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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Uncertainties of Derived Dewpoint Temperature and Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an evaluation of derived dewpoint temperature and derived relative humidity, in which the dewpoint temperature is calculated using measured ambient air temperature and measured relative humidity variables and the derived ...

X. Lin; K. G. Hubbard

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Wet-Bulb Temperature from Relative Humidity and Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An equation is presented for wet-bulb temperature as a function of air temperature and relative humidity at standard sea level pressure. It was found as an empirical fit using gene-expression programming. This equation is valid for relative ...

Roland Stull

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Vertical Correlation Functions for Temperature and Relative Humidity Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article gives the details and results of an investigation into the properties of the temperature and relative humidity errors from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System for a 4-month period from March to June 1998. The ...

Richard Franke; Edward Barker

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

The Temperature and Relative Humidity Control in Cushing Library  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cushing Library located on TAMU campus is a special building, which needs precise temperature and relative humidity control, because it stores a number of rare collections and memorial books. There are five air-handling units (AHUs) serving the building. This paper will concentrate the unit, which serves the book stacks. This AHU is a multiple zone, constant air volume (MZCAV) system, with reheat and direct digital control (DDC). It has a standard cooling coil, glycol cooling coil, steam humidifier, and heat recovery. The chilled water to the standard cooling coil is served by the chilled water loop on the campus. There is a glycol chiller for the glycol cooling coil for added dehumidification ability. Because of programming problems and hardware problems, the relative humidity was not controlling properly. In this paper, the new control program for temperature and relative humidity control is implemented and the energy savings from the new control program is estimated. The temperature and relative humidity are now under control.

Liu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H., Jr.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

A Note on Temperature and Relative Humidity Corrections for Humidity Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A widely used relative humidity (RH) sensor in atmospheric science is based upon a capacitive device that outputs voltage as a linear function of RH and then is corrected by an empirically determined polynomial expression, which is only a ...

Rex J. Fleming

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Automated Temperature and Relative Humidity Calibrations for the Oklahoma Mesonetwork  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low-cost (under $12,000), fully automated, relative humidity calibration chamber capable of testing up to six probes simultaneously over a range of humidifies from 5% to approximately 95% is designed, constructed, and tested for use by the ...

Scott J. Richardson

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Characterization and Correction of Relative Humidity Measurements from Vaisala RS80-A Radiosondes at Cold Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiosonde relative humidity (RH) measurements are known to be unreliable at cold temperatures. This study characterizes radiosonde RH measurements from Vaisala RS80-A thin-film capacitive sensors in the temperature range 0° to ?70°C. Sources of ...

Larry M. Miloshevich; Holger Vömel; Ari Paukkunen; Andrew J. Heymsfield; Samuel J. Oltmans

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Response of bean and tobacco to ozone: effect of light intensity, temperature and relative humidity  

SciTech Connect

Pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) and Bel W/sub 3/ tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, L.) were grown and exposed to 40 pphm ozone for 1 hr under a range of light intensities, temperatures, and relative humidities. Foliar injury to the more sensitive plant leaves was determined on the third day after exposure. Each atmospheric factor was independently assessed. Two significant three-way interactions were found: exposure light intensity by growth light intensity by species, and growth temperature by exposure temperarture by species. Three significant two-way interactions were found for humidity: growth humidity by exposure humidity, growth humidity by species, and exposure humidity by species. The sensitivity of each species to ozone changed with changes in each environmental condition.

Dunning, J.A.; Heck, W.W.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Binary homogeneous nucleation: Temperature and relative humidity fluctuations and non-linearity  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses binary homogeneous nucleation involving H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] and water vapor is thought to be the primary mechanism for new particle formation in the marine boundary layer. Temperature, relative humidity, and partial pressure of H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] vapor are the most important parameters in fixing the binary homogeneous nucleation rate in the H[sub 2]SO[sub 4]/H[sub 2]O system. The combination of thermodynamic calculations and laboratory experiments indicates that this rate varies roughly as the tenth power of the saturation ratio of H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] vapor. Furthermore, the vapor pressure of H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] is a function of temperature, and similar dependencies of the binary homogeneous nucleation rate on relative humidity can be noted as well. These factors thus introduce strong non-linearities into the system, and fluctuations of temperature, relative humidity, and H[sub 2]SO[sub 4] vapor concentrations about mean values may strongly influence the nucleation rate measured in the atmosphere.

Easter, R.C. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Peters, L.K. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Binary homogeneous nucleation: Temperature and relative humidity fluctuations and non-linearity  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses binary homogeneous nucleation involving H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and water vapor is thought to be the primary mechanism for new particle formation in the marine boundary layer. Temperature, relative humidity, and partial pressure of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} vapor are the most important parameters in fixing the binary homogeneous nucleation rate in the H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O system. The combination of thermodynamic calculations and laboratory experiments indicates that this rate varies roughly as the tenth power of the saturation ratio of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} vapor. Furthermore, the vapor pressure of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} is a function of temperature, and similar dependencies of the binary homogeneous nucleation rate on relative humidity can be noted as well. These factors thus introduce strong non-linearities into the system, and fluctuations of temperature, relative humidity, and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} vapor concentrations about mean values may strongly influence the nucleation rate measured in the atmosphere.

Easter, R.C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Peters, L.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

SRNL PHASE II SHELF LIFE STUDIES - SERIES 1 ROOM TEMPERATURE AND HIGH RELATIVE HUMIDITY  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Phase II, Series 1 shelf-life corrosion testing for the Department of Energy Standard 3013 container is presented and discussed in terms of the localized corrosion behavior of Type 304 stainless steel in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures and the potential impact to the 3013 inner container. This testing was designed to address the influence of temperature, salt composition, initial salt moisture, residual stress and type of oxide/salt contact on the relative humidity inside a 3013 container and the initiation and propagation of localized corrosion, especially stress corrosion cracking. The integrated plan is being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory and SRNL. SRNL is responsible for conducting a corrosion study in small scale vessels containing plutonium oxide and chloride salts under conditions of humidity, temperature and oxide/salt compositions both within the limits of 3013 storage conditions as well as beyond the 3013 storage requirements to identify margins for minimizing the initiation of stress corrosion cracking. These worst case conditions provide data that bound the material packaged in 3013 containers. Phase I of this testing was completed in 2010. The Phase II, Series 1 testing was performed to verify previous results from Phase I testing and extend our understanding about the initiation of stress corrosion cracking and pitting that occur in 304L under conditions of room temperature, high humidity, and a specific plutonium oxide/salt chemistry. These results will aid in bounding the safe storage conditions of plutonium oxides in 3013 containers. A substantial change in the testing was the addition of the capability to monitor relative humidity during test exposure. The results show that under conditions of high initial moisture ({approx}0.5 wt%) and room temperature stress corrosion cracking occurred in 304L teardrop coupons in contact with the oxide/salt mixture at times as short as 85 days. In all cases, the cracking appeared to be associated with pitting or localized general corrosion. Crack initiation at other sites, such as surface imperfections or inclusions, cannot be excluded. Cracks appear in most cases to initiate through an intergranular mode and transition to a transgranular mode.

Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

12

Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

13

Surface Temperature Humidity Reference System Handbook - November 2005  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Temperature and Humidity Reference (SURTHREF) system is intended to provide accurate reference values of ambient temperature and relative humidity for comparison with radiosonde prelaunch values.

MT Ritsche

2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

14

Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

An update is given on the work of the PV Quality Assurance Task Force; Group 3: studying the effects of humidity, temperature, and voltage bias.

Wohlgemuth, J.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Moisture Advection Using Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study introduces a moisture advection formulation that contains relative humidity. In the sigma coordinate system, rewriting the mixing ratio conservation equation in terms of relative humidity leads to an equation that explicitly contains ...

William H. Raymond

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

The Relationship between Relative Humidity and the Dewpoint Temperature in Moist Air: A Simple Conversion and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative humidity (RH) and the dewpoint temperature (td) are two widely used indicators of the amount of moisture in air. The exact conversion from RH to td, as well as highly accurate approximations, are too complex to be done easily without ...

Mark G. Lawrence

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

relative humidity | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

relative humidity relative humidity Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Relative Humidity at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Relative Humidity at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords climate GIS NASA relative humidity SWERA UNEP

18

Dual flow--temperature--humidity control system operating manual  

SciTech Connect

The manual contains operating, maintenance, and troubleshooting procedures for a dual flow--temperature--humidity control system used at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to prepare test atmospheres for industrial hygiene and air pollution studies. The system consists of two basic components: a commercially available temperature/humidity indicator unit and a specially built dual flow--temperature--humidity control module that provides two air sources controlled at the same conditions of flow, temperature, and relative humidity.

Nelson, G.O.; Taylor, R.D.

1978-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Diurnally Asymmetric Trends of Temperature, Humidity, and Precipitation in Taiwan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, 45 years (1961–2005) of hourly meteorological data in Taiwan, including temperature, humidity, and precipitation, have been analyzed with emphasis on their diurnal asymmetries. A long-term decreasing trend for relative humidity (RH) ...

Chein-Jung Shiu; Shaw Chen Liu; Jen-Ping Chen

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Subsurface monitoring of reservoir pressure, temperature, relative humidity, and water content at the CAES Field Experiment, Pittsfield, Illinois: system design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This subsurface-instrumentation design has been developed for the first Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) field experiment to be performed in porous media. Energy storage will be accomplished by alternating the injection and withdrawal of compressed air in a confined sandstone aquifer near Pittsfield, Illinois. The overall experiment objective is to characterize the reservoir's geochemical and thermohydraulic response to imposed CAES conditions. Specific experiment objectives require monitoring: air-bubble development; thermal development; cyclic pressure response; reservoir dehydration; and water coning. Supporting these objectives, four parameters will be continuously monitored at depth in the reservoir. They are: temperature; pressure; pore-air relative humidity; and pore-water content. Reservoir temperatures and pressures will range to maximum values approaching 200/sup 0/C and 300 psi, respectively. Both pore-air relative humidity and pore-water content will range from approx. 0 to 100%. This report discusses: instrumentation design; sensor and sensor system calibration; field installation and testing; and instrument-system operation. No comprehensive off-the-shelf instrument package exists to adequately monitor CAES reservoir parameters at depth. The best available sensors were selected and adapted for use under expected ranges of reservoir conditions. The instrumentation design criteria required: suitable sensor accuracy; continuous monitoring capability; redundancy; maximum sensor integrity; contingency planning; and minimum cost-information ratio. Three wells will be instrumented: the injection/withdrawal (I/W) well and the two instrument wells. Sensors will be deployed by wireline suspension in both open and backfilled (with sand) wellbores. The sensors deployed in the I/W well will be retrievable; the instrument-well sensors will not.

Hostetler, D.D.; Childs, S.W.; Phillips, S.J.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Automated flow-temperature-humidity control system  

SciTech Connect

An automated system that controls air flow, temperature, and humidity was developed from a commercially available temperature-humidity indicator and a specially built flow-temperature-humidity control module. Parameters are set using direct-reading dials on the control module. The air flow is maintained using a mass-flow controller while process controllers connected to the indicator regulate humidity and temperature. The system will run indefinitely without need for operator intervention. If the module and indicator are calibrated properly, accurate air flows (+-2% of full scale), temperatures (+-0.3/sup 0/C), and humidities (+-2% RH) can be achieved.

Nelson, G.O.; Taylor, R.D.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Group 3: Humidity, Temperature, and Voltage (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

Wohlgemuth, J.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The General Circulation and Robust Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensitivity of free-tropospheric relative humidity to cloud microphysics and dynamics is explored using a simple 2D humidity model and various configurations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Atmosphere Model ...

S. C. Sherwood; C. L. Meyer

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Humidity-temperature relationships in the tropical troposphere  

SciTech Connect

Based on the observed interannual variations of water vapor and temperature over the past 26 years the authors have examined the relationship between the variations of water vapor and temperature in the tropical troposphere. In both the lower and upper troposphere, tropical mean specific humidity increases with temperature. The rate of fractional increase of specific humidity with temperature at 500 mb is as large as that in the surface boundary layer. However, the rate of fractional increase of specific humidity with temperature is significantly smaller than that given by a model with a fixed relative humidity, particularly in the region immediately above the tropical convective boundary layer. The variations of tropical mean relative humidity show consistently a negative correlation with the temperature variations. The authors have further compared the spatial structure of the specific humidity variations with that of the temperature variations. Though the vertical structure of tropical mean specific humidity has more variability than that of the tropical mean temperature, the leading EOF for the normalized specific humidity variations is almost exactly the same as the leading EOF for the normalized temperature variations. The characteristic horizontal structure of the specific humidity variations at levels in the free troposphere, however, is very different from that of the temperature variations. The leading EOF for the normalized specific humidty variations at levels in the free troposphere is characterized by regions with alternating positive and negative signs, while the leading EOF for the corresponding temperature variations has a single sign throughout the Tropics. When the variations are averaged zonally, the leading EOF for the normalized specific humidity variations still differs significantly from that of the normalized temperature variations, but the leading EOF has the same sign from the deep Tropics to the subtropics. 31 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Sun, D.Z. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Oort, A.H. [NOAA, Princeton, NJ (United States)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Threshold Relative Humidity Duration Forecasts for Plant Disease Prediction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Duration of high relative humidity periods is an important component of many plant disease development models. Performance of forecasts of this quantity, based on the model output statistics 3-h temperature and dewpoint forecasts produced by the ...

Daniel S. Wilks; Karin W. Shen

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Relative Humidity in Liquid, Mixed-Phase, and Ice Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The results of in situ observations of the relative humidity in liquid, mixed, and ice clouds typically stratiform in nature and associated with mesoscale frontal systems at temperatures ?45°C < Ta < ?5°C are presented. The data were collected ...

Alexei Korolev; George A. Isaac

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Group 3: Humidity, Temperature and Voltage (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This is a summary of the work of Group 3 of the International PV QA Task Force. Group 3 is chartered to develop accelerated stress tests that can be used as comparative predictors of module lifetime versus stresses associated with humidity, temperature and voltage.

Wohlgemuth, J.

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

The Climatology of Relative Humidity in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present paper deals with the analysis of the time-average relative humidity fields in the atmosphere. Twice-daily estimates of relative humidity are used.

JoséP. Peixoto; Abraham H. Oort

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASASSE

(Abstract):  
Relative Humidity at 10 m...

30

A Method for Rescaling Humidity Sensors at Temperatures Well below Freezing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for extending the calibrated temperature rang of a solid-state capacitive humidity sensor is presented. This technique is applicable to relative humidity instruments that are based around solid-state sensors.

P. S. Anderson

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Surface Temperature and Humidity Trends in Canada for 1953–2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Annual and seasonal trends in temperature, dewpoint, relative humidity, and specific humidity are presented for the period 1953–2005. The analysis uses hourly observations from 75 climatological stations across Canada. Data were examined for ...

Lucie A. Vincent; William A. van Wijngaarden; Ron Hopkinson

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Statistical Retrieval of Humidity Profiles from Precipitable Water Vapor and Surface Measurements of Humidity and Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method is presented of statistical retrieval of humidity profiles based on measurements of surface temperature ?1, surface dewpoint ?2, and integrated water vapor ?3. In this method the retrieved values of humidity depend nonlinearly on ...

Viatcheslav V. Tatarskii; Maia S. Tatarskaia; Ed R. Westwater

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

Ritsche, MT

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

34

Using Relative Humidity as a State Variable in Climate Feedback Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An approach to climate change feedback analysis is described in which tropospheric relative humidity replaces specific humidity as the state variable that, along with the temperature structure, surface albedos, and clouds, controls the magnitude ...

Isaac M. Held; Karen M. Shell

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Binary Homogeneous Nucleation: Temperature and Relative Humidity Fluctuations, Nonlinearity, and Aspects of New Particle Production in the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Binary homogeneous nucleation of sulfuric acid and water vapor is thought to be the primary source of new particles in the marine atmosphere. The rate of binary homogeneous nucleation depends strongly on temperature and the gas-phase ...

Richard C. Easter; Leonard K. Peters

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Relative Humidity and Temperature Influences on Cirrus Formation and Evolution: Observations from Wave Clouds and FIRE II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements in orographic wave clouds. and in cirrus sampled during FIRE II, are used to investigate ice nucleation in the upper troposphere. The dynamically and microphysically simpler quasi-steady-state wave clouds provide relatively ideal ...

Andrew J. Heymsfield; Larry M. Miloshevich

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

A simple distribution method for two-dimensional temperature/humidity bin data  

SciTech Connect

A distribution model is developed for relative humidity, and additional relationships are presented that allow the distribution model to be used on an hourly basis with either monthly-average daily relative humidity or monthly-average daily dry-bulb temperature and clearness index as the only meteorological data input. A procedure is described that allows the estimation of two-dimensional dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data from the distribution models for dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity. Comparisons of measured and estimated dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data are presented. A design method for the cooling load on a residential air conditioner is described, and air conditioning loads are calculated using both measured and estimated dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data.

Erbs, D.G.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Observed Interannual Variability of Tropical Troposphere Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Relative humidity fields from the High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) flown on NOAA series satellites since 1979 have been used to study the seasonal aspects of the interannual variability of relative humidity in the tropical ...

Mark P. McCarthy; Ralf Toumi

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Inferring Relative Humidity Profiles from 3DNEPH Cloud Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The inference of profiles of relative humidity from cloud data was investigated in a collocation study of 3DNEPH and radiosonde data over North America. Regression equations were developed for the first two EOFs of relative humidity, using ...

Thomas Nehrkorn; Ross N. Hoffman

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

A New Empirical Model of the Temperature–Humidity Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simplified scale of apparent temperature, considering only dry-bulb temperature and humidity, has become known as the temperature–humidity index (THI). The index was empirically constructed and was presented in the form of a table. It is often ...

Carl Schoen

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments  

SciTech Connect

A review of the health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments suggests that relative humidity can affect the incidence of respiratory infections and allergies. Experimental studies on airborne-transmitted infectious bacteria and viruses have shown that the survival or infectivity of these organisms is minimized by exposure to relative humidities between 40 and 70%. Nine epidemiological studies examined the relationship between the number of respiratory infections or absenteeism and the relative humidity of the office, residence, or school. The incidence of absenteeism or respiratory infections was found to be lower among people working or living in environments with mid-range versus low or high relative humidities. The indoor size of allergenic mite and fungal populations is directly dependent upon the relative humidity. Mite populations are minimized when the relative humidity is below 50% and reach a maximum size at 80% relative humidity. Most species of fungi cannot grow unless the relative humidity exceeds 60%. Relative humidity also affects the rate of offgassing of formaldehyde from indoor building materials, the rate of formation of acids and salts from sulfur and nitrogen dioxide, and the rate of formation of ozone. The influence of relative humidity on the abundance of allergens, pathogens, and noxious chemicals suggests that indoor relative humidity levels should be considered as a factor of indoor air quality. The majority of adverse health effects caused by relative humidity would be minimized by maintaining indoor levels between 40 and 60%. This would require humidification during winter in areas with cold winter climates. Humidification should preferably use evaporative or steam humidifiers, as cool mist humidifiers can disseminate aerosols contaminated with allergens.

Arundel, A.V.; Sterling, E.M.; Biggin, J.H.; Sterling, T.D.

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

A Numerical Method for Synthesizing Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical technique is described for synthesizing realistic atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles. The method uses an ensemble of radiosonde measurements collected at a site of interest. Erroneous profiles are removed by comparing their ...

Maia S. Tatarskaia; Richard J. Lataitis; B. Boba Stankov; Viatcheslav V. Tatarskii

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Temperature and Humidity Profiles in Mesoscale Unsaturated Downdrafts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Profiles of temperature and humidity beneath precipitating anvil clouds in tropical convective systems suggest the presence of a mesoscale unsaturated downdraft there. In this paper, a one-dimensional, steady-state, hydrostatic model of a ...

Colleen A. Leary

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Wilethane 44 Cure  

SciTech Connect

Wilethane 44 is a polyurethane adhesive developed by the Materials Team within ESA-MEE at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a replacement for Hexcel Corporation Urethane 7200. Urethane 7200 is used in numerous weapon systems, but it was withdrawn from the market in 1989. The weapons complex requires a replacement material for use in the W76-1 LEP and the W88, as well as for assembly of JTAs for other warheads. All polyurethane systems are susceptible to moisture reacting with unreacted isocyanate groups. This side reaction competes with the curing reaction and results in CO{sub 2} formation. Therefore, a polyurethane adhesive can exhibit foaming if appropriate environmental controls are not in place while it cures. A designed experiment has been conducted at TA-16-304 to determine the effects of ambient conditions on the properties of cured Wilethane 44. Temperature was varied from 15 C to 30 C and relative humidity from 15% to 40%. The density, hardness at 24 hours, and butt tensile strength on aluminum substrates were measured and fitted to quadratic equations over the experimental space. Additionally, the loss and storage moduli during cure were monitored as a function of cure temperature. These experiments provide a stronger basis for establishing appropriate environmental conditions and cure times when using Wilethane 44. The current guidelines are a working time of 90 minutes, a cure time of 18 hours, and a relative humidity of less than 25%, regardless of ambient temperature. Viscosity measurements revealed that the working time is a strong function of temperature and can be as long as 130 minutes at 15 C or as short as 90 minutes at 30 C. The experiments also showed that the gel time is much longer than originally thought, as long as 13 hours at 15 C. Consequently, it may be necessary to extend the required cure time at temperatures below 20 C. Allowable humidity varies as a function of temperature from 34% at 15 C to 15% at 30 C.

John C. Weigle

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS  

SciTech Connect

The effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from samples collected from temporary housing units (THUs) was studied. The THUs were supplied by the U.S Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) to families that lost their homes in Louisiana and Mississippi during the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. Based on a previous study 1, 2, four of the composite wood surface materials that dominated contributions to indoor formaldehyde were selected to analyze the effects of temperature and humidity on the emission factors. Humidity equilibration experiments were carried out on two of the samples to determine how long the samples take to equilibrate with the surrounding environmental conditions. Small chamber experiments were then conducted to measure emission factors for the four surface materials at various temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were analyzed for formaldehyde via high performance liquid chromatography. The experiments showed that increases in temperature or humidity contributed to an increase in emission factors. A linear regression model was built using natural log of percentage relative humidity (RH) and inverse of temperature (in K) as predictor variables, and natural log of emission factors as the target variable. The coefficients of both inverse temperature and log relative humidity with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. This study should assist to retrospectively estimate indoor formaldehyde exposures of occupants of temporary housing units (THUs).

Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Review of Radiosonde Humidity and Temperature Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An attempt is made to provide a brief but comprehensive summary of sources of error in National Weather Service upper air data, and a guide to the relevant literature. Error analysis must be tailored for particular applications. Temperature ...

Robert W. Pratt

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Climate: monthly and annual average relative humidity GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

relative humidity GIS data at relative humidity GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Relative Humidity at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Relative Humidity at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (%)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of

48

A Distribution Law for Free-Tropospheric Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The probability distribution of local relative humidity R in the free troposphere is explored by comparing a simple theoretical calculation with observations from the global positioning system (GPS) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). The ...

Steven C. Sherwood; E. Robert Kursinski; William G. Read

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Relative Humidity over the West Florida Continental Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observed relative humidity variations on the coastal ocean of the West Florida Continental Shelf (WFS) are examined over the 5-yr period 1998–2003. Despite considerable daily variability within seasons, the monthly mean values are nearly constant ...

J. I. Virmani; R. H. Weisberg

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Posters A Comparison of Model-Simulated Relative Humidity with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

71 Posters A Comparison of Model-Simulated Relative Humidity with Satellite-Derived Cloudiness R. J. Alliss and S. Raman Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences North...

51

Nonlinear robust temperature-humidity control in livestock buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physical environment of farm animals inside livestock buildings is primarily characterised by hygro-thermal parameters and air quality. These parameters are influenced by the interaction with the outdoor situation on one hand, and the livestock, ... Keywords: Humidity control, Livestock buildings, Robust control, Temperature control

A. G. Soldatos; K. G. Arvanitis; P. I. Daskalov; G. D. Pasgianos; N. A. Sigrimis

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Statistical comparison of the effect of relative and absolute humidity on fixed-bed carbon adsorption capacity. Report for January 1987-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes statistical methods used to evaluate data for toluene (at several typical operating temperatures and humidity levels) and to determine which measure of humidity (relative or absolute) is more important in determining carbon adsorption efficiency. The water content of a solvent-laden stream is critical for its control via carbon adsorption, especially at relative humidities about 50-70%. (Relative humidity is the percent of saturation: absolute humidity is the total water content.)

Dunn, J.E.; Nunez, C.; Kosusko, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Relative Humidity Sensing Properties Of Cu{sub 2}O Doped ZnO Nanocomposite  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we report application of Cu{sub 2}O doped ZnO composite prepared by solid state reaction route as humidity sensor. Pellet samples of ZnO-Cu{sub 2}O nanocrystalline powders with 2, 5 and 10 weight% of Cu{sub 2}O in ZnO have been prepared. Pellets have been annealed at temperatures of 200-500 deg. C and exposed to humidity. It is observed that as relative humidity increases, resistance of the pellet decreases for the humidity from 10% to 90%. Sample with 5% of Cu{sub 2}O doped in ZnO and annealed at 500 deg. C shows best results with sensitivity of 1.50 M{omega}/%RH. In this case the hysteresis is low and the reproducibility high, making it the suitable candidate for humidity sensing.

Pandey, N. K.; Tiwari, K.; Tripathi, A.; Roy, A.; Rai, A.; Awasthi, P. [Sensors and Materials Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University Of Lucknow, U.P., Pin-226007 (India)

2009-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

54

Effects of humidity and temperature on the conversion of SO/sub 2/ to particulate sulfate and sulfite. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Effects of humidity and temperature on SO/sub 2/ conversion to particulate sulfate and sulfite in relation to heterogeneous conversion in droplets and on particle surfaces; homogeneous conversion in the gas phase; and gas-to-particle conversion are discussed. Theoretical quantitative expressions for some effects are derived and order-of-magnitude calculations are given. Detailed conclusions and comparisons regarding the effects of temperature and humidity on specific oxidation paths. Major conclusions documented are: rates of SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 4//sup =/ converison in aqueous droplets are generally negatively correlated with temperature and positively correlated with relative humidity (particularly at high relative humidity); the rates of SO/sub 2/ to SO/sub 4//sup =/ conversion on reactive surfaces can be either positively correlated with relative humidity or unaffected by relative humidity, and can have a negative, a positive, or a zero correlation with temperture; the homogeneous photooxidation is considerably less sensitive to temperature than is the heterogeneous conversion. (The photooxidation of SO/sub 2/ is expected to be positively correlated with temperature, but the correlation will be weaker in clean air than in polluted air, the positive dependence of SO/sub 2/ photooxidation on humidity will be weaker in polluted air containing NMHC than in clean air); the specific conversion paths have rates with highly different sensitivities to relative humidity and temperature. Thus, a given conversion path can become more or less significant relative to other paths as relative humidity and temperature vary. This suggests that temperature and relative humidity variations can be major causes of the temporal and spatial variations in the rate and yield of conversion and in the type of sulfate produced, which in turn determine the extent of adverse environmental effects. 228 references, 1 figure, 28 tables.

Freiberg, J.E.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Calculation of the performance of activated carbon at high relative humidities  

SciTech Connect

The Dubinin-Radushkevich potential theory was extended to include a term giving the effect of relative humidity on the uptake of adsorbate. This extended equation permit the adsorptive capacity of the activated charcoal in a respirator cartridge to be estimated for any combination of temperature, relative humidity, and concentration of contaminant. Application of this theory to previously published data of Werner showed a good correlation between theory and experiment. This equation is consistent with the experimental observations that 1) below a certain value, the relative humidity has little effect on the uptake of adsorbate, and 2) the effect of relative humidity, if observed, is more severe for lower than for higher concentration of contaminant.

Underhill, D.W.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Relative humidity in the near-field environment  

SciTech Connect

The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is investigating Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for its suitability as a potential repository for high-level nuclear wastes. United States federal regulation 10CFR60 requires that radioactive nuclides be substantially contained in waste packages for 300 to 1000 years after the emplacement. To meet the regulation, a waste package container should remain intact for several hundreds of years. It has been shown that high humidity increases the corrosion potential of metallic container materials. Relative humidity as a function of water saturation in intact rock is measured. The results of this test can be used to calibrate the relative humidity in the near-field environment predicted by model calculations using thermal-hydrological codes such as VTOUGH. This is a report on the progress of that experiment.

Lin, W.; Roberts, J.; Ruddle, D

1995-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

57

Comparing Temperature and Humidity on a Mountain Slope and in the Free Air Nearby  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface temperature and humidity data measured by eight remote weather stations on a south-facing slope in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California were compared with temperature and humidity data measured by a rawinsonde at the same ...

Morris H. McCutchan

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

A humidity temperature test on the HLNC (high-level neutron coincidence counter) instrument  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the findings of a laboratory study made to determine the effects of unusual climatic conditions on high-level neutron coincidence counters (HLNCs). The capability of the instrument, when undesirable temperatures and/or humidities are present, the change in count rate as temperature and humidity increase, and the extent of humidity/temperature interaction are examined.

Goldman, A.; Augustson, R.; Karlin, E.W.

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Based on embedded database greenhouse temperature and humidity intelligent control system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The article based on embedded database of greenhouse temperature and humidity control system intelligent. Put forward by embedded database system set up in an ideal environment for data greenhouse temperature and humidity control, greenhouse crops in ... Keywords: control, data filtering, embedded database, greenhouse, microcontrollers, temperature and humidity

Sun Rong-gao; Wan Zhong; Sun De-chao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Influence of Sea Surface Temperature on Humidity and Temperature in the Outflow of Tropical Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiple years of measurements of tropical upper-tropospheric temperature and humidity by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) project are analyzed in the vicinity of deep convective outflow to study the ...

Zhengzhao Johnny Luo; Dieter Kley; Richard H. Johnson; G. Y. Liu; Susanne Nawrath; Herman G. J. Smit

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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61

High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic segments. If, like in Nafion, connectivity is established between the hydrophilic domains in these multiblock copolymers, they will not need as much water, and hence will show much better protonic conductivity than the random copolymers (with similar degree of sulfonation, or IEC) at partially hydrated conditions. The goal of this research is to develop a material suitable for use as a polymer electrolyte membrane which by the year 2010 will meet all the performance requirements associated with fuel cell operation at high temperatures and low relative humidity, and will out-perform the present standard Nafion{reg_sign}. In particular, it is our objective to extend our previous research based on the use of thermally, oxidatively, and hydrolytically, ductile, high Tg ion containing polymers based on poly(arylene ethers) to the production of polymer electrolyte membranes which will meet all the performance requirements in addition to having an areal resistance of < 0.05 ohm-cm{sup 2} at a temperature of up to 120 C, relative humidity of 25 to 50%, and up to 2.5 atm total pressure. In many instances, our materials already out performs Nafion{reg_sign}, and it is expected that with some modification by either combining with conductive inorganic fillers and/or synthesizing as a block copolymer it will meet the performance criteria at high temperatures and low relative humidity. A key component in improving the performance of the membranes (and in particular proton conductivity) and meeting the cost requirements of $40/m{sup 2} is our development of a film casting process, which shows promise for generation of void free thin films of uniform thickness with controlled polymer alignment and configuration.

McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

62

Why alite stops hydrating below 80% relative humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been observed that the hydration of cement paste stops when the relative humidity drops below about 80%. A thermodynamic analysis shows that the capillary pressure exerted at that RH shifts the solubility of tricalcium silicate, so that it is in equilibrium with water. This is a reflection of the chemical shrinkage in this system: according to Le Chatelier's principle, since the volume of the products is less than that of the reactants, a negative (capillary) pressure opposes the reaction.

Flatt, Robert J. [Sika Technology AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Scherer, George W., E-mail: scherer@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Eng. Quad. E-319, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States); Bullard, Jeffrey W. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

High-temperature and high-humidity response of the Eberline Model PRS-2 and the Eberline Model NRD neutron detector  

SciTech Connect

The high-humidity and high-temperature response of the Eberline Model PRS-2 portable scaler-ratemeter and the Eberline Model NRD neutron detector was studied in an environmental chamber. The BF/sub 3/ probe used in the NRD detector was found to produce count rate surges at temperatures > 50/sup 0/C and at relative humidity > 50%. The PRS-2 scaler-ratemeter was found to be relatively insensitive to high temperatures and high humidity.

McAtee, J.L.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Climatology and Trends of U.S. Surface Humidity and Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climatological annual and seasonal dewpoint, specific humidity, and relative humidity maps for the United States are presented using hourly data from 188 first-order weather stations for the period 1961–90. Separate climatologies were calculated ...

Dian J. Gaffen; Rebecca J. Ross

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

An Evaluation of Problems Affecting the Measurement of Low Relative Humidity on the United States Radiosonde  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper explores the low-humidity problem that has plagued the radiosonde hygristor for nearly 30 years and that makes the hygristor appear to become insensitive at relative humidities (RH) below about 20% RH. The problem led the National ...

Charles G. Wade

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

RELATIVE HUMIDITY, INOSITOL AND THE EFFECT OF RADIATIONS ON AIR-DRIED MICROORGANISMS  

SciTech Connect

Investigations were made on the effects of uv irradiation on E. coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa and x irradiation on Serratia marcescens and on the influence of relative humidity and inositol on these effects. The effect of relative humidity was the same for all organisms tested. Under the experimental conditions used, little or no uv irradiation damage occurred above 70% relative humidity, nor were there many deaths occurring in unirradiated aerosols. At about 65% there was a rapid change in the sensitivity to both uv and drying alone, with the maximum rate of change taking place between 65 and 55% relative humidity for uv, and 65 and 45% relative humidity for non-irradiated cells. Some organisms showed an equally sharp increase in sensitivity to drying in the dark between 65 and 55% relative humidity. With uv irradiation relative humidity changes below 55% had little or no effect on the death rate and the same was true for non-irradiated cells below 45% relative humidity. Under all experimental conditions, with the possible exception of a relative humidity region around 40%, inositol completely prevented inactivation of the cells or viruses in the dark or under uv irradiation. Under x irradiation the cells were more stable at relative humidity values below 50% than at higher values, and once again the region in which a pronounced change occurred was between 50 and 70% relative humidity. (P.C.H.)

Webb, S.J.; Cormack, D.V.; Morrison, H.G.

1964-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

67

The influence of temperature and humidity on the wettability of immersion tin coated printed wiring boards  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the merits and drawbacks of immersion tin coatings as potential printed wiring board (PWB) surface finishes. Immersion tin films applied in various thicknesses (0.2 to 2 {mu}m) to different copper substrates were characterized relative to thermal stability and shelflife. Thermal excursions included those typical in mixed technology assembly processes. Exposure to temperature/humidity was varied from near ambient (35{degree}C/85%RH) to harsh (steam aging). A minimum thickness of {approximately}60{mu}in (1.5{mu}m) was determined to be critical for assembly operations involving multiple thermal excursions. Even though formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMC) is facile, at the copper-tin interface, these compounds do not adversely affect the soldering performance, as long as the IMC phase is protected by a tin surface layer. Immersion tin finishes are relatively stable to thermal exposure, but are readily oxidized in the presence of humidity. This oxide growth is directly responsible for solderability degradation. The underlying copper substrate was also found to have a significant impact on the thermal stability of tin films. An electroless copper substrate caused significantly more intermetallic formation, that resulted in poor solderability even under moderate temperature, humidity conditions.

Ray, U.; Artaki, I. [AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (United States); Vianco, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

68

RELATIVE HUMIDITY TESTS IN SUPPORT OF THE 3013 STORAGE AND SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

Techniques to control the initial relative humidity over oxide/salt mixtures have been developed using cerium oxide as a surrogate for plutonium oxide. Such control is required to validate certain assumptions in the Department of Energy Standard DOE-STD-3013, and to provide essential information to support field surveillance at the storage sites for excess plutonium oxides. Concern over the validity of the assumption that corrosion induced degradation in 3013 containers could be controlled by assuring that the moisture content of any stored oxide/salt mixture was below 0.5 w t% arose when stress corrosion cracks were found in test samples exposed at room temperature to plutonium oxide/salt mixtures having a moisture content only marginally above 0.5 wt %. Additionally, analysis of the stress corrosion cracking observations suggests that the initial relative humidity over the oxide/salt mixture may play a major role in the cracking process. The investigations summarized in this report provide the procedures necessary to control the initial relative humidity to selected values within the range of 16 to 50% by controlling the loading relative humidity (18 to 60%) and the oxide/salt mixture water content (0.05 to 0.45 wt %). The studies also demonstrated that the initial relative humidity may be estimated by calculations using software EQ3/6. Cerium oxide/salt mixtures were used in this study because qualification tests with non-radioactive materials will reduce costs while increasing the breadth of the test programs required to support field surveillances of stored 3013 containers.

Mickalonis, J.; Duffey, J.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

An Experimental Evaluation of HVAC-Grade Carbon-Dioxide Sensors: Part 3, Humidity, Temperature, and Pressure Sensitivity Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the third paper in a four-part series reporting on the test and evaluation of typical carbon-dioxide sensors used in building HVAC applications. Fifteen models of NDIR HVAC-grade CO2 sensors were tested and evaluated to determine the humidity, temperature, and pressure sensitivity of the sensors. This paper reports the performance of the sensors at various relative humidity, temperature, and pressure levels common to building HVAC applications and provides a comparison with manufacturer specifications. Among the 15 models tested, eight models have a single-lamp, single-wavelength configuration, four models have a dual-lamp, single-wavelength configuration, and three models have a single-lamp, dual-wavelength configuration. The sensors were tested in a chamber specifically fabricated for this research. A description of the apparatus and the method of test are described in Part 1 (Shrestha and Maxwell 2009). The test result showed a wide variation in humidity, temperature, and pressure sensitivity of CO2 sensors among manufacturers. In some cases, significant variations in sensor performance exist between sensors of the same model. Even the natural variation in relative humidity could significantly vary readings of some CO2 sensor readings. The effects of temperature and pressure variation on NDIR CO2 sensors are unavoidable without an algorithm to compensate for the changes. For the range of temperature and pressure variation in an air-conditioned space, the effect of pressure variation is more significant compared to the effect of temperature variation.

Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Maxwell, Dr. Gregory [Iowa State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

El Roque de Los Muchachos Site Characteristics. II. Analysis of Wind, Relative Humidity and Air Pressure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present an analysis of wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and air pressure taken at TNG, CAMC and NOT at Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos, in the Canary Islands. Data are compared in order to check local variations and both long term and short term trends of the microclimate. Furthermore, influence of wind speed on the astronomical seeing is estimated to the aim to better understand the influence of wide scale parameters on local meteorological data. The three telescopes show different prevailing wind direction, wind speed, relative humidity and air pressure confirming differences in local microclimate. We found that seeing deteriorates when wind speed is lower than 3.3 m/s. Comparison in terms of wind speed and high relative humidity (> 90%) shows that TNG seems to have optimal observational conditions with respect to CAMC and NOT. Air pressure analysis shows that ORM is dominated by high pressure. Short time variations of pressure anticipate temperature variations tipically by 2-3 hours, this property vanishes in time scales higher than some hours and disappear in longer time scales.

G. Lombardi; V. Zitelli; S. Ortolani; M. Pedani

2007-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

71

Instrument uncertainty effect on calculation of absolute humidity using dewpoint, wet-bulb, and relative humidity sensors  

SciTech Connect

As part of the US Department of Energy`s Advanced Desiccant Technology Program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is characterizing the state-of-the-art in desiccant dehumidifiers, the key component of desiccant cooling systems. The experimental data will provide industry and end users with independent performance evaluation and help researchers assess the energy savings potential of the technology. Accurate determination of humidity ratio is critical to this work and an understanding of the capabilities of the available instrumentation is central to its proper application. This paper compares the minimum theoretical random error in humidity ratio calculation for three common measurement methods to give a sense of the relative maximum accuracy possible for each method assuming systematic errors can be made negligible. A series of experiments conducted also illustrate the capabilities of relative humidity sensors as compared to dewpoint sensors in measuring the grain depression of desiccant dehumidifiers. These tests support the results of the uncertainty analysis. At generally available instrument accuracies, uncertainty in calculated humidity ratio for dewpoint sensors is determined to be constant at approximately 2%. Wet-bulb sensors range between 2% and 6% above 10 g/kg (4%--15% below), and relative humidity sensors vary between 4% above 90% rh and 15% at 20% rh. Below 20% rh, uncertainty for rh sensors increases dramatically. Highest currently attainable accuracies bring dewpoint instruments down to 1% uncertainty, wet bulb to a range of 1%--3% above 10 g/kg (1.5%--8% below), and rh sensors between 1% and 5%.

Slayzak, S.J.; Ryan, J.P.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

An Integrated Approach toward Retrieving Physically Consistent Profiles of Temperature, Humidity, and Cloud Liquid Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for deriving physically consistent profiles of temperature, humidity, and cloud liquid water content. This approach combines a ground-based multichannel microwave radiometer, a cloud radar, a lidar-ceilometer, the nearest ...

Ulrich Löhnert; Susanne Crewell; Clemens Simmer

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Measuring High-Frequency Humidity, Temperature and Radio Refractive Index in the Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three different instrument systems are compared in their ability to either directly or indirectly measure humidity, temperature, and refractive-index fluctuations. Each system consists of a basic instrument—a Lyman-? hygrometer, an infrared ...

J. T. Priestley; R. J. Hill

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Measurements of Humidity and Temperature in the Marine Environment during the HEXOS Main Experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate measurement of fluctuations in temperature and humidity are needed for determination of the surface evaporation rate and the air-sea sensible heat flux using either the eddy correlation or inertial dissipation method for flux ...

K.B. Katsaros; J. DeCosmo; R.J. Lind; R.J. Anderson; S.D. Smith; R. Kraan; W. Oost; K. Uhlig; P.G. Mestayer; S.E. Larsen; M.H. Smith; G. De Leeuw

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Surface Air Temperature and Humidity from Intersatellite-Calibrated HIRS Measurements in High Latitudes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-latitude ocean surface air temperature and humidity derived from intersatellite-calibrated High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS) measurements are examined. A neural network approach is used to develop retrieval algorithms. HIRS ...

Lei Shi; Ge Peng; John J. Bates

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Theory, electro-optical design, testing, and calibration of a prototype atmospheric supersaturation, humidity, and temperature sensor. Final report Mar 81-Jul 82  

SciTech Connect

A new infrared differential absorption - passive thermal emission based instrument designed to make accurate in-cloud measurements of absolute humidity, air temperature, relative humidity, and ice and water supersaturations has been developed. Absolute humidity is measured by the differential infrared absorption of a broad-band light beam between 2.45 microns wavelength and the strongly absorbing water vapor band at 2.67 microns. Air temperature is sensed by a passive radiometric measurement of the Planck's law radiance emitted by carbon dioxide molecules in their very intense emission band at 4.25 microns. Significant operational advantages over previous 14-16 micron band radiometers are achieved. These non-contact optical measurements of absolute humidity and true air temperature can then be combined to yield relative humidity values with respect to both water and ice which remain valid in condensing supersaturated conditions and in spite of hydrometeors in the sample volume.

Nelson, L.D.

1982-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Humidity–Temperature Relationships in the Tropical Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the observed interannual variations of water vapor and temperature over the past 26 years the authors have examined the relationship between the variations of water vapor and temperature in the tropical troposphere. The authors find that ...

De-Zheng Sun; Abraham H. Oort

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Temperature, Humidity, and Wind at the Global Tropopause  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents global statistics of tropopause parameters for a 15-yr period (1979–93). The parameters are height, temperature, potential temperature, mixing ratio of water vapor, and zonal, meridional and vertical wind. The global ...

Klaus P. Hoinka

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Effects of Relative Humidity on the Coalescence of Small Precipitation Drops in Free Fall  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of the effects of relative humidity on coalescence are limited to studies using supported drops or streams of drops, and the results are contradictory. In this paper, findings are presented on the effect of high and low relative ...

Harry T. Ochs III; Kenneth V. Beard; Neil F. Laird; Donna J. Holdridge; Daniel E. Schaufelberger

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Relative Humidity in Limited Streamer Tubes for Stanford Linear Accelerator Center's BaBar Detector  

SciTech Connect

The BABAR Detector at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center studies the decay of B mesons created in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions. The outermost layer of the detector, used to detect muons and neutral hadrons created during this process, is being upgraded from Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) to Limited Streamer Tubes (LSTs). The standard-size LST tube consists of eight cells, where a silver-plated wire runs down the center of each. A large potential difference is placed between the wires and ground. Gas flows through a series of modules connected with tubing, typically four. LSTs must be carefully tested before installation, as it will be extremely difficult to repair any damage once installed in the detector. In the testing process, the count rate in most modules showed was stable and consistent with cosmic ray rate over an approximately 500 V operating range between 5400 to 5900 V. The count in some modules, however, was shown to unexpectedly spike near the operation point. In general, the modules through which the gas first flows did not show this problem, but those further along the gas chain were much more likely to do so. The suggestion was that this spike was due to higher humidity in the modules furthest from the fresh, dry inflowing gas, and that the water molecules in more humid modules were adversely affecting the modules' performance. This project studied the effect of humidity in the modules, using a small capacitive humidity sensor (Honeywell). The sensor provided a humidity-dependent output voltage, as well as a temperature measurement from a thermistor. A full-size hygrometer (Panametrics) was used for testing and calibrating the Honeywell sensors. First the relative humidity of the air was measured. For the full calibration, a special gas-mixing setup was used, where relative humidity of the LST gas mixture could be varied from almost dry to almost fully saturated. With the sensor calibrated, a set of sensors was used to measure humidity vs. time in the LSTs. The sensors were placed in two sets of LST modules, one gas line flowing through each set. These modules were tested for count rate v. voltage while simultaneously measuring relative humidity in each module. One set produced expected readings, while the other showed the spike in count rate. The relative humidity in the two sets of modules looked very similar, but it rose significantly for modules further along the gas chain.

Lang, M.I.; /MIT; Convery, M.; /SLAC; Menges, W.; /Queen Mary, U. of London

2005-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Comparison of temperature and humidity profiles with elastic-backscatter lidar data  

SciTech Connect

This contribution analyzes elastic-backscatter lidar data and temperature and humidity profiles from radiosondes acquired in Barcelona in July 1992. Elastic-backscatter lidar data reveal the distribution of aerosols within the volume of atmosphere scanned. By comparing this information with temperature and humidity profiles of the atmosphere at a similar time, we are able to asses de relationship among aerosol distribution and atmospheric stability or water content, respectively. Comparisons have shown how lidar`s revealed layers of aerosols correspond to atmospheric layers with different stability condition and water content.

Soriano, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)]|[Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Buttler, W.T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Baldasano, J.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

A Comparison of Exhaust Condensation Trail Forecast Algorithms at Low Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Schrader and Schumann contrail forecast algorithms and a third algorithm are evaluated under low relative humidity conditions using a dataset of asynoptic atmospheric soundings and 318 coincident ground-based aircraft and contrail ...

Michael K. Walters; Jeffrey D. Shull; Robert P. Asbury III

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Demonstration of Aerosol Property Profiling by Multiwavelength Lidar under Varying Relative Humidity Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of using a multiwavelength Mie–Raman lidar based on a tripled Nd:YAG laser for profiling aerosol physical parameters in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) under varying conditions of relative humidity (RH) is studied. The lidar ...

I. Veselovskii; D. N. Whiteman; A. Kolgotin; E. Andrews; M. Korenskii

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

A Saturation Hygrometer for the Measurement of Relative Humidity Between 95 and 105%  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new saturation hygrometer capable of measuring relative humidity between 95 and 105% is described. The hygrometer uses a thermally thin mirror on which condensation is controlled by limiting the exchange of ambient water vapor to condensation ...

H. E. Gerber

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Some Observational Evidence for Dry Soils Supporting Enhanced Relative Humidity at the Convective Boundary Layer Top  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The tendency of the relative humidity at the top of a clear convective boundary layer (RHtop) is studied as an indicator of cloud formation over a semiarid region within the conceptual framework introduced by Ek and Holtslag. Typically the ...

D. Westra; G. J. Steeneveld; A. A. M. Holtslag

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Relative Humidity as an Indicator for Cloud Formation over Heterogeneous Land Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of land surface heterogeneity on potential cloud formation is investigated using relative humidity as an indicator. This is done by performing numerical experiments using a large-eddy simulation model (LES). The land surface in the ...

Chiel C. van Heerwaarden; Jordi Vilà Guerau de Arellano

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

A Characterization of the Variation in Relative Humidity across West Africa during the Dry Season  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variation of relative humidity across West Africa during the dry season is evaluated using the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) dataset and the method of self-organizing maps. Interest in the dry season ...

Mark W. Seefeldt; Thomas M. Hopson; Thomas T. Warner

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Seasonal Changes in Solar Radiation and Relative Humidity in Europe in Response to Global Warming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Future seasonal changes in surface incident solar radiation and relative humidity (RH) over Europe and adjacent ocean areas were assessed based on phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3) model ensemble. Under the A1B scenario, ...

Kimmo Ruosteenoja; Petri Räisänen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Climatology of Upper-Tropospheric Relative Humidity from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Implications for Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently available satellite observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) are used to calculate relative humidity in the troposphere. The observations illustrate many scales of variability in the atmosphere from the seasonal ...

Andrew Gettelman; William D. Collins; Eric J. Fetzer; Annmarie Eldering; Fredrick W. Irion; Phillip B. Duffy; Govindasamy Bala

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Probabilistic Parameterizations of Visibility Using Observations of Rain Precipitation Rate, Relative Humidity, and Visibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes the occurrence of the visibility (Vis) versus precipitation rates (PR) for rain and versus relative humidity (RH) from surface observations that were collected during the Fog Remote Sensing and Modeling (FRAM) field project, ...

I. Gultepe; J. A. Milbrandt

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Late-Twentieth-Century Climatology and Trends of Surface Humidity and Temperature in China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Climatological surface temperature and humidity variables for China are presented based on 6-hourly data from 196 stations for the period of 1961–90. Seasonal and annual means for daytime, nighttime, and the full day are shown. The seasonal cycle ...

Julian X. L. Wang; Dian J. Gaffen

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effect of Temperature and Humidity on Crush Strength of Cellulose Fiberboard Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

Cane fiberboard is widely used as the impact absorption and thermal insulation material in overpacks for radioactive materials shipping package. The study described here investigated the properties of cane fiberboard assemblies under environmental conditions important to radioactive materials packaging applications. This study examines the effects of temperature and humidity on the crush strength of cane fiberboard assemblies.

Smith, A.C.

2002-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

93

CGI-based applications for distributed embedded systems for monitoring temperature and humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper discusses the using of Common Gateway Interface in developing web-based distributed embedded systems. It shows the tree-layer model in developing client-server applications. An example using a BECK microcontroller SC12 in application for monitoring ... Keywords: CGI, common gateway interface, distributed automation and control, distributed embedded systems, temperature and humidity measurements

Grisha Spasov; Nikolay Kakanakov

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Related Links on New Orleans and Hot-Humid Climates | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

New Orleans and Hot-Humid Climates New Orleans and Hot-Humid Climates Related Links on New Orleans and Hot-Humid Climates Below are related links to resources specifically for New Orleans, Louisiana, and other hot-humid climates on building with energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. Learn more about deployment efforts in New Orleans. Building a Durable and Energy Efficient Home in Post-Katrina New Orleans This report from Building Science examines designing homes with key sustainability concepts, durability, and energy efficiency that can provide insurance to people in the event of a hurricane. Designing and Building Hurricane-Resistant Homes This article from the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings details a production builder's efforts to identify better wall systems to use in

95

A theoretical model for adsorption capacities of charcoal beds: I, Relative humidity effects  

SciTech Connect

Water vapor is the major interferent in the adsorption of other vapors from air when that air is passed through an activated charcoal bed. A limited amount of data (published and unpublished) is available on the magnitudes of capacity (or service life) reduction as a function of relative humidity (water vapor concentration) and preadsorbed water. A simple equilibrium model has been developed which quantitatively explains observed humidity effects and allows extrapolation of data to untested conditions. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Wood, G.O.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Effects of temperature and humidity variations on the stability of coal mine roof rocks. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A high degree of correlation between strain developed in samples of roof rock and humidity changes was obtained in the laboratory. The strain developed across bedding planes was greater than strain developed parallel to bedding. In tests conducted underground, strain values were much lower and the data more scattered for similar humidity variations. Roof rock specimens reacted to a 10 pct change in humidity throughout a 7 to 10 day period before stabilizing, which seems to rule out daily humidity cycles as a factor in roof deterioration and indicates seasonal variations as a major cause. Very low annual temperature variations were recorded in active sections of the mine. At a 6 F annual variation developed strain would be only 10.5 microinches per inch, far below the strain magnitude for humidity variations and probably too low to be a factor in problems of roof deterioration. Laboratory strain tests on drill core samples were shown to be indicators of moisture sensitivity of roof rock, but neither chemical nor physical properties of the samples correlated with the strain data. (Portions of this document are not fully legible.)

Haynes, C.D.

1975-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus and methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity .gtoreq.10.sup.-4 (ohm-cm).sup.-1, and preferably .gtoreq.0.01 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag+ ions, as in Ag.sub.2 WO.sub.4.4AgI, or to F- ions, as in Ce.sub.0.95 Ca.sub.0.05 F.sub.2.95. Electrical contacts serve to connect the electrodes to potentiostating and detecting circuitry which controls the potential of the sensing electrode relative to the reference electrode, detects the signal generated by the sensor, and indicates the detected signal.

Zaromb, Solomon (9 S 706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity .gtoreq.10.sup.-4 (ohm-cm).sup.-1, and preferably .gtoreq.0.01 (ohm-cm).sup.-1. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag+ ions, as in Ag.sub.2 WO.sub.4.4AgI, or to F- ions, as in Ce.sub.0.95 Ca.sub.0.05 F.sub.2.95. Electrical contacts serve to connect the electrodes to potentiostating and detecting circuitry which controls the potential of the sensing electrode relative to the reference electrode, detects the signal generated by the sensor, and indicates the detected signal.

Zaromb, Solomon (9S 706 William Dr., Hinsdale, IL 60521)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Data Center Efficiency and IT Equipment Reliability at Wider Operating Temperature and Humidity Ranges  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

PAPER #50 PAPER #50 DATA CENTER EFFICIENCY AND IT EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY AT WIDER OPERATING TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY RANGES EDITOR: Steve Strutt, IBM CONTRIBUTORS: Chris Kelley, Cisco Harkeeret Singh, Thomson Reuters Vic Smith, Colt Technology Services The Green Grid Technical Committee PAGE 2 Executive Summary Extending the environmental operating parameters of a data center is one of the industry-accepted procedures for reducing overall energy consumption. Relaxing traditionally tight control over temperature and humidity should result in less power required to cool the data center. However, until recently, the impact of increased data center operating temperature on the information technology (IT) equipment installed in the data center has not been well understood. Historically, it has been widely presumed to be

100

Effects of Temperature and Humidity on the Characterization of C-4 Explosive Threats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The amount of time that an explosive is present on the surface of a material is dependent upon the original amount of explosive on the surface, adhesive forces, temperature and humidity, as well as other environmental factors. This laboratory study focused on evaluating RDX crystal morphology changes resulting from variations in temperature and humidity conditions of the sample. The temperature and humidity conditions were controlled using a Tenney THRJ environmental chamber and a Tenney T11RC-1.5 environmental chamber. These chambers allow the temperature and humidity to be held within ±3°C and ±5% RH. The temperature and humidity conditions used for this test series were: 40°F/40%RH, ~70°F/20%RH (samples left on benchtop), 70°F/70%RH, 70°F/95%RH, 95°F/40%RH, 95°F/70%RH, and 95°F/95%RH. These temperature and humidity set points were chosen to represent a wide range of conditions that may be found in real world scenarios. C-4 (RDX crystals and binder material) was deposited on the surface of one of six substrates by placing a fingerprint from the explosive block onto the matrix surface. The substrates were chosen to provide a range of items that are commonly used. Six substrate types were used during these tests: 50% cotton/50% polyester as found in T-shirts, 100% cotton with a smooth surface such as that found in a cotton dress shirt, 100% cotton on a rough surface such as that found on canvas or denim, suede leather such as might be found on jackets, purses, or shoes, painted metal obtained from a junked car hood, and a computer diskette. The samples were not pre-cleaned prior to testing and contained sizing agents, and in the case of the metal: oil, dirt, scratches, and rust spots. The substrates were photographed at various stages of testing, using a Zeiss Discover V12 stereoscope with Axiocam ICc1 3 megapixel digital camera, to determine any changes in the crystalline morphology. Some of the samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in an attempt to determine how the explosive was bound to the substrate.

C. J. Miller

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Observing Local-Scale Variability of Near-Surface Temperature and Humidity Using a Wireless Sensor Network  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the influence of surface type, wind speed, and other environmental conditions on near-surface air temperature, specific humidity, and surface temperature is studied. A wireless sensor network consisting of 13 low-cost meteorological ...

Katharina Lengfeld; Felix Ament

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Impacts of humidity and temperature on the performance of transparent conducting zinc oxide.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of humidity and temperature on a zinc oxide based transparent conducting oxide (TCO) was assessed under accelerated aging conditions. An in situ electroanalytical method was used to monitor the electrical properties for a conducting zinc oxide under controlled atmospheric (humidity, temperature and irradiation) conditions. A review of thin film photovoltaic (PV) literature has shown one major failure mode of cells/modules is associated with the ingress of water into modules in the field. Water contamination has been shown to degrade the performance of the TCO in addition to corroding interconnects and other conductive metals/materials associated with the module. Water ingress is particularly problematic in flexible thin film PV modules since traditional encapsulates such as poly(ethyl vinyl acetate) (EVA) have high water vapor transmission rates. The accelerated aging studies of the zinc oxide based TCOs will allow acceleration factors and kinetic parameters to be determined for reliability purposes.

Granata, Jennifer E.; Yaklin, Melissa A.; Schneider, Duane Allen; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Norman, Kirsten

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Flow-temperature-humidity control system operating manual. [Controlled atmospheres for industrial hygiene and air pollution studies  

SciTech Connect

A manual containing operating, maintenance, and troubleshooting procedures for the flow-temperature-humidity control system used at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to prepare test atmospheres for industrial hygiene and air pollution studies is presented. The system consists of two basic components: a commercially available temperature/humidity indicator unit and a specially built flow-temperature-humidity control module. Procedures are given for using the control system with a vapor generation system or with a trace-gas flowmeter to add vapor or a trace gas to the airstream after it leaves the control module.

Nelson, G.O.; Taylor, R.D.

1978-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

104

Variability and Trends of High Temperature, High Humidity, and Sultry Weather in the Warm Season in China during the Period 1961–2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the daily maximum air temperature and mean humidity observations at 394 surface weather stations across China, the changes in the annual number of days of high temperature weather (HTW), high humidity weather (HHW), and sultry weather (STW) ...

Xiaohui Shi; Chungu Lu; Xiangde Xu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Trends in Precipitable Water and Relative Humidity in China: 1979–2005  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Annual and seasonal trends of precipitable water (PW) and relative humidity (RH) at 850, 700, and 500 hPa are studied using the data from 106 radiosonde stations over China during the period 1979–2005. Analysis shows evidence of an increase in PW ...

Baoguo Xie; Qinghong Zhang; Yue Ying

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Diagnosis of Zonal Mean Relative Humidity Changes in a Warmer Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The zonal mean relative humidity response to a doubling of CO2 in a climate model is examined using a global climate model and an offline tracer transport model. Offline tracer transport model simulations are driven by the output from two ...

Jonathon S. Wright; Adam Sobel; Joseph Galewsky

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Effect of areal power density and relative humidity on corrosion resistant container performance  

SciTech Connect

The impact of the rewetting process on the performance of waste containers at the Yucca Mountain repository is analyzed. This paper explores the impact of the temperature-humidity relationships on pitting corrosion failure of stainless steel containers for different areal power densities (APDs)in the repository. It compares the likely performance of containers in a repository with a low APD, 55 Kw/acre, and a high APD, 110 kW/acre.

Gansemer, J.D.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

MARIAH-A Similarity-Based Method for Determining Wind, Temperature, and Humidity Profile Structure in the Atmospheric Surface Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methodology for determining the similarity scaling constants for wind, temperature, and specific humidity from micrometeorological tower data is presented. The equations and the approach for solving them are referred to as MARIAH. The MARIAH ...

Henry Rachele; Arnold Tunick; Frank V. Hansen

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A New Method for Deriving Ocean Surface Specific Humidity and Air Temperature: An Artificial Neural Network Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new methodology for deriving monthly averages of surface specific humidity (Qa) and air temperature (Ta) is described. Two main aspects characterize the new approach. First, remotely sensed parameters, total precipitable water (W), and sea ...

Charles Jones; Pete Peterson; Catherine Gautier

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Atmospheric Temperature and Absolute Humidity Profiles over the Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf from a Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Radiometrics MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler (MWRP) provided high temporal resolution atmospheric profiles for temperature and absolute humidity up to 10 km, while 113 radiosondes were launched (and 68 were used in the analysis) over sea ...

Lauren M. Candlish; Richard L. Raddatz; Matthew G. Asplin; David G. Barber

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Air humidity requirements for human comfort  

SciTech Connect

Upper humidity limits for the comfort zone determined from two recently presented models for predicting discomfort due to skin humidity and insufficient respiratory cooling are proposed. The proposed limits are compared with the maximum permissible humidity level prescribed in existing standards for the thermal indoor environment. The skin humidity model predicts discomfort as a function of the relative humidity of the skin, which is determined by existing models for human heat and moisture transfer based on environmental parameters, clothing characteristics, and activity level. The respiratory model predicts discomfort as a function of the driving forces for heat loss from the respiratory tract, namely, the temperature and humidity of the surrounding air. An upper humidity limit based on a relative skin humidity of 0.54, corresponding to 20% dissatisfied, results in a maximum permissible humidity level near 100% RH. The requirements for respiratory comfort are much more stringent and result in lower permissible indoor air humidities. Compared with the upper humidity limit specified in existing thermal comfort standards, e.g., ASHRAE Addendum 55a, the humidity limit based on skin humidity was less restrictive and the humidity limit based on respiratory comfort was far more restrictive.

Toftum, J.; Fanger, P.O.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Humidity-resistant ambient-temperature solid-electrolyte amperometric sensing apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for detecting selected chemical compounds in air or other gas streams at room or ambient temperature includes a liquid-free humidity-resistant amperometric sensor comprising a sensing electrode and a counter and reference electrode separated by a solid electrolyte. The sensing electrode preferably contains a noble metal, such as Pt black. The electrolyte is water-free, non-hygroscopic, and substantially water-insoluble, and has a room temperature ionic conductivity [>=]10[sup [minus]4] (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1], and preferably [>=]0.01 (ohm-cm)[sup [minus]1]. The conductivity may be due predominantly to Ag[sup +] ions, as in Ag[sub 2]WO[sub 4], or to F[sup [minus

Zaromb, S.

1994-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

113

Standard Test Methods for Photovoltaic Modules in Cyclic Temperature and Humidity Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 These test methods provide procedures for stressing photovoltaic modules in simulated temperature and humidity environments. Environmental testing is used to simulate aging of module materials on an accelerated basis. 1.2 Three individual environmental test procedures are defined by these test methods: a thermal cycling procedure, a humidity-freeze cycling procedure, and an extended duration damp heat procedure. Electrical biasing is utilized during the thermal cycling procedure to simulate stresses that are known to occur in field-deployed modules. 1.3 These test methods define mounting methods for modules undergoing environmental testing, and specify parameters that must be recorded and reported. 1.4 These test methods do not establish pass or fail levels. The determination of acceptable or unacceptable results is beyond the scope of these test methods. 1.5 Any of the individual environmental tests may be performed singly, or may be combined into a test sequence with other environmental or non-envir...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Trends in U.S. Surface Humidity, 1930–2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

U.S. hourly surface observations are examined at 145 stations to identify annual and seasonal changes in temperature, dewpoint, relative humidity, and specific humidity since 1930. Because of numerous systematic instrument changes that have ...

Paula J. Brown; Arthur T. DeGaetano

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Humidity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermodynamic Quantities. Humidity Measurements. Rate our Services. Technical ... Special Tests of Humidity (36070S). Tests ...

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

116

Relative Humidity and the Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking in an impure Plutonium Oxide Environment  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory tests to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons showed that corrosion occurred in selected samples. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The exposures were conducted in sealed containers in which the oxide-salt mixtures were loaded with about 0.6 wt % water from a humidified helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration, the composition of the salt and the moisture present in the test environment. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride and 0.6 wt% water. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas above the solid mixture, or in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either no CaCl{sub 2} or 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2}. SCC was present where the 0.6 wt % water content exceeded the value needed to fully hydrate the available CaCl{sub 2}, but was absent where the water content was insufficient. These results reveal the significance of the relative humidity in the austenitic stainless steels environment to their susceptibility to corrosion. The relative humidity in the test environment was controlled by the water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salts such as CaCl{sub 2}. For each salt or salt mixture there is a threshold relative humidity below which the necessary liquid electrolyte cannot exist, and therefore below which the SCC risk is very low. This threshold is a thermodynamic quantity known as the deliquescence relative humidity that is dependent on the identity of the salt but is independent of the quantity of salt. Below the deliquescence RH there should be low corrosion risk, and above it the corrosion risk increases rapidly as a liquid phase, which is initially saturated with salt, grows and becomes more widespread in the container.

Zapp, P.; Duffey, J.; Lam, P.; Dunn, K.

2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

117

Ferrocyanide safety program: Results of relative humidity experiments using ferrocyanide waste simulants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To be categorized as conditionally safe, ferrocyanide tanks containing {ge} 8 wt% Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} on an energy equivalent basis (i.e., {ge} 115 cal/g) are required to contain some amount of water. These tests were conducted to determine the equilibrium moisture content of waste simulant at the conditions of 30% relative humidity and 25{degrees}C. This test report was prepared to disseminate data collected from these tests. These data are used to model the waste tank moisture contents and transport. These models can determine if the moisture in these tanks will drop below the defined safety limits.

King, C.V.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Analysis of Relative Humidity Sensors at the WMO Radiosonde Intercomparison Experiment in Brazil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quality of the vertical distribution measurements of humidity in the atmosphere is very important in meteorology due to the crucial role that water vapor plays in the earth’s energy budget. The radiosonde is the humidity measurement device ...

Luiz F. Sapucci; Luiz A. T. Machado; Reinaldo B. da Silveira; Gilberto Fisch; João F. G. Monico

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed with ?-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin ortile, gypsum board, shiplap, plywood, terracotta brick) thatsamples are all made from plywood. Humidity Equilibration

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

NIST Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humidity. Summary: ... It also engages in research to improve humidity standards and study thermophysical properties of moist gases. Description: ...

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Residential Humidity Control Strategies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Humidity Control Strategies Residential Humidity Control Strategies Armin Rudd Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas 2 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Humidity control goals  Comfort, and Indoor Air Quality  Control indoor humidity year-around, just like we do temperature  Durability and customer satisfaction  Reduce builder risk and warranty/service costs 2 3 Residential Energy Efficiency Stakeholder Meeting 2/29 - 3/2/2012 Austin, Texas Humidity control challenges 1. In humid cooling climates, there will always be times of the year when there is little sensible cooling load to create thermostat demand but humidity remains high * Cooling systems that modify fan speed and temperature set point based on humidity can help but are still limited

122

Understanding the Temperature and Humidity Environment Inside a PV Module (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation addresses moisture-driven degradation processes in PV modules and the conditions to use for accelerated stress testing. Here we show that by choosing humidity conditions that more closely match the use environment, one can minimize the uncertainty associated with moisture induced degradation modes.

Kempe, M.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Relations between Optically Derived Aerosol Parameters, Humidity, and Air-Quality Data in an Urban Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with diurnal and mensual correlations between ground-based atmospheric observations of columnar and surface optical parameters, standard surface humidity parameters, and surface air-quality data. The implications of a significant ...

N. T. O'Neill; A. Royer; P. Coté; L. J. B. McArthur

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Validation of the Upper Tropospheric Relative Humidity Determined from METEOSAT Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this note is to “validate” the upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) operationally extracted from the 6.3 ?m channel data of METEOSAT. The validation is carded out by comparing the satellite data with observed humidifies from the ...

Olli M. Turpeinen; Johannes Schmetz

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Evaporative Concentration of 100x J13 Ground Water at 60% Relative Humidity and 90C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In these experiments we studied the behavior of a synthetic concentrated J13 solution as it comes in contact with a Ni-Cr-Mo-alloy selected for waste canisters in the designated high-level nuclear-waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Concentrated synthetic J13 solution was allowed to drip slowly onto heated test specimens (90 C, 60% relative humidity) where the water moved down the surface of the specimens, evaporated and minerals precipitated. Mineral separation or zoning along the evaporation path was not observed. We infer from solid analyses and geochemical modeling, that the most corrosive components (Ca, Mg, and F) are limited by mineral precipitation. Minerals identified by x-ray diffraction include thermonatrite, natrite, and trona, all sodium carbonate minerals, as well as kogarkoite (Na{sub 3}SO{sub 4}F), halite (NaCl), and niter (KNO{sub 3}). Calcite and a magnesium silicate precipitation are based on chemical analyses of the solids and geochemical modeling. The most significant finding of this study is that sulfate and fluoride concentrations are controlled by the solubility of kogarkoite. Kogarkoite thermodynamic data are needed in the Yucca Mountain Project database to predict the corrosiveness of carbonate brines and to establish the extent to which fluoride is removed from the brines as a solid.

Staggs, K; Maureen Alai,; Hailey, P; Carroll, S A; Sutton, M; Nguyen, Q A

2003-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

126

The Size and Scattering Coefficient of Urban Aerosol Particles at Washington, DC as a Function of Relative Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative humidity dependence of the size and scattering coefficient of atmospheric aerosol particles was measured at Washington, DC during the period 26–31 July 1979. Particle growth curves (i.e., curves of the ratio r/r0, of particle radius ...

James W. Fitzgerald; William A. Hoppel; Michael A. Vietti

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

A Study of a Retrieval Method for Temperature and Humidity Profiles from Microwave Radiometer Observations Based on Principal Component Analysis and Stepwise Regression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the application of principal component analysis and stepwise regression in the retrieval of vertical profiles of temperature and humidity based on the measurements of a 35-channel microwave radiometer. It uses the radiosonde ...

Haobo Tan; Jietai Mao; Huanhuan Chen; P. W. Chan; Dui Wu; Fei Li; Tao Deng

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Ground-Based Temperature and Humidity Profiling Using Spectral Infrared and Microwave Observations. Part I: Simulated Retrieval Performance in Clear-Sky Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two independent ground-based passive remote sensing methods are used to retrieve lower-tropospheric temperature and humidity profiles in clear-sky cases. A simulation study for two distinctly different climatic zones is performed to evaluate the ...

Ulrich Löhnert; D. D. Turner; S. Crewell

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Seasonal variations of the clear-sky greenhouse effect: The role of changes in atmospheric temperatures and humidities  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analysis of the factors which control the seasonal variations of the clear-sky greenhouse effect, based on satellite observations and radiative transfer simulations. The satellite observations include the radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment and the total column moisture content derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager. The simulations were performed with the SAMSON system described in an earlier paper, using atmospheric temperatures and humidities from operational analyses produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. At low latitudes, the magnitude of the clear-sky greenhouse effect is dominated by the strong thermodynamic link between the total column moisture content of the atmosphere and sea surface temperatures, with minimal seasonal variations. In contrast, at middle to high latitudes there are strong seasonal variations, the clear-sky greenhouse effect being largest in winter and smallest in summer. These variations cannot be explained by the seasonal cycle in the total column moisture content, as this is largest in summer and smallest in winter. The variations are controlled instead by the seasonal changes in atmospheric temperatures. The colder atmosphere in winter enhances the temperature differential between the atmosphere and the sea surface, leading to a larger greenhouse effect despite the lower moisture contents. The magnitude of the clear-sky greenhouse effect is thus controlled by atmospheric humidity at low latitudes, but by atmospheric temperature at middle and high latitudes. These controls are illustrated by results from sensitivity experiments with SAMSON and are interpreted in terms of a simple model.

Webb, M.J.; Slingo, A. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Berkshire (United Kingdom); Stephens, G.L. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Laboratory Equipment - Dickson TH550 Humidity Meter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dickson TH550 Humidity Meter. Description: ... Temperature: -30 °C to 50 °C; Humidity: 0% to 95% RH (no-condensing); Dew Point: -30 °C to 50 °C; ...

2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

131

MAXIMUM HUMIDITY INDICATOR  

SciTech Connect

Moisture-sensitive systems to measure and indicate the maximum level of humidity exposure are discussed. A chemical indicator utilizing deliquescent salts and water-soluble dyes provides an irreversible color change at discrete levels of relative humidity. To provide indication of the time at which the exposure occurs, a circuit employing a resistive-type sensor was developed. A small, commercially available sensor is used in a portable probe to detect humidity leaks into controlled areas.

Abel, W B

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Irreversible humidity indicator  

SciTech Connect

This patent relates to a humidity indicator having particles of colored dye distributed over the surface of a dry, deliquescent salt of a neutral color. When exposed to a humidity level above that which causes deliquescence of the salt, the dye bleeds through and imparts its developed tincture to the resulting saturated salt solution. On dehydration, the dye remains infused throughout the dried salt to present an irreversible indication of the humidity exposure. (auth)

Reif, R.B.; Kurz, P.F.

1975-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

133

Socioeconomic and Outdoor Meteorological Determinants of Indoor Temperature and Humidity in New York City Dwellings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerous mechanisms link outdoor weather and climate conditions to human health. It is likely that many health conditions are more directly affected by indoor rather than outdoor conditions. Yet, the relationship between indoor temperature and ...

J. D. Tamerius; M. S. Perzanowski; L. M. Acosta; J. S. Jacobson; I. F. Goldstein; J. W. Quinn; A. G. Rundle; J. Shaman

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Observed and Simulated Temperature–Humidity Relationships: Sensitivity to Sampling and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent studies have demonstrated that the correlation between interannual variations of large-scale average temperature and water vapor is stronger and less height dependent in one GCM than in an objective analysis of radiosonde observations. To ...

Mike Bauer; Anthony D. Del Genio; John R. Lanzante

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Ground- and Space-Based Temperature and Humidity Retrievals: Statistical Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A near-real-time integrated temperature and water vapor sounding system has been designed and in operation since June 1993. It combines hourly data from the ground-based radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), a two-channel microwave radiometer, ...

B. Boba Stankov

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Photooxidation of Alpha-Pinene at High Relative Humidity in the Presence of Increasing Concentrations of NOx  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The photooxidation of ~1 ppm alpha-pinene in the presence of increasing concentrations of NO2 was studied in a Teflon chamber at relative humidities from 70 - 88% and temperatures from 296 - 304 K. The loss of alpha-pinene and formation of gas phase products were followed using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). Gas phase reaction products measured by PTR-MS and their yields include formaldehyde (5 + 1%), formic acid (2.5 + 1.4%), methanol (0.6 + 0.3%), acetaldehyde (3.9 + 1.7%), acetic acid (10 + 2%), acetone (11.5 + 3.1%), pinonaldehyde (22 + 6%), and pinene oxide (0.9 + 0.1%). There was evidence of organic nitrates in the gas phase and small peaks were tentatively assigned to norpinonaldehyde, 4-oxopinonaldehyde, propanedial, 2,3-dioxobutanal and 3,5,6-trioxoheptanal or 3-hydroxymethyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutylethanone. The formation and growth of new particles were followed using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and their chemical composition was probed using single particle mass spectrometry (SPLAT II). SPLAT II analysis also provided measurements of the vacuum aerodynamic diameters of the newly formed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles and, in combination with the electrical mobility diameter, a particle density of 1.21 + 0.02 g cm-3 was calculated, 20% larger than often assumed in calculating SOA yields. SPLAT II showed that the suspended SOA consisted of a complex mixture of organic nitrates and organics, possibly including pinonic acid, pinic acid and trans-sobrerol. Three-wavelength light scattering measurements made using an integrating nephelometer were consistent with particles having a refractive index characteristic of organic compounds, but the data could not be well matched at all three wavelengths with a single refractive index. The effect of addition of cyclohexane or NO on particle formation showed that ozonolysis was the major mechanism of SOA formation in this system. However, unlike simple ozonolysis, organic nitrates are formed in both the gas and particle phases. Identifying and measuring specific organic nitrates in both the gas and particle phases in air may help to elucidate why SOA formation has been reported in field studies to be associated with polluted urban areas, yet the carbon in these particles is largely contemporary, i.e., non-fossil fuel carbon.

Yu, Yong; Ezell, Michael J.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan G.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Ortega, John V.; D'Anna, Barbara; Harmon, Chris W.; Johnson, Stan; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

20th Century Reanalysis Project Ensemble Gateway: 56 Estimates of World Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, and Wind, 1871-2010  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

This site provides data from the 20th Century Reanalysis Project, offering temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind predictions in 200 km sections all around the earth from 1871 to 2010, every 6 hours, based on historical data. The ensemble mean and standard deviation for each value were calculated over a set of 56 simulations. Data for each of the 56 ensemble members are included here. The dataset consists of files in netCDF 4 format that are available for download from the National Energy Research. The goal of the 20th Century Reanalysis Project is to use a Kalman filter-based technique to produce a global trophospheric circulation dataset at four-times-daily resolution back to 1871. The only dataset available for the early 20th century consists of error-ridden hand-drawn analyses of the mean sea level pressure field over the Northern Hemisphere. Modern data assimilation systems have the potential to improve upon these maps, but prior to 1948, few digitized upper-air sounding observations are available for such a reanalysis. The global tropospheric circulation dataset will provide an important validation check on the climate models used to make 21st century climate projections....[copied from http://portal.nersc.gov/project/20C_Reanalysis/

138

The Maintenance of the Relative Humidity of the Subtropical Free Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative importance of different processes in the water vapor balance of the troposphere is assessed, using high-resolution hindcast data from the ECMWF Integrated Forecast System (IFS) for December–February 1998/99 interpolated to isentropic ...

Alexandre Couhert; Tapio Schneider; Juilin Li; Duane E. Waliser; Adrian M. Tompkins

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

NIST Humidity in SSD  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humidity in the Sensor Science Division. Humidity. The Division develops, maintains, and disseminates national standards ...

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

140

Effects of temperature, humidity, sample geometry, and other variables on Bruceton type 12 impact initiation of HMX-based high explosives  

SciTech Connect

The drop weight impact test, developed at Bruceton Naval Research Laboratory 60 years ago, is still the most commonly used configuration for evaluating sensitivity of explosives to non-shock ignition. The standard drop weight impact test is performed under ambient conditions for temperature and humidity - variations in which are known to significantly affect the probability of reaction. We have performed a series of impact tests in an attempt to characterize the effect of temperature, humidity, sample geometry (height, mass, L/d, and pressed density), sample confinement, and impact surface properties (strength and coefficient of friction) on the probability of reaction in a drop weight impact test. Differences in the probability of reaction have been determined across a range of drop heights for each configuration. The results clearly show significant shifts in the probability of reaction and in the slope of the reaction probability curve for several of the variables.

Avilucea, Gabriel R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aragon, Daniel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Paul D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Preston, Daniel N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartline, Ernest L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hagelberg, Stephanie I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Evaluation of ANSI N42-17A by investigating the effects of temperature and humidity on the response of radiological instruments  

SciTech Connect

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) N42.17A-1989 standard`s performance criteria and test methods has been evaluated by investigating the effects of temperature and humidity on the response of 105 portable direct-reading radiological instruments (45 beta-gamma survey meters, 32 neutron rem meters, 1O alpha contamination and 18 tritium-in-air monitors). The US Department of Energy (DOE) mandates the use of ANSI standards for the calibration and performance testing of radiological instruments, and requires that instruments be appropriate for existing environmental conditions. Random tests conducted in an environmental chamber determined the effects of temperatures ranging from {minus}10{degree}C to 50{degree}C and humidity at levels of 40% RH and 95% RH on the response of a cross section of instruments used in routine health physics operations at Los Alamos. The following instruments were tested: Eberline RO-2 and RO-C ionization chambers, Eberline E-530 survey meter with the Model HP-C stainless steel Geiger-Muller (G) wall probe, Eberline PIC-6A and PIC-6B ion chambers, Eberline ESP-1 survey meter with the Model HP-260 pancake G detector, Ludlum 3 survey meter with the Model 44-6 stainless steel G wall probe, Eberline ESP-1, ESP-2 and PAR-4 survey meters with the neutron rem detector, Health Physics Instruments 2080 survey meter with the moderator detector, Ludlum 139 survey meter with the Model 43-32 air-proportional alpha detector, and the Overhoff 394-C, Johnston J-111 and J-110 tritium monitors. Experimental results encompass 1128 temperature tests (1269-hours exposure in the chamber) and 735 humidity tests (1890-hours exposure in the chamber). The study shows the standard`s test requirement for temperature at or near the extreme conditions, and the standard`s test requirement for humidity at 95% RH may be too restrictive for instruments used in the work environment.

Clement, R.S.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

The Relative Humidity in an Isentropic Advection–Condensation Model: Limited Poleward Influence and Properties of Subtropical Minima  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An idealized model of advection and condensation of water vapor is considered as a representation of processes influencing the humidity distribution along isentropic surfaces in the free troposphere. Results are presented ...

O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

143

Humidity Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 21   Applications for humidity sensors...parts 5 to 40 0 to 50 Magnetic heads, LSIs, ICs Agriculture, forestry stockbreeding Greenhouse air conditioning 5 to 40 0 to 100 Air conditioning Dew prevention in tealeaf growing -10 to 60 50 to 100 Dew prevention Broiler farming 20 to 25 40 to 70 Health control Measurement Thermostatic bath -5 to 100 0 to...

144

Humidity, human factors, and the energy shortage  

SciTech Connect

Studies by the Institute for Environmental Research, Kansas State University, show that in terms of comfort, health, and performance, humidity control is an important element of environmental control and should not be eliminated for the sake of energy conservation. A constant level of comfort can be maintained if the humidity is increased and the temperature is decreased and vice versa; school absenteeism due to upper respiratory infection is related to classroom humidifcation; and psychomotor performance is better under warm, dry conditions than under warm, moist conditions. Humidification may be valuable in thermostat-setback programs by making cooler conditions comfortable.

Rohles, F.H. Jr.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Humidity requirements in WSCF Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to develop and document a position on Relative Humidity (RH) requirements in the WSCF Laboratories. A current survey of equipment vendors for Organic, Inorganic and Radiochemical laboratories indicate that 25% - 80% relative humidity may meet the environmental requirements for safe operation and protection of all the laboratory equipment.

Evans, R.A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Humidity Control in Residences  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Maintaining relative humidity below 60% for residential houses in humid climates promotes a healthy indoor environment. Yet, for such homes, these lower humidity levels are difficult to maintain with conventional recirculation air conditioning units. By introducing a separate vapor compression unit to pre-condition outside air, indoor relative humidity can be controlled. This new air conditioning system combines a ventilation unit with a conventional recirculation air conditioning unit. Although successful in maintaining indoor humidity levels below 60%, the new air conditioning system will require more electric energy to provide the additional dehumidification. However, this penalty is shown to be offset by reductions in sensible load during a summer week, which should result in lower energy consumption and peak electric demand during that period. The performance of this new air conditioning system is demonstrated using FSEC 3.0, a building energy simulation program developed by the Florida Solar Energy Center, to simulate the heat and moisture transport occurring within a prototypical residence located in Austin, Texas.

Trowbridge, J.; Peterson, J.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Humidity fluctuations in solar greenhouse-residences  

SciTech Connect

The thermal performance of solar greenhouse-residences is well-documented. Data concerning temperature fluctuations and horticultural yield are obtainable and provide a clear picture of greenhouse-residence temperature extremes. However, both human comfort and plant growing environment are not dependent upon temperature alone. Air movement, radiation, and humidity are other criteria that can influence thermal comfort and growing conditions. The effect a vegetable peoducing greenhouse has on thermal comfort of an adjoining residence is illustrated in terms of temperature and humidity. An analysis of dewpoint conditions will further indicate the effect of moisture within the individual components. A solar greenhouse-residence with an integrated heating collection and distribution system exhibited higher internal humidities than conventional housing. The greenhouse exhibited greater diurnal swings than the adjoining residence. Transfer of moisture occurred from greenhouse to residence and caused infrequent dewpoint levels in the house. An analysis of two such buildings indicated a higher average relative humidity in the solar greenhouse-residence over conventional housing in the southeast.

Davis, M.A. (Clemson Univ., SC); Harrison, R.E.; Godbey, L.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Multisensor MEMS for temperature, relative humidity, and high-g shock monitoring.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The use of MEMS (micro-electro-mechanical system) sensors in multiple applications of environmental monitoring help to fill the need of a small scale, low power monitoring… (more)

Smith, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Indoor Humidity Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tools Listed Alphabetically Tools by Platform Tools by Country Related Links Indoor Humidity Tools Indoor Humidity Tools logo. Integrated computer program intended to assist in...

150

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Indoor Humidity Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Africa Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom United States Related Links Indoor Humidity Tools Indoor Humidity Tools logo. Integrated computer program intended to assist in...

151

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Indoor Humidity Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tools by Platform PC Mac UNIX Internet Tools by Country Related Links Indoor Humidity Tools Indoor Humidity Tools logo. Integrated computer program intended to assist in...

152

A Test of Commercial Humidity Sensors for Use at Automatic Weather Stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laboratory tests of eight different sensors based on five different principles were performed at relative humidities between 20% and 100% and temperatures between ?20° and +25°C. Four sensors did not perform satisfactorily in these tests. The ...

Sara H. Muller; Pieter J. Beekman

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study  

SciTech Connect

Data centers require continuous air conditioning to address high internal heat loads (heat release from equipment) and maintain indoor temperatures within recommended operating levels for computers. Air economizer cycles, which bring in large amounts of outside air to cool internal loads when weather conditions are favorable, could save cooling energy. There is reluctance from many data center owners to use this common cooling technique, however, due to fear of introducing pollutants and potential loss of humidity control. Concerns about equipment failure from airborne pollutants lead to specifying as little outside air as permissible for human occupants. To investigate contamination levels, particle monitoring was conducted at 8 data centers in Northern California. Particle counters were placed at 3 to 4 different locations within and outside of each data center evaluated in this study. Humidity was also monitored at many of the sites to determine how economizers affect humidity control. Results from this study indicate that economizers do increase the outdoor concentration in data centers, but this concentration, when averaged annually, is still below current particle concentration limits. Study results are summarized below: (1) The average particle concentrations measured at each location, both outside and at the servers, are shown in Table 1. Measurements show low particle concentrations at all data centers without economizers, regardless of outdoor particle concentrations. Particle concentrations were typically an order of magnitude below both outside particle concentrations and recently published ASHRAE standards. (2) Economizer use caused sharp increases in particle concentrations when the economizer vents were open. The particle concentration in the data centers, however, quickly dropped back to pre-economizer levels when the vents closed. Since economizers only allow outside air part of the time, the annual average concentrations still met the ASHRAE standards. However, concentration were still above the levels measured in data centers that do not use economizers (3) Current filtration in data centers is minimal (ASHRAE 40%) since most air is typically recycled. When using economizers, modest improvements in filtration (ASHRAE 85%) can reduce particle concentrations to nearly match the level found in data centers that do not use economizers. The extra cost associated with improve filters was not determined in this study. (4) Humidity was consistent and within the ASHRAE recommended levels for all data centers without economizers. Results show that, while slightly less steady, humidity in data centers with economizers can also be controlled within the ASHRAE recommended levels. However, this control of humidity reduces energy savings by limiting the hours the economizer vents are open. (5) The potential energy savings from economizer use has been measured in one data center. When economizers were active, mechanical cooling power dropped by approximately 30%. Annual savings at this center is estimated within the range of 60-80 MWh/year, representing approximately a 5% savings off the mechanical energy load of the data center. Incoming temperatures and humidity at this data center were conservative relative to the ASHRAE acceptable temperature and humidity ranges. Greater savings may be available if higher temperature humidity levels in the data center area were permitted. The average particle concentrations measured at each of the eight data center locations are shown in Table 1. The data centers ranged in size from approximately 5,000 ft{sup 2} to 20,000 ft{sup 2}. The indoor concentrations and humidity in Table 1 represents measurements taken at the server rack. Temperature measurements at the server rack consistently fell between 65-70 F. The Findings section contains a discussion of the individual findings from each center. Data centers currently operate under very low contamination levels. Economizers can be expected to increase the particle concentration in data centers, but the increase appears to still be

Shehabi, Arman; Tschudi, William; Gadgil, Ashok

2007-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

154

humidity | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

humidity humidity Dataset Summary Description This raw data reflects readings from instruments mounted on or near a 82 meter meteorological tower located at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC), approximately 5 miles south of Boulder, CO (specifically: 39.9107 N, 105.2348 W, datum WGS84). The base elevation at the site is 1,855 meters AMSL. Source NREL Date Released Unknown Date Updated March 10th, 2011 (3 years ago) Keywords DOE humidity irrandiance NREL NWTC pressure temperature turbulence wind wind direction wind speed Data text/plain icon Raw data (8/24/2001 - 3/10/2011) (txt, 681 KiB) application/vnd.ms-excel icon Field IDs for above .txt file (xls, 69.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Scientists and Technicians are notified real-time via email of instruments outside the above min/max or delta comparisons (http://www.nrel.gov/midc/nwtc_m2/) Data have not been reviewed for accuracy or completeness; disclaimer available (http://www.nrel.gov/disclaimer.html).

155

Recent Climatology, Variability, and Trends in Global Surface Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ observations of surface air and dewpoint temperatures and air pressure from over 15 000 weather stations and from ships are used to calculate surface specific (q) and relative (RH) humidity over the globe (60°S–75°N) from December 1975 to ...

Aiguo Dai

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Humidity response of the Eberline model PAC-7 alpha instrument  

SciTech Connect

Response of the Eberline Model PAC-7 alpha instrument under varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature conditions was studied in an environmental chamber. Electric discharges resulting in spurious counts or in instrument paralysis occurred at 35 to 50% RH. Improvement in the RH level tolerated by the PAC-7 alpha instrument was obtained by conformal coating of the high-voltage region of the printed circuit (PC) board. Following this treatment, electric discharges occurred only at relatively high humidity levels and then as a result of high-voltage breakdown within the AC-24C probe rather than within the PC board.

McAtee, J.L.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

High-temperature thermocouples and related methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-temperature thermocouple and methods for fabricating a thermocouple capable of long-term operation in high-temperature, hostile environments without significant signal degradation or shortened thermocouple lifetime due to heat induced brittleness.

Rempe, Joy L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knudson, Darrell L. (Firth, ID); Condie, Keith G. (Idaho Falls, ID); Wilkins, S. Curt (Idaho Falls, ID)

2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

158

Residential Dehumidification Systems Research for Hot-Humid Climates: September 1, 2001 -- December 30, 2003  

SciTech Connect

Twenty homes were tested and monitored in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, U.S.A., to evaluate the humidity control performance and operating cost of six different integrated dehumidification and ventilation systems that could be applied by production homebuilders. Temperature and relative humidity were monitored at four living-space locations and in the conditioned attic where the space-conditioning equipment and air-distribution ducts were located. Equipment operational time was monitored for heating, cooling, dehumidification, and ventilation. Results showed that energy efficiency measures, combined with controlled mechanical ventilation, change the sensible and latent cooling load fractions such that dehumidification separate from the cooling system is required to maintain indoor relative humidity below 60% throughout the year. The system providing the best overall value, including humidity control, first cost, and operating cost, involved a standard dehumidifier located in a hall closet with a louvered door and central-fan-integrated supply ventilation with fan cycling.

Rudd, A. F.; Lstiburek, J. W.; Eng, P.; Ueno, K.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Atmospheric Condensation Potential of Windows in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In hot, humid climates, the internal surfaces of windows in air-conditioned buildings are in contact with relatively colder air. Meanwhile, the external surfaces are exposed to hot humid atmospheric air. This hygro-thermal condition may cause frequent atmospheric condensation on external surfaces of windows when their surface temperature drops below the dew point temperature of the hot humid air. To date, external surface condensation on windows has been given relatively much less importance than their internal surface condensation. In addition, the thermal analysis of windows in hot humid climates has always been performed in the absence of condensation. Under moderate air temperature and humidity conditions, such practice is acceplable. However, when windows experience atmospheric condensation on their external surfaces, the effect of condensation on window energy loss needs to be examined. In this paper, the external condensation process is analyzed and the atmospheric water vapor mass condensation rate has been obtained by utilizing a simplified transient uni-dimensional finite difference model. The results show that this model has enhanced the assessment of the potential for atmospheric condensation on windows in hot, humid climates and in predicting the amount of condensation expected, as well as the associated energy loss for given thermal and moisture conditions. The numerical computation of the model is able to account for condensation and its impact on the temperature gradient across the window. Thermal analysis of both single and insulated double-glazed windows under condensation conditions is presented. The work also includes the computational procedure used and the results or a case study demonstrating the model's capabilities.

El Diasty, R.; Budaiwi, I.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE RELATIVE ... - Springer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

aqueous solutions [5, 6], while relative constants for the methane–butane series [ 7-9] and for cyclopentane [10] were measured by photolysis and radiolysis ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: 2006 High Temperature Membrane...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes, Andrew Herring, Colorado School of Mines (PDF 213 KB) Design and Development of High-Performance...

162

Humidity response characteristics of barium titanate  

SciTech Connect

Humidity response characteristics of BaTiO[sub 3] doped with lanthanum were examined using complex impedance measurements. A sample with relative density of 71% showed a nearly log-linear increase of conductivity with humidity at 118 Hz. The average capacitance of bulk changed little with humidity; however, the resistance showed a gradual decrease. The equivalent circuit explaining such an observation was presented.

Hwang, Tae Jin; Choi, Gyeong Man (Pohang Inst. of Science and Tech., Pohang (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Solar drying studies in a low humidity environment  

SciTech Connect

Comprehensive field performance data are reported for a solar cabinet dryer under low humidity conditions of local harmattan season. The field data collected provide a frame of reference for similar data on dryer performance gathered under the normal local conditions of high relative humidity. The relative humidity, it is found, plays a most decisive role in the entire drying process.

Mojola, O.O.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Mechanism for the Behavior of Hydroactive Materials Used in Humidity Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The theory of operation of humidity sensors has not been widely discussed in the literature. In particular, no convincing explanation has been given as to why they respond to relative humidity (RH) rather than to an absolute measure of humidity, ...

P. S. Anderson

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Hygrometry with Temperature Stabilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for stabilizing the temperature of air to allow the use of temperature-sensitive, humidity sensors for direct determination of an invariant humidity characteristic such as specific humidity and/or its fluctuations. Problems ...

Krzysztof E. Haman; Andrzej M. Makulski

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Development of a Humid Climate Definition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The role of humidity in indoor air quality has become of increasing concern in recent years. High indoor humidities can result in microbial growth on building surfaces, resulting in poor indoor air quality, as well as damage to the building and its contents. In addition to the IAQ impacts, high indoor humidity can cause occupant discomfort. The public review draft of ASHRAE Standard 62-1989R included requirements for installation of dehumidification controls in buildings with mechanical cooling located in humid climates. The draft standard included a definition of humid climate: where, during the warmest six consecutive months of a typical year, the wetbulb temperature is 19°C (67°F) or higher for 3500 hours or more, or 23°C (73°F) or higher for 1750 hours or more. This definition is that used in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals to define the humid climate region. The only areas in the continental United States which meet these criteria are close to the Gulf coast, all of Florida, and along the Atlantic coast as far north as southern North Carolina While it is clear that buildings in this humid climate region need to be carefully designed with regard to humidity control, it is also clear that buildings in other areas have an equal need for humidity control. The work described in this paper examines a number of potential indicators of "humid climate" and correlates them with the prevalence of indoor humidity problems in three building types. The FSEC 2.3 energy simulation computer program (Kerestecioglu et al. 1989) was used to simulate the three building types, using weather from 10 cities in the southeastern U.S. The FSEC software was selected because it is capable of accurately modeling moisture transfer within the building space and the dehumidification performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions, and predicting resulting humidity levels. The buildings modeled were a retail store (similar to a K-Mart or Wal-Mart), a large office building, and a fast food restaurant. Existing building models were employed for this study with ventilation rates in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 62-1989. The HVAC systems used were typical for these building types, without any special humidity control measures. The selected indicators of humidity problems are the number of hours per year with space humidity above 60% RH and the number of occupied hours with space humidity above 60% RH. TMY2 weather data (NREL 1995) for 10 cities was used for the annual building energy simulations. TMY2 data was also used to calculate a number of potential humid climate parameters for the same 10 cities. These included: the number of hours and the wetbulb-degree hours above 3 different wetbulb temperatures, the number of hours and grain-hours above 4 different humidity ratios, and the sensible, latent and total Ventilation Load Index (VLI). The VLI is the load (latent, sensible or total) generated by bringing one cfm of outdoor air to space neutral conditions over the course of one year (Hamman, et al. 1997). The ability of each climate parameter to predict indoor humidity problems was analyzed and compared. Implications of using the selected parameters to define a humid climate will be discussed

Hedrick, R. L.; Shirey, D. B.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

NEW ALUMINUM OXIDE HUMIDITY ELEMENT. Second Report  

SciTech Connect

An aluminum oxide humidity sensing element is discussed. These elements, which were developed primarily for use in radiosonde weather measuring equipmeni, have a fast response over the entire humidity range and through a broad temperature range of -80 deg F to +l35 deg F. The elements are a marked improvement over previous humidity sensing devices, and their use in specially designed testers allows measurements to be made which were previously unobtainable. Among their other desirable features, these elements are small and lightweight, can be made inexpensively of readily available materials, and can be mass produced. (auth)

Stover, C.M.

1962-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Lead Research and Development Activity for DOEs High Temperature...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Membrane and MEA durability (C) Performance: High MEA performance at low relative humidity (RH) and high temperature Technical Targets FSEC plays a supporting role to the six...

169

Exploring Maximum Humidity Control and Energy Conservation Opportunities with Single Duct Single Zone Air-Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humidity control for single-duct single-zone (SDSZ) constant volume air handling units is known to be a challenge. The operation of these systems is governed by space temperature only. Under mild weather conditions, discharge air temperature can get much higher than the space dew point and the dehumidification capability of the system is diminished. Buildings served by this type of air handler often experience exceptionally high humidity levels under humid weather conditions. Many potential solutions and improvements exist. However, these solutions require system modifications or upgrades and therefore are less attractive to some facility owners. A Critical Humidity Control Program (CHCP) was developed to change the normal control sequence of the air-handling units during high humidity periods to help improve the moisture removal capability of the system. The program was not designed to solve the problem completely, but the overall humidity levels can be lowered and controlled within a reasonably low range (58% - 65%) for a significant part of the high humidity seasons. This approach is relatively easy to implement and does not require any hardware changes. This paper also summarizes various potential solutions to improve humidity control for SDSZ units. The advantages and disadvantages for each solution are compared.

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

An Improved Humidity Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A common feature of all capacitance humidity sensors is their undesirable hysteresis effect due to the unequal adsorption and desorption of water vapor on the surfaces of their dielectric porous materials. To eliminate this error, an improved ...

Shixuan Pang; Hartmut Graßl; Horst Jäger

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Novel Approaches to Immobilized Heteropoly Acid Systems for High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Polymer-Type Membranes - Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Original research was carried out at the CSM and the 3M Company from March 2007 through September 2011. The research was aimed at developing new to the world proton electrolyte materials for use in hydrogen fuel cells, in particular with high proton conductivity under hot and dry conditions (>100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH). Broadly stated, the research at 3M and between 3M and CSM that led to new materials took place in two phases: In the first phase, hydrocarbon membranes that could be formed by photopolymerization of monomer mixtures were developed for the purpose of determining the technical feasibility of achieving the program's Go/No-Go decision conductivity target of >100mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. In the second phase, attempts were made to extend the achieved conductivity level to fluorinated material systems with the expectation that durability and stability would be improved (over the hydrocarbon material). Highlights included: Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized photocurable terpolymer derived from di-vinyl-silicotungstic acid (85%), n-butyl acrylate, and hexanediol diacrylate were prepared at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit an initial conductivity of 107mS/cm at 120°C and 47%RH (PolyPOM85v) using a Bekktech LLC sample fixture and TestEquity oven. Later independent testing by Bekktech LLC, using a different preheating protocol, on the same material, yielded a conductivity value of approximately 20mS/cm at 120°C and 50%RH. The difference in measured values is likely to have been the result of an instability of properties for the material or a difference in the measurement method. A dispersed catalyst fuel cell was fabricated and tested using a 150¼m thick HPA-based photocurable membrane (above, PolyPOM75v), exhibiting a current density of greater than 300mA/cm2 at 0.5V (H2/Air 800/1800sccm 70°C/75%RH ambient outlet pressure). Multiple lots of a co-polymer based on poly-trifluorovinylether (TFVE) derived HPA were synthesized and fabricated into films, Generation II films. These materials showed proton conductivities as high as 1 S/cm under high RH conditions. However, the materials suffered from compromised properties due to impure monomers and low molecular weights. Multiple lots of an HPA-immobilized fluoropolymer derived from preformed PVDF-HFP (Generation III films) were synthesized and formed into membranes at 3M and characterized at 3M to exhibit conductivity reaching approximately 75mS/cm at 120°C/40%RH using a Bekktech sample fixture and TestEquity oven (optimized membrane, at close of program). Initial fuel cell fabrication and testing for this new class of membrane yielded negative results (no measureable proton conductivity); however, the specific early membrane that was used for the two 5cm2 MEAs was later determined to have <1 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH using the Bekktech fixture, vs. ca. 200 mS/cm at 80°C/80%RH for samples of the later-optimized type described above. Future work in this area (beyond the presently reported contract) should include additional attempts to fabricate and test fuel cells based on the later-optimized Generation II and III polymer. A manufacturing study was performed which predicted no difficulties in any future scale up of the materials.

Herring, Andrew M; Horan, James L; Aieta, Niccolo V; Sachdeva, Sonny; Kuo, Mei-Chen; Ren, Hui; Lingutla, Anitha; Emery, Michael; Haugen, Gregory M; Yandrasits, Michael A; Sharma, Neeraj; Coggio, William D; Hamrock, Steven J; Frey, Matthew H

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

172

Chemical Engineering & Processing Humidity Information at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Chemical Engineering & Processing Humidity Information at NIST. Chemical Engineering & Processing Humidity Information at NIST. ...

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

173

Optical humidity sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

Tarvin, J.A.

1987-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

174

Optical humidity sensor  

SciTech Connect

An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

Tarvin, Jeffrey A. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Uncertainties in climatological tropical humidity profiles: Some implications for estimating the greenhouse effect  

SciTech Connect

The vertical profile of water vapor, the principal infrared-absorbing gas in the atmosphere, is an important factor in determining the energy balance of the climate system. This study examines uncertainties in calculating a climatological humidity profile: specifically one derived from radiosonde data representative of the moist and highly convective region over the western tropical Pacific Ocean. Uncertainties in the humidity data are large in conditions of low temperature or low humidity in the mid- and upper troposphere. Results derived from a single United States station (Koror) and from an average of four United States-operated stations (all near the equator west of the date line) yield nearly identical results. No humidity measurements are reported in fully the upper third of the troposphere. The implications of these uncertainties for determining the climatological humidity profile are quantitatively assessed by bracketing the range of plausible assumptions for unreported humidity to produce extreme estimates of the climatological profile. These profiles, together with the observed climatological temperature profile, are used as input to a radiative transfer model to ascertain the uncertainty in clear-sky outgoing infrared radiance due to water vapor uncertainties. The radiance uncertainty is shown to be comparable in magnitude to the purely radiative response of the tropical atmosphere to doubling carbon dioxide. The uncertainty associated with unmeasured upper-tropospheric humidity is approximately equal to that arising from incompletely measured midtropospheric humidity. Clear-sky radiative uncertainties, however, are modest relative to the uncertainty associated with variations of infrared absorption due to clouds, as demonstrated by introducing citrus ice particles into the radiative transfer calculations.

Gutzler, D.S. (Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

How factoring in humidity adds value  

SciTech Connect

Humidity plays a major role in health, comfort, and production. This article is a brief overview of the technologies available and a detailed explanation of how to calculate humidification loads. The problems caused by dry air vary from one building to another and from one area to another. But basically, there are three major problem types: static electricity, poor moisture stability, health and comfort problems. In today's business offices, static electricity can disrupt operations and increase operating costs. In printing facilities, low humidity causes poor ink registration. Also, sheets of paper stick together and jam machines, wasting time and paper. In computer rooms and data processing areas, dry air leads to static electric discharges that cause circuit board failure, dust buildup on heads, and storage tape breakage. Moisture stability impacts industrial processes and the materials they use. In many cases, product and material deterioration is directly related to moisture fluctuations and lack of humidity control. Books, antiques, paper, wood and wood products, and fruits and vegetables are a few items that can be ruined by low or changing humidity. The health impact of low humidity shows up in dry nasal and thread membranes, dry and itchy skin, and irritated eyes. For employees, this means greater susceptibility to colds and other viral infections. The results is higher absenteeism when humidity is low, which translates into lost productivity and profits.

Berlin, G. (Nortec Industries, Inc., Ogdensburg, NY (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Case Study: Sick Building Syndrome in a Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An indepth environmental investigation was conducted at a four-story building officing 1200 employees in Oklahoma. A preassessment and walkthrough of the facility revealed extensive ongoing renovations throughout the building. Renovations consisted of installations of new partitions, carpeting, ceiling tiles, and repainting. Management was receiving numerous complaints related to the indoor air quality from all parts of the building, particularly the unrenovated areas. The majority of employee complaints originated from the unrenovated second floor; in contrast, few complaints had been submitted from the finished fourth floor area. Due to the disparity in employee complaints from these two floors, the investigation focused on a comparison of the air quality on the second and fourth floors. The initial walkthrough revealed inordinate amounts of dust in the occupied space of the second floor. High humidity levels were measured throughout the building. Other potential problems -- i.e., poor lighting, job stress, poor air circulation, stuffy air, thermal discomfort. smokers in the area --were also noted at this point. Questionnaires were made available to occupants on both floors to attain a better understanding of employee problems and assist in formulating an investigation plan. Collectively the nonspecificity of the responses tended to indicate building-related problems often described by the term ''Sick Building Syndrome" (SBS). Based on the questionnaire responses, the walkthrough observations, and the lack of specific illnesses, the investigation focused on identification of and testing for sources of chemical and particulate emissions and possible inadequacies of the mechanical ventilation system in providing the necessary amount of outside air. Although the building investigation revealed few signs of biological contamination, problems of this nature are not uncommon in climates with high humidity. The potential for biological proliferation in buildings with excessive humidity are discussed in the paper. The SBS causation was multifactorial and thus could not be attributed to a single etiologic factor. Temperature and humidity problems were partially attributed to the inadequate provision of chilled water (at a low enough temperature) to ensure proper tempering and dehumidification of the supply air. These periodic excursions in temperature and relative humidity were compounded by an associated reduction in outside air which exacerbated the situation. Other recommendations had to do with improving the filtration system, balancing of the air handling system, improving the ventilation efficiency, separation of smokers and nonsmokers, and the infusion of a fastidious cleaning and maintenance program combined with an adequate supply of fresh air per ASHRAE 62-89 specifications.

Shaughnessy, R. J.; Levetin, E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Forest Products: Acoustic Humidity Sensor  

SciTech Connect

The new acoustic sensor, designed as a humidity-control system for the paper and textile industries, can both eliminate overdrying and improve product quality by measuring humidity precisely. This new fact sheet explains how the process works.

Poole, L.; Recca, L.

1999-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

179

An Intelligent Chilled Mirror Humidity Instrument  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An intelligent, chilled mirror humidity instrument has been designed for use on buoys and ships. Our design goal is for the instrument to make high-quality dewpoint temperature measurements for a period of up to one year from an unattended ...

David S. Hosom; Gennaro H. Crescenti; Clifford L. Winget; Sumner Weisman; Donald P. Doucet; James F. Price

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Theoretical and experimental analysis of desiccant wheel performance for low humidity drying system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The drying process is influenced by three main factors temperature, flow rate and humidity, resulting in the drying process of hot air required in accordance with the character of materials with low humidity, so it can speed up the drying process. Malaysia ... Keywords: desiccant wheel, temperature and humidity, water evaporation

Tri Suyono; Sohif Mat; Muhammad Yahya; Muhd. Hafiz Ruslan; Azami Zaharim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Mechanisms of Summertime Subtropical Southern Indian Ocean Sea Surface Temperature Variability: On the Importance of Humidity Anomalies and the Meridional Advection of Water Vapor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is well known that some austral summertime subtropical Indian Ocean sea surface temperature (SST) variability correlates with rainfall over certain regions of Africa that depend on rainfall for their economic well-being. Recent studies have ...

A. M. Chiodi; D. E. Harrison

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Monthly Precipitation-Temperature Relations and Temperature Prediction over the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The monthly mean precipitation-air temperature (MMP-MMAT) relation over the United States has been examined by analyzing the observed MMP and MMAT during the period of 1931–87. The authors’ main purpose is to examine the possibility of using MMP ...

Jin Huang; Huug M. van den Dool

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Evaluation of Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This technical highlight describes NREL research to analyze the indoor relative humidity in three home types in the hot-humid climate zone, and examine the impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls. As the Building America program researches construction of homes that achieve greater source energy savings over typical mid-1990s construction, proper modeling of whole-house latent loads and operation of humidity control equipment has become a high priority. Long-term high relative humidity can cause health and durability problems in homes, particularly in a hot-humid climate. In this study, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used the latest EnergyPlus tool equipped with the moisture capacitance model to analyze the indoor relative humidity in three home types: a Building America high-performance home; a mid-1990s reference home; and a 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)-compliant home in hot-humid climate zones. They examined the impacts of various dehumidification equipment and controls on the high-performance home where the dehumidification equipment energy use can become a much larger portion of whole-house energy consumption. The research included a number of simulated cases: thermostat reset, A/C with energy recovery ventilator, heat exchanger assisted A/C, A/C with condenser reheat, A/C with desiccant wheel dehumidifier, A/C with DX dehumidifier, A/C with energy recovery ventilator, and DX dehumidifier. Space relative humidity, thermal comfort, and whole-house source energy consumption were compared for indoor relative humidity set points of 50%, 55%, and 60%. The study revealed why similar trends of high humidity were observed in all three homes regardless of energy efficiency, and why humidity problems are not necessarily unique in the high-performance home. Thermal comfort analysis indicated that occupants are unlikely to notice indoor humidity problems. The study confirmed that supplemental dehumidification is needed to maintain space relative humidity (RH) below 60% in a hot-humid climate home. Researchers also concluded that while all the active dehumidification options included in the study successfully controlled space relative humidity excursions, the increase in whole-house energy consumption was much more sensitive to the humidity set point than the chosen technology option. In the high-performance home, supplemental dehumidification equipment results in a significant source energy consumption penalty at 50% RH set point (12.6%-22.4%) compared to the consumption at 60% RH set point (1.5%-2.7%). At 50% and 55% RH set points, A/C with desiccant wheel dehumidifier and A/C with ERV and high-efficiency DX dehumidifier stand out as the two cases resulting in the smallest increase of source energy consumption. At an RH set point of 60%, all explicit dehumidification technologies result in similar insignificant increases in source energy consumption and thus are equally competitive.

Not Available

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Chemical maximum humidity indicator update report. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Raw materials and manufactured parts sometimes must be kept in a controlled-humidity environment. The use of moisture-sensitive systems to indicate the maximum level of humidity exposure is discussed. A chemical indicator made from deliquescent salts and water-soluble dyes provides an irreversible color change at discrete levels of relative humidity. The performance and long-term-stability characteristics of the indicator are described.

Abel, W.B.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Humidity Required for Ice Nucleation from the Vapor onto Silver Iodide and Lead Iodide Aerosols over the Temperature Range ?6 to ?67°C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ice saturation ratio at which 1% of aged silver iodide and lead iodide aerosol particles nucleate ice from moist air is observed to depend on temperature. Between roughly ?30 and ?67°C the threshold for both aerosol types rises slowly with ...

Andrew G. Detwiler; Bernard Vonnegut

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

AIR ALPHA PROPORTIONAL COUNTER INSENSITIVE TO ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY  

SciTech Connect

A conventional alpha proportional counter which uses air as the counter gas is sensitive to high relative humidity and generates spurious pulses that cannot be distinguished from actual alpha pulses. It was found possible to operate such a counter satisfactorily at high relative humidity by passing a small current ( approximates 15 ma) through the center wire. In this manner the center wire is heated and the relative humidity of the surrounding sheath of air is reduced sufficiently so that operation of the counter at high relative humidity is comparable to operation with dry air, Two different mechanisms are proposed for the formation of spurious pulses in such a counter at high relative humidity. (auth)

Ferrari, A.M.R.; Borkowski, C.J.

1962-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Monin-Obukhov similarity functions for the structure parameters of temperature and humidity in the unstable surface layer: results from high-resolution large-eddy simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-eddy simulations (LES) of free convective to near-neutral boundary layers are used to investigate the surface layer turbulence. The article focuses on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) relationships that relate the structure ...

Björn Maronga

188

Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.  

SciTech Connect

Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

Appelhans, Leah

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Temporal Variations in Tucson, Arizona Summertime Atmospheric Moisture, Temperature and Weather Stress Levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Summertime temperature, dewpoint, relative humidity, apparent temperature and weather stress levels have not changed significantly over the past 37 years at the Tucson, Arizona Municipal Airport. However, several of these variables show ...

Robert C. Balling Jr.; Sandra W. Brazel

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Direct Calculation of Thermodynamic Wet-Bulb Temperature as a Function of Pressure and Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple analytical method was developed for directly calculating the thermodynamic wet-bulb temperature from air temperature and the vapor pressure (or relative humidity) at elevations up to 4500 m above MSL was developed. This methodology was ...

Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Douglas R. Cobos; Henry W. Loescher; Colin S. Campbell

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Direct Calculation of Thermodynamic Wet Bulb Temperature as a Function of Pressure and Elevation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple analytical method was developed for directly calculating the thermodynamic wet bulb temperature from air temperature and the vapor pressure (or relative humidity) at any desired elevation. This methodology was based on the fact that the ...

Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Douglas R. Cobos; Henry W. Loescher; Colin S. Campbell

192

Climatology of Chicago Area Urban-Rural Differences in Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hourly measurements at an urban airport and at a rural laboratory have been used in a study of Chicago area urban-rural humidity differences. Although the relative humidity was usually lower in the city than in the country, largely a consequence ...

Bernice Ackerman

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Effect of Return Air Leakage on Air Conditioner Performance in Hot/Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of return air leakage from hot/humid attic spaces on the performance of a residential air conditioner. Tests were conducted in psychrometric facilities where temperatures and humidities could be controlled closely. Return air leakage from hot attic spaces was simulated by assuming adiabatic mixing of the indoor air at normal conditions with the attic air at high temperatures. Effective capacity and Energy Efficiency Ratio both decreased with increased return air leakage. However, power consumption was relatively constant for all variables except outdoor temperature, which meant that for the same power consumption, the unit delivered much lower performance when there was return air leakage. The increase in sensible heat ratio (SHR) with increasing leakage showed one of the most detrimental effects of return air leakage on performance.

O'Neal, D. L.; Rodriguez, A.; Davis, M.; Kondepudi, S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Continuous Humidity Monitoring in a Tropical Region with the Equatorial Atmosphere Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A radar remote sensing technique that estimates humidity profiles using a wind profiler is applied to the equatorial atmosphere radar (EAR) to monitor detailed humidity variations in tropical regions. Turbulence echo power intensity is related to ...

Jun-ichi Furumoto; Toshitaka Tsuda; Satoshi Iwai; Toshiaki Kozu

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Short-Term versus Climatological Relationship between Precipitation and Tropospheric Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the observed relationship of precipitation with column relative humidity (CRH), a metric of tropospheric humidity, is examined in order to address a known discrepancy inherent to past studies. A composite analysis of satellite data ...

Hirohiko Masunaga

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Univariate and Multivariate Assimilation of AIRS Humidity Retrievals with the Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study uses the local ensemble transform Kalman filter to assimilate Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) specific humidity retrievals with pseudo relative humidity (pseudo-RH) as the observation variable. Three approaches are tested: (i) ...

Junjie Liu; Hong Li; Eugenia Kalnay; Eric J. Kostelich; Istvan Szunyogh

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High equipment first cost and high operating costs, if electricity is used to drive such a system, have prohibited the application of active humidity control equipment in comfort conditioning in the past. Instead, passive techniques have been applied. A comparison of passive capacity control methods to control humidity shows that only the combined face and bypass and variable air volume system shows improved performance with respect to space humidity control, dew point depression, and response to perturbations. A gas-fired desiccant humidity pump will provide economical humidity control in existing and new construction using VAV or constant volume air distribution systems. The humidity pump is designed as a packaged make-up air module. It is coupled to new or existing conventional air-conditioning system via a duct. It consists of a triple integrated heat-exchanger combining (liquid) desiccant dehumidification with indirect evaporative cooling, a brine interchanger, and a gas-fired brine heater to regenerate the desiccant. Field experiments of two humidity pumps on existing commercial buildings have been initiated. Each system dehumidifies 5000 scfm of make-up air to meet all the latent loads, which is then fed to conventional, electric-driven HVAC equipment which meet all the sensible loads.

Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Relative Humidity Effect on the High-Frequency Attenuation of Water Vapor Flux Measured by a Closed-Path Eddy Covariance System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study the high-frequency loss of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) fluxes, measured by a closed-path eddy covariance system, were studied, and the related correction factors through the cospectral transfer function method were ...

Ivan Mammarella; Samuli Launiainen; Tiia Gronholm; Petri Keronen; Jukka Pumpanen; Üllar Rannik; Timo Vesala

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

Cook, DR

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Transparent Humidity Sensor Using Cross-Linked Polyelectrolyte Membrane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the fabrication of a porous cross-linked polyelectrolyte membrane and the characterization of its humidity sensitivity performance. Electrostatic self-assembly, combined with acid treatment, and post-deposition annealing produced the membrane. The fabrication process offers the ability to control the thickness of the membrane, as well as enabling the engineering of the humidity sensitivity properties. A transparent humidity sensor was fabricated by integrating the membrane between two parallel electrodes. In order to improve the moisture absorption and diffusion, both the polyelectrolyte layer and the electrode were made porous. The membrane was cross-linked to enhance the durability in high humid environments. Such a polyelectrolyte membrane showed high sensitivity to relative humidity variation over a range of 25%–99%. The see-through property of the structure adds extra features and benefits to the sensor.

Zhang, Q.; Smith, James R.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Hua, Feng

2009-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Abstract Radiative Cooling in Hot Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Passive radiative cooling of buildings has been an underachieving concept for decades. The few deployments have generally been in dry climates with low solar angles. The greatest need for cooling is in the tropics. The high humidity endemic to many of these regions severely limits the passive cooling available per radiative area. To wrest temperature relief from humid climates, not just nocturnal cooling but solar irradiance, both direct and indirect, must be addressed. This investigation explores the extent to which thermal radiation can be used to cool buildings in the tropics. It concludes that inexpensive materials could be fabricated into roof panels providing passive cooling day and night in tropical locations with an unobstructed view of sky.

Aubrey Jaffer

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Power Potential of Geothermal Wells Related to Reservoir Temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For equal flows of hot water wells, the electric power which can be generated increases with feed water temperature. However, high temperature wells discharge greater flows than that of lower temperature wells of similar permeability, with the result of enhanced power potential. In fact, where fluids are exploited utilizing two-stage flash, these factors combine to give a power potential which is proportional to the cube of the feed water temperature in degrees celsius. Hence a feed of 315 C would generate twice the power of that of water at 250 C for wells of good permeability and where the reservoir exists under conditions of boiling point with depth. Higher temperature water (exceeding 300 C) has, however, a commensurate higher tendency to mineral deposition in reinjection water lines and this disposes design to single-stage flash with slightly reduced power, compared with the two-stage alternative.

James, Russell

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

203

Alternative Forms of Humidity Information in Global Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Global data analysis procedures were developed to perform data assimilation for observed geopotential heights wind components, and relative humidity. These procedures were implemented in conjunction with a global spectral forecast model (GSM) and ...

Donald C. Norquist

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Orographic Flow Response to Variations in Upstream Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of upstream relative humidity (RH) on low-level wind and precipitation patterns for low-speed, statically stable flows over a mountain are investigated using idealized two- and three-dimensional numerical-simulation experiments in ...

Heather Dawn Reeves; Richard Rotunno

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

PDFs of Tropical Tropospheric Humidity: Measurements and Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial variations in the probability density functions (PDFs) of relative humidity (RH) in the tropical and subtropical troposphere are examined using observations from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (...

Ju-Mee Ryoo; Takeru Igusa; Darryn W. Waugh

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Humidity effects in ionization chambers  

SciTech Connect

Capacitance variations due to humidity alterations have been suggested as the cause of ionization chamber current variations. The validity of the arguments is seriously questioned on several points. (auth)

Bengtsson, L.G.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Humidity Profiles over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere affects climate change through radiative balance and surface evaporation. The variabilities of atmospheric humidity profile over oceans from daily to interannual time scales were examined using ...

W. Timothy Liu; Wenqing Tang; Pearn P. Niiler

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Environmental conditions and responses of circus elephants transported by truck and railcar during relatively high and low temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No published research exists regarding the transport of circus elephants despite evidence of stressful conditions in transported livestock. Shipments of elephants with participating circuses and private exhibitors were identified during relatively high and low temperatures to characterize the transport environment and the animals' response to transport. Ten hot and five cold weather trips with seven circuses were surveyed. During each trip, external and internal temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation were continuously measured during both extremes. Concentrations of ammonia and carbon monoxide during transport were also determined. Body temperature from a sample of elephants for each circus or exhibitor was also measured continuously as an indication of the animal's physiological response. Blood samples were taken an hour before, immediately before, immediately after, and an hour after transport to determine plasma cortisol concentrations as an indication of psycho-physiological response. Direct and video observations were made and analyzed for the occurrence of normal and abnormal behaviors. The temperature of the transport vehicle during transport maintained temperatures with a range under 36?C and above 0?C during hot and cool weather surveys, respectively. Concentrations of ammonia or carbon monoxide were not detectable during transport. Body temperature for each elephant was maintained within a 1.5?C range. Increases in body temperature were observed during or after physical activity with a maximum of 37.5?C. Significant differences in cortisol concentrations were found between the first and second (p=0.015) and the first and third (p=0.028) sample times during one trip, though appear minimal and may reflect arousal. No other significant differences were found between sample times. Observations during transport identified that the stereotypic behavior of weaving occurred in some elephants up to 80% of the time in transport time, although animals were observed to eat and drink, among other behaviors associated with a positive environment. Due to the lack of extreme temperatures within the transport vehicle during transport, biologically insignificant fluctuations in cortisol concentrations, stable body temperature, occurrence of natural behaviors, comparatively robust overall health, and the absence of the stressors in transported livestock, transport does not appear to be inherently stressful or compromise the welfare of the surveyed elephants.

Toscano, Michael Jeffrey

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Calibration of Hygrometers with the Hybrid Humidity ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Hybrid Humidity Generator ... The HHG combines the two-pressure and divided-flow humidity generation techniques (hence the name “hybrid”). ...

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

210

Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Us Department Contacts Media Contacts Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study Title Data Center Economizer Contamination and Humidity Study Publication Type...

211

2.3.4.7. Humidity standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... 2.3.4.7. Humidity standards. ... The designs shown in this catalog are drift-eliminating and may be suitable for artifacts other than humidity cylinders. ...

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

212

A METALLICITY-SPIN TEMPERATURE RELATION IN DAMPED Lyalpha SYSTEMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report evidence for an anti-correlation between spin temperature T{sub s} and metallicity [Z/H], detected at 3.6sigma significance in a sample of 26 damped Lyalpha absorbers (DLAs) at redshifts 0.09 gas temperature distribution. The trend between T{sub s} and [Z/H] can be explained by the larger number of radiation pathways for gas cooling in galaxies with high metal abundances, resulting in a high cold gas fraction, and hence, a low spin temperature. Conversely, low-metallicity galaxies have fewer cooling routes, yielding a larger warm gas fraction and a high T{sub s} . Most DLAs at z > 1.7 have low metallicities, [Z/H] tight correlation between DLA metallicity and the kinematic widths of metal lines. Most high-z DLAs are likely to arise in galaxies with low masses (M {sub vir} gas fractions.

Kanekar, Nissim [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Smette, Alain [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Briggs, Frank H. [RSAA, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Chengalur, Jayaram N., E-mail: nkanekar@nrao.ed [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Phase relation between global temperature and atmospheric carbon dioxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The primary ingredient of Anthropogenic Global Warming hypothesis is the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide variations are the cause for temperature variations. In this paper we discuss this assumption and analyze it on basis of bi-centenary measurements and using a relaxation model which causes phase shifts and delays.

Stallinga, Peter

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Oxidation Mechanisms in Relation to High Temperature Crack ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

and was submerged in a stirred constant temperature distilled water bath. The constant .... Because the data in Figure 4 do not allow one to determine whether oxygen partial pressure or water ... The shape of the curve is similar to the one ...

215

Improving Comfort in Hot-Humid Climates with a Whole-House Dehumidifier, Windermere, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining comfort in a home can be challenging in hot-humid climates. At the common summer temperature set point of 75 degrees F, the perceived air temperature can vary by 11 degrees F because higher indoor humidity reduces comfort. Often the air conditioner (AC) thermostat set point is lower than the desirable cooling level to try to increase moisture removal so that the interior air is not humid or "muggy." However, this method is not always effective in maintaining indoor relative humidity (RH) or comfort. In order to quantify the performance of a combined whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) AC system, researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America team Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored the operation of two Lennox AC systems coupled with a Honeywell DH150 TrueDRY whole-house dehumidifier for a six-month period. By using a WHD to control moisture levels (latent cooling) and optimizing a central AC to control temperature (sensible cooling), improvements in comfort can be achieved while reducing utility costs. Indoor comfort for this study was defined as maintaining indoor conditions at below 60% RH and a humidity ratio of 0.012 lbm/lbm while at common dry bulb set point temperatures of 74 degrees -80 degrees F. In addition to enhanced comfort, controlling moisture to these levels can reduce the risk of other potential issues such as mold growth, pests, and building component degradation. Because a standard AC must also reduce dry bulb air temperature in order to remove moisture, a WHD is typically needed to support these latent loads when sensible heat removal is not desired.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Subseasonal and Interannual Temperature Variability in Relation to Extreme Temperature Occurrence over East Asia  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates interannual variability in the frequency of occurrence of daily surface air temperature (SAT) extremes over East Asia in summer and winter between 1979 and 2009. We examine the dominant seasonal SAT patterns, as obtained ...

Hiroyuki Ito; Nathaniel C. Johnson; Shang-Ping Xie

217

Surface Water Vapor Pressure and Temperature Trends in North America during 1948–2010  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over one-quarter billion hourly values of temperature and relative humidity observed at 309 stations located across North America during 1948–2010 were studied. The water vapor pressure was determined and seasonal averages were computed. Data were ...

V. Isaac; W. A. van Wijngaarden

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Evaluation of Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes (Fact Sheet), Building America: Technical Highlight, Building Technologies Program (BTP)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Humidity Control Options in Hot-Humid Climate Homes As the Building America program researches construction of homes that achieve greater source energy savings over typical mid-1990s construction, proper modeling of whole-house latent loads and operation of humidity control equipment has become a high priority. Long-term high relative humidity can cause health and durability problems in homes, particularly in a hot-humid climate. In this study, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used the latest EnergyPlus tool equipped with the moisture capacitance model to analyze the indoor relative humidity in three home types: a Building America high-performance home; a mid- 1990s reference home; and a 2006 International Energy Conservation

219

Relations between Temperature and Residential Natural Gas Consumption in the Central and Eastern United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increased U.S. natural gas price volatility since the mid-to-late-1980s deregulation generally is attributed to the deregulated market being more sensitive to temperature-related residential demand. This study therefore quantifies relations ...

Reed P. Timmer; Peter J. Lamb

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Problem 7-3: The air enters with a dry-bulb temperature of 50 o F and, at 50% relative humidity, with a wet-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with our Total Dry Scrubbing Systems. MWC or RDF facilities using conventional spray dryer/fabric filter slurry in the spray dryer without the likelihood of wall build up or moisture carry over. Since carbon are injected into the flue gas. The reactor tower is basically a vertical double annulus, which

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Humidity effects on calibrations of radiation therapy electrometers  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To eliminate variation in electrometer calibration results caused by high humidity and suboptimal connectors on the standard capacitors and to implement hardware that prevents overloading of the input stage of electrometers during calibration. Methods: A humidity-controlled cabinet was installed to provide a low-humidity environment for the standard capacitors. All of the coaxial BNC connections were replaced with Triax (TRB) connectors with the exception of the output from the voltage source. A three-stage RC filter with cascaded RC low-pass sections was designed and tested. Results: The installation of the humidity cabinet resulted in a major improvement in the stability and reproducibility of the electrometer calibration system. For the three years since this upgrade, the Ionizing Radiation Standards (IRS) electrometer calibration results have been consistent regardless of the ambient relative humidity in the lab. The connector replacements improved grounding in the calibration circuit. The three-stage filter allows the voltage at the output to rise in an S-shaped waveform, resulting in a smooth rise of the current through the isolation resistor from zero and back again, with no abrupt transition. For the filter design chosen, 99.99% of the charge is delivered within 6 s. Conclusions: A three-way improvement to the calibration measurement system was successful in eliminating the observed variations, resulting in an electrometer calibration measurement system that is unaffected by humidity and allowing reliable year-round calibrations of any electrometer encountered since the implementation of these changes.

Downton, B.; Walker, S. [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Bldg. M35, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, therefore, comparability to the true ambient concentrations of tritium.

Eberhart, C.F.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Temperature, Humidity, and Pressure Response of Radiosondes at Low Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of radiosondes to an instantaneous change of environment was studied by taking the instruments from a warm building into the cold environment at South Pole Station. After being initialized inside, the radiosondes were carried outside ...

Stephen R. Hudson; Michael S. Town; Von P. Walden; Stephen G. Warren

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Evaluation of Energy Efficiency Measures in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hot and humid climates present some of the most complex challenges for sustainable building designs. High temperatures coupled with high humidity create extreme comfort problems and exacerbate the potential for condensation, mold and mildew. These are usually remedied with conventional mechanical air conditioning systems, but the move toward sustainability urges designers to find less energy intensive solutions. An integrated design process coupled with energy modeling and lifecycle analysis can unite design teams around desired outcomes to provide an optimized design solution for projects in these climates. Such an approach involves first minimizing building loads and then reducing residual energy consumed by the HVAC systems. This paper presents an integrated design approach to evaluating the most efficient energy measures in hot and humid climates and summarizes the findings of a series of cases using this approach, including international examples of office, education, and small retail buildings in ASHRAE Climate Zones 1A and 2A.

Zhao, Y.; Erwine, B.; Leonard, P.; Pease, B.; Dole, A.; Lee, A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

AMT-4 RADISONDE TRANSMITTER MODIFICATION ASSEMBLY (USING THE NEW ALUMINUM- OXIDE HUMIDITY ELEMENT)  

SciTech Connect

A modification to the AMT-4 radiosonde transmitter and modulator which permits the use of a new aluminum oxide humidity element is described. The modification is simple enough to be made by relatively unskilled personnel in the field and involves: using the newly developed aluminum oxide humidity element, slightly modifying the transmitter, and slightly revising the modulator circuitry. The polarization problem usually associated with using humidity elements in a direct-current circuit is also minimized by this modification. (auth)

Stover, C.M.

1961-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Thermal Operator and Dispersion Relation in QED at Finite Temperature and Chemical Potential  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Combining the thermal operator representation with the dispersion relation in QED at finite temperature and chemical potential, we determine the complete retarded photon self-energy only from its absorptive part at zero temperature. As an application of this method, we show that, even for the case of a nonzero chemical potential, the temperature dependent part of the one loop retarded photon self-energy vanishes in $(1+1)$ dimensional massless QED.

Ashok Das; J. Frenkel

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

Humidity Control Systems for Civil Buildings in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the hot summer and cold winter zone, moisture-laden outside air poses real problems for proper ventilation, air-conditioner sizing, and strategies to overcome the reduced dehumidification capacity of more energy-efficient air-conditioning (AC) systems. Based on our research, this paper further provides the rate and characteristics of moisture resources in civil buildings. Although the ventilation rate is limited with the minimum ventilation rate in the sanitation ventilation mode of the air conditioning period, dehumidifying period and heating period, the ventilation rate is unrestricted in thermal comfort ventilation mode. It is suggested that the operating conditions of the forced ventilation system should be determined on both outdoor air temperature and outdoor air relative humidity (RH). Therefore, the ventilation system should satisfy these requirements during prolonged periods of high ambient humidity. After a detailed presentation of the technical issues, this paper gives specific recommendations for providing adequate ventilation, moisture control and dehumidifying for buildings in hot-humid climates, and takes both the indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and the building energy efficiency into account. Supplying conditioned ventilation air to the buildings appears to be a promising approach to solve the heath problems associated with excessive indoor RH by installation of a separately controlled unit to dry and cool outdoor air.

Yu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Humidity Dependence of Adhesion for Silane Coated Microcantilevers  

SciTech Connect

This study examines adhesion between silane-coated micromachined surfaces that are exposed to humid conditions. Our quantitative values for interfacial adhesion energies are determined from an in-situ optical measurement of deformations in partly-adhered cantilever beams. We coated micromachined cantilevers with either ODTS (C{sub 18}H{sub 37}SiCl{sub 3}) or FDTS (C{sub 8}F{sub 17}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}SiCl{sub 3}) with the objective of creating hydrophobic surfaces whose adhesion would be independent of humidity. In both cases, the adhesion energy is significantly lower than for uncoated, hydrophilic surfaces. For relative humidities (RH) less than 95% (ODTS) and 80% (FDTS) the adhesion energy was extremely low and constant. In fact, ODTS-coated beams exposed to saturated humidity conditions and long (48 hour) exposures showed only a factor of two increase in adhesion energy. Surprisingly, FDTS coated beams, which initially have a higher contact angle (115{degree}) with water than do ODTS coated beams (112{degree}), proved to be much more sensitive to humidity. The FDTS coated surfaces showed a factor of one hundred increase in adhesion energy after a seven hour exposure to 90% RH. Atomic force microscopy revealed agglomerated coating material after exposed to high RH, suggesting a redistribution of the monolayer film. This agglomeration was more prominent for FDTS than ODTS. These findings suggest a new mechanism for uptake of moisture under high humidity conditions. At high humidities, the silane coatings can reconfigure from a surface to a bulk phase leaving behind locally hydrophilic sites which increase the average measured adhesion energy. In order for the adhesion increase to be observed, a significant fraction of the monolayer must be converted from the surface to the bulk phase.

DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; MAYER,THOMAS M.; CARPICK,ROBERT W.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

229

Apparatus for adjusting and maintaining humidity of a gas at a constant value within a closed system  

SciTech Connect

An improved apparatus was developed for maintaining the humidity of a gas at a constant value within a closed system for long periods of time by using saturated salt solutions and isolating the sample environment from the salt environment. This apparatus avoids many problems associated with humidity/temperature chambers and off-the-shelf laboratory equipment, such as desiccators, that are being used for environmental studies under controlled conditions of humidity and temperature. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Walters, R.R.; Abernathy, B.

1986-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

230

Oxidation of delta-phase plutonium alloy: Corrosion kinetics in dry and humid air at 35 {degree}C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Kinetic data for oxidation of delta-phase plutonium alloy are evaluated to provide a technical basis for assessing the merit of an existing time limitation on air exposure of components during process operations. Data describing the effects of humidity and oxygen pressure on the oxidation rate of the Pu-1.0 wt% Ga alloy at elevated temperatures are obtained from literature sources and used to predict the oxidation behavior of the alloy in air at 35 C and 0 to 100% relative humidity. A mandated six-hour limit on air exposure is inconsistent with a predicted thirty-day period required for formation of a 1-{micro}m-thick oxide layer in moisture-saturated air at 35 C. Relationships are defined for predicting kinetic behavior of the alloy at other conditions, and recommendations for addressing oxidation-related concerns in production are presented.

Haschke, J.M.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Temperature effects on oil-water relative permeabilities for unconsolidated sands  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an experimental investigation of temperature effects on relative permeabilities of oil- water systems in unconsolidated sands. The fluids used in this study were refined mineral oil and distilled water. A rate sensitivity study was done on residual oil saturation and oil and water relative permeabilities. The temperature sensitivity study of relative permeabilities was conducted in 2 parts. The first was to investigate changes in residual oil saturation with temperature where the cores were 100% saturated with oil at the start of the waterflood. The second part continued the floods for a longer time until the water-cut was virtually 100%. Under these conditions, little change in residual oil saturation was observed with temperature. A study on viscous instabilities also was performed. This verified the existence of viscous fingers during waterflooding. It also was observed that tubing volume after the core could cause fingering, resulting in lower apparent breakthrough oil recoveries.

Sufi, A.H.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Reevaluation of the Bulk Exchange Coefficient for Humidity at Sea during Unstable and Neutral Conditions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processes influencing the air–sea exchange of humidity during unstable and neutral stratification were studied using tower measurements from the island of Östergarnsholm in the Baltic Sea. For small air–sea temperature differences, the neutral ...

Erik Sahlée; Ann-Sofi Smedman; Ulf Högström; Anna Rutgersson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Humidity, human factors, and the energy shortage  

SciTech Connect

Little is known about humidity and its effects on human performance. An increased emphasis is being placed on the role of humidification and dehumidification of our working and living environments on performance. This paper was presented at a Symposium on Humidity Control and Energy Conservation, held during ASHRAE's 1975 Semiannual Meeting in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Other papers were: Residential Humidification vs. Energy Conservation, by J. A. Selvaag and Humidity Control and Energy Conservation, by Dr. G. Shavit.

Rohles, F.H. Jr.

1975-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Indoor Humidity Tools  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Indoor Humidity Tools Indoor Humidity Tools Indoor Humidity Tools logo. Integrated computer program intended to assist in diagnosing and solving problems of indoor air humidity and dryness. Indoor Humidity Tools is comprised of two sections: - Calculations provide humidity calculations. - Reference provides background information on humidity in convenient lookup formats, such as recommended indoor humidity levels for different types of spaces, against which calculations may be compared. Keywords indoor air humidity, dryness, condensation Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required No special expertise required. Users first released in July 1997. Audience engineers, industrial hygienists and safety professionals, architects, building scientists, contractors, government air quality specialists, and

235

Effect of temperature on oil/water relative permeabilities of unconsolidated and consolidated sands  

SciTech Connect

Over the last 20 years, a number of studies have reported temperature effects on two-phase relative permeabilities in porous media. However, some of the reported results have been contradictory. Also, observed effects have not been explained in terms of fundamental properties known to govern two-phase flow. The purpose of this study was to attempt to isolate the fundamental properties affecting two-phase relative permeabilities at elevated temperature. Laboratory dynamic displacement relative permeability measurements were made on unconsolidated and consolidated sand cores, using water and a refined white mineral oil. Experiments were run on 2 in. (51 mm) diameter, 20 in. (510 mm) long cores from room temperature to 300/sup 0/F (149/sup 0/C). Unlike the results of previous researchers, essentially no changes with temperatures were observed in either residual saturations or relative permeability relationships. It was concluded that previous results may have been affected by viscous instabilities, capillary end-effects, and/or difficulties in maintaining material balances.

Miller, M.A.; Ramey, H.J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Modeling attic humidity as a function of weather, building construction, and ventilation rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dynamic model for predicting attic relative humidity (RH) and roof-sheathing moisture content (MC) was developed for microcomputer application. The model accepts standard hourly weather data and building-design parameters as input. Model predictions gave good agreement with measured data from a house located in Madison, Wisconsin. Solar radiation varies with roof orientation and plays an important role in determining moisture transfer to and from the roof sheathing. Opposing roof surfaces must be differentiated in attic humidity models to account for the effect of solar radiation. The model described in this paper is capable of such differentiation. Snow accumulation on a roof can significantly alter the temperature and moisture conditions in an attic, but further research is needed to understand the effect of a snow layer on attic temperatures. Various scenarios were simulated with this model to determine the effect of building practice and ventilation strategies on roof sheathing MC. Direct control of RH in the living space by ventilation is very effective in lowering attic moisture conditions. Where natural ventilation is not adequate, a timer-controlled attic fan shows great promise for ensuring efficient and economical attic ventilation.

Gorman, T.M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Test Plan to Evaluate the Relationship Among IAQ, Comfort, Moisture, and Ventilation in Humid Climates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This experimental plan describes research being conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in coordinatation with Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), Florida HERO, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to evaluate the impact of ventilation rate on interior moisture levels, temperature distributions, and indoor air contaminant concentrations. Specifically, the research team will measure concentrations of indoor air contaminants, ventilation system flow rates, energy consumption, and temperature and relative humidity in ten homes in Gainesville, FL to characterize indoor pollutant levels and energy consumption associated with the observed ventilation rates. PNNL and FSEC have collaboratively prepared this experimental test plan, which describes background and context for the proposed study; the experimental design; specific monitoring points, including monitoring equipment, and sampling frequency; key research questions and the associated data analysis approach; experimental logistics, including schedule, milestones, and team member contact information; and clearly identifies the roles and responsibilities of each team in support of project objectives.

Widder, Sarah H.; Martin, Eric

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Development and Validation of a Time-Lag Correction for Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents a method of improving the accuracy of relative humidity (RH) measurements from Vaisala RS80 and RS90 radiosondes by applying sensor-based corrections for well-understood sources of measurement error. Laboratory measurements of ...

Larry M. Miloshevich; Ari Paukkunen; Holger Vömel; Samuel J. Oltmans

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Diagnosis and Correction of Systematic Humidity Error in a Global Numerical Weather Prediction Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accuracy of humidity forecasts has been considered relatively unimportant to much of the operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) community. However, the U.S. Air Force is interested in accurate water vapor and cloud forecasts as end ...

Donald C. Norquist; Sam S. Chang

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

EFFECT OF HUMIDITY LEVEL ON THE CREEP PROPERTIES OF ALLOY 903 AT 650 C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alloy 903 (FeNiCo+Nb) is currently used for certain components in industrial gas turbines for low coefficient of thermal expansion applications. A variance in creep behavior for material quality control evaluations suggested a possible effect of moisture level on stress rupture properties. To investigate the role of water vapor on the creep properties of alloy 903, controlled laboratory experiments were conducted at 650 C with 0 to 100% relative humidity. The water content was controlled by flowing dry air through a water bath at a constant temperature. A significant decrease of lifetime was observed in the presence of water vapor, which is likely related to grain boundary embrittlement by the inward diffusion of hydrogen. The increase of the microstructure grain aspect ratio by different forging processes generally improved the rupture lifetime and elongation in air. However, all specimens had reduced lifetime in the presence of water vapor despite the microstructure grain aspect ratios.

Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Mitchell, Ryan D [Solar Turbines, Inc.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Evolution and Accuracy of Surface Humidity Reports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Until recently surface humidity was predominantly measured using psychrometers (wet- and dry-bulb thermometers). In some countries, often in conjunction with increased automation, the measurement technique has changed—usually to capacitive ...

Bruce Ingleby; David Moore; Chris Sloan; Robert Dunn

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Evolution and accuracy of surface humidity reports  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Until recently surface humidity was predominantly measured using psychrometers (wet and dry bulb thermometers). In some countries, often in conjunction with increased automation, the measurement technique has changed – usually to capacitive ...

Bruce Ingleby; David Moore; Chris Sloan; Robert Dunn

244

Advanced Dehumidification and Humidity Control Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This technical brief explains the foundation of conventional, advanced, and emerging technologies for humidity control in air-conditioned buildings in easy-to-understand language for utility executives as well as end-users. It also describes new packaged solutions that integrate vapor compression cooling and desiccant dehumidification technologies in creative ways to offer more energy efficient solutions for applications in existing or new construction, especially in humid climates.

2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

245

The Relation between Ion Temperature Anisotropy and Formation of Slow Shocks in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We perform a two-dimensional simulation by using an electromagnetic hybrid code to study the formation of slow-mode shocks in collisionless magnetic reconnection in low beta plasmas, and we focus on the relation between the formation of slow shocks and the ion temperature anisotropy enhanced at the shock downstream region. It is known that as magnetic reconnection develops, the parallel temperature along the magnetic field becomes large in association with the anisotropic PSBL (plasma sheet boundary layer) ion beams, and this temperature anisotropy has a tendency to suppress the formation of slow shocks. Based on our simulation result, we found that the slow shock formation is suppressed due to the large temperature anisotropy near the X-type region, but the ion temperature anisotropy relaxes with increasing the distance from the magnetic neutral point. As a result, two pairs of current structures, which are the strong evidence of dissipation of magnetic field in slow shocks, are formed at the distance x > 11...

Higashimori, Katsuaki

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Effects of high humidity on translocation of foliar-applied labeled compounds in plants. II. Translocation from starved leaves  

SciTech Connect

Absorption and translocation of chemicals by cotton leaves are greatly increased under conditions of high humidity. This enhanced movement consists of increased phloem transport and induced uptake into and transport via the xylem. Studies with starved and normal leaves prove that phloem transport is greatly reduced in leaves depleted of carbohydrate reserves; starvation has no effect upon the xylem transport induced by high humidity. The relation of high humidity to herbicide usage is discussed. 15 references, 6 figures.

Clor, M.A.; Crafts, A.S.; Yamaguchi, S.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

A Bayesian Inference Analysis of the X-ray Cluster Luminosity-Temperature Relation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a Bayesian inference analysis of the Markevitch (1998) and Allen & Fabian (1998) cooling flow corrected X-ray cluster temperature catalogs that constrains the slope and the evolution of the empirical X-ray cluster luminosity-temperature (L-T) relation. We find that for the luminosity range 10^44.5 erg s^-1 < L_bol < 10^46.5 erg s^-1 and the redshift range z < 0.5, L_bol is proportional to T^2.80(+0.15/-0.15)(1+z)^(0.91-1.12q_0)(+0.54/-1.22). We also determine the L-T relation that one should use when fitting the Press- Schechter mass function to X-ray cluster luminosity catalogs such as the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) and the Southern Serendipitous High- Redshift Archival ROSAT Catalog (Southern SHARC), for which cooling flow corrected luminosities are not determined and a universal X-ray cluster temperature of T = 6 keV is assumed. In this case, L_bol is proportional to T^2.65(+0.23/-0.20)(1+z)^(0.42-1.26q_0)(+0.75/-0.83) for the same luminosity and redshift ranges.

D. E. Reichart; F. J. Castander; R. C. Nichol

1998-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

248

The Usage of Screen-Level Parameters and Microwave Brightness Temperature for Soil Moisture Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study focuses on testing two different soil moisture analysis systems based on screen-level parameters (2-m temperature T2m, 2-m relative humidity RH2m) and 1.4-GHz passive microwave brightness temperatures TB. First, a simplified extended ...

G. Seuffert; H. Wilker; P. Viterbo; M. Drusch; J-F. Mahfouf

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Corrections of Humidity Measurement Errors from the Vaisala RS80 Radiosonde—Application to TOGA COARE Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of laboratory tests have been conducted on several different batches of Vaisala RS80 radiosondes to understand and develop methods to correct six humidity measurement errors, including chemical contamination, temperature dependence, ...

Junhong Wang; Harold L. Cole; David J. Carlson; Erik R. Miller; Kathryn Beierle; Ari Paukkunen; Tapani K. Laine

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

HUMID AIR TURBINE CYCLE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM  

SciTech Connect

The Humid Air Turbine (HAT) Cycle Technology Development Program focused on obtaining HAT cycle combustor technology that will be the foundation of future products. The work carried out under the auspices of the HAT Program built on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work performed in the past by Pratt & Whitney (P&W). This Program is an integral part of technology base development within the Advanced Turbine Systems Program at the Department of Energy (DOE) and its experiments stretched over 5 years. The goal of the project was to fill in technological data gaps in the development of the HAT cycle and identify a combustor configuration that would efficiently burn high moisture, high-pressure gaseous fuels with low emissions. The major emphasis will be on the development of kinetic data, computer modeling, and evaluations of combustor configurations. The Program commenced during the 4th Quarter of 1996 and closed in the 4th Quarter of 2001. It teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) with P&W, the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, kraftWork Systems Inc. The execution of the program started with bench-top experiments that were conducted at UTRC for extending kinetic mechanisms to HAT cycle temperature, pressure, and moisture conditions. The fundamental data generated in the bench-top experiments was incorporated into the analytical tools available at P&W to design the fuel injectors and combustors. The NETL then used the hardware to conduct combustion rig experiments to evaluate the performance of the combustion systems at elevated pressure and temperature conditions representative of the HAT cycle. The results were integrated into systems analysis done by kraftWork to verify that sufficient understanding of the technology had been achieved and that large-scale technological application and demonstration could be undertaken as follow-on activity. An optional program extended the experimental combustion evaluations to several specific technologies that can be used with HAT technology. After 5 years of extensive research and development, P&W is pleased to report that the HAT Technology Development Program goals have been achieved. With 0 to 10 percent steam addition, emissions achieved during this program featured less than 8 ppm NO{sub x}, less than 16 ppm CO, and unburned hydrocarbons corrected to 15 percent O{sub 2} for an FT8 engine operating between 0 and 120 F with 65 to 100 percent power at any day.

Richard Tuthill

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

251

Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators  

SciTech Connect

The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

Beitz, James V. (Hinsdale, IL); Williams, Clayton W. (Chicago, IL)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

SYSTEMATIC CONTINUUM ERRORS IN THE Ly{alpha} FOREST AND THE MEASURED TEMPERATURE-DENSITY RELATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Continuum fitting uncertainties are a major source of error in estimates of the temperature-density relation (usually parameterized as a power-law, T {proportional_to} {Delta}{sup {gamma}-1}) of the intergalactic medium through the flux probability distribution function (PDF) of the Ly{alpha} forest. Using a simple order-of-magnitude calculation, we show that few percent-level systematic errors in the placement of the quasar continuum due to, e.g., a uniform low-absorption Gunn-Peterson component could lead to errors in {gamma} of the order of unity. This is quantified further using a simple semi-analytic model of the Ly{alpha} forest flux PDF. We find that under(over)estimates in the continuum level can lead to a lower (higher) measured value of {gamma}. By fitting models to mock data realizations generated with current observational errors, we find that continuum errors can cause a systematic bias in the estimated temperature-density relation of ({delta}({gamma})) Almost-Equal-To -0.1, while the error is increased to {sigma}{sub {gamma}} Almost-Equal-To 0.2 compared to {sigma}{sub {gamma}} Almost-Equal-To 0.1 in the absence of continuum errors.

Lee, Khee-Gan, E-mail: lee@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

253

Estimating the Soil Surface Specific Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the recent experiment results, a formula is proposed to be used in numerical weather-climate models to estimate the soil surface humidity. The formula has a very simple form and shows a smooth transition in the soil surface specific ...

Tsengdar J. Lee; Roger A. Pielke

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Trends in Extreme Temperatures in Relation to Urbanization in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The long-term trends in extreme summer season temperatures across the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) associated with urbanization are examined. To assess trends in extreme temperature data, maximum and minimum temperatures from 1975 to 2002 ...

Shouraseni Sen Roy; Fei Yuan

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Optimal Outside Air Control for Air Handling Units with Humidity Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have the (air) economizer cycle to use outside air for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. Ideally the economizer cycle is enabled if outside air enthalpy is less than return air enthalpy. During the economizer cycle, outside air flow is modulated to seek mixed air temperature at a supply air temperature set point. Since the outside air may be dry during the economizer cycle, humidification is required for AHUs with humidity control. As a result, the economizer cycle saves cooling energy but requires excessive steam for humidification. Therefore the economizer cycle may not be economical. An optimal outside air control method is developed to minimize the total cost of mechanical cooling and steam humidification. The impacts of chilled water price, steam price, and space minimum humidity set point are analyzed. Finally the optimal outside air control zones are presented on a psychrometric chart under differential energy price ratios and minimum indoor humidity set points.

Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Relations between light emission and electron density and temperature fluctuations in a helium plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relations between three atomic lines, He I 667.8 nm (3{sup 1}D{yields} 2{sup 1}P), 706.5 nm (3{sup 3}S{yields} 2{sup 3}P), and 728.1 nm (3{sup 1}S{yields} 2{sup 1}P), and the underlying fluctuations in a helium plasma are investigated for the quantitative interpretation of optical observations in plasma fluctuation measurements. Frequency dependent fluctuation amplitude ratios and phase delays between the line emission fluctuation and the electron density and temperature fluctuations are calculated based on a quasi-static collisional-radiative model and a linear approximation technique. For frequencies up to the upper limit of practical interest (<1 MHz), the fluctuation amplitude ratios and phase delays are similar to those directly evaluated by the quasi-static model. It is found that the difference between the results from the linear approximation technique and from the quasi-static model is due to the absence of metastable fluctuations. Contributions of the 2{sup 1}S and 2{sup 3}S metastable fluctuations to the three helium line emission fluctuations are analyzed. The linearity between fluctuations in the line emission and in the electron density and temperature is valid for fluctuation levels higher than 10%.

Ma Shuiliang; Howard, John; Thapar, Nandika [Plasma Research Laboratory, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

THE TEMPERATURE-DENSITY RELATION IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AT REDSHIFT (z) = 2.4  

SciTech Connect

We present new measurements of the temperature-density (T-{rho}) relation for neutral hydrogen in the 2.0 < z < 2.8 intergalactic medium (IGM) using a sample of {approx}6000 individual H I absorbers fitted with Voigt profiles constrained in all cases by multiple Lyman series transitions. We find model-independent evidence for a positive correlation between the column density of H I (N{sub HI}) and the minimum observed velocity width of absorbers (b{sub min}). With minimal interpretation, this implies that the T-{rho} relation in the IGM is not 'inverted', contrary to many recent studies. Fitting b{sub min} as a function of N{sub HI} results in line-width-column-density dependence of the form b{sub min} = b{sub 0}(N{sub HI}/N{sub HI,0}){sup {Gamma}-1} with a minimum line width at mean density ({rho}/{rho}-bar = 1, N{sub HI,0} = 10{sup 13.6} cm{sup -2}) of b{sub 0} = 17.9 {+-} 0.2 km s{sup -1} and a power-law index of ({Gamma} - 1) = 0.15 {+-} 0.02. Using analytic arguments, these measurements imply an 'equation of state' for the IGM at (z) = 2.4 of the form T=T{sub 0} ({rho}/{rho}-bar){sup {gamma}-1} with a temperature at mean density of T{sub 0} = [1.94 {+-} 0.05] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K and a power-law index ({gamma} - 1) = 0.46 {+-} 0.05.

Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pettini, Max, E-mail: gwen@astro.caltech.edu [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Analyses of Inhomogeneities in Radiosonde Temperature and Humidity Time Series  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Twice daily radiosonde data from selected stations in the United States (period 1948 to 1990) and China (period 1958 to 1990) were sorted into time series. These stations have one sounding taken in darkness and the other in sunlight. The analysis ...

Panmao Zhai; Robert E. Eskridge

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Schools resolve IAQ/humidity problems with desiccant preconditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes how desiccant-based total energy recovery systems were retrofitted to the mechanical systems at Willis Foreman Elementary and Spirit Creek Middle Schools to decouple the outdoor air latent load from the existing 3-ton packaged rooftop HVAC units. The resulting hybrid system maintains 50 to 52 percent relative humidity in the space while continuously providing 15 cfm per student of outdoor air to the facility (a three-fold increase of the original 5 cfm per student design) and does so in a very energy-efficient manner.

Smith, J.C. [James C. Smith and Associates, Augusta, GA (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Atmospheric Circulation Trends, 1950–2000: The Relative Roles of Sea Surface Temperature Forcing and Direct Atmospheric Radiative Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative roles of direct atmospheric radiative forcing (due to observed changes in well-mixed greenhouse gases, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, sulfate and volcanic aerosols, and solar output) and observed sea surface temperature (SST) ...

Clara Deser; Adam S. Phillips

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Relative Roles of Elevated Heating and Surface Temperature Gradients in Driving Anomalous Surface Winds over Tropical Oceans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Elevated heating by cumulus convection and sea surface temperature gradients are both thought to contribute to surface winds over tropical oceans. The relative strength and role of each mechanism is examined by imposing forcing derived from data ...

John C. H. Chiang; Stephen E. Zebiak; Mark A. Cane

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Modeling the Response of Canopy Stomatal Conductance to Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humidity of air is a key environmental variable in controlling the stomatal conductance (g) of plant leaves. The stomatal conductance–humidity relationships employed in the Ball–Woodrow–Berry (BWB) model and the Leuning model have been widely ...

Shusen Wang; Yan Yang; Alexander P. Trishchenko; Alan G. Barr; T. A. Black; Harry McCaughey

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Humidity and Particle Fields Around Some Small Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aircraft-borne measurements showed that five small cumulus clouds were surrounded by regions of high humidity out to distances of several cloud radii from their centers. Total particle concentrations in the regions of high humidity were about ...

Lawrence F. Radke; Peter V. Hobbs

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Antarctic Low-Tropospheric Humidity Inversions: 10-Yr Climatology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humidity inversions are nearly permanently present in the coastal Antarctic atmosphere. This is shown based on an investigation of statistical characteristics of humidity inversions at 11 Antarctic coastal stations using radiosonde data from the ...

Tiina Nygård; Teresa Valkonen; Timo Vihma

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Morning Temporal Variations of Shelter-Level Specific Humidity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temporal variation of specific humidity during morning hours was evaluated by analytic and numerical model scaling as well as by observational means. The scaling quantified (i) the gradual increase in the shelter increase humidity as the ...

M. Segal; G. Kallos; J. Brown; M. Mandel

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Accuracy of Humidity Measurement on Ships: Consideration of Solar Radiation Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of heating due to solar radiation on measurements of humidity obtained from ships is examined. Variations in wet- and dry-bulb temperature measured on each side of a research ship are shown to correlate with solar radiation. However, ...

Elizabeth C. Kent; Peter K. Taylor

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment  

SciTech Connect

Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu{sub 2}NO{sub 3}(OH){sub 3}, forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150{degree}C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150{degree}C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu{sub 2}O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs.

Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Van Konynenburg, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

1989-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

268

The Influence of Mesoscale Humidity and Evapotranspiration Fields on a Model Forecast of a Cold-Frontal Squall Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite imagery and rain gauge data are combined to create mesoscale detail in the initial states of relative humidity (RH) and surface moisture availability (M) for a mesoscale model simulation. The most profound impact of inserting the ...

Steven E. Koch; Ahmet Aksakal; Jeffery T. McQueen

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Pairing Measurements of the Water Vapor Isotope Ratio with Humidity to Deduce Atmospheric Moistening and Dehydration in the Tropical Midtroposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of the isotope ratio of water vapor (expressed as the ? value) allow processes that control the humidity in the tropics to be identified. Isotopic information is useful because the change in ? relative to the water vapor mixing ratio (...

David Noone

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

A Study of the Free Tropospheric Humidity Interannual Variability Using Meteosat Data and an Advection–Condensation Transport Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor in the midtroposphere is an important element for the earth radiation budget. Despite its importance, the relative humidity in the free troposphere is not very well documented, mainly because of the difficulties associated with its ...

Hélène Brogniez; Rémy Roca; Laurence Picon

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Control Humidity With Single-Duct, Single-Zone, Constant Air Volume System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The lecture hall of the Richardson Petroleum Building at Texas A&M University is a large lecture hall, with a total floor area of approximately 2500 ft^2. The lecture hall was served by a constant air volume (CAV) air handling unit (AHU) which had no reheat coil. This resulted in high room humidity levels although the room temperature was satisfied for part load conditions, especially when there was very little sensible load from the room. This paper presents Continuous Commissioning efforts (CC), which turned this inefficient, humid lecture hall into a comfortable learning environment. This case study also explores other possibilities to solve the humidity control problem with single-duct, single-zone constant air volume systems.

Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H. L.; Claridge, D. E.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

The Role of Relative Humidity in Radiative–Convective Equilibrium  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The following conditions are derived for the existence of a radiation limit of tropospheric origin in a nongray atmosphere, extending the work on a gray atmosphere by Nakajima et al.: 1) the atmosphere must become sufficiently optically thick, ...

Masahiro Sugiyama; Peter H. Stone; Kerry A. Emanuel

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Daytime Evolution of Relative Humidity at the Boundary Layer Top  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from the Hydrological and Atmospheric Pilot Experiment-Modélisation du Bilan Hydrigue (HAPEX-MOBILHY) field program and results from a one-dimensional model of the soil and atmospheric boundary layer are analyzed to study the daytime ...

M. Ek; L. Mahrt

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

ZnSe nanorods prepared in hydroxide-melts and their application as a humidity sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have synthesized the crystalline ZnSe nanorods for the first time using the molten hydroxides as reaction solvent in the absence of organic dispersant or capping agents. The products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The diameters of ZnSe nanorods are about 200-300 nm, and the lengths are about 1-2 {mu}m. Humidity sensors based on ZnSe nanorods are fabricated and their responsiveness to humidity on static and dynamic testing are investigated. The change of resistance is about three orders of magnitude as the relative humidity increases from 20% to 85%. The response time and recovery time is 50 s and 81 s versus the changes of relative humidity from 20% to 85% and from 85% to 20%, respectively. Our sensor offers higher sensitivity, as well as much better stability and reproducibility than the humidity sensor of ZnSe nanostructure reported before.

Yan Wei [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Hu Chenguo, E-mail: hucg@cqu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China); Xi Yi; Wan Buyong; He Xiaoshan; Zhang Michao; Zhang Yan [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, 174 Shapingba Street, Chongqing 400044 (China)

2009-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

275

Use of the Temperature–Salinity Relation in a Data Assimilation Context  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A data analysis using conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) measurements in the western tropical Pacific is carried out to get an estimate of the timescale over which temperature–salinity (T–S) relationships are preserved. Results show that the T–...

Alberto Troccoli; Keith Haines

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Thermodynamic phase profiles of optically thin midlatitude clouds and their relation to temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameterizations of cloud phase in general circulation models. However, other aircraft campaigns and different in the Arctic. The relationship between ice phase occurrence and temperature only slightly changes between cloud interest, as they occur in a temperature range where cloud phase can either be liquid, ice, or mixed

277

Experimental results for diffusion and infiltration of moisture in concrete masonry walls exposed to hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents experimental test results for heat and moisture migration in walls exposed to hot and humid climates. The research was conducted to study the problem of mold and mildew caused by moisture transfer into walls of concrete masonry unit (CMU) type construction by diffusion and convective transport by air infiltration. This type of construction is common in commercial buildings in the southern US. The tests were conducted in two phases. Phase 1 evaluated heat and moisture transfer by diffusion. Phase 2 testing involved air infiltration through the test walls. Data were also collected to determine the rate at which the test walls would dry out without infiltration present. Test results indicate that an exterior vapor retarder will reduce the moisture migration into the wall and thereby lower the moisture accumulation due to infiltration when a vapor retarder (such as vinyl wallpaper) is used for the interior surface treatment. Testing also showed that while the exterior wall treatment does have an effect on reducing the total moisture accumulation in the test walls, the interior wall treatment has a much larger impact when infiltration is present. The data support a proposed criterion for the onset of mold and mildew, which requires a monthly average surface relative humidity of 80% with temperatures between 32 F and 105 F.

Hosni, M.H.; Sipes, J.M.; Wallis, M.H.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Energy from humid air. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results to date are presented for a research project which is in progress at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. The goal of the research is to find a cost-effective process to convert the energy in humid air into mechanical work, which will be used to drive an electrical generator. The research is being carried out by computer modeling. Results for a natural draft tower show that it is not a cost-effective way to get energy from humid air. Parametric studies are presented for expansion-compression cycles. With suitable conditions, including large amounts of cooling during compression, this cycle has an attractive net work output. To avoid using all the output power to overcome machine losses, it appears necessary to use a one-machine mechanization. The most promising uses vortex flow to achieve the necessary expansion and subsequent compression with cooling. Power output and costs have been estimated for a vortex plant located in Puerto Rico.

Oliver, T.K.; Groves, W.N.; Gruber, C.L.; Cheung, A.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

The Aleutian Low in January and February—Relation to Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mean characteristics of the Aleutian low in January and February are compared. The comparison is made separately for years when the tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) was anomalously high, and when the SST was low. It was found ...

Sigmund Fritz

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Calculated Influence of Temperature-Related Factors on Ozone Formation Rates in the Lower Troposphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using an atmospheric chemical reaction mechanism applied to air parcels near the earth's surface, the sensitivities ozone (O3) formation rates are quantified for changes in four meteorologically controlled parameters: temperature, sunlight ...

Chris J. Walcek; Hong-H. Yuan

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

PDO-Related Heat and Temperature Budget Changes in a Model of the North Pacific  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat and temperature budget changes in a ?° model of the North Pacific driven by an idealized Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) atmospheric forcing are diagnosed to determine the roles of atmospheric heat flux and ocean dynamics in upper-ocean ...

Jordan T. Dawe; Lu Anne Thompson

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Bottom Temperatures Related to Gulf Stream Displacement off the Southeast United States Shelf  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Bottom temperature time series recorded beneath the Gulf Stream at 265 and 589 m depth off the Georgia coast are compared with simultaneous time series of main thermocline depth determined from inverted echo sounder and bottom pressure gauge ...

Li Li; Mark Wimbush

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

High Temperature Components of Magma-Related Geothermal Systems: An Experimental and Theoretical Approach  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This summarizes select components of a multi-faceted study of high temperature magmatic fluid behavior in shallow, silicic, volcano-plutonic geothermal systems. This work built on a foundation provided by DOE-supported advances made in our lab in understanding the physics and chemistry of the addition of HCI and other chlorides into the high temperature regions of geothermal systems. The emphasis of this project was to produce a model of the bolatile contributions from felsic magmatic systems to geothermal systems

Philip A. Candela; Philip M. Piccoli

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Effect of Humidity on the Composition of Isoprene Photooxidation Secondary Organic Aerosol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the composition and concentrations of gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) generated from the photooxidation of isoprene under high-NOx conditions was investigated. The yields of most gas-phase products were the same regardless of initial water vapor concentration with exception of hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde, which were considerably affected by RH. A significant change was observed in the SOA composition, with many unique condensed-phase products formed under humid (90% RH) vs. dry (<2% RH) conditions, without any observable effect on the rate and extent of the SOA mass growth.

Nguyen, Tran B.; Roach, Patrick J.; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Nizkorodov, Serguei

2011-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

285

Internal Microclimate Resulting From Ventilated Attics in Hot and Humid Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ventilated spaces in the built environment create unique and beneficial microclimates. While the current trends in building physics suggest sealing attics and crawlspaces, comprehensive research still supports the benefits of the ventilated microclimate. Data collected at the University of Florida Energy Park show the attic environment of asphalt shingled roofs to be typically hotter than the outdoor conditions, but when properly ventilated sustains a much lower relative humidity. The hot, humid regions of the United States can utilize this internally convective, exchanging air mass to provide stable moisture levels within attic spaces. Positioning the buildings primary boundary at the ceiling deck allows for utilization of this buffer climate to minimize moisture trapping in insulation and maximize the insulation’s thermal benefits. This investigation concludes the conditions in a ventilated attic are stable through seasonal changes and promotes cost effective, energy efficient climate control of unconditioned spaces in hot, humid regions.

Mooney, B. L.; Porter, W. A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Long-term corrosion/oxidation studies under controlled humidity conditions  

SciTech Connect

Independent of thermal loading scenarios, the waste packages at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada will be exposed to environmental conditions where there is the possibility of significant water film formation occurring on the waste packages. Water films can cause aggressive aqueous film electrochemical corrosion on susceptible metals or alloys. Water film formation will be facilitated when relative humidities are high, when hygroscopic salts are present on the surfaces, when corrosion products are hygroscopic, and when particles form crevices with the surfaces (capillary effect). Also certain gaseous contaminants, such as, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, can facilitate water film formation. It should be noted that water film formation can occur at isolated spots (e.g. surface defects and salt particles) and need not cover the entire surface for electrochemical corrosion to occur. This activity will characterize the long term corrosion of metal specimens at two nominal relative humidities (50 and 85%) and at 80 C. Under the low relative humidity (50%) condition, water film formation is expected to be limited and therefore aqueous film electrochemical corrosion is expected also to be limited. Under the high relative humidity (85%) condition, significant water film formation is expected to occur under some test conditions, and subsequently aqueous film electrochemical corrosion will occur on susceptible materials.

Gdowski, G.

1997-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

287

Some Long-Term Relations Between Equatorial Sea-Surface Temperature, the Four Centers of Action and 700 mb Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relation between sea-surface temperature (SST) in the eastern equatorial Pacific (0°–10°S, 180°–;80°W), and surface pressure, latitude and longitude of the four centers of action (Icelandic and Aleutian Lows, Atlantic and Pacific Highs), has ...

J. K. Angell; J. Korshover

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Thermal Comfort Study in a Naturally Ventilated Residential Building in a Tropical Hot-Humid Climate Region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a thermal comfort study in a naturally ventilated residential building located in a tropical hot-humid climate region. The specific objective of this study is to investigate whether thermal comfort in this house can be achieved through a passive system only. The methods used in this study included conducting hourly monitoring of the temperature and relative humidity; measuring the air velocities; and assessing occupants' thermal sensations through questionnaires and interview. The data from the questionnaires were matched to the monitored data to assess the acceptable range of comfortable condition. Then using an hourly simulation program, some components of the building were also "modified" to investigate whether the building can be made "more comfortable". This study shows that it is possible to provide a thermally comfortable space in this region without using mechanical air-conditioning systems. The occupants' acceptable range of comfortable condition is different than that of people in the northern latitudes. The occupants sensed "neutrality" when the operative temperature in the house was about 27 degree Celsius (80°F). The occupants could also tolerate slightly warm conditions, that is up to 29 degree Celsius (84OF), and still never wanted to install any air-conditioning systems. The simulation showed that using light wall materials would result in cooler indoor temperature at night but warmer during the day. If all windows were opened (25% the total floor area) the house could be more comfortable at night but less comfortable during the day. Findings of this study are important for architects and engineers in designing comfortable living spaces in these regions.

Soebarto, V. I.; Handjarinto, S.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

CVEN 6960 master's project, investigation of a cooling coil in high humidity conditions. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect

The primary purpose of this project is to validate the HVAC*2 Toolkit calculations for a cooling coil in high humidity conditions. A total of 19 experimental runs at different entering air temperature and humidity conditions were performed at the Joint Center for Energy Management HVAC Laboratory that exposed a cooling coil to temperature and humidity conditions that are typically found in the southern United States. The inlet conditions and manufacturer's coil rating data was used as input to the HVAC*2 Toolkit simple cooling coil subroutine (CCSIM). The predicted results from the toolkit were then compared to the experimental results.

Sloop, R.E.

1993-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

290

Humidity in Attics -- Sources and Control Methods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Guidelines for the control of moisture in attics are in a state of flux. The 1981 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals gives only ''Past Practice'', and notes that such practice might not be currently valid. Furthermore, in the past it was assumed that the attic was an inert structure on which moisture would either condense or pass through unaffected. Results are presented which show that the attic is in a constant state of flux, absorbing and releasing moisture. A mathematical model for predicting the moisture content of attic wood members is presented. The model is used to predict hour-by-hour attic air humidity ratio, and seasonal wood moisture content. Results are compared with measured data. The application of the model to the re-calculation of attic ventilation standards is discussed, both with respect to condensation and wood rot.

Cleary, Peter

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Global and Hemispheric Temperature Trends: Uncertainties Related to Inadequate Spatial Sampling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-term (50 to 100 years) and short-term (10 to 30 years) global and hemispheric trends of temperature have an inherent unknown error due to incomplete and nonrandom spatial sampling. A number of experiments have been conducted to help quantify ...

Thomas R. Karl; Richard W. Knight; John R. Christy

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Global Modes of Sea Surface Temperature Variability in Relation to Regional Climate Indices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A century-long EOF analysis of global sea surface temperature (SST) was carried out and the first six modes, independent by construction, were found to be associated with well-known regional climate phenomena: the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (...

Monique Messié; Francisco Chavez

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A NEW ALUMINUM HUMIDITY ELEMENT  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary report which describes the development and present statas of a new Al humidity element is presented. Data are included. (auth)

Stover, C.M.

1960-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Improved Humidity Profiling by Combining Passive and Active Remote...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Team Meeting Proceedings, Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 22-26, 2004 Improved Humidity Profiling by Combining Passive and Active Remote Sensors at the Southern Great Plains...

295

Impact of Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Corrections on ARM IOP...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proceedings, St. Petersburg, Florida, April 8-12, 2002 Impact of Vaisala Radiosonde Humidity Corrections on ARM IOP Data L. M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric...

296

Better Unitary Equipment Air-Handlers for Efficiency and Humidity Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Regulatory requirements drive unitary equipment design. For residential equipment, SEER reflects performance at moderate temperatures, and is largely independent of high temperature efficiency and high latent heat removal capability. The test procedure gives too little credit for advanced air handlers that reduce air conditioning load and facilitate adaptive humidity control through automatic fan speed adjustment. DC permanent magnet variable speed motors have much lower market share than less efficient permanent split capacitor designs: changing saves 15% - 25% at high fan speed, and at least 50% at lower speeds (high latent cooling). Humidistats allow dynamic humidity control by reducing air flow, cooling the evaporator. Following market transformation to increase market share, federal equipment stanards should be augmented to include specific air handler air flow efficiency levels, such as 0.2 watts/cfm at size-dependent static pressures. We estimate that customer payback will be less than three years in a mature market.

Sachs, H. M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Moisture performance of sealed attics in the mixed-humid climate  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory studied 8 homes in the mixed-humid climate, 4 with vented attics and 4 with sealed attics. ORNL wanted to understand the moisture performance of the sealed attic and how it affected the interior environment. We found that the attic and interior of sealed attic homes were more humid than the attic and interior observed in vented attic homes. This is due to the lack of ventilation in the sealed attic. Historically attics have been vented to dehumidify the attic and interior of the home. A sealed attic design greatly reduces the venting potential and thus this drying pathway and can cause elevated interior moisture over a vented attic home. Despite the elevated attic and interior moisture in the sealed attic homes, so far no mold or material degradation has been found. The roof sheathing moisture content has stayed below 20%, indicating low potential for material degradation. Also the relative humidity at the roof sheathing has stayed within the ASHRAE 160 design criteria except for a short time during the 2011/2012 winter. This was due to a combination of the sealed attic design (minimal venting to the outside) and the duct work not being operated in the attic which usually provides a dehumidification pathway. It was also found that when the humidity was controlled using the HVAC system, it resulted in 7% more cooling energy consumption. In the mixed-humid climate this reduces the cost effectiveness of the sealed attic design as a solution for bringing ducts into a semi-conditioned space. Because of this we are recommending the other alternatives be used to bringing ducts into the conditioned space in both new construction and retrofit work in the mixed-humid climate.

Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL] [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Measurements of the Air Temperature Profile near the Ground by Two Laser Beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two neon-helium gas lasers were used for temperatures profile measurements near the ground. The experiment was carried out during the cold season (when absolute humidity is small on the asphalt pavement) to be free from humidity effects. The ...

Takehisa Yokoi

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Measurements of the effects of humidity on radio-aerosol penetration through ultrafine capillaries  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of humidity on radio-aerosol penetration through ultrafine capillaries. A number of tests were conducted at relative humidities of 20%, 50%, and 80%, with sampling times of 20, 40, and 60 min. The radio-aerosol consisted of polystyrene particles with a diameter of 0.1 {micro}m. The ultrafine capillaries had a diameter of 250 {micro}m. The data from these tests varied significantly. These results made the identification of radio-aerosol penetration trends inconclusive. The standard deviation for all penetration data ranged from 3% to 30%. The results of this study suggest that a better control of the experimental parameters was needed to obtain more accurate data from experiments associated with radio-aerosol penetration in the presence of moisture. The experimental parameters that may have contributed to the wide variance of data, include aerosol flow, radio-aerosol generation, capillary characteristics, humidity control, and radiation measurements. It was the uncertainty of these parameters that contributed to the poor data which made conclusive deductions about radio-aerosol penetration dependence on humidity difficult. The application of this study is to ultrafine leaks resulting from stress fractures in high-level nuclear waste transportation casks under accident scenarios.

Cullen, C.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Effects of humidity during photoprocessing on thin film metallization adhesion  

SciTech Connect

Humidity effects during photoprocessing on tantalum/chromium/gold thin film networks (TFNs) were investigated. Humidity conditions at various process steps were controlled by placing either desiccant or water in handling containers for the TFNs. The TFNs photoprocessed in humid conditions had a much higher occurrence of metallization failures compared to TFNs processed in dry conditions. Ceramic surface defects were shown to cause pores in the thin films, and these pores enhanced corrosion susceptibility for the films. This study resulted in a desiccated storage process for production of TFNs.

Norwood, D.P.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Dynamics of electrostatically driven granular media: Effects of humidity  

SciTech Connect

We performed experimental studies of the effect of humidity on the dynamics of electrostatically driven granular materials. Both conducting and dielectric particles undergo a phase transition from an immobile state (granular solid) to a fluidized state (granular gas) with increasing applied field. Spontaneous precipitation of solid clusters from the gas phase occurs as the external driving is decreased. The clustering dynamics in conducting particles is primarily controlled by screening of the electric field but is aided by cohesion due to humidity. It is shown that humidity effects dominate the clustering process with dielectric particles.

Howell, D. W.; Aronson, Igor S.; Crabtree, G. W.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Dry Bias in Vaisala RS90 Radiosonde Humidity Profiles over Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Middle to upper tropospheric humidity plays a large role in determining terrestrial outgoing longwave radiation. Much work has gone into improving the accuracy of humidity measurements made by radiosondes. Some radiosonde humidity sensors ...

Penny M. Rowe; Larry M. Miloshevich; David D. Turner; Von P. Walden

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Start-Up of Air Conditioning Systems After Periods of Shutdown (Humidity Considerations)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In many cases the single most important energy conservation measure that can be taken is to turn equipment off when it is not needed. In the case of air conditioning, this generally means turning it off when occupants leave and turning it back on in time to have the space comfortable when they return. In humid climates special problems are often encountered when a system is restarted after a period of shutdown. The temperature and humidity in the space rises during the period of shutdown. Unfortunately the latent load required to bring the space back to comfort conditions is usually much higher than the sensible load. Most methods of control are ill suited for this duty. This paper examines the response of various types of air conditioning systems during this recovery period and makes recommendations for system designers.

Todd, T. R.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Critical Plane Analysis of Wall Assembly in a Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Condensation plane analysis for determining critical planes at which condensation may occur can be performed for building assemblies in any climate. Procedures for doing so in heating climates where buildings dry to the outside of envelope assemblies are given in 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, Chapter 22 "Thermal and Moisture Control in Insulated Assemblies - Fundamentals." Little original work is available elsewhere in the literature to guide analysis for buildings in hot and humid climates. Example 1 in Chapter 22 of the Fundamentals Handbook gives step-by-step calculations, for a heating climate. To analyze envelope assemblies in hot and humid climates where drying predominately occurs to the indoors, no direct discussion or examples are available. This paper presents this detail for a typical light commercial wall assembly, and provides the basis for analysis of any envelope assembly in hot and humid climates. Analysis of an envelope assembly in hot and humid climates seeks to determine if there is a critical plane in the wall towards which water vapor flows more rapidly from the outdoors than it flows to the indoors. (In heating climates, the analysis is reversed). In order to do this, weather data must be examined to yield outdoor conditions, and indoor conditions must be identified. Water vapor and thermal resistance of the materials in the wall assembly must also be established. These data are then used to perform calculations using the basic diffusion equation and methods described in the Fundamentals Handbook.' Each potentially critical plane is analyzed to determine if water vapor can accumulate more rapidly than it dissipates. This potential accumulation would signify a heightened risk of equilibrium relative humidity sufficient to amplify microbial growth, or to promote the deterioration of building materials.

Turner, S. C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Temperature Sensitivity of Lyman-Alpha Hygrometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The response of an E.R.C. Lyman-alpha hygrometer to humidity and temperature variations has been experimentally determined in a humidity calibration tunnel. The data are compared to a simple two-gas/two-line model to determine the errors made in ...

P. Mestayer; C. Rebattet

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Eliminating Humidity and Condensation Problems in University Dormitories - Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Krueger Hall, McFadden Hall and Rudder Hall are dormitories used for housing on-campus students of Texas A&M University (TAMU). These halls have suffered with humidity problems for many years. The Continuous Commissioning (CCSM) group of the Energy Systems Lab in collaboration with the Utilities Office of Energy Management, the TAMU Physical Plant, was dispatched to perform Continuous Commissioning on these three dormitories in order to find viable solutions to the humidity issues. The CC group performed extensive field tests and analysis on building AHU systems, exhaust systems, building construction, and the Energy Management Control System (EMCS). This paper presents the investigation and follow-up efforts, which identified reasons and corrective measures for the high humidity levels in the living areas of McFadden and Rudder Halls, and condensation in the bathroom ceilings of Krueger Hall, transforming these inefficient, humid university dormitories into comfortable environments.

Claridge, D.; Turner, W. D.; Zhu, Y.; Chen, H.; Bruner, H., Jr.; Hugghins, J.; Deng, S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Response of Humidity and Clouds to Tropical Deep Convection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently available satellite data can be used to track the response of clouds and humidity to intense precipitation events. A compositing technique centered in space and time on locations experiencing high rain rates is used to detail the ...

Mark D. Zelinka; Dennis L. Hartmann

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A tropical grammar : an architectural grammar for hot humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis considers the viability of an architectural grammar based on traditional Caribbean architecture as an aid to designing climatically responsive architecture in hot humid climates. It argues that since traditional ...

Beamish, Anne, 1954-

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Diagnosis of Subtropical Humidity Dynamics Using Tracers of Last Saturation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for diagnosing the mechanisms that control the humidity in a general circulation model (GCM) or observationally derived meteorological analysis dataset is presented. The technique involves defining a large number of tracers, each of ...

Joseph Galewsky; Adam Sobel; Isaac Held

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Electric Dehumidification and Humidity Control: Principles and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a systematic approach to design and operation of electric dehumidification and humidity control system for a variety of end-use applications. The design and applications methodology is validated with a large number of field demonstrations.

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

311

An Analysis of Tropospheric Humidity Trends from Radiosondes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new analysis of historical radiosonde humidity observations is described. An assessment of both known and unknown instrument and observing practice changes has been conducted to assess their impact on bias and uncertainty in long-term trends. ...

Mark P. McCarthy; P. W. Thorne; H. A. Titchner

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Upper-Tropospheric Humidity from MLS and ECMWF Reanalyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper compares upper-tropospheric humidity from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data. MLS measurements are not included in the ECMWF ...

H. L. Clark; R. S. Harwood

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

MOS structures with amorphous tungsten trioxide for capacitive humidity sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical characteristics of the Al/a-WO{sub 3}/n-Si structure under conditions of water vapor sorption were studied. The parameters of this structure as a capacitive humidity sensor were determined.

Tutov, E. A. [Voronezh State University (Russian Federation)], E-mail: ssd126@phys.ru

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Radiation Dry Bias of the Vaisala RS92 Humidity Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The comparison of simultaneous humidity measurements by the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde and by the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) launched at Alajuela, Costa Rica, during July 2005 reveals a large solar radiation dry bias of the Vaisala RS92 ...

H. Vömel; H. Selkirk; L. Miloshevich; J. Valverde-Canossa; J. Valdés; E. Kyrö; R. Kivi; W. Stolz; G. Peng; J. A. Diaz

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

A New Approach to Homogenize Daily Radiosonde Humidity Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiosonde humidity records represent the only in situ observations of tropospheric water vapor content with multidecadal length and quasi-global coverage. However, their use has been hampered by ubiquitous and large discontinuities resulting ...

Aiguo Dai; Junhong Wang; Peter W. Thorne; David E. Parker; Leopold Haimberger; Xiaolan L. Wang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Brazil's hot humid climate zone. Building and Environmentin moderate thermal climate zones. Building and EnvironmentBrazil's hot humid climate zone. Building and Environment,

Candido, Christhina Maria

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

R&D on an Ultra-Thin Composite Membrane for High-Temperature Operation in PEMFC. Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

FuelCell Energy developed a novel high-temperature proton exchange membrane for PEM fuel cells for building applications. The laboratory PEM fuel cell successfully operated at 100-400{supdegree}C and low relative humidity to improve CO tolerance, mitigate water and thermal management challenges, and reduce membrane cost. The developed high-temperature membrane has successfully completed 500h 120C endurance testing.

Yuh, C.-Y.

2003-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

318

AMiBA: SCALING RELATIONS BETWEEN THE INTEGRATED COMPTON-y AND X-RAY-DERIVED TEMPERATURE, MASS, AND LUMINOSITY  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the scaling relations between the X-ray and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect properties of clusters of galaxies, using data taken during 2007 by the Y. T. Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) at 94 GHz for the six clusters A1689, A1995, A2142, A2163, A2261, and A2390. The scaling relations relate the integrated Compton-y parameter Y {sub 2500} to the X-ray-derived gas temperature T {sub e}, total mass M {sub 2500}, and bolometric luminosity L{sub X} within r {sub 2500}. Our results for the power-law index and normalization are both consistent with the self-similar model and other studies in the literature except for the Y {sub 2500}-L{sub X} relation, for which a physical explanation is given though further investigation may be still needed. Our results not only provide confidence for the AMiBA project but also support our understanding of galaxy clusters.

Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Chiueh, Tzihong [Department of Physics, Institute of Astrophysics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ho, Paul T. P.; Koch, Patrick M.; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Umetsu, Keiichi [LeCosPA Center, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Birkinshaw, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

2010-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

319

Abnormal humidity-dependent electrical properties of amorphous carbon/silicon heterojunctions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amorphous carbon (a-C) film/n-Si heterojunctions have been fabricated by pulse laser deposition, and their current-voltage characteristics have been investigated. The results show that the atmosphere relative humidity (RH) has a significant effect on the reverse bias I-V characteristics of the heterojunctions. For the low bias voltages, the resistance of the a-C/Si heterojunction decreases with the increase of the RH. However, when the applied voltage is greater than a threshold, the resistance of the a-C/Si heterojunctions increases with the increase of the RH. This humidity-dependent phenomenon is attributed to the charge transfer from the absorbed H{sub 2}O molecular to a-C film.

Gao Xili; Zhang Xiaozhong; Wan Caihua; Zhang Xin; Wu Lihua; Tan Xinyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) and National Center for Electron Microscopy (Beijing), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2010-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

320

A PRECISION, CONTINUOUS FLOW ENVIRONMENTAL APPARATUS DESIGNED FOR THE TESTING AND CALIBRATION OF HUMIDITY-MEASURING ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

An apparatus is designed for testing and calibrating relative humidity elements. A brief history of other apparatus of this type and similar types is given along with the primary areas of differences. Factors affecting the design of the various parts, accuracy of the system, and its capabilities are discussed. (D.J.C.)

Wade, J.B.

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Residential Humidity Control: Exciting New Opportunities with Air Flow Modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reviews psychrometric principles and shows how to formulate a psychrometric chart from a single equation. The chart is used to demonstrate the manner in which a conventional single-speed air conditioner adjusts its operating point in an attempt to control humidity over a range of conditions. The system performance with an electronically commutated motor (ECM) driving the blower is then presented. With ECM blower speed control, it is possible to raise the sensible capacity, reduce the sensible capacity, and boost the efficiency of an otherwise conventional air conditioner. This makes such systems ideal to respond to the changing loads in a hot and humid climate.

Crawford, J. G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiant cooling is credited with improving energy efficiency and enhancing the comfort level as an alternative method of space cooling in mild and dry climates, according to recent research. Since radiant cooling panels lack the capability to remove latent heat, they normally are used in conjunction with an independent ventilation system, which is capable of decoupling the space sensible and latent loads. Condensation concerns limit the application of radiant cooling. This paper studies the dehumidification processes of solid desiccant systems and investigates the factors that affect the humidity levels of a radiantly cooled space. Hourly indoor humidity is simulated at eight different operating conditions in a radiantly cooled test-bed office. The simulation results show that infiltration and ventilation flow rates are the main factors affecting indoor humidity level and energy consumption in a radiantly cooled space with relatively constant occupancy. It is found that condensation is hard to control in a leaky office operated with the required ventilation rate. Slightly pressurizing the space is recommended for radiant cooling. The energy consumption simulation shows that a passive desiccant wheel can recover about 50% of the ventilation load.

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

PRESERVATION OF H2 PRODUCTION ACTIVITY IN NANOPOROUS LATEX COATINGS OF RHODOPSEUDOMONAS PALUSTRIS CGA009 DURING DRY STORAGE AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES  

SciTech Connect

To assess the applicability of latex cell coatings as an "off-the-shelf' biocatalyst, the effect of osmoprotectants, temperature, humidity and O{sub 2} on preservation of H{sub 2} production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coatings was evaluated. Immediately following latex coating coalescence (24 h) and for up to 2 weeks of dry storage, rehydrated coatings containing different osmoprotectants displayed similar rates of H{sub 2} production. Beyond 2 weeks of storage, sorbitol- treated coatings lost all H{sub 2} production activity, whereas considerable H{sub 2} production was still detected in sucrose- and trehalose-stabilized coatings. The relative humidity level at which the coatings were stored had a significant impact on the recovery and subsequent rates of H{sub 2} production. After 4 weeks storage under air at 60% humidity, coatings produced only trace amounts of H{sub 2} (0-0.1% headspace accumulation), whereas those stored at <5% humidity retained 27-53% of their H{sub 2} production activity after 8 weeks of storage. When stored in argon at <5% humidity and room temperature, R. palustris coatings retained full H{sub 2} production activity for 3 months, implicating oxidative damage as a key factor limiting coating storage. Overall, the results demonstrate that biocatalytic latex coatings are an attractive cell immobilization platform for preservation of bioactivity in the dry state.

Milliken, C.; Piskorska, M.; Soule, T.; Gosse, J.; Flickinger, M.; Smith, G.; Yeager, C.

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

Daylight Analysis with Microcomputers for School Buildings in a Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Daylighting and other passive energy technologies are critical issues that should be considered in the early stages of building planning and architectural design. Both new design and retrofit of existing buildings benefit greatly by use of microcomputer-generated models, especially as they relate to building studies in zones of extreme climate. The hot, humid environment of Louisiana poses unique problems and calls for creative solutions. The use of microcomputers as analytical tools to develop suggestions for optimizing the amount of energy consumed for lighting and climatic comfort is illustrated. The effective use of daylighting can, as might be expected, produce net energy savings in most school buildings.

Leaver, J.; McQueen, T.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Humid Climates to someone by E-mail Humid Climates to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy Partner With DOE Activities Solar Decathlon Building America Research Innovations Research Tools Building Science Education

326

Simple Procedures for Extrapolation of Humidity Variables in the Mountainous Western United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of simple procedures are presented for extrapolating climatic averages of humidity variables from a reference location with long-term humidity measurements to nearby higher elevation locations. The extrapolation of monthly average ...

Kenneth E. Kunkel

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Comparison of In Situ Humidity Data from Aircraft, Dropsonde, and Radiosonde  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from the Measurement of Tropospheric Humidity (MOTH) Tropic and MOTH Arctic airborne field experiments, comparing a number of in situ humidity measurements. Good agreement is shown between the Total Water Content probe on ...

A. K. Vance; J. P. Taylor; T. J. Hewison; J. Elms

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Effects on Climate Records of Changes in National Weather Service Humidity Processing Procedures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. National Weather Service has recently corrected an error in radiosonde humidity data reduction algorithms, eliminated a sonde thats processing contained another error, and recently made a further change in the humidity data reduction ...

William P. Elliott; Rebecca J. Ross; Barry Schwartz

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Influences of Isolated Cumulus Clouds on the Humidity of Their Surroundings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements are described of the distributions of humidity in the clear air surrounding small to medium sized, isolated cumulus clouds. Wind shear is the most important factor in determining the radial distribution of enhanced humidity around ...

Kevin D. Perry; Peter V. Hobbs

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

The Variational Assimilation Method for the Retrieval of Humidity Profiles with the Wind-Profiling Radar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, a humidity estimation technique was developed by using the turbulence echo characteristics detected with a wind-profiling radar. This study is concerned with improvement of the retrieval algorithm for delineating a humidity profile from ...

Jun-ichi Furumoto; Shingo Imura; Toshitaka Tsuda; Hiromu Seko; Tadashi Tsuyuki; Kazuo Saito

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

BC TIPS - Hot-Humid Climate: New Orleans  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hot-Humid Climate: New Orleans Hot-Humid Climate: New Orleans Building Technologies Program The U.S. Department of Energy's Builders Challenge recognizes quality homes that also save you money. U.S. homebuilders from all areas of the country report growing buyer interest in energy-efficient houses, yet buyers often lack basic information that can help them make informed decisions. How can homebuyers tell exceptional energy performance from average energy performance? And how do they figure out just what that difference will mean in their energy bills? Spearheaded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Builders Challenge is a voluntary effort to address these consumer questions. The Builders

332

Alternate Air Delivery Systems for Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carter & Burgess first began using triple deck multi-zone units, in place of traditional VAV systems, on the Texas State Capitol restoration. Since the completion of that project design in early 1991, our firm has now used triple deck multi-zone units in the Harris County Criminal Courts Building in Houston, one of the most hot and humid climates in the United States, as well as in several other facilities. This paper will discuss the adoption of ASHRAE 62, its effects on VAV systems, and how triple deck multi-zone units offer an alternative system to cooling in hot and humid climates. We recommend all design firms add triple deck multizone units to their repertoire of design solutions.

Wallace, M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Relative Controls of Asian–Pacific Summer Climate by Asian Land and Tropical–North Pacific Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dominant pattern of summertime tropical and North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) is characterized by an out-of-phase relationship between the tropics and the extratropics. This pattern, defined as the tropical–North Pacific mode (TNPM) ...

Ping Zhao; Song Yang; Maoqiu Jian; Junming Chen

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

An Examination of El Niño–La Niña-Related Precipitation and Temperature Anomalies across the Northern Plains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Monthly total precipitation and mean temperature data records extending from the late nineteenth century to 1990 were collected for 147 stations in South Dakota, North Dakota, and portions of adjacent states and provinces. This region, defined as ...

Matthew J. Bunkers; James R. Miller Jr.; Arthur T. DeGaetano

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Performance Evaluation of a Hot-Humid Climate Community  

SciTech Connect

Project Home Again is a development in New Orleans, LA created to provide new homes to victims of Hurricane Katrina. Building Science Corporation acted as a consultant for the project, advocating design strategies for durability, flood resistance, occupant comfort, and low energy use while maintaining cost effectiveness. These techniques include the use of high density spray foam insulation, LoE3 glazing, and supplemental dehumidification to maintain comfortable humidity levels without unnecessary cooling.

Osser, R.; Kerrigan, P.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Building for the Pacific Rim Countries. Energy-efficient building strategies for hot, humid climates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This book has been published by the Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA), the US trade association of the solar thermal, photovoltaic, and passive solar manufacturers, distributors, and component suppliers. Its purpose is to help architects, builders, and developers construct energy-efficient homes in hot humid climates like the Pacific Rim Countries, and to allow occupants of these homes to enjoy enhanced comfort without reliance on mechanical air-conditioning systems. Two important factors are addressed in this book. First, the past few years have seen a tremendous increase in practical applications of new research. The current popularity of ceiling paddle fans, attic radiant barriers and natural daylighting attest to the importance of keeping up with the latest concepts in energy-reduction and comfort-awareness. Professionals who have been in the field for the past few years may be unaware of the latest research findings--some of which dramatically alter prior thinking on such subjects as natural ventilation or mechanical air conditioning. The second factor is the importance of site-specific characteristics, which greatly affect building strategies and designs. A thorough understanding of the climate is a prerequisite to good building design. Such factors as temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, and solar radiation must be understood and properly integrated into the design for the home to be truly energy-efficient.

Sheinkopf, K. [ed.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Synoptic Climatology of Monthly Mean Surface Temperature in the Unit States during Summer in Relation to the Surrounding 700-mb Height Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The synoptic climatology of monthly mean temperature at 109 surface stations in the contiguous United States relative to 700-mb heights at 133 grid points is assessed. Two methods are used based on data for 102 summer months from June 1948 to ...

Joann M. Kline; William H. Klein

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Determination of the Lower Temperature Limit of Void Swelling of Stainless Steels at Relatively Low Displacement Rates  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An issue of current interest to PWRs is the possibility that void swelling of austenitic near-core internal components may exert some deleterious effect on component functionality, particularly during extended operation to 60 years. A similar concern has also been raised for water-cooled fusion devices. One question of particular interest is the range of temperature over which void swelling can occur, since the internal components experience temperatures from ~290 to perhaps as high as 390 degrees C in some limited locations. This question was addressed using a flow restrictor component from the low-flux breeder zone of the BN-350 fast reactor in Kazakhstan. This component was constructed of annealed 12X18H10T, an alloy similar to AISI 321 which is used in Russian reactors for applications where AISI 304L would be used in comparable Western and Japanese reactors. Extensive sectioning to produce 114 separate specimens, followed by examination of the radiation-induced microstructure showed that void swelling in the range of temperatures and dpa rates of PWR interest occurs down to ~305 degrees C. At 330 degrees C the swelling reached ~1% at 20 dpa. Comparison of these data with other published results from Russian LWR reactors at <10 dpa confirms that the lowest temperature that stainless steels can begin swelling appears to be ~300 degrees C. Since fusion and PWR spectra generate similar levels of hydrogen and helium, it is expected that these conclusions are also application to fusion devices operating at comparable dpa rates.

Porollo, S. I.; Konobeev, Yu V.; Dvoriashin, Alexander M.; Krigan, V. M.; Garner, Francis A.

2002-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Survey on Cooling Costs and Related Factors for Apartments in an Urban Area of Osaka  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A questionnaire survey was carried out to assess cooling behaviors and cooling costs for 290 apartments in an urban area. 1) Cooling costs are strongly related to the number of air conditioners, the months of occupation, and the air conditioner usage frequency during sleep. Lifestyle and ecological interest do not decrease costs. 2) Target temperatures of air conditioning are strongly related to the air pollution outdoors, and to the frequency of window opening. Cooling temperatures are affected by the residents' constitution. 3) Both cooling temperature and air-conditioner use frequency are higher for residents worried more about dew, humidity, odors, and mold. 4) Air-conditioner use frequency is higher for residents who are annoyed by glances from outside and for those with a higher preference of outdoors. 5) South openings are related to the lower cooling costs and higher cooling temperatures, whereas west openings are related to higher cooling costs.

Umemiya, N.; Lin, X.; Inoue, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Intraseasonal Atmospheric Variability in the Extratropics and Its Relation to the Onset of Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous research has shown that seasonal-mean boreal winter variations in the subtropical/extratropical sea level pressure and wind stress fields over the central North Pacific are significantly related to the state of the El Niño–Southern ...

Bruce T. Anderson

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Early-age concrete temperature and moisture relative to curing effectiveness and projected effects on selected aspects of slab behavior  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concrete curing has long been realized to be important to produce durable concrete. Curing compound is widely used to cure concrete in the field. The current curing membrane evaluation method ASTM C 156, however, is incapable of distinguishing the curing compound quality and guiding the curing practice in the field. A new laboratory curing membrane evaluation protocol is developed in this study. It has the ability to rank the quality of curing compound and guide curing practice in the field according to the field ambient weather conditions and the type of curing compound. A series of field tests were conducted to investigate the key factors that affect the curing effectiveness in the field conditions. A finite element program, temperature and moisture analysis for curing concrete (TMAC2), is updated to solve the coupled and nonlinear heat transfer and moisture transport problems in early-age concrete. Moisture capacity is induced into the TMAC2, which makes it unique to characterize the self-desiccation. A full scale concrete pavement test study was conducted at the FAA National Airport Pavement Test Facility (NAPTF) near Atlantic City, New Jersey. In this study, the material properties, i.e. thermal conductivity and moisture diffusivity, were backcalculated from field data. Thereafter, backcalculated material properties were used to forward-calculate the temperature and moisture histories of all other sections. High order shear deformable theory is used to model the concrete slab curling and warping behavior because of highly nonlinear temperature and moisture gradients. The maximum shear strain is obtained a couple of inches below the concrete slab. This might account for the occurrence of delamination.

Ye, Dan

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Recent Variations of Snow Cover and Snowfall in North America and Their Relation to Precipitation and Temperature Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contemporary large-scale changes in solid and total precipitation and satellite-derived snow cover were examined over the North American continent. Annual snow cover extent over the last 19 years decreased up to 6×105 km2 relative to a 0.93°C (...

Thomas R. Karl; Pavel Ya Groisman; Richard W. Knight; Richard R. Heim Jr.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Measured Energy Savings from Retrofits Installed in Low-Income Housing in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) is metering energy use in a Habitat for Humanity housing development. The objective is to understand the way in which energy is used in low income housing and how it can be effectively reduced. The ten homes come from a conventional housing project built by in 1993 Habitat for Humanity in Homestead, Florida. The instrumentation was installed in the homes in July of 1994 with over three years of 15-minute data collected on all sites. Data were obtained on seven electrical end-uses (air conditioning, heating, hot water, dryer, range, refrigerator, washer/freezer) as well as total. Weather conditions were also monitored as well as interior comfort conditions (temperature and humidity) and hot water consumption and window ventilation status. Baseline field data from a year of monitoring from the ten homes allowed unique insight into how energy is used in low income housing and suggested where consumption might be reduced. In April of 1997, a series of detailed retrofits were applied to eight of the ten Habitat homes. These included solar water heaters installed in seven homes. In eight homes we retrofit light features to compact fluorescent types, repaired and sealed duct air distribution systems, cleaned refrigerator coils and installed low-flow showerheads. Since each of he associated energy end-uses (including hot water consumption) is metered, we are able to assess the relative performance of each of the retrofits. We also measured of air conditioner performance and house tightness. These audits revealed numerous problems, but low-evaporator coil air flow was discovered in all homes. The paper describes the retrofit installation, audit data collected and the impact on measured energy consumption. Preliminary economics are explored.

Parker, D. S.; Sherwin, J. R.; Floyd, D. B.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Can ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 Requirements be Satisfied while Maintaining Moisture Control using Stock HVAC Equipment in Hot, Humid Climates?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Outdoor air intake rates are studied to determine their impacts on moisture control in buildings, especially in hot, humid climates. Key impacts of outdoor air intake rates can be readily modeled and studied using computer simulations of building energy costs. Increased ventilation rates create real capital and operating costs for building owners and operators, with implications beyond energy costs relating to increased ventilation requirements. In hot, humid climates, increased ventilation rates increase latent loads more than sensible loads, requiring lower sensible heat ratios. Stock HVAC package units and split systems are not available with the requisite sensible heat ratios, and cannot maintain moisture control in small commercial buildings without costly modifications.

Turner, S. C.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Small Residence Multizone Modeling with Partial Conditioning for Energy Effieiency in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to reduce the energy cost of the low-income households in the hot and humid climates of the U.S. and thereby to help them afford comfortable homes. In this perspective, a new HVAC energy saving strategy, i.e. “partial conditioning” was modeled and its potential to reduce the HVAC energy consumption of the low income homes in Texas was quantified. The “partial conditioning” strategy combined three primary ideas: 1) using historic courtyard building schemes to provide a buffer zone between conditioned spaces, 2) zoning and applying occupancy based heating/cooling in each zone, and 3) reusing the conditioned air returning from the occupied zones in the unoccupied zones before it is returned to the system. The study was conducted in four steps: 1) data collection, 2) baseline design and modeling, 3) partial conditioning design and modeling, and 4) analyses and recommendations. First, a site visit was held to the Habitat for Humanity office in Bryan, Texas to collect data on the characteristics of the Habitat for Humanity houses built in Bryan. Second, a base-line Habitat for Humanity house was designed and modeled based on this information along with multiple other resources including International Energy Conservation Code 2012 and Building America benchmark definitions. A detailed comparison was made between the commonly used energy modeling tools (DOE-2.1e, EnergyPlus and TRNSYS) and a modeling method was developed for the estimation of the baseline energy consumption. Third, the “partial conditioning” strategy was introduced into the baseline energy model to simulate a partially conditioned atrium house. As the occupied zone and the direction of the airflow changed throughout the year in the partially conditioned house, this step required an innovative air loop model with interzonal air ducts that allowed for sched- uled bi-directional airflow. This air loop was modeled with the AirflowNetwork model of EnergyPlus. Fourth, the modeling results were analyzed and discussed to determine the performance of the partial conditioning strategy in a hot and humid climate. It was found that partial conditioning strategy can provide substantial (37%-46%) reduction in the overall HVAC energy consumption of small residences (?1,000 ft2) in hot and humid climates while performing better in meeting the temperature set points in each room. It was also found that the quantity of the energy savings that can be obtained with the partial conditioning strategy depends significantly on the ground coupling condition of the house for low rise residential buildings.

Andolsun, Simge

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

High-precision diode-laser-based temperature measurement for air refractive index compensation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a laser-based system to measure the refractive index of air over a long path length. In optical distance measurements, it is essential to know the refractive index of air with high accuracy. Commonly, the refractive index of air is calculated from the properties of the ambient air using either Ciddor or Edlen equations, where the dominant uncertainty component is in most cases the air temperature. The method developed in this work utilizes direct absorption spectroscopy of oxygen to measure the average temperature of air and of water vapor to measure relative humidity. The method allows measurement of temperature and humidity over the same beam path as in optical distance measurement, providing spatially well-matching data. Indoor and outdoor measurements demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. In particular, we demonstrate an effective compensation of the refractive index of air in an interferometric length measurement at a time-variant and spatially nonhomogeneous temperature over a long time period. Further, we were able to demonstrate 7 mK RMS noise over a 67 m path length using a 120 s sample time. To our knowledge, this is the best temperature precision reported for a spectroscopic temperature measurement.

Hieta, Tuomas; Merimaa, Mikko; Vainio, Markku; Seppae, Jeremias; Lassila, Antti

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Humid Climates Humid Climates Guides and Case Studies for Hot-Humid Climates Map of the Hot and Humid Climate Zone of the United States. This zone covers eastern Texas through Florida and reaches up to mid-Georgia it also includes Puerto Rico and Hawaii. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America program has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in hot-humid climates. Best Practice Guides New Construction Case Studies Improvements to Existing Homes Case Studies Best Practice Guides 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Humid Climates - Volume 15 New Construction Case Studies Florida Project: Ravenwood Homes and Energy Smart Home Plans, Inc. - Cape Coral Builder: Ravenwood Homes

348

Guides and Case Studies for Mixed-Humid Climates | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Guides and Case Studies for Mixed-Humid Climates Guides and Case Studies for Mixed-Humid Climates Guides and Case Studies for Mixed-Humid Climates Map of the Mixed-Humid Climate which reaches from the coast of Maryland through North Carolina and sprawls to cover most of Kansas and Oklahoma. The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a series of best practices and case studies to help builders improve whole-house energy performance in buildings found in mixed-humid climates. Best Practice Guides New Construction Case Studies Improvements to Existing Homes Case Studies Best Practice Guides 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Mixed-Humid Climates - Volume 16 New Construction Case Studies Maryland Project: North Point Lot 5 - Frederick Builder: Nexus EnergyHomes Profile: This urban infill community with 24 duplexes, 19 townhomes, and 7

349

Thermal and lighting performance of toplighting systems in the hot and humid climate of Thailand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study evaluated the potential of toplighting systems in the hot and humid tropics by using Bangkok, Thailand (latitude 13.7�°N) as a test location. The analysis tested both the thermal and lighting performance of three toplighting systems. Toplighting, designed for use in one-story buildings or on the top floor of taller buildings, yields a uniformly distributed light throughout a space. However, in lower latitude locations, where there is no heating period, heat gain is a critical design issue since it significantly affects the annual energy consumption of the building. Accordingly, the decision to use toplighting in these locations needs to be carefully examined before any design considerations occur. In this study, the thermal and lighting performance of three toplighting systems were compared. For the thermal performance, total cooling loads, heat gains and losses, and interior temperature were evaluated. The lighting performance parameters examined were daylight factor, illuminance level, light distribution, and uniformity. EnergyPlus was used as the thermal analysis tool, and RADIANCE, along with a physical scale model, was used as the lighting performance analysis tool. The sky conditions tested were overcast, clear sky, and intermediate sky. Results have shown that, for locations with hot and humid climates with variable sky conditions such as Bangkok, Thailand, the roof monitors perform better than the other two systems in terms of the thermal and lighting performance. With similar cooling loads, the roof monitor provides better illuminance uniformity than the skylights and lightscoops, with adequate illuminance level (at mostly higher than 500 lux).

Harntaweewongsa, Siritip

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

THE RELATION BETWEEN POST-SHOCK TEMPERATURE, COSMIC-RAY PRESSURE, AND COSMIC-RAY ESCAPE FOR NON-RELATIVISTIC SHOCKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays. This requires that at least 5% of the available energy is transferred to cosmic rays, implying a high cosmic-ray pressure downstream of SNR shocks. Recently, it has been shown that the downstream temperature in some remnants is low compared to the measured shock velocities, implying that additional pressure supported by accelerated particles is present. Here we use a two-fluid thermodynamic approach to derive the relation between post-shock fractional cosmic-ray pressure and post-shock temperature, assuming no additional heating beyond adiabatic heating in the shock precursor and with all non-adiabatic heating occurring at the subshock. The derived relations show that a high fractional cosmic-ray pressure is only possible if a substantial fraction of the incoming energy flux escapes from the system. Recently, a shock velocity and a downstream proton temperature were measured for a shock in the SNR RCW 86. We apply the two-fluid solutions to these measurements and find that the downstream fractional cosmic-ray pressure is at least 50% with a cosmic-ray energy flux escape of at least 20%. In general, in order to have 5% of the supernova energy to go into accelerating cosmic rays, on average the post-shock cosmic-ray pressure needs to be 30% for an effective cosmic-ray adiabatic index of {gamma}{sub cr} = 4/3.

Vink, Jacco; Helder, Eveline A.; Schure, K. M. [Astronomical Institute, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands); Yamazaki, Ryo, E-mail: j.vink@astro-uu.n [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

351

The relation between post-shock temperature, cosmic-ray pressure and cosmic-ray escape for non-relativistic shocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supernova remnants are thought to be the dominant source of Galactic cosmic rays. This requires that at least 5% of the available energy is transferred to cosmic rays, implying a high cosmic-ray pressure downstream of supernova remnant shocks. Recently, it has been shown that the downstream temperature in some remnants is low compared to the measured shock velocities, implying that additional pressure support by accelerated particles is present. Here we use a two-fluid thermodynamic approach to derive the relation between post-shock fractional cosmic-ray pressure and post-shock temperature, assuming no additional heating beyond adiabatic heating in the shock precursor and with all non-adiabatic heating occurring at the subshock. The derived relations show that a high fractional cosmic-ray pressure is only possible, if a substantial fraction of the incoming energy flux escapes from the system. Recently a shock velocity and a downstream proton temperature was measured for a shock in the supernova remnant RCW 86...

Vink, Jacco; Helder, E A; Schure, K M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

D-Zero Instrument Air System Humidity Transmitter Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report shows the findings that resulted in the purchase of the optimum dew point hygrometer for use in the D-Zero instrument air system (see diagram 2 on page 9). The hygrometer will monitor the air syste m to insure that the dew point level does not go above the normal operating output of the driers (this precise value will be determined during initial system start-up). The following criteria was used in the evaluation: (1) Long term durability; (2) Minimum calibration; (3) Indicate a dew point level down to -40 C accurately; (4) Designed to work in a low humidity region; (5) Minimum maintenance; (6) Fast response time; and (7) Lowest cost provided all other criteria is met.

Serges, T.J.; /Fermilab

1988-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

419 µg m -2 hr -1 ) from Pilgrim International manufactured3” x 6” x 3/8”) and Pilgrim International's cabinet wall (3”

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Temperature, humidity and air flow in the emplacement drifts using convection and dispersion transport models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Storage Capacity At Yucca Mountain Favors Thermal ManagementConfiguration Management, Yucca Mountain Project – STN:and condensation . Yucca Mountain Project Report, MDL-EBS-

Danko, G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Improved Quality Assurance for Historical Hourly Temperature and Humidity: Development and Application to Environmental Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historical hourly surface synoptic (airways) meteorological reports from around the United States have been digitized as part of the NOAA Climate Database Modernization Program. An important component is improvement of quality assurance ...

Daniel Y. Graybeal; Arthur T. DeGaetano; Keith L. Eggleston

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fast-Response Humidity Measurements with the Psychrometric Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple method for correcting the time series of a wet temperature sensor characterized by slow response is presented in this paper. A first-order linear approximation of the heat transfer equation is used for correcting the wet temperature ...

J. A. Kalogiros; C. G. Helmis

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Performance of Variable Capacity Heat Pumps in a Mixed Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

Variable capacity heat pumps represent the next wave of technology for heat pumps. In this report, the performance of two variable capacity heat pumps (HPs) is compared to that of a single or two stage baseline system. The units were installed in two existing research houses located in Knoxville, TN. These houses were instrumented to collect energy use and temperature data while both the baseline systems and variable capacity systems were installed. The homes had computer controlled simulated occupancy, which provided consistent schedules for hot water use and lighting. The temperature control and energy use of the systems were compared during both the heating and cooling seasons. Multiple linear regression models were used along with TMY3 data for Knoxville, TN in order to normalize the effect that the outdoor air temperature has on energy use. This enables a prediction of each system's energy use over a year with the same weather. The first system was a multi-split system consisting of 8 indoor units and a single outdoor unit. This system replaced a 16 SEER single stage HP with a zoning system, which served as the baseline. Data was collected on the baseline system from August 2009 to December 2010 and on the multi-split system from January 2011 to January 2012. Soon after the installation of the multi-split system, some of the smaller rooms began over-conditioning. This was determined to be caused by a small amount of continuous refrigerant flow to all of the indoor units when the outdoor unit was running regardless of whether they were calling for heat. This, coupled with the fact that the indoor fans run continuously, was providing enough heat in some rooms to exceed the set point. In order to address this, the indoor fans were disabled when not actively heating per the manufacturer's recommendation. Based on the measured data, the multi-split system was predicted to use 40% more energy in the heating season and 16% more energy in the cooling season than the baseline system, for the typical meteorological year weather data. The AHRI ratings indicated that the baseline system would perform slightly better than the multi-split system, but not by as large of a margin as seen in this study. The multi-split system was able to maintain more consistent temperature throughout the house than the baseline system, but it did allow relative humidity levels to increase above 60% in the summer. The second system was a split system with an inverter driven compressor and a single ducted air handler. This unit replaced a 16 SEER two stage HP with a zoning system. Data was collected on the baseline system from July 2009 to November 2010 and on the ducted inverter system from December 2010 to January 2012. The ducted inverter system did not offer a zone controller, so it functioned as a single zone system. Due to this fact, the registers had to be manually adjusted in order to better maintain consistent temperatures between the two levels of the house. The predicted heating season energy use for the ducted inverter system, based on the measured energy use, was 30% less than that of the baseline system for the typical meteorological year. However, the baseline system was unable to operate in its high stage due to a wiring issue with the zone controller. This resulted in additional resistance heat use during the winter and therefore higher energy use than would be expected in a properly performing unit. The AHRI ratings would indicate that the baseline system would use less energy than the ducted inverter system, which is opposite to the results of this study. During the cooling season, the ducted inverter system was predicted to use 23% more energy than the baseline system during the typical meteorological year. This is also opposite of the results expected by comparing the AHRI ratings. After a detailed comparison of the ducted inverter system's power use compared to that of a recently installed identical system at a retro-fit study house, there is concern that the unit is not operating as intended. The power use and cycles indicate t

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Performance of Variable Capacity Heat Pumps in a Mixed Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

Variable capacity heat pumps represent the next wave of technology for heat pumps. In this report, the performance of two variable capacity heat pumps (HPs) is compared to that of a single or two stage baseline system. The units were installed in two existing research houses located in Knoxville, TN. These houses were instrumented to collect energy use and temperature data while both the baseline systems and variable capacity systems were installed. The homes had computer controlled simulated occupancy, which provided consistent schedules for hot water use and lighting. The temperature control and energy use of the systems were compared during both the heating and cooling seasons. Multiple linear regression models were used along with TMY3 data for Knoxville, TN in order to normalize the effect that the outdoor air temperature has on energy use. This enables a prediction of each system's energy use over a year with the same weather. The first system was a multi-split system consisting of 8 indoor units and a single outdoor unit. This system replaced a 16 SEER single stage HP with a zoning system, which served as the baseline. Data was collected on the baseline system from August 2009 to December 2010 and on the multi-split system from January 2011 to January 2012. Soon after the installation of the multi-split system, some of the smaller rooms began over-conditioning. This was determined to be caused by a small amount of continuous refrigerant flow to all of the indoor units when the outdoor unit was running regardless of whether they were calling for heat. This, coupled with the fact that the indoor fans run continuously, was providing enough heat in some rooms to exceed the set point. In order to address this, the indoor fans were disabled when not actively heating per the manufacturer's recommendation. Based on the measured data, the multi-split system was predicted to use 40% more energy in the heating season and 16% more energy in the cooling season than the baseline system, for the typical meteorological year weather data. The AHRI ratings indicated that the baseline system would perform slightly better than the multi-split system, but not by as large of a margin as seen in this study. The multi-split system was able to maintain more consistent temperature throughout the house than the baseline system, but it did allow relative humidity levels to increase above 60% in the summer. The second system was a split system with an inverter driven compressor and a single ducted air handler. This unit replaced a 16 SEER two stage HP with a zoning system. Data was collected on the baseline system from July 2009 to November 2010 and on the ducted inverter system from December 2010 to January 2012. The ducted inverter system did not offer a zone controller, so it functioned as a single zone system. Due to this fact, the registers had to be manually adjusted in order to better maintain consistent temperatures between the two levels of the house. The predicted heating season energy use for the ducted inverter system, based on the measured energy use, was 30% less than that of the baseline system for the typical meteorological year. However, the baseline system was unable to operate in its high stage due to a wiring issue with the zone controller. This resulted in additional resistance heat use during the winter and therefore higher energy use than would be expected in a properly performing unit. The AHRI ratings would indicate that the baseline system would use less energy than the ducted inverter system, which is opposite to the results of this study. During the cooling season, the ducted inverter system was predicted to use 23% more energy than the baseline system during the typical meteorological year. This is also opposite of the results expected by comparing the AHRI ratings. After a detailed comparison of the ducted inverter system's power use compared to that of a recently installed identical system at a retro-fit study house, there is concern that the unit is not operating as intended. The power use and cy

Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

MEASUREMENT OF THE HUMIDITY OF SOILS BY DIFFUSION OF A BEAM OF THERMAL NEUTRONS  

SciTech Connect

From earlier results on the measurement of soil humidity an apparatus was constructed and calibrated for the measurement of the humidity of soils by diffusion of a beam of thermal neutrons. The construction and calibration of this apparatus are described in detail. (J.S.R.)

Wack, B.

1962-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Simulation of Dehumidification Characteristics of High Efficiency Residential Central Air-Conditioners in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study assesses the dehumidifying performance of the high efficiency residential central air conditioners (CAC) in hot/humid climates typified by that of Houston and Galveston. The performance study is based on such factors as: (i) weather (ii) thermostat set point and dead band, and (ill) sizing of unit relative to the design load of the residence. The units are evaluated on their ability to maintain conditions in the ASHRAE comfort zone in a typical residence in Houston area. The units, the thermostat, and the residence are simulated on a minute-by-minute basis using a commercial software (TRNSYS) after making certain modifications to it.

Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D.; Somasundram, S.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

A Global Approach to Assess the Potential Impact of Climate Change on Stream Water Temperatures and Related In-Stream First-Order Decay Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Stream water temperature is an important factor used in water quality modeling. To estimate monthly stream temperature on a global scale, a simple nonlinear regression model was developed. It was applied to stream temperatures recorded over a 36-...

Manuel Punzet; Frank Voß; Anja Voß; Ellen Kynast; Ilona Bärlund

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

External vs. body temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External vs. body temperature External vs. body temperature Name: jacqui Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: If one's internal body temperature is approximately 98.6, WHY when the external temperature is 98.6 do we feel hot? Since both temperatures are "balanced", shouldn't we feel comfortable? I am assuming here that humidity levels are controlled, and play no factor in the external temperature. Replies: First of all, skin temperature is lower than 98.6F; 98.6F is internal body temperature, so air at 98.6F is hotter than skin. But more important, it is the nervous system, and the cells in your skin that your brain uses to detect temperature that determine whether you "feel" hot or not, not whether the air is hotter than your skin. These are set so that you feel hot when the air is actually colder than your skin. Why? They are probably set to make you feel hot whenever the air is warm enough so that your body has some trouble getting rid of the excess heat it produces through metabolism. This insures that you take some actions to help your body cool off. Like drinking cool water, or reducing exercise

363

The Effect of Humidity on the Reliability of a Surface Micromachined Microengine  

SciTech Connect

Humidity is shown to be a strong factor in the wear of rubbing surfaces in polysilicon micromachines. We demonstrate that very low humidity can lead to very high wear without a significant change in reliability. We show that the volume of wear debris generated is a function of the humidity in an air environment. As the humidity decreases, the wear debris generated increases. For the higher humidity levels, the formation of surface hydroxides may act as a lubricant. The dominant failure mechanism has been identified as wear. The wear debris has been identified as amorphous oxidized silicon. Large slivers (approximately 1 micron in length) of debris observed at the low humidity level were also amorphous oxidized silicon. Using transmission electron microscopy, we observed that the wear debris forms spherical and rod-like shapes. We compared two surface treatment processes: a fluorinated si- lane chain, (FITl) and supercritical C02 dried (SCC02). The microengines using the SCC02 process were found to be less reliable than those released with the FIX process under two humidity levels.

Dugger, M.T.; Eaton, W.P.; Irwin, L.W.; Miller, S.L.; Miller, W.M.; Smith, N.F.; Tanner, D.M.; Walraven, J.A.

1999-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

364

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the accelerated dissemination of energy efficient design. For the development of the toolkit, first, a survey was performed to identify high performance measures available today being implemented in new K-5 school buildings. Then an existing case-study school building in a hot and humid climate was selected and analyzed to understand the energy use pattern in a school building and to be used in developing a calibrated simulation. Based on the information from the previous step, an as-built and calibrated simulation was then developed. To accomplish this, five calibration steps were performed to match the simulation results with the measured energy use. The five steps include: 1) Using an actual 2006 weather file with measured solar radiation, 2) Modifying lighting & equipment schedule using ASHRAE’s RP-1093iv methods, 3) Using actual equipment performance curves (i.e., scroll chiller), 4) Using the Winkelmann’s method for the underground floor heat transfer, and 5) Modifying the HVAC and room setpoint temperature based on the measured field data. Next, the calibrated simulation of the case-study K-5 school was compared to an ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant school. In the next step, the energy savings potentials from the application of several high performance measures to an equivalent ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 codecompliant school. The high performance measures applied included the recommendations from the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) for K-12 and other high performance measures from the literature review as well as a daylighting strategy and solar PV and thermal systems. The results show that the net energy consumption of the final high performance school with the solar thermal and a solar PV system would be 1,162.1 MMBtu, which corresponds to the 14.9 kBtu/sqft-yr of EUI. The calculated final energy and cost savings over the code compliant school are 68.2% and 69.9%, respectively. As a final step of the research, specifications for a simplified easy-to-use toolkit were then developed, and a prototype screenshot of the toolkit was developed. The toolkit is expected to be used by non-technical decision-maker to select and evaluate high performance measures for a new school building in terms of energy and cost savings in a quick and easy way.

Im, Piljae

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Methodology for the Preliminary Design of High Performance Schools in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A methodology to develop an easy-to-use toolkit for the preliminary design of high performance schools in hot and humid climates was presented. The toolkit proposed in this research will allow decision makers without simulation knowledge easily to evaluate accurately energy efficient measures for K-5 schools, which would contribute to the accelerated dissemination of energy efficient design. For the development of the toolkit, first, a survey was performed to identify high performance measures available today being implemented in new K-5 school buildings. Then an existing case-study school building in a hot and humid climate was selected and analyzed to understand the energy use pattern in a school building and to be used in developing a calibrated simulation. Based on the information from the previous step, an as-built and calibrated simulation was then developed. To accomplish this, five calibration steps were performed to match the simulation results with the measured energy use. The five steps include: 1) Using an actual 2006 weather file with measured solar radiation, 2) Modifying lighting & equipment schedule using ASHRAE's RP-1093 methods, 3) Using actual equipment performance curves (i.e., scroll chiller), 4) Using the Winkelmann's method for the underground floor heat transfer, and 5) Modifying the HVAC and room setpoint temperature based on the measured field data. Next, the calibrated simulation of the case-study K-5 school was compared to an ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 code-compliant school. In the next step, the energy savings potentials from the application of several high performance measures to an equivalent ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 codecompliant school. The high performance measures applied included the recommendations from the ASHRAE Advanced Energy Design Guides (AEDG) for K- 12 and other high performance measures from the literature review as well as a daylighting strategy and solar PV and thermal systems. The results show that the net energy consumption of the final high performance school with the solar thermal and a solar PV system would be 1,162.1 MMBtu, which corresponds to the 14.9 kBtu/sqft-yr of EUI. The calculated final energy and cost savings over the code compliant school are 68.2% and 69.9%, respectively. As a final step of the research, specifications for a simplified easy-to-use toolkit were then developed, and a prototype screenshot of the toolkit was developed. The toolkit is expected to be used by non-technical decision-maker to select and evaluate high performance measures for a new school building in terms of energy and cost savings in a quick and easy way.

Im, Piljae

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Numerical Weather Simulations with Different Formulations for the Advection of Humidity and Cloud Water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the effect on short-range weather prediction of using different numerical advection schemes for humidity and cloud water. Comparisons are made between predictions using the basic centered and upstream schemes and the more ...

Erik Berge; Jón Egill Kristjánsson

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Combining Microwave Radiometer and Wind Profiler Radar Measurements for High-Resolution Atmospheric Humidity Profiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A self-consistent remote sensing physical method to retrieve atmospheric humidity high-resolution profiles by synergetic use of a microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) and wind profiler radar (WPR) is illustrated. The proposed technique is based ...

Laura Bianco; Domenico Cimini; Frank S. Marzano; Randolph Ware

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Radar Observations of Humidity Variability in and above the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humidity variability at the top of the marine atmospheric boundary layer and in the overlying free troposphere was examined using data collected during the marine stratocumulus phase of the First Regional Experiment (FIRE) of the International ...

Allen B. White; C. W. Fairall; Dennis W. Thomson

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

A passive cooling design for multifamily residences [sic] in hot, humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

People living in hot, humid climates suffer either from extremely uncomfortable weather conditions or from the great cost of air-conditioning systems for maintaining comfort. Most of the available passive cooling techniques ...

Tang, Joseph C

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Influence of Radiosonde “Age” on TRMM Field Campaign Soundings Humidity Correction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hundreds of Vaisala sondes with an RS80-H Humicap thin-film capacitor humidity sensor were launched during the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) field campaigns (1999) Large Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere (LBA) experiment held in Brazil and ...

Biswadev Roy; Jeffrey B. Halverson; Junhong Wang

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Simulation Study of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System in the Hot-Humid Climate.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The beachfront hotel with hybrid geothermal heat pump system (HyGSHP), located in the hot-humid climate, is simulated by TRNSYS in the thesis, and the simulation… (more)

Zhu, Jiang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fluctuations of Cloud, Humidity, and Thermal Structure near the Tropical Tropopause  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal and humidity structures near the tropical tropopause are studied using microwave satellite retrievals of water vapor, along with contemporaneous dynamical structure in ECMWF analyses and cold clouds in high-resolution global cloud ...

Murry Salby; Fabrizio Sassi; Patrick Callaghan; William Read; Hugh Pumphrey

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Trends in Tropospheric Humidity from 1970 to 2008 over China from a Homogenized Radiosonde Dataset  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiosonde humidity data provide the longest record for assessing changes in atmospheric water vapor, but they often contain large discontinuities because of changes in instrumentation and observational practices. In this study, the variations and ...

Tianbao Zhao; Aiguo Dai; Junhong Wang

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Two Major Experiments in the Humidity Exchange over the Sea (HEXOS) Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humidity Exchange over the Sea (HEXOS) is an international program for the study of evaporation and spray droplet flux from sea to air. The program includes measurements in the field, simulation studies in wind tunnels, interpretive studies such ...

Stuart D. Smith; Kristina B. Katsaros; Wiebe A. Oost; Patrice G. Mestayer

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Tests to determine effect of humidity on high-efficiency filters when installed horizontally  

SciTech Connect

The object of tests is to determine effect of high-humidity air on the physical characteristics of filter media and separators when the filter is mounted in the horizontal position. Usual installation is with the filter mounted vertically.

Palmer, J.H.

1960-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

376

Study on the Humidity Susceptibility of Thin-Film CIGS Absorber  

SciTech Connect

The report summarizes the research on the susceptibility of a thermally co-evaporated CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorber to humidity and its consequence on composition, morphology, electrical and electronic properties, and device efficiency.

Pern, F. J.; Egaas, B.; To, B.; Jiang, C. S.; Li, J. V.; Glynn, S.; DeHart, C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Recent Changes in Surface Humidity: Development of the HadCRUH Dataset  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water vapor constitutes the most significant greenhouse gas, is a key driver of many atmospheric processes, and hence, is fundamental to understanding the climate system. It is a major factor in human “heat stress,” whereby increasing humidity ...

Katharine M. Willett; Philip D. Jones; Nathan P. Gillett; Peter W. Thorne

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Influence of Tropical Cyclones on Humidity Patterns over Southern Baja California, Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of tropical cyclone circulations in the distribution of humidity and convection over northwestern Mexico is investigated by analyzing circulations that developed in the eastern Pacific Ocean from 1 July to 21 September 2004. ...

Luis M. Farfán; Ira Fogel

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Tropospheric Humidity Variations at Brownsville, Texas and Great Falls, Montana, 1958-80  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a preliminary step in evaluating the feasibility of determining meaningful tropospheric humidity trends on a hemispheric or global scale using a sparse radiosonde network, radiosonde data at the earth's surface and at 850, 700 and 500 mb ...

J. K. Angell; W. P. Elliott; M. E. Smith

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, David

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

ARM Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) station: surf. heat flux and related data, 30-min  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Balance Bowen Ratio (EBBR) system produces 30-min estimates of the vertical fluxes of sensible and latent heat at the local surface. Flux estimates are calculated from observations of net radiation, soil surface heat flux, and the vertical gradients of temperature and relative humidity. Meteorological data collected by the EBBR are used to calculate bulk aerodynamic fluxes, which are used in the Bulk Aerodynamic Technique (BA) EBBR value-added product (VAP) to replace sunrise and sunset spikes in the flux data. A unique aspect of the system is the automatic exchange mechanism (AEM), which helps to reduce errors from instrument offset drift.

Cook, David

1993-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

382

Expert Meeting: Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes  

SciTech Connect

The topic of this Building America expert meeting was 'Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes,' which was held on October 16, 2012, in Westford, MA, and brought together experts in the field of residential humidity control to address modeling issues for dehumidification. The presentations and discussions centered on computer simulation and field experience with these systems, with the goal of developing foundational information to support the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

Rudd, A.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

State-of-the-art in humidity sensing. Topical report, January-October 1986  

SciTech Connect

A state-of-the-art assessment of the science and technology of humidity sensing and measurement was carried out by means of a literature search and a survey of manufacturers. The purpose of the study was to determine suitable humidity sensors and instrumentation applicable to gas appliance and space-conditioning functions that could result in enhanced product quality, improved comfort, reduced spoilage, increased efficiency, etc.

Yudow, B.D.; Zawacki, T.S.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Expert Meeting: Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes  

SciTech Connect

The topic of this Building America expert meeting was 'Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes,' which was held on October 16, 2012, in Westford, MA, and brought together experts in the field of residential humidity control to address modeling issues for dehumidification. The presentations and discussions centered on computer simulation and field experience with these systems, with the goal of developing foundational information to support the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic.

Rudd, A.

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Performance and Impact from Duct Repair and Ventilation Modifications of Two Newly Constructed Manufactured Houses Located in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two nearly identical houses situated next to each other in Bossier City, Louisiana were studied in an effort to better understand moisture and cooling energy related problems in manufactured houses with low thermostat set-points during the cooling season. By design, the major difference between houses was the type of air conditioning units. House A had a standard split air conditioner and House B had a twospeed split air conditioner. In an effort to make the buildings more similar, the building airtightness was adjusted until it was the same in each house, and duct leaks were sealed so that the ducts were tight and there was equal tightness in both houses. A ventilation system was also added at the same time of duct repair. Duct repair and the ventilation modifications resulted in significant impacts on the cooling energy, temperature, relative humidity, and building pressures. Cooling energy decreased 37% in House A and 18% in House B, while the floor space dewpoint increased significantly. It is estimated that 35 % savings was due solely to duct repair in House A and 17% in House B. The primary cause of House A savings being twice House B is attributed to House A operating at nearly twice the capacity most of the time and had more duct leakage repaired. This resulted in higher system pressures and therefore greater duct leakage than in House B. Before building modifications, House A used 15.4 kWh per day (32%) more than House B and 3.4 kWh per day (11%) more after modifications. A method of characterizing interstitial spaces using dewpoint measurement is presented and shows that the belly space became 2.6 times more like outdoor conditions after repairs in House A and 2.0 times more in House B.

Withers, C.; Moyer, N.; Chasar, D.; Chandra, S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Solar and Thermal Radiation Errors on Upper-Air Radiosonde Temperature Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles are important for weather prediction, but climate change has increased the interest in upper-air observations asking for very high-quality reference measurements. This paper discusses an experimental ...

R. Philipona; A. Kräuchi; G. Romanens; G. Levrat; P. Ruppert; E. Brocard; P. Jeannet; D. Ruffieux; B. Calpini

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Solar and Thermal Radiation Errors on Upper-Air Radiosonde Temperature Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles are important for weather prediction, but climate change has increased the interest in upper-air observations asking for very high quality reference measurements. Here we show an experimental approach ...

R. Philipona; A. Kräuchi; G. Romanens; G. Levrat; P. Ruppert; E. Brocard; P. Jeannet; D. Ruffieux; B. Calpini

388

Distinguishing Pronounced Droughts in the Southwestern United States: Seasonality and Effects of Warmer Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Higher temperatures increase the moisture-holding capacity of the atmosphere and can lead to greater atmospheric demand for evapotranspiration, especially during warmer seasons of the year. Increases in precipitation or atmospheric humidity ...

Jeremy L. Weiss; Christopher L. Castro; Jonathan T. Overpeck

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Relative Contribution of Greenhouse Gases and Ozone-Depleting Substances to Temperature Trends in the Stratosphere: A Chemistry–Climate Model Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature of the stratosphere has decreased over the past several decades. Two causes contribute to that decrease: well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) and ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). This paper addresses the attribution of temperature ...

Richard S. Stolarski; Anne R. Douglass; Paul A. Newman; Steven Pawson; Mark R. Schoeberl

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Impact of the humidity pump on indoor environments. Final report, August 1989-November 1990  

SciTech Connect

The impact of the humidity pump, (a newly developed, gas-fired, liquid desiccant, make-up air conditioning unit) on the indoor air environment of two office buildings was investigated during a two month field program. The study generated a data base and gained insights on indoor air quality (IAQ), comfort, and ventilation parameters of each building operating under routine conditions. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of the humidity pump on (1) indoor pollution concentration levels; (2) comfort parameters as perceived by occupants of and visitors to each building; and (3) building ventilation (energy) parameters. Each objective was attained by testing the null hypothesis (Operation of the humidity pump has no impact.) The null hypothesis was tested on occupant exposure levels. Consequently, it was rejected only if the humidity pump affects potential factors that may alter significantly pollutant concentrations, comfort levels, and ventilation rates. Operation of the humidity pump affects levels of volatile organic compounds and microbiological conditions. The humidity pump did not affect comfort and ventilation parameters.

Moschandreas, D.J.; Relwani, S.M.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Performance Testing Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters under South- and Central-Florida Climate Conditions: Hot, Humid Climate and Warm Ground Water Pose Unusual Operating Environment for Heat Pump Water Heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are known to provide considerable energy savings compared with electric resistance devices in many applications. However, as their performance is climate-dependent, it is important to understand their operation in extreme climates. Southern and Central Florida presents an extreme climate for HPWHs, as the air temperature, humidity, and entering water temperatures are all high nearly year-round. This report examines HPWH performance in the Florida Power & Light ...

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

In Situ Validation of a Correction for Time-Lag and Bias Errors in Vaisala RS80-H Radiosonde Humidity Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

In Situ Validation of a Correction for Time-Lag and In Situ Validation of a Correction for Time-Lag and Bias Errors in Vaisala RS80-H Radiosonde Humidity Measurements L. M. Miloshevich National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado H. Vömel and S. J. Oltmans National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Boulder, Colorado A. Paukkunen Vaisala Oy Helsinki, Finland Introduction Radiosonde relative humidity (RH) measurements are fundamentally important to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program goals because they are used in a wide variety of both operational and research applications, including initialization of numerical models and evaluation of model results, validation of remote-sensor water vapor retrievals, construction of water vapor climatologies and studies of climate trends, parameterization of cloud processes, and as input to

393

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: ¡Get Psyched!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

properties in any Excel spreadsheet: Enthalpy (h) Dewpoint Temperature (dp) Relative Humidity (%) Humidity Ratio (W) Specific Volume (v) Wet Bulb Temperature (wb) Can also quickly...

394

HUMIDITY MEASUREMENTS OF BUILDING SITES BY MEANS OF NEUTRON INDUCED RADIOACTIVITY  

SciTech Connect

The use of BF/sub 3/ counting tubes measuring humidity by the activation of certain nuclides, has the advantages of reproducibility and simple equipment. Thin Rh foils are used as activation indicators, and 10 mC Ra/sup 226/ + Be is used as the neutron source. The assembly of source and Rh foil is placed either in a water-filled container or in a paraffin block surrounded by a layer of borax. The degree of activation of Rh is inversely proportional to the humidity. (P.C.H.)

Gibert, A.

1962-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

The Effects of Test Temperature, Temper, and Alloyed Copper on the Hydrogen-Controlled Crack Growth Rate of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.

G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully

2000-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

396

Thermoregulation and temperature relations of alligators and other large ectotherms inhabiting thermally stressed habitats. Progress report, 1 October 1974--30 September 1977  

SciTech Connect

Significant progress has been made in determining the mechanisms by which large ectotherms adjust to thermal stress in their natural environment. The effect of mouth gaping on head temperatures and the role of radiation, conduction and convection on body temperatures of alligators have been determined. The utility of energy budget modeling as a method for studying the thermoregulatory mechanisms of animals has been demonstrated. Steady state and time dependent models of body temperature have been tested. Convection coefficients and evaporative water loss rates have been measured for the turtle, Chysemys scripta. Climate space diagrams have been formulated and are being tested. Behavioral thermoregulation of turtles has been studied in PAR pond on the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, S.C. Steady state energy budget equations have been computed for largemouth bass. Experimental heat transfer coefficients indicate that most heat transfer is through the body wall and not via the gills. A time dependent model is being tested. It predicts the body temperature of a fish in a heterothermal environment. Theoretical calculations have been made of the effects of body size, color, and metabolism on the temperature regulation of ectotherms.

Spotila, J.R.

1977-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Eddy Covariance Measurements with Closed-Path Optical Humidity Sensors: A Feasible Concept?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Humidity spectra obtained with a closed-path optical hygrometer (LI-6262) show an apparent low-pass characteristic with a cutoff frequency varying between 0.01 and 0.1 Hz. Laboratory measurements revealed that contamination of the intake filter ...

Gerhard Peters; Bernd Fischer; Hans Münster

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Low temperature cryoprobe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Large-Scale Effects on the Regulation of Tropical Sea Surface Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dominant terms in the surface energy budget of the tropical oceans are absorption of solar radiation and evaporative cooling. If it is assumed that relative humidity in the boundary layer remains constant, evaporative cooling will increase ...

Dennis L. Hartmann; Marc L. Michelsen

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

PRESERVATION OF H2 PRODUCTION ACTIVITY IN NANOPOROUS LATEX COATINGS OF RHODOPSEUDOMONAS PALUSTRIS CGA009 DURING DRY STORAGE AT AMBIENT TEMPERATURES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To assess the applicability of latex cell coatings as an "off-the-shelf' biocatalyst, the effect of osmoprotectants, temperature, humidity and O{sub 2} on preservation of H{sub 2} production in Rhodopseudomonas palustris coatings was evaluated. Immediately following latex coating coalescence (24 h) and for up to 2 weeks of dry storage, rehydrated coatings containing different osmoprotectants displayed similar rates of H{sub 2} production. Beyond 2 weeks of storage, sorbitol- treated coatings lost all H{sub 2} production activity, whereas considerable H{sub 2} production was still detected in sucrose- and trehalose-stabilized coatings. The relative humidity level at which the coatings were stored had a significant impact on the recovery and subsequent rates of H{sub 2} production. After 4 weeks storage under air at 60% humidity, coatings produced only trace amounts of H{sub 2} (0-0.1% headspace accumulation), whereas those stored at production activity after 8 weeks of storage. When stored in argon at production activity for 3 months, implicating oxidative damage as a key factor limiting coating storage. Overall, the results demonstrate that biocatalytic latex coatings are an attractive cell immobilization platform for preservation of bioactivity in the dry state.

Milliken, C.; Piskorska, M.; Soule, T.; Gosse, J.; Flickinger, M.; Smith, G.; Yeager, C.

2012-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Observations of seasonal variations in atmospheric greenhouse trapping and its enhancement at high sea surface temperature  

SciTech Connect

The correlation between observed values of atmospheric greenhouse trapping and sea surface temperature is found to vary seasonally. Atmospheric greenhouse trapping is defined here as the difference between infrared emissions from the earth's surface and infrared emissions from the top of the atmosphere through cloudless skies. Infrared surface emissions are calculated from known sea surface temperatures; emissions from the top of the atmosphere are taken from direct satellite measurements. Atmospheric greenhouse trapping at the same sea surface temperature is greater in the winter than in the summer over temperate oceans. In subtropical latitudes, the opposite is true. At surface temperatures above approximately 298 K, atmospheric greenhouse trapping is found to increase even more rapidly from regions of lower sea surface temperature to regions of higher surface temperature than infrared surface emissions. The causes for this [open quotes]super[close quotes] greenhouse effect are explored, and four processes are found to contribute. Water vapor continuum absorption and thermodynamically controlled increases in water vapor concentration at constant relative humidity with increasing atmospheric temperature make significant contributions, but do not explain the entire super greenhouse effect. To explain the observations of atmospheric greenhouse trapping, the upper and middle troposphere, must be increasingly moist over the warmest sea surface temperatures, while the atmospheric temperature profile becomes increasingly unstable. Regions with these high sea surface temperatures are also increasingly subject to deep convection, which suggests that convection moistens the upper and middle troposphere in regions of convective activity relative to nonconvective regions, resulting in the super greenhouse effect. Dynamic processes, along with local thermodynamic processes, are required to explain the observed super greenhouse effect. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Hallberg, R. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States)); Inamdar, A.K. (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. This fundamental energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. We predict a consistent and testable way of classifying mini black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy. For any isolated universe we propose absolute temperature and absolute time to be equivalent, much in the same way as energy and entropy are for an isolated ensemble of similar objects. According to this principle, the cosmo...

Zimak, Petr; Strazewski, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

THE IMPACT OF TRACE ADDITIVES ON THE APPARENT SOLUBILITY OF HYDROGEN IN HEAVY OIL AND RELATED FEEDSTOCKS AT LOW AND HIGH TEMPERATURES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A systematic investigation was conducted to provide an accurate determination of hydrogen solubility in liquid media in temperatures in the range of 25-250 C and pressures in the range of 0.5-8 MPa. Results were obtained by an indirect gas solubility measurement method. The method was intended for use with high-resolution camera. The hydrogen solubility measurements were indirect and were based on pressure changes at constant temperature and measured volumes. Since the volume of the view cell was fixed the volume available for the vapor phase could be determined by measuring the location of the liquid-vapor interface. The interface was located to within the height of one pixel using high-resolution camera, which added {+-} 0.4 ml to the uncertainty of the vapor volume. Liquid-liquid interface locations were measured with equal precision. The accuracy of the method was illustrated through hydrogen solubility measurements in hexadecane and tetralin, which were in close agreement with the values available in the literature. Hydrogen solubilities in Athabasca bitumen vacuum bottoms (ABVB) were reported over a broad range of temperatures (80-250 C) and pressures (0.5-8 MPa).

Jalal Abedi

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

In-situ characterization of free-volume holes in polymer thin films under controlled humidity conditions with an atmospheric positron probe microanalyzer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pulsed, slow positron beam, with a diameter of 200 {mu}m, was extracted into air through a thin SiN window of an atmospheric positron probe microanalyzer (PPMA), and used to measure the ortho-positronium lifetimes {tau} in polyvinyl alcohol and polycaprolactam sub-{mu}m-thick films. By measuring the variation of {tau} as a function of relative humidity, the effect of water molecules on the hole sizes, deduced from {tau}, was examined for the films with consideration to the chain mobility. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the atmospheric PPMA to the in-situ characterization of nanoscopic holes in thin films under practical conditions.

Zhou Wei; Oshima, Nagayasu; O'Rourke, Brian E.; Kuroda, Ryunosuke; Suzuki, Ryoichi [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier (RIIF), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Chen Zhe; Ito, Kenji [Metrology Institute of Japan (MIJ), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Yanagishita, Hiroshi [Research Institute for Innovation in Sustainable Chemistry (ISC), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Tsutsui, Takuro; Uedono, Akira [Division of Applied Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Noriyosu [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8850 (Japan)

2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

405

High temperature sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Modeling Building Energy Use and HVAC Efficiency Improvements in Extreme Hot and Humid Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An energy analysis was performed on the Texas A & M University at Qatar building in Doha, Qatar. The building and its HVAC systems were modeled using EnergyPlus. Building chilled water and electrical data were collected to validate the computer simulation. The simulated monthly electricity consumption was within plus/minus 5 percent of the metered building data. Ninety-five percent of simulated hourly electricity data in a day were within plus/minus 10 percent of metered data. Monthly chilled water demand was within plus/minus 18 percent of measurements, and simulated monthly demand was correlated to metered monthly values with an R-squared correlation coefficient of 0.95. Once the simulation was verified with the metered data, an optimization of the building's HVAC systems was performed. Better utilizing the building's variable speed fans at part loads showed potential annual electricity savings of 16 percent over the base case, with another 22 percent savings in chilled water energy. After converting chilled water savings to equivalent chiller electricity savings, the potential utility cost savings over the base case were found to be $90,000/yr at local utility rates. Reducing outdoor air intake to ASHRAE indoor air quality minimums yielded an additional 17 percent in potential chilled water savings and brought total monetary savings over the base case to $110,000/yr. Using a dedicated outside air system to precisely control individual zone ventilation showed potential for an additional 12 percent chilled water savings and $14,000 in yearly utility savings, while also eliminating cases of under-ventilation. A hypothetical retrofit of fan powered terminal units (FPTU's) resulted in energy savings only at very low minimum flow rates, below ventilation standards. Savings were never more than 20 percent over the no-fan case. Series FPTU's showed no savings at any flow setting and negligible difference was found between ECM and SCR motor control. Finally, the dependence on climate of each improvement was studied. Simulations were run in the relatively milder climates of Houston and Phoenix and compared to those found for Doha. It was found that variable speed fan operation is a more cost effective option for milder climates, while outside air control is more cost effective in extreme hot and humid climates such as Doha. Future study is needed to make the FPTU model valid for different climates and flow ranges.

Bible, Mitchell

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

A KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY STRATEGY FOR RELATING SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES TO FREQUENCIES OF TROPICAL STORMS AND GENERATING PREDICTIONS OF HURRICANES UNDER 21ST-CENTURY GLOBAL WARMING SCENARIOS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The connections among greenhouse-gas emissions scenarios, global warming, and frequencies of hurricanes or tropical cyclones are among the least understood in climate science but among the most fiercely debated in the context of adaptation decisions or mitigation policies. Here we show that a knowledge discovery strategy, which leverages observations and climate model simulations, offers the promise of developing credible projections of tropical cyclones based on sea surface temperatures (SST) in a warming environment. While this study motivates the development of new methodologies in statistics and data mining, the ability to solve challenging climate science problems with innovative combinations of traditional and state-of-the-art methods is demonstrated. Here we develop new insights, albeit in a proof-of-concept sense, on the relationship between sea surface temperatures and hurricane frequencies, and generate the most likely projections with uncertainty bounds for storm counts in the 21st-century warming environment based in turn on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Our preliminary insights point to the benefits that can be achieved for climate science and impacts analysis, as well as adaptation and mitigation policies, by a solution strategy that remains tailored to the climate domain and complements physics-based climate model simulations with a combination of existing and new computational and data science approaches.

Race, Caitlin [University of Minnesota; Steinbach, Michael [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL; Semazzi, Fred [North Carolina State University; Kumar, Vipin [University of Minnesota

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Energy Conservation Experiences with HVAC Systems in the High Humidity Climate, A Case History  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to discuss several commonly encountered problems associated with attempts to air condition buildings in the humid environment. It, first, reports observations made in the course of studying the air conditioning systems in approximately one hundred buildings at USMC Camp Smedley D. Butler in Okinawa, Japan. Three common problems are then discussed in some detail. It was found that in many cases humidity considerations lead to situations which were energy wasteful. In many instances this could be attributed to either design or operational errors. The most common error found was the selection of an improper method of capacity control. Methods of improved capacity control are suggested and the need for additional work is pointed out.

Todd, T. R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Technical and Economic Analysis of Solar Cooling Systems in a Hot and Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to promote efficient and cost effective implementation of advanced solar cooling systems and techniques for the hot and humid climates cities in the United States. After an introduction of basic principles, the development history and recent progress in solar cooling technologies are reported. Nevertheless, the economics of solar energy systems are particularly complex with much inevitable uncertainty due to several factors. In this paper, a simplified comprehensive economic optimization model is developed to determine whether a particular solar system is economically advantageous for a particular project. This model explains and illustrates with simple, but realistic examples the use of life-cycle cost analysis and benefit-cost analysis to evaluate and compare the economic efficiency of the solar cooling system. Consequently, under appropriate conditions, solar or solar-assisted air conditioning systems may be reasonable alternatives to conventional air-conditioning systems in a hot and humid climate.

Moaveni, H.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Relation between hydrogen isotopic ratios of bone collagen and rain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The hydrogen isotopic value ([delta]D) of deer bone collagen is related to both [delta]D of rain during the growing season and growing season relative humidity (RH). With correction for the effects of RH, bone [delta]D is related to growing season rain [delta]D in a simple manner with a slope of 1.0. This indicates that, with RH correction, there are no additional sources of bias in the [delta]D of bone due to unaccounted for biologic or climatic effects. Due to a low sensitivity of bone [delta]D to RH effects, both yearly and growing season rain [delta]D can be estimated with considerable accuracy (R = 0.97 and R = 0.96) from bone collagen [delta]D and [delta][sup 15]N. Here, [delta][sup 15]N is used to correct bone [delta]D for the effects of RH. From these estimates of rain [delta]D, it may then be possible to evaluate temperature since the [delta]D of rain primarily reflects local temperature. Therefore, the measurement of bone collagen [delta]D has good potential for evaluating paleoclimates.

Cormie, A.B.; Schwarcz, H.P. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Gray, J. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

A Physically Based Model of Soil Freezing in Humid Climates Using Air Temperature and Snow Cover Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional heat flow model is developed to estimate depths of soil freezing and thawing using a daily time step. This physically based model assumes near-saturated soil moisture conditions and simulates freezing under bare soil and sod ...

Arthur T. DeGaetano; Daniel S. Wilks; Megan McKay

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

A Cumulus Parameterization with State-Dependent Entrainment Rate. Part I: Description and Sensitivity to Temperature and Humidity Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new cumulus parameterization is developed for which an entraining plume model is adopted. The lateral entrainment rate varies vertically depending on the surrounding environment. Two different formulations are examined for the rate. The cumulus ...

Minoru Chikira; Masahiro Sugiyama

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Humidity Fluctuations over a Vegetated Surface Measured with a Lyman-Alpha Hygrometer and a Fine-Wire Thermocouple Psychrometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simultaneous measurements of humidity fluctuations over a crop made with a specially modified Lyman-alpha hygrometer and a fine-wire thermocouple psychrometer are compared. Standard deviations of the two sets of data are comparable except ...

T. Grayson Redford Jr.; Shashi B. Verma; Norman J. Rosenberg

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The use of a distributed hydrologic model to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes the use of a distributed hydrology model in conjunction with a Factor of Safety (FS) algorithm to predict dynamic landslide susceptibility for a humid basin in Puerto Rico. The Mameyes basin, located ...

Kamal, Sameer A. (Sameer Ahmed)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Dynamic Assimilation of MODIS-Retrieved Humidity Profiles within a Regional Model for High-Latitude Forecast Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A “hot start” technique is applied to the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (PSU–NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5) to dynamically assimilate cloud properties and humidity profiles retrieved from the ...

Xingang Fan; Jeffrey S. Tilley

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Humidity Gradient Profiles from Wind Profiling Radars Using the NOAA/ETL Advanced Signal Processing System (SPS)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An algorithm to compute the magnitude of humidity gradient profiles from the measurements of the zeroth, first, and second moments of wind profiling radar (WPR) Doppler spectra was developed and tested. The algorithm extends the National Oceanic ...

B. Boba Stankov; Earl E. Gossard; Bob L. Weber; Richard J. Lataitis; Allen B. White; Daniel E. Wolfe; David C. Welsh; Richard G. Strauch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Dewpoint and Humidity Measurements and Trends at the Summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire, 1935–2004  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Meteorological conditions have been recorded at the summit of Mount Washington, New Hampshire, (44°16?N, 71°18?W, 1914 m ASL) since November 1932. Use of consistent instrumentation allows analysis of humidity measurements as calculated from error-...

Thomas M. Seidel; Andrea N. Grant; Alexander A. P. Pszenny; Daniel J. Allman

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

High-Repetition Millimeter-Wave Passive Remote Sensing of Humidity and Hydrometeor Profiles from Elliptical Orbit Constellations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential of an elliptical-orbit Flower Constellation of Millimeter-Wave Radiometers (FLORAD) for humidity profile and precipitating cloud observations is analyzed and discussed. The FLORAD mission scientific requirements are aimed at the ...

Frank S. Marzano; Domenico Cimini; Tommaso Rossi; Daniele Mortari; Sabatino Di Michele; Peter Bauer

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Roots of Mold Problems and Humidity Control Measures in Institutional Buildings with Pre-Existing Mold Condition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humidity control and mold in buildings has become an increasingly important problem. Once a building has experience mold growth on walls, ceilings, and other surfaces, it does not take longterm exposure to moisture for mold to re-grow in the building. Some commercial buildings on the Texas A&M University (TAMU) campus have suffered with humidity problems for many years. The Continuous Commissioning (CCSM) group of the Energy Systems Lab in collaboration with the Utilities Office of Energy Management, and the TAMU Physical Plant, was dispatched to perform Continuous Commissioning on these commercial buildings in order to find viable solutions to the humidity problem. The CC group performed extensive field tests and analysis on building air handling unit (AHU), exhaust systems, building construction, and the Energy Management Control System (EMCS). Based on the field studies and analysis, a four-category (Design, construction, building retrofits and alterations, and poor maintenance) system was set up to classify sources for high humidity problems. This paper presents the investigation and follow-up efforts, which identified reasons and corrective measures for the high humidity levels in these buildings, turning these inefficient and humid commercial buildings into comfortable environments. Recommendations for dealing with such possible problems are provided.

Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H.; Garcia, J.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Humidity-controlled preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy (CXDM) has the potential to visualize the structures of micro- to sub-micrometer-sized biological particles, such as cells and organelles, at high resolution. Toward advancing structural studies on the functional states of such particles, here, we developed a system for the preparation of frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments. The system, which comprised a moist air generator, microscope, micro-injector mounted on a micromanipulator, custom-made sample preparation chamber, and flash-cooling device, allowed for the manipulation of sample particles in the relative humidity range of 20%-94%rh at 293 K to maintain their hydrated and functional states. Here, we report the details of the system and the operation procedure, including its application to the preparation of a frozen-hydrated chloroplast sample. Sample quality was evaluated through a cryogenic CXDM experiment conducted at BL29XUL of SPring-8. Taking the performance of the system and the quality of the sample, the system was suitable to prepare frozen-hydrated biological samples for cryogenic CXDM experiments.

Takayama, Yuki; Nakasako, Masayoshi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); RIKEN Harima Institute/SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Mikaduki, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

An analysis of maximum residential energy-efficiency in hot and humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy-efficient building design involves minimizing the energy use and optimizing the performance of individual systems and components of the building. The benefits of energyefficient design, in the residential sector, are direct and tangible, provided that design strategies with a substantial combined energy and cost-saving potential are adopted. Many studies have been performed to evaluate the energy-saving potential and the costeffectiveness of various design options, and to identify conditions for optimizing the performance of building systems and components. The results of these studies, published in various resources, were analyzed discretely using different techniques, and were reported using different bases for comparison. Considering the complex interaction of, and energy flows through various building components, it is difficult to directly compare/combine the results from various studies to determine the energy-saving potential of combination of strategies, and to select an appropriate set of strategies for making design decisions. Therefore, this thesis develops a comprehensive survey and analysis of energy-efficient design strategies and their energy-saving potential, in isolation as well as in combination, using a DOE-2 simulation model of a prototype house in the hot and humid climate of Houston, Texas. Optimized strategies that included building configuration, materials/ assembly for building envelop components, and efficient mechanical and electrical systems, equipment and appliances, were applied in combination that could minimize the annual energy use. Application of these strategies is expected to allow downsizing systems and equipment and to confirm their operation at their rated performance, resulting in additional installation and operation cost savings. The study is concluded by outlining the procedures for selecting optimized set of strategies, and by developing guidelines for achieving maximum energy-efficiency in singlefamily detached houses in hot and humid climates. Thus, this study will facilitate the selection of energy-saving measures for their individual or combined application for developing energyefficient residences in hot and humid climates.

Malhotra, Mini

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Energy Retrofit Field Study and Best Practices in a Hot-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

Energy efficiency improvement as a component of comprehensive renovation was investigated under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funding of the Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC). Researchers at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) worked with affordable housing partners renovating foreclosed homes built from the 1950's through the 2000's in the hot-humid climate (within the Southern census region), primarily in Florida. Researchers targeted a 30% improvement in whole-house energy efficiency along with the health and safety, durability, and comfort guidelines outlined in DOE's Builders Challenge Program (Version 1) Quality Criteria.

McIvaine, J.; Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Enclosed Chambers for Humidity Control And Sample Containment in Fiber Diffraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A chamber and stretch frame for making fibers for diffraction is described. The chamber is made from a simple plastic cuvette with silicon nitride windows. It is suitable for maintaining constant humidity during fiber drying and data collection, and allows stretching of the fiber and exposure to magnetic fields during sample preparation. If necessary, it provides primary containment for toxic and infectious biological materials. The chamber has been used in fiber diffraction experiments with filamentous plant viruses and a yeast prion protein, and is shown to produce excellent orientation and to maintain hydration and order at the molecular level.

McDonald, M.; Kendall, A.; Tanaka, M.; Weissman, J.S.; Stubbs, G.

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

424

Development and Construction of Bioclimatic Double Skin Active Facade for Hot and Humid Climate of UAE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Transparency in architecture is desirable for many reasons. In order to build transparent buildings with high levels of occupant comfort without compromising energy performance, facade technology and integration of facade and environmental systems become still more advanced. The present paper deals with the development and construction of mechanically ventilated double skin facade with HVAC integration for hot and humid climate like UAE. A case study is presented, illustrating potential benefits of careful application of the available technologies adopting an integrated approach from the early design phases. Moreover, the paper gives an introduction to test and demonstrate the performance of the facade and HVAC integration.

Karbor, R. G.; Mohamed, I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

High-temperature sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

426

Low temperature cryoprobe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

Sungaila, Z.F.

1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

427

Temperature stratified turbine compressors  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency of a compressor of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The inlet gas entering the compressor is stratified into two portions of different temperatures. The higher temperature gas is introduced adjacent the outer tipe of the compressor blades to reduce the relative Mach number of the flow at the area.

Earnest, E.R.; Passinos, B.

1979-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

428

Approaches to 30% Energy Savings at the Community Scale in the Hot-Humid Climate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

BA-PIRC has worked with several community-scale builders within the hot humid climate zone to improve performance of production, or community scale, housing. Tommy Williams Homes (Gainesville, FL), Lifestyle Homes (Melbourne, FL), and Habitat for Humanity (various locations, FL) have all been continuous partners of the BA Program and are the subjects of this report to document achievement of the Building America goal of 30% whole house energy savings packages adopted at the community scale. The scope of this report is to demonstrate achievement of these goals though the documentation of production-scale homes built cost-effectively at the community scale, and modeled to reduce whole-house energy use by 30% in the Hot Humid climate region. Key aspects of this research include determining how to evolve existing energy efficiency packages to produce replicable target savings, identifying what builders' technical assistance needs are for implementation and working with them to create sustainable quality assurance mechanisms, and documenting the commercial viability through neutral cost analysis and market acceptance. This report documents certain barriers builders overcame and the approaches they implemented in order to accomplish Building America (BA) Program goals that have not already been documented in previous reports.

Thomas-Rees, S.; Beal, D.; Martin, E.; Fonorow, K.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Appropriate Conservation Measures for Single-Family Buildings in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effectiveness of a number of energy conservation measures for homes located in hot, humid climates was analyzed using the DOE-2.1B building simulation model. Measures having the greatest benefits to the homeowner are predicted to be the addition of ceiling insulation only if the house is not already insulated, weatherization, and reduction of the wall outer surface solar absorptance. The weatherization and solar absorptance reduction measures should be do-it-yourself installations to be cost-effective Replacement of an air-conditioning unit with a new high-efficiency unit was very effective in reducing peak demand and annual cooling energy. Unless the energy efficiency ratio of the existing unit is low (< 6), replacement is generally not cost-effective. The measures were predicted to result in slightly increased indoor humidities, but their effect on human comfort was predicted to be small. However, this conclusion should be considered preliminary since the simulation models used for these predictions have limitations. The amount of energy that can be saved by these measures is very dependent on the occupant's lifestyle, such as the degree to which the occupants will alter clothing to achieve comfort.

McLain, H. A.; MacDonald, J. M.; Goldenberg, D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Radiance Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Temperature using Detectors Calibrated for Absolute Spectral Power Response, HW ... A Third Generation Water Bath Based Blackbody Source, JB ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

431

Aggregate Terminal Velocity/Temperature Relations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Terminal velocities of snow aggregates in storms along the Front Range in eastern Colorado are examined with a ground-based two-dimensional video disdrometer. Power-law relationships for particles having equivalent volume diameters of 0.5–20 mm ...

Edward A. Brandes; Kyoko Ikeda; Gregory Thompson; Michael Schönhuber

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Underground reconnaissance and environmental monitoring related to geologic CO2 sequestration studies at the DUSEL Facility, Homestake Mine, South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Underground field reconnaissance was carried out in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL) to identify potential locations for the planned geologic carbon sequestration experimental facility known as DUSEL CO{sub 2}. In addition, instrumentation for continuous environmental monitoring of temperature, pressure, and relative humidity was installed at various locations within the Homestake mine. The motivation for this work is the need to locate and design the DUSEL CO{sub 2} facility currently being planned to host CO{sub 2} and water flow and reaction experiments in long column pressure vessels over large vertical length scales. Review of existing geologic data and reconnaissance underground revealed numerous potential locations for vertical experimental flow columns, with limitations of existing vertical boreholes arising from limited vertical extent, poor continuity between drifts, and small diameter. Results from environmental monitoring over 46 days reveal spatial and temporal variations related to ventilation, weather, and ongoing dewatering of the mine.

Dobson, Patrick F.; Salve, Rohit

2009-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

433

Integrated Hygrothermal Performance of Building Envelopes and Systems in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In hot and humid climates the interior and exterior environmental loads that building envelopes must respond to are larger than many other climatic conditions. Moisture-originated failures in low-rise residential buildings have put a significant pressure to change construction codes in North America. Solutions to moisture induced problems may be difficult when several interacting mechanisms of moisture transport are present. A new approach to building envelope durability assessment has been introduced in North America; a moisture engineering approach. This requires system information about the wall systems as constructed along with aging characteristics coupled with advanced modeling that 0 term allow the designer to predict the Iong-term performances of building envelope systems. This permits the comparison and ranking of individual building envelope systems with respect to total hygrothermal performance. Critical information can be obtained by investigating the one to one relationships of a building envelope to interior and exterior environments, however, the total behavior of the actual whole building is not accounted for. This paper goes one step further, by incorporating the individual hygrothermal performances of all walls, roof, floor and mechanical systems. The direct and indirect coupling of the building envelope and indoor environment with HVAC system are included in the analysis. The full house hygrothermal performance of an aerated concrete wall system are examined for a hot and humid climate. The hour by hour drying potential of each system was then numerically analyzed using weather conditions of Miami (hot and humid climate). The results clearly demonstrate the limited drying potential for the wall system in that climate. Furthermore, the selected exterior thermal insulation strategies and interior vapor control strategies in this study clearly show the critical behavior of the full house with respect to drying initial construction moisture. The results show the importance of the total hygrothermal behavior of the whole house to the coupling between the various envelope parts, interior and exterior environments and HVAC system. From these results moisture control strategies are identified for the whole house hygrothermal performance.

Karagiozis, A. N.; Desjarlais, A.; Salonvaara, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Expert Meeting: Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Meeting: Meeting: Recommended Approaches to Humidity Control in High Performance Homes Armin Rudd Building Science Corporation (BSC) July 2013 NOTICE This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, subcontractors, or affiliated partners makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement,

435

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM FOR HOT AND HUMID CLMATE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U-tube sizes and varied thermal conductivity with different grout materials are studied based on the benchmark residential building in Hot-humid Pensacola, Florida. In this study, the benchmark building is metered and the data is used to validate the simulation model. And a list of comparative simulation cases with varied parameter value are simulated to study the importance of pipe size and grout to the ground source heat pump energy consumption. The simulation software TRNSYS [1] is employed to fulfill this task. The results show the preliminary energy saving based on varied parameters. Future work needs to be conducted for the cost analysis, include the installation cost from contractor and materials cost.

Jiang Zhu; Yong X. Tao

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner’s proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project’s process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

McIlvaine, J.; Sutherland, K.; Chandra, S.; Schleith, K.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Exploring Cost-Effective, High Performance Residential Retrofits for Affordable Housing in the Hot Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

In 2009, a Department of Energy Building America team led by the Florida Solar Energy Center began working with partners to find cost-effective paths for improving the energy performance of existing homes in the hot humid climate. A test-in energy audit and energy use modeling of the partner's proposed renovation package was performed for 41 affordable and middle income foreclosed homes in Florida and Alabama. HERS1 Indices ranged from 92 to 184 with modeled energy savings ranging from 3% to 50% (average of 26%). Analyses and recommendations were discussed with partners to encourage more efficient retrofits, highlight health and safety issues, and gather feedback on incremental cost of high performance measures. Ten completed renovations have modeled energy savings ranging from 9% to 48% (average 31%.) This paper presents the project's process including our findings thus far and highlights of the first home to meet the target HERS Index of 70.

McIlvaine, Janet; Sutherland, Karen; Schleith, Kevin; Chandra, Subrato

2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

438

Efficient Multifamily Homes in a Hot-Humid Climate by Atlantic Housing Partners  

SciTech Connect

With assistance from the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and its Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Atlantic Housing Partners (AHP) has implemented a high performance, systems engineered package of measures. This report demonstrates how the initiative achieves Building America (BA) goals of 30%-50% energy savings. Specifically, the goals are documented as being achieved in the new construction multifamily housing sector in the hot humid climate. Results from energy modeling of the high performance package are presented. The role of utility allowance calculations, used as part of the low-income housing tax credit process, to value those energy savings is discussed, as is customer satisfaction with heat pump water heaters.

Chasar, D.; Martin, E.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates  

SciTech Connect

The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

High temperature metallic diffraction gratings and process of manufacturing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method of applying diffraction gratings or images directly to the surface of a substrate wherein the gratings or images are capable of withstanding high temperatures, pressures, humidity and other such conditions related to materials testing. The method includes coating the surface of the substrate with an uniform layer of metal which is then overlaid with a layer of photo-resist material. Next, after contacting the photo-resist material with a master image containing regions of opacity and transparency, electromagnetic radiation is directed through the master image to expose the photo-resist material such that a contact print of the master image is produced on the photo-resist material. Then, after removing the master image, the photo-resist material is developed so as to remove unhardened portions thereof and leave corresponding portions of the metal layer uncovered. Finally, after removing or etching the uncovered portions of the metal layer, the remaining photo-resist material is removed to produce a metallic diffraction grating or image of predetermined size and pattern on the surface of the substrate.

Deason, V.A.; Hsu, Karen M.; Miller, R.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature relative humidity" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Mechanisms for the Onset of the African Humid Period and Sahara Greening 14.5–11 ka BP  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mechanisms leading to the onset of the African Humid Period (AHP) 14 500–11 000 yr ago are elucidated using two different climate–vegetation models in a suite of transient glacial–interglacial simulations covering the last 21 000 yr. A series ...

Oliver Timm; Peter Köhler; Axel Timmermann; Laurie Menviel

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Radiation Dry Bias Correction of Vaisala RS92 Humidity Data and Its Impacts on Historical Radiosonde Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Vaisala RS92 radiosonde is the most widely used type of sonde in the current global radiosonde network. One of the largest biases in the RS92 humidity data is its daytime solar radiation dry bias (SRDB). An algorithm [referred to as NCAR ...

Junhong Wang; Liangying Zhang; Aiguo Dai; Franz Immler; Michael Sommer; Holger Vömel

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

An In-Flight Calibration Method for Near-Real-Time Humidity Measurements with the Airborne MOZAIC Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new in-flight calibration (IFC) method is described for the humidity sensor flown routinely since 1994 on the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC) program’s aircraft. The IFC method corrects the potential ...

Herman G. J. Smit; Andreas Volz-Thomas; Manfred Helten; Werner Paetz; Dieter Kley

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

A simple evaluation of global and diffuse Luminous Efficacy for all sky conditions in tropical and humid climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and humid climate A. H. Fakra, H. Boyer, F. Miranville, D. Bigot Building Physics and Systems Laboratory illuminance 1. Introduction Daylighting is recognized as an important and useful strategy in the design. Literature review The luminous efficacy of daylight (in lm/W) is defined as the ratio of daylight illuminance

446

Defining and Estimating Global Mean Temperature Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Methods used to quantify temperature changes of the earth must he assessed relative to an appropriate definition of global mean temperature. In this paper, global mean temperature is defined and the adequacy of using weighted average anomalies to ...

Richard F. Gunst; Sabyasachi Basu; Robert Brunell

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Indoor air movement acceptability and thermal comfort in hot-humid climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

climate zone showed almost 90% thermal acceptabil- ity within the operative temperature ranges prescribed in the ASHRAE

Candido, Christhina Maria

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

California DREAMing: the design of residential demand responsive technology with people in mind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

price indicator) Outside weather (air temperature, relative humidity, global solar radiation) Power (price indicator) Outside weather (air temperature, relative humidity, global and diffuse solar radiation, wind direction and speed) Power (

Peffer, Therese E.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Best Practice Upgrades for New Energy Efficient Homes in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The EPA's ENERGY STAR Homes program is a national voluntary program that promotes the construction of new homes that are 30% more efficient than the Model Energy Code. Accordingly, with the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) scoring system, ENERGY STAR Homes must achieve a score of at least an 86. This performance-based compliance requirement enables builders to be creative in the specific energy efficiency features that they build in their new homes. However, builders often want to know what the minimum energy efficiency features of an ENERGY STAR Home would likely be - before they joined the program. To solve this problem, EPA developed the Builder Option Packages (BOPs). BOPS are currently used as marketing tools to communicate the typical energy efficiency features of ENERGY STAR Homes. This paper will focus on the hot and humid portion of the US. and explain the technical methodology used to develop the BOPS as well as the energy use and HERS scores obtained for the various configurations analyzed.

Meisegeier, D.; Hall, J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Enthalpy Wheels Come of Age: Applying Energy Recovery Ventilation to Hospitality Venues in Hot, Humid Climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy recovery ventilation systems, including rotary heat exchangers or enthalpy wheels, utilize mature technologies that are routinely applied in commercial buildings. Energy recovery is particularly important in buildings with significant outdoor air intake requirements and has recently become widely accepted in applications such as schools and theatres. Hospitality applications including restaurants, bars, casinos and similar settings also stand to benefit from application of the technology, however, there is a lack of experience and therefore of accepted guidance in these applications. Furthermore, the unique challenges inherent in the variety of hospitality venues may limit appropriate use of the technology. Applying energy recovery ventilation to hospitality venues in hot, humid climates need not be complex. This paper proposes guidelines that can facilitate application of the technology by specifiers or other construction professionals. These guidelines address evaluation of typical projects for the suitability of energy recovery, selection of appropriate energy recovery ventilation technology, and criteria for successful application of enthalpy wheels. Examples of applications developed for different mechanical systems and building types are provided. The literature describing the opportunities and limitations associated with enthalpy wheels is summarized and referenced. Installation, operation, and maintenance insights are presented, derived from the body of industry experience with enthalpy wheels.

Wellford, B. W.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

AN OVERVIEW OF BUILDING AMERICA INDUSTRIALIZED HOUSING PARTNERSHIP (BAIHP) ACTIVITIES IN HOT-HUMID CLIMATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BAIHP (www.baihp.org ) conducts systems research and technical assistance activities for new housing. Hot-humid climate efforts described here include: Systems research : NightCool – A hybrid cooling and dehumidification strategy employing radiative cooling and desiccant materials. Interior Duct Systems in Manufactured Houses – Tests are ongoing in an occupied prototype home in Alabama and the FSEC manufactured housing lab. Ventilation and Dehumidification – A new strategy has been developed to hook up a whole-house dehumidifier so that it only runs when the air conditioning compressor is off. Plug Load Reduction – Whole house feedback devices and security system based plug load reductions are being evaluated in prototype homes. Solar and Conventional Domestic Hot Water (DHW) Testing – A test facility is being constructed to conduct side by side testing of three active and passive solar, two gas and two electric DHW systems. Technical assistance was provided on the design, construction and evaluation of four near zero energy homes and over 300 highly energy efficient production homes in subdivisions during 2007 and 2008.

Chandra, S.; Parker, D.; Sherwin, J.; Colon, C.; Fonorow, K.; Stroer, D.; Martin, E.; McIlvaine, J.; Chasar, D.; Moyer, N.; Thomas-Rees, S.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.; Gil, C.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Short-Term Test Results: Transitional Housing Energy Efficiency Retrofit in the Hot-Humid Climate  

SciTech Connect

This project evaluates the renovation of a 5,800 ft2, multi-use facility located in St. Petersburg, on the west coast of central Florida, in the hot humid climate. An optimal package of retrofit measures was designed to deliver 30-40% annual energy cost savings for this building with annual utility bills exceeding $16,000 and high base load consumption. Researchers projected energy cost savings for potential retrofit measures based on pre-retrofit findings and disaggregated, weather normalized utility bills as a basis for simulation true-up. A cost-benefit analysis was conducted for the seven retrofit measures implemented; adding attic insulation and sealing soffits, tinting windows, improving whole building air-tightness, upgrading heating and cooling systems and retrofitting the air distribution system, replacing water heating systems, retrofitting lighting, and replacing laundry equipment. The projected energy cost savings for the full retrofit package based on a post-retrofit audit is 35%. The building's architectural characteristics, vintage, and residential and commercial uses presented challenges for both economic projections and retrofit measure construction.

Sutherland, K.; Martin, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Development and analysis of a sustainable, low energy house in a hot and humid climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study examines the lifetime building energy consumption of a typical house in Bangkok, Thailand. The lifetime building energy consumption is composed of three major components: 1) the energy used during building construction (embodied energy), 2) the energy used in building operation (annual energy), and 3) the energy used during building demolition (demolition energy). For the embodied energy and the energy used during building demolition analyses, the reference data from reliable sources both in the U.S. and the UK were compared. For the annual energy analysis, the DOE-2 computer energy simulation program was the major analysis tool. The annual energy use of different materials and design strategies were compared based on the DOE-2 simulations. The best energy performances from each comparison were selected to design a new energy efficient house. The results from all three components were combined and compared to a typical American house. Finally, design guidelines for sustainable low energy houses in hot and humid climates were developed.

Chulsukon, Pattarayut

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Influence of glazing selection on commercial building energy performance in hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a comparative study in which commercial building perimeter zone electric energy (cooling, lighting, fan) and peak electric demand are analyzed as a function of window glazing type, with a particular emphasis on the use of glazings with wavelength-selective solar-optical properties. The DOE-2 energy analysis simulation program was used to generate a data base of the electric energy requirements of a prototypical office building module located in Singapore. Algebraic expressions derived by multiple regression techniques permitted a direct comparison of those parameters that characterize window performance in hot and humid climates: orientation, size, and solar-optical properties. Also investigated were the effects of exterior and interior shading devices, as well as interior illuminance level, power density, and lighting controls to permit the use of daylighting. These regression equations were used to compare the energy implications of conventional window designs and newer designs in which the type of coating and substrate were varied. The analysis shows the potential for substantial savings through combined solar load control and lighting energy use reduction with daylighting.

Sullivan, R.; Arasteh, D.; Sweitzer, G.; Johnson, R.; Selkowitz, S.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Evaluation of Vegetative Roofs' Performance on Energy Consumption in Hot and Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Green roofs have been widely used in Europe proved to be beneficial. However, in the US they are not widespread. Previous studies have concluded that the main obstacle that makes architects, developers, etc. reluctant to introduce vegetative roofs is their preference for the traditional roofing since it is a tried-and-true technology. A positive feedback on the performance of vegetative roofs will encourage developers and possibly government authorities to invest more in them. Therefore, a survey was conducted to determine the performance of green roofs in existing buildings in hot and humid climates. This paper presents the results of this survey of around 40 buildings. The methodology and pertinent questions are also presented. Due to the many parameters involved in determining the rate of energy consumption in a building, a definite conclusion regarding how much exactly they can effect on saving can not be drawn, however, the results showed that green roofs can result in saving in the annual energy consumption and using shrubs as well as increasing soil thickness were found to be most effective in reducing building energy consumption.

Anderson, J.; Azarbayjani, M.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

TESTING OF POTENTIAL BEARING MATERIALS IN AN ARGON ATMOSPHERE OF LOW HUMIDITY  

SciTech Connect

Bearing materials for use in the Metallurgy Division Sector of the EBR- 11 Fuel Cycle Plant must operate without lubrication in an argon atmosphere of low humidity (dew-point of --50 deg C or less) and high gamma activity. To select suitable materials, a test program, in which samples of materials known to be radiation resistant were tested for wear resistance in an argon atmosphere containing less than 30 ppm water by volume, was initiated. The criterion by which wear resistance was judged is loss in sample weight over a 24-hour abrasion period during which the samples rub along the periphery of a 2 1/2-in. OD wear ring made of SAE 1045 steel. The majority of the samples were tested using a load of 2755 gm and a rubbing vclocity of 109 ft per sec. Contact between the rectangular samples and the wear ring was initially linear. Of the materials tested, Reactor Grade Graphite and some graphite derivatives showed the best bearing qualities. A group of steel samples coated with impregnated plastic also showed desirable properties. While they are not as wear resistant as the best graphitic samples, their supcrior physical properties give them a wider range of application. (auth)

Carson, N.J. Jr.; Morris, W.H.

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Urban Sodicity in a Humid Subtropical Climate: Impact on Biogeochemical Cycling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding the mechanisms of non-point source carbon and nutrients in urban watersheds will help to develop policies to maintain surface water quality and prevention of eutrophication. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the impact of sodium on carbon and nutrient leaching from the two main contributors; soil and leaf litter, and calculate the sodium exports in a humid subtropical urban river basin. The first chapter reviews the current literature on urbanization in watersheds. Chapter II quantifies the carbon and nutrient in intact soil core leachates and in water extractable solution from urban soils collected from 33 towns and cities across the state of Texas. Chapter III investigates the impact of sodicity and salinity on water extractable organic carbon and nitrogen from vegetation. Chapter IV investigates the export of sodium and chloride from the upper Trinity River basin. The results derived from this study indicate that sodium exports are elevated in urban watersheds and further that sodium in irrigation water elevates the loss of carbon and nutrients from both watershed soil and senesced vegetation and that this may contribute to high concentrations in urban freshwaters.

Steele, Meredith Kate

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011 Goals · Review temperature in stars · Practice using the important energy scales for nuclear fusion Temperature 1. For each relation we regularly use in class temperature. #12;temperature & nuclear fusion 2 Nuclear Fusion 2. There are a few different energy scales

Militzer, Burkhard

460

Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper addresses the real-time use of ambient wet bulb temperature measurements in the optimization of building air conditioning system control as a means to… (more)

White, Justin George

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

TRENDS: TEMPERATURE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Graphics Digital Data J.R. Petit, D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France J. Jouzel and G. Delaygue Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA/CNRS, L'Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France N.I. Barkov Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa Street 38, 199397 St. Petersburg, Russia V.M. Kotlyakov Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, per 29, Moscow 109017, Russia DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.006 Period of Record 420,000 years BP-present Methods Because isotopic fractions of the heavier oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation

462

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duct leakage was a key factor in moisture Duct leakage was a key factor in moisture damage in manufactured homes in humid climates. BUILDING AMERICA TOP INNOVATIONS HALL OF FAME PROFILE INNOVATIONS CATEGORY: 2. House-as-a-System Solutions 2.1 New Homes with Whole-House Packages Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing Research by Building America diagnosed the causes and prescribed a cure that dramatically reduced moisture problems in manufactured housing in Florida. In the late 1990s, Building America researchers at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) worked with manufactured home builders to diagnose moisture problems in homes in Florida. Moisture issues were so severe that in some homes researchers could push their fingers through the saturated drywall. Using a

463

Improving DOE-2's RESYS routine: User defined functions to provide more accurate part load energy use and humidity predictions  

SciTech Connect

In hourly energy simulations, it is important to properly predict the performance of air conditioning systems over a range of full and part load operating conditions. An important component of these calculations is to properly consider the performance of the cycling air conditioner and how it interacts with the building. This paper presents improved approaches to properly account for the part load performance of residential and light commercial air conditioning systems in DOE-2. First, more accurate correlations are given to predict the degradation of system efficiency at part load conditions. In addition, a user-defined function for RESYS is developed that provides improved predictions of air conditioner sensible and latent capacity at part load conditions. The user function also provides more accurate predictions of space humidity by adding ''lumped'' moisture capacitance into the calculations. The improved cooling coil model and the addition of moisture capacitance predicts humidity swings that are more representative of the performance observed in real buildings.

Henderson, Hugh I.; Parker, Danny; Huang, Yu J.

2000-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

464

Applications of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters in Hot, Humid Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat pump water heaters can provide high-efficiency water heating and supplemental space cooling and dehumidification in commercial buildings throughout the United States. They are particularly attractive in hot, humid areas where cooling loads are high and the cooling season is long. Because commercial kitchens and laundry facilities have simultaneous water heating and cooling needs, they are excellent applications for heat pump water heaters. Typical heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) operate at an annual coefficient of performance (COP) of approximately 3.0 for water heating alone. Space conditioning benefits of about 0.67 Btu are delivered at no additional cost for each Btu of water heating output. In situations in which this cooling output is valued, the dual thermal outputs for heating and cooling make heat pump water heaters particularly attractive. The comfort value of added cooling in overheated facilities and the resulting increase in employee and customer satisfaction are frequently cited as additional benefits. This paper describes currently available heat pump water heating equipment and offers guidelines for successful applications in commercial facilities. The results of field test programs involving more than 100 units in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, Tennessee, South Carolina, and other areas are incorporated. Initial conclusions are drawn from a reliability database, and interviews with utility applications specialists and manufacturers are discussed. Design tools are reviewed, including a new comprehensive computer simulation model. Emphasis is placed on identifying sound candidates for installations and on application and design considerations. A brief survey is provided of environmental implications of heat pump water heaters and new developments in heat pump water heater equipment.

Johnson, K. F.; Shedd, A. C.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z