparent few-layer graphene directly on glass major hurdles that research has to overcome to get graphene out of research laboratories. Here, using transparent graphene layers at temperatures as low as 450 °C. Our few-layer graphene grows at the interface

  4. Heat conduction problem of an evaporating liquid T. Barta, V. Janecek, D. Prazak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bárta, Tomás

    ratio = kL/kS (e.g. for water on metallic heater 10-3 ) for which the perturbation of temperature of authors, see e.g. [13, 11, 3, 6]. Majority of research publications rely on isothermal heater pressure) of the solid heater. Such assumption is justified for vanishing liquid-solid thermal conductivity

  5. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  6. Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Andrej

    Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites A.V. Cherkaev \\Lambda L.V. Gibiansky y April 19, 1995 Abstract In this paper we construct microstructures of multiphase composites with un be easily gen­ eralized for the three­dimensional composites with arbitrary number of phases. 1 Introduction

  7. Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1990-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    "To provide requirements and guidelines for Departmental Elements, including the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), to use in developing directives, plans, and/or procedures relating to the conduct of operations at DOE facilities. The implementation of these requirements and guidelines should result in improved quality and uniformity of operations. Change 2, 10-23-2001. Canceled by DOE O 422.1.

  8. Code of Conduct Etiquette at Utrecht University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Code of Conduct Etiquette at Utrecht University What principles underpin our behaviour of Utrecht University. The Code describes the values that govern the way people work and study for sanctions. How is Utrecht University different from other universities? What do we wish to achieve? MISSION

  9. How to Conduct an Energy Efficiency Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biles, J. E.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes how to organize a team of specialists in order to conduct an energy efficiency study in a totally unfamiliar plant. In-plant data gathering techniques are presented as well as methods for obtaining ideas and information from...

  10. Faculty and Staff Commute Report Conducted by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    Faculty and Staff Commute Report July 2008 Conducted by #12;Executive Summary The price of gasoline at Austin is $91.35 per month. With no relief in sight to rising gasoline prices, employees are increasingly there was no correlation between average work commute and salary, considering the price of gas, getting to work can

  11. Heat conductivity of a pion gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Dobado Gonzalez; Felipe J. Llanes-Estrada; Juan M. Torres Rincon

    2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the heat conductivity of a dilute pion gas employing the Uehling-Uehlenbeck equation and experimental phase-shifts parameterized by means of the SU(2) Inverse Amplitude Method. Our results are consistent with previous evaluations. For comparison we also give results for an (unphysical) hard sphere gas.

  12. Conducting a Wildland Visual Resources Inventory1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Conducting a Wildland Visual Resources Inventory1 James F. Palmer 2/ 1/ Submitted to the National of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003. Abstract: This paper describes a procedure for system- atically inventorying- tion and description of each inventoried scene are recorded on U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps

  13. Metal nanoparticles as a conductive catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coker, Eric N. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal nanocluster composite material for use as a conductive catalyst. The metal nanocluster composite material has metal nanoclusters on a carbon substrate formed within a porous zeolitic material, forming stable metal nanoclusters with a size distribution between 0.6-10 nm and, more particularly, nanoclusters with a size distribution in a range as low as 0.6-0.9 nm.

  14. Application of conducting polymers to electroanalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josowicz, M.A.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conducting polymers can be used as sensitive layers in chemical microsensors leading to new applications of theses devices. They offer the potential for developing material properties that are critical to the sensor sensitivity, selectivity and fabrication. The advantages and limitations of the use of thin polymer layers in electrochemical sensors are discussed.

  15. Fig. 1 A 1 2 Conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasegawa, Shuji

    were direct electrical conductivity measurements with monolithic microscopic four-point probes and four. The probe spacing (a side of the square) was 60 µm. Experimental data are fitted by a function described of monolithic MFPP measurements with 8-µm spacing probes (A) on a step-bunching region and (B) a step-free re

  16. Code of Official Conduct Student Government Association

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Nicholas

    Code of Official Conduct Student Government Association Stephen F. Austin State University Section, the Student Government Association of Stephen F. Austin State University has adopted this Code of Official Association officials who may be elected, appointed, or employed comply with both the Letter and the Spirit

  17. Specific-heat discontinuity in impure two-band superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mishonov, TM; Penev, ES; Indekeu, JO; Pokrovsky, Valery L.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    at the critical temperature T-c decreases with increasing disorder, its ratio to the normal-state specific heat at T-c increases and slowly converges to the isotropic value. For strong disorder the deviation from the isotropic value is proportional to the elastic...

  18. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  19. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  20. The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature Temperature futures Conclusions The Volatility of Temperature and Pricing of Weather Derivatives Fred Espen Benth Work in collaboration with J Universit¨at Ulm, April 2007 #12;The temperature market A stochastic model for temperature Temperature

  1. Effect of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} addition on structure and ionic conductivity of lithium borosilicotitanate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satpute, N. S., E-mail: nspaighanp@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Nagpur-440010 (India); Deshpande, A. V. [Department of Applied Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar College of Engineering and Research, Nagpur- 441110 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithium borosilicotitanate glasses containing Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were prepared by melt quenching technique. Electrical conductivity, density, molar volume and glass transition temperature T{sub g} for all the glass samples were measured. IR spectroscopy was used for structural studies of these glasses in the range from 400 to 2000 cm{sub ?1}. The conductivity of the Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} containing glasses was found to be half an order higher than the base glass. The electrical conductivity was interpreted from the point of view of glass structure which suggests that an enhancement in conductivity is due to the incorporation of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in the macromolecular network. The molar volume and glass transition temperature T{sub g} results are found to be in good correlation with conductivity results.

  2. Information content of slug tests for estimating hydraulic properties in realistic, high-conductivity aquifer scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    Information content of slug tests for estimating hydraulic properties in realistic, high for partially-penetrating slug tests in unconfined aquifers (Malama et al., in press) provides a semi the ultimate goal of determining aquifer properties such as hydraulic conductivity K and specific storage Ss

  3. Standard guide for conducting exfoliation corrosion tests in aluminum alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This guide differs from the usual ASTM standard in that it does not address a specific test. Rather, it is an introductory guide for new users of other standard exfoliation test methods, (see Terminology G 15 for definition of exfoliation). 1.2 This guide covers aspects of specimen preparation, exposure, inspection, and evaluation for conducting exfoliation tests on aluminum alloys in both laboratory accelerated environments and in natural, outdoor atmospheres. The intent is to clarify any gaps in existent test methods. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given in parentheses are for information only. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Polymeric salt bridges for conducting electric current in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Tichenor, Mark S. (San Diego, CA); Artau, Alexander (Humacao, PR)

    2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A "cast-in-place" monolithic microporous polymer salt bridge for conducting electrical current in microfluidic devices, and methods for manufacture thereof is disclosed. Polymeric salt bridges are formed in place in capillaries or microchannels. Formulations are prepared with monomer, suitable cross-linkers, solvent, and a thermal or radiation responsive initiator. The formulation is placed in a desired location and then suitable radiation such as UV light is used to polymerize the salt bridge within a desired structural location. Embodiments are provided wherein the polymeric salt bridges have sufficient porosity to allow ionic migration without bulk flow of solvents therethrough. The salt bridges form barriers that seal against fluid pressures in excess of 5000 pounds per square inch. The salt bridges can be formulated for carriage of suitable amperage at a desired voltage, and thus microfluidic devices using such salt bridges can be specifically constructed to meet selected analytical requirements.

  5. Nanoscale size dependence parameters on lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamand, S.M., E-mail: soran.mamand@univsul.net [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimanyah, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Omar, M.S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq)] [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Salahaddin, Arbil, Iraqi Kurdistan (Iraq); Muhammad, A.J. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk (Iraq)] [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Kirkuk, Kirkuk (Iraq)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of calculated lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified Callaway model is used to calculate lattice thermal conductivity of Wurtzite GaN nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A direct method is used to calculate phonon group velocity for these nanowires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations are successfully investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocation densities are decreases with the decrease of wires diameter. -- Abstract: A detailed calculation of lattice thermal conductivity of freestanding Wurtzite GaN nanowires with diameter ranging from 97 to 160 nm in the temperature range 2-300 K, was performed using a modified Callaway model. Both longitudinal and transverse modes are taken into account explicitly in the model. A method is used to calculate the Debye and phonon group velocities for different nanowire diameters from their related melting points. Effect of Gruneisen parameter, surface roughness, and dislocations as structure dependent parameters are successfully used to correlate the calculated values of lattice thermal conductivity to that of the experimentally measured curves. It was observed that Gruneisen parameter will decrease with decreasing nanowire diameters. Scattering of phonons is assumed to be by nanowire boundaries, imperfections, dislocations, electrons, and other phonons via both normal and Umklapp processes. Phonon confinement and size effects as well as the role of dislocation in limiting thermal conductivity are investigated. At high temperatures and for dislocation densities greater than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2} the lattice thermal conductivity would be limited by dislocation density, but for dislocation densities less than 10{sup 14} m{sup -2}, lattice thermal conductivity would be independent of that.

  6. Absorber Materials at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Marhauser, T.S. Elliott, A.T. Wu, E.P. Chojnacki, E. Savrun

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We recently reported on investigations of RF absorber materials at cryogenic temperatures conducted at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). The work was initiated to find a replacement material for the 2 Kelvin low power waveguide Higher Order Mode (HOM) absorbers employed within the original cavity cryomodules of the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). This effort eventually led to suitable candidates as reported in this paper. Furthermore, though constrained by small funds for labor and resources, we have analyzed a variety of lossy ceramic materials, several of which could be usable as HOM absorbers for both normal conducting and superconducting RF structures, e.g. as loads in cavity waveguides and beam tubes either at room or cryogenic temperatures and, depending on cooling measures, low to high operational power levels.

  7. Immobilization of fission products in low-temperature ceramic waste forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, D.; Wagh, A.S.; Tlustochowicz, M.; Mandalika, V.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the last few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been developing room-temperature-setting chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPCs) for use in solidifying and stabilizing low-level mixed wastes. The focus of this work is development of CBPCs for use with fission-product wastes generated from high-level waste (HLW) tank cleaning or other decontamination and decommissioning activities. The volatile fission products such as Tc, Cs, and Sr removed from HLW need to be disposed of in a low-temperature immobilization system. Specifically, this paper reports on the solidification and stabilization of separated {sup 99}Tc from Los Alamos National Laboratory`s complexation-elution process. Using rhenium as a surrogate form technetium, we fabricated CBPC waste forms by acid-base reactions. Dense and hard ceramic waste forms are produced in this process. The principal advantage of this technology is that the contaminants are immobilized by both chemical stabilization and subsequent microencapsulation of the reaction products. This paper reports the results of durability studies conducted on waste forms made with 35 wt.% waste loading. Standard leaching tests such as ANS 16.1 and PCT were conducted on the final waste forms. In addition, stability of the waste forms in aqueous environments was evaluated by long-term water-immersion tests.

  8. Role of the dielectric constant of ferroelectric ceramic in enhancing the ionic conductivity of a polymer electrolyte composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pramod Kumar Singh; Amreesh Chandra

    2003-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The dispersal of high dielectric constant ferroelectric ceramic material Ba(0.7)Sr(0.3)TiO(3) (Tc~30 C) and Ba(0.88)Sr(0.12)TiO(3) (Tc~90 C) in an ion conducting polymer electrolyte (PEO:NH4I) is reported to result in an increase in the room temperature ionic conductivity by two orders of magnitude. The conductivity enhancememt "peaks" as we approach the dielectric phase transition of the dispersed ferroelectric material where the dielectric constant changes from ~ 2000 to 4000. This establishes the role of dielectric constant of the dispersoid in enhancing the ionic conductivity of the polymeric composites.

  9. Comparisons of short carbon nanotubes containing conductive additives of cathode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qingtang, E-mail: zhqt137@163.com [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041 (China); Wang, Xiaomei; Lu, Wenjiang; Tang, Fuling [School of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Guo, Junhong [School of Petrochemical Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Yu, Weiyuan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); Qu, Meizhen; Yu, Zuolong [Chengdu Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Short carbon nanotubes (SCNT) containing conductive additives were used. • SCNT/graphite powder (GP) mixture is better than SCNT/mesoporous carbon mixture. • SCNT connect many isolated GP particles to form a more valid conductive network. • SCNT absorb some electrolyte solution allowing quick electrochemical reactions. - Abstract: Short carbon nanotubes (SCNT) containing conductive additives, i.e. SCNT/graphite powder (GP) mixture (SCNTGP) and SCNT/mesoporous carbon (MC) mixture (SCNTMC) were employed as conductive additives for LiCoO{sub 2} cathode. GP and MC have similar particle size, but GP has lower specific surface area and higher electronic conductivity. Electrochemical measurements indicate that SCNTGP is more effective in improving the electrochemical performance of LiCoO{sub 2} composite cathode under the same conditions. The reason is described as follows. SCNT connect the isolated GP particles to form a more valid conductive network. In addition, SCNT has a certain specific mesoporous surface area, which can absorb some electrolyte solution and then provide buffer lithium ions for quick electrochemical reactions. Consequently, the combination of these two factors would be responsible to the improvement in the electrochemical performance of the SCNTGP loaded cathode.

  10. MEASUREMENT OF SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. The heat capacity of the Saltstone waste form is one of the important properties of Saltstone mixes that was last measured at SRNL in 1997. It is therefore important to develop a core competency for rapid and accurate analysis of the specific heat capacity of the Saltstone mixes in order to quantify the impact of compositional and operational variations on this property as part of the variability study. The heat capacity, coupled with the heat of hydration data obtained from isothermal calorimetry for a given Saltstone mix, can be used to predict the maximum temperature increase in the cells within the vaults of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The temperature increase controls the processing rate and the pour schedule. The maximum temperature is also important to the performance properties of the Saltstone. For example, in mass pours of concrete or grout of which Saltstone is an example, the maximum temperature increase and the maximum temperature difference (between the surface and the hottest location) are controlled to ensure durability of the product and prevent or limit the cracking caused by the thermal gradients produced during curing. This report details the development and implementation of a method for the measurement of the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes as well as the heat capacities of the cementitious materials of the premix and the simulated salt solutions used to batch the mixes. The developed method utilizes the TAM Air isothermal calorimeter and takes advantage of the sophisticated heat flow measurement capabilities of the instrument. Standards and reference materials were identified and used to validate the procedure and ensure accuracy of testing. Heat capacities of Saltstone mixes were {approx} 55% higher than the previous measurement of specific heat capacity on a reference Saltstone mix in 1997. Values of mixes prepared using Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA), Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) and Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) simulants and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio were {approx} 1.95 J/g/{sup o}C and were equivalent within experimental error. The simple law of mixtures was used to predict the heat capacities of the Saltstone and the results were in excellent agreement with experimental data. This simple law of mixtures can therefore be used to predict the heat capacities of Saltstone mixes in those cases where measurements have not been made. The time dependence of the heat capacity is important as an input to the modeling of temperature increase in Saltstone vaults. The heat capacity of a mix of MCU and premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio was measured immediately after initial mixing and then periodically up to times greater than 100 days. Within experimental error, the heat capacity did not change with time. Therefore, the modeling is not complicated by requiring a time dependent function for specific heat capacity. The water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio plays a key role in determining the value of the heat capacity. Both experimental and predictive values for SWPF mixes as function of the w/cm ratio were obtained and presented in this report. Predictions of the maximum temperatures of the Saltstone mixes were made using the heat of hydration data from previous isothermal measurements and the newly measured heat capacities for DDA, MCU and SWPF mixes. The maximum temperature increase ranged from 37 to 48 C for these mixes. The presence of aluminate at 0.33 M produced a temperature increase of 68 C which is close to the adiabatic temperature rise of 74 C observed by Steimke and Fowler in 1997 for a mix containing 0.35 M aluminate. Aluminum dissolution of the sludge will increase the aluminate in the DSS which in turn will result in a larger temperature increase in the Saltstone vaults during the curing p

  11. Cell Data Sheet Specification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presentation shows a brief status report on the development of a specification being considered by IEC TC82 WG7 for a concentrator cell data sheet and solicits suggestions from the community.

  12. Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board * P.O. Box 2001, EM-91, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 Phone: 865-241-4583, 865-241-4584, 1-800-382-6938 * Fax: 865-574-3521 * Internet:...

  13. Nuclear fission as resonance-mediated conductance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. F. Bertsch

    2014-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    For 75 years the theory of nuclear fission has been based on the existence of a collective coordinate associated with the nuclear shape, an assumption required by the Bohr-Wheeler formula as well as by the R-matrix theory of fission. We show that it is also possible to formulate the theory without the help of collective coordinates. In the new formulation, fission is facilitated by individual states in the barrier region rather than channels over the barrier. In a certain limit the theory reduces to a formula closely related to the formula for electronic conductance through resonant tunneling states. In contrast, conduction through channels gives rise to a staircase excitation function that is well-known in nanoscale electronics but has never been seen in nuclear fission.

  14. Helicopter magnetic survey conducted to locate wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Stamp, V. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center); Hall, R. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center); Colina, K. (Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A helicopter magnetic survey was conducted in August 2007 over 15.6 sq mi at the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3’s (NPR-3) Teapot Dome Field near Casper, Wyoming. The survey’s purpose was to accurately locate wells drilled there during more than 90 years of continuous oilfield operation. The survey was conducted at low altitude and with closely spaced flight lines to improve the detection of wells with weak magnetic response and to increase the resolution of closely spaced wells. The survey was in preparation for a planned CO2 flood for EOR, which requires a complete well inventory with accurate locations for all existing wells. The magnetic survey was intended to locate wells missing from the well database and to provide accurate locations for all wells. The ability of the helicopter magnetic survey to accurately locate wells was accomplished by comparing airborne well picks with well locations from an intense ground search of a small test area.

  15. Micro-machined thermo-conductivity detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-machined thermal conductivity detector for a portable gas chromatograph. The detector is highly sensitive and has fast response time to enable detection of the small size gas samples in a portable gas chromatograph which are in the order of nanoliters. The high sensitivity and fast response time are achieved through micro-machined devices composed of a nickel wire, for example, on a silicon nitride window formed in a silicon member and about a millimeter square in size. In addition to operating as a thermal conductivity detector, the silicon nitride window with a micro-machined wire therein of the device can be utilized for a fast response heater for PCR applications.

  16. Multiterminal Conductance of a Floquet Topological Insulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. E. F. Foa Torres; P. M. Perez-Piskunow; C. A. Balseiro; G. Usaj

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on simulations of the dc conductance and quantum Hall response of a Floquet topological insulator using Floquet scattering theory. Our results reveal that laser-induced edge states in graphene lead to quantum Hall plateaus once imperfect matching with the non-illuminated leads is lessened. But the magnitude of the Hall plateaus is not directly related to the number and chirality of all the edge states at a given energy as usual. Instead, the plateaus are dominated only by those edge states adding to the dc density of states. Therefore, the dc quantum Hall conductance of a Floquet topological insulator is not directly linked to topological invariants of the full the Floquet bands.

  17. Fracture Conductivity of the Eagle Ford Shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzek, James J

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    , and rock geomechanical properties. Therefore, optimizing conductivity by tailoring a well’s fracturing treatment to local reservoir characteristics is important to the oil and gas industry for economic reasons. The roots of hydraulic fracturing can... of the formation. Sahoo et al. (2013) identified that mineralogy, hydrocarbon filled porosity, and total organic content are most prominent parameters that control Eagle Ford well productivity. Mineral composition determines several geomechanical properties...

  18. Status of surface conduction in topological insulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barua, Sourabh, E-mail: sbarua@iitk.ac.in; Rajeev, K. P. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, we scrutinize the thickness dependent resistivity data from the recent literature on electrical transport measurements in topological insulators. A linear increase in resistivity with increase in thickness is expected in the case of these materials since they have an insulating bulk and a conducting surface. However, such a trend is not seen in the resistivity versus thickness data for all the cases examined, except for some samples, where it holds for a range of thickness.

  19. Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the evaporative cooler would often be more than 6.5'F lower than that of a conventional evaporative cooling system due to thermal conduction between water and entering air. - Figure 1 Pad type evaporative cooler. DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLER... There are several types of direct evaporative cooler configurations available. Two popular system types are pad type unit and rotary type unit. A number of window mounted units are pad type evaporative coolers (Figure 1). In a pad type cooler, water...

  20. Nonlinear optical and conductive polymeric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, T.J.; Ijadi-Maghsooodi, S; Yi Pang.

    1993-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymeric material is described which exhibits nonlinear optical properties if undoped and conductive properties if doped. The polymer is prepared by polymerizing diethynylsilane compositions, the resulting polymeric material having a weight average molecular weight between about 20,000 and about 200,000 grams per mole. The polymer is prepared and catalytically polymerized by exposure to a catalyst, such as MoCl[sub 5] or W(CO)[sub 6].

  1. LOWER TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYTE AND ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keqin Huang

    2003-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thorough literature survey on low-temperature electrolyte and electrode materials for SOFC is given in this report. Thermodynamic stability of selected electrolyte and its chemical compatibility with cathode substrate were evaluated. Preliminary electrochemical characterizations were conducted on symmetrical cells consisting of the selected electrolyte and various electrode materials. Feasibility of plasma spraying new electrolyte material thin-film on cathode substrate was explored.

  2. Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report Building Energy Data Exchange Specification Scoping Report The Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES),...

  3. Transparent conducting oxides: A -doped superlattice approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, Valentino R [ORNL; Seo, Sung Seok A. [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Lee, Suyoun [ORNL; Kim, Jun Sung [Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Republic of Korea; Choi, Woo Seok [ORNL; Okamoto, Satoshi [ORNL; Lee, Ho Nyung [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at the interface of oxide heterostructures have been the subject of recent experiment and theory, due to the intriguing phenomena that occur in confined electronic states. However, while much has been done to understand the origin of 2DEGs and related phenomena, very little has been explored with regards to the control of conduction pathways and the distribution of charge carriers. Using first principles simulations and experimental thin film synthesis methods, we examine the effect of dimensionality on carrier transport in La delta-doped SrTiO3 (STO) superlattices, as a function of the thickness of the insulating STO spacer. Our computed Fermi surfaces and layer-resolved carrier density proles demonstrate that there is a critical thickness of the STO spacer, below which carrier transport is dominated by three-dimensional conduction of interface charges arising from appreciable overlap of the quantum mechanical wavefunctions between neighboring delta-doped layers. We observe that, experimentally, these superlattices remain highly transparent to visible light. Band structure calculations indicate that this is a result of the appropriately large gap between the O 2p and Ti d states. The tunability of the quantum mechanical wavefunctions and the optical transparency highlight the potential for using oxide heterostructures in novel opto-electronic devices; thus providing a route to the creation of novel transparent conducting oxides.

  4. Highly conductive electrolyte composites containing glass and ceramic, and method of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrolyte composite is manufactured by pressurizing a mixture of sodium ion conductive glass and an ionically conductive compound at between 12,000 and 24,000 pounds per square inch to produce a pellet. The resulting pellet is then sintered at relatively lower temperatures (800.degree. C.-1200.degree. C.), for example 1000.degree. C., than are typically required (1400.degree. C.) when fabricating single constituent ceramic electrolytes. The resultant composite is 100 percent conductive at 250.degree. C. with conductivity values of 2.5 to 4.times.10.sup.-2 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The matrix exhibits chemical stability against sodium for 100 hours at 250.degree. to 300.degree. C.

  5. Convection in nanofluids with a particle-concentration-dependent thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glässl, Martin; Zimmermann, Walter

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal convection in nanofluids is investigated by means of a continuum model for binary-fluid mixtures, with a thermal conductivity depending on the local concentration of colloidal particles. The applied temperature difference between the upper and the lower boundary leads via the Soret effect to a variation of the colloid concentration and therefore to a spatially varying heat conductivity. An increasing difference between the heat conductivity of the mixture near the colder and the warmer boundary results in a shift of the onset of convection to higher values of the Rayleigh number for positive values of the separation ratio $\\psi>0$ and to smaller values in the range $\\psi0$. This range can be extended by increasing the difference in the thermal conductivity and it is bounded by two codimension-2 bifurcations.

  6. Convection in nanofluids with a particle-concentration-dependent thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Glässl; Markus Hilt; Walter Zimmermann

    2011-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal convection in nanofluids is investigated by means of a continuum model for binary-fluid mixtures, with a thermal conductivity depending on the local concentration of colloidal particles. The applied temperature difference between the upper and the lower boundary leads via the Soret effect to a variation of the colloid concentration and therefore to a spatially varying heat conductivity. An increasing difference between the heat conductivity of the mixture near the colder and the warmer boundary results in a shift of the onset of convection to higher values of the Rayleigh number for positive values of the separation ratio psi>0 and to smaller values in the range psi0. This range can be extended by increasing the difference in the thermal conductivity and it is bounded by two codimension-2 bifurcations.

  7. Low-temperature random matrix theory at the soft edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, Alan [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Persson, Per-Olof [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sutton, Brian D. [Department of Mathematics, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    “Low temperature” random matrix theory is the study of random eigenvalues as energy is removed. In standard notation, ? is identified with inverse temperature, and low temperatures are achieved through the limit ? ? ?. In this paper, we derive statistics for low-temperature random matrices at the “soft edge,” which describes the extreme eigenvalues for many random matrix distributions. Specifically, new asymptotics are found for the expected value and standard deviation of the general-? Tracy-Widom distribution. The new techniques utilize beta ensembles, stochastic differential operators, and Riccati diffusions. The asymptotics fit known high-temperature statistics curiously well and contribute to the larger program of general-? random matrix theory.

  8. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  9. Conductance valve and pressure-to-conductance transducer method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Cummings, Eric B.; Brennan, James S.

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for interrupting or throttling undesired ionic transport through a fluid network is disclosed. The device acts as a fluid valve by reversibly generating a fixed "bubble" in the conducting solvent solution carried by the network. The device comprises a porous hydrophobic structure filling a portion of a connecting channel within the network and optionally incorporates flow restrictor elements at either end of the porous structure that function as pressure isolation barriers, and a fluid reservoir connected to the region of the channel containing the porous structure. Also included is a pressure pump connected to the fluid reservoir. The device operates by causing the pump to vary the hydraulic pressure to a quantity of solvent solution held within the reservoir and porous structure. At high pressures, most or all of the pores of the structure are filled with conducting liquid so the ionic conductance is high. At lower pressures, only a fraction of the pores are filled with liquid, so ionic conductivity is lower. Below a threshold pressure, the porous structure contains only vapor, so there is no liquid conduction path. The device therefore effectively throttles ionic transport through the porous structure and acts as a "conductance valve" or "pressure-to-conductance" transducer within the network.

  10. Finite Temperature Gases of Fermionic Strings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamoli Chaudhuri

    2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that in the absence of a Ramond-Ramond sector both the type IIA and type IIB free string gases have a thermal instability due to low temperature tachyon modes. The gas of free IIA strings undergoes a thermal duality transition into a gas of free IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. The free heterotic string gas is a tachyon-free ensemble with gauge symmetry SO(16)$\\times$SO(16) in the presence of a timelike Wilson line background. It exhibits a holographic duality relation undergoing a self-dual phase transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat. The type IB open and closed string ensemble is related by thermal duality to the type I' string ensemble. We identify the order parameter for the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a low temperature gas of short open strings to a high temperature long string phase at or below T_C. Note Added (Sep 2005).

  11. Technical specifications for mechanical recycling of agricultural plastic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Briassoulis, D., E-mail: briassou@aua.gr; Hiskakis, M.; Babou, E.

    2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Technical specifications for agricultural plastic wastes (APWs) recycling proposed. • Specifications are the base for best economical and environmental APW valorisation. • Analysis of APW reveals inherent characteristics and constraints of APW streams. • Thorough survey on mechanical recycling processes and industry as it applies to APW. • Specifications for APW recycling tested, adjusted and verified through pilot trials. - Abstract: Technical specifications appropriate for the recycling of agricultural plastic wastes (APWs), widely accepted by the recycling industry were developed. The specifications establish quality standards to be met by the agricultural plastics producers, users and the agricultural plastic waste management chain. They constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW. The analysis of the APW streams conducted across Europe in the framework of the European project “LabelAgriWaste” revealed the inherent characteristics of the APW streams and the inherent constraints (technical or economical) of the APW. The APW stream properties related to its recycling potential and measured during pilot trials are presented and a subsequent universally accepted simplified and expanded list of APW recycling technical specifications is proposed and justified. The list includes two sets of specifications, applied to two different quality categories of recyclable APW: one for pellet production process (“Quality I”) and another one for plastic profile production process (“Quality II”). Parameters that are taken into consideration in the specifications include the APW physical characteristics, contamination, composition and degradation. The proposed specifications are focused on polyethylene based APW that represents the vast majority of the APW stream. However, the specifications can be adjusted to cover also APW of different materials (e.g. PP or PVC) that are found in very small quantities in protected cultivations in Europe. The adoption of the proposed specifications could transform this waste stream into a labelled commodity traded freely in the market and will constitute the base for the best economical and environmental valorisation of the APW.

  12. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  13. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  14. Composite material having high thermal conductivity and process for fabricating same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Colella, N.J.; Davidson, H.L.; Kerns, J.A.; Makowiecki, D.M.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost. 7 figs.

  15. Thermopower, electrical and Hall conductivity of undoped and doped iron disilicide single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich, A.; Behr, G.; Griessmann, H.; Teichert, S.; Lange, H.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical transport properties of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} single crystals have been investigated in dependence on the purity of the source material and on doping with 3d transition metals. The transport properties included are electrical conductivity, Hall conductivity and thermopower mainly in the temperature range from 4K to 300K. The single crystals have been prepared by chemical transport reaction in a closed system with iodine as transport agent. In undoped single crystals prepared with 5N Fe both electrical conductivity and thermopower depend on the composition within the homogeneity range of {beta}-FeSi{sub 2} which is explained by different intrinsic defects at the Si-rich and Fe-rich phase boundaries. In both undoped and doped single crystals impurity band conduction is observed at low temperatures but above 100K extrinsic behavior determined by shallow impurity states. The thermopower shows between 100K and 200K a significant phonon drag contribution which depends on intrinsic defects and additional doping. The Hall resistivity is considered mainly with respect to an anomalous contribution found in p-type and n-type single crystals and thin films. In addition doped single crystals show at temperatures below about 130K an hysteresis of the Hall voltage. These results make former mobility data uncertain. Comparison will be made between the transport properties of single crystals and polycrystalline material.

  16. LOW TEMPERATURE CATHODE SUPPORTED ELECTROLYTES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harlan U. Anderson; Fatih Dogan; Vladimir Petrovsky

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report represents a summary of the work carried out on this project which started October 1999 and ended March 2003. A list of the publications resulting from the work are contained in Appendix A. The most significant achievements are: (1) Dense nanocrystalline zirconia and ceria films were obtained at temperatures < 400 C. (2) Nanocrystalline films of both ceria and zirconia were characterized. (3) We showed that under anodic conditions 0.5 to 1 micron thick nanocrystalline films of Sc doped zirconia have sufficient electronic conductivity to prevent them from being useful as an electrolyte. (4) We have developed a process by which dense 0.5 to 5 micron thick dense films of either YSZ or ceria can be deposited on sintered porous substrates which serve as either the cathode or anode at temperatures as low as 400 C. (5) The program has provided the research to produce two PhD thesis for students, one is now working in the solid oxide fuel cell field. (6) The results of the research have resulted in 69 papers published, 3 papers submitted or being prepared for publication, 50 oral presentations and 3 patent disclosures.

  17. Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tartakovsky, Daniel M.

    Effective hydraulic conductivity of bounded, strongly heterogeneous porous media Evangelos K of Arizona, Tucson Abstract. We develop analytical expressions for the effective hydraulic conductivity Ke boundaries. The log hydraulic conductivity Y forms a Gaussian, statistically homogeneous and anisotropic

  18. Gallium ion implantation greatly reduces thermal conductivity and enhances electronic one of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Minggang, E-mail: xiamg@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Laboratory of Nanostructure and its Physics Properties, Department of Optical Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, and MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 China (China); Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Cheng, Zhaofang; Han, Jinyun; Zhang, Shengli [Laboratory of Nanostructure and its Physics Properties, Department of Optical Information Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, and MOE Key Laboratory for Non-equilibrium Synthesis and Modulation of Condensed Matter, School of Science, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 710049 China (China); Zheng, Minrui [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Sow, Chorng-Haur [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); National University of Singapore Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Thong, John T. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Li, Baowen [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); National University of Singapore Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Phononics and Thermal Energy Science, School of Physics Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical and thermal conductivities are measured for individual zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires with and without gallium ion (Ga{sup +}) implantation at room temperature. Our results show that Ga{sup +} implantation enhances electrical conductivity by one order of magnitude from 1.01 × 10{sup 3} ?{sup ?1}m{sup ?1} to 1.46 × 10{sup 4} ?{sup ?1}m{sup ?1} and reduces its thermal conductivity by one order of magnitude from 12.7 Wm{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} to 1.22 Wm{sup ?1}K{sup ?1} for ZnO nanowires of 100 nm in diameter. The measured thermal conductivities are in good agreement with those in theoretical simulation. The increase of electrical conductivity origins in electron donor doping by Ga{sup +} implantation and the decrease of thermal conductivity is due to the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons scattering by Ga{sup +} point scattering. For pristine ZnO nanowires, the thermal conductivity decreases only two times when its diameter reduces from 100 nm to 46 nm. Therefore, Ga{sup +}-implantation may be a more effective method than diameter reduction in improving thermoelectric performance.

  19. Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O'Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter

    2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

  20. IMPACT OF WATER TEMPERATURE ON ZEBRA MUSSEL MORTALITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2002-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    These tests conducted this past quarter have indicated that the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL0145A is effective at killing zebra mussels at water temperatures ranging from 7 to 23 C. Percent kill will likely be somewhat lower at very low temperatures, e.g., 7 C, but even at such low temperatures high mussel kill can still be achieved (>70% kill). This is significant because the development of a zebra mussel control method that is efficacious in such a wide range of temperatures broadens its usefulness as a potential commercial product.

  1. Low temperature properties of holographic condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pallab Basu

    2011-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In the current work we study various models of holographic superconductors at low temperature. Generically the zero temperature limit of those models are solitonic solution with a zero sized horizon. Here we generalized simple version of those zero temperature solutions to small but non-zero temperature T. We confine ourselves to cases where near horizon geometry is AdS^4. At a non-zero temperature a small horizon would form deep inside this AdS^4 which does not disturb the UV physics. The resulting geometry may be matched with the zero temperature solution at an intermediate length scale. We understand this matching from separation of scales by setting up a perturbative expansion in gauge potential. We have a better analytic control in abelian case and quantities may be expressed in terms of hypergeometric function. From this we calculate low temperature behavior of various quatities like entropy, charge density and specific heat etc. We also calculate various energy gaps associated with p-wave holographic superconductor to understand the underlying pairing mechanism. The result deviates significantly from the corresponding weak coupling BCS counterpart.

  2. Investigation of the effect of gel residue on hydraulic fracture conductivity using dynamic fracture conductivity test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marpaung, Fivman

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    conductivity is created when proppant slurry is pumped into a hydraulic fracture in low permeability rock. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially, we pump proppant/ fracturing fluid slurries... different or special methods for completion, stimulation, and/or production techniques to retrieve the resource. Natural gas from coal or coal bed methane, tight gas sands, shale gas, and gas hydrates are all examples of unconventional gas reservoirs...

  3. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass Recalcitrance Factors Using Reference Substrates. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass...

  4. Thermoelectric Temperature Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saffman, Mark

    NOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92-040000A © 1995 Wavelength Electronics, Inc. Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) are used in a variety understanding of thermal management techniques and carefully select the thermoelectric module, temperature

  5. Experimental Observation of the Inverse Spin Hall Effect at Room Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Baoli; Shi, Junren; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Hongming; Li, Dafang; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shoucheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Dongmin; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.

    2010-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We observe the inverse spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in Al-GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells. Specifically, they find that an inhomogeneous spin density induced by the optical injection gives rise to an electric current transverse to both the spin polarization and its gradient. The spin Hall conductivity can be inferred from such a measurement through the Einstein relation and the onsager relation, and is found to have the order of magnitude of 0.5(e{sup 2}/h). The observation is made at the room temperature and in samples with macroscopic sizes, suggesting that the inverse spin Hall effects is a robust macroscopic transport phenomenon.

  6. Joining Mixed Conducting Oxides Using an Air-Fired Electrically Conductive Braze

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, John S.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.; Weil, K. Scott

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to their mixed oxygen ion and electron conducting properties, ceramics such as lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrites (LSCF) are attractive materials for use in active electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and oxygen separation membranes. However, to take full advantage of the unique properties of these materials, reliable joining techniques need to be developed. If such a joining technique yields a ceramic-to-metal junction that is also electrically conductive, the hermetic seals in the device could provide the added function of either drawing current from the mixed conducting oxide, in the case of SOFC applications, or carrying it to the oxide to initate ionic conduction, in the case of oxygen separation and electrocatalysis applications. This would greatly reduce the need for complex interconnect design, thereby simplifying one of the major challenges faced in SOFC development. A process referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has been developed in which firing a Ag-CuO filler material in air creates a functional ceramic-to-metal junction, in which the silver-based matrix of the braze affords both metallic ductility and conductivity in the joint. Investigating a range of Ag-CuO alloy combinations determined that compositions containing between 1.4 and 16 mol% CuO appear to offer the best combination of wettability, joint strength, and electrical conductivity.

  7. Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell.

  8. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  9. Lead Sulphide Nanocrystal: Conducting Polymer Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew A. R. Watt; David Blake; Jamie H. Warner; Elizabeth A. Thomsen; Eric L. Tavenner; Halina Rubinsztein-Dunlop; Paul Meredith

    2004-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report photovoltaic devices fabricated from PbS nanocrystals and the conducting polymer poly MEH-PPV. This composite material was produced via a new single-pot synthesis which solves many of the issues associated with existing methods. Our devices have white light power conversion efficiencies under AM1.5 illumination of 0.7% and single wavelength conversion efficiencies of 1.1%. Additionally, they exhibit remarkably good ideality factors (n=1.15). Our measurements show that these composites have significant potential as soft optoelectronic materials.

  10. Nanostructured Transparent Conducting Oxides via Blockcopolymer Patterning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Joung Youn Ellie

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    . This can lead to new device designs of organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS), fuel cells, displays and solar cells. Moreover, the ability to incorporate other various functional materials to form a hybrid with the nanostructured TCO allows possibilities... cell work and the XPS measurements as well as other scientific insights. I am grateful to Dr. K.K. Banger for the help with conductivity measurements as well as the collaborative work on the amorphous TCO. His insights on sol-gel chemistry as well...

  11. Synthesis of transparent conducting oxide coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Martinson, Alex B. F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for preparing a light transmitting and electrically conductive oxide film. The method and system includes providing an atomic layer deposition system, providing a first precursor selected from the group of cyclopentadienyl indium, tetrakis (dimethylamino) tin and mixtures thereof, inputting to the deposition system the first precursor for reaction for a first selected time, providing a purge gas for a selected time, providing a second precursor comprised of an oxidizer, and optionally inputting a second precursor into the deposition system for reaction and alternating for a predetermined number of cycles each of the first precursor, the purge gas and the second precursor to produce the oxide film.

  12. Conductive ceramic composition and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

    1991-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A ceramic anode composition is formed of a multivalent metal oxide or oxygenate such as an alkali metal, transition metal oxygenate. The anode is prepared as a non-stoichiometric crystalline structure by reaction and conditioning in a hydrogen gas cover containing minor proportions of carbon dioxide and water vapor. The structure exhibits a single phase and substantially enhanced electrical conductivity over that of the corresponding stoichiometric structure. Unexpectedly, such oxides and oxygenates are found to be stable in the reducing anode fuel gas of a molten carbonate fuel cell. 4 figures.

  13. Code of Conduct Regarding Holiday Gifts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate,Cobalt discoveryCode of Conduct

  14. Conductive Plays - Basement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model, clickInformationNew| Open EnergyInformationConductive Plays - Basement

  15. Composite Thermal Conductivity in a Large Heterogeneous PorousMethane Hydrate Sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Arvind; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Moridis George J.; Seol,Yongkoo; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Sloan Jr., E.D.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By employing inverse modeling to analyze the laboratorydata, we determined the composite thermal conductivity (k theta W/m/K) ofa porous methane hydrate sample ranged between 0.25 and 0.58 W/m/K as afunction of density. The calculated composite thermal diffusivities ofporous hydrate sample ranged between 2.59x10-7 m2/s and 3.71x10-7 m2/s.The laboratory study involved a large heterogeneous sample (composed ofhydrate, water, and methane gas). The measurements were conductedisobarically at 4.98 MPa over a temperature range of 277.3-279.1 K.Pressure and temperature were monitored at multiple locations in thesample. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to visualize and quantifythe density changes that occurred during hydrate formation from granularice. CT images showed that methane hydrate formed from granular ice washeterogeneous and provided an estimate of the sample density variation inthe radial direction. This facilitated quantifying the density effect oncomposite thermal conductivity. This study showed that the sampleheterogeneity should be considered in thermal conductivity measurementsof hydrate systems. Mixing models (i.e., arithmetic, harmonic, geometricmean, and square root models) were compared to the estimated compositethermal conductivity determined by inverse modeling. The results of thearithmetic mean model showed the best agreement with the estimatedcomposite thermal conductivity.

  16. Finite temperature Casimir effect for graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ignat V. Fialkovsky; Valery N. Marachevsky; Dmitri V. Vassilevich

    2011-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We adopt the Dirac model for quasiparticles in graphene and calculate the finite temperature Casimir interaction between a suspended graphene layer and a parallel conducting surface. We find that at high temperature the Casimir interaction in such system is just one half of that for two ideal conductors separated by the same distance. In this limit single graphene layer behaves exactly as a Drude metal. In particular, the contribution of the TE mode is suppressed, while one of the TM mode saturates the ideal metal value. Behaviour of the Casimir interaction for intermediate temperatures and separations accessible for an experiment is studied in some detail. We also find an interesting interplay between two fundamental constants of graphene physics: the fine structure constant and the Fermi velocity.

  17. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to...

  18. Study hints at conduction secrets in bacteria nanowires | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the team used a non-conducting fiber from Gonorrhea to model how electrically conducting proteins might work. They overlaid multiple Geobacter pilin proteins on Gonorrhea's fiber...

  19. EM Conducts Third Annual Spanish Language Training with Record...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EM Conducts Third Annual Spanish Language Training with Record Participation EM Conducts Third Annual Spanish Language Training with Record Participation March 30, 2015 - 12:00pm...

  20. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme Cytochromes. Possible Dynamically Gated Conductance along Heme Wires in Bacterial Multiheme...