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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Solid oxide steam electrolysis for high temperature hydrogen production .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study has focused on solid oxide electrolyser cells for high temperature steam electrolysis. Solid oxide electrolysis is the reverse operation of solid oxide fuel (more)

Eccleston, Kelcey L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

A SOLID-STATE HEAT PUMP USING ELECTROCALORIC CERAMIC ELEMENTS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The thermoacoustic cycle is a robust thermodynamic cycle that can be generalizedto describe and develop an all-solid-state heat pump using generic caloric elements.Ferroelectric barium strontium (more)

Hilt, Matthew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development  

SciTech Connect

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are high efficiency energy conversion devices. Present materials set, using yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, limit the cell operating temperatures to 800 C or higher. It has become increasingly evident however that lowering the operating temperature would provide a more expeditious route to commercialization. The advantages of intermediate temperature (600 to 800 C) operation are related to both economic and materials issues. Lower operating temperature allows the use of low cost materials for the balance of plant and limits degradation arising from materials interactions. When the SOFC operating temperature is in the range of 600 to 700 C, it is also possible to partially reform hydrocarbon fuels within the stack providing additional system cost savings by reducing the air preheat heat-exchanger and blower size. The promise of Sr and Mg doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) electrolyte materials, based on their high ionic conductivity and oxygen transference number at the intermediate temperature is well recognized. The focus of the present project was two-fold: (a) Identify a cell fabrication technique to achieve the benefits of lanthanum gallate material, and (b) Investigate alternative cathode materials that demonstrate low cathode polarization losses at the intermediate temperature. A porous matrix supported, thin film cell configuration was fabricated. The electrode material precursor was infiltrated into the porous matrix and the counter electrode was screen printed. Both anode and cathode infiltration produced high performance cells. Comparison of the two approaches showed that an infiltrated cathode cells may have advantages in high fuel utilization operations. Two new cathode materials were evaluated. Northwestern University investigated LSGM-ceria composite cathode while Caltech evaluated Ba-Sr-Co-Fe (BSCF) based pervoskite cathode. Both cathode materials showed lower polarization losses at temperatures as low as 600 C than conventional manganite or cobaltite cathodes.

S. Elangovan; Scott Barnett; Sossina Haile

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

4

High temperature corrosion of boiler waterwalls induced by chlorides and bromides. Part 1: Occurrence of the corrosive ash forming elements in a fluidised bed boiler co-firing solid recovered fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In waste fired boilers high temperature corrosion has often been attributed to zinc and lead chlorides. In addition, bromine induced high temperature corrosion has been earlier observed in a bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler co-firing solid recovered fuel (SRF) with bark and wastewater sludge. In Part 1 of this work a measurement campaign was undertaken to determine the occurrence of Cl, Br, Zn and Pb in the fuel, in the combustion gases as well as in the deposits on the boiler waterwalls. It was observed that Cl, Br, Zn and Pb originate to a large extent from the SRF, they are vaporised in the furnace, and may form waterwall deposits. This, complemented by fluctuations between oxidising and reducing atmosphere resulted in rapid corrosion of the waterwall tubes. Concentrations of Cl, Br, Zn and Pb in the fuel, in the furnace vapours and in the deposits are reported in this work. As there is lack of published data on the bromine induced high temperature corrosion, laboratory scale corrosion tests were carried out to determine the relative corrosiveness of chlorine and bromine and these results will be reported in Part 2 of this work. Furthermore, the forms of Cl, Br, Zn and Pb in the combustion gases as well as in the waterwall deposits were estimated by means of thermodynamic equilibrium modelling and these results will also be discussed in Part 2.

P. Vainikka; D. Bankiewicz; A. Frantsi; J. Silvennoinen; J. Hannula; P. Yrjas; M. Hupa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

A Thermal Discrete Element Analysis of EU Solid Breeder Blanket subjected to Neutron Irradiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to neutron irradiation, solid breeder blankets are subjected to complex thermo-mechanical conditions. Within one breeder unit, the ceramic breeder bed is composed of spherical-shaped lithium orthosilicate pebbles, and as a type of granular material, it exhibits strong coupling between temperature and stress fields. In this paper, we study these thermo-mechanical problems by developing a thermal discrete element method (Thermal-DEM). This proposed simulation tool models each individual ceramic pebble as one element and considers grain-scale thermo-mechanical interactions between elements. A small section of solid breeder pebble bed in HCPB is modelled using thousands of individual pebbles and subjected to volumetric heating profiles calculated from neutronics under ITER-relevant conditions. We consider heat transfer at the grain-scale between pebbles through both solid-to-solid contacts and the interstitial gas phase, and we calculate stresses arising from thermal expansion of pebbles. The overall effective conductivity of the bed depends on the resulting compressive stress state during the neutronic heating. The thermal-DEM method proposed in this study provides the access to the grain-scale information, which is beneficial for HCPB design and breeder material optimization, and a better understanding of overall thermo-mechanical responses of the breeder units under fusion-relevant conditions.

Yixiang Gan; Francisco Hernandez; Dorian Hanaor; Ratna Annabattula; Marc Kamlah; Pavel Pereslavtsev

2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

6

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

High temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell configurations and interconnections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

High temperature fuel cell configurations and interconnections are made including annular cells having a solid electrolyte sandwiched between thin film electrodes. The cells are electrically interconnected along an elongated axial outer surface.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Velocity of sound in solid methane near melting temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

VELOCITY OF SOUND IN SOLID METHANE NEAR MELTING TEMPERATURES A Thesis By JOHN MARTIN WHITEHEAD Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1968 Ma)or Sub)ect: Physics VELOCITY OF SOVND IN SOLID METHANE NEAR MELTING TEMPERATURES A Thesis By JOHN MARTIN WHITEHEAD Approved as to style and content by& (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departsmnt) (Mem er (Member) May 1968...

Whitehead, John Martin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

11

Solidsolid transformation route to nanocrystalline sodalite from Al-PILC at room temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study describes a solidsolid transformation of nanocrystalline sodalite from the solid gel mixture of Al2O3-pillared montmorillonite (Al-PILC) with sodium hydroxide at room temperature (25 C) under an ambient atmosphere. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirms that the X-ray crystalline sodalite products are crystallized after 12 days, whereas infrared absorption (IR) spectra reveal that diagnostic IR absorption peaks due to single four-membered ring of sodalite framework is observed even after 1 day. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that Al-PILC is transformed into discrete nano-sized sodalite particles (?50 nm). Although the induction period, the time elapsing before nucleation, for the solidsolid transformation takes much longer (12 days), the nanocrystalline sodalite is successfully obtained at this extremely mild synthetic condition through solidsolid transformation.

Sung-Reol Lee; Man Park; Yang-Su Han; Jin-Ho Choy

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Novel Low Temperature Solid State Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

We have successfully fabricated (PrBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} and (LaBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{deleta}} epitaxial thin film on various single crystal substrates. Physical and electrochemical properties characterizations were carried out. Highly conductive oxygen-deficient double perovskite LnBaCo2O5+? thin films were grown on single crystal (001) SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), (001) MgO, (001) LaAlO{sub 3} and (110) NdGaO{sub 3} substrate by pulsed laser deposition. Microstructure studies from synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Transmission electron microscopy. High temperature transport properties was carried in different atmosphere (O{sub 2},Air, N{sub 2}) up to ~900K. Resistance response of (LaBa)Co{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}} epitaxial thin film was characterized in oxygen, nitrogen and 4% hydrogen over a wide range of temperature from 400?C up to 800?C. To determine the electrode performance and oxygen exchange kinetics of PrBaCo{sub 2}O{sub 5+{delta}}, multi-layered thin film based half cell was deposited on LaAlO{sub 3}(001) substrate. The temperature dependence of the resistance of this half ?cell structure was characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) within different temperature and gas environments. Anode supported fuel cells, with GCO:YSZ multilayer thin film as electrolyte and PBCO thin film as electrode, are fabricated on tape casted NiO/YSZ substrate. Full cell performance is characterized up to 800?C.

Chen, Chonglin; Nash, Patrick; Liu, Jian; Collins, Gregory

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

Promises and problems with metallic interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC-VI) ed. S. C.FOR REDUCED TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Peggy Y. Hou,for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell is discussed in

Hou, Peggy Y.; Huang, Keqin; Bakker, Wate T.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Initial and final state geometries are found with standard geometry optimization, then a number of intermediate states are generated by interpolation of atomic positions. ... A special "metric" and a special "preconditioning" optimized for a plane-wave basis set will be introduced. ...

Timothy P. Holme; Fritz B. Prinz

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solid state differential temperature regulator for a solar heating system  

SciTech Connect

A solid state temperature regulator is provided for a solar heating system for use in conjunction with a swimming pool, or the like. The solar swimming pool heating system includes the usual components, namely, a pump, a filter, and a collector, and in which the pump serves to circulate the water from the pool through the filter and collector and back into the pool. The system also includes additional components, namely, temperature sensors for the collector and for the circulated pool water, appropriate valves, and a solid state control circuit. The solid state control circuit responds to predetermined temperature differences sensed by the sensors to cause the pool water to be circulated through the collector so long as the collector is at a higher temperature than the circulated pool water, and which causes the circulated pool water to by-pass the collector when the temperature of the collector drops below the temperature of the circulated pool water. The control circuit also has a high temperature cut-off control which activates the valves to cause the circulated pool water to by-pass the collector when the temperature of the circulated pool water exceeds a particular threshold. The control circuit also includes a mode switch which may be actuated to reverse the action of the system, causing the pool water to be circulated through the collector when the collector temperature is lower than the pool water temperature, for example, at night following a hot day, in which the collector radiates to the black sky, whereby the collector can be used to cool the water in the pool.

Firebaugh, D.C.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Low-temperature heat capacity of solid HD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The heat capacity at the saturated vapor pressure Cs has been measured for a single sample of solid HD over the temperature range 0.4 to 8 K for various concentrations of J=1 impurities of H2 and D2. The variation in J=1 concentration in the sample was due to conversion to the J=0 rotational ground state over a period of time of approximately one month. In the limit of zero J=1 concentration, Cs fitted a T3 dependence characterized by a Debye temperature of 101 K. An analysis is given of the contribution to the heat capacity from electric quadrupole-quadrupole pair interactions of the J=1 impurities in the solid.

J. H. Constable; A. Q. McGee; J. R. Gaines

1975-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, In: S.C. Singhal and M.solidoxide.html, Tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology,Oxide Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications by Jason

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Effect of Temperature on the Complexity of Solid Argon System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the measure of complexity in solid Argon(Ar) system from the time series data of kinetic energy(KE) of single Ar atoms at different equilibrated temperatures. To account the inherent multi-scale dependence of the complexity, the multi-scale entropy (MSE) of the time series of KE of individual Ar atoms are computed at different equilibrated temperatures. The MSE study reveals that the dynamics of an atom becomes more complex at higher temperatures and the result corroborates well with the variation of the pair correlation function of the atoms in the solid Ar crystal. Also, We repeat the MSE analysis for program generated Levy noise time series and for time series data obtained from the outcomes of exponential decay with noise dx(t) = -x(t) dt + sigma x dB(t)(Langevin equation). Our study establishes that the scale dependence of sample entropy for time series of KE of individual atoms in solid Ar system has similar tendency as that of Levy noise time series and the outcomes of exponential decay with n...

Giri, A; Barat, P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

High temperature solid lubricant materials for heavy duty and advanced heat engines  

SciTech Connect

Advanced engine designs incorporate higher mechanical and thermal loading to achieve efficiency improvements. This approach often leads to higher operating temperatures of critical sliding elements (e.g. piston ring/cylinder wall contacts and valve guides) which compromise the use of conventional and even advanced synthetic liquid lubricants. For these applications solid lubricants must be considered. Several novel solid lubricant composites and coatings designated PS/PM200 have been employed to dry and marginally oil lubricated contacts in advanced heat engines. These applications include cylinder kits of heavy duty diesels, and high temperature sterling engines, sidewall seals of rotary engines and various exhaust valve and exhaust component applications. The following paper describes the tribological and thermophysical properties of these tribomaterials and reviews the results of applying them to engine applications. Other potential tribological materials and applications are also discussed with particular emphasis to heavy duty and advanced heat engines.

DellaCorte, C.; Wood, J.C.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Low-Temperature Heat Transport in Solid HD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal conductivity of solid HD has been measured and compared with theory over the temperature range 4-0.2 K. Since the sample remained frozen over the entire period in which the measurements were made, the H2 and D2 impurities, as well as the other crystal defects, were assumed fixed in the lattice. However, the concentration of the J=1 orthohydrogen (o-H2) and paradeuterium impurities in the sample changed through the slow J=1 to J=0 conversion taking place in the solid. The rate of conversion and consequently the J=1 concentration was determined by measuring, as a function of time, the heat of conversion resulting from J=1 to J=0 transitions. Because of the variation in the J=1 concentration, it was possible to separate the thermal resistivity into a (J=1)-dependent part and a part independent of J=1 concentration. The resistivity resulting from phonon scattering by J=1 molecules was compared to existing theory for two-phonon Raman scattering by o-H2 molecules in a parahydrogen solid. At the lowest temperatures, the temperature dependence of this resistivity was too large to be accounted for by a two-phonon process. It is suggested that a one-phonon process is responsible for the increase in the resistivity at low temperatures. The results of a calculation are given to demonstrate the palusibility of this argument. Below 1 K, the (J=1)-independent conductivity can be adequately fitted by a T3 temperature dependence. From this dependence it was inferred that the sample was polycrystalline. Above 1 K, the (J=1)-independent conductivity is dominated by the presence of the H2 and D2 isotopic impurities. The techniques used to measure these impurity concentrations are described in detail.

J. H. Constable and J. R. Gaines

1973-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Solid/liquid lubrication of ceramics at elevated temperatures  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the effect of solid and liquid lubrication on friction and wear performance of silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) and cast iron. The solid lubricant was a thin silver film ({approx}2 {mu}m thick) produced on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} by ion-beam-assisted deposition. A high-temperature polyol-ester-base synthetic oil served as the liquid lubricant. Friction and wear tests were performed with pin-on-disk and oscillating-slider wear test machines at temperatures up to 300{degrees}C. Without the silver films, the friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} test pairs were 0.05 to 0.14, and the average wear rates of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins were {approx}5 x 10{sup -8} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1}. The friction coefficients of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/cast iron test pairs ranged from 0.08 to 0.11, depending on test temperature. The average specific wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}3 x 10{sup -7} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1}. However, simultaneous use of the solid-lubricant silver and synthetic oil on the sliding surfaces reduced friction coefficients to 0.02 to 0.08. Moreover, the wear of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} pins and silver-coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} disks was so low that it was difficult to assess by a surface profilometer. The wear rates of cast iron pins were {approx}7 x 10{sup -9} mm{sup 3} N{sup -1} m{sup -1} up to 250{degrees}C, but showed a tendency to increase slightly at much higher temperatures. In general, the test results demonstrated that the solid/liquid lubrication of ceramic and/or metallic components is both feasible and effective in controlling friction and wear.

Erdemir, A.; Erck, R.A.; Fenske, G.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hong, H. [Lubrizol Corp., Wickliffe, OH (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is comprised of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb{sub x}Ta{sub y}Ce{sub 1{minus}x{minus}y}O{sub 2} where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same is also described. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell, characterized by a first electrode; an electrically conductive interlayer of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion of the first electrode; an interconnect deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode, an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode, a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Vasilow, T.R.; Richards, V.L.

1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

23

Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention comprises of an electrically conducting doped or admixed cerium oxide composition with niobium oxide and/or tantalum oxide for electrochemical devices, characterized by the general formula: Nb.sub.x Ta.sub.y Ce.sub.1-x-y O.sub.2 where x is about 0.0 to 0.05, y is about 0.0 to 0.05, and x+y is about 0.02 to 0.05, and where x is preferably about 0.02 to 0.05 and y is 0, and a method of making the same. This novel composition is particularly applicable in forming a protective interlayer of a high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell (10), characterized by a first electrode (12); an electrically conductive interlayer (14) of niobium and/or tantalum doped cerium oxide deposited over at least a first portion (R) of the first electrode; an interconnect (16) deposited over the interlayer; a solid electrolyte (18) deposited over a second portion of the first electrode, the first portion being discontinuous from the second portion; and, a second electrode (20) deposited over the solid electrolyte. The interlayer (14) is characterized as being porous and selected from the group consisting of niobium doped cerium oxide, tantalum doped cerium oxide, and niobium and tantalum doped cerium oxide or admixtures of the same. The first electrode (12), an air electrode, is a porous layer of doped lanthanum manganite, the solid electrolyte layer (18) is a dense yttria stabilized zirconium oxide, the interconnect layer (16) is a dense, doped lanthanum chromite, and the second electrode (20), a fuel electrode, is a porous layer of nickel-zirconium oxide cermet. The electrochemical cell (10) can take on a plurality of shapes such as annular, planar, etc. and can be connected to a plurality of electrochemical cells in series and/or in parallel to generate electrical energy.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Manor, PA); Richards, Von L. (Angola, IN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INLs test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. V. Virkar

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

DEGRADATION ISSUES IN SOLID OXIDE CELLS DURING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is performing high-temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs). The project goals are to address the technical and degradation issues associated with the SOECs. This paper provides a summary of various ongoing INL and INL sponsored activities aimed at addressing SOEC degradation. These activities include stack testing, post-test examination, degradation modeling, and a list of issues that need to be addressed in future. Major degradation issues relating to solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are relatively better understood than those for SOECs. Some of the degradation mechanisms in SOFCs include contact problems between adjacent cell components, microstructural deterioration (coarsening) of the porous electrodes, and blocking of the reaction sites within the electrodes. Contact problems include delamination of an electrode from the electrolyte, growth of a poorly (electronically) conducting oxide layer between the metallic interconnect plates and the electrodes, and lack of contact between the interconnect and the electrode. INL's test results on high temperature electrolysis (HTE) using solid oxide cells do not provide a clear evidence whether different events lead to similar or drastically different electrochemical degradation mechanisms. Post-test examination of the solid oxide electrolysis cells showed that the hydrogen electrode and interconnect get partially oxidized and become non-conductive. This is most likely caused by the hydrogen stream composition and flow rate during cool down. The oxygen electrode side of the stacks seemed to be responsible for the observed degradation due to large areas of electrode delamination. Based on the oxygen electrode appearance, the degradation of these stacks was largely controlled by the oxygen electrode delamination rate. University of Utah (Virkar) has developed a SOEC model based on concepts in local thermodynamic equilibrium in systems otherwise in global thermodynamic non-equilibrium. This model is under continued development. It shows that electronic conduction through the electrolyte, however small, must be taken into account for determining local oxygen chemical potential, within the electrolyte. The chemical potential within the electrolyte may lie out of bounds in relation to values at the electrodes in the electrolyzer mode. Under certain conditions, high pressures can develop in the electrolyte just under the oxygen electrode (anode)/electrolyte interface, leading to electrode delamination. This theory is being further refined and tested by introducing some electronic conduction in the electrolyte.

M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; V. I. Sharma; B. Yildiz; A. Virkar

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Mechanochemically synthesized nanomaterials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell membranes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??[Truncated abstract] In this dissertation an investigation into the utility of mechanochemically synthesized nanopowders for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell components is reported. The (more)

Hos, James Pieter

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Materials System for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to obtain a stable materials system for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density greater than 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}. The solid electrolyte chosen for this system was La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}, (LSGM). To select the right electrode materials from a group of possible candidate materials, AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted between 600-800 C on symmetrical cells that employed the LSGM electrolyte. Based on the results of the investigation, LSGM electrolyte supported SOFCs were fabricated with La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}-La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub 3} (LSCF-LSGM) composite cathode and Nickel-Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (Ni-LDC) composite anode having a barrier layer of Ce{sub 0.6}La{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LDC) between the LSGM electrolyte and the Ni-LDC anode. Electrical performance and stability of these cells were determined and the electrode polarization behavior as a function of cell current was modeled between 600-800 C. The electrical performance of the anode-supported SOFC was simulated assuming an electrode polarization behavior identical to the LSGM-electrolyte-supported SOFC. The simulated electrical performance indicated that the selected material system would provide a stable cell capable of operating between 600-800 C with a power density between 0.2 to 1 W/cm{sup 2}.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2006-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Trace element behavior in the fluidized bed gasification of solid recovered fuels A thermodynamic study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gasification of biomass and recycled fuels is of particular interest for the efficient production of power and heat. Trace elements present as impurities in the product gas should be removed very efficiently. The objective of this work has been to develop and test thermodynamic models for the reactions of trace elements with chlorine and sulfur in the gasification processes of recycled fuels. In particular, the chemical reactions of trace elements with main thermochemical conversion products, main ash components, and bed and sorbent material are implemented into the model. The possibilities of gas cleaning devices in condensing and removing the trace element compounds are studied by establishing the volatilization tendency of trace element compounds in reducing gases. The results obtained with the model are compared with the measured data of trace elements of gasification experiments using solid recovered fuel as feedstock. Some corresponding studies in the literature are also critically reviewed and compared. The observed discrepancies may be attributed to differences in thermodynamic databases applied and experimental arrangements. The method of removing gaseous trace elements by condensation is already in use in the 160MWth waste gasification plant in Lahti, Finland.

Jukka Konttinen; Rainer Backman; M. Hupa; Antero Moilanen; Esa Kurkela

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator 510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania EA-0510: High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC), Churchill, Pennsylvania SUMMARY This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to enter into a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the development of high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell generators near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. PUBLIC COMMENT OPPORTUNITIES None available at this time. DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Final Environmental Assessment High-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (Sofc) Generator Development Project (METC) August 1, 1991 EA-0510: Finding of No Significant Impact

30

Size Dependence of a Temperature-Induced Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Copper(I) Sulfide  

SciTech Connect

Determination of the phase diagrams for the nanocrystalline forms of materials is crucial for our understanding of nanostructures and the design of functional materials using nanoscale building blocks. The ability to study such transformations in nanomaterials with controlled shape offers further insight into transition mechanisms and the influence of particular facets. Here we present an investigation of the size-dependent, temperature-induced solid-solid phase transition in copper sulfide nanorods from low- to high-chalcocite. We find the transition temperature to be substantially reduced, with the high chalcocite phase appearing in the smallest nanocrystals at temperatures so low that they are typical of photovoltaic operation. Size dependence in phase trans- formations suggests the possibility of accessing morphologies that are not found in bulk solids at ambient conditions. These other- wise-inaccessible crystal phases could enable higher-performing materials in a range of applications, including sensing, switching, lighting, and photovoltaics.

Rivest, Jessy B; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jain, Prashant K; Toney, Michael F; Alivisatos, A Paul

2011-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

Measurement and finite element analysis of temperature distribution in arc welding process  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This presentation describes both the experimental measurement and finite element analysis used to study the temperature distribution during a metal inert gas (MIG) welding process, including the cooling down period. Welding was carried out on ... Keywords: FEA, MIG welding, arc welding, cracking, finite element analysis, metal inert gas welding, residual stress, simulation, temperature distribution, weldment temperature

C. K. Lee; J. Candy; C. P. H. Tan

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Low Temperature Constrained Sintering of Cerium Gadolinium OxideFilms for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications  

SciTech Connect

Cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) has been identified as an acceptable solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrolyte at temperatures (500-700 C) where cheap, rigid, stainless steel interconnect substrates can be used. Unfortunately, both the high sintering temperature of pure CGO, >1200 C, and the fact that constraint during sintering often results in cracked, low density ceramic films, have complicated development of metal supported CGO SOFCs. The aim of this work was to find new sintering aids for Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95}, and to evaluate whether they could be used to produce dense, constrained Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} films at temperatures below 1000 C. To find the optimal sintering aid, Ce{sub 0.9}Gd{sub 0.1}O{sub 1.95} was doped with a variety of elements, of which lithium was found to be the most effective. Dilatometric studies indicated that by doping CGO with 3mol% lithium nitrate, it was possible to sinter pellets to a relative density of 98.5% at 800 C--a full one hundred degrees below the previous low temperature sintering record for CGO. Further, it was also found that a sintering aid's effectiveness could be explained in terms of its size, charge and high temperature mobility. A closer examination of lithium doped Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 indicated that lithium affects sintering by producing a Li{sub 2}O-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CeO{sub 2} liquid at the CGO grain boundaries. Due to this liquid phase sintering, it was possible to produce dense, crack-free constrained films of CGO at the record low temperature of 950 C using cheap, colloidal spray deposition processes. This is the first time dense constrained CGO films have been produced below 1000 C and could help commercialize metal supported ceria based solid oxide fuel cells.

Nicholas, Jason.D.

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

Hobson, David O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9wt.% (wet basis), 14.8wt.% and 25.0wt.%. In addition, the effect of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on trace element partitioning was investigated. The trace elements studied were As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn, since these elements were significantly enriched in SRF as compared to coal. During the experiments, bottom ash was collected in a chamber, large fly ash particles were collected by a cyclone with a cut-off diameter of ~2.5?m, and the remaining fly ash particles were gathered in a filter. It was found that when coal was co-fired with SRF, the As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn content in filter ash/cyclone ash increased almost linearly with their content in fuel ash. This linear tendency was affected when the fuels were mixed with additives. The volatility of trace elements during combustion was assessed by applying a relative enrichment (RE) factor, and TEMEDS analysis was conducted to provide qualitative interpretations. The results indicated that As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn were highly volatile when co-firing coal and SRF, whereas the volatility of Cr was relatively low. Compared with coal combustion, co-firing of coal and SRF slightly enhanced the volatility of Cd, Pb and Zn, but reduced the volatility of Cr and Sb. The Cl-based additives increased the volatility of Cd, Pb and As, whereas addition of ammonium sulphate generally decreased the volatility of trace elements. Addition of kaolinite reduced the volatility of Pb, while the influence on other trace elements was insignificant. The results from the present work imply that trace element emission would be significantly increased when coal is co-fired with SRF, which may greatly enhance the toxicity of the dusts from coal-fired power plant. In order to minimize trace element emission in co-combustion, in addition to lowering the trace element content in SRF, utilizing SRF with low Cl content and coal with high S and aluminosilicates content would be desirable.

Hao Wu; Peter Glarborg; Flemming Jappe Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Bo Sander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

A 2D finite element with through the thickness parabolic temperature distribution for heat transfer simulations including welding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The arc welding process involves thermal cycles that cause the appearance of undesirable residual stresses. The determination of this thermal cycle is the first step to a thermomechanical analysis that allows the numerical calculation of residual stresses. This study describes the formulation of a 2D finite element with through the thickness parabolic temperature distribution, including an element estabilization procedure. The 2D element described in this paper can be used to perform thermal analysis more economically than 3D elements, especially in plates, because the number of degrees of freedom through the thickness will always be three. A numerical model of a tungsten arc welding (GTAW) setup was made based on published experimental results. Size and distribution of the heat source input, thermal properties dependent on temperature, surface heat losses by convection and latent heat during phase change were considered. In parallel the same setup was modeled using ANSYS software with 3D elements (SOLID70) to compare against 2D numerical results. The results obtained by 2D model, 3D model and experimental data showed good agreement.

Darlesson Alves do Carmo; Alfredo Rocha de Faria

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

C-104 high-level waste solids: Washing/leaching and solubility versus temperature studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the C-104 HLW solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-104 solids remaining after washing with 0.01 M NaOH or leaching with 3 M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of the C-104 solids as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8, Rev. 0, ``Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; SK Fiskum; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

37

DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

2004-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

38

Room-temperature phosphorescence of hydroxyl-substituted aromatics adsorbed on solid surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Several polymer-salt mixtures were examined as solid surfaces for room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP). A variety of hydroxyl-substituted aromatic compounds were observed to give RTP when absorbed on poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-sodium halide mixtures and filter paper. A solid-sample holding plate was used with a spectrodensitometer for solid surface luminescence detection of components on powder and filter paper adsorbents. RTP analytical data, including linear ranges of calibration curves and limits of detection for several compounds, were compared for 1% PAA-NaBr powder and filter paper.

Dalterio, R.A.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

MATERIALS SYSTEM FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

SciTech Connect

AC complex impedance spectroscopy studies were conducted on symmetrical cells of the type [gas, electrode/LSGM electrolyte/electrode, gas]. The electrode materials were slurry-coated on both sides of the LSGM electrolyte support. The electrodes selected for this investigation are candidate materials for SOFC electrodes. Cathode materials include La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (LSM), LSCF (La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3}), a two-phase particulate composite consisting of LSM + doped-lanthanum gallate (LSGM), and LSCF + LSGM. Pt metal electrodes were also used for the purpose of comparison. Anode material investigated was the Ni + GDC composite. The study revealed important details pertaining to the charge-transfer reactions that occur in such electrodes. The information obtained can be used to design electrodes for intermediate temperature SOFCs based on LSGM electrolyte.

Uday B. Pal; Srikanth Gopalan

2004-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

40

Measurement of particulate matter and trace elements from a coal-fired power plant with electrostatic precipitators equipped the low temperature economizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The particulate matter and trace elements from a 660MW coal-fired power plant boiler which equipped with a novel electrostatic precipitator were sampled and analyzed. To promote the thermal efficiency of power plants, a low temperature economizer was installed at the inlet of electrostatic precipitator to collect the heat generated from flue gas. The low temperature economizer can reduce flue gas temperature, and then affect the operation of electrostatic precipitator. Therefore, this experiment was carried out to investigate the collection characteristics of this novel electrostatic precipitator on particulate matter. In addition, the distribution of trace elements in solid combustion residues was also studied. The results indicate that the low temperature economizer can markedly decrease the amount of particulate matter at the outlet of electrostatic precipitator. The collection efficiency of electrostatic precipitator on particulate matter is significantly improved by the low temperature economizer, whereby the collection efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM1.0 can reach 99.7% and 99.2%, respectively. Most of the trace elements remain in the fly ash collected by the electrostatic precipitator, and less than 10% remain in the bottom ash, but very rare emit from the electrostatic precipitator. The low temperature economizer not only reduces the emission of particulate matter, but also diminishes the emissions of trace elements in flue gas. The enrichment characteristics of trace elements in submicron particles were also studied.

Chao Wang; Xiaowei Liu; Dong Li; Junping Si; Bo Zhao; Minghou Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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41

Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures. 2 figs.

Hobson, D.O.

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

42

It's Elemental - The Element Europium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Samarium Samarium Previous Element (Samarium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Gadolinium) Gadolinium The Element Europium [Click for Isotope Data] 63 Eu Europium 151.964 Atomic Number: 63 Atomic Weight: 151.964 Melting Point: 1095 K (822°C or 1512°F) Boiling Point: 1802 K (1529°C or 2784°F) Density: 5.24 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: none Group Name: Lanthanide What's in a name? Named after the continent of Europe. Say what? Europium is pronounced as yoo-RO-pee-em. History and Uses: Europium was discovered by Eugène-Antole Demarçay, a French chemist, in 1896. Demarçay suspected that samples of a recently discovered element, samarium, were contaminated with an unknown element. He was able to produce

43

It's Elemental - The Element Potassium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argon Argon Previous Element (Argon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Calcium) Calcium The Element Potassium [Click for Isotope Data] 19 K Potassium 39.0983 Atomic Number: 19 Atomic Weight: 39.0983 Melting Point: 336.53 K (63.38°C or 146.08°F) Boiling Point: 1032 K (759°C or 1398°F) Density: 0.89 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the English word potash. Potassium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for alkali, kalium. Say what? Potassium is pronounced as poh-TASS-ee-em. History and Uses: Although potassium is the eighth most abundant element on earth and comprises about 2.1% of the earth's crust, it is a very reactive element

44

It's Elemental - The Element Sulfur  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phosphorus Phosphorus Previous Element (Phosphorus) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Chlorine) Chlorine The Element Sulfur [Click for Isotope Data] 16 S Sulfur 32.065 Atomic Number: 16 Atomic Weight: 32.065 Melting Point: 388.36 K (115.21°C or 239.38°F) Boiling Point: 717.75 K (444.60°C or 832.28°F) Density: 2.067 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the Sanskrit word sulvere and the Latin word sulphurium. Say what? Sulfur is pronounced as SUL-fer. History and Uses: Sulfur, the tenth most abundant element in the universe, has been known since ancient times. Sometime around 1777, Antoine Lavoisier convinced the rest of the scientific community that sulfur was an element. Sulfur is a

45

It's Elemental - The Element Magnesium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sodium Sodium Previous Element (Sodium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Aluminum) Aluminum The Element Magnesium [Click for Isotope Data] 12 Mg Magnesium 24.3050 Atomic Number: 12 Atomic Weight: 24.3050 Melting Point: 923 K (650°C or 1202°F) Boiling Point: 1363 K (1090°C or 1994°F) Density: 1.74 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 2 Group Name: Alkaline Earth Metal What's in a name? For Magnesia, a district in the region of Thessaly, Greece. Say what? Magnesium is pronounced as mag-NEE-zhi-em. History and Uses: Although it is the eighth most abundant element in the universe and the seventh most abundant element in the earth's crust, magnesium is never found free in nature. Magnesium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy, an

46

Z .Thin Solid Films 391 2001 143 148 Submicrosecond range surface heating and temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Z .Thin Solid Films 391 2001 143 148 Submicrosecond range surface heating and temperature; accepted 22 March 2001 Abstract A method for submicrosecond heating of sensor surfaces and simultaneous as well as photo thermal and scanning force microscopy measurements were performed to optimize the heating

Moritz, Werner

47

Temperature-Tuning of Near-Infrared Monodisperse Quantum Dot Solids at  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature-Tuning of Near-Infrared Monodisperse Quantum Dot Solids at 1.5 µm for Controllable Fo is important in a wide-variety of applications, especially in the near-infrared region where applications transfer in large, monodisperse lead sulfide quantum dots with ground-state transitions near 1.5 µm (0.8 e

Hone, James

48

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal at high temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Mechanical properties of solid oxide fuel cell glass-ceramic seal material, G18, are studied at high temperatures. Samples of G18 are aged for either 4h or 100h, resulting in samples with different crystallinity. Reduced modulus, hardness, and time-dependent behavior are measured by nanoindentation. The nanoindentation is performed at room temperature, 550, 650, and 750C, using loading rates of 5 mN/s and 25 mN/s. Results show a decrease in reduced modulus with increasing temperature, with significant decrease above the glass transition temperature (Tg). Hardness generally decreases with increasing temperature, with a slight increase before Tg for the 4h aged sample. Dwell tests show that creep increases with increasing temperature, but decrease with further aging.

Milhans, Jacqueline; Li, Dongsheng; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Sun, Xin; Al-Haik, Marwan; Harris, Adrian; Garmestani, Hamid

2011-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

49

CHALLENGES IN GENERATING HYDROGEN BY HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS USING SOLID OXIDE CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratorys (INL) high temperature electrolysis research to generate hydrogen using solid oxide electrolysis cells is presented in this paper. The research results reported here have been obtained in a laboratory-scale apparatus. These results and common scale-up issues also indicate that for the technology to be successful in a large industrial setting, several technical, economical, and manufacturing issues have to be resolved. Some of the issues related to solid oxide cells are stack design and performance optimization, identification and evaluation of cell performance degradation parameters and processes, integrity and reliability of the solid oxide electrolysis (SOEC) stacks, life-time prediction and extension of the SOEC stack, and cost reduction and economic manufacturing of the SOEC stacks. Besides the solid oxide cells, balance of the hydrogen generating plant also needs significant development. These issues are process and ohmic heat source needed for maintaining the reaction temperature (~830C), high temperature heat exchangers and recuperators, equal distribution of the reactants into each cell, system analysis of hydrogen and associated energy generating plant, and cost optimization. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. These issues need interdisciplinary research effort of federal laboratories, solid oxide cell manufacturers, hydrogen consumers, and other such stakeholders. This paper discusses research and development accomplished by INL on such issues and highlights associated challenges that need to be addressed for hydrogen to become an economical and viable option.

M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; M. G. McKellar; J. S. Herring; E. A. Harvego

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

It's Elemental - The Element Sodium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium The Element Sodium [Click for Isotope Data] 11 Na Sodium 22.98976928 Atomic Number: 11 Atomic Weight: 22.98976928 Melting Point: 370.95 K (97.80°C or 208.04°F) Boiling Point: 1156 K (883°C or 1621°F) Density: 0.97 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the English word soda and from the Medieval Latin word sodanum, which means "headache remedy." Sodium's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for sodium carbonate, natrium. Say what? Sodium is pronounced as SO-dee-em. History and Uses: Although sodium is the sixth most abundant element on earth and comprises

51

It's Elemental - The Element Francium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radon Radon Previous Element (Radon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Radium) Radium The Element Francium [Click for Isotope Data] 87 Fr Francium 223 Atomic Number: 87 Atomic Weight: 223 Melting Point: 300 K (27°C or 81°F) Boiling Point: Unknown Density: Unknown Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 7 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal Radioactive What's in a name? Named for the country of France. Say what? Francium is pronounced as FRAN-see-em. History and Uses: Francium was discovered by Marguerite Catherine Perey, a French chemist, in 1939 while analyzing actinium's decay sequence. Although considered a natural element, scientists estimate that there is no more than one ounce of francium in the earth's crust at one time. Since there is so little

52

It's Elemental - The Element Phosphorus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silicon Silicon Previous Element (Silicon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Sulfur) Sulfur The Element Phosphorus [Click for Isotope Data] 15 P Phosphorus 30.973762 Atomic Number: 15 Atomic Weight: 30.973762 Melting Point: 317.30 K (44.15°C or 111.47°F) Boiling Point: 553.65 K (280.5°C or 536.9°F) Density: 1.82 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek word for light bearing, phosphoros. Say what? Phosphorus is pronounced as FOS-fer-es. History and Uses: In what is perhaps the most disgusting method of discovering an element, phosphorus was first isolated in 1669 by Hennig Brand, a German physician and alchemist, by boiling, filtering and otherwise processing as many as 60

53

It's Elemental - The Element Cerium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lanthanum Lanthanum Previous Element (Lanthanum) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Praseodymium) Praseodymium The Element Cerium [Click for Isotope Data] 58 Ce Cerium 140.116 Atomic Number: 58 Atomic Weight: 140.116 Melting Point: 1071 K (798°C or 1468°F) Boiling Point: 3697 K (3424°C or 6195°F) Density: 6.770 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: none Group Name: Lanthanide What's in a name? Named for the asteroid Ceres. Say what? Cerium is pronounced as SER-ee-em. History and Uses: Cerium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius and Wilhelm von Hisinger, Swedish chemists, and independently by Martin Heinrich Klaproth, a German chemist, in 1803. Cerium is the most abundant of the rare earth elements

54

It's Elemental - The Element Indium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cadmium Cadmium Previous Element (Cadmium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Tin) Tin The Element Indium [Click for Isotope Data] 49 In Indium 114.818 Atomic Number: 49 Atomic Weight: 114.818 Melting Point: 429.75 K (156.60°C or 313.88°F) Boiling Point: 2345 K (2072°C or 3762°F) Density: 7.31 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 13 Group Name: none What's in a name? Named after the bright indigo line in its spectrum. Say what? Indium is pronounced as IN-dee-em. History and Uses: Indium was discovered by the German chemists Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymus Theodor Richter in 1863. Reich and Richter had been looking for traces of the element thallium in samples of zinc ores. A brilliant indigo line in

55

It's Elemental - The Element Technetium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molybdenum Molybdenum Previous Element (Molybdenum) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Ruthenium) Ruthenium The Element Technetium [Click for Isotope Data] 43 Tc Technetium 98 Atomic Number: 43 Atomic Weight: 98 Melting Point: 2430 K (2157°C or 3915°F) Boiling Point: 4538 K (4265°C or 7709°F) Density: 11 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 7 Group Name: none Radioactive and Artificially Produced What's in a name? From the Greek word for artificial, technetos. Say what? Technetium is pronounced as tek-NEE-she-em. History and Uses: Technetium was the first artificially produced element. It was isolated by Carlo Perrier and Emilio Segrè in 1937. Technetium was created by bombarding molybdenum atoms with deuterons that had been accelerated by a

56

It's Elemental - The Element Cobalt  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Iron Iron Previous Element (Iron) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Nickel) Nickel The Element Cobalt [Click for Isotope Data] 27 Co Cobalt 58.933195 Atomic Number: 27 Atomic Weight: 58.933195 Melting Point: 1768 K (1495°C or 2723°F) Boiling Point: 3200 K (2927°C or 5301°F) Density: 8.86 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 9 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the German word for goblin or evil spirit, kobald and the Greek word for mine, cobalos. Say what? Cobalt is pronounced as KO-bolt. History and Uses: Cobalt was discovered by Georg Brandt, a Swedish chemist, in 1739. Brandt was attempting to prove that the ability of certain minerals to color glass blue was due to an unknown element and not to bismuth, as was commonly

57

It's Elemental - The Element Manganese  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chromium Chromium Previous Element (Chromium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Iron) Iron The Element Manganese [Click for Isotope Data] 25 Mn Manganese 54.938045 Atomic Number: 25 Atomic Weight: 54.938045 Melting Point: 1519 K (1246°C or 2275°F) Boiling Point: 2334 K (2061°C or 3742°F) Density: 7.3 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 7 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for magnet, magnes. Say what? Manganese is pronounced as MAN-ge-nees. History and Uses: Proposed to be an element by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774, manganese was discovered by Johan Gottlieb Gahn, a Swedish chemist, by heating the mineral pyrolusite (MnO2) in the presence of charcoal later that year.

58

It's Elemental - The Element Titanium  

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Scandium Scandium Previous Element (Scandium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Vanadium) Vanadium The Element Titanium [Click for Isotope Data] 22 Ti Titanium 47.867 Atomic Number: 22 Atomic Weight: 47.867 Melting Point: 1941 K (1668°C or 3034°F) Boiling Point: 3560 K (3287°C or 5949°F) Density: 4.5 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 4 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Greek word Titans, the mythological "first sons of the Earth." Say what? Titanium is pronounced as tie-TAY-nee-em. History and Uses: Titanium was discovered in 1791 by the Reverend William Gregor, an English pastor. Pure titanium was first produced by Matthew A. Hunter, an American metallurgist, in 1910. Titanium is the ninth most abundant element in the

59

C-106 High-Level Waste Solids: Washing/Leaching and Solubility Versus Temperature Studies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a test conducted by Battelle to assess the effects of inhibited water washing and caustic leaching on the composition of the Hanford tank C-106 high-level waste (HLW) solids. The objective of this work was to determine the composition of the C-106 solids remaining after washing with 0.01M NaOH or leaching with 3M NaOH. Another objective of this test was to determine the solubility of various C-106 components as a function of temperature. The work was conducted according to test plan BNFL-TP-29953-8,Rev. 0, Determination of the Solubility of HLW Sludge Solids. The test went according to plan, with only minor deviations from the test plan. The deviations from the test plan are discussed in the experimental section.

GJ Lumetta; DJ Bates; PK Berry; JP Bramson; LP Darnell; OT Farmer III; LR Greenwood; FV Hoopes; RC Lettau; GF Piepel; CZ Soderquist; MJ Steele; RT Steele; MW Urie; JJ Wagner

2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

60

Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures  

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Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 6,908,497 entitled "Solid Sorbents for Removal of Carbon Dioxide from Gas Streams at Low Temperatures." Disclosed in this patent is a new low-cost carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) sorbent that can be used in large-scale gas-solid processes. Researchers have developed a new method to prepare these sorbents by treating substrates with an amine and/or an ether in a way that either one comprises at least 50 weight percent of the sorbent. The sorbent captures compounds contained in gaseous fluids through chemisorptions and/or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

It's Elemental - The Element Astatine  

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Polonium Polonium Previous Element (Polonium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Radon) Radon The Element Astatine [Click for Isotope Data] 85 At Astatine 210 Atomic Number: 85 Atomic Weight: 210 Melting Point: 575 K (302°C or 576°F) Boiling Point: Unknown Density: about 7 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Semi-metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen Radioactive What's in a name? From the Greek word for unstable, astatos. Say what? Astatine is pronounced as AS-teh-teen or as AS-teh-ten. History and Uses: Astatine was produced by Dale R. Carson, K.R. MacKenzie and Emilio Segrè by bombarding an isotope of bismuth, bismuth-209, with alpha particles that had been accelerated in a device called a cyclotron. This created

62

It's Elemental - The Element Copper  

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Nickel Nickel Previous Element (Nickel) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Zinc) Zinc The Element Copper [Click for Isotope Data] 29 Cu Copper 63.546 Atomic Number: 29 Atomic Weight: 63.546 Melting Point: 1357.77 K (1084.62°C or 1984.32°F) Boiling Point: 2835 K (2562°C or 4644°F) Density: 8.933 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 11 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word cuprum, which means "from the island of Cyprus." Say what? Copper is pronounced as KOP-er. History and Uses: Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using copper for at least 11,000 years. Relatively easy to mine and refine, people discovered methods for extracting copper from its ores at least 7,000 years ago. The

63

It's Elemental - The Element Gadolinium  

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Europium Europium Previous Element (Europium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Terbium) Terbium The Element Gadolinium [Click for Isotope Data] 64 Gd Gadolinium 157.25 Atomic Number: 64 Atomic Weight: 157.25 Melting Point: 1586 K (1313°C or 2395°F) Boiling Point: 3546 K (3273°C or 5923°F) Density: 7.90 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: none Group Name: Lanthanide What's in a name? Named for the mineral gadolinite which was named after Johan Gadolin, a Finnish chemist. Say what? Gadolinium is pronounced as GAD-oh-LIN-ee-em. History and Uses: Spectroscopic evidence for the existence of gadolinium was first observed by the Swiss chemist Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in the minerals

64

It's Elemental - The Element Hafnium  

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Lutetium Lutetium Previous Element (Lutetium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Tantalum) Tantalum The Element Hafnium [Click for Isotope Data] 72 Hf Hafnium 178.49 Atomic Number: 72 Atomic Weight: 178.49 Melting Point: 2506 K (2233°C or 4051°F) Boiling Point: 4876 K (4603°C or 8317°F) Density: 13.3 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 4 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for the city of Copenhagen, Hafnia. Say what? Hafnium is pronounced as HAF-neeem. History and Uses: Hafnium was discovered by Dirk Coster, a Danish chemist, and Charles de Hevesy, a Hungarian chemist, in 1923. They used a method known as X-ray spectroscopy to study the arrangement of the outer electrons of atoms in

65

It's Elemental - The Element Boron  

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Beryllium Beryllium Previous Element (Beryllium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Carbon) Carbon The Element Boron [Click for Isotope Data] 5 B Boron 10.811 Atomic Number: 5 Atomic Weight: 10.811 Melting Point: 2348 K (2075°C or 3767°F) Boiling Point: 4273 K (4000°C or 7232°F) Density: 2.37 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Semi-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 13 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Arabic word Buraq and the Persian word Burah, which are both words for the material "borax." Say what? Boron is pronounced as BO-ron. History and Uses: Boron was discovered by Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jaques Thénard, French chemists, and independently by Sir Humphry Davy, an English chemist,

66

It's Elemental - The Element Thorium  

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Actinium Actinium Previous Element (Actinium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Protactinium) Protactinium The Element Thorium [Click for Isotope Data] 90 Th Thorium 232.03806 Atomic Number: 90 Atomic Weight: 232.03806 Melting Point: 2023 K (1750°C or 3182°F) Boiling Point: 5061 K (4788°C or 8650°F) Density: 11.72 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 7 Group Number: none Group Name: Actinide Radioactive What's in a name? Named for the Scandinavian god of war, Thor. Say what? Thorium is pronounced as THOR-ee-em or as THO-ree-em. History and Uses: Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, a Swedish chemist, in 1828. He discovered it in a sample of a mineral that was given to him by the Reverend Has Morten Thrane Esmark, who suspected that it contained an

67

It's Elemental - The Element Chromium  

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Vanadium Vanadium Previous Element (Vanadium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Manganese) Manganese The Element Chromium [Click for Isotope Data] 24 Cr Chromium 51.9961 Atomic Number: 24 Atomic Weight: 51.9961 Melting Point: 2180 K (1907°C or 3465°F) Boiling Point: 2944 K (2671°C or 4840°F) Density: 7.15 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 6 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Greek word for color, chroma. Say what? Chromium is pronounced as KROH-mee-em. History and Uses: Chromium was discovered by Louis-Nicholas Vauquelin while experimenting with a material known as Siberian red lead, also known as the mineral crocoite (PbCrO4), in 1797. He produced chromium oxide (CrO3) by mixing

68

It's Elemental - The Element Iron  

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Manganese Manganese Previous Element (Manganese) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Cobalt) Cobalt The Element Iron [Click for Isotope Data] 26 Fe Iron 55.845 Atomic Number: 26 Atomic Weight: 55.845 Melting Point: 1811 K (1538°C or 2800°F) Boiling Point: 3134 K (2861°C or 5182°F) Density: 7.874 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 8 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Anglo-Saxon word iron. Iron's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for iron, ferrum. Say what? Iron is pronounced as EYE-ern. History and Uses: Archaeological evidence suggests that people have been using iron for at least 5000 years. Iron is the cheapest and one of the most abundant of all metals, comprising nearly 5.6% of the earth's crust and nearly all of the

69

It's Elemental - The Element Molybdenum  

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Niobium Niobium Previous Element (Niobium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Technetium) Technetium The Element Molybdenum [Click for Isotope Data] 42 Mo Molybdenum 95.96 Atomic Number: 42 Atomic Weight: 95.96 Melting Point: 2896 K (2623°C or 4753°F) Boiling Point: 4912 K (4639°C or 8382°F) Density: 10.2 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 6 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Greek word for lead, molybdos. Say what? Molybdenum is pronounced as meh-LIB-deh-nem. History and Uses: Molybdenum was discovered by Carl Welhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, in 1778 in a mineral known as molybdenite (MoS2) which had been confused as a lead compound. Molybdenum was isolated by Peter Jacob Hjelm in 1781. Today,

70

It's Elemental - The Element Cesium  

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Xenon Xenon Previous Element (Xenon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Barium) Barium The Element Cesium [Click for Isotope Data] 55 Cs Cesium 132.9054519 Atomic Number: 55 Atomic Weight: 132.9054519 Melting Point: 301.59 K (28.44°C or 83.19°F) Boiling Point: 944 K (671°C or 1240°F) Density: 1.93 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 1 Group Name: Alkali Metal What's in a name? From the Latin word for sky blue, caesius. Say what? Cesium is pronounced as SEE-zee-em. History and Uses: Cesium was discovered by Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff, German chemists, in 1860 through the spectroscopic analysis of Durkheim mineral water. They named cesium after the blue lines they observed in its

71

It's Elemental - The Element Iridium  

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Osmium Osmium Previous Element (Osmium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Platinum) Platinum The Element Iridium [Click for Isotope Data] 77 Ir Iridium 192.217 Atomic Number: 77 Atomic Weight: 192.217 Melting Point: 2719 K (2446°C or 4435°F) Boiling Point: 4701 K (4428°C or 8002°F) Density: 22.42 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 9 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for rainbow, iris. Say what? Iridium is pronounced as i-RID-ee-em. History and Uses: Iridium and osmium were discovered at the same time by the British chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803. Iridium and osmium were identified in the black residue remaining after dissolving platinum ore with aqua regia, a mixture

72

It's Elemental - The Element Platinum  

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Iridium Iridium Previous Element (Iridium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Gold) Gold The Element Platinum [Click for Isotope Data] 78 Pt Platinum 195.084 Atomic Number: 78 Atomic Weight: 195.084 Melting Point: 2041.55 K (1768.4°C or 3215.1°F) Boiling Point: 4098 K (3825°C or 6917°F) Density: 21.46 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 10 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Spainsh word for silver, platina. Say what? Platinum is pronounced as PLAT-en-em. History and Uses: Used by the pre-Columbian Indians of South America, platinum wasn't noticed by western scientists until 1735. Platinum can occur free in nature and is sometimes found in deposits of gold-bearing sands, primarily those found in

73

It's Elemental - The Element Arsenic  

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Germanium Germanium Previous Element (Germanium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Selenium) Selenium The Element Arsenic [Click for Isotope Data] 33 As Arsenic 74.92160 Atomic Number: 33 Atomic Weight: 74.92160 Melting Point: 1090 K (817°C or 1503°F) Boiling Point: 887 K (614°C or 1137°F) Density: 5.776 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Semi-metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Latin word arsenicum, the Greek word arsenikon and the Arabic word Az-zernikh. Say what? Arsenic is pronounced as AR-s'n-ik. History and Uses: Although arsenic compounds were mined by the early Chinese, Greek and Egyptian civilizations, it is believed that arsenic itself was first identified by Albertus Magnus, a German alchemist, in 1250. Arsenic occurs

74

It's Elemental - The Element Barium  

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Cesium Cesium Previous Element (Cesium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Lanthanum) Lanthanum The Element Barium [Click for Isotope Data] 56 Ba Barium 137.327 Atomic Number: 56 Atomic Weight: 137.327 Melting Point: 1000 K (727°C or 1341°F) Boiling Point: 2170 K (1897°C or 3447°F) Density: 3.62 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 2 Group Name: Alkaline Earth Metal What's in a name? From the Greek word for heavy, barys. Say what? Barium is pronounced as BAR-ee-em. History and Uses: Barium was first isolated by Sir Humphry Davy, an English chemist, in 1808 through the electrolysis of molten baryta (BaO). Barium is never found free in nature since it reacts with oxygen in the air, forming barium oxide

75

It's Elemental - The Element Gold  

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Platinum Platinum Previous Element (Platinum) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Mercury) Mercury The Element Gold [Click for Isotope Data] 79 Au Gold 196.966569 Atomic Number: 79 Atomic Weight: 196.966569 Melting Point: 1337.33 K (1064.18°C or 1947.52°F) Boiling Point: 3129 K (2856°C or 5173°F) Density: 19.282 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 11 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Sanskrit word Jval and the Anglo-Saxon word gold. Gold's chemical symbol comes from the the latin word for gold, aurum. Say what? Gold is pronounced as GOLD. History and Uses: An attractive and highly valued metal, gold has been known for at least 5500 years. Gold is sometimes found free in nature but it is usually found

76

It's Elemental - The Element Rhenium  

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Tungsten Tungsten Previous Element (Tungsten) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Osmium) Osmium The Element Rhenium [Click for Isotope Data] 75 Re Rhenium 186.207 Atomic Number: 75 Atomic Weight: 186.207 Melting Point: 3459 K (3186°C or 5767°F) Boiling Point: 5869 K (5596°C or 10105°F) Density: 20.8 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 7 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Latin word for the Rhine River, Rhenus. Say what? Rhenium is pronounced as REE-nee-em. History and Uses: Rhenium was discovered by the German chemists Ida Tacke-Noddack, Walter Noddack and Otto Carl Berg in 1925. They detected rhenium spectroscopically in platinum ores and in the minerals columbite ((Fe, Mn, Mg)(Nb, Ta)2O6),

77

It's Elemental - The Element Osmium  

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Rhenium Rhenium Previous Element (Rhenium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Iridium) Iridium The Element Osmium [Click for Isotope Data] 76 Os Osmium 190.23 Atomic Number: 76 Atomic Weight: 190.23 Melting Point: 3306 K (3033°C or 5491°F) Boiling Point: 5285 K (5012°C or 9054°F) Density: 22.57 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 8 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Greek word for a smell, osme. Say what? Osmium is pronounced as OZ-mee-em. History and Uses: Osmium and iridium were discovered at the same time by the British chemist Smithson Tennant in 1803. Osmium and iridium were identified in the black residue remaining after dissolving platinum ore with aqua regia, a mixture

78

It's Elemental - The Element Antimony  

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Tin Tin Previous Element (Tin) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Tellurium) Tellurium The Element Antimony [Click for Isotope Data] 51 Sb Antimony 121.760 Atomic Number: 51 Atomic Weight: 121.760 Melting Point: 903.78 K (630.63°C or 1167.13°F) Boiling Point: 1860 K (1587°C or 2889°F) Density: 6.685 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Semi-metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek words anti and monos, which together mean "not alone." Antimony's chemical symbol comes from its historic name, Stibium. Say what? Antimony is pronounced as AN-the-MOH-nee. History and Uses: Antimony has been known since ancient times. It is sometimes found free in nature, but is usually obtained from the ores stibnite (Sb2S3) and

79

Design and analysis of active fluid-and-cellular solid composites for controllable stiffness robotic elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the use of a new class of materials for realizing soft robots. Specifically, meso-scale composites--composed of cellular solids impregnated with active fluids-were be designed ...

Cheng, Nadia G. (Nadia Gen San)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF Sc???Ce????Zr????O? ELECTROLYTE MATERIAL FOR INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scandia doped zirconia has been considered a candidate for electrolyte material in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) due to its high ionic conductivity, chemical stability and good electrochemical performance. The aim...

Lim, Wendy

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Mixed Fuel Strategy for Carbon Deposition Mitigation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixed Fuel Strategy for Carbon Deposition Mitigation in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Intermediate Temperatures ... (1-4) Although the concept of SOFCs was first reported more than one century ago,(5) major technological advances in cell materials, reactor configuration, operation mode, and balance of plant system integration and optimization were realized in the last 2030 years only. ... The hybrid start-up process is optimized with respect to a specific setup as an example, but is of general nature and utility to similar systems. ...

Chao Su; Yubo Chen; Wei Wang; Ran Ran; Zongping Shao; Joo C. Diniz da Costa; Shaomin Liu

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

82

Low-Temperature Synthesis of Actinide Tetraborides by Solid-State Metathesis Reactions  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of actinide tetraborides including uranium tetraboride (UB,), plutonium tetraboride (PUB,) and thorium tetraboride (ThB{sub 4}) by a solid-state metathesis reaction are demonstrated. The present method significantly lowers the temperature required to {approx_equal}850 C. As an example, when UCl{sub 4}, is reacted with an excess of MgB{sub 2}, at 850 C, crystalline UB, is formed. Powder X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES data support the reduction of UCl{sub 3}, as the initial step in the reaction. The UB, product is purified by washing water and drying.

Lupinetti, Anthony J.; Garcia, Eduardo; Abney, Kent D.

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

83

2500-Hour High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer Long Duration Test  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This report will provide a summary of experimental results for this long duration test.

C. M. Stoots; J. E. O'Brien; K. G. Condie; L. Moore-McAteer; J. J. Hartvigsen; D. Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Composite cathode based on yttria stabilized bismuth oxide for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Composites consisting of silver and yttria stabilized bismuth oxide (YSB) have been investigated as cathodes for low-temperature honeycomb solid oxide fuel cells with stabilized zirconia as electrolytes. At 600? C the interfacial polarization resistances of a porous YSBAg cathode is about 0.3??? cm 2 more than one order of magnitude smaller than those of other reported cathodes on stabilized zirconia. For example the interfacial resistances of a traditional YSZlanthanum maganites composite cathode is about 11.4??? cm 2 at 600? C . Impedance analysis indicated that the performance of an YSBAg composite cathode fired at 850? C for 2 h is severely limited by gas transport due to insufficient porosity. The high performance of the YSBAg cathodes is very encouraging for developing honeycomb fuel cells to be operated at temperatures below 600? C .

Changrong Xia; Yuelan Zhang; Meilin Liu

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity [>=]10[sup [minus]4] (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1], and preferably [>=]0.01 (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag[sup +] ions, as in Ag[sub 2]WO[sub 4], or to F[sup [minus

Zaromb, S.

1994-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

86

High Temperature Solid-Oxide Electrolyzer 2500 Hour Test Results At The Idaho National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been developing the concept of using solid oxide fuel cells as electrolyzers for large-scale, high-temperature (efficient), hydrogen production. This program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. Utilizing a fuel cell as an electrolyzer introduces some inherent differences in cell operating conditions. In particular, the performance of fuel cells operated as electrolyzers degrades with time faster. This issue of electrolyzer cell and stack performance degradation over time has been identified as a major barrier to technology development. Consequently, the INL has been working together with Ceramatec, Inc. (Salt Lake City, Utah) to improve the long-term performance of high temperature electrolyzers. As part of this research partnership, the INL conducted a 2500 hour test of a Ceramatec designed and produced stack operated in the electrolysis mode. This paper will provide a summary of experimental results to date for this ongoing test.

Carl Stoots; James O'Brien; Stephen Herring; Keith Condie; Lisa Moore-McAteer; Joseph J. Hartvigsen; Dennis Larsen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Coupling between Solid 3He on Aerogel and Superfluid 3He in the Low Temperature Limit  

SciTech Connect

We have cooled liquid 3He contained in a 98% open aerogel sample surrounded by bulk superfluid 3He-B at zero pressure to below 120 {mu}K. The aerogel sample is placed in a quasiparticle blackbody radiator cooled by a Lancaster-style nuclear cooling stage to {approx}200 {mu}K. We monitor the temperature of the 3He inside the blackbody radiator using a vibrating wire resonator. We find that reducing the magnetic field on the aerogel sample causes substantial cooling of all the superfluid inside the blackbody radiator. We believe this is due to the demagnetization of the solid 3He layers on the aerogel strands. This system has potential for achieving extremely low temperatures in the confined fluid.

Bradley, D. I.; Fisher, S. N.; Guenault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; Pickett, G. R.; Tsepelin, V.; Whitehead, R. C. V. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Skyba, P. [Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Institute of Experimental Physics, Watsonova 47, 04353 Kosice (Slovakia)

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

90

Temperature effect on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra of molten and solid salts  

SciTech Connect

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been investigated as a potential analytical tool to improve operations and safeguards for electrorefiners, such as those used in processing spent nuclear fuel. This study set out to better understand the effect of sample temperature and physical state on LIBS spectra of molten and solid salts by building calibration curves of cerium and assessing self-absorption, plasma temperature, electron density, and local thermal equilibrium (LTE). Samples were composed of a LiClKCl eutectic salt, an internal standard of MnCl2, and varying concentrations of CeCl3 (0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 wt.% Ce) under different temperatures (773, 723, 673, 623, and 573 K). Analysis of salts in their molten form is preferred as plasma plumes from molten samples experienced less self-absorption, less variability in plasma temperature, and higher clearance of the minimum electron density required for local thermal equilibrium. These differences are attributed to plasma dynamics as a result of phase changes. Spectral reproducibility was also better in the molten state due to sample homogeneity.

Cynthia Hanson; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Jill R. Scott

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Novel Materials for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Vincent Wu, University of California, Berkeley, 2011 SURF Fellow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of California, Berkeley, 2011 SURF Fellow Advisor: Prof. Meilin Liu Graduate Mentors: Mingfei Liu, Ben Rainwater Introduction The need to develop new cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid-oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) is driven by the temperature conditions required for IT-SOFC operation. Designing SOFCs to operate at lower

Li, Mo

92

A profound analysis of Rb2[PH] and Cs2[PH] and the role of [PH]2? ions during temperature-induced solidsolid phase transitions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The temperature-induced solidsolid transformation of Rb2[PH] and Cs2[PH] is characterized from both experiment and theory. Neutron diffraction, IR-spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations reveal an asymmetric shift of the lattice constants at 80K. The molecular mechanism of the structural transformation as identified from IR-spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations is closely connected to the orientation of the [PH]2? moieties which undergo a partial orderdisorder phase transition.

M. Somer; H.G.v. Schnering; O. Hochrein; D. Zahn

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Solid State Joining of High Temperature Alloy Tubes for USC and Heat-Exchanger Systems  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project was to develop materials enabling joining technologies for use in forward looking heat-exchanger fabrication in Brayton cycle HIPPS, IGCC, FutureGen concepts capable of operating at temperatures in excess of 1000{degree}C as well as conventional technology upgrades via Ultra Super-Critical (USC) Rankine-cycle boilers capable of operating at 760{degree}C (1400F)/38.5MPa (5500psi) steam, while still using coal as the principal fossil fuel. The underlying mission in Rankine, Brayton or Brayton-Rankine, or IGCC combined cycle heat engine is a steady quest to improving operating efficiency while mitigating global environmental concerns. There has been a progressive move to higher overall cycle efficiencies, and in the case of fossil fuels this has accelerated recently in part because of concerns about greenhouse gas emissions, notably CO{sub 2}. For a heat engine, the overall efficiency is closely related to the difference between the highest temperature in the cycle and the lowest temperature. In most cases, efficiency gains are prompted by an increase in the high temperature, and this in turn has led to increasing demands on the materials of construction used in the high temperature end of the systems. Our migration to new advanced Ni-base and Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) alloys poses significant fabrication challenges, as these materials are not readily weldable or the weld performs poorly in the high temperature creep regime. Thus the joining challenge is two-fold to a) devise appropriate joining methodologies for similar/dissimilar Ni-base and ODS alloys while b) preserving the near baseline creep performance in the welded region. Our program focus is on solid state joining of similar and dissimilar metals/alloys for heat exchanger components currently under consideration for the USC, HIPPS and IGCC power systems. The emphasis is to manipulate the joining methods and variables available to optimize joint creep performance compared to the base material creep performance. Similar and dissimilar butt joints were fabricated of MA956, IN740 alloys and using inertia welding techniques. We evaluated joining process details and heat treatments and its overall effect on creep response. Fixed and incrementally accelerated temperature creep tests were performed for similar and dissimilar joints and such incremental creep life data is compiled and reported. Long term MA956-MA556 joint tests indicate a firm 2Ksi creep stress threshold performance at 850{degree}C with a maximum exposure of over 9725 hours recorded in the current program. A Larsen Miller Parameter (LMP) of 48.50 for a 2Ksi test at 850{degree}C was further corroborated with tests at 2Ksi stress at 900{degree}C yielding a LMP=48.80. Despite this threshold the joints exhibit immense temperature sensitivity and fail promptly when test temperature raised above 900{degree}C. In comparison the performance of dissimilar joints was inferior, perhaps dictated by the creep characteristics of the mating nickel-base alloys. We describe a parametric window of joint development, and post weld heat treatment (PWHT) in dissimilar joints with solid solution (IN601, IN617) and precipitate strengthened (IN740) materials. Some concerns are evident regarding the diffusion of aluminum in dissimilar joints during high temperature recrystallization treatments. It is noted that aggressive treatments rapidly deplete the corrosion protecting aluminum reservoir in the vicinity of the joint interface. Subsequently, the impact of varying PWHT has been evaluated in the context on ensuing creep performance.

Bimal Kad

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Metallic Materials in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe-Cr alloys with variations in chromium content and additions of different elements were studied for potential application in intermediate temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). Recently, a new type of FeC...

V. Shemet; J. Piron-Abellan; W.J. Quadakkers

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Porous nuclear fuel element with internal skeleton for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

Youchison, Dennis L.; Williams, Brian E.; Benander, Robert E.

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

96

Porous nuclear fuel element for high-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Porous nuclear fuel elements for use in advanced high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors (HTGR's), and to processes for fabricating them. Advanced uranium bi-carbide, uranium tri-carbide and uranium carbonitride nuclear fuels can be used. These fuels have high melting temperatures, high thermal conductivity, and high resistance to erosion by hot hydrogen gas. Tri-carbide fuels, such as (U,Zr,Nb)C, can be fabricated using chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) to simultaneously deposit each of the three separate carbides, e.g., UC, ZrC, and NbC in a single CVI step. By using CVI, the nuclear fuel may be deposited inside of a highly porous skeletal structure made of, for example, reticulated vitreous carbon foam.

Youchison, Dennis L. (Albuquerque, NM); Williams, Brian E. (Pacoima, CA); Benander, Robert E. (Pacoima, CA)

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

A radiant flow reactor for high?temperature reactivity studies of pulverized solids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Our radiant two?phase flow reactor presents several new possibilities for high?temperature reactivity studies. Most importantly the thermal histories of the suspension and entrainment gas can be independently regulated over wide ranges. At low suspension loadings outlet temperatures can differ by hundreds of degrees and gas temperatures are low enough to inhibit hydrocarbon cracking chemistry so primary products are quenched as soon as they are expelled. With coal suspensions tars were generated with the highest H/C ratio and lowest proton aromaticity ever reported. Alternatively particles and gas can be heated at similar rates to promote secondary chemistry by increasing particle loading. Simply by regulating the furnace temperature arbitrary extents of conversion of coal tar into soot were observed for fixed total mass loss. Under both circumstances heat fluxes are comparable to those in large furnaces so relevant heating rates and reaction times are accessible. Suspensions remain optically thin even for the highest loadings of technological interest because they are only 1 cm wide. Consequently the macroscopic behavior remains firmly connected to single?particle phenomena. Mass and elemental closures are rarely breached by more than 5% in individual runs so interpretations are not subject to inordinate scatter in the data. The reactor is also well suited for combustion studies as demonstrated by extents of carbon and nitrogen burnout from 50% to 100% for various gas?stream oxygen levels.

John C. Chen; Stephen Niksa

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Composite electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {Omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm{sup -2} at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices, such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters of combustion CVD, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of deposition parameters. Symmetrical cells were fabricated by depositing cathode materials on both sides of GDC electrolytes.

X. Lu; C. Xia; Y. Liu; W. Rauch; M. Liu

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Electrical-Thermal-Structural Coupled Finite Element Model of High Temperature Superconductor for Resistive Type Fault Current Limiters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multi-physics finite element model of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) will be presented in this article. The electrical-thermal model is mainly based on Maxwells equation and basic heat transfer equa...

J. Sheng; Y. Chen; B. Lin; L. Ying; Z. Jin

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cell with three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode was fabricated for a zirconia based micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Three different cathodes (cathode A, no pore former; cathode B, with pore former (1.5 {micro}m in diameter); cathode C, with pore former (0.8 {micro}m in diameter)) were compared to investigate how the microstructure of it affected the cell performance at various operating temperatures. Micro-sized pores were well distributed within cathode B and C. The total porosity of cathode A is 35%, while it respectively reached 42 and 50% for cathodes B and C. At the same time, the specific surface area of them was 28.8 and 52.0% larger than that of the cathode A. As a result, the peak power density of the zirconia based cell, with cathode C, was 0.25 and 0.56 W cm{sup -2} at 550 and 600 C, while the respective value was just 0.11 and 0.30 W cm{sup -2} for the cell with cathode A. Thus, optimizing microstructure of cathode should be one of the best approaches for lowering the operating temperature for SOFCs.

Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sumi, H.; Fujishiro, Y.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Bromine as an ash forming element in a fluidised bed boiler combusting solid recovered fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plastic materials are the main sources of chlorine in solid recovered fuels (SRF). Chlorine is attributed to be the main initiator of slagging, fouling and corrosion in biomass and waste combustion as it lowers the melting point of ash forming matter and reacts chemically with the heat transfer surface steels. SRF may also contain sources of bromine in the form of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) applied in many plastics and textiles. Results presented in this paper from an experimental campaign at an 80MWth bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) boiler show that bromine is behaving in a similar manner as chlorine: bromine was found at the corrosion front in boiler membrane wall tubes, and as water soluble salts in aerosol samples collected from the furnace and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash. It is evident from these results and the data in the literature that most of the salts of bromine are, by both their fate and physical and chemical properties, similar to those of chlorine. It can be concluded that it if there is a source of bromine in the fuel corrosive high vapour pressure bromides can be formed analogously to chlorides.

Pasi Vainikka; Sonja Enestam; Jaani Silvennoinen; Raili Taipale; Patrik Yrjas; Ari Frantsi; Janne Hannula; Mikko Hupa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Soldering with solid state and diode lasers: Energy coupling, temperature rise, process window  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The increasing number of electrical contacts in automobiles in combination with more complex and miniaturized components leads to higher requirements for the joining technologies. In that context laser soldering represents an interesting alternative to conventional techniques. So far solid state lasers[Nd:yttriumaluminumgarnet(YAG)] and CO 2 lasers have been successfully applied in industrial production. Recently the development of high power diode lasers has offered a new laser source for soldering with technological advantages. Absorptivity of laser radiation on metals generally increases with shorter wavelength and consequently diode lasers may lead to a higher process efficiency compared to Nd:YAG lasers. The absorptivity of copper alloys with different surface conditions has been measured at 808 nm (diode) and 1064 nm (Nd:YAG). When heating up the solder joint the intensity distribution of the different laser spots becomes important too. This effect is demonstrated by means of process modeling and temperature measurements for a typical joint geometry. For the case of soldering strip-to-strip joints the effects of the different energy absorption on the process are pointed out.

M. Brandner; G. Seibold; C. Chang; F. Dausinger; H. Hgel

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

It's Elemental - The Element Zinc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Copper Copper Previous Element (Copper) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Gallium) Gallium The Element Zinc [Click for Isotope Data] 30 Zn Zinc 65.38 Atomic Number: 30 Atomic Weight: 65.38 Melting Point: 692.68 K (419.53°C or 787.15°F) Boiling Point: 1180 K (907°C or 1665°F) Density: 7.134 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 12 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the German word zink. Say what? Zinc is pronounced as ZINK. History and Uses: Although zinc compounds have been used for at least 2,500 years in the production of brass, zinc wasn't recognized as a distinct element until much later. Metallic zinc was first produced in India sometime in the 1400s by heating the mineral calamine (ZnCO3) with wool. Zinc was rediscovered by

104

Trace element partitioning between baddeleyite and carbonatite melt at high pressures and high temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as the heavy rare earth elements (HREE) prefer to enter baddeleyite rather than carbonate melts (D>1), whereas the light rare earth elements (LREE) and other trace elements behave incompatibly (D in carbonatite melts. Baddeleyite is known to accumulate the high field strength elements (HFSE) and some rare

105

A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance  

SciTech Connect

A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 m was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 C, though 600 C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. 600 C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst.

Ogawa, Makoto, E-mail: waseda.ogawa@gmail.com [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Department of Earth Sciences, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Morita, Masashi, E-mail: m-masashi@y.akane.waseda.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Igarashi, Shota, E-mail: uxei_yoshi_yoshi@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan); Sato, Soh, E-mail: rookie_so_sleepy@yahoo.co.jp [Graduate School of Creative Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

Novel Electrode Materials for Low-Temperature Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

Composites electrodes consisting of silver and bismuth vanadates exhibit remarkable catalytic activity for oxygen reduction at 500-550 C and greatly reduce the cathode-electrolyte (doped ceria) resistances of low temperature SOFCs, down to about 0.53 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 500 C and 0.21 {omega}cm{sup 2} at 550 C. The observed power densities of 231, 332, and 443 mWcm-2 at 500, 525 and 550 C, respectively, make it possible to operate SOFCs at temperatures about 500 C. Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m-thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C. The ability of producing vastly different microstructures and morphologies of the very same material is critical to the fabrication of functionally graded electrodes for solid-state electrochemical devices such as SOFCs and lithium batteries. By carefully adjusting deposition parameters, we have successfully produced oxide nano-powders with the size of 30 {approx} 200 nm. Porous films with various microstructures and morphologies are also deposited on several substrates by systematic adjustment of the deposition parameters. Highly porous, excellently bonded and nano-structured electrodes fabricated by combustion CVD exhibit extremely high surface area and remarkable catalytic activities. Using in situ potential dependent FTIR emission spectroscopy, we have found evidence for two, possibly three distinct di-oxygen species present on the electrode surface. We have successfully identified which surface oxygen species is present under a particular electrical or chemical condition and have been able to deduce the reaction mechanisms. This technique will be used to probe the gas-solid interactions at or near the TPB and on the surfaces of mixed-conducting electrodes in an effort to understand the molecular processes relevant to the intrinsic catalytic activity. Broad spectral features are assigned to the electrochemical-polarization-induced changes in the optical properties of the electrode surface layer.

Shaowu Zha; Meilin Liu

2005-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

107

Influence of magnetic field on dielectric susceptibility of amorphous solids at ultra low temperature.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The dielectric response of some amorphous solids below 100 mK is known to be sensitive to an applied magnetic field. This work presents new experimental (more)

Stanford University, Dept. of Physics

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Neutron scattering study of the excitation spectrum of solid helium at ultra-low temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There has been a resurgence of interest in the properties of solid helium due to the recent discovery of non-classical rotational inertia (NCRI) in solid 4He by Chan and coworkers below 200 mK which they have int...

Elizabeth Blackburn; John Goodkind; Sunil K. Sinha; Collin Broholm; John Copley

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

SOLAR SYSTEM ABUNDANCES AND CONDENSATION TEMPERATURES OF THE ELEMENTS Katharina Lodders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

determinations for all elements are summarized and the best currently available photospheric abundances are selected. The meteoritic and solar abundances of a few elements (e.g., noble gases, beryllium, boron elemental and isotopic abundances are derived from photospheric abundances by considering settling effects

Fegley Jr., Bruce

110

Finite-element modelling of YBCO fault current limiter with temperature dependent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a numerical model which takes into account both the thermal and the electromagnetic aspects of the over-critical current regime for high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials. The electromagnetic and thermal equations have been implemented in finite-element method (FEM) software in order to obtain a novel model for investigating the behaviour of the materials when the current exceeds Ic and the superconductor material goes to the normal state. The thermal dependence of the electrical parameters, such as the critical current density Jc, has been introduced. This model has been used to analyse the behaviour of strip lines of a YBCO/Au fault current limiter (FCL) on a sapphire substrate. Simulations with currents exceeding Ic have been performed, showing that the current limitation phase can be correctly reproduced. Such a model can be used to study the influence of the geometry on the performance of the FCL. It can replace experiments with currents exceeding Ic which may damage or destroy HTS samples and devices.

J Duron; F Grilli; L Antognazza; M Decroux; B Dutoit; Fischer

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

It's Elemental - The Element Lead  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thallium Thallium Previous Element (Thallium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Bismuth) Bismuth The Element Lead [Click for Isotope Data] 82 Pb Lead 207.2 Atomic Number: 82 Atomic Weight: 207.2 Melting Point: 600.61 K (327.46°C or 621.43°F) Boiling Point: 2022 K (1749°C or 3180°F) Density: 11.342 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 14 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Anglo-Saxon word lead. Lead's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for waterworks, plumbum. Say what? Lead is pronounced as LED. History and Uses: Lead has been known since ancient times. It is sometimes found free in nature, but is usually obtained from the ores galena (PbS), anglesite (PbSO4), cerussite (PbCO3) and minum (Pb3O4). Although lead makes up only

112

It's Elemental - The Element Iodine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tellurium Tellurium Previous Element (Tellurium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Xenon) Xenon The Element Iodine [Click for Isotope Data] 53 I Iodine 126.90447 Atomic Number: 53 Atomic Weight: 126.90447 Melting Point: 386.85 K (113.7°C or 236.7°F) Boiling Point: 457.55 K (184.4°C or 364.0°F) Density: 4.93 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 5 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen What's in a name? From the Greek word for violet, iodes. Say what? Iodine is pronounced as EYE-eh-dine or as EYE-eh-din. History and Uses: Iodine was discovered by the French chemist Barnard Courtois in 1811. Courtois was extracting sodium and potassium compounds from seaweed ash. Once these compounds were removed, he added sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to

113

Solid state device for two-wire downhole temperature measurement as a function of current. Final performance technical report  

SciTech Connect

Several metals systems were reviewed for their potential to act as resistive temperature devices. Platinum metal was selected as the metal of choice. Platinum was plated onto 5 mil copper wire, and then subsequently coated with Accusol's proprietary ceramic coating. The copper was etched out in an attempt to make a pure platinum, high resistive, resistive-temperature device. The platinum plating on the wire cracked during processing, resulting in a discontinuous layer of platinum, and the element could not be formed in this way.

Anderson, Roger; Anderson, David

2002-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

115

Metallic Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell: Performance of Reactive Element Oxide Coating During 10, 20 and 30Months Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

One of challenges in improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of SOFCs (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells) is the development of suitable interconnect materials. Chromia-forming alloys and especially ferritic sta...

S. Fontana; S. Chevalier; G. Caboche

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Structure degradation and redistribution of alloying elements in austenitic steel of current collectors of solid oxide fuel cells in service  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The degradation of the 10Kh23N18 steel structure with and ... as a switchgear material of a solid oxide fuel cell. Structural studies have shown no significant differences...

M. V. Degtyarev; V. F. Chukharev

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Recoil tritium reaction in rare gas-ethane solid mixtures at ultralow temperature  

SciTech Connect

Recoil T atom reactions have been studied in Ar (or Kr or Xe)-C/sub 2/H/sub 6/-D/sub 2/D/sub 6/ mixtures at 11-20 and 77 K. The relative yields of hydrogen (HT + DT) increase with a decrease of ethane concentration, while those of ethane (C/sub 2/H/sub 5/T + C/sub 2/D/sub 5/T) decrease complementarily. The results indicate that hydrogen is formed by both hot and thermal T atoms, while ethane is formed only by the hot T atoms. The thermal T atoms abstract hydrogen from ethane by quantum mechanical tunneling even at 11-20 K as well as 77 K. The H/D abstraction isotope effect for the thermal T atom reaction with C/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and C/sub 2/D/sub 6/ was measured at 0.2 mol % ethane in rare gas solid. The isotope effects in Ar are 1.0 at 77 K and 3.9 at 18 K, whereas those in Xe are 4.4 at 77 K and 1.0 at 20 K. The isotope effects in Kr are 1.9 at 77 K and 1.1 at 11 K. The average energy loss of hot T atoms in rare gas solid was estimated and compared with that in the gas phase.

Lee, K.P.; Ito, Y.; Fujitani, Y.; Miyazaki, T.; Fueki, K.; Aratono, Y.; Saeki, M.; Tachikawa, E.

1986-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

118

Cs-Ba ultrahigh-temperature solar TEC commutation element optimization  

SciTech Connect

Theoretically studied is a problem involving the optimization of high-temperature thermionic energy converters (TEC) taking into account electrical and thermal losses in a metal jumper connecting at series TEC commutation the emitter of one diode with the collector of the other. It is shown that for emitter temperature of 2600 K at optimal selection of jumper dimensions the difference between an ideal conversion efficiency and actual converter efficiency amounts to about 4{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Ender, A.J.; Kuznetsov, V.I.; Babanin, B.I. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya St. 26, St. Petersburg, (Russia) 194021; Ogloblin, B.G.; Klimov, A.V.; Kirillov, E.J. [Central Design Bureau of Machine Building, Krasnogvardeyskaya Square 3, St. Petersburg, (Russia) 195272

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

A high-pressure and high-temperature gas-loading system for the study of conventional to real industrial sized samples in catalysed gas/solid and liquid/solid reactions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A high-pressure-high-temperature gas-loading system has been developed for combined in situ high-energy X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry investigations during catalysed gas/solid or liquid/solid reactions. The benefits of such a system are the combination of different gases, the flexibility of the cell design, the rotation of the cell, and the temperature, pressure and gas-flow ranges accessible. This opens up new opportunities for studying catalysts or compounds not just from a fundamental point of view but also for industrial applications, in both cases in operando conditions.

Andrieux, J.

2014-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

120

Finite element modeling of the temperature rise due to the propagation of ultrasonic waves in viscoelastic materials and experimental validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ultrasound stimulated thermography method is usually used to detect the temperature rise at a defect position. The temperature rise can be due to the friction between the edges of the defect and/or the plastic deformation around the defect. This paper presents another aspect of the method when the ultrasounds are propagating in a viscoelasticanisotropicmaterial such as polymers or fiber-reinforced polymers. The attenuation of the waves produces a distributed temperature field. Therefore even a defect that does not produce some heat can be detected the ultrasonic field is modified. A finite element model is used for computing the temperature field and for predicting the possibility for an infrared camera of detecting the temperature rise and its modification due to a defect. The model computes the stress and displacement fields associated with the propagation and the loss of energy. Then the heat equation is solved with this loss as a source of heating. An experiment is done with a sonotrode that excites a PVC plate. The ultrasonic displacement at the top of the plate is measured with a laser velocimeter and introduced in the model. Finally the model result is compared to the image produced by the camera.

B. Hosten; C. Bacon; C. Biateau

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

The passive safety characteristics of modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor fuel elements  

SciTech Connect

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGR) in both the US and West Germany use an all-ceramic, coated fuel particle to retain fission products. Data from irradiation, postirradiation examinations and postirradiation heating experiments are used to study the performance capabilities of the fuel particles. The experimental results from fission product release tests with HTGR fuel are discussed. These data are used for development of predictive fuel performance models for purposes of design, licensing, and risk analyses. During off normal events, where temperatures may reach up to 1600/degree/C, the data show that no significant radionuclide releases from the fuel will occur.

Goodin, D.T.; Kania, M.J.; Nabielek, H.; Schenk, W.; Verfondern, K.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

DYNA3D: A nonlinear, explicit, three-dimensional finite element code for solid and structural mechanics, User manual. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report is the User Manual for the 1993 version of DYNA3D, and also serves as a User Guide. DYNA3D is a nonlinear, explicit, finite element code for analyzing the transient dynamic response of three-dimensional solids and structures. The code is fully vectorized and is available on several computer platforms. DYNA3D includes solid, shell, beam, and truss elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many material models are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects, and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding and single surface contact. Rigid materials provide added modeling flexibility. A material model driver with interactive graphics display is incorporated into DYNA3D to permit accurate modeling of complex material response based on experimental data. Along with the DYNA3D Example Problem Manual, this document provides the information necessary to apply DYNA3D to solve a wide range of engineering analysis problems.

Whirley, R.G.; Engelmann, B.E.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Detecting and modeling cement failure in high pressure/ high temperature wells using finite-element method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. In the event that high-pressure and high-temperature (HPHT) conditions are encountered, we must attempt to achieve permeability in the set cement to prevent gas migration and to prevent any other fluid passing through to collapse the entire structure. Therefore...

Shahri, Mehdi Abbaszadeh

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

124

SYNGAS PRODUCTION VIA HIGH-TEMPERATURE CO-ELECTROLYSIS OF STEAM AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN A SOLID-OXIDE STACK  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of recent experiments conducted at the INL studying coelectrolysis of steam and carbon dioxide in a 10-cell high-temperature solid-oxide electrolysis stack. Coelectrolysis is complicated by the fact that the reverse shift reaction occurs concurrently with the electrolytic reduction reactions. All reactions must be properly accounted for when evaluating results. Electrochemical performance of the stack was evaluated over a range of temperatures, compositions, and flow rates. The apparatus used for these tests is heavily instrumented, with precision mass-flow controllers, on-line dewpoint and CO2 sensors, and numerous pressure and temperature measurement stations. It also includes a gas chromatograph for analyzing outlet gas compositions. Comparisons of measured compositions to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium co-electrolysis model are presented, along with corresponding polarization curves. Results indicate excellent agreement between predicted and measured outlet compositions. Coelectrolysis significantly increases the yield of syngas over the reverse water gas shift reaction equilibrium composition. The process appears to be a promising technique for large-scale syngas production.

Carl M. Stoots; James E. O'Brien; Joseph J. Hartvigsen

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

An analog analysis of transient heat flow in solids with temperature-dependent thermal properties  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) used a nonlinear material known as Metrosil to simulate the nonlinear variations of thermal properties for combined conductive and radiant heat transfer. Since that time, Friedmann (8) has used nonlinear resistances in conjunction with an electronic... at end of this thesis. K = thermal conductivity of heat conducting media, and K and S are functions of the temperature t. Since the formation of these equations, solutions of transient heat flow problems involving materials in which the thermal...

Lee, Dwain Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

126

High temperature phase stabilities and electrochemical properties of InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

InBaCo4-xZnxO7 oxides have been synthesized and characterized as cathode materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC). The effect of Zn substitution for Co on the structure, phase stability, thermal expansion, and electrochemical properties of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 has been investigated. The increase in the Zn content from x = 1 to 1.5 improves the high temperature phase stability at 600 oC and 700 oC for 100 h, and chemical stability against a Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9 (GDC) electrolyte. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) values of the InBaCo4-xZnxO7 (x = 1, 1.5, 2) specimens were determined to be 8.6 10-6 9.6 10-6 /oC in the range of 80 900 oC, which provides good thermal expansion compatibility with the standard SOFC electrolyte materials. The InBaCo4-xZnxO7 + GDC (50:50 wt. %) composite cathodes exhibit improved cathode performances compared to those obtained from the simple InBaCo4-xZnxO7 cathodes due to the extended triple-phase boundary (TPB) and enhanced oxide-ion conductivity through the GDC portion in the composites.

Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Bi, Zhonghe [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Computational fluid dynamics model development on transport phenomena coupling with reactions in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 3D model is developed to describe an anode-supported planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by ANSYS/Fluent evaluating reactions including methane steam reforming (MSR)/water-gas shift (WGSR) reactions in thick anode layer and H2-O2/CO-O2 electrochemical reactions in anode active layer coupled with heat mass species momentum and ion/electron charges transport processes in SOFC. The predicted results indicate that electron/ion exchange appears in the very thin region in active layers (0.018?mm in anode and 0.01?mm in cathode) based on three phase boundary operating temperature and concentration of reactants (mainly H2). Active polarization happening in active layers dominates over concentration and ohmic losses. High gradient of current density exists near interface between electrode and solid conductor due to the block by gas channel. It is also found the reaction rates of MSR and WGSR along main flow direction and cell thickness direction decrease due to low concentration of fuel (CH4) caused by mass consumption. With increasing operating temperature from 978?K to 1088?K the current density and the reaction rate of MSR are increased by 10.8% and 5.4% respectively. While ion current density is 52.9% higher than in standard case and H2 is consumed by 5.1% more when ion conductivity is doubled. CO-O2 has been considered in charge transfer reaction in anode active layer and it is found that the current density and species distributions are not sensitive but WGSR reaction will be forced backwards to supply more CO for CO-O2 electrochemical reaction.

Chao Yang; Guogang Yang; Danting Yue; Jinliang Yuan; Bengt Sunden

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

Anode-supported cells comprising Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, thin ({approx}10 {micro}m) YSZ electrolyte, and composite cathodes containing a mixture of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub (3-{delta})} (LSM) and La{sub 0.9}Sr{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.8}Mg{sub 0.2}O{sub (3-{lambda})} (LSGM) were fabricated. The relative proportions of LSGM and LSM were varied between 30 wt.% LSGM + 70 wt.% LSM and 70 wt.% LSGM + 30 wt.% LSM, while the firing temperature was varied between 1000 and 1200 C. The cathode interlayer composition had a profound effect on cathode performance at 800 C with overpotentials ranging between 60 and 425 mV at 1.0 A/cm{sup 2} and exhibiting a minimum for 50 wt.% LSGM + 50 wt.% LSM. The cathodic overpotential decreased with increasing firing temperature of the composite interlayer in the range 1000 {le} T {le} 1150 C, and then increased dramatically for the interlayer fired at 1200 C. The cell with the optimized cathode interlayer of 50 wt.% LSM + 50 wt.% LSGM fired at 1150 C exhibited an area specific cell resistance of 0.18 {Omega}cm{sup 2} and a maximum power density of 1.4 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C. Chemical analysis revealed that LSGM reacts with YSZ above 1000 C to form the pyrochlore phase, La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The formation of the pyrochlore phase at the interface between the LSGM/LSM composite cathode and the YSZ electrolyte limits the firing time and temperature of the cathode interlayer.

Anil V. Virkar

2002-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

129

Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample.

Gonczy, John D. (Oaklawn, IL); Markley, Finley W. (St. Charles, IL); McCaw, William R. (Burr Ridge, IL); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Features of temperature control of fuel element cladding for pressurized water nuclear reactor WWER-1000 while simulating reactor accidents  

SciTech Connect

During the experiments simulating NPR (nuclear power reactor) accidents with a coolant loss fuel elements behavior in a steam-hydrogen medium was studied at the temperature changed with the rate from 1 to 100K/s within the range of 3001500 C. Indications of the thermocouples fixed on the cladding notably differ from real values of the cladding temperatures in the area of measuring junction due to thermal resistance influence of the transition zones cladding-junction and junction-coolant. The estimating method of a measurement error was considered which can provide adequate accounting of the influence factors. The method is based on thermal probing of a thermocouple by electric current flashing through thermoelements under the coolant presence or absence, a response time registration and processing, calculation of thermal inertia value for a thermocouple junction. A formula was derived for calculation of methodical error under stationary mode and within the stage of linear increase in temperature, which will determine the conditions for the cladding depressurization. Some variants of the formula application were considered, and the values of methodical errors were established which reached ?5% of maximum value by the final moment of the stage of linear increase in the temperature.

Zaytsev, P. A.; Priymak, S. V.; Usachev, V. B.; Oleynikov, P. P.; Soldatkin, D. M. [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)] [Scientific Research Institute, Scientific Industrial Association LUCH, Podolsk (Russian Federation)

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

131

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

A simple, approximate analysis of the effect of differing cathode and anode areas on the measurement of cell performance on anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells, wherein the cathode area is smaller than the anode area, is presented. It is shown that the effect of cathode area on cathode polarization, on electrolyte contribution, and on anode resistance, as normalized on the basis of the cathode area, is negligible. There is a small but measurable effect on anode polarization, which results from concentration polarization. Effectively, it is the result of a greater amount of fuel transported to the anode/electrolyte interface in cases wherein the anode area is larger than the cathode area. Experiments were performed on cells made with differing cathode areas and geometries. Cathodic and anodic overpotentials measured using reference electrodes, and the measured ohmic area specific resistances by current interruption, were in good agreement with expectations based on the analysis presented. At 800 C, the maximum power density measured with a cathode area of {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2} was {approx}1.65 W/cm{sup 2} compared to {approx}1.45 W/cm{sup 2} for cathode area of {approx}2 cm{sup 2}, for anode thickness of {approx}1.3 mm, with hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. At 750 C, the measured maximum power densities were {approx}1.3 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}1.1 cm{sup 2}, and {approx}1.25 W/cm{sup 2} for the cell with cathode area {approx}2 cm{sup 2}.

Anil V. Virkar

2001-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

132

Low temperature electron-spin relaxation in the crystalline and glassy states of solid ethanol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to study the spectral properties of a nitroxide spin probe in ethanol glass and crystalline ethanol, at 5 - 11.5 K. The different anisotropy of molecular packing in the two host matrices was evidenced by different rigid limit values for maximal hyperfine splitting in the signal of the spin probe. The significantly shorter phase memory time, , for the spin probe dissolved in crystalline ethanol, as compared to ethanol glass, was discussed in terms of contribution from spectral diffusion. The effect of low-frequency dynamics was manifested in the temperature dependence of and in the difference between the data measured at different spectral positions. This phenomenon was addressed within the framework of the slow-motional isotropic diffusion model [S. Lee, and S. Z. Tang, Phys. Rev. B 31, 1308 (1985)] predicting the spin probe dynamics within the millisecond range, at very low temperatures. The shorter spin-lattice relaxation time of the spin probe in ethanol glass was interpreted in terms of enhanced energy exchange between the spin system and the lattice in the glass matrix due to boson peak excitations.

Marina Kveder; Dalibor Merunka; Milan Joki?; Boris Rakvin

2010-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

133

Developing TiAIN Coatings for Intermediate Temperature-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Applications  

SciTech Connect

TiN-type coatings have potential to be used as SOFC interconnect coatings SOFC because of their low resistance and high temperature stability. In this research, various (Ti,Al)N coatings were deposited on stainless steels by filtered-arc method. ASR and XRD tests were conducted on these coatings, and SEM/EDAX analysis were conducted after ASR and XRD tests. SEM/EDAX analyses show that (Ti,Al)N remains stable at temperature up to 700C. It is also indicated that Al has beneficial effect on the stability of TiN type coatings. At 900C, (Ti-30Al)N is fully oxidized and some of (Ti-50Al)N coating still remains as nitride. The analyses on cross-sectional samples show that these coatings are effective barrier to the Cr migration. In summary, (Ti.Al)N coatings are good candidates for the SOFC interconnect applications at 700C. The future directions of this research are to improve the stability of these coatings by alloy-doping and to develop multi-layer coatings.

Liu, X. (West Virginia University); Johnson, C.D.; Li, C. (West Virginia University); Xu, J. (West Virginia University); Cross, C.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample. 7 figs.

Gonczy, J.D.; Markley, F.W.; McCaw, W.R.; Niemann, R.C.

1992-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

135

NOVEL ELECTRODE MATERIALS FOR LOW-TEMPERATURE SOLID-OXIDE FUEL CELLS  

SciTech Connect

Fuel cell performance depends strongly on the anode microstructure, which is determined by the anode compositions and fabrication conditions. Four types of anodes with two kinds of NiO and GDC powders were investigated. By carefully adjusting the anode microstructure, the GDC electrolyte/anode interfacial polarization resistances reduced dramatically. The interfacial resistance at 600 C decreased from 1.61 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for the anodes prepared using commercially available powders to 0.06 {Omega} cm{sup 2} for those prepared using powders derived from a glycine-nitrate process. The critical issues facing the development of economically competitive SOFC systems include lowering the operation temperature and creating novel anode materials and microstructures capable of efficiently utilizing hydrocarbon fuels. Anode-supported SOFCs with an electrolyte of 20 {micro}m- thick Gd-doped ceria (GDC) were fabricated by co-pressing, and both Ni- and Cu-based anodes were prepared by a solution impregnation process. At 600 C, SOFCs fueled with humidified H{sub 2}, methane, and propane, reached peak power densities of 602, 519, and 433 mW/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Both microstructure and composition of the anodes, as fabricated using a solution impregnation technique, greatly influence fuel cell performance. Although steam reforming or partial oxidation is effective in avoiding carbon deposition of hydrocarbon fuels, it increases the operating cost and reduces the energy efficiency. A catalyst (1 %wt Pt dispersed on porous Gd-doped ceria) for pre-reforming of propane was developed with relatively low steam to carbon (S/C) ratio ({approx}0.5), coupled with direct utilization of the reformate in low-temperature SOFCs. Propane was converted to smaller molecules during pre-reforming, including H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, and CO{sub 2}. A peak power density of 247 mW/cm{sup 2} was observed when pre-reformed propane was directly fed to an SOFC operated at 600 C. No carbon deposition was observed in the fuel cell for a continuous operation of 10 hours at 600 C.

Shaowu Zha; Luis Aguilar; Meilin Liu

2003-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

LOW-TEMPERATURE, ANODE-SUPPORTED HIGH POWER DENSITY SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED ELECTRODES  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the work done during the entire project period, between October 1, 1999 and March 31, 2003, which includes a six-month no-cost extension. During the project, eight research papers have, either been, published, accepted for publication, or submitted for publication. In addition, several presentations have been made in technical meetings and workshops. The project also has provided support for four graduate students working towards advanced degrees. The principal technical objective of the project was to analyze the role of electrode microstructure on solid oxide fuel cell performance. Prior theoretical work conducted in our laboratory demonstrated that the particle size of composite electrodes has a profound effect on cell performance; the finer the particle size, the lower the activation polarization, the better the performance. The composite cathodes examined consisted of electronically conducting perovskites such as Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) or Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC), which is also a mixed conductor, as the electrocatalyst, and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or rare earth oxide doped CeO{sub 2} as the ionic conductor. The composite anodes examined were mixtures of Ni and YSZ. A procedure was developed for the synthesis of nanosize YSZ by molecular decomposition, in which unwanted species were removed by leaching, leaving behind nanosize YSZ. Anode-supported cells were made using the as-synthesized powders, or using commercially acquired powders. The electrolyte was usually a thin ({approx}10 microns), dense layer of YSZ, supported on a thick ({approx}1 mm), porous Ni + YSZ anode. The cathode was a porous mixture of electrocatalyst and an ionic conductor. Most of the cell testing was done at 800 C with hydrogen as fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities as high as 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} were demonstrated. Polarization behavior of the cells was theoretically analyzed. A limited amount of cell testing was done using liquid hydrocarbon fuels where reforming was achieved internally. Significant polarization losses also occur at the anode, especially at high fuel utilizations. An analysis of polarization losses requires that various contributions are isolated, and their dependence on pertinent parameters is quantitatively described. An investigation of fuel composition on gas transport through porous anodes was investigated and the role of fuel diluents was explored. This work showed that the molecular weight of the diluent has a significant effect on anode concentration polarization. This further showed that the presence of some molecular hydrogen is necessary to minimize polarization losses. Theoretical analysis has shown that the electrode microstructure has a profound effect on cell performance. In a series of experiments, cathode microstructural parameters were varied, without altering other parameters. Cathode microstructural parameters, especially three phase boundary (TPB) length, were estimated using techniques in quantitative stereology. Cell performance was quantitatively correlated with the relevant microstructural parameters, and charge transfer resistivity was explicitly evaluated. This is the first time that a fundamental parameter, which governs the activation polarization, has been quantitatively determined. An important parameter, which governs the cathodic activation polarization, and thus cell performance, is the ionic conductivity of the composite cathode. The traditional composite cathode is a mixture of LSM and YSZ. It is well known that Sr and Mg-doped LaGaO{sub 3} (LSGM), exhibits higher oxygen ion conductivity compared to YSZ. Cells were fabricated with composite cathodes comprising a mixture of LSM and LSGM. Studies demonstrated that LSGM-based composite cathodes exhibit excellent behavior. Studies have shown that Ni + YSZ is an excellent anode. In fact, in most cells, the principal polarization losses, at least at low fuel utilizations, are associated with the cathode. Theoretical analysis conducted in our group has also shown that anode-supported cells exhibi

Professor Anil V. Virkar

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

137

Polarization effects in intermediate temperature, anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

Anode-supported sold oxide fuel cells with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte, Sr-doped LaMnO{sub 3} (LSM) + YSZ cathode, and Ni + YSZ anode were fabricated and their performance was evaluated between 650 and 800 C with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. Maximum power densities measured were {approximately} 1.8 W/cm{sup 2} at 800 C and {approximately} 0.82 W/cm{sup 2} at 650 C. Voltage (V) vs. current density (i) traces were nonlinear; V vs. i exhibited a concave-up curvature [d{sup 2}V/di{sup 2} {ge} 0] at low values of i and a convex-up curvature [d{sup 2}V/di{sup 2} {le} 0] at higher values of i, typical of many low temperature fuel cells. Analysis of concentration polarization based on transport of gaseous species through porous electrodes, in part, is used to explain nonlinear V vs. i traces. The effects of activation polarization in the Tafel limit are also included. It is shown that in anode-supported cells, the initial concave-up curvature can be due either to activation or concentration polarization, or both. By contrast, in cathode-supported cells, the initial concave-up curvature is entirely due to activation polarization. From the experimentally observed V vs. i traces for anode-supported cells, effective binary diffusivity of gaseous species on the anodic side was estimated to be between {approximately} 0.1 cm{sup 2}/s at 650 C and {approximately} 0.2 cm{sup 2}/s at 800 C. The area specific resistance of the cell (ohmic part), varied between {approximately} 0.18 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 650 C and {approximately} 0.07 {Omega} cm{sup 2} at 800 C with an activation energy of {approximately} 65 kJ/mol.

Kim, J.W.; Virkar, A.V.; Fung, K.Z.; Mehta, K. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Singhal, S.C. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Mechanistic Studies of Water Electrolysis and Hydrogen Electro-Oxidation on High Temperature Ceria-Based Solid Oxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conversion devices with multicomponent materials (e.g., solid oxide fuel cells, electrolyzers-Based Solid Oxide Electrochemical Cells Chunjuan Zhang,,# Yi Yu,,# Michael E. Grass,,# Catherine Dejoie spectroscopy (APXPS) and a single-sided solid oxide electrochemical cell (SOC), we have studied the mechanism

Li, Weixue

139

Au-mediated low-temperature solid phase epitaxial growth of a SixGe1 x alloy on Si(001)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a silicide or a germanide of a near noble metal e.g., Pd, Pt , obtained by the reaction of the metal- taxial growth techniques. Metal-mediated solid phase epitaxy SPE has been stud- ied in a variety or Ge is accomplished at low temperatures by using a eutectic-forming metal e.g., Au, Al, Ag, etc

Allen, Leslie H.

140

Calculations of atomic sputtering and displacement cross-sections in solid elements by electrons with energies from threshold to 1. 5 MV  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of knock-on collisions of relativistic electrons with nuclei and details of the numerical evaluation of differential, recoil, and total Mott cross-sections are reviewed and discussed. The effects of electron beam induced displacement and sputtering, in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) environment, on microanalysis are analyzed with particular emphasis placed on the removal of material by knock-on sputtering. The mass loss predicted due to transmission knock-on sputtering is significant for many elements under conditions frequently encountered in microanalysis. Total Mott cross-sections are tabulated for all naturally occurring solid elements up to Z = 92 at displacement energies of one, two, four, and five times the sublimation energy and for accelerating voltages accessible in the transmission electron microscope. Fortran source code listings for the calculation of the differential Mott cross-section as a function of electron scattering angle (dMottCS), as a function of nuclear recoil angle (RECOIL), and the total Mott cross-section (TOTCS) are included. 48 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

Bradley, C.R.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions  

SciTech Connect

The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency.

Yu, Tang-Qing, E-mail: tangqing.yu@nyu.edu; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric, E-mail: eve2@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming [Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Samanta, Amit [Program in Applied and Computational Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Tuckerman, Mark, E-mail: mark.tuckerman@nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States); Department of Chemistry, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); NYU-ECNU Center for Computational Chemistry at NYU Shanghai, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

142

New materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells to be powered by carbon- and sulfur-containing fuels.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Unlike polymer electrolyte fuel cells, solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have the potential to use a wide variety of fuels, including hydrocarbons and gasified coal or (more)

Yang, Lei

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The development and operational testing of an experimental reactor for gas-liquid-solid reaction systems at high temperatures and pressures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shaft. With the impeller in place and rotating, gas was drawn into the top port and ejected at the impeller mount. The reactor pressure was monitored via the transducer port. The transducer was a Viatran Pressure Transducer, model 103. The liquid...THE DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATIONAL TESTING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL REACTOR FOR GAS-LIQUID-SOLID REACTION SYSTEMS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES A Thesis by RICHARD KENNETH HESS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial...

Hess, Richard Kenneth

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

144

Capture of carbon dioxide over porous solid adsorbents lithium silicate, lithium aluminate and magnesium aluminate at pre-combustion temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The capturing process for carbon dioxide over porous solid adsorbents such as ... resonance (NMR), and surface area. The capturing of carbon dioxide over lithium silicate, lithium aluminate, ... as exposure time,...

P. V. Korake; A. G. Gaikwad

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

It's Elemental - The Element Bromine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Selenium Selenium Previous Element (Selenium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Krypton) Krypton The Element Bromine [Click for Isotope Data] 35 Br Bromine 79.904 Atomic Number: 35 Atomic Weight: 79.904 Melting Point: 265.95 K (-7.2°C or 19.0°F) Boiling Point: 331.95 K (58.8°C or 137.8°F) Density: 3.11 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Liquid Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 4 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen What's in a name? From the Greek word for stench, bromos. Say what? Bromine is pronounced as BRO-meen. History and Uses: The only nonmetallic element that is a liquid at normal room temperatures, bromine was produced by Carl Löwig, a young chemistry student, the summer before starting his freshman year at Heidelberg. When he showed his

146

High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of the SolidSolution Zintl Phase Eu11Cd6Sb12xAsx (x < 3)  

SciTech Connect

Zintl phases are compounds that have shown promise for thermoelectric applications. The title solidsolution Zintl compounds were prepared from the elements as single crystals using a tin flux for compositions x = 0, 1, 2, and 3. Eu11Cd6Sb12xAsx (x < 3) crystallize isostructurally in the centrosymmetric monoclinic space group C2/m (no. 12, Z = 2) as the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type (Pearson symbol mC58). Efforts to make the As compositions for x exceeding ?3 resulted in structures other than the Sr11Cd6Sb12 structure type. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction indicates that As does not randomly substitute for Sb in the structure but is site specific for each composition. The amount of As determined by structural refinement was verified by electron microprobe analysis. Electronic structures and energies calculated for various model structures of Eu11Cd6Sb10As2 (x = 2) indicated that the preferred As substitution pattern involves a mixture of three of the six pnicogen sites in the asymmetric unit. In addition, As substitution at the Pn4 site opens an energy gap at the Fermi level, whereas substitution at the other five pnicogen sites remains semimetallic with a pseudo gap. Thermoelectric properties of these compounds were measured on hot-pressed, fully densified pellets. Samples show exceptionally low lattice thermal conductivities from room temperature to 775 K: 0.780.49 W/mK for x = 0; 0.720.53 W/mK for x = 1; and 0.700.56 W/mK for x = 2. Eu11Cd6Sb12 shows a high p-type Seebeck coefficient (from +118 to 153 ? V/K) but also high electrical resistivity (6.8 to 12.8 m?cm). The value of zT reaches 0.23 at 774 K. The properties of Eu11Cd6Sb12xAsx are interpreted in discussion with the As site substitution.

Kazem, Nasrin; Xie, Weiwei; Ohno, Saneyuki; Zevalkink, Alexandra; Miller, Gordon J.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Kauzlarich, Susan M.

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

147

GOMA 6.0 : a full-Newton finite element program for free and moving boundary problems with coupled fluid/solid momentum, energy, mass, and chemical species transport : user%3CU%2B2019%3Es guide.  

SciTech Connect

Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a user's guide and reference.

Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken Shuang; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B. [3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN] [3M Engineering Systems and Technology, St. Paul, MN

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect  

SciTech Connect

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

149

Cooling and thermal stabilisation of Faraday rotators in the temperature range 300 - 200 K using Peltier elements  

SciTech Connect

A new method for cooling and thermal stabilisation of Faraday rotators using Peltier elements is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme of thermal stabilisation of the magnetooptical elements ensures reliable operation of the device at the absorbed power {approx}2 W, which corresponds to the transmitted laser radiation power 1.5 kW. The results of the work make it possible to predict high efficiency of this method at the laser power of tens of kilowatts.

Palashov, O V; Ievlev, Ivan V; Perevezentsev, E A; Katin, E V; Khazanov, Efim A [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

150

It's Elemental - The Element Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen The Element Nitrogen [Click for Isotope Data] 7 N Nitrogen 14.0067 Atomic Number: 7 Atomic Weight: 14.0067 Melting Point: 63.15 K (-210.00°C or -346.00°F) Boiling Point: 77.36 K (-195.79°C or -320.44°F) Density: 0.0012506 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 15 Group Name: Pnictogen What's in a name? From the Greek words nitron and genes, which together mean "saltpetre forming." Say what? Nitrogen is pronounced as NYE-treh-gen. History and Uses: Nitrogen was discovered by the Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. It is the fifth most abundant element in the universe and makes up

151

It's Elemental - The Element Neon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fluorine Fluorine Previous Element (Fluorine) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Sodium) Sodium The Element Neon [Click for Isotope Data] 10 Ne Neon 20.1797 Atomic Number: 10 Atomic Weight: 20.1797 Melting Point: 24.56 K (-248.59°C or -415.46°F) Boiling Point: 27.07 K (-246.08°C or -410.94°F) Density: 0.0008999 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 18 Group Name: Noble Gas What's in a name? From the Greek word for new, neos. Say what? Neon is pronounced as NEE-on. History and Uses: Neon was discovered by Sir William Ramsay, a Scottish chemist, and Morris M. Travers, an English chemist, shortly after their discovery of the element krypton in 1898. Like krypton, neon was discovered through the

152

It's Elemental - The Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine The Element Oxygen [Click for Isotope Data] 8 O Oxygen 15.9994 Atomic Number: 8 Atomic Weight: 15.9994 Melting Point: 54.36 K (-218.79°C or -361.82°F) Boiling Point: 90.20 K (-182.95°C or -297.31°F) Density: 0.001429 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 16 Group Name: Chalcogen What's in a name? From the greek words oxys and genes, which together mean "acid forming." Say what? Oxygen is pronounced as OK-si-jen. History and Uses: Oxygen had been produced by several chemists prior to its discovery in 1774, but they failed to recognize it as a distinct element. Joseph

153

Structural characterization of SiGe/Si single wells grown by disilane and solid-Ge molecular beam epitaxy with varied disilane cracking temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Structural properties of SiGe/Si single wells are studied by double-crystal X-ray diffraction. Four SiGe/Si single wells have been grown on Si (001) at 750C by disilane and solid-Ge molecular beam epitaxy with varied disilane cracking temperature. Using dynamic theory, together with kinematic theory and the specific growth procedure adopted, structural parameters in the multilayer structure are determined precisely. The results are compared with those obtained from PL and XTEM as well as AES measurements. It is found that disilane adsorption is dependent on cracking temperature as well as Ge incorporation. Disilane adsorption is increased by cracking disilane while it decreased with Ge incorporation

J.P. Liu; M.Y. Kong; D.D. Huang; J.P. Li; D.Z. Sun

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

High-temperature series expansions to fourth order with a multiple-exchange Hamiltonian for both bcc and hcp phases of solid He3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The high-temperature series expansions with a multiple-exchange Hamiltonian including the most important two, three, and four-particle exchange processes for the bcc and hcp phases of solid He3 are calculated up to fourth order in ?=1/kBT, with arbitrary magnetic field. The series for the susceptibility are derived and compared to the experimental results. For bcc He3 an excellent agreement is obtained with the third- and fourth-order Pad approximants, using the phenomenological parameters formerly published. For hcp He3, we show that the Curie-Weiss temperature ? has been underestimated for the largest molar volumes and propose more accurate fits in better agreement with earlier nuclear-magnetic-resonance estimates.

M. Roger; E. Suaudeau; M. E. R. Bernier

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

A "permanent" high-temperature superconducting magnet operated in thermal communication with a mass of solid nitrogen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis explores a new design for a portable "permanent" superconducting magnet system. The design is an alternative to permanent low-temperature superconducting (LTS) magnet systems where the magnet is cooled by a ...

Haid, Benjamin J. (Benjamin John Jerome), 1974-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

It's Elemental - The Element Mercury  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gold Gold Previous Element (Gold) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Thallium) Thallium The Element Mercury [Click for Isotope Data] 80 Hg Mercury 200.59 Atomic Number: 80 Atomic Weight: 200.59 Melting Point: 234.32 K (-38.83°C or -37.89°F) Boiling Point: 629.88 K (356.73°C or 674.11°F) Density: 13.5336 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Liquid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 12 Group Name: none What's in a name? Named after the planet Mercury. Mercury's chemical symbol comes from the Greek word hydrargyrum, which means "liquid silver." Say what? Mercury is pronounced as MER-kyoo-ree. History and Uses: Mercury was known to the ancient Chinese and Hindus and has been found in 3500 year old Egyptian tombs. Mercury is not usually found free in nature

157

BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} and the solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0temperature seals for solid oxide fuel cells studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry  

SciTech Connect

For sealing of solid oxide fuel cells, glasses from which crystalline phases with high coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can be crystallized are required. In this paper, a new solid solution series BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0temperature X-ray diffraction (BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}). Sintered specimens were characterized by dilatometry. The introduction of Co{sup 2+} does not lead to a change in the space group. All compounds show a transition of a low to a high temperature modification. The attributed temperature increases from 300 C for BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} to 850 C for BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7}. The volume expansion which runs parallel to the phase transition decreases with increasing cobalt concentration. The phase BaZn{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} shows the largest CTE and a steep volume effect during phase transition. For the compound BaZn{sub 0.25}Co{sub 1.75}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} the CTE is minimum (8.610{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50900 C)) and increases again until for the compound BaCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} a CTE of 16.610{sup ?6} K{sup ?1} (50900 C) is reached. In the cobalt rich composition range, the CTEs are in the right range for high temperature fuel cells and can be adjusted by the composition. - Graphical abstract: The composition of the solid solution BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} strongly affects the thermal expansion. Display Omitted - Highlights: We examined the thermal expansion of solid solutions BaZn{sub 2?x}Co{sub x}Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} (0solid solutions should be suitable for solid oxide fuel cells.

Kerstan, Marita; Thieme, Christian; Grosch, Matthias; Mller, Matthias; Rssel, Christian, E-mail: ccr@rz.uni-jena.de

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Numerical Simulation of Liquid-Solid, Solid-Liquid Phase Change Using Finite Element Method in h,p,k Framework with Space-Time Variationally Consistent Integral Forms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: cp@T@t r (krTs) = 0 8(x;t) 2 sxt = sx t = sx (0; ) (2.1) Liquid Phase: cp@T@t r (krTl) = 0 8(x;t) 2 lxt = lx t = lx (0; ) (2.2) At the interface: Lfvn = [( krTs) ( krTl)] n 8(x;t) 2 x;t = x t (2.3) 10 in which sx and lx are solid... and liquid spatial domains, x(t) = sxT lx is the interface between the two phases, Lf is the latent heat of fusion,n is the unit exterior normal from the solid phase at the interface, and vn is the normal velocity of the interface. Subscripts s and l...

Truex, Michael

2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effect of aluminizing of Cr-containing ferritic alloys on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell sealing glass  

SciTech Connect

A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two metallic coupons of Cr-containing ferritic stainless steel for seal strength evaluation. In previous work, SrCrO4 was found to form along the glass/steel interface, which led to severe strength degradation. In the present study, aluminization of the steel surface was investigated as a remedy to minimize or prevent the strontium chromate formation. Three different processes for aluminization were evaluated with Crofer22APU stainless steel: pack cementation, vapor phase deposition, and aerosol spraying. It was found that pack cementation resulted in a rough surface with occasional cracks in the Al-diffused region. Vapor phase deposition yielded a smoother surface, but the resulting high Al content increased the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), resulting in failure of joined coupons. Aerosol spraying of an Al-containing salt resulted in formation of a thin aluminum oxide layer without any surface damage. The room temperature seal strength was evaluated in the as-fired state and in environmentally aged conditions. In contrast to earlier results with uncoated Crofer22APU, the aluminized samples showed no strength degradation even for samples aged in air. Interfacial and chemical compatibility was also investigated. The results showed aluminization to be a viable candidate approach to minimize undesirable chromate formation between alkaline earth silicate sealing glass and Cr-containing interconnect alloys for SOFC applications.

Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Trace elements found in the fuel and in-furnace fine particles collected from 80MW BFB combusting solid recovered fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main fine particle (dpSRF) combustion the main elements were found to be: Ba, Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn. Fine particle composition is presented for 6 different furnace heights of a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler. As the fine particles are formed of vaporized ash species the experimental results are discussed with the support of thermodynamic equilibrium modeling for estimating the forms of the gaseous elements in the furnace. The occurrence of bromine was found to be similar to chlorine as the main forms of bromine in the furnace were estimated to be KBr(g) and NaBr(g) complemented with CuBr3(g). It is proposed that the trace elements mentioned originate mainly from plastics and rubber where they are used as production additives, stabilisers, dyes, colorants and flame retardants. Cr, Cu and Zn may originate to a large extent from alloys and other metallic impurities. SEM-EDS analyses carried out for the SRF supports the postulated origin of the elements.

P. Vainikka; D. Lindberg; A. Moilanen; H. Ollila; M. Tiainen; J. Silvennoinen; M. Hupa

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

It's Elemental - The Element Chlorine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfur Sulfur Previous Element (Sulfur) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Argon) Argon The Element Chlorine [Click for Isotope Data] 17 Cl Chlorine 35.453 Atomic Number: 17 Atomic Weight: 35.453 Melting Point: 171.65 K (-101.5°C or -150.7°F) Boiling Point: 239.11 K (-34.04°C or -29.27°F) Density: 0.003214 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 3 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen What's in a name? From the Greek word for greenish yellow, chloros. Say what? Chlorine is pronounced as KLOR-een or as KLOR-in. History and Uses: Since it combines directly with nearly every element, chlorine is never found free in nature. Chlorine was first produced by Carl Wilhelm Scheele, a Swedish chemist, when he combined the mineral pyrolusite (MnO2) with

162

It's Elemental - The Element Fluorine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxygen Oxygen Previous Element (Oxygen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Neon) Neon The Element Fluorine [Click for Isotope Data] 9 F Fluorine 18.9984032 Atomic Number: 9 Atomic Weight: 18.9984032 Melting Point: 53.53 K (-219.62°C or -363.32°F) Boiling Point: 85.03 K (-188.12°C or -306.62°F) Density: 0.001696 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Gas Element Classification: Non-metal Period Number: 2 Group Number: 17 Group Name: Halogen What's in a name? From the Latin and French words for flow, fluere. Say what? Fluorine is pronounced as FLU-eh-reen or as FLU-eh-rin. History and Uses: Fluorine is the most reactive of all elements and no chemical substance is capable of freeing fluorine from any of its compounds. For this reason, fluorine does not occur free in nature and was extremely difficult for

163

Elements & Compounds Atoms (Elements)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Elements & Compounds #12;Atoms (Elements) Molecules (Compounds) Cells Elements & Compounds #12;Nucleus Electrons Cloud of negative charge (2 electrons) Fig. 2.5: Simplified model of a Helium (He) Atom He 4.002602 2 Helium Mass Number (~atomic mass) = number of Neutrons + Protons = 4 for Helium Atomic

Frey, Terry

164

High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of gamma-Ni+gamma'-Ni3Al Alloys and Coatings Modified with Pt and Reactive Elements  

SciTech Connect

Materials for high-pressure turbine blades must be able to operate in the high-temperature gases (above 1000 C) emerging from the combustion chamber. Accordingly, the development of nickel-based superalloys has been constantly motivated by the need to have improved engine efficiency, reliability and service lifetime under the harsh conditions imposed by the turbine environment. However, the melting point of nickel (1455 C) provides a natural ceiling for the temperature capability of nickel-based superalloys. Thus, surface-engineered turbine components with modified diffusion coatings and overlay coatings are used. Theses coatings are capable of forming a compact and adherent oxide scale, which greatly impedes the further transport of reactants between the high-temperature gases and the underlying metal and thus reducing attack by the atmosphere. Typically, these coatings contain {beta}-NiAl as a principal constituent phase in order to have sufficient aluminum content to form an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale at elevated temperatures. The drawbacks to the currently-used {beta}-based coatings, such as phase instabilities, associated stresses induced by such phase instabilities, and extensive coating/substrate interdiffusion, are major motivations in this study to seek next-generation coatings. The high-temperature oxidation resistance of novel Pt + Hf-modified {gamma}-Ni + {gamma}-Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys and coatings were investigated in this study. Both early-stage and 4-days isothermal oxidation behavior of single-phase {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al alloys were assessed by examining the weight changes, oxide-scale structures, and elemental concentration profiles through the scales and subsurface alloy regions. It was found that Pt promotes Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation by suppressing the NiO growth on both {gamma}-Ni and {gamma}{prime}Ni{sub 3}Al single-phase alloys. This effect increases with increasing Pt content. Moreover, Pt exhibits this effect even at lower temperatures ({approx}970 C) in the very early stage of oxidation. It was also inferred that Pt enhances the diffusive flux of aluminum from the substrate to the scale/alloy interface. Relatively low levels of hafnium addition to Pt-free {gamma}{prime}-Ni{sub 3}Al increased the extent of external NiO formation due to non-protective HfO{sub 2} formation. Accordingly, this effect intensified with increasing Hf content from 0.2 to 0.5 at.%.

Nan Mu

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

(Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co,Zn)4O7 cathodes with superior high-temperature phase stability for solid oxide fuel cells  

SciTech Connect

(Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 (1.0 x 2.0) oxides crystallizing in a trigonal P31c structure have been synthesized and explored as cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). At a given Zn content, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo4-xZnxO7 sample with 50 % Y and 50 % In exhibits much improved phase stability at intermediate temperatures (600 - 800 oC) compared to the samples with 100 % Y or In. However, the substitution of Zn for Co in (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 (1.0 x 2.0) decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating, total electrical conductivity, and cathode performance in SOFC while providing good long-term phase stability at high temperatures. Among the various chemical compositions investigated in the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co4-xZnx)O7 system, the (Y0.5In0.5)BaCo3ZnO7 sample offers a combination of good electrochemical performance and low thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) while maintaining superior phase stability at 600 800 oC for 100 h. Fuel cell performances of the (Y0.5In0.5)Ba(Co3Zn)O7 + Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 (GDC) (50 : 50 wt. %) composite cathodes collected with anode-supported single cell reveal a maximum power density value of 521 mW cm-2 at 700 oC.

Young Nam, Kim [University of Texas, Austin; Kim, Jung-Hyun [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Manthiram, Arumugam [University of Texas, Austin; Huq, Ashfia [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

A novel low Cr-containing FeCrCo alloy for metallic interconnects in planar intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A newly developed low-Cr containing FeCrCo alloy, named as FeCro, is evaluated as a candidate material of metallic interconnects for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). This alloy possesses excellent oxidation resistance and adequate electrical conductivity at 750C in air, and shows slight Cr deposition in/around La0.72Sr0.18MnO3(LSM) electrode under a harsh accelerating condition of 400mAcm?2 and 850C. The thickness of the oxide scale thermally grown at 750C in air for 1000 his less than 1?m, presenting a double-layered structure with dense (Mn, Cr)3O4 on the top of Cr2O3. The oxidation kinetics at 750C obeys the parabolic law with a low rate constant of1.42נ10?15g2cm?4s?1. The Cr deposition in/around the LSM electrode in the presence of the FeCro alloy is remarkably reduced, compared to the commercial Crofer 22H alloy. The measured area specific resistance (ASR) at 750C in air after 1000h isothermal oxidation is 14m?cm2. It is the unique microstructure of the formed oxide scale that significantly enhances the resistances of the FeCro alloy to oxidation and Cr volatilization.

Wenying Zhang; Dong Yan; Jie Yang; Jing Chen; Bo Chi; Jian Pu; Jian Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

SAMPLE RESULTS FROM MCU SOLIDS OUTAGE  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 drain pipe from extraction contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium aluminosilicate ? A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or additional details are provided below as recommendations. ? From this point on, IC-Anions analyses of the DSSHT should be part of the monthly routine analysis in order to spot negative trends in the oxalate leaving the MCU system. Care must be taken to monitor the oxalate content to watch for sudden precipitation of oxalate salts in the system. ? Conduct a study to optimize the cleaning strategy at ARP-MCU through decreasing the concentration or entirely eliminating the oxalic acid. ? The contents of the SSFT should remain unagitated. Routine visual observation should be maintained to ensure there is not a large buildup of solids. As water with agitation provided sufficient removal of the solids in the feed tank, it should be considered as a good means for dissolving oxalate solids if they are found in the future. ? Conduct a study to improve prediction of oxalate solubility in salt batch feed materials. As titanium and mercury have been found in various solids in this report, evaluate if either element plays a role in oxalate solubility during processing. ? Salt batch characterization focuses primarily on characterization and testing of unaltered Tank 21H material; however, non-typical feeds are developed through cleaning, washing, and/or sump transfers. As these solutions are processed through MCU, they may precipitate solids or reduce performance. Salt batch characterization and testing should be expanded to encompass a broader range of feeds that may be processed through ARPMCU.

Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

168

Finite-temperature second-order many-body perturbation and HartreeFock theories for one-dimensional solids: An application to Peierls and charge-density-wave transitions in conjugated polymers  

SciTech Connect

Finite-temperature extensions of ab initio Gaussian-basis-set spin-restricted HartreeFock (HF) and second-order many-body perturbation (MP2) theories are implemented for infinitely extended, periodic, one-dimensional solids and applied to the Peierls and charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in polyyne and all-trans polyacetylene. The HF theory predicts insulating CDW ground states for both systems in their equidistant structures at low temperatures. In the same structures, they turn metallic at high temperatures. Starting from the dimerized low-temperature equilibrium structures, the systems need even higher temperatures to undergo a Peierls transition, which is accompanied by geometric as well as electronic distortions from dimerized to non-dimerized forms. The conventional finite-temperature MP2 theory shows a sign of divergence in any phase at any nonzero temperature and is useless. The renormalized finite-temperature MP2 (MP2R) theory is divergent only near metallic electronic structures, but is well behaved elsewhere. MP2R also predicts CDW and Peierls transitions occurring at two different temperatures. The effect of electron correlation is primarily to lower the Peierls transition temperature.

He, Xiao [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy and Department of Physics, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Ryu, Shinsei [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1100 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1100 West Green Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Hirata, So, E-mail: sohirata@illinois.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States) [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

169

Deactivation and Regeneration of Oxygen Reduction Reactivity on Double Perovskite Ba2Bi0.1Sc0.2Co1.7O6?x Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deactivation and Regeneration of Oxygen Reduction Reactivity on Double Perovskite Ba2Bi0.1Sc0.2Co1.7O6?x Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Most notably, cathodic polarization treatment, for example, current discharge from BBSC, can be utilized to recover the original ORR performance. ... After evaporation of water at 120 C, a dark purple gel was recovered. ...

Wei Zhou; Jaka Sunarso; Julius Motuzas; Fengli Liang; Zhigang Chen; Lei Ge; Shaomin Liu; Anne Julbe; Zhonghua Zhu

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

170

Solid state rapid thermocycling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

171

Modelling the Effects of Element Doping and Temperature Cycling on the Fracture Toughness of ?-NiAl / ?-Al2O3 Interfaces in Gas Turbine Engines .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This document describes work performed related to the determination of how elemental additions affect the interfacial fracture toughness of thermal barrier coatings at the bond (more)

Tyler, Samson

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Energy Evaluation for Lignite Pyrolysis by Solid Heat Carrier Coupled with Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Between the two reactors, solid heat carriers are circulated to carry the heat from the gasifier to the pyrolyzer. ... With the purpose of revealing the features of energy use and chemical element conversion, and the feasibility and the rationality of the coupled system, some related experiments were performed, and the simulation flow sheet for lignite pyrolysis by a solid heat carrier coupled with gasification was established by Aspen Plus 11.1 on the basis of the experimental data. ... The amount of the solid heat carrier was determined by two factors: (1) the temperature of the solid heat carrier should be heated to 750 C in the combustion furnace; (2) the energy carried by the solid heat carrier must be sufficient to satisfy the energy demands of the drying and pyrolysis units. ...

Qun Yi; Jie Feng; Bingchuan Lu; Jing Deng; Changlian Yu; Wenying Li

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

173

Josephson junction element  

SciTech Connect

A sandwich-type josephson junction element wherein a counter electrode is made of a mo-re alloy which contains 10-90 atomic-% of re. The josephson junction element has a high operating temperature, and any deterioration thereof attributed to a thermal cycle is not noted.

Kawabe, U.; Tarutani, Y.; Yamada, H.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

174

Solid Cold - A  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

By the early 20th century, the way in which temperatures of solid objects changed as they absorbed heat was considered strong evidence that matter was not made of atoms. Einstein used some recent discoveries about light to turn this assessment around. A B C D E F A. A puzzle, and a surprising solution Take equal masses of lead and aluminum. Heat them until their temperatures are both 10 degrees higher. Will it take the same amount of heat for each? Back in the 18th century, the chemist Joseph Black discovered that different materials required different amounts of heat to raise their temperatures by equal amounts. The amount by which the temperature of a material changes as it absorbs or gives off heat can even be used to help identify the material. Among solid materials near room temperature,

175

IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 41, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2006 433 Process and Temperature Compensation in a 7-MHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and characterization of a process, temperature and supply compensation technique for a 7-MHz clock oscillator in a 0 of 2.6% (with process, temperature and supply). No trimming was performed on any of these samples and a temperature compensating network is de- veloped. The biasing circuit changes the control voltage of the dif

Ayazi, Farrokh

176

EMSL - solids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

solids en Iodine Solubility in Low-Activity Waste Borosilicate Glass at 1000 C. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsiodine-solubility-low-activity-waste-borosilicate-...

177

In Situ Magnetic Field-Assisted Low Temperature Atmospheric Growth of GaN Nanowires via the VaporLiquidSolid Mechanism  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The magnetic field strength was controlled by varying the distance between the magnet and the substrate to ultimately have three different magnetic field strengths of ?0.25, 0.43, and 0.80 T, as measured by a Gauss meter at room temperature. ... The vertical dotted lines show three clear peaks I1, I2, and I3 (with increasing energy). ... One hundred percent magnetic alignment of nanostructures to the imposed magnetic fields was achieved by applying a low external magnetic field of 200 Oe. ...

Jun Sik Kim; Bhaskar Chandra Mohanty; Chan Su Han; Seung Jun Han; Gwang Heon Ha; Liwei Lin; Yong Soo Cho

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

178

Some recent studies with the solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Giner, Inc. has developed a high-energy-density, all-solid-ionomer electrochemical capacitor, completely free of liquid electrolyte. The novel features of this device include (i) a three-dimensional metal oxide-particulate-ionomer composite electrode structure and (ii) a unitized repeating cell element. The composite electrode structures are bonded to opposite sides of a thin sheet of a solid proton-conducting ionomer membrane and form an integrally bonded membrane and electrode assembly (MEA). Individual \\{MEAs\\} can be stacked in series as bipolar elements to form a multiple cell device. The discharge characteristics and energy storage properties of these devices are described. Typical capacitance measured for a unit cell is 1 F/cm2. Life testing of a multicell capacitor on an intermittent basis has shown, that over a 10 000 h period, the capacitance and resistance of the cell has remained invariant. There has been no maintenance required on the device since it was fabricated. Other multicell units of shorter life duration have exhibited similar reliable performance characteristics. Recent work has focused on increasing the capacitance of the unitized structure and improving the low-temperature characteristics. The approaches and experimental results will be presented. Some possible advanced NASA applications for these unique all-solid-ionomer devices will be discussed.

S. Sarangapani; J. Forchione; A. Griffith; A.B. LaConti; R. Baldwin

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Multi-Component and Multi-Dimensional Mathematical Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are solid-state ceramic cells, typically operating between 1073 K and 1273 K. Because of high operating temperature, SOFCs are mostly (more)

Hussain, Mohammed Mujtaba

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Numerical Simulation of Electrolyte-Supported Planar Button Solid Oxide Fuel Cell.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are fuel cells that operate at high temperatures usually in the range of 600 C to 1000 C and employ solid (more)

Aman, Amjad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Temperature effect on recol tritium ractions in solid alkanes at 20 to 300 K. Comparison of recoil T atoms with H (D) atoms in. gamma. radiolysis  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen atom abstraction by recoil T atoms in neopentane and decane-d/sub 22/ has been studied at 20, 77, 195, and 300 K by means of ESR spectroscopy and radiogas chromatography. The results are compared with the reaction of H (or D) atoms produced by ..gamma.. radiolysis. When the experiments are conducted at 77 K, the reaction or recoil tritium atoms in the neo-C/sub 5/H/sub 12/-i-C/sub 4/H/sub 9/D (2 mol %) and n-C/sub 10/D/sub 22/-n-C/sub 10/H/sub 22/ (10 mol %) mixtures do not parallel those of H and D atoms generated by ..gamma.. irradiation, whereas the results at other temperatures below and above 77 K (20, 195, and 300 K) are more nealy comparable. The different results at 77 K are attributed to the ability of H and D atoms but not T atoms to diffuse and react with i-C/sub 4/H/sub 9/D (or n-C/sub 10/H/sub 22/) solute molecules. The failure of the thermal diffusion of the T atoms at 77 K is explained by a model in which nearly all of the recoil T atoms react either by hot reaction or have a high probability of reacting with a fragment near the end of the path and only a few percent of them diffuse into the bulk matrix.

Aratono, Y. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki); Tachikawa, E.; Miyazaki, T.; Kawai, Y.; Fueki, K.

1982-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

182

Preparation and orientation of solid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have prepared solid 3He crystals under constant volume conditions and characterized them by neutron diffraction and transmission. The ultimate aim of the work was the preparation of samples suitable for neutron diffraction investigations of the antiferromagnetic nuclear ordering of solid 3He below 1mK. We describe results from different sample cells, and we have derived the relevant design parameters with respect to (a) the neutron signal and background requirements, (b) the requirements of experiments at ultra-low temperature and (c) the mechanical properties for work at high pressure. The techniques of the 3He crystal growth at pressure between 4 and 6MPa and at low temperature are described, together with a strategy for the crystal orientation and background reduction. As a result, large 3He single crystals of good quality were obtained. With such samples, neutron experiments on magnetic order in solid 3He at ultra-low temperature shift to the experimentally feasible regime.

V Boiko; S Matas; K Siemensmeyer

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Leaching induced concentration profiles in the solid phase of cement  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the solid phase of portland cement specimens by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry before and after leaching provided elemental profiles within the cement. Releases of potassium were calculated from the solid phase profiles and were compared to releases determined from leachate analyses of potassium and cesium-137. The fraction of potassium released in the leachate was found to correlate closely to that of cesium-137 under varying time and temperature conditions, despite the different manner in which each was originally contained in the cement. Agreement was obtained among potassium releases as determined from the solid, potassium in the leachate and cesium-137 in the leachate. These correlations allowed the use of potassium as an analog for cesium-137 in cement. Profiles of potassium in the solid showed varying degrees of depletion. A specimen, sectioned immediately after leaching for 471 days, showed complete removal of potassium to 9 mm depth from the specimens surface. From 9 mm to the center of the specimen, an apparently linear increase in concentration was observed. Specimens that had been air dried prior to sectioning had profiles that were produced by evaporative transport of dissolved species toward the surface. Carbonation of the surface appears to have retarded migration of the dissolved material. This prevented it from reaching the outer edge and resulted in increased potassium concentrations several mm inside the surface. 9 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Correlation of mineralogy and trace element leaching behavior in modified in situ spent shales from Logan Wash, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

Oil shale retorting induces mineral and chemical reactions to occur on the macroscopic and microscopic levels in the kerogen-bearing marlstone. The nature and extent of the reactions is dependent upon process variables such as maximum temperature, time at temperature, atmosphere, and raw shale composition. This report describes the investigation of the mineral, chemical, and trace element release properties of spent shales retrieved from an experimental in situ retort at Occidental Oil Shale, Inc.'s Logan Wash site in Garfield County, Colorado. Correlation between mineralogy of the spent materials and the mobility of major, minor, and trace elements are indicated, and relationships with important process parameters are discussed. The progress of carbonate decomposition reactions and silication reactions is indicative of the processing conditions experienced by the shale materials and influences the mobility of major, minor, and trace elements when the solids are contacted by water. Shale minerals that are exposed to the extreme conditions reached in underground retorting form high temperature product phases including akermanite-gehlenite and diopside-augite solid solutions, kalsilite, monticellite, and forsterie. The persistence of relatively thermally stable phases, such as quartz, orthoclase, and albite provide insight into the extremes of processing conditions experienced by the spent shales. Leachate compositions suggest that several trace elements, including vanadium, boron, fluoride, and arsenic are not rendered immobile by the formation of the high-temperature silicate product phase akermanite-gehlenite.

Peterson, E.J.; O'Rourke, J.A.; Wagner, P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors: A preliminary assessment of experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6 and KORA  

SciTech Connect

The effect of water vapor on the release of fission gas from the fuel elements of high temperature, gas-cooled reactors has been measured in different laboratories under both irradiation and post irradiation conditions. The data from experiments HRB-17, HFR-B1, HFR-K6, and in the KORA facility are compared to assess their consistency and complimentarily. The experiments are consistent under comparable experimental conditions and reveal two general mechanisms involving exposed fuel kernels embedded in carbonaceous materials. One is manifest as a strong dependence of fission gas release on the partial pressure of water vapor below 1 kPa and the other, as a weak dependence above 1 kPa.

Myers, B.F.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Solid-state sintering of tungsten heavy alloys  

SciTech Connect

Solid-state sintering is a technologically important step in the fabrication of tungsten heavy alloys. This work addresses practical variables affecting the sinterability: powder particle size, powder mixing, and sintering temperature and time. Compositions containing 1 to 10 micrometer ({mu}M) tungsten (W) powders can be fully densified at temperatures near the matrix solidus. Blending with an intensifier bar provided good dispersion of elemental powders and good as-sintered mechanical properties under adequate sintering conditions. Additional ball milling increases powder bulk density which primarily benefits mold and die filling. Although fine, 1 {mu}m W powder blends have high sinterability, higher as-sintered ductilities are reached in shorter sintering times with coarser, 5 {mu}m W powder blends; 10{mu}m W powder blends promise the highest as-sintered ductilities due to their coarse microstructural W.

Gurwell, W.E.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Synthesis of full-density nanocrystalline tungsten carbide by reduction of tungstic oxide at room temperature  

SciTech Connect

Among the hard alloys, WC alloys find wide industrial applications as tips for cutting tools and wear-resistant parts. Their intrinsic resistance to oxidation and corrosion at high temperatures also makes them desirable as a protective coating for devices at elevated temperatures. In the industrial scale of production, WC is prepared by a direct union of the elements at a temperature of 3,273 to 3,473 K. Accordingly, the high cost of preparation is a disadvantage of this process. Here, the authors report a novel technique for preparing a large amount of WC powder using a simple method. This process is based on mechanical solid-state reduction (MSSR) followed y solid-state reaction (SSR) during room-temperature ball milling (a high energy ball mill, Fritsch P6, was used at a rotation speed of 4.2 s{sup {minus}1}) of a mixture of WO{sub 3}, Mg, and C powders.

El-Eskandarany, M.S.; Omori, M.; Ishikuro, M.; Konno, T.J.; Takada, K.; Sumiyama, K.; Hirai, T.; Suzuki, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

High operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cells require that sealant must function at high temperature between 600o and 900oC and in the oxidizing and reducing environments of fuel and air. It should be noted that creep deformation becomes relevant for a material when the operating temperature is near or exceeds half of its melting temperature (in degrees of Kelvin). The operating temperatures for most of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under development in the SECA program are around 800oC, which exceeds the glass transition temperature Tg for most glass ceramic materials. The goal of the study is to develop a creep model to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic materials at high temperature and to investigate the effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on stresses in glass seal and on the various interfaces of glass seal with other layers. The self-consistent creep models were incorporated into SOFC-MP and Mentat FC, and finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stress in glass seals were released due to its creep behavior during the operating environments.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2010-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

189

High temperature elemental losses and mineralogical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

future energy crops. Combustion in biomass fueled boilers,in ash during combustion of biomass fuels is important forC. Combustion characteristics of high alkali biomass. Final

Thy, P.; Jenkins, B. M.; Grundvig, S.; Shiraki, R.; Lesher, C. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Programmatic Elements  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Guide provides acceptable methods of meeting the requirements of DOE O 151.1C for programmatic elements that sustain the emergency management program and maintain the readiness of the program to respond to an emergency. Cancels DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 5-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-1, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 7-3.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

192

SolidSolid Interactions on Active Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... on the different grades of alumina provide a measure of the relative activities of such adsorbents. When the solid-solid adsorption processes were essentially complete, the absorbance maxima were virtually ...

PHILIP ANTHONY; HARRY ZEITLIN

1960-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

193

Solid-state lithium battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

194

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high temperatures safely is mission critical. The PIL lithium battery dramatically improves both the safety and energy

195

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SolidEnergy Systems SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high temperatures safely is mission critical. The PIL lithium battery dramatically improves both the safety and energy

196

Response Elements  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The Guide provides acceptable methods for meeting the requirement of DOE O 151.1C for response elements that respond or contribute to response as needed in an emergency. Cancels DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 3-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-1, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-2, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-3, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-4, DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-5, and DOE G 151.1-1, Volume 4-6.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

197

Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Determination of actinide elements at femtogram per gram levels in environmental samples by on-line solid phase extraction and sector-field-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An on-line solid phase extraction method has been developed for the determination of 232Th, 237Np, 238U, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Am and 243Am in biological certified reference material using a column containing TRU-Spec resin coupled with sector-field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Absolute detection limits were 0.7, 0.85, 0.6, and 0.65fg for 237Np, 239Pu, 241Am and 243Am, respectively. The 239Pu was determined in NIST Human Liver (963297fgg?1 compared with a certified value of 848161fgg?1) using a dry and wet ashing sample preparation method, and in a spiked cabbage reference material (39454fgg?1 compared to an indicative value of 467fgg?1) using microwave digestion. Sequential separation of Pu and U was achieved by on-column reduction of Pu with titanium(III) chloride and elution in 4M \\{HCl\\} to facilitate the determination of 239Pu in samples containing high levels of 238U, thereby eliminating the interference of 238U1H+ at m/z 239. The sequential elution procedure was used to determine 239Pu in NIST human lung (81455fgg?1 compared with a certified range of 227951fgg?1) and NIST Rocky Flats Soil (2423137fgg?1 compared with a certified value of 3307248fgg?1).

Jason B Truscott; Phil Jones; Ben E Fairman; E.Hywel Evans

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Solid-Liquid and Solid-Solid Transformations in the Rare-Earth Metals at High Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The fusion behavior and solid-solid transformations in the rare-earth metals have been investigated at pressures in the range 6-65 kbar. The phase diagrams are presented for La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Tb. The initial melting slopes of Dy to Lu have been obtained. Since most of the rare-earth (R.E.) metals melt from a bcc structure, they offer a series for comparison. When the initial melting slope is plotted against atomic number they fall into groups according to their valency; the typically divalent metals Eu and Yb in one, and the typically trivalent metals La, Gd, and Lu in another. Samarium and the metals from Tb to Tm have melting slopes which are intermediate between those of the typically divalent and trivalent metals. It is suggested that these metals assume a partial divalent character in the liquid state and possibly also in the bcc phase. This suggestion derives support from the fact that the gaseous neutral atoms of the R.E. elements, with the exception of La, Gd, and Lu, have no 5d electron and are therefore divalent. Cerium exhibits a unique fusion behavior and its negative melting slope has been attributed to the tetravalency (4f?5d electron promotion) of the atoms in the liquid. For the very small melting slope of Pr, it is suggested that the atoms in the liquid have partial tetravalent character due to 4f?5d electron promotion. Comparisons with alkali metals are made and it is deduced that the R.E. metals are quite compressible at high temperatures. Pressure induced transformations in the rare-earth metals are in the sequence hcp?Sm-type?double hcp?fcc. A plausible mechanism based on the variation of ca ratio with pressure is discussed for hcp?Sm-type transformation.

A. Jayaraman

1965-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

200

Sorption of redox-sensitive elements: critical analysis  

SciTech Connect

The redox-sensitive elements (Tc, U, Np, Pu) discussed in this report are of interest to nuclear waste management due to their long-lived isotopes which have a potential radiotoxic effect on man. In their lower oxidation states these elements have been shown to be highly adsorbed by geologic materials occurring under reducing conditions. Experimental research conducted in recent years, especially through the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP) and Waste/Rock Interaction Technology (WRIT) program, has provided extensive information on the mechanisms of retardation. In general, ion-exchange probably plays a minor role in the sorption behavior of cations of the above three actinide elements. Formation of anionic complexes of the oxidized states with common ligands (OH/sup -/, CO/sup - -//sub 3/) is expected to reduce adsorption by ion exchange further. Pertechnetate also exhibits little ion-exchange sorption by geologic media. In the reduced (IV) state, all of the elements are highly charged and it appears that they form a very insoluble compound (oxide, hydroxide, etc.) or undergo coprecipitation or are incorporated into minerals. The exact nature of the insoluble compounds and the effect of temperature, pH, pe, other chemical species, and other parameters are currently being investigated. Oxidation states other than Tc (IV,VII), U(IV,VI), Np(IV,V), and Pu(IV,V) are probably not important for the geologic repository environment expected, but should be considered especially when extreme conditions exist (radiation, temperature, etc.). Various experimental techniques such as oxidation-state analysis of tracer-level isotopes, redox potential measurement and control, pH measurement, and solid phase identification have been used to categorize the behavior of the various valence states.

Strickert, R.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.  

SciTech Connect

Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

Sullivan, Neal P. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO); Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid-State Lighting Search Solid-State Lighting Search Search Help Solid-State Lighting HOME ABOUT THE PROGRAM R&D PROJECTS MARKET-BASED PROGRAMS SSL BASICS INFORMATION RESOURCES FINANCIAL OPPORTUNITIES EERE » Building Technologies Office » Solid-State Lighting Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on AddThis.com... Pause/Resume Photo of a large room with people standing around poster boards.

203

Trace element emissions. Semi-annual report, October 1994--February 1995  

SciTech Connect

Many trace elements can exist in raw coal gas either in the form of metallic vapors or gaseous compounds which, besides their action on potentially ``very clean`` advanced power generating systems such as fuel cells and gas turbines, can also be detrimental to plant and animal life when released into the atmosphere. Therefore, volatile trace contaminants from coal which can also be toxic must be removed before they become detrimental to both power plant performance/endurance and the environment. Five trace elements were selected in this project based on: abundance in solid coal, volatility during gasification, effects on downstream systems and toxicity to plant and animal life. An understanding was sought in this investigation of the interactions of these five trace elements (and their high temperature species) with the different components in integrated cleanup and power generating systems, as well as the ultimate effects with respect to atmospheric emissions. Utilizing thermodynamic calculations and various experimental techniques, it was determined that a number of trace contaminants that exist in coal may be substantially removed by flyash, and after that by different sorbent systems. High temperature cleanup of contaminants by sorbents such as zinc titanate, primarily to remove sulfur, can also absorb some metallic contaminants such as cadmium and antimony. Further polishing will be required, however, to eliminate trace contaminant species incorporating the elements arsenic, selemium, lead, and mercury.

Pigeaud, A.; Maru, H.; Wilemski, G.; Helble, J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Temperature differential detection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

Girling, Peter M. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Seismic Response Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to the engineering practice of municipal solid waste landfill, the dynamic response of landfill based on the finite element method is implemented. The equivalent linearization method is used to consider the non-linear dynamic response characteristics. ... Keywords: Dynamic response, Ground motion input, Finite element method

Zhang Guodong; Li Yong; Jin Xing; Li Rongbin; Chen Fei

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is typically composed of two porous electrodes, interposed between an electrolyte made of a particular solid oxide ceramic material. The system originates from the work of Nernst...

Nigel M. Sammes; Roberto Bove; Jakub Pusz

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Laser cooling of solids  

SciTech Connect

We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Improved solid aerosol generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

209

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid-State Lighting Videos to Solid-State Lighting Videos to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Videos on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Solid-State Lighting Videos On this page you can access DOE Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Program videos. Photo of a museum art gallery with LED lights in track fixtures overhead. The City of Los Angeles LED Streetlight Program

210

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About the About the Program Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Contacts on AddThis.com... Contacts Partnerships Solid-State Lighting Contacts For information about Solid-State Lighting, contact James Brodrick Lighting Program Manager Building Technologies Office U.S. Department of Energy

211

Temperature maintained battery system  

SciTech Connect

A chassis contains a battery charger connected to a multi-cell battery. The charger receives direct current from an external direct current power source and has means to automatically selectively charge the battery in accordance with a preselected charging program relating to temperature adjusted state of discharge of the battery. A heater device is positioned within the chassis which includes heater elements and a thermal switch which activates the heater elements to maintain the battery above a certain predetermined temperature in accordance with preselected temperature conditions occurring within the chassis. A cooling device within the chassis includes a cooler regulator, a temperature sensor, and peltier effect cooler elements. The cooler regulator activates and deactivates the peltier cooler elements in accordance with preselected temperature conditions within the chassis sensed by the temperature sensor. Various vehicle function circuitry may also be positioned within the chassis. The contents of the chassis are positioned to form a passage proximate the battery in communication with an inlet and outlet in the chassis to receive air for cooling purposes from an external source.

Newman, W.A.

1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

212

Subdue solids in towers  

SciTech Connect

Many distillation, absorption, and stripping columns operate with solids present in the system. The presence of solids may be either intentional or unintentional. But, in all cases, the solids must be handled or tolerated by the vapor/liquid mass-transfer equipment. Such solids should be dealt with by a combination of four methods. From most favorable to least favorable, these are: (1) keep the solids out; (2) keep the solids moving; (3) put the solids somewhere harmless; and (4) make it easier to clean the hardware. The key precept for all these approaches is the realization that solids present in a system just don't disappear. In this article, the authors review the techniques and design issues involved in making a vapor/liquid mass-transfer system operate with solids present. They assume that the solids cannot be kept out, eliminating the first choice. The type of mass-transfer service does not matter. The same principles apply equally well to distillation, adsorption, and stripping. They include equipment design criteria based on the methods outlined above, as well as detailed recommendations for each of the major equipment choices that can be made for mass-transfer devices. Then, they illustrate the approach via an example--a vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) unit having solids as an inherent part of its feed.

Sloley, A.W.; Martin, G.R.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid-State Lighting Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop Nearly 200 lighting industry leaders, chip makers, fixture and component

214

SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Science & Innovation » Innovation » Commercialization » National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition » SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy density and safety are essential. The PIL battery would also be successful in oil and gas drilling applications where the ability to recharge, store, transport, and perform at both very low and very high

215

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lighting Lighting Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting on AddThis.com... Pause/Resume Photo of a large room with people standing around poster boards. Register Now for DOE's 11th Annual SSL R&D Workshop January 28-30, join other SSL R&D professionals from industry, government, and academia to learn, share, and shape the future of lighting.

216

Finite element modeling of heat and mass transport in aquifers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the grid test problem transient temperature distribution using upstream weighting to the solution of Avdonin (1964)(linear elements). 60 Comparison of the radial test problem transient temperature profile using upstream weighting to the solution... of Avdonin (1964)(linear elements) . . 61 12 13 Comparison of the grid problem transient temperature profile using mass lumping to the solution of Avdonin (1964). Comparison of the grid problem temperature progression using mass lumping to the solution...

Grubaugh, Elston Kent

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Tribological Characterization of Carbon Based Solid Lubricants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lubrication modes. ..................... 10 Figure 5. Typical Stribeck Curve [22]. ..................................................................... 11 Figure 6. This figure illustrates the lamellar structure of graphite. ........................... 13... or low pressures, and high and low operating speeds. For purposes of this research, the extreme conditions will refer to high temperatures, and low pressures. The most common types of solid lubricants encompass four materials: graphite, molybdenum...

Sanchez, Carlos Joel

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

219

Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aluminum Waste Reaction Indicators in a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Timothy D. Stark, F.ASCE1 landfills may contain aluminum from residential and commercial solid waste, industrial waste, and aluminum, may react with liquid in a landfill and cause uncontrolled temperature increases, significant changes

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l t t PNNLSystem Development at PNNLSystem Development at PNNL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and PowerSolid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power S t D l t t PNNLS t D l;Solid Oxide Fuel Cell CharacteristicsSolid Oxide Fuel Cell Characteristics High temperature (~700 ­ 800 of SOFCDevelopment of SOFC TTechnologyechnology Fuel Reforming and System DesignFuel Reforming and System Design

223

Delivery system for molten salt oxidation of solid waste  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is a delivery system for safety injecting solid waste particles, including mixed wastes, into a molten salt bath for destruction by the process of molten salt oxidation. The delivery system includes a feeder system and an injector that allow the solid waste stream to be accurately metered, evenly dispersed in the oxidant gas, and maintained at a temperature below incineration temperature while entering the molten salt reactor.

Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA); Squire, Dwight V. (Livermore, CA); Robinson, Jeffrey A. (Manteca, CA); House, Palmer A. (Walnut Creek, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

E-Print Network 3.0 - automated in-tube solid-phase Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for: automated in-tube solid-phase Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Date Student Topic Advisor 082211 Introduction Summary: 3111 Indika Galpothdeniya Temperature-Response...

225

HgCdTe superlattices for solid-state cryogenic refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for solid-state cryogenic refrigeration Daryoosh Vashaee a?merit ?ZT max ? 3? at cryogenic temperatures. Calculationstemperature, 16 for cryogenic refrigeration the situation

Vashaee, D; Shakouri, A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Thermal Stress Analysis of LCA-based Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research characterizes the thermal stress resulting from temperature gradients in hybrid solid oxide fuel cells that are processed using a novel oxide powder slurry (more)

LeMasters, Jason Augustine

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Advances in water electrolysis technology with emphasis on use of the solid polymer electrolyte  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efforts to improve water electrolysis technology are being made using three promising ... ) development of solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolysers, (b) increasing the operating temperature of alkaline...

P. W. T. Lu; S. Srinivasan

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

SolidLiquidVapor Equilibrium Models for Cryogenic Biogas Upgrading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In cryogenic upgrading processes involving dry ice formation, accurate predictions of solidliquid, solidvapor, and solidliquidvapor equilibria are fundamental for a correct design of the heat exchanger surface in order to achieve the desired biomethane purity. ... Moreover, the liquefied biogas production process, particularly interesting for cryogenic upgrading processes due to the low temperature of the obtained biomethane, requires an accurate knowledge of carbon dioxide solubility in liquid methane to avoid solid deposition. ... For some applications demanding a high energy content gas, namely vehicle fuels and injection in the natural gas grid, the biogas has to be upgraded into biomethane. ...

Mauro Riva; Marco Campestrini; Joseph Toubassy; Denis Clodic; Paolo Stringari

2014-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

229

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Magnesium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sodium Sodium Previous Element (Sodium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Aluminum) Aluminum Isotopes of the Element Magnesium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 24 78.99% STABLE 25 10.00% STABLE 26 11.01% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 19 4.0 picoseconds Double Proton Emission 100.00% 20 90.8 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission ~ 27.00% 21 122 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 32.60% Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay < 0.50%

230

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Chlorine  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sulfur Sulfur Previous Element (Sulfur) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Argon) Argon Isotopes of the Element Chlorine [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 35 75.76% STABLE 37 24.24% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 28 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 29 < 20 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 30 < 30 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 31 150 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 0.70% 32 298 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00%

231

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Potassium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argon Argon Previous Element (Argon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Calcium) Calcium Isotopes of the Element Potassium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 39 93.2581% STABLE 40 0.0117% 1.248×10+9 years 41 6.7302% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 32 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 33 < 25 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 34 < 25 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 35 178 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 0.37% 36 342 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00%

232

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Phosphorus  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Silicon Silicon Previous Element (Silicon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Sulfur) Sulfur Isotopes of the Element Phosphorus [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 31 100% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 24 No Data Available Electron Capture (suspected) No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 25 < 30 nanoseconds Proton Emission 100.00% 26 43.7 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission No Data Available 27 260 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with

233

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Francium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radon Radon Previous Element (Radon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Radium) Radium Isotopes of the Element Francium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Francium has no naturally occurring isotopes. Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 199 12 milliseconds Alpha Decay > 0.00% Electron Capture No Data Available 200 49 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 201 62 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 201m 19 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 202 0.30 seconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 202m 0.29 seconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 203 0.55 seconds Alpha Decay <= 100.00% 204 1.8 seconds Alpha Decay 92.00%

234

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nitrogen Nitrogen Previous Element (Nitrogen) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Fluorine) Fluorine Isotopes of the Element Oxygen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 16 99.757% STABLE 17 0.038% STABLE 18 0.205% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 12 1.139×10-21 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available 13 8.58 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 14 70.620 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 15 122.24 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 16 STABLE - - 17 STABLE - - 18 STABLE - - 19 26.88 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

235

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Gallium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zinc Zinc Previous Element (Zinc) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Germanium) Germanium Isotopes of the Element Gallium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 69 60.108% STABLE 71 39.892% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 56 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 57 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 58 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 59 No Data Available Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 60 70 milliseconds Electron Capture 98.40%

236

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Sodium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neon Neon Previous Element (Neon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Magnesium) Magnesium Isotopes of the Element Sodium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 23 100% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 18 1.3×10-21 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% 19 < 40 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 20 447.9 milliseconds Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay 20.05% Electron Capture 100.00% 21 22.49 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 22 2.6027 years Electron Capture 100.00% 23 STABLE - - 24 14.997 hours Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

237

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Neon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fluorine Fluorine Previous Element (Fluorine) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Sodium) Sodium Isotopes of the Element Neon [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 20 90.48% STABLE 21 0.27% STABLE 22 9.25% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 16 9×10-21 seconds Double Proton Emission 100.00% 17 109.2 milliseconds Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay No Data Available Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 100.00% 18 1.6670 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 19 17.22 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 20 STABLE - -

238

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Copper  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nickel Nickel Previous Element (Nickel) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Zinc) Zinc Isotopes of the Element Copper [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 63 69.15% STABLE 65 30.85% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 52 No Data Available Proton Emission No Data Available 53 < 300 nanoseconds Electron Capture No Data Available Proton Emission No Data Available 54 < 75 nanoseconds Proton Emission No Data Available 55 27 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 15.0% 56 93 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00%

239

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Boron  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beryllium Beryllium Previous Element (Beryllium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Carbon) Carbon Isotopes of the Element Boron [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 10 19.9% STABLE 11 80.1% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 6 No Data Available Double Proton Emission (suspected) No Data Available 7 3.255×10-22 seconds Proton Emission No Data Available Alpha Decay No Data Available 8 770 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay 100.00% 9 8.439×10-19 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% Double Alpha Decay 100.00%

240

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Tungsten  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tantalum Tantalum Previous Element (Tantalum) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Rhenium) Rhenium Isotopes of the Element Tungsten [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 180 0.12% >= 6.6×10+17 years 182 26.50% STABLE 183 14.31% > 1.3×10+19 years 184 30.64% STABLE 186 28.43% > 2.3×10+19 years Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 157 275 milliseconds Electron Capture No Data Available 158 1.25 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 158m 0.143 milliseconds Isomeric Transition No Data Available Alpha Decay No Data Available 159 7.3 milliseconds Alpha Decay ~ 99.90%

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Radon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Astatine Astatine Previous Element (Astatine) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Francium) Francium Isotopes of the Element Radon [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Radon has no naturally occurring isotopes. Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 193 1.15 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 194 0.78 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 195 6 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 195m 5 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 196 4.4 milliseconds Alpha Decay 99.90% Electron Capture ~ 0.10% 197 53 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 197m 25 milliseconds Alpha Decay 100.00% 198 65 milliseconds Alpha Decay No Data Available

242

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boron Boron Previous Element (Boron) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Nitrogen) Nitrogen Isotopes of the Element Carbon [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 12 98.93% STABLE 13 1.07% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 8 1.981×10-21 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% Alpha Decay No Data Available 9 126.5 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% Electron Capture with delayed Proton Emission 61.60% Electron Capture with delayed Alpha Decay 38.40% 10 19.308 seconds Electron Capture 100.00% 11 20.334 minutes Electron Capture 100.00% 12 STABLE - -

243

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Rhenium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tungsten Tungsten Previous Element (Tungsten) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Osmium) Osmium Isotopes of the Element Rhenium [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 185 37.40% STABLE 187 62.60% 4.33×10+10 years Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 159 No Data Available No Data Available No Data Available 160 0.82 milliseconds Proton Emission 91.00% Alpha Decay 9.00% 161 0.44 milliseconds Proton Emission 100.00% Alpha Decay <= 1.40% 161m 14.7 milliseconds Alpha Decay 93.00% Proton Emission 7.00% 162 107 milliseconds Alpha Decay 94.00% Electron Capture 6.00%

244

Trace Element Determination by Combining Solid-Phase Microextraction Hyphenated to Elemental and Molecular Detection Techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......degradation according with the storage time. Moreover, NaBEt4 must...case of speciation studies in seawater. In the case of aqueous matrices...25123 14.8-14.9 Hg2+ Seawater NaBEt4, acetate 100 m PDMS...pH 5) 0.11 4.8 Hg2+ Seawater NaBPr4, acetate 100 m PDMS......

Sergi Dez; Josep M. Bayona

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Stress reorganisation and response in active solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a microscopic model of a disordered viscoelastic active solid, i.e. an active material whose long time behaviour is elastic as opposed to viscous. It is composed of filaments, passive crosslinks and molecular motors powered by stored chemical energy, e.g. actomyosin powered by ATP. Our model allows us to study the collective behaviour of contractile active elements and how their interaction with each other and the passive elastic elements determines the macroscopic mechanical properties of the active material. As a result of the (un)binding dynamics of the active elements, we find that this system provides a highly responsive material with a dynamic mechanical response strongly dependent on the amount of deformation.

Hawkins, Rhoda J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Creep Behavior of Glass/Ceramic Sealant and its Effect on Long-term Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The creep behavior of glass or glass-ceramic sealant materials used in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) becomes relevant under SOFC operating temperatures. In this paper, the creep of glass-ceramic sealants was experimentally examined, and a standard linear solid model was applied to capture the creep behavior of glass ceramic sealant materials developed for planar SOFCs at high temperatures. The parameters of this model were determined based on the creep test results. Furthermore, the creep model was incorporated into finite-element software programs SOFC-MP and Mentat-FC developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for multi-physics simulation of SOFCs. The effect of creep of glass ceramic sealant materials on the long-term performance of SOFC stacks was investigated by studying the stability of the flow channels and the stress redistribution in the glass seal and on the various interfaces of the glass seal with other layers. Finite element analyses were performed to quantify the stresses in various parts. The stresses in glass seals were released because of creep behavior during operations.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Koeppel, Brian J.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2009-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

247

Self supporting heat transfer element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides an improved internal heat exchange element arranged so as to traverse the inside diameter of a container vessel such that it makes good mechanical contact with the interior wall of that vessel. The mechanical element is fabricated from a material having a coefficient of thermal conductivity above about 0.8 W cm.sup.-1.degree. K.sup.-1 and is designed to function as a simple spring member when that member has been cooled to reduce its diameter to just below that of a cylindrical container or vessel into which it is placed and then allowed to warm to room temperature. A particularly important application of this invention is directed to a providing a simple compartmented storage container for accommodating a hydrogen absorbing alloy.

Story, Grosvenor Cook (Livermore, CA); Baldonado, Ray Orico (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ reduction and oxidation of nickel from solid oxide fuel cells in a Titan ETEM A. Faes1. C. Singhal, K. Kendall, High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell - Fundamentals, Design, Denmark antonin.faes@epfl.ch Keywords: In situ ETEM, nickel oxide, reduction, RedOx, SOFC Solid Oxide Fuel

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

249

Rubbery Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-State, Thin-Film Lithium Batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rubbery Graft Copolymer Electrolytes for Solid-State, Thin-Film Lithium Batteries Patrick E. Trapa to be stable over a wide temperature range and voltage window. Solid-state, thin-film batteries comprised triflate-doped POEM-g-PDMS, which exhibited solid-like mechanical behavior, were nearly identical to those

Sadoway, Donald Robert

250

Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Block Copolymer Solid Battery Electrolyte with High Li-Ion Transference Number Ayan Ghosh number TLi+ value of 0.9 at room temperature 21­23°C . The solid-state flexible, translucent polymer of withstanding such high voltage conditions. Unlike traditional liquid electrolytes, solid-state polymer electro

Rubloff, Gary W.

251

Solid Cold - C  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

C. Temperature and energy Most basically, temperature is related to energy flow. If you have two things at different temperatures, and you put them together so that heat can flow...

252

Helioseismic limit on heavy element abundance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Primary inversions of accurately measured solar oscillation frequencies coupled with the equations of thermal equilibrium and other input physics, enable us to infer the temperature and hydrogen abundance profiles inside the Sun. These profiles also help in setting constraints on the input physics as well as on heavy element abundance in the solar core. Using different treatments of plasma screening for nuclear reaction rates, limits on the cross-section of proton-proton nuclear reaction as a function of heavy element abundance in the solar core are obtained and an upper limit on heavy element abundance in the solar core is also derived from these results.

H. M. Antia; S. M. Chitre

2002-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

253

Solid Waste Rules (New Hampshire)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The solid waste statute applies to construction and demolition debris, appliances, recyclables, and the facilities that collect, process, and dispose of solid waste. DES oversees the management of...

254

Solid Waste Management (North Carolina)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Solid Waste Program regulates safe management of solid waste through guidance, technical assistance, regulations, permitting, environmental monitoring, compliance evaluation and enforcement....

255

Nuclear fuel elements made from nanophase materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor core fuel element is composed of nanophase high temperature materials. An array of the fuel elements in rod form are joined in an open geometry fuel cell that preferably also uses such nanophase materials for the cell structures. The particular high temperature nanophase fuel element material must have the appropriate mechanical characteristics to avoid strain related failure even at high temperatures, in the order of about 3000 F. Preferably, the reactor type is a pressurized or boiling water reactor and the nanophase material is a high temperature ceramic or ceramic composite. Nanophase metals, or nanophase metals with nanophase ceramics in a composite mixture, also have desirable characteristics, although their temperature capability is not as great as with all-ceramic nanophase material. Combinations of conventional or nanophase metals and conventional or nanophase ceramics can be employed as long as there is at least one nanophase material in the composite. The nuclear reactor so constructed has a number of high strength fuel particles, a nanophase structural material for supporting a fuel rod at high temperature, a configuration to allow passive cooling in the event of a primary cooling system failure, an ability to retain a coolable geometry even at high temperatures, an ability to resist generation of hydrogen gas, and a configuration having good nuclear, corrosion, and mechanical characteristics. 5 figs.

Heubeck, N.B.

1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

256

Summary compilation of shell element performance versus formulation.  

SciTech Connect

This document compares the finite element shell formulations in the Sierra Solid Mechanics code. These are finite elements either currently in the Sierra simulation codes Presto and Adagio, or expected to be added to them in time. The list of elements are divided into traditional two-dimensional, plane stress shell finite elements, and three-dimensional solid finite elements that contain either modifications or additional terms designed to represent the bending stiffness expected to be found in shell formulations. These particular finite elements are formulated for finite deformation and inelastic material response, and, as such, are not based on some of the elegant formulations that can be found in an elastic, infinitesimal finite element setting. Each shell element is subjected to a series of 12 verification and validation test problems. The underlying purpose of the tests here is to identify the quality of both the spatially discrete finite element gradient operator and the spatially discrete finite element divergence operator. If the derivation of the finite element is proper, the discrete divergence operator is the transpose of the discrete gradient operator. An overall summary is provided from which one can rank, at least in an average sense, how well the individual formulations can be expected to perform in applications encountered year in and year out. A letter grade has been assigned albeit sometimes subjectively for each shell element and each test problem result. The number of A's, B's, C's, et cetera assigned have been totaled, and a grade point average (GPA) has been computed, based on a 4.0-system. These grades, combined with a comparison between the test problems and the application problem, can be used to guide an analyst to select the element with the best shell formulation.

Heinstein, Martin Wilhelm; Hales, Jason Dean (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Breivik, Nicole L.; Key, Samuel W. (FMA Development, LLC, Great Falls, MT)

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Biofuels : Upgraded New Solids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main historical keywords for the three pathways are: Agglomeration: Briquettes are long-established upgraded solid fuels, especially based on coal. 1970s: first small scale pellet heating units build in t...

Dr. Marco Klemm; Ralf Schmersahl

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Biofuels : Upgraded New Solids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main historical keywords for the three pathways are: Agglomeration: Briquettes are long-established upgraded solid fuels, especially based on coal. 1970s: first small scale pellet heating units build in t...

Dr. Marco Klemm; Ralf Schmersahl; Dr. Claudia Kirsten

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

2012-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

260

Solid Cold - F  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

F. Progress in science F. Progress in science Aside from what it tells us about the thermodynamics of solids, this analysis by Einstein illustrates some important things about the way scientific progress is made. For one, it serves as a typical example of how discoveries about one phenomenon often help us understand others that had no obvious relation to it earlier. In this case, newly discovered properties of light suggested significant facts about solids-and about whether or not solids were made of atoms. Einstein thus found another significant relation between thermodynamics and optics besides the ones already known earlier. Another point this work illustrates is that progress doesn't always require understanding everything at once. It turned out that solids do act like

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of combustible solid waste  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the development of thermoelectric power generation system utilizing heat of municipal solid waste. The systematic classification and design guideline are proposed in consideration of the characteristics of solid waste processing system. The conceptual design of thermoelectric power generation system is carried out for a typical middle scale incinerator system (200 ton/day) by the local model. Totally the recovered electricity is 926.5 kWe by 445 units (569,600 couples). In order to achieve detailed design, one dimensional steady state model taking account of temperature dependency of the heat transfer performance and thermoelectric properties is developed. Moreover, small scale on-site experiment on 60 W class module installed in the real incinerator is carried out to extract various levels of technological problems. In parallel with the system development, high temperature thermoelectric elements such as Mn-Si and so on are developed aiming the optimization of ternary compound and high performance due to controlled fine-grain boundary effect. The manganese silicide made by shrinking-rate controlled sintering method performs 5 ({mu}W/cm K{cflx 2}) in power factor at 800 K. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Kajikawa, T.; Ito, M.; Katsube, I. [Shonan Institute of Technology, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 251 (Japan); Shibuya, E. [NKK Corporation, Yokohama, Kanagawa, 230 (Japan)

1994-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

262

Heat treatment of medium-temperature SasolLurgi gasifier coal-tar pitch for polymerizing to higher value products  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two coal-derived pitch samples, one a medium temperature pitch from a SasolLurgi gasifier and the other from a high temperature coking process, have been heat treated to induce polymerization, both separately and as a mixture of pitches (co-pyrolysis). The initial pitch samples and the heat-treated samples have been examined by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), by UV-fluorescence spectroscopy (UV-F), by solid state 13C NMR; elemental analyses of the initial pitch samples have been carried out. The SasolLurgi pitch showed larger apparent sizes, more alkyl and carbonyl functions, and smaller polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) groups than the high temperature pitch. Co-pyrolysis of the two pitches indicated that polymerized product from the SasolLurgi pitch can be used as an extender for high-temperature binder pitch.

K. Mokoena; T.J. Van der Walt; T.J. Morgan; A.A. Herod; R. Kandiyoti

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Solid state switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Thermodynamic modeling for organic solid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

A generalized predictive model which is based on thermodynamic principle for solid-liquid phase equilibrium has been developed for organic solid precipitation. The model takes into account the effects of temperature, composition, and activity coefficient on the solubility of wax and asphaltenes in organic solutions. The solid-liquid equilibrium K-value is expressed as a function of the heat of melting, melting point temperature, solubility parameter, and the molar volume of each component in the solution. All these parameters have been correlated with molecular weight. Thus, the model can be applied to crude oil systems. The model has been tested with experimental data for wax formation and asphaltene precipitation. The predicted wax appearance temperature is very close to the measured temperature. The model not only can match the measured asphaltene solubility data but also can be used to predict the solubility of asphaltene in organic solvents or crude oils. The model assumes that asphaltenes are dissolved in oil in a true liquid state, not in colloidal suspension, and the precipitation-dissolution process is reversible by changing thermodynamic conditions. The model is thermodynamically consistent and has no ambiguous assumptions.

Chung, T.H.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Architectures for individual and stacked micro single chamber solid oxide fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical conversion devices that convert various fuel sources directly into electrical energy at temperatures ranging from 600C to 1000C. These high temperatures could potentially ...

Crumlin, Ethan J

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Sandia National Laboratories: High-Pressure and High-Temperature...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ClimateECClimateCarbon CaptureHigh-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron...

267

Computational study of the transport mechanisms of molecules and ions in solid materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

electrolytes is a key element in the development of the solid lithium ion batteries. One promising material is dilithium phthalocyanine (Li2Pc), which upon self-assembly may form conducting channels for fast ion transport. Computational chemistry is employed...

Zhang, Yingchun

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

268

It's Elemental - Isotopes of the Element Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Carbon Previous Element (Carbon) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Oxygen) Oxygen Isotopes of the Element Nitrogen [Click for Main Data] Most of the isotope data on this site has been obtained from the National Nuclear Data Center. Please visit their site for more information. Naturally Occurring Isotopes Mass Number Natural Abundance Half-life 14 99.636% STABLE 15 0.364% STABLE Known Isotopes Mass Number Half-life Decay Mode Branching Percentage 10 No Data Available Proton Emission 100.00% 11 5.49×10-22 seconds Proton Emission 100.00% 12 11.000 milliseconds Electron Capture 100.00% 13 9.965 minutes Electron Capture 100.00% 14 STABLE - - 15 STABLE - - 16 7.13 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00% Beta-minus Decay with delayed Alpha Decay 1.2×10-3 % 17 4.173 seconds Beta-minus Decay 100.00%

269

Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

270

Finite element decomposition and grid generation for brain modeling and visualization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical grid generation is used to provide a framework for brain and neuron visualization. Smoothing spline surfaces are fit to contour data to generate 3D solid model reconstruction of brain tissues. Finite element methods are then used...

Batte, David Allan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

271

Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Temperature controlled high voltage regulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature controlled high voltage regulator for automatically adjusting the high voltage applied to a radiation detector is described. The regulator is a solid state device that is independent of the attached radiation detector, enabling the regulator to be used by various models of radiation detectors, such as gas flow proportional radiation detectors.

Chiaro, Jr., Peter J. (Clinton, TN); Schulze, Gerald K. (Knoxville, TN)

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

273

Automation of organic elemental analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Automation of organic elemental analysis ... Describes the development and design of an apparatus for automated organic elemental analysis. ...

Velmer B. Fish

1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Proceedings of transuranium elements  

SciTech Connect

The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

California at Santa Cruz, University of

276

Compliant high temperature seals for dissimilar materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature, gas-tight seal is formed by utilizing one or more compliant metallic toroidal ring sealing elements, where the applied pressure serves to activate the seal, thus improving the quality of the seal. The compliant nature of the sealing element compensates for differences in thermal expansion between the materials to be sealed, and is particularly useful in sealing a metallic member and a ceramic tube art elevated temperatures. The performance of the seal may be improved by coating the sealing element with a soft or flowable coating such as silver or gold and/or by backing the sealing element with a bed of fine powder. The material of the sealing element is chosen such that the element responds to stress elastically, even at elevated temperatures, permitting the seal to operate through multiple thermal cycles.

Rynders, Steven Walton (Fogelsville, PA); Minford, Eric (Laurys Station, PA); Tressler, Richard Ernest (Boalsburg, PA); Taylor, Dale M. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Project Summary Full Title: High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) Project ID: 159 Principal Investigator: Steve Herring Brief Description: A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was created to model high-temperature steam electrolysis in a planar solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC). A solid-oxide fuel cell model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. Keywords: Solid oxide fuel cell; solid oxide elctrolysis cell; nuclear; model Purpose Assess the performance of solid-oxide cells operating in the steam electrolysis mode for hydrogen production over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. Performer Principal Investigator: Steve Herring

278

Solid state switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

279

Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

0: Solid Waste Management 0: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) Quality Services: Solid Wastes, Part 360: Solid Waste Management Facilities (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Transportation Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations apply to all solid wastes with the exception of hazardous or radioactive waste. Proposed solid waste processing facilities are required to obtain permits prior to construction, and the regulations provide details about permitting, construction, registration, and operation requirements. The regulations contain specific guidance for land

280

Compound and Elemental Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Compound and Elemental Analysis Compound and Elemental Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Compound and Elemental Analysis Details Activities (104) Areas (69) Regions (6) NEPA(0) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Lab Analysis Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Fluid Lab Analysis Parent Exploration Technique: Fluid Lab Analysis Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Results can aid in the determination of fluid source regions and circulation pathways. Thermal: Certain elements exhibit high spatial correlation with high-temperature geothermal systems. Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 15.001,500 centUSD 0.015 kUSD 1.5e-5 MUSD 1.5e-8 TUSD / compound Median Estimate (USD): 30.003,000 centUSD

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

Lauf, R.J.; Morgan, C.S.

1981-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

282

Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Morgan, Chester S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Electrochemical properties of all solid state Li/S battery  

SciTech Connect

All-solid-state lithium/sulfur (Li/S) battery is prepared using siloxane cross-linked network solid electrolyte at room temperature. The solid electrolytes show high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability with lithium and sulfur. In the first discharge curve, all-solid-state Li/S battery shows three plateau potential regions of 2.4 V, 2.12 V and 2.00 V, respectively. The battery shows the first discharge capacity of 1044 mAh g{sup ?1}-sulfur at room temperature. This first discharge capacity rapidly decreases in 4th cycle and remains at 512 mAh g{sup ?1}-sulfur after 10 cycles.

Yu, Ji-Hyun; Park, Jin-Woo; Wang, Qing; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Kim, Ki-Won [School of Materials Science and Engineering, WCUNGB, RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, WCUNGB, RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yongku [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, WCUNGB, RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of) [School of Materials Science and Engineering, WCUNGB, RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, WCUNGB, RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, WCUNGB, RIGET, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Curved mesh generation and mesh refinement using Lagrangian solid mechanics  

SciTech Connect

We propose a method for generating well-shaped curved unstructured meshes using a nonlinear elasticity analogy. The geometry of the domain to be meshed is represented as an elastic solid. The undeformed geometry is the initial mesh of linear triangular or tetrahedral elements. The external loading results from prescribing a boundary displacement to be that of the curved geometry, and the final configuration is determined by solving for the equilibrium configuration. The deformations are represented using piecewise polynomials within each element of the original mesh. When the mesh is sufficiently fine to resolve the solid deformation, this method guarantees non-intersecting elements even for highly distorted or anisotropic initial meshes. We describe the method and the solution procedures, and we show a number of examples of two and three dimensional simplex meshes with curved boundaries. We also demonstrate how to use the technique for local refinement of non-curved meshes in the presence of curved boundaries.

Persson, P.-O.; Peraire, J.

2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

285

Japan still solid market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Japan still solid market ... Japan will continue to present a number of chemical marketing opportunities for U.S. companies, according to a study made for the U.S. Embassy in Tokyo. ... The share of imports of synthetic rubber in Japan's net supply has been dropping steadily since 1962, corresponding to rapidly rising local capacity. ...

1967-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

286

Thermionic converter temperature controller  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

287

Thermionic Converter Temperature Controller  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

Shaner,B. J.; Wolf, Joseph H.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

288

Ferroelectric tunneling element and memory applications which utilize the tunneling element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tunneling element includes a thin film layer of ferroelectric material and a pair of dissimilar electrically-conductive layers disposed on opposite sides of the ferroelectric layer. Because of the dissimilarity in composition or construction between the electrically-conductive layers, the electron transport behavior of the electrically-conductive layers is polarization dependent when the tunneling element is below the Curie temperature of the layer of ferroelectric material. The element can be used as a basis of compact 1R type non-volatile random access memory (RAM). The advantages include extremely simple architecture, ultimate scalability and fast access times generic for all ferroelectric memories.

Kalinin, Sergei V. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Christen, Hans M. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Baddorf, Arthur P. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Meunier, Vincent (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Lee, Ho Nyung (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

289

Thematic Questions about Chemical Elements Nature of the chemical elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Be Atomic No. 1 2 3 4 Isotopes 1,2,3 3,4 6,7 9,10 Name Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Symbol B C N O Atomic No Environment Element Synthesis: Exploration of Chemical Fundamentals Element Synthesis and Isotopes · Elemental Abundance and Isotopes · distribution of elements in the universe · factors that define elemental

Polly, David

290

Recovery of phosphates from elemental phosphorus bearing wastes  

SciTech Connect

A process for oxidizing aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues (sludges) to produce orthophosphate containing slurries suitable for subsequent reaction with ammonia to produce nitrogen and phosphate containing fertilizer products is presented. It comprises reacting aqueous elemental phosphorus containing residues with certain special mixtures of concentrated nitric acid and sulfuric acid to effect the conversion of the elemental phosphorus into mostly orthophosphoric acid and very little orthophosphorus acid with the relative ratios of the two acids being dependent upon the mole ratio of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}:HNO{sub 3} employed in the processing. The resulting aqueous reaction intermediate is neutralized with ammonia during processing to a fluid or solid fertilizer product. Prior to the conversion to products, the aqueous reaction intermediate may be subjected to a solids separation step to remove insoluble salts of certain environmentally undesirable metals, such as Pb, Cd, Ba, and Cr.

Edwards, R.E.; Moore, O.E.; Sullivan, J.M.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Thermodynamic analysis of interactions between Ni-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) anodes and trace species in a survey of coal syngas  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic analysis was conducted to characterize the effects of trace contaminants in syngas derived from coal gasification on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode material. The effluents from 15 different gasification facilities were considered to assess the impact of fuel composition on anode susceptibility to contamination. For each syngas case, the study considers the magnitude of contaminant exposure resulting from operation of a warm gas cleanup unit at two different temperatures and operation of a nickel-based SOFC at three different temperatures. Contaminant elements arsenic (As), phosphorous (P), and antimony (Sb) are predicted to be present in warm gas cleanup effluent and will interact with the nickel (Ni) components of a SOFC anode. Phosphorous is the trace element found in the largest concentration of the three contaminants and is potentially the most detrimental. Poisoning was found to depend on the composition of the syngas as well as system operating conditions. Results for all trace elements tended to show invariance with cleanup operating temperature, but results were sensitive to syngas bulk composition. Synthesis gas with high steam content tended to resist poisoning.

Andrew Martinez; Kirk Gerdes; Randall Gemmen; James Postona

2010-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

292

Element 103, Lawrencium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... formed on February 14 by bombarding 3 (Jigm. of californium (element 98) with boron-10 or boron-11 nuclei in a heavy-ion linear accelerator at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory ...

1961-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

293

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SOLID OXIDE PLANAR AND TUBULAR SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS Dynamic Simulation Approach Modular Approach · Parallel planes: PSOFC · Other: combustor, reformer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrochemistry Cell Reactions · Slow pressure transients #12;Fuel Cell Assumptions · H2 electrochemically oxidized only · CO consumed

Mease, Kenneth D.

294

ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion Transport in Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ReaxFF Reactive Force Field for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems with Application to Oxygen Ion through yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes. All parameters for Reax temperature, leading to applications as oxygen sensors and as membranes for high temperature solid oxide fuel

Goddard III, William A.

295

Solid-State Lighting: Contacts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contacts Contacts Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Contacts to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Contacts on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Contacts on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Contacts on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Contacts on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Contacts on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Contacts on AddThis.com... Contacts Web site and program contacts are provided below. Website Contact Send us your comments, report problems, and/or ask questions about information on this site. Program Contacts Contact information for the Solid-State Lighting Program. Contacts | Web Site Policies | U.S. Department of Energy | USA.gov Content Last Updated: 02/14

296

Delaware Solid Waste Authority (Delaware)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) runs three landfills, all of which recover methane and generate electricity with a total capacity of 24 MWs. The DSWA Solid Waste Plan includes goals,...

297

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT The behaviour of Rare-Earth Elements, Zr and Hf during biologically-mediated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT 1 The behaviour of Rare-Earth Elements, Zr and Hf during.a,b* , Cangemi M.a , Brusca L.c , Madonia P.c , Saiano F.d , Zuddas P.e a) Department of Earth and Marine at the solid-liquid interface influencing the distribution of trace elements onto microbial surfaces. Since

298

Temperature profile detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

Tokarz, R.D.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

299

Creep analysis of solid oxide fuel cell with bonded compliant seal design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) requires good sealant because it works in harsh conditions (high temperature, thermal cycle, oxidative and reducing gas environments). Bonded compliant seal (BCS) is a new sealing method for planar SOFC. It uses a thin foil metal to bond the window frame and cell, achieving the seal between window frame and cell. At high temperature, a comprehensive evaluation of its creep strength is essential for the adoption of BCS design. In order to characterize the creep behavior, the creep induced by thermal stresses in SOFC with BCS design is simulated by finite element method. The results show that the foil is compressed and large thermal stresses are generated. The initial peak thermal stress is located in the thin foil because the foil acts as a spring stores the thermal stresses by elastic and plastic deformation in itself. Serving at high temperature, initial thermal displacement is partially recovered because of the creep relaxation, which becomes a new discovered advantage for BCS design. It predicts that the failures are likely to happen in the middle of the cell edge and BNi-2 filler metal, because the maximum residual displacement and creep strain are located.

Wenchun Jiang; Yucai Zhang; Yun Luo; J.M. Gong; S.T. Tu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Coexistence of superfluid and solid helium in aerogel  

SciTech Connect

The results of recent neutron scattering studies of solid helium in silica aerogel are discussed. Previously I.V. Kalinin et al., Pis'ma Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 87 (1), 743 (2008) [JETP Lett. 87 (1), 645 (2008)], we detected the existence of a superfluid phase in solid helium at a temperature below 0.6 K and a pressure of 51 bar, although, according to the phase diagram, helium should be in the solid state under these conditions. This work is a continuation of the above studies whose main goal was to examine the detected phenomenon and to establish basic parameters of the existence of a superfluid phase. We have determined the temperature of the superfluid transition from solid to superfluid helium, T{sub C} = 1.3 K, by analyzing experimental data. The superfluid phase excitation parameters (lifetime, intensity, and energy) have a temperature dependence similar to that of bulk helium. The superfluid phase coexists with the solid phase in the entire measured temperature range from T = 0.05 K to T{sub C} and is a nonequilibrium one and disappears at T{sub C}.

Kalinin, I. V. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation); Kats, E. I.; Koza, M. [Institut Laue-Langevin (France); Lauter, V. V. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Lauter, H. [Institut Laue-Langevin (France); Puchkov, A. V., E-mail: puchkov@ippe.r [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (Russian Federation)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and High Temperature Transport Properties of p-type Cu2Zn1-xFexSnSe4  

SciTech Connect

Iron substituted Cu2Zn1-xFexSnSe4 stannites were synthesized by reaction of the constituent elements and subsequent solid state annealing, followed by densification by hot-pressing. The compositions for each specimen were confirmed with a combination of Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis. Refinement results indicated that only the 2a site was occupied by Zn and Fe. Their high temperature transport properties were measured from 300 to 800 K. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity decrease with increasing Fe content. For the lower Fe content specimens with x = 0.2 and 0.4, the electrical properties are strongly temperature dependent, unlike that of the higher Fe content specimens (x = 0.6 and 0.8). A maximum ZT value of 0.46 was obtained at 800 K for Cu2Zn0.4Fe0.6SnSe4.

Dong, Yongkwan [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF)] [University of South Florida, Tampa (USF); Wang, Hsin [ORNL] [ORNL; Nolas, George S. [University of South Florida] [University of South Florida

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Municipal Solid Waste:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contact This report was prepared by staff of the Renewable Information Team, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

303

journal Solid State Ionics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic Structural and transport properties of Nafion in hydrobromic acid solutions journal Solid State Ionics year month abstract p Proton exchange membranes are key solid state ion carriers in many relevant energy technologies including flow batteries fuel cells and solar fuel generators In many of these systems the membranes are in contact with electrolyte solutions In this paper we focus on the impact of different HBr a flow battery and exemplary acid electrolyte external concentrations on the conductivity of Nafion a perfluorosulfonic acid membrane that is commonly used in many energy related applications The peak and then decrease in conductivity is correlated with measured changes in the water and HBr content within the membrane In addition small angle x ray scattering is used to probe the nanostructure to

304

Solar solids reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Solar solids reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

Yudow, B.D.

1986-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

306

Characterization of electrodeposited elemental boron  

SciTech Connect

Elemental boron was produced through electrowinning from potassium fluoroborate dissolved in a mixture of molten potassium fluoride and potassium chloride. The characteristics of the electrodeposited boron (raw boron) as well as the water and acid-leached product (processed boron) were studied. The chemical purity, specific surface area, size distribution of particles and X-ray crystallite size of the boron powders were investigated. The morphology of the deposits was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chemical state of the matrix, as well as the impurity phases present in them, was established using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to interpret and understand the results obtained, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out. The gas-phase corrosion in the head space as well as the chemistry behind the leaching process were interpreted using this analysis. The ease of oxidation of these powders in air was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with thermogravimetry (TG). From the results obtained in this study it was established that elemental boron powder with a purity of 95-99% could be produced using a high temperature molten salt electrowinning process. The major impurities were found to be oxygen, carbon, iron and nickel.

Jain, Ashish [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Anthonysamy, S. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)], E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in; Ananthasivan, K.; Ranganathan, R. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Mittal, Vinit; Narasimhan, S.V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Division, BARC (F), Kalpakkam, 603102 (India); Vasudeva Rao, P.R. [Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 603102 (India)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

307

Sandia National Laboratories: CSP: ELEMENTS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CSP: ELEMENTS Sandia Researchers Win CSP:ELEMENTS Funding Award On June 4, 2014, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities,...

308

Elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved catalytic reduction process for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides combined high activity and selectivity for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over certain catalyst formulations based on cerium oxide. The process is a single-stage, catalytic sulfur recovery process in conjunction with regenerators, such as those used in dry, regenerative flue gas desulfurization or other processes, involving direct reduction of the SO[sub 2] in the regenerator off gas stream to elemental sulfur in the presence of a catalyst. 4 figures.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Zhicheng Hu.

1993-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

309

Plasma Nanoscience: from Nano-Solids in Plasmas to Nano-Plasmas in Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The unique plasma-specific features and physical phenomena in the organization of nanoscale solid-state systems in a broad range of elemental composition, structure, and dimensionality are critically reviewed. These effects lead to the possibility to localize and control energy and matter at nanoscales and to produce self-organized nano-solids with highly unusual and superior properties. A unifying conceptual framework based on the control of production, transport, and self-organization of precursor species is introduced and a variety of plasma-specific non-equilibrium and kinetics-driven phenomena across the many temporal and spatial scales is explained. When the plasma is localized to micrometer and nanometer dimensions, new emergent phenomena arise. The examples range from semiconducting quantum dots and nanowires, chirality control of single-walled carbon nanotubes, ultra-fine manipulation of graphenes, nano-diamond, and organic matter, to nano-plasma effects and nano-plasmas of different states of matter...

Ostrikov, K; Meyyappan, M

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Solid-State Lighting: Publications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Publications to someone by Publications to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Publications on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Publications on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Publications on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Publications on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Publications on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Publications on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications Postings Articles Program Fact Sheets Technology Fact Sheets CALiPER Reports GATEWAY Reports LED Lighting Facts Reports Project Reports Studies and Reports Technology Roadmaps Product Performance Guides Webcasts Videos Tools Publications The Solid-State Lighting (SSL) program produces a comprehensive portfolio of publications, ranging from overviews of the program's research

311

Solid-State Lighting: Presentations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Presentations to someone by Presentations to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Presentations on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Presentations on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Presentations on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Presentations on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Presentations on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Presentations on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools Presentations This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Solid-State Lighting Workshops, as well as links to reference materials. Some of the following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Adobe Reader. Workshop Presentations, Materials and Reports November 2013: Presentations from DOE SSL Market Introduction Workshop

312

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development  

SciTech Connect

Work performed during the period February 21, 2006 through August 21, 2006 is summarized herein. During this period, efforts were focused on 5 kWe bundle testing, development of on-cell reformation, the conceptual design of an advanced module, and the development of a manufacturing roadmap for cells and bundles. A 5 kWe SOFC system was built and delivered to the Pennsylvania State University; fabrication of a second 5 kWe SOFC for delivery to Montana State University was initiated. Cell testing and microstructural analysis in support of these efforts was also conducted.

Joseph F. Pierre

2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

313

High Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Generator Development  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of the tubular SOFC development program from August 22, 1997 to September 30, 2007 under the Siemens/U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement. The technical areas discussed include cell manufacturing development, cell power enhancement, SOFC module and system cost reduction and technology advancement, and our field unit test program. Whereas significant progress has been made toward commercialization, significant effort remains to achieve our cost, performance and reliability targets for successful commercialization.

Joseph Pierre

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

314

SAMARIUM-BASED INTERMEDIATE TEMPERATURE SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The development of electrochemical converters (i.e. fuel cells) has attracted research interest during the last decades due to an increasing concern on the depletion of (more)

Guzman Montanez, Felipe

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

316

Rare Earth Elements:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...were also extracted as by-products of uranium mining from conglomerates at Elliot Lake...toxic waste lakes, acrid air, and high cancer rates in the Bayan Obo area. The environmental...Major and trace element composition of the depleted MORB mantle (DMM). Earth and Planetary...

Anton R. Chakhmouradian; Frances Wall

317

Solid state radiative heat pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

Berdahl, P.H.

1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

318

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

Young, I.T.

1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

319

Solid state optical microscope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Design and optimization of solid thermal energy storage modules for solar thermal power plant applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solid sensible heat storage is an attractive option for high-temperature storage applications in terms of investment and maintenance costs. Typical solid thermal energy storage systems use a heat transfer fluid to exchange heat as the fluid flows through a tubular heat exchanger embedded in the solid storage material. The modified lumped capacitance method is used with an effective heat transfer coefficient in a simplified analysis of the heat transfer in solid thermal energy storage systems for a solid cylindrical heat storage unit. The analytical solution was found using the Laplace transform method. The solution was then used to develop an optimization method for designing solid storage modules which uses the system requirements (released energy and fluid outlet temperature) as the constraint conditions and the storage module cost as the objective function for the optimization. Optimized results are then given for many kinds of system configurations.

Yongfang Jian; Quentin Falcoz; Pierre Neveu; Fengwu Bai; Yan Wang; Zhifeng Wang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Solid Cold - E  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

worked as well as it did, even though it took no account of the yet-to-be-discovered energy quanta. For all but the lower temperatures, the quantum hypothesis leads to...

322

Durability Prediction of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode Material under Thermo-Mechanical and Fuel Gas Contaminants Effects  

SciTech Connect

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate under harsh environments, which cause deterioration of anode material properties and service life. In addition to electrochemical performance, structural integrity of the SOFC anode is essential for successful long-term operation. The SOFC anode is subjected to stresses at high temperature, thermal/redox cycles, and fuel gas contaminants effects during long-term operation. These mechanisms can alter the anode microstructure and affect its electrochemical and structural properties. In this research, anode material degradation mechanisms are briefly reviewed and an anode material durability model is developed and implemented in finite element analysis. The model takes into account thermo-mechanical and fuel gas contaminants degradation mechanisms for prediction of long-term structural integrity of the SOFC anode. The proposed model is validated experimentally using a NexTech ProbostatTM SOFC button cell test apparatus integrated with a Sagnac optical setup for simultaneously measuring electrochemical performance and in-situ anode surface deformation.

Iqbal, Gulfam; Guo, Hua; Kang , Bruce S.; Marina, Olga A.

2011-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

High temperature detonator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

325

Compacting Plastic-Bonded Explosive Molding Powders to Dense Solids  

SciTech Connect

Dense solid high explosives are made by compacting plastic-bonded explosive molding powders with high pressures and temperatures for extended periods of time. The density is influenced by manufacturing processes of the powders, compaction temperature, the magnitude of compaction pressure, pressure duration, and number of repeated applications of pressure. The internal density variation of compacted explosives depends on method of compaction and the material being compacted.

B. Olinger

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Measuring Evaporation Rates of Metal Compounds from Solid Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermogravimeter (TGA, Mettler-Toledo TGA/SDTA851e) was connected to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES, Varian Liberty 110) using a condensation interface (CI), which transforms gaseous high-boiling-temperature substances into solid (or liquid) aerosols. ... This project was financially supported as GRS-058/00 by Gebert Rf Foundation. ...

Christian Ludwig; Jrg Wochele; Urs Jrimann

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Deuteron spin-lattice relaxation for HD in solid argon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Measurements, using 55-MHz deuteron magnetic resonance (DMR), are reported of deuteron spin-lattice relaxation times for HD in solid argon at concentrations of 3001100 ppm over the temperature range of 1070 K. The relaxation times increase rapidly, from 10 to 4000 sec, as the temperature is reduced and are independent of the samples para-D2 concentration. Comparisons of deuteron spin-lattice relaxation times for HD in solid argon are made with previously reported relaxation times for solid HDn-D2 mixtures and for ortho-H2 and para-D2 in solid argon. The very different relaxation behavior for HD can be understood because it is an asymmetric molecule. The lack of exchange symmetry results in an increasing probability of the molecule being in a J=0 rotational state as the temperature is reduced. Nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in HD arises from phonon-induced ?mJ transitions for those molecules in the J=1 states. A theory is presented to calculate the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T1) in terms of a molecular decay rate (?) that arises from ?mJ or ?J transitions. The decay rate ? as a function of temperature is determined from the relaxation data. It is found that the asymmetric rotor HD molecules have a coupling to the lattice phonons that is much stronger than for ortho-H2 and para-D2.

Joseph Ganem; Peter A. Fedders; R. E. Norberg

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Element Crossword Puzzles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Crossword Puzzles Crossword Puzzles Welcome to It's Elemental - Element Crossword Puzzles! Use the clues provided to solve each crossword puzzle. To place letters on the puzzle, first select the clue you are answering from the pull-down menu and then enter your answer in the text box. Press the 'return' key on your keyboard when you are done. Correct letters will be green while incorrect letters will be red. Good luck and have fun! If you are reading this, your browser is NOT running JavaScript. JavaScript MUST be enabled for this section of our site to work. Once you have turned JavaScript on, reload this page and this warning will go away. Puzzle 1 - It's a Gas! Puzzle 2 - Easy Symbols Puzzle 3 - Strange Symbols Puzzle 4 - Known to the Ancients Puzzle 5 - The Alkali Metals

329

Functionally Graded Cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

One primary suspected cause of long-term performance degradation of solid oxide fuels (SOFCs) is the accumulation of chromium (Cr) species at or near the cathode/electrolyte interface due to reactive Cr molecules originating from Cr-containing components (such as the interconnect) in fuel cell stacks. To date, considerable efforts have been devoted to the characterization of cathodes exposed to Cr sources; however, little progress has been made because a detailed understanding of the chemistry and electrochemistry relevant to the Cr-poisoning processes is still lacking. This project applied multiple characterization methods - including various Raman spectroscopic techniques and various electrochemical performance measurement techniques - to elucidate and quantify the effect of Cr-related electrochemical degradation at the cathode/electrolyte interface. Using Raman microspectroscopy the identity and location of Cr contaminants (SrCrO{sub 4}, (Mn/Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel) have been observed in situ on an LSM cathode. These Cr contaminants were shown to form chemically (in the absence of current flowing through the cell) at temperatures as low as 625 C. While SrCrO{sub 4} and (Mn/Cr){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel must preferentially form on LSM, since the LSM supplies the Sr and Mn cations necessary for these compounds, LSM was also shown to be an active site for the deposition of Ag{sub 2}CrO{sub 4} for samples that also contained silver. In contrast, Pt and YSZ do not appear to be active for formation of Cr-containing phases. The work presented here supports the theory that Cr contamination is predominantly chemically-driven and that in order to minimize the effect, cathode materials should be chosen that are free of cations/elements that could preferentially react with chromium, including silver, strontium, and manganese.

Harry Abernathy; Meilin Liu

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Trace element partitioning between apatite and silicate melts Stefan Prowatke a,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). The experiments were conducted at pressures of 1.0 GPa and temperatures of 1250 °C. The rare earth elements (La polymerisation of the melt, apatite/melt partition coefficients for the rare earth elements increase for about occurring apatites contain large amounts of the rare earth elements and Sr, it has been well known

331

Simulation of creep and damage in the bonded compliant seal of planar solid oxide fuel cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) operates at high temperature and requires a good creep strength to ensure the structure integrity. This paper presents a creep and damage analysis of a bonded compliant seal (BCS) structure of a planar SOFC considering the effect of as-bonded residual stress and thermal stress, as well as the effect of filler metal and foil thickness. A modified continuum creep-damage model is used in the finite element simulation. It demonstrates that the BCS structure meets the requirement of the long-term operation at the high temperature of 600C with an appropriate braze bonding process. The results show that the failure location is not in the region of maximum creep deformation due to the effect of high level multi-axial stress which drastically decreases the multi-axial ductility. Reasonably reducing the thickness of filler metal and foil can decrease the damage of the BCS structure. Based on the consideration of creep and damage, it is proposed that the thickness of filler metal and foil should not exceed 0.1 and 0.05mm, respectively.

Yu-Cai Zhang; Wenchun Jiang; Shan-Tung Tu; Jian-Feng Wen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Spectroscopic, kinetic and dosimetric features of the radical species produced after radiodegradation of solid triclosan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present work, spectroscopic, kinetic and dosimetric features of the radicalic intermediates produced after gamma irradiation at room temperature of solid triclosan (2,4,4-trichloro-2-hydroxydiphenyl ether....

?lknur Ozkirim stnda?; Mustafa Korkmaz

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Study on gas hydrates for the solid transportation of natural gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas hydrate typically contains 85 wt.% water and 15 wt.% natural gas, and commonly belongs to cubic structure I...3 solid hydrate contains up to 200 m3 of natural gas depending on pressure and temperature...

Nam-Jin Kim; Chong-Bo Kim

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Post-test analysis of electrode-supported solid oxide electrolyser cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High temperature electrolysis (HTE) of steam is a very efficient power-to-gas process as long as waste heat is...1], the opposite direction of energy conversion than solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) do. In the last...

M. Al Daroukh; F. Tietz; D. Sebold; H. P. Buchkremer

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

The Oxidation of Ferritic Stainless Steels in Simulated Solid-Oxide Fuel-Cell Atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The cyclic oxidation of a variety of chromia-forming ferritic stainless steels has been studied in the temperature range 700900C in atmospheres relevant to solid-oxide fuel-cell operation. The most detriment...

J. E. Hammer; S. J. Laney; R. W. Jackson; K. Coyne; F. S. Pettit

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE 36 (2001) 1087 1091 Materials for high-temperature oxygen reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in solid oxide fuel cells A. J. MCEVOY Laboratory for Photonics and Interfaces, Department of Chemistry temperature fuel cell is advantageously an all- solid device, part of their system being an iron oxide cathode. In that selection they confronted the require- ments which necessarily define a suitable solid oxide fuel cell

Gleixner, Stacy

337

Signal transduction and conversion with color centers in diamond and piezo-elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to measure weak signals such as pressure, force, electric field, and temperature with nanoscale devices and high spatial resolution offers a wide range of applications in fundamental and applied sciences. Here we present a proposal for a hybrid device composed of thin film layers of diamond with color centers implanted and piezo-active elements for the transduction and measurement of a wide variety of physical signals. The magnetic response of a piezomagnetic layer to an external stress or a stress induced by the change of electric field and temperature is shown to affect significantly the spin properties of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond. Under ambient conditions, realistic environmental noise and material imperfections, our detailed numerical studies show that this hybrid device can achieve significant improvements in sensitivity over the pure diamond based approach in combination with nanometer scale spatial resolution. Beyond its applications in quantum sensing the proposed hybrid architecture offers novel possibilities for engineering strong coherent couplings between nanomechanical oscillator and solid state spin qubits.

Jianming Cai; Fedor Jelezko; Martin B. Plenio

2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 2. redox reaction kinetics and product characterization with coal, biomass, and solid waste as solid fuels and CuO as an oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of two on the investigation of the chemical looping combustion (CLC) of solid fuels. The first paper put forward the concept of the CLC of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed as a reactor and Cu-CuO as the oxygen carrier, which was based on an analysis of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, and chemical equilibrium. In this second paper, we report the results of the evaluation of the reduction of CuO reduced by solid fuels such as coal and some other 'opportunity' solid fuels. Tests on the reduction of CuO by the selected solid fuels were conducted using simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which simulates a microreactor. An attached mass spectrometer (MS) was used for the characterization of evolved gaseous products. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for the characterization of the solid residues. Results strongly supported the feasibility of CuO reduction by selected solid fuels. CuO can be fully converted into Cu in a reduction process, either in a direct path by solid fuels, which was verified by MS analysis under a N{sub 2} atmosphere, or in an indirect path by pyrolysis and gasification products of solid fuels in the reducer. No Cu{sub 2}O exists in reducing atmospheres, which was characterized by an XRD analysis and mass balance calculations. No carbon deposit was found on the surface of the reduced Cu, which was characterized by SEM analysis. CuO reduction by solid fuels can start at temperatures as low as approximately 500 C. Tests indicated that the solid fuels with higher reactivity (higher volatile matter) would be desirable for the development of the chemical looping combustion process of solid fuels, such as sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal and solid waste and biomass. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Yan Cao; Bianca Casenas; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

TRENDS: TEMPERATURE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Graphics Digital Data J.R. Petit, D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France J. Jouzel and G. Delaygue Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA/CNRS, L'Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France N.I. Barkov Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa Street 38, 199397 St. Petersburg, Russia V.M. Kotlyakov Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, per 29, Moscow 109017, Russia DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.006 Period of Record 420,000 years BP-present Methods Because isotopic fractions of the heavier oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation

340

Thermomechanical Cyclic Response of TiNiPd High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TiNiPd high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs) have attracted considerable attention as potential solid-state actuators capable of operating at temperatures up to 500 C, exhibiting excellent corrosion resistance, adequate ductility levels...

Atli, Kadri

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Recent developments in high-temperature photonic crystals for energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After decades of intense studies focused on cryogenic and room temperature nanophotonics, scientific interest is also growing in high-temperature nanophotonics aimed at solid-state energy conversion. These latest extensive ...

Rinnerbauer, Veronika

342

Plutonium and Other Transuranium Elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Glenn T. Seaborg has assisted at the birth of three of the four new transuranium elements. ... GLENN T. SEABORG ...

GLENN T. SEABORG

1947-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

343

Solid-State Lighting: 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2007 Solid-State Lighting 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools 2007 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Solid-State

344

Solid-State Lighting: 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2006 Solid-State Lighting 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools 2006 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Solid-State

345

Solid-State Lighting: 2012 DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program » Solid-State Lighting » Program » Solid-State Lighting » Information Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: 2012 DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2012 DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2012 DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2012 DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2012 DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2012 DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2012 DOE Solid-State

346

Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Solubilities of 21 Commonly Used Industrial Solid Compounds in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Solubilities of 21 Commonly Used Industrial Solid Compounds in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide ... Artificial neural networks are composed of simple elements working in a parallel computational strategy. ... These elements are inspired by biological nervous systems(36-40) and are called neurons. ...

Farhad Gharagheizi; Ali Eslamimanesh; Amir H. Mohammadi; Dominique Richon

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

347

Synthesis of reversible sequential elements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To construct a reversible sequential circuit, reversible sequential elements are required. This work presents novel designs of reversible sequential elements such as the D latch, JK latch, and T latch. Based on these reversible latches, we construct ... Keywords: Reversible logic, sequential circuits, sequential elements

Min-Lun Chuang; Chun-Yao Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Chemical characterization of element 112  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... directly comparing the adsorption characteristics of 283112 to that of mercury and the noble gas radon, we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike ... , we find that element 112 is very volatile and, unlike radon, reveals a metallic interaction with the gold surface. These adsorption characteristics establish element 112 ...

R. Eichler; N. V. Aksenov; A. V. Belozerov; G. A. Bozhikov; V. I. Chepigin; S. N. Dmitriev; R. Dressler; H. W. Gggeler; V. A. Gorshkov; F. Haenssler; M. G. Itkis; A. Laube; V. Ya. Lebedev; O. N. Malyshev; Yu. Ts. Oganessian; O. V. Petrushkin; D. Piguet; P. Rasmussen; S. V. Shishkin; A. V. Shutov; A. I. Svirikhin; E. E. Tereshatov; G. K. Vostokin; M. Wegrzecki; A. V. Yeremin

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

349

The CEBAF Element Database  

SciTech Connect

With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

WATEQ3 geochemical model: thermodynamic data for several additional solids  

SciTech Connect

Geochemical models such as WATEQ3 can be used to model the concentrations of water-soluble pollutants that may result from the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. However, for a model to competently deal with these water-soluble pollutants, an adequate thermodynamic data base must be provided that includes elements identified as important in modeling these pollutants. To this end, several minerals and related solid phases were identified that were absent from the thermodynamic data base of WATEQ3. In this study, the thermodynamic data for the identified solids were compiled and selected from several published tabulations of thermodynamic data. For these solids, an accepted Gibbs free energy of formation, ..delta..G/sup 0//sub f,298/, was selected for each solid phase based on the recentness of the tabulated data and on considerations of internal consistency with respect to both the published tabulations and the existing data in WATEQ3. For those solids not included in these published tabulations, Gibbs free energies of formation were calculated from published solubility data (e.g., lepidocrocite), or were estimated (e.g., nontronite) using a free-energy summation method described by Mattigod and Sposito (1978). The accepted or estimated free energies were then combined with internally consistent, ancillary thermodynamic data to calculate equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis reactions of these minerals and related solid phases. Including these values in the WATEQ3 data base increased the competency of this geochemical model in applications associated with the disposal of nuclear waste and retorted oil shale. Additional minerals and related solid phases that need to be added to the solubility submodel will be identified as modeling applications continue in these two programs.

Krupka, K.M.; Jenne, E.A.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

NA

2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

352

Rapid heating of solid density material by a petawatt laser  

SciTech Connect

Time-resolved x-ray spectra from solid targets irradiated by the VULCAN Petawatt laser focused to 10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2} show that material at solid density is heated to temperatures above 500 eV to a depth of about 15 {mu}m and for a duration of more than 30 ps. Modeling with the implicit hybrid plasma code LSP shows that the heating is sensitive to the laser prepulse through resistive inhibition of the laser accelerated electrons in the blow off layer.

Evans, R.G.; Clark, E.L.; Eagleton, R.T.; Dunne, A.M.; Edwards, R.D.; Garbett, W.J.; Goldsack, T.J.; James, S.; Smith, C.C.; Thomas, B.R.; Clarke, R.; Neely, D.J.; Rose, S.J. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Central LaserFacility, CCLRC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

2005-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

353

Coordination Chemistry in the Solid State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...February 1996 research-article Coordination Chemistry in the Solid State Peter G. Bruce Salts...form a vital bridge between coordination chemistry in solution and more classical solid-state chemistry. The solid coordination compounds are...

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

post-Doping of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes,? P.h.D.and V. I. Birss, in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC IX), S. C.Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes By Tal Zvi

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Mechanistic-Based Healing Model for Self-Healing Glass Seals Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The usage of self-healing glass as hermetic seals is a recent advancement in sealing technology development for the planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Because of its capability of restoring the mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, the self-healing glass seal is expected to provide high reliability in maintaining the long-term structural integrity and functionality of SOFCs. In order to accommodate the design and to evaluate the effectiveness of such engineering seals under various thermo-mechanical operating conditions, computational modeling framework needs to be developed to accurately capture and predict the healing behavior of the glass material. In the present work, a mechanistic-based two-stage model was developed to study the stress and temperature-dependent crack healing of the self-healing glass materials. The model was first calibrated by experimental measurements combined with the kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) simulation results and then implemented into the finite element analysis (FEA). The effects of various factors, i.e. stress, temperature, crack morphology, on the healing behavior of the glass were investigated and discussed.

Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Mastorakos, Ioannis; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Zbib, Hussein M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Stiffening solids with liquid inclusions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

From bone and wood to concrete and carbon fibre, composites are ubiquitous natural and engineering materials. Eshelby's inclusion theory describes how macroscopic stress fields couple to isolated microscopic inclusions, allowing prediction of a composite's bulk mechanical properties from a knowledge of its microstructure. It has been extended to describe a wide variety of phenomena from solid fracture to cell adhesion. Here, we show experimentally and theoretically that Eshelby's theory breaks down for small liquid inclusions in a soft solid. In this limit, an isolated droplet's deformation is strongly size-dependent with the smallest droplets mimicking the behaviour of solid inclusions. Furthermore, in opposition to the predictions of conventional composite theory, we find that finite concentrations of small liquid inclusions enhance the stiffness of soft solids. A straight-forward extension of Eshelby's theory, accounting for the surface tension of the solid-liquid interface, explains our experimental observations. The counterintuitive effect of liquid-stiffening of solids is expected whenever droplet radii are smaller than an elastocapillary length, given by the ratio of the surface tension to Young's modulus of the solid matrix.

Robert W. Style; Rostislav Boltyanskiy; Benjamin Allen; Katharine E. Jensen; Henry P. Foote; John S. Wettlaufer; Eric R. Dufresne

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

357

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 Ceramic solid electrolytes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER Solid State Ionics 94 (1997) 17-25 SOLID STATE IoMcs Ceramic solid electrolytes John B electrolytes are best suited for solid reactants, as are found in most battery systems. Ceramic solid 78712-106.3. USA Abstract Strategies for the design of ceramic solid electrolytes are reviewed. Problems

Gleixner, Stacy

358

Joint Institute for High Temperatures  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Joint Institute for High Temperatures of Russian Academy of Sciences Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology Extended title Extended title Excited state of warm dense matter or Exotic state of warm dense matter or Novel form of warm dense matter or New form of plasma Three sources of generation similarity: solid state density, two temperatures: electron temperature about tens eV, cold ions keep original crystallographic positions, but electron band structure and phonon dispersion are changed, transient but steady (quasi-stationary for a short time) state of non-equilibrium, uniform plasmas (no reference to non-ideality, both strongly and weakly coupled plasmas can be formed) spectral line spectra are emitted by ion cores embedded in plasma environment which influences the spectra strongly,

359

Evolution of optical properties of tin film from solid to liquid studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and ab initio calculation  

SciTech Connect

The temperature dependent optical properties of tin film from solid to liquid were studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The dielectric function of liquid Sn was different from solid, and an interband transition near 1.5?eV was easily observed in solid while it apparently disappeared upon melting. From the evolution of optical properties with temperature, an optical measurement to acquire the melting point by ellipsometry was presented. From first principles calculation, we show that the local structure difference in solid and liquid is responsible for this difference in the optical properties observed in experiment.

Zhang, D. X.; Shen, B.; Zheng, Y. X.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhang, J. B.; Yang, S. D.; Zhang, R. J.; Chen, L. Y.; Wang, C. Z.; Ho, K. M.

2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

360

Solid Waste Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode Island) Solid Waste Regulation No. 8 - Solid Waste Composting Facilities (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management Facilities which compost putrescible waste and/or leaf and yard waste are subject to these regulations. The regulations establish permitting, registration, and operational requirements for composting facilities. Operational requirements for putrescible waste facilities include siting, distance, and buffer requirements, as well as standards for avoiding harm to endangered species and contamination of air and water sources. Specific

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Cantilevered probe detector with piezoelectric element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A disclosed chemical detection system for detecting a target material, such as an explosive material, can include a cantilevered probe, a probe heater coupled to the cantilevered probe, and a piezoelectric element disposed on the cantilevered probe. The piezoelectric element can be configured as a detector and/or an actuator. Detection can include, for example, detecting a movement of the cantilevered probe or a property of the cantilevered probe. The movement or a change in the property of the cantilevered probe can occur, for example, by adsorption of the target material, desorption of the target material, reaction of the target material and/or phase change of the target material. Examples of detectable movements and properties include temperature shifts, impedance shifts, and resonant frequency shifts of the cantilevered probe. The overall chemical detection system can be incorporated, for example, into a handheld explosive material detection system.

Adams, Jesse D; Sulchek, Todd A; Feigin, Stuart C

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

362

Definition: Element | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Element Element Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Element Any electrical device with terminals that may be connected to other electrical devices such as a generator, transformer, circuit breaker, bus section, or transmission line. An element may be comprised of one or more components.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Electrical elements are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electrical components, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors, used in the analysis of electrical networks. Any electrical network can be analysed as multiple, interconnected electrical elements in a schematic diagram or circuit diagram, each of which affects the voltage in the network or current through the network. These ideal electrical elements represent real, physical electrical or electronic components but

363

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11 Solid-State Lighting R&D 11 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools 2011 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Materials

364

Solid-State Lighting: DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Solid-State Lighting DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop This page provides links to the presentations given at the 2009 DOE

365

Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2010 Solid-State Lighting 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools 2010 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials This page provides links to the presentations given at the Transformations

366

Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 Solid-State Lighting 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools 2009 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials This page provides links to the presentations given at the Transformations

367

Solid-State Lighting: 2008 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

08 Solid-State Lighting 08 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2008 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2008 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2008 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2008 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2008 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2008 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools 2008 Solid-State Lighting Workshop Materials This page provides links to the presentations given at the Transformations

368

Solid-State Lighting: 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools 2014 DOE Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop logo for Next Generation Lighting Industry Alliance

369

Solid-State Lighting: ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ENERGY STAR® Solid-State ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Tools ENERGY STAR® Solid-State Lighting Workshop Workshop Purpose: To prepare manufacturers for the launch of the ENERGY

370

Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a determinable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line. 4 figs.

Rauscher, C.

1987-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a variable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line.

Rauscher, Christen (Alexandria, VA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro-reformer and functional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro Micro-solid oxide fuel cell Thin films Butane reformation Chemical micro-reactors Thermally independent 2014 Accepted 8 February 2014 Available online xxx a b s t r a c t Low temperature micro-solid oxide

Daraio, Chiara

373

Solid-State Lighting: Financial Opportunities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Financial Financial Opportunities Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Financial Opportunities to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Financial Opportunities on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Financial Opportunities on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Financial Opportunities on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Financial Opportunities on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Financial Opportunities on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Financial Opportunities on AddThis.com... Current Opportunities DOE Selections Related Opportunities Financial Opportunities DOE financial opportunities for solid-state lighting (SSL) include competitive solicitations, grants, and other federal funding mechanisms to

374

low-solids oil emulsion (drilling) mud  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

low-solids oil emulsion (drilling) mud, low-solids oil-in-water (drilling) mud ? l-in-Wasser-(Bohr)...m, (f) mit geringem Feststoffanteil

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency, Events, News & Events, Solid-State Lighting The Solid-State Lighting Science (SSLS) Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC) Director, Dr. Michael E. Coltrin,...

376

Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSolidWaste&oldid...

377

100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) 100 MHz NMR Thorium (Solids) Research applications Samples containing paramagnetics Soils (SOM and NOM) Metal oxide materials for catalysis...

378

Magnetism of solid oxygen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic susceptibilities of single-crystal ?-O2 and preferentially oriented polycrystalline samples of ?-O2 and ?-O2 have been measured, employing a mutual-inductance bridge method. The susceptibility of paramagnetic ?-O2 is isotropic and exhibits a temperature dependence which is not strictly Curie-Weiss, due to short-range correlations and partially hindered rotation. The susceptibility of ?-O2 exhibits very little anisotropy, but has an unusual temperature dependence which is probably due to the novel behavior of the lattice constants, modulation of inplane and out-of-plane exchange interactions, and short-range order. The susceptibility of anti-ferromagnetic ?-O2 is anisotropic, and data from five differently oriented samples have been analyzed in terms of principal antiferromagnetic susceptibilities. The data are consistent with the assumption that the easy axis is the twofold axis, b??, though the direction a?? cannot be excluded. A comprehensive analysis of the present susceptibility results and other magnetic, spectroscopic, and thermal measurements is made, with special reference to ?-O2. The perpendicular susceptibility implies an unreasonably large Nel temperature, 211 K, and a correspondingly large intersublattice exchange interaction, |J2|k=19.8 K. The effects of anisotropy and zeropoint spin deviations do not reduce this estimate by more than 15%. The temperature dependence of the parallel susceptibility suggests a much smaller value for the effective exchange interaction, |J|k=5.3 K, and appears to be well accounted for assuming a single spin-wave excitation. Antiferromagnetic resonance frequencies are analyzed and shown to yield, on assuming a dominant anisotropy equal to that of the free molecule, |J2|k=4.3 K. An approximate separation of lattice and magnetic heat capacities is effected, and a value |J|k=3.0 K deduced. The data appear to require the assumption of two spin-wave modes. Except for the perpendicular susceptibility, experimental results suggest a Nel temperature between 30 and 40 K. Meanfield and other theories lead to similar estimates, assuming that |J|k is between 3 and 4 K. The effect of the anisotropy on TN is minor, and no significant spin-shortening effect is predicted. Other experimental results are considered, and a disparate set of estimates for the exchange interaction and zone-boundary spin-wave energies is discussed. Including the effects of intrasublattice exchange interactions within the context of a two-sublattice model does not seem sufficient to remove the various discrepancies. An approximate calculation of relative overlap integrals and exchange interactions between different pairs of molecules in ?-O2 is made. It is suggested that a multisublattice model for the magnetic structure, and possibly one involving noncollinear sublattices, may provide an eventual resolution of the various difficulties. A "quasi-two-dimensional" description of ?-O2 is also considered, but appears not to offer a satisfactory explanation of the unusual and imperfectly correlated properties of this phase.

Gary C. DeFotis

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Comments on "Electron band structure of solid methane: Ab initio calculations"  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A recent ab initio band-structure calculation by Piela et al. for solid methane is reviewed critically. The analysis used by Piela et al. to determine which contributions to the Fock matrix are large is shown to be in error. This error has the effect that Piela et al. neglect terms in the two-center matrix element which are large and easy to evaluate and retain terms in the one-center matrix element which are small and difficult to evaluate.

A. Barry Kunz

1974-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Solid Waste Management Rules (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These rules establish procedures and standards to protect public health and the environment by ensuring the safe, proper, and sustainable management of solid waste in Vermont. The rules apply to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Solid Solubility in Laser Cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser cladding techniques have recently enjoyed attention in preparing ... solid solution formed due to rapid cooling in laser cladding. This model considers a diffusion mechanism for ... one-dimensional semi-inf...

J. Mazumder; A. Kar

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Solid-State Lighting Webcasts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Below you'll find links to information about past webcast presentations related to solid-state lighting, including presentation slides and question-and-answer sessions, where available.

383

The Combustion of Solid Biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The combustion of solid biomass is covered in this chapter. This covers the general mechanism of combustion, moisture evaporation, devolatilisation, the combustion of the volatiles gases and tars and finally char...

Jenny M. Jones; Amanda R. Lea-Langton

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Not Available

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

THE NEW ELEMENT CALIFORNIUM (ATOMIC NUMBER 98)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shell, as occurs in rare earth elements at the point ofand homologous rare earth elements in high temperaturethe homologous rare earth elements. (2) Its distinctive high

Thompson, S.G.; Street, K.,Jr.; Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Beamline Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Temperatures Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 493.2242 mA Date: 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 493.2 mA 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 LN:MainTankLevel 124.4 in LN:MainTankPress 56.9 psi SPEAR-BL:B120HeFlow 15.4 l/min SPEAR-BL:B131HeFlow 22.2 l/min BL 4 BL02:LCW 0.0 ℃ BL02:M0_LCW 31.5 ℃ BL 4-1 BL04-1:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom1 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom2 47.0 ℃ BL04-1:Lower 32.0 ℃ BL04-1:Moly 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalA -167.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalB -172.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalA -177.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalB -175.0 ℃ BL 4-2 BL04-2:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom1 24.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom2 25.0 ℃

387

Enhanced nuclear polarization of D in solid HD  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear spin polarizations of D comparable to those of H in solid HD are achieved under conditions of extremely long H and D spin-lattice relaxation times such as are required for "frozen-spin" polarized targets. Standard steady-state dynamic polarization methods, spin mixing at low fields, and a new technique of adiabatic passage through "forbidden" transitions are employed. The requirements of strong magnetic fields, low temperature, and rapidity of spin-lattice relaxation rate, in order to obtain highly polarized deuterons in solid HD, become much less stringent than for the case of equilibrium D polarization, facilitating the utilization of solid-HD targets for polarized-D as well as polarized-H applications.

A. Honig and H. Mano

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Solid-State Lighting: The Seventh Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office » Solid-State Lighting » Information Office » Solid-State Lighting » Information Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: The Seventh Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: The Seventh Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: The Seventh Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Seventh Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Seventh Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: The Seventh Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Digg

389

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2011 Solid-State Lighting 2011 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings

390

Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Demonstration Results on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network Gateway Demonstrations FAQs Results

391

Solid-State Lighting: July 2008 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

July 2008 Solid-State Lighting July 2008 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: July 2008 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: July 2008 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: July 2008 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: July 2008 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: July 2008 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: July 2008 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on

392

Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D 2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on AddThis.com...

393

Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office » Solid-State Lighting » Information Office » Solid-State Lighting » Information Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market

394

Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts

395

Solid-State Lighting: DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Testing Program Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Testing Program Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Testing Program Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Testing Program Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Testing Program Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Testing Program Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Hosts Solid-State Lighting Commercial Product Testing Program Workshop on

396

Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting R&D Workshop Presentations and Materials on AddThis.com...

397

Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff to someone by Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Text-Alternative Version: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff on

398

Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Solid-State Lighting 1 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2011 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop Materials on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings

399

Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Municipal Solid-State Street Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast on AddThis.com... Conferences & Meetings

400

Solid-State Lighting: April 2007 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 2007 Solid-State Lighting April 2007 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: April 2007 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: April 2007 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: April 2007 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: April 2007 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: April 2007 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: April 2007 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Materials on

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Chicago Market Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Information Information Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Chicago Market Introduction Workshop Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Chicago Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Chicago Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Chicago Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Chicago Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State Lighting Chicago Market Introduction Workshop Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2009 Solid-State

402

Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Solid-State Lighting 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: 2013 Solid-State

403

Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Fleischhauer, Grier S. (Midlothian, VA); Hajaligol, Mohammad R. (Richmond, VA); Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton (Chesterfield, VA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Resistive hydrogen sensing element  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The reversibility of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), i.e. that they could also work in the solid oxide electrolyser1 REVERSIBLE SOLID OXIDE CELLS Mogens Mogensen1 , Søren Højgaard Jensen1,2 , Anne Hauch1,3 , Ib Chorkendorff2 and Torben Jacobsen3 1 Fuel Cell and Solid State Chemistry Department Risø National Laboratory

408

Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Performance and Durability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Title: Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Department: Fuel Cells and SolidSolid Oxide Electrolysis Cells ­ Performance and Durability Anne Hauch Risø-PhD-37(EN) Risø : Images from transmission electron microscopy investigation of the H2 electrode for the solid oxide cell

409

Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

Greenbaum, E.

1995-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

410

Dehydration of natural gas using solid desiccants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gas is an important source of primary energy that, under normal production conditions, is saturated with water vapor. Water vapor increases natural gases' corrosivity, especially when acid gases are present. Several methods can be used to dry natural gas and, in this paper, a solid desiccant dehydrator using silica gel is considered due to its ability to provide extremely low dew points. The design analysis of a two-tower, silica gel dehydration unit to dry one million standard m3 of natural gas per day is presented in this paper and the effects of various operating parameters on the design of the unit are discussed. The study also covers the analysis of energy requirements for the regeneration of the weak desiccant bed based on some simplified assumptions and it is found that the higher the regeneration temperature, the smaller are the required quantities of regeneration gas.

P Gandhidasan; Abdulghani A Al-Farayedhi; Ali A Al-Mubarak

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Solid Waste Management (Indiana) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Solid Waste Management (Indiana) Solid Waste Management (Indiana) Solid Waste Management (Indiana) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative State/Provincial Govt Utility Program Info State Indiana Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Association of Indiana Solid Wastes Districts Inc. The state supports the implementation of source reduction, recycling, and other alternative solid waste management practices over incineration and land disposal. The Indiana Department of Environmental Management and the Indiana Solid Waste Management Board are tasked with planning and adopting rules and regulations governing solid waste management practices. Provisions pertaining to landfill management and expansion, permitting,

412

The Periodic Table of Elements C  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atomic Number Chemical Symbol Atomic Weight Chemical Name = Solid at room temperature = Liquid at room temperature = Gas at room temperature = Radioactive = Artificially Made KEY METALS NON-METALS 12.011 http://education.jlab.org/ Last revised on April 3, 2013 [294] H Li Na K Be Mg Ca Sc Ti Rb Cs Fr Sr Y Ba Ra Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc Re Bh Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Cn Ga In Tl Uut Ge Sn Pb Fl As Sb Bi Uup Se Te Po Lv Br I At Uus Kr Xe Rn Uuo La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb Yb No Lu Lr B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne He Ar HYDROGEN LITHIUM SODIUM POTASSIUM BERYLLIUM MAGNESIUM CALCIUM SCANDIUM TITANIUM RUBIDIUM CESIUM FRANCIUM STRONTIUM YTTRIUM BARIUM RADIUM ZIRCONIUM HAFNIUM RUTHERFORDIUM VANADIUM NIOBIUM TANTALUM DUBNIUM CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM TUNGSTEN SEABORGIUM MANGANESE TECHNETIUM RHENIUM BOHRIUM IRON RUTHENIUM OSMIUM HASSIUM

413

The Periodic Table of Elements C  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

.011 .011 Atomic Number Chemical Symbol Atomic Weight Chemical Name = Solid at room temperature = Liquid at room temperature = Gas at room temperature = Radioactive = Artificially Made KEY METALS NON-METALS http://education.jlab.org/ Last revised on April 3, 2013 [294] H Li Na K Be Mg Ca Sc Ti Rb Cs Fr Sr Y Ba Ra Zr Hf Rf V Nb Ta Db Cr Mo W Sg Mn Tc Re Bh Fe Ru Os Hs Co Rh Ir Mt Ni Pd Pt Ds Cu Ag Au Rg Zn Cd Hg Cn Ga In Tl Uut Ge Sn Pb Fl As Sb Bi Uup Se Te Po Lv Br I At Uus Kr Xe Rn Uuo La Ac Ce Th Pr Pa Nd U Pm Np Sm Pu Eu Am Gd Cm Tb Bk Dy Cf Ho Es Er Fm Tm Md Yb Yb No Lu Lr B Al C Si N P O S F Cl Ne He Ar HYDROGEN LITHIUM SODIUM POTASSIUM BERYLLIUM MAGNESIUM CALCIUM SCANDIUM TITANIUM RUBIDIUM CESIUM FRANCIUM STRONTIUM YTTRIUM BARIUM RADIUM ZIRCONIUM HAFNIUM RUTHERFORDIUM VANADIUM NIOBIUM TANTALUM DUBNIUM CHROMIUM MOLYBDENUM TUNGSTEN SEABORGIUM MANGANESE TECHNETIUM RHENIUM BOHRIUM IRON RUTHENIUM OSMIUM HASSIUM COBALT

414

Solid fuel combustion system for gas turbine engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion system for a gas turbine engine includes a carbonizer outside of the engine for gasifying coal to a low Btu fuel gas in a first fraction of compressor discharge, a pressurized fluidized bed outside of the engine for combusting the char residue from the carbonizer in a second fraction of compressor discharge to produce low temperature vitiated air, and a fuel-rich, fuel-lean staged topping combustor inside the engine in a compressed air plenum thereof. Diversion of less than 100% of compressor discharge outside the engine minimizes the expense of fabricating and maintaining conduits for transferring high pressure and high temperature gas and incorporation of the topping combustor in the compressed air plenum of the engine minimizes the expense of modifying otherwise conventional gas turbine engines for solid fuel, pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

A Low Power Thyristor-Based CMOS Programmable Delay Element Junmou Zhang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

voltage to control the delay, exhibiting a low power supply noise sensitivity of 9.43% and a temperature. Simulation results show that the proposed delay element has a lower power supply and temperature sensitivity (¢ £ ¥ § © £ £ ) and is sensitive to power supply noise. Furthermore, the delay of an inverter chain is sensitive to temperature

Friedman, Eby G.

416

Electronic Structure of the Heaviest Elements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

well known grou~ 14 rare earth elements of atomic numbersproposed for the rare earth elements because these 14

Seaborg, G.T.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Temperature Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Polyelectrolyte Materials for High Polyelectrolyte Materials for High 3M (3M) Temperature Fuel Cells John B. Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Collaborators: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). February 13, 2007 This presentation does not contain any proprietary or confidential information Team Members: Nitash Blasara, Rachel Segalman, Adam Weber (LBNL). Bryan Pivovar, James Boncella (LANL) Steve Hamrock Objectives * Investigate the use of solid polyelectrolyte proton conductors that do not require the presence of water. * Prepare solid electrolytes where only the proton moves. - Measure conductivity, mechanical/thermal properties of Nafion® and other polyelectrolytes doped with imidazoles. Compare with water doped materials. - Covalently attach imidazoles to side chains of ionomers with

418

Recursion method for electronic structure calculations at nonzero temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recursion method for electronic structure calculations at nonzero temperature E. Lorin and G. Z. MSC : 41A35, 35P, 65Y. 1 Introduction The vast majority of calculation of electronic properties- tronic structure calculations of molecules or solids at a temperature T. The pro- posed method has

Lorin, Emmanuel

419

Negative Absolute Temperatures: "Hot" Spins in Spontaneous Magnetic Order  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...neously applicable in solids at ultra-low scale the temperatures...be car-and ultiried out at ultra-low temperatures. ipole and...stages are cooled to Ti = 15 mK by the dilution \\L refrigerator...from Tf = 200 puK toward Tf = 15 mK. A new experimental sequence...

Pertti Hakonen; Olli V. Lounasmaa

1994-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

420

Solid-State Lighting: The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Second Annual DOE The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: The Second Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing R&D Workshop on AddThis.com...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Solid-State Lighting: Meeting Materials from 2003 Solid-State Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting Materials from 2003 Meeting Materials from 2003 Solid-State Lighting Program Planning Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Meeting Materials from 2003 Solid-State Lighting Program Planning Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Meeting Materials from 2003 Solid-State Lighting Program Planning Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Meeting Materials from 2003 Solid-State Lighting Program Planning Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Meeting Materials from 2003 Solid-State Lighting Program Planning Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Meeting Materials from 2003 Solid-State Lighting Program Planning Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Meeting Materials from 2003 Solid-State Lighting Program Planning Workshop on AddThis.com...

422

Solid-State Lighting: The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Sixth Annual DOE The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: The Sixth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on AddThis.com...

423

Solid-State Lighting: The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Fifth Annual DOE The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: The Fifth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on AddThis.com...

424

Solid-State Lighting: The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Eighth Annual DOE The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: The Eighth Annual DOE Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop on AddThis.com...

425

Sierra/solid mechanics 4.22 user's guide.  

SciTech Connect

Sierra/SolidMechanics (Sierra/SM) is a Lagrangian, three-dimensional code for the analysis of solids and structures. It provides capabilities for explicit dynamic and implicit quasistatic and dynamic analyses. The explicit dynamics capabilities allow for the efficient and robust solution of models subjected to large, suddenly applied loads. For implicit problems, Sierra/SM uses a multi-level iterative solver, which enables it to effectively solve problems with large deformations, nonlinear material behavior, and contact. Sierra/SM has a versatile library of continuum and structural elements, and an extensive library of material models. The code is written for parallel computing environments, and it allows for scalable solutions of very large problems for both implicit and explicit analyses. It is built on the SIERRA Framework, which allows for coupling with other SIERRA mechanics codes. This document describes the functionality and input structure for Sierra/SM.

Thomas, Jesse David

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Magnetic Torque of Microfabricated Elements and Magnetotactic Bacteria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a thorough theoretical analysis of the magnetic torque on microfabricated elements with dimensions in the range of 100 to 500 {\\mu}m and magneto-somes of magnetotactic bacteria of a few {\\mu}m length. We derive simple equations for field dependent torque and magnetic shape anisotropy that can be readily used to replace the crude approximations commonly used. We illustrate and verify the theory on microfabricated elements and magnetotactic bacteria, by field depedent torque magnetometry and by observing their rotation in water under application of a rotating magnetic field. The maximum rotation frequency of the largest microfabricated elements agrees within error boundaries with theory. For smaller, and especially thinner, elements the measured frequencies are a factor of three to four too low. We suspect this is caused by incomplete saturation of the magnetisation in the elements, which is not incorporated in our model. The maximum rotation frequency of magnetotactic bacteria agrees with our model within error margins, which are however quite big due to the large spread in bacteria morphology. The model presented provides a solid basis for the analysis of experiments with magnetic objects in liquid, which is for instance the case in the field of medical microrobotics.

Lars Zondervan; zlem Sardan Sukas; Islam S. M. Khalil; Marc P. Pichel; Sarthak Misra; Leon Abelmann

2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

427

The Search for Heavy Elements  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

428

The Search for Heavy Elements  

SciTech Connect

The 1994 documentary "The Search for Heavy Elements" chronicles the expansion of the periodic table through the creation at Berkeley Lab of elements heavier than uranium. The documentary features a mix of rarely-seen archival footage, historical photos, and interviews with scientists who made history, such as Glenn Seaborg and Albert Ghiorso.

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

429

A method to characterise the volatile release of solid recovered fuels (SRF)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method was developed and successfully applied to characterise the de-volatilisation process of solid recovered fuels (SRF). Following the definitions of the European initiative on SRF standardisation CEN/TC 343, this kind of fuels have to be produced from non-hazardous bio-residues, mixed- and mono-waste streams, and they are designated to be used either in mono- or co-combustion processes. Consequently, SRF are in most cases heterogeneous fuel mixtures. The de-volatilisation process was identified as highly relevant due to the nature of fuel: most SRF components do not evolve a char comparable to coal. Furthermore, large particle sizes do not allow the application of common approaches to determine kinetic parameters. The method presented in this paper relies on thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). By successful combination with other well-established analytical procedures, the obtainable information towards the de-volatilisation process was largely improved. The method allows a quantification of energy and elemental distribution between volatiles and char during the de-volatilisation process in relation to the particle temperature. The data can be used to compare SRF or SRF components with other known fuels such as lignite and biomass. Moreover, the data is suitable as input data for combustion models. Focus of this paper is the analytical procedure including the required calculations. In addition, first results are presented and some ideas towards the use of the results are discussed.

Th. Hilber; M. Martensen; J. Maier; G. Scheffknecht

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Simulating Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Shape-Memory Alloy Microstructure by Face-Offsetting Method  

SciTech Connect

Advances in the understanding of martensitic transformations (diffusionless, solid-solid phase transformations) have been instrumental to the recent discovery of new low hysteresis alloys. However, some key fundamental issues must be better understood to design still better alloys. Restricting attention to antiplane shear, we use finite element analysis to model the shape-memory alloy microstructure within the Abeyaratne-Knowles continuum thermomechanical framework and use an interface kinetic relation of the kind proposed by Rosakis and Tsai. Geometric singularities and topological changes associated with microstructural evolution pose significant numerical challenges. We address such challenges with a recently developed front-tracking scheme called the face-offsetting method (FOM) to explicitly model phase interfaces. Initial results demonstrate the effectiveness of FOM in resolving needle-like twinned microstructures.

Bellur Ramaswamy, Ravi S.; Tortorelli, Daniel A. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Fried, Eliot [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Washington University, Campus Box 1185, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States); Jiao Xiangmin [Computational Science and Engineering Division, College of Computing, Georgia Institute of Technology, 801 Atlantic Drive, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Electrical contact structures for solid oxide electrolyte fuel cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrical output connection means is provided for a high temperature solid oxide electrolyte type fuel cell generator. The electrical connection of the fuel cell electrodes to the electrical output bus, which is brought through the generator housing to be connected to an electrical load line maintains a highly uniform temperature distribution. The electrical connection means includes an electrode bus which is spaced parallel to the output bus with a plurality of symmetrically spaced transversely extending conductors extending between the electrode bus and the output bus, with thermal insulation means provided about the transverse conductors between the spaced apart buses. Single or plural stages of the insulated transversely extending conductors can be provided within the high temperatures regions of the fuel cell generator to provide highly homogeneous temperature distribution over the contacting surfaces.

Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

The neutron-physical aspects of the converter reactor with single-element TFE. [ZrH; Be; Al; U  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a discussion of the main parameters of a thermionic converter reactor with zirconium hydride moderator using a single-element fuel element built into the core. Power distribution of the thermionic fuel element, reactivity changes with time, temperature effects and power density were investigated with Monte Carlo calculations. (AIP)

Glushkov, E.S.; Kompanietz, G.V.; Kosovskii, V.G.; Kukharkin, N.E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Smirnov, O.N.; Usov, V.A. (Khurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, USSR (US))

1991-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

433

Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

Capozzoli, Peter M

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Degradation mechanisms in La?.?Sr?.?CoO? as oxygen electrode bond layer in solid oxide electrolytic cells (SOECs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High temperature steam electrolysis is an efficient process and a promising technology to convert electricity and steam or a mixture of steam and CO?, into H? or syn-gas (H?2 + CO) respectively. It is carried out in Solid ...

Sharma, Vivek Inder

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Webcast: Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Retrofit Financial Analysis Tool on Digg

436

Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program » Solid-State Lighting » Program » Solid-State Lighting » Information Resources Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Hotel Information on AddThis.com... Home Conferences & Meetings Past Conferences Presentations Publications Webcasts Videos Hotel Information Wyndham Grand Pittsburgh, 600 Commonwealth Place, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 The Wyndham Grand Pittsburgh room block has expired; however,

437

Methods and apparatuses for making cathodes for high-temperature, rechargeable batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The approaches for fabricating cathodes can be adapted to improve control over cathode composition and to better accommodate batteries of any shape and their assembly. For example, a first solid having an alkali metal halide, a second solid having a transition metal, and a third solid having an alkali metal aluminum halide are combined into a mixture. The mixture can be heated in a vacuum to a temperature that is greater than or equal to the melting point of the third solid. When the third solid is substantially molten liquid, the mixture is compressed into a desired cathode shape and then cooled to solidify the mixture in the desired cathode shape.

Meinhardt, Kerry D; Sprenkle, Vincent L; Coffey, Gregory W

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

438

Terminological aspects of data elements  

SciTech Connect

The creation and display of data comprise a process that involves a sequence of steps requiring both semantic and systems analysis. An essential early step in this process is the choice, definition, and naming of data element concepts and is followed by the specification of other needed data element concept attributes. The attributes and the values of data element concept remain associated with them from their birth as a concept to a generic data element that serves as a template for final application. Terminology is, therefore, centrally important to the entire data creation process. Smooth mapping from natural language to a database is a critical aspect of database, and consequently, it requires terminology standardization from the outset of database work. In this paper the semantic aspects of data elements are analyzed and discussed. Seven kinds of data element concept information are considered and those that require terminological development and standardization are identified. The four terminological components of a data element are the hierarchical type of a concept, functional dependencies, schematas showing conceptual structures, and definition statements. These constitute the conventional role of terminology in database design. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Strehlow, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kenworthey, W.H. Jr. (Department of Defense, Washington, DC (United States)) [Department of Defense, Washington, DC (United States); Schuldt, R.E. (Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States)) [Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

The effect of palladium additions on the solidus/liquidus temperatures and wetting properties of Ag-CuO based air brazes  

SciTech Connect

A new ceramic brazing technique referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has recently been developed for potential applications in high temperature devices such as gas concentrators, solid oxide fuel cells, gas turbines, and combustion engines. At present, the technique utilizing a silver-copper oxide system is of great interest. The maximum operating temperature of this system is limited by its eutectic temperature of ~945C, although in practice the operating temperature will need to be lower. An obvious strategy that can be employed to increase the maximum operating temperature of the braze material is to add a higher melting noble alloying element. In this paper, we report the effects of palladium addition on the melting characteristics of the Ag-CuO system and on the wetting properties of the resulting braze with respect to alumina. It was found that the addition of Pd will cause an increase in the melting temperature of the Ag-CuO braze but possibly at a sacrifice of wetting properties depending on composition.

Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Long-term behavior of municipal solid waste landfills  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method is presented to predict the long-term behavior of element concentrations (non-metals and metals) in the leachate of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. It is based on water flux and concentration measurements in leachates over one year, analysis of drilled cores from MSW landfills and leaching experiments with these samples. A mathematical model is developed to predict the further evolution of annual flux-weighted mean element concentrations in leachates after the intensive reactor phase, i.e. after the gas production has dropped to a very low level. The results show that the organic components are the most important substances to control until the leachate is compatible with the environment. This state of low emissions, the so-called final storage quality, will take many centuries to be achieved in a moderate climate.

H. Belevi; P. Baccini

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature solid element" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Basic research for assessment of geologic nuclear waste repositories: What solubility and speciation studies of transuranium elements can tell us  

SciTech Connect

Solubility and speciation data are important in understanding aqueous radionuclide transport through the geosphere. They define the source term for transport retardation processes such as sorption and colloid formation. Solubility and speciation data are useful in verifying the validity of geochemical codes that are part of predictive transport models. Results from solubility and speciation experiments of {sup 237}NpO{sub 2} {sup +}, {sup 239}Pu{sup 4+}, and {sup 241}Am{sup 3+}/Nd{sup 3+} in J-13 groundwater (from the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada, which is being investigated as a candidate high-level nuclear waste disposal site) at three different temperatures (25{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 90{degrees}C) and pH values (6, 7, and 8.5) are presented and compared with published modeling calculations. The comparison results indicate that there is a great need for experimental data on the solubility and speciation of transuranium elements under a wide range of conditions, for example, pH, Eh, temperature, and composition of groundwaters. Additionally, the influence of alpha radiation and the radiolysis of the secondary transuranium solids on solubility and speciation should be studies. Solubility studies and model calculations should be extended to other important long-lived nuclear waste radionuclides such as nickel, zirconium, cadmium, radium, and thorium. 14 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Nitsche, H.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Solid-state radioluminescent compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Solid colloidal optical wavelength filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid colloidal optical wavelength filter includes a suspension of spheal particles dispersed in a coagulable medium such as a setting plastic. The filter is formed by suspending spherical particles in a coagulable medium; agitating the particles and coagulable medium to produce an emulsion of particles suspended in the coagulable medium; and allowing the coagulable medium and suspended emulsion of particles to cool.

Alvarez, Joseph L. (Boulder, CO)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

CHEMISTRY AND THE SOLID EARTH  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CHEMISTRY AND THE SOLID EARTH ... By now, he has almost completely filled the blackboard, as he keeps up a steady drumfire of excited talk of the latest findings in geochemistry and geophysicstouching on everything from the origin of the solar system to the chemical nature of the earth's core to the enigmatic structure of the Mohorovi?i? discontinuity. ...

HOWARD J. SANDERS

1967-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

445

Solid oxide fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

1993-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

446

Nanostructured Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Electrodes  

SciTech Connect

The ability of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to directly and efficiently convert the chemical energy in hydrocarbon fuels to electricity places the technology in a unique and exciting position to play a significant role in the clean energy revolution. In order to make SOFC technology cost competitive with existing technologies, the operating temperatures have been decreased to the range where costly ceramic components may be substituted with inexpensive metal components within the cell and stack design. However, a number of issues have arisen due to this decrease in temperature: decreased electrolyte ionic conductivity, cathode reaction rate limitations, and a decrease in anode contaminant tolerance. While the decrease in electrolyte ionic conductivities has been countered by decreasing the electrolyte thickness, the electrode limitations have remained a more difficult problem. Nanostructuring SOFC electrodes addresses the major electrode issues. The infiltration method used in this dissertation to produce nanostructure SOFC electrodes creates a connected network of nanoparticles; since the method allows for the incorporation of the nanoparticles after electrode backbone formation, previously incompatible advanced electrocatalysts can be infiltrated providing electronic conductivity and electrocatalysis within well-formed electrolyte backbones. Furthermore, the method is used to significantly enhance the conventional electrode design by adding secondary electrocatalysts. Performance enhancement and improved anode contamination tolerance are demonstrated in each of the electrodes. Additionally, cell processing and the infiltration method developed in conjunction with this dissertation are reviewed.

Sholklapper, Tal Zvi

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700 C and 1,100 C. 8 figs.

McPheeters, C.C.; Mrazek, F.C.

1988-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

448

Solid oxide fuel cell with monolithic core  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid oxide fuel cell in which fuel and oxidant gases undergo an electrochemical reaction to produce an electrical output includes a monolithic core comprised of a corrugated conductive sheet disposed between upper and lower generally flat sheets. The corrugated sheet includes a plurality of spaced, parallel, elongated slots which form a series of closed, linear, first upper and second lower gas flow channels with the upper and lower sheets within which a fuel gas and an oxidant gas respectively flow. Facing ends of the fuel cell are generally V-shaped and provide for fuel and oxidant gas inlet and outlet flow, respectively, and include inlet and outlet gas flow channels which are continuous with the aforementioned upper fuel gas and lower oxidant gas flow channels. The upper and lower flat sheets and the intermediate corrugated sheet are preferably comprised of ceramic materials and are securely coupled together such as by assembly in the green state and sintering together during firing at high temperatures. A potential difference across the fuel cell, or across a stacked array of similar fuel cells, is generated when an oxidant gas such as air and a fuel such as hydrogen gas is directed through the fuel cell at high temperatures, e.g., between 700.degree. C. and 1100.degree. C.

McPheeters, Charles C. (Plainfield, IL); Mrazek, Franklin C. (Hickory Hills, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

450

Magnetic Phase Transition in a Nanonetwork of Solid He3 in Aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When immersed in liquid He3, the nanometer strands of aerogel are coated with a thin layer of solid He3, forming a network of irregular nanotubes. Owing to its high purity and weak interactions, this system is ideal for studying fundamental processes. We report the first experiments on solid He3 in aerogel at ultralow temperatures, cooled by direct adiabatic demagnetization. Simultaneous nuclear magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity measurements indicate a magnetic phase transition.

D. I. Bradley; S. N. Fisher; A. M. Gunault; R. P. Haley; N. Mulders; G. R. Pickett; D. Potts; P. Skyba; J. Smith; V. Tsepelin; R. C. V. Whitehead

2010-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

451

Elemental ABAREX -- a user's manual.  

SciTech Connect

ELEMENTAL ABAREX is an extended version of the spherical optical-statistical model code ABAREX, designed for the interpretation of neutron interactions with elemental targets consisting of up to ten isotopes. The contributions from each of the isotopes of the element are explicitly dealt with, and combined for comparison with the elemental observables. Calculations and statistical fitting of experimental data are considered. The code is written in FORTRAN-77 and arranged for use on the IBM-compatible personal computer (PC), but it should operate effectively on a number of other systems, particularly VAX/VMS and IBM work stations. Effort is taken to make the code user friendly. With this document a reasonably skilled individual should become fluent with the use of the code in a brief period of time.

Smith, A.B.

1999-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

452

The Platinum-Group Elements:  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...higher Pt emissions have been measured for diesel catalysts (Moldovan et al. 2002...1031-1036 Johnson Matthey (2007) Market Data Tables. Online information www...platinum-group elements released from gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters. Science...

Sebastien Rauch; Gregory M. Morrison

453

Canonical elements for collision orbits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I derive a set of canonical elements that are useful for collision orbits (perihelion distance approaching zero at fixed semimajor axis). The coordinates are the mean anomaly and the two spherical polar angles at aphelion.

Scott Tremaine

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

454

Environmental research on actinide elements  

SciTech Connect

The papers synthesize the results of research sponsored by DOE's Office of Health and Environmental Research on the behavior of transuranic and actinide elements in the environment. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 21 individual papers. (ACR)

Pinder, J.E. III; Alberts, J.J.; McLeod, K.W.; Schreckhise, R.G. (eds.)

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

linear-elements-code.scm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(o Linear-finite-element-operator)) ;; initialize various fields that depend on the space ;; if coefficients is not defined, we set it to arrays of floating-point ;; zeros...

456

American Elements | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Elements Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90024 Product: US-based manufacturer and supplier of PV feedstocks such as silicon, CIS, CIGS-based and Gallium-based materials....

457

A Peltier cooling system for SiPM temperature stabilization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Peltier cooling system for SiPM temperature stabilization von Simon Nieswand Bachelorarbeit au?en thermisch isolierten Kupferblockes einzulassen, an welchen ein Peltier-Element angebracht wird. Um das System zu automatisieren, werden der Temperatursensor und die Stromquelle des Peltier- Elements

Hebbeker, Thomas

458

Tailoring Magnetic Properties in Bulk Nanostructured Solids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

9 2.2.2: Rare earth elements and dysprosium oxide (Dy 2 Ooxide structures. The rare earth elements Dy, Tb, and Ho are0K [22]. 2.2.2: Rare earth elements and dysprosium oxide (Dy

Morales, Jason R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Market-Based Programs Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: Design Competitions on AddThis.com... LED Lighting Facts CALiPER Program Standards Development Technical Information Network Gateway Demonstrations Municipal Consortium Design Competitions Design Competitions National design competitions heighten awareness and market adoption of high-performance solid-state lighting products.

460

Solid-State Lighting: DOE Selections  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Financial Financial Opportunities Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Solid-State Lighting: DOE Selections to someone by E-mail Share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Selections on Facebook Tweet about Solid-State Lighting: DOE Selections on Twitter Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Selections on Google Bookmark Solid-State Lighting: DOE Selections on Delicious Rank Solid-State Lighting: DOE Selections on Digg Find More places to share Solid-State Lighting: DOE Selections on AddThis.com... Current Opportunities DOE Selections Related Opportunities DOE Selections The U.S. Department of Energy awards research grants targeting advances in solid-state lighting. The following links provide information on the recipients of these grants and summaries of the research projects they are