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1

Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map  

SciTech Connect

Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

Lane, Michael

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

2

Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

Lane, Michael

3

Design and production of efficient current leads for 1500-A, 50-Hz service in a 77-4 K temperature gradient  

SciTech Connect

Two arrays of BSCCO 2223 bars were designed and produced for use in current leads for a power utility fault-current limiter operating at 4 K. Each conduction-cooled array, consisting of four parallel bars arranged within a 100-mm-diameter boundary, delivered 1,500 A peak, 50-Hz AC through a 77-4 K temperature gradient while dissipating < 0.2 W. The sinter-forged bars displayed DC critical current densities of 950--1,300 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K and > 5,000 A/cm{sup 2} at 4 K. Magnetic field sensitivity was relatively low. Thermal conductivity tests showed values higher than literature values for polycrystalline BSCCO 2223 made by other processes.

Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A.; Lanagan, M.T. [and others

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes |...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy...

5

Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the...

6

Ballistic dispersion in temperature gradient focusing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

regime is the most familiar regime in microfluidic systems, an oft-overlooked regime is that of purely kinematic (or ballistic) dispersion. In most microfluidic systems, this dispersion regime is transient systems. Keywords: microfluidics; temperature gradient focusing; kinematic dispersion; Taylor

Santiago, Juan G.

7

High temperature superconductor current leads  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical lead is disclosed having one end for connection to an apparatus in a cryogenic environment and the other end for connection to an apparatus outside the cryogenic environment. The electrical lead includes a high temperature superconductor wire and an electrically conductive material distributed therein, where the conductive material is present at the one end of the lead at a concentration in the range of from 0 to about 3% by volume, and at the other end of the lead at a concentration of less than about 20% by volume. Various embodiments are shown for groups of high temperature superconductor wires and sheaths. 9 figs.

Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

8

Ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped ion resonance  

SciTech Connect

A theory to describe basic characterization of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence with strong trapped ion resonance is presented. The role of trapped ion granulations, clusters of trapped ions correlated by precession resonance, is the focus. Microscopically, the presence of trapped ion granulations leads to a sharp (logarithmic) divergence of two point phase space density correlation at small scales. Macroscopically, trapped ion granulations excite potential fluctuations that do not satisfy dispersion relation and so broaden frequency spectrum. The line width from emission due only to trapped ion granulations is calculated. The result shows that the line width depends on ion free energy and electron dissipation, which implies that non-adiabatic electrons are essential to recover non-trivial dynamics of trapped ion granulations. Relevant testable predictions are summarized.

Kosuga, Y., E-mail: kosuga@riam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Institute for Advanced Study, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, S.-I. [Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Diamond, P. H. [CASS and CMTFO, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Itoh, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu (Japan); Research Center for Plasma Turbulence, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Lesur, M. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coherent structures in ion temperature gradient turbulence-zonal flow  

SciTech Connect

Nonlinear stationary structure formation in the coupled ion temperature gradient (ITG)-zonal flow system is investigated. The ITG turbulence is described by a wave-kinetic equation for the action density of the ITG mode, and the longer scale zonal mode is described by a dynamic equation for the m?=?n?=?0 component of the potential. Two populations of trapped and untrapped drift wave trajectories are shown to exist in a moving frame of reference. This novel effect leads to the formation of nonlinear stationary structures. It is shown that the ITG turbulence can self-consistently sustain coherent, radially propagating modulation envelope structures such as solitons, shocks, and nonlinear wave trains.

Singh, Rameswar, E-mail: rameswar.singh@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Singh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kaw, P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Gürcan, Ö. D. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); CMTFO and CASS, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Field Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine Corps  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine Corps Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (Mcagcc), Twenty-Nine Palms, Ca Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Field Investigations And Temperature-Gradient Drilling At Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (Mcagcc), Twenty-Nine Palms, Ca Details Activities (4) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The U.S. Navy's Geothermal Program Office (GPO) has been conducting geothermal exploration activities in the Camp Wilson area of Marine Corps Air-Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC), Twenty-nine Palms, CA, for almost two years. Work has included self-potential (SP) surveys, fault structure analyses using LiDAR surveys, and drilling and assessment of five (5) temperature-gradient holes. For several decades the GPO has worked

11

The Hadley Circulation and the Weak Temperature Gradient Approximation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The weak temperature gradient (WTG) approximation is applied to simple shallow-water models of the Hadley circulation. While it is difficult to formally justify the use of the WTG approximation for this problem, the derived WTG solutions are ...

L. M. Polvani; A. H. Sobel

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Geology and Temperature Gradient Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geology and Temperature Gradient Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal Geology and Temperature Gradient Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal Discovery, Humboldt County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Geology and Temperature Gradient Surveys Blue Mountain Geothermal Discovery, Humboldt County, Nevada Abstract Triassic argillite and sandstone of the Grass Valley Formation and phyllitic mudstone of the overlying Raspberry Formation, also of Triassic age, host a blind geothermal system under exploration by Blue Mountain Power Company Inc. with assistance from the Energy & Geoscience Institute. Geologically young, steeply dipping, open fault sets, striking N50-60°E,N50-60°W, and N-S intersect in the geothermal zone providing deep permeability over a wide area. Extensive silicification andhydro

13

Oil displacement through a porous medium with a temperature gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effect of a temperature gradient on oil recovery in a two-dimensional pore-network model. The oil viscosity depends on temperature as, $\\mu_o=exp(B/T)$, where $B$ is a physico-chemical parameter depending on the type of oil, and $T$ is the temperature. A temperature gradient is applied across the medium in the flow direction. Initially, the porous medium is saturated with oil and, then, another fluid is injected. We have considered two cases representing different injection strategies. In the first case, the invading fluid viscosity is constant (finite viscosity ratio) while in the second one, the invading fluid is inviscid (infinite viscosity ratio). Our results show that, for the case of finite viscosity ratio, recovery increases with $\\Delta T$ independently on strength or sign of the gradient. For an infinite viscosity ratio, a positive temperature gradient is necessary to enhance recovery. Moreover, we show that, for $\\Delta T>0$, the percentage of oil recovery generally decreases (inc...

Oliveira, C L N; Herrmann, H J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Considerations of ion-temperature-gradient-driven turbulence  

SciTech Connect

The ion-temperature-gradient-driven instability is considered in this paper. Physical pictures are presented to clarify the nature of the instability. The saturation of a single eddy is modeled by a simple nonlinear equation. It is shown that eddies that are elongated in the direction of the temperature gradient are the most unstable and have the highest saturation amplitudes. In a sheared magnetic field, such elongated eddies twist with the field lines. This structure is shown to be an alternative to the usual Fourier mode picture in which the mode is localized around the surface where {ital k}{sub {parallel}} =0. These elongated twisting eddies, which are an integral part of the ballooning mode'' structure, could survive in a torus. The elongated eddies are shown to be unstable to secondary instabilities that are driven by the large gradients in the long eddy. It is argued that the mixing length'' is affected by this nonlinear process, and is unlikely to be a linear eigenmode width.

Cowley, S.C.; Kulsrud, R.M. (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (USA)); Sudan, R. (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York (USA))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Acoustical power amplification and damping by temperature gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ceperley proposed a concept of a traveling wave heat engine [“A pistonless Stirling engine—The traveling wave heat engine ” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 66 1508–1513 (1979).] that provided a starting point of thermoacoustics today. This paper verifies experimentally his idea through observation of amplification and strong damping of a plane acoustic traveling wave as it passes through axial temperature gradients. The acoustic power gain is shown to obey a universal curve specified by a dimensionless parameter ???; ? is the angular frequency and ?? is the relaxation time for the gas to thermally equilibrate with channel walls. As an application of his idea a three-stage acoustic power amplifier is developed which attains the gain up to 10 with a moderate temperature ratio of 2.3.

Tetsushi Biwa; Ryo Komatsu; Taichi Yazaki

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Supercurrent-Induced Temperature Gradient across a Nonequilibrium SNS Josephson Junction M. S. Crosser,1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supercurrent-Induced Temperature Gradient across a Nonequilibrium SNS Josephson Junction M. S direction. The feature represents an effective temperature gradient across the SNS Josephson junction Josephson junction (SNS JJ) into a `` junction'' by driving the electron energy distribution far from

Birge, Norman

17

Engineering Design of A High-Temperature Superconductor Current Lead  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Superconductivity Pilot Center Program, Argonne National Laboratory and Superconductivity, Inc., are developing high-temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads suita...

R. C. Niemann; Y. S. Cha; J. R. Hull; M. A. Daugherty; W. E. Buckles

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Nonlinear Gyrokinetic Simulations of Ion-Temperature-Gradient Turbulence for the Optimized Wendelstein 7-X Stellarator  

SciTech Connect

Ion-temperature-gradient turbulence constitutes a possibly dominant transport mechanism for optimized stellarators, in view of the effective suppression of neoclassical losses characterizing these devices. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results for the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator [G. Grieger et al., in Proceedings of the IAEA Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1990 (IAEA, Vienna, 1991) Vol. 3, p. 525]--assuming an adiabatic electron response--are presented. Several fundamental features are discussed, including the role of zonal flows for turbulence saturation, the resulting flux-gradient relationship, and the coexistence of ion-temperature-gradient modes with trapped ion modes in the saturated state.

Xanthopoulos, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Merz, F.; Goerler, T.; Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2007-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

19

Erosion-oxidation of mild steel in a temperature gradient  

SciTech Connect

Thinning of heat-exchanger tubes by erosion-corrosion has been a problem in fluidized bed combustors (FBCs), particularly at lower metal temperatures where thicker, mechanically protective oxide scales are unable to form. Many laboratory-scale tests have shown a decrease in material loss at higher temperatures, similar to that observed in FBC boilers, but also show a decrease in wastage at low temperatures (e.g., 200 C) which has not been detected in boilers. It has been suggested that this difference is due to the laboratory tests being carried out isothermally, whereas in a FBC boiler the fluidized bed is considerably hotter than the surface of the metal heat exchanger tubing. In this laboratory study the simulation was therefore improved by internally cooling one of the two low carbon steel specimens which were rotated in a horizontal plane within a lightly fluidized bed with relative particle velocities of 1.3 to 2.5 ms{sup {minus}1}. Tests were carried out at a bed temperature of 500 C and specimens were cooled to a wear scar surface temperature as low as 250 C. No significant difference in the wastage rate was detected between the cooled and isothermally exposed specimens when measured at the same, accurately determined, metal surface temperatures.

Howes, T.E.; Rogers, P.M.; Little, J.A.; Hutchings, I.M. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Heat conductance in nonlinear lattices at small temperature gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper proposes a new methodological framework within which the heat conductance in 1D lattices can be studied. The total process of heat conductance is separated into two parts where the first one is the equilibrium process at equal temperatures $T$ of both ends and the second one -- non-equilibrium with the temperature $\\Delta T$ of one end and zero temperature of the other. This approach allows significant decrease of computational time at $\\Delta T \\to 0$. The threshold temperature $T_{\\rm thr}$ is found which scales $T_{\\rm thr}(N) \\sim N^{-3}$ with the lattice size $N$ and by convention separates two mechanisms of heat conductance: phonon mechanism dominates at $T T_{\\rm thr}$. Solitons and breathers are directly visualized in numerical experiments. The problem of heat conductance in non-linear lattices in the limit $\\Delta T \\to 0$ can be reduced to the heat conductance of harmonic lattice with time-dependent stochastic rigidities determined by the equilibrium process at temperature $T$. The detailed analysis is done for the $\\beta$-FPU lattice though main results are valid for one-dimensional lattices with arbitrary potentials.

T. Yu. Astakhova; V. N. Likhachev; G. A. Vinogradov

2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Probing plasma turbulence by modulating the electron temperature gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The local value of a/L[subscript Te], a turbulence drive term, was modulated with electron cyclotron heating in L-mode discharges on DIII-D [ J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002) ] and the density and electron temperature ...

DeBoo, J. C.

22

Ab initio calculation of the temperature dependence of the electric field gradient in Be  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using the orthogonalized-plane-wave procedure, the band structure, Fermi surface, and conduction-electron wave functions of Be have been calculated as a function of temperature. The electric field gradients calculated from first principles obey the T32 behavior and are negative throughout the temperature range studied.

P. Jena and J. Rath

1981-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Finite ballooning angle effects on ion temperature gradient driven mode in gyrokinetic flux tube simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents effects of finite ballooning angles on linear ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven mode and associated heat and momentum flux in Gyrokinetic flux tube simulation GENE. It is found that zero ballooning angle is not always the one at which the linear growth rate is maximum. The ITG mode acquires a short wavelength (SW) branch (k{sub ?}?{sub i}?>?1) when growth rates maximized over all ballooning angles are considered. However, the SW branch disappears on reducing temperature gradient showing characteristics of zero ballooning angle SWITG in case of extremely high temperature gradient. Associated heat flux is even with respect to ballooning angle and maximizes at nonzero ballooning angle while the parallel momentum flux is odd with respect to the ballooning angle.

Singh, Rameswar, E-mail: rameswar.singh@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Brunner, S. [CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electron velocity distribution function in a plasma with temperature gradient and in the presence of suprathermal electrons: application to incoherent-scatter plasma lines P. Guio1 , J. Lilensten2 , W. Kofman2 arbitrary velocity distribution function with cylindrical symmetry along the magnetic ®eld. The electron

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

25

Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water transport inside a single-walled carbon nanotube driven by temperature gradient J. Shiomi mass transport of a water cluster inside a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) with the diameter of about 1.4 nm. The influence of the non-equilibrium thermal environment on the confined water cluster has

Maruyama, Shigeo

26

The Astro-H high temperature superconductor lead assemblies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) instrument, one of several instruments on JAXA’s Astro-H mission, will observe diffuse X-ray sources with unparalleled spectral resolution using a microcalorimeter array operating at 50 mK. The array is cooled with a multi-stage Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator mounted on a 40 l helium tank. The tank is at the center of a typical “shell in shell” cryostat, with the innermost shield cooled by a JT cryocooler, and successive outer shields cooled by stirling-cycle cryocoolers. To achieve a multi-year liquid helium lifetime and to avoid exceeding the limited capacity of the JT cooler, very strict requirements are placed on every source of heat leak into these surfaces from the higher temperature shields. However, each ADR stage draws a maximum of 2 A, and the Wiedemann–Franz Law precludes even an optimized set of normal-metal leads capable of such high current from achieving the required low thermal conductance. Instead, a set of lead assemblies have been developed based on narrow high temperature superconductor (HTS) tapes derived from commercially available coated conductors. Although the HTS tapes are flexible and have high tensile strength, they are extremely sensitive to damage through a number of mechanisms. A robust set of assemblies have been developed that provide mechanical support to the tapes, provide appropriate interfaces at either end, and yet still meet the challenging thermal requirements. An Engineering Model (EM) set of HTS lead assemblies have survived environmental testing, both as individual units and as part of the EM cryostat, and have performed without problem in recent operation of the EM instrument. The Flight Model (FM) HTS lead assemblies are currently nearing completion.

E.R. Canavan; B.L. James; T.P. Hait; A. Oliver; D.F. Sullivan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Temperature gradients, and search for non-Boussinesq effects, in the interior of turbulent Rayleigh-Bnard convection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature gradients, and search for non-Boussinesq effects, in the interior of turbulent Rayleigh.1209/0295-5075/80/14001 Temperature gradients, and search for non-Boussinesq effects, in the interior of turbulent Rayleigh symmetry-breaking deviations from the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation even under conditions where

Haller, Gary L.

28

Self-organized profile relaxation by ion temperature gradient instability in toroidal plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Toroidal effects on the ion-temperature gradient mode are found to dictate the temperature evolution and the subsequent relaxed profile realization according to our toroidal particle simulation. Both in the strongly unstable fluid regime as well as in the near-marginal kinetic regime we observe that the plasma maintains an exponential temperature profile and forces the heat flux to be radially independent. The self-organized critical relaxed state is sustained slightly above the marginal stability, where the weak wave growth balances the wave decorrelation.

Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; LeBrun, M.J.; Gray, M.G.; Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Gyrokinetic and Gyrofluid Models for Zonal Flow Dynamics in Ion and Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence  

SciTech Connect

Collisionless time evolution of zonal flows in ion and electron temperature gradient turbulence in toroidal plasmas is investigated. The responses of the zonal-flow potential to the initial perturbation and to the turbulence source are determined from the gyrokinetic equations combined with the Poisson equation, A novel gyrofluid model is presented, which properly describes the zonal-flow time evolution and reproduces the same residual zonal-flow levels as predicted by the gyrokinetic model.

Sugama, H.; Watanabe, T.-H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Ferrando i Margalet, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Influences of Sea Surface Temperature Gradients and Surface Roughness Changes on the Motion of Surface Oil: A Simple Idealized Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors' modeling shows that changes in sea surface temperature (SST) gradients and surface roughness between oil-free water and oil slicks influence the motion of the slick. Physically significant changes occur in surface wind speed, surface ...

Yangxing Zheng; Mark A. Bourassa; Paul Hughes

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Calculation of the Electron Velocity Distribution Function in a Plasma Slab with Large Temperature and Density Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...velocity. The distribution function for the...calculate the distribution function as a...region of the quiet Sun using several data-sets for temperature and density gradients...high-velocity tail of the distribution function. The...

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Comparison of analytical models for zonal flow generation in ion-temperature-gradient mode turbulence  

SciTech Connect

During the past years the understanding of the multi scale interaction problems have increased significantly. However, at present there exists a flora of different analytical models for investigating multi scale interactions and hardly any specific comparisons have been performed among these models. In this work two different models for the generation of zonal flows from ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) background turbulence are discussed and compared. The methods used are the coherent mode coupling model and the wave kinetic equation model (WKE). It is shown that the two models give qualitatively the same results even though the assumption on the spectral difference is used in the (WKE) approach.

Anderson, J.; Miki, K.; Uzawa, K.; Li, J.; Kishimoto, Y. [Dept. Fundamental Energy Science, School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011 (Japan)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

33

Gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulations of the ion temperature gradient turbulence in tokamak and helical systems  

SciTech Connect

Recent progress of the gyrokinetic-Vlasov simulations on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence in tokamak and helical systems is reported, where the entropy balance is checked as a reference for the numerical accuracy. The tokamak ITG turbulence simulation carried out on the Earth Simulator clearly captures a nonlinear generation process of zonal flows. The tera-flops and tera-bytes scale simulation is also applied to a helical system with the same poloidal and toroidal periodicities of L = 2 and M = 10 as in the Large Helical Device.

Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Ferrando i Margalet, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

34

TEMPERATURE-GRADIENT INCUBATOR FOR DETERMINING THE TEMPERATURE RANGE OF GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...temperatures at each end, and with insulation to prevent heat transfer...of compressed glass fiber. Insulation for the sides is rigid polyure...Centi- meter scale. thane foam poured in situ and permanently...sterilization, the top and side insulation, as well as heaters, thermoregula...

R. Paul Elliott

1963-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fine-Scale Zonal Flow Suppression of Electron Temperature Gradient Turbulence  

SciTech Connect

It is found in collisionless Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) turbulence simulations that, while zonal flows are weak at early times, the zonal flows continue to grow algebraically (proportional to time). These fine-scale zonal flows have a radial wave number such that kr{rho}i > 1 and kr{rho}e < 1. Eventually, the zonal flows grow to a level that suppresses the turbulence due to ExB shearing. The final electron energy flux is found to be relatively low. These conclusions are based on particle convergence studies with adiabatic ion electrostatic flux-tube gyrokinetic {delta}f particle simulations run for long times. The Rosenbluth-Hinton random walk mechanism is given as an explanation for the long time build up of the zonal flow in ETG turbulence and it is shown that the generation is (k perpendicular {rho}e)2 smaller than for isomorphic Ion Temperature Gradient (ITG) problem. This mechanism for zonal flow generation here is different than the modulational instability mechanism for ITG turbulence. These results are important because previous results indicated zonal flows were unimportant for ETG turbulence. Weak collisional damping of the zonal flow is also shown to be a n important effect.

Parker, S. E.; Kohut, J. J.; Chen, Y. [Center for Integrated Plasma Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, C0 (United States); Lin, Z. [University of Californian, Irvine, CA (United States); Hinton, F. L. [Hinton Associates, Escondido, CA (United States); Lee, W. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

36

Grain-scale thermoelastic stresses and spatiotemporal temperature gradients on airless bodies, implications for rock breakdown  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermomechanical processes such as fatigue and shock have been suggested to cause and contribute to rock breakdown on Earth, and on other planetary bodies, particularly airless bodies in the inner solar system. In this study, we modeled grain-scale stresses induced by diurnal temperature variations on simple microstructures made of pyroxene and plagioclase on various solar system bodies. We found that a heterogeneous microstructure on the Moon experiences peak tensile stresses on the order of 100 MPa. The stresses induced are controlled by the coefficient of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the mineral constituents, and the average stress within the microstructure is determined by relative volume of each mineral. Amplification of stresses occurs at surface-parallel boundaries between adjacent mineral grains and at the tips of pore spaces. We also found that microscopic spatial and temporal surface temperature gradients do not correlate with high stresses, making them inappropriate proxies for investig...

Molaro, Jamie L; Langer, Steve A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Ion-temperature-gradient sensitivity of the hydrodynamic instability caused by shear in the magnetic-field-aligned plasma flow  

SciTech Connect

The cross-magnetic-field (i.e., perpendicular) profile of ion temperature and the perpendicular profile of the magnetic-field-aligned (parallel) plasma flow are sometimes inhomogeneous for space and laboratory plasma. Instability caused either by a gradient in the ion-temperature profile or by shear in the parallel flow has been discussed extensively in the literature. In this paper, (1) hydrodynamic plasma stability is investigated, (2) real and imaginary frequency are quantified over a range of the shear parameter, the normalized wavenumber, and the ratio of density-gradient and ion-temperature-gradient scale lengths, and (3) the role of inverse Landau damping is illustrated for the case of combined ion-temperature gradient and parallel-flow shear. We find that increasing the ion-temperature gradient reduces the instability threshold for the hydrodynamic parallel-flow shear instability, also known as the parallel Kelvin-Helmholtz instability or the D'Angelo instability. We also find that a kinetic instability arises from the coupled, reinforcing action of both free-energy sources. For the case of comparable electron and ion temperature, we illustrate analytically the transition of the D'Angelo instability to the kinetic instability as (a) the shear parameter, (b) the normalized wavenumber, and (c) the ratio of density-gradient and ion-temperature-gradient scale lengths are varied and we attribute the changes in stability to changes in the amount of inverse ion Landau damping. We show that near a normalized wavenumber k{sub ?}?{sub i} of order unity (i) the real and imaginary values of frequency become comparable and (ii) the imaginary frequency, i.e., the growth rate, peaks.

Mikhailenko, V. V., E-mail: vladimir@pusan.ac.kr [Plasma Research Center, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Mikhailenko, V. S. [School of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Faculty of Transportation Systems, Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University, 61002 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Lee, Hae June, E-mail: haejune@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Koepke, M. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Laboratory measurements of acoustic scattering from a temperature and salinity gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently developed theoretical scattering models predict that acoustic scattering from temperature and salinity microstructure at high frequencies (10 kHz–1 MHz) can be significant under certain oceanographic conditions. The results of this theoretical work suggest that it may be possible to use acoustic scattering techniques in combination with the scattering models to estimate oceanographic parameters such as the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. In addition quantification of the scattering contributions from temperature and salinity microstructure can play an important role in correctly interpreting acoustic surveys of marine life since recent field data indicate that the acoustic returns from zooplankton and microstructure can be of similar strength. Acoustic backscatter from a sharp temperature and salinity gradient was measured in a tank capable of generating and sustaining a thin double?diffusive layer (1–2 cm thick) between two water masses (cold fresh residing above warm salty water). Vertical shear temperature and salinity profiles were measured during the experiment to provide input to the acoustic scattering models. Backscatter was measured at frequencies between 24 kHz and 500 kHz and as a function of range from the sharp interface as part of a program to measure the backscattering from microstructure. a)Currently at Southwest Fisheries Science Center La Jolla CA 92037.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Evaluation of Low-Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery Effects in Sandstone: Effects of the Temperature and pH Gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluation of Low-Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery Effects in Sandstone: Effects of the Temperature and pH Gradient ... (1-4) It was very interesting to see that the model compound, quinoline, and an asphaltenic crude oil responded similarly regarding adsorption/desorption from clays at different salinities and pH values. ... (3) Can the slopes of the pH gradients give information about the rate of desorption and adsorption of cations? ...

Hakan Aksulu; Dagny Håmsø; Skule Strand; Tina Puntervold; Tor Austad

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

40

Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Flux Using Flush-Mounted Insert Temperature-Gradient Gages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method describes the measurement of the net heat flux normal to a surface using gages inserted flush with the surface. The geometry is the same as heat-flux gages covered by Test Method E 511, but the measurement principle is different. The gages covered by this standard all use a measurement of the temperature gradient normal to the surface to determine the heat that is exchanged to or from the surface. Although in a majority of cases the net heat flux is to the surface, the gages operate by the same principles for heat transfer in either direction. 1.2 This general test method is quite broad in its field of application, size and construction. Two different gage types that are commercially available are described in detail in later sections as examples. A summary of common heat-flux gages is given by Diller (1). Applications include both radiation and convection heat transfer. The gages used for aerospace applications are generally small (0.155 to 1.27 cm diameter), have a fast time response ...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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41

The 1983 Temperature Gradient and Heat Flow Drilling Project for the State of Washington  

SciTech Connect

During the Summer of 1983, the Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources carried out a three-hole drilling program to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The project was part of the state-coupled US Department of Energy Geothermal Program. Richardson Well Drilling of Tacoma, Washington was subcontracted through the State to perform the work. The general locations of the project areas are shown in figure 1. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens--Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

Korosec, Michael A.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

1983 temperature gradient and heat flow drilling project for the State of Washington  

SciTech Connect

During the Summer of 1983, a three-hole drilling program was carried out to collect temperature gradient and heat flow information near potential geothermal resource target areas. The general locations of the project areas are shown. The first hole, DNR 83-1, was located within the Green River valley northwest of Mount St. Helens. This site is near the Green River Soda Springs and along the projection of the Mount St. Helens - Elk Lake seismic zone. The other two holes were drilled near Mount Baker. Hole DNR 83-3 was sited about 1/4 km west of the Baker Hot Springs, 10.5 km east of Mount Baker, while hole DNR 83-5 was located along Rocky Creek in the Sulphur Creek Valley. The Rocky Creek hole is about 10 km south-southwest of the peak. Two other holes, DNR 83-2 and DNR 83-4, were located on the north side of the Sulphur Creek Valley. Both holes were abandoned at early stages of drilling because of deep overburden and severe caving problems. The sites were apparently located atop old landslide deposits.

Korosec, M.A.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Symmetries and multiferroic properties of novel room-temperature magnetoelectrics: Lead iron tantalate – lead zirconate titanate (PFT/PZT)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixing 60-70% lead zirconate titanate with 40-30% lead iron tantalate produces a single-phase low-loss room-temperature multiferroic with magnetoelectric coupling: (PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3) (1-x)- (PbFe0.5Ta0.5O3)x. The present study combines x-ray scattering magnetic and polarization hysteresis in both phases plus a second-order dielectric divergence (to epsilon = 6000 at 475 K for 0.4 PFT; to 4000 at 520 K for 0.3 PFT) for an unambiguous assignment as a C2v-C4v (Pmm2-P4mm) transition. The material exhibits square saturated magnetic hysteresis loops with 0.1 emu/g at 295 K and saturation polarization Pr = 25 ?C/cm2 which actually increases (to 40 ?C/cm2) in the high-T tetragonal phase representing an exciting new room temperature oxide multiferroic to compete with BiFeO3. Additional transitions at high temperatures (cubic at T>1300 K) and low temperatures (rhombohedral or monoclinic at T<250 K) are found. These are the lowest-loss room-temperature multiferroics known which is a great advantage for magnetoelectric devices.

Dilsom A. Sanchez; N. Ortega; Ashok Kumar; R. Roque-Malherbe; R. Polanco; J. F. Scott; Ram S. Katiyar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Steady-state nonequilibrium temperature gradients in hydrogen gas–metal systems: challenging the second law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Differences in gas reaction rates between disparate surfaces have been proposed as a means to achieve steady-state pressure and temperature gradients within a single blackbody cavity, thereby challenging the second law of thermodynamics (Sheehan 1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 6660; Sheehan 2001 Phys. Lett. A 280 185; Capek and Sheehan 2005 Challenges to the Second Law of Thermodynamics (Theory and Experiment) (Fundamental Theories of Physics Series vol 146) (Dordrecht: Springer)). This paper reports on laboratory tests of this hypothesis; specifically, molecular hydrogen is found to dissociate preferentially on rhenium surfaces versus tungsten at identical elevated temperatures and reduced pressures (T ? 2100 K; ). Steady-state nonequilibrium H/H2 ratios over the surfaces suggest that temperature gradients could be maintained under blackbody cavity conditions. Preliminary results from bimetallic blackbody cavity experiments are discussed.

D P Sheehan; J T Garamella; D J Mallin; W F Sheehan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

RHIC 12x150A current lead temperature controller: design and implementation  

SciTech Connect

There are 60 12 x 150A current leads distributed in six RHIC service buildings; each lead delivers power supply current from room temperature to cryogenic temperature in RHIC. Due to the humid environment, condensation occurs frequently and ice forms quickly during operation, especially during an extensive storage period. These conditions generate warnings and alarms to which personnel must respond and establish temporary solutions to keep the machine operating. In here, we designed a temperature control system to avoid such situations. This paper discusses its design, implementation, and some results. There are six service buildings in the RHIC complex; each building has two valve boxes that transfer room-temperature current cables from the power supplies into superconducting leads, and then transport them into the RHIC tunnel. In there, the transition between the room-temperature lead into superconducting lead is critical and essential; smooth running during the physics store is crucial for the machine's continuing operation. One of the problems that often occurred previously was the icing of these current leads that could result in a potential leakage current onto ground, thereby preventing a continuous supply of physics store. Fig. 1 illustrates a typical example on a power lead. Among the modifications of the design of the valve box, we list below the new requirements for designing the temperature controller to prevent icing occurring: (1) Remotely control, monitor, and record each current lead's temperature in real time. Prevent icing or overheating of a power lead. (2) Include a temperature alarm for the high/low level threshold. In this paper we discuss the design, implementation, upgrades to, and operation of this new system.

Mi, C.; Seberg, S.; Ganetis, Hamdi, K.; Louie, W.; Heppner, G.; Jamilkowski, J.; Bruno, D.; DiLieto, A.; Sirio, C.; Tuozzolo, J.; Sandberg, J.; Unger, K.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

46

Temperature Difference Leads to Magnetism | Physical Review Focus Previous Story / Volume 28 archive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature Difference Leads to Magnetism | Physical Review Focus Previous Story / Volume 28 Leads to Magnetism J. Wu/Univ. of California, Berkeley Heat field. Heating the right edge of an n a magnetic field pointing out of the screen, according to computer simulations. Computer simulations suggest

Wu, Junqiao

47

Author's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Author's personal copy Pyrolytic temperatures impact lead sorption mechanisms by bagasse biochars mechanisms were invested based on isotherm and kinetic models, sorption and desorption, and FITR spectroscopy Lead Bagasse biochar Sorption kinetics Functional groups a b s t r a c t The characteristics

Ma, Lena

48

Lead  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

topic topic Lead 8:00 AM 8:15 AM Welcome and Webinar Rules Maloy 8:15 AM 8:30 AM NE Materials Introduction Lesica 8:30 AM 9:00 AM Advanced Reactor Concepts Sham 9:00 AM 9:30 AM SMR Corwin 9:30 AM 10:00 AM VHTR Materials Wright 10:00 AM 10:15 AM Coffee Break 10:15 AM 10:45 AM Fuel Cycle Research and Development Maloy 10:45 AM 11:15 AM LWR Sustainability Busby 11:15 AM 11:45 AM Summary/Discussion All Discussion topic - Development of Advanced ODS alloys Lead 8:00 AM 8:15 AM Welcome and Webinar Rules Maloy 8:15 AM 8:30 AM Advanced Materials for Fast Reactor Core Materials Maloy 8:30 AM 9:00 AM High Dose MA-957 testing Toloczko 9:00 AM 9:30 AM FCRD ODS Material Development- FCRD-NFA1 Hoelzer 9:30 AM 10:00 AM NFA Processing Odette 10:00 AM 10:15 AM Coffee Break 10:15 AM 10:45 AM 9Cr ODS Material Development Byun 10:45 AM

49

An experimental investigaion of seawater/basalt interactions: the role of water/rock ratios and temperature gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the quench pH data as a function of temperature in temperature-gradient experiments 38 40 LIST OF PLATES Plate Page Ia Ib I la IIb IIIa IIIb IVa Ivb Va Vb VIa Large euhedral anhydrite crystals surrounded by honeycomb-shaped smectite. Run... circulation. Metabasalts ranging from zeolite to amphibolite facies, with greenstones dominating, have been dredged from the ocean floor (Aumento et al. 1971; Miyashi ro et al. 1971; Melson and van Andel, 1966; Shi do et al. , 1974; Bonatti et al. ; 1975...

Archer, Paul Lawrence

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas  

SciTech Connect

In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

Hanrahan, Timothy P.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

On the nonlinear stability of a quasi-two-dimensional drift kinetic model for ion temperature gradient turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study a quasi-two-dimensional electrostatic drift kinetic system as a model for near-marginal ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. A proof is given of the nonlinear stability of this system under conditions of linear stability. This proof is achieved using a transformation that diagonalizes the linear dynamics and also commutes with nonlinear $E\\times B$ advection. For the case when linear instability is present, a corollary is found that forbids nonlinear energy transfer between appropriately defined sets of stable and unstable modes. It is speculated that this may explain the preservation of linear eigenmodes in nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. Based on this property, a dimensionally reduced ($\\infty\\times\\infty \\rightarrow 1$) system is derived that may be useful for understanding dynamics around the critical gradient of Dimits.

Plunk, G G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Temperature gradients in a portion of Michigan: a review of the usefulness of data from the AAPG geothermal survey of North America  

SciTech Connect

Temperature gradient data derived from drill holes in an east-west zone through the center of the southern peninsula of Michigan are analyzed. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible problems in utilizing the American Association of Petroleum Geologists data base. Michigan was chosen because a review of that State's geothermal potential shows inconsistencies between gradients from shallow wells and nearby deeper wells and because the geology of the State is relativey simple. The structure and stratigraphy are discussed because an understanding of Michigan basin geology makes it easier to predict the influence of lithology on the basin's geothermal gradients. Explanations for elevated gradients are reviewed. (MHR)

Vaught, T.L.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

The effect of temperature gradient on the transport phenomenon in roots of maize plants grown under salinity conditions. conductivity and filtration properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An analysis of flows through primary root and first node root tissues of plants grown under conditions of salinity and nutrient deficiency induced by temperature gradients was carried out using. a mathematical mo...

J. Michalov

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Effect of temperature gradient on the transport phenomenon in roots of maize plants grown under salinity conditions. substance, heat, and ion flows  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The accumulation of nitrogen and potassium by plant cells at undesirable concentrations manifests itself in changes in the osmotic phenomenon and finally in the transport process. Temperature gradient is another ...

J. Michalov

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Parametric Excitation of Geodesic Acoustic Modes by Electron Drift Waves and Ion Temperature Gradient Modes in Tokamak Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAMs) have been predicted and subsequently observed in many toroidal plasma devices. Bicoherence studies on various devices have suggested three-wave mode coupling processes between GAMs and high frequency turbulence. Thus the parametric coupling of GAMS to drift waves and/or ion temperature gradient(ITG{r_brace} modes is a potential candidate for excitation of these modes. In this paper we discuss the resonant three-wave coupling mechanism for the excitation of GAMs by ITG and finite beta drift waves in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas and compare theoretical predictions with observed characteristics of the GAMs.

Guzdar, P. N.; Kleva, R. G. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Chakrabarti, N. [SINP, Kolkata (India); Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R. [IPR, Gandhinagar, 308423 (India); Naulin, V.; Rasmussen, J. J. [EURATOM, Roskilde (Denmark)

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Generation of zonal flows by ion-temperature-gradient and related modes in the presence of neoclassical viscosity  

SciTech Connect

Generation of zonal flows by primary waves that are more complex than those considered in the standard drift-wave model is studied. The effects of parallel ion velocity and ion perturbed temperature and the part of the nonlinear mode interaction proportional to the ion pressure are taken into account. This generalization of the standard model allows the analysis of generation of zonal flows by a rather wide variety of primary modes, including ion temperature gradients, ion sound, electron drift, and drift-sound modes. All the listed effects, which are present in the slab geometry model, are complemented by effects of neoclassical viscosity inherent to toroidal geometry. We show that the electrostatic potential of secondary small-scale modes is expressed in terms of a nonlinear shift of the mode frequency and interpret this shift in terms of the perpendicular and parallel Doppler, nonlinear Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH), and nonlinear ion-pressure-gradient effects. A basic assumption of our model is that the primary modes form a nondispersive monochromatic wave packet. The analysis of zonal-flow generation is performed following an approach similar to that of convective-cell theory. Neoclassical zonal-flow instabilities are separated into fast and slow ones, and these are divided into two varieties. The first of them is independent of the nonlinear KH effect, while the second one is sensitive to it.

Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Smolyakov, A.I.; Kovalishen, E.A.; Shirokov, M.S.; Tsypin, V.S.; Galvao, R.M.O. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation) and Nonlinear Physics Laboratory, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudnyi 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon, S7N 5E2 (Canada) and Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Nonlinear Physics Laboratory, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Institutskii per. 9, Dolgoprudnyi 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation) and Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Fusion, Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation) and Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Kashirskoe Shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil) and Brazilian Center for Research in Physics, Rua Xavier Sigaud, 150, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

57

Critical temperature gradient length signatures in heat wave propagation across internal transport barriers in the Joint European Torus  

SciTech Connect

New results on electron heat wave propagation using ion cyclotron resonance heating power modulation in the Joint European Torus (JET) [P. H. Rebut et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1011 (1985)] plasmas characterized by internal transport barriers (ITBs) are presented. The heat wave generated outside the ITB, and traveling across it, always experiences a strong damping in the ITB layer, demonstrating a low level of transport and loss of stiffness. In some cases, however, the heat wave is strongly inflated in the region just outside the ITB, showing features of convective-like behavior. In other cases, a second maximum in the perturbation amplitude is generated close to the ITB foot. Such peculiar types of behavior can be explained on the basis of the existence of a critical temperature gradient length for the onset of turbulent transport. Convective-like features appear close to the threshold (i.e., just outside the ITB foot) when the value of the threshold is sufficiently high, with a good match with the theoretical predictions for the trapped electron mode threshold. The appearance of a second maximum is due to the oscillation of the temperature profile across the threshold in the case of a weak ITB. Simulations with an empirical critical gradient length model and with the theory based GLF23 [R. E. Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas, 4, 2482 (1997)] model are presented. The difference with respect to previous results of cold pulse propagation across JET ITBs is also discussed.

Casati, Alessandro [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma 'P. Caldirola', Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Mantica, P. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma 'P. Caldirola', Associazione Euratom-ENEA-CNR, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Eester, D. van [LPP-ERM/KMS, Association Euratom-Belgian State, TEC, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Hawkes, N.; De Vries, P. [Culham Science Centre, EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Imbeaux, F.; Joffrin, E. [Association Euratom-CEA, CEA-DSM-DRFC Cadarache, 13108, St. Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Marinoni, A. [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, CRPP, EPFL, CH 1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ryter, F. [Max-Planck Insitut fur Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Salmi, A. [Helsinki University of Technology, Association Euratom-TEKES, P.O. Box 2200 (Finland); Tala, T. [Association Euratom-TEKES, VTT, P.O. Box 1000, FIN-02044 VTT (Finland)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

SHORT-TERM PRECIPITATION AND TEMPERATURE TRENDS ALONG AN ELEVATION GRADIENT IN NORTHEASTERN PUERTO RICO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As is true of many tropical regions, Northeastern Puerto Rico is an ecologically sensitive area with biological life that is highly elevation-dependent on precipitation and temperature. Climate change has the potential to increase the risk of ...

Ashley E. Van Beusekom; Grizelle González; Maria M. Rivera

59

Coupling of ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes in the presence of impurities in tokamak plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The coupling of ion temperature gradient (ITG or ?{sub i}) mode and trapped electron mode (TEM) in the presence of impurity ions is numerically investigated in toroidal collisionless plasmas, using the gyrokinetic integral eigenmode equation. A framework for excitations of the ITG modes and TEMs with respect to their driving sources is formulated first, and then the roles of impurity ions played in are analyzed comprehensively. In particular, the characteristics of the ITG and TEM instabilities in the presence of impurity ions are emphasized for both strong and weak coupling (hybrid and coexistent) cases. It is found that the impurity ions with inwardly (outwardly) peaked density profiles have stabilizing (destabilizing) effects on the hybrid (namely the TE-ITG) modes in consistence with previous works. A new finding of this work is that the impurity ions have stabilizing effects on TEMs in small ?{sub i} (?{sub i}?1) regime regardless of peaking directions of their density profiles whereas the impurity ions with density gradient L{sub ez}=L{sub ne}/L{sub nz}>1 (L{sub ez}<1) destabilize (stabilize) the TEMs in large ?{sub i} (?{sub i}?1) regime. In addition, the dependences of the growth rate, real frequency, eigenmode structure, and wave spectrum on charge concentration, charge number, and mass of impurity ions are analyzed in detail. The necessity for taking impurity ion effects on the features of turbulence into account in future transport experimental data analyses is also discussed.

Du, Huarong; Wang, Zheng-Xiong, E-mail: zxwang@dlut.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Dong, J. Q. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, S. F. [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)] [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

60

Abstract : 2008 APS-DPP Temperature gradients are supported by cantori in chaotic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(s)+T(s, , ), where s is a radial coordinate. To(s) is generally a smoothed devil's staircase: flat across exceed 1010 . The temperature adapts to the fractal structure of the magnetic field. To show the connection between the fractal structure of the magnetic field and the near-fractal structure

Hudson, Stuart

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Fundamental solution method for reconstructing past climate change from borehole temperature gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Deep borehole temperature profiles have successfully been used to reconstruct past ground surface temperature history and the results are dependent on the inversion methods. These methods are tedious and sometimes unstable in iterative computation. In this paper, we propose a new fundamental solution method to reconstruct the past ground surface temperature variation, which depends on the assumption that ground temperature field in a homogeneous region is governed by a one-dimensional heat conductive equation. To regularize the resultant ill-conditioned linear system of equations, we apply successfully both the Tikhonov regularization technique and the generalized cross validation parameter choice rule to obtain a stable approximation solution of the ill-posed inverse problem. Our new method is stable and meshless, and it does not require iteration. We conducted idealized simulations with good results. We also used in-situ borehole data of RU-Yakutia329 from Yakutia, Siberia and CN-XZ-naqu903 from Naqu, Qinghai–Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau to validate our new approach. Results from these borehole studies show a warming of 0.1 and 2.3 °C, respectively, in the past 450 years. When comparing to the results from previous studies, the RU-Yakutia329 study has the same magnitude of warming, while the magnitude of warming at Naqu is slightly smaller.

Jia Liu; Tingjun Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Momentum transport in the vicinity of q{sub min} in reverse shear tokamaks due to ion temperature gradient turbulence  

SciTech Connect

We present an analytic study of momentum transport of tokamak plasmas in the vicinity of minimum safety factor (q) position in reversed magnetic shear configuration. Slab ion temperature gradient modes with an equilibrium flow profile are considered in this study. Quasi-linear calculations of momentum flux clearly show the novel effects of q-curvature on the generation of intrinsic rotation and mean poloidal flow without invoking reflectional symmetry breaking of parallel wavenumber (k{sub ?}). This q-curvature effect originates from the inherent asymmetry in k{sub ?} populations with respect to a rational surface due to the quadratic proportionality of k{sub ?} when q-curvature is taken into account. Discussions are made of possible implications of q-curvature induced plasma flows on internal transport barrier formation in reversed shear tokamaks.

Singh, Rameswar, E-mail: rameswar@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Singh, R [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Jhang, Hogun [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)] [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Diamond, P. H. [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of) [WCI Center for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Outgassing, Temperature Gradients and the Radiometer Effect in LISA: A Torsion Pendulum Investigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal modeling of the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) includes such effects as outgassing from the proof mass and its housing and the radiometer effect. Experimental data in conditions emulating the LISA GRS are required to confidently predict the GRS performance. Outgassing and the radiometer effect are similar in characteristics and are difficult to decouple experimentally. The design of our torsion balance allows us to investigate differential radiation pressure, the radiometer effect, and outgassing on closely separated conducting surfaces with high sensitivity. A thermally controlled split copper plate is brought near a freely hanging plate-torsion pendulum.We have varied the temperature on each half of the copper plate and have measured the resulting forces on the pendulum. We have determined that to first order the current GRS model for the radiometer effect, outgassing, and radiation pressure are mostly consistent with our torsion balance measurements and therefore these thermal effects do not appear to be a large hindrance to the LISA noise budget. However, there remain discrepancies between the predicted dependence of these effects on the temperature of our apparatus.

Scott E Pollack; Stephan Schlamminger; Jens H Gundlach

2007-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

64

The effect of gradients of temperature of the sea surface on moving groups of cumulus clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and 16N to 25N. Prom ship data, for the p . rticulax de+ca of inves;igat'on, i0, ", I, 'I2, nd 1H Inarch 1 9oH, a. map o f mean ai temperature v, as cons I ruc I? ed. . A map of sea-air temoerature differ ence vas ob- tained. Stabilii;y of . I...;he subclcud layer eras exam! ned. favorable areas and uafavorable a! cas f' or cloud dcv. i. lep- ment on the basis of' the sea-air Lemperaiure O'Lfference !vere de+ermined. Comparison?::ith an observed ?, . ? day com? posi+o cloud m . p shoved i irly good...

Stearns, John Robb

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

65

Hydrogenation at low temperatures does not always lead to saturation: the case of HNCO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context. It is generally agreed that hydrogenation reactions dominate chemistry on grain surfaces in cold, dense molecular cores, saturating the molecules present in ice mantles. Aims. We present a study of the low temperature reactivity of solid phase isocyanic acid (HNCO) with hydrogen atoms, with the aim of elucidating its reaction network. Methods. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry were employed to follow the evolution of pure HNCO ice during bombardment with H atoms. Both multilayer and monolayer regimes were investigated. Results. The hydrogenation of HNCO does not produce detectable amounts of formamide (NH2CHO) as the major product. Experiments using deuterium reveal that deuteration of solid HNCO occurs rapidly, probably via cyclic reaction paths regenerating HNCO. Chemical desorption during these reaction cycles leads to loss of HNCO from the surface. Conclusions. It is unlikely that significant quantities of NH2CHO form from HNCO. In dense regions, however, deuteration o...

Noble, J A; Congiu, E; Dulieu, F; Bonnin, M; Bassas, A; Duvernay, F; Danger, G; Chiavassa, T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Design, prototyping, and testing of an apparatus for establishing a linear temperature gradient in experimental fish tanks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Immunology researchers require a new type of fish tank that provides a linear thermal gradient for experimental zebrafish in order to improve the accuracy and validity of their research. Zebrafish require the ability to ...

Kadri, Romi Sinclair

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Lead Research and Development Activity for DOE's High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program (Topic 2)  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy’s High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity Membrane Program was begun in 2006 with the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) as the lead organization. During the first three years of the program, FSEC was tasked with developing non-Nafion® proton exchange membranes with improved conductivity for fuel cells. Additionally, FSEC was responsible for developing protocols for the measurement of in-plane conductivity, providing conductivity measurements for the other funded teams, developing a method for through-plane conductivity and organizing and holding semiannual meetings of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group (HTMWG). The FSEC membrane research focused on the development of supported poly[perfluorosulfonic acid] (PFSA) – Teflon membranes and a hydrocarbon membrane, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). The fourth generation of the PFSA membrane (designated FSEC-4) came close to, but did not meet, the Go/No-Go milestone of 0.1 S/cm at 50% relative humidity at 120 °C. In-plane conductivity of membranes provided by the funded teams was measured and reported to the teams and DOE. Late in the third year of the program, DOE used this data and other factors to decide upon the teams to continue in the program. The teams that continued provided promising membranes to FSEC for development of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) that could be tested in an operating fuel cell. FSEC worked closely with each team to provide customized support. A logic flow chart was developed and discussed before MEA fabrication or any testing began. Of the five teams supported, by the end of the project, membranes from two of the teams were easily manufactured into MEAs and successfully characterized for performance. One of these teams exceeded performance targets, while the other requires further optimization. An additional team developed a membrane that shows great promise for significantly reducing membrane costs and increasing membrane lifetime.

James Fenton, PhD; Darlene Slattery, PhD; Nahid Mohajeri, PhD

2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

68

Modeling Utility Load and Temperature Relationships for Use with Long-Lead Forecasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Models relating system-wide average temperature to total system load were developed for the Virginia Power and Duke Power service areas in the southeastern United States. Daily data for the 1985–91 period were used. The influence of temperature ...

Peter J. Robinson

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Steam Cycle/Cogeneration Lead Project strategy plan  

SciTech Connect

The strategy for developing the HTGR system and introducing it into the energy marketplace is based on using the most developed technology path to establish a HTGR-Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (SC/C) Lead Project. Given the status of the HTGR-SC/C technology, a Lead Plant could be completed and operational by the mid 1990s. While there is remaining design and technology development that must be accomplished to fulfill technical and licensing requirements for a Lead Project commitment, the major barriers to the realization a HTGR-SC/C Lead Project are institutional in nature, e.g. Project organization and management, vendor/supplier development, cost/risk sharing between the public and private sector, and Project financing. These problems are further exacerbated by the overall pervading issues of economic and regulatory instability that presently confront the utility and nuclear industries. This document addresses the major institutional issues associated with the HTGR-SC/C Lead Project and provides a starting point for discussions between prospective Lead Project participants toward the realization of such a Project.

None

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Characteristics of lead induced stress corrosion cracking of alloy 690 in high temperature  

SciTech Connect

Slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were conducted on alloy 690 in various lead chloride solutions and metal lead added to 100 ppm chloride solution at 288 C. The corrosion potential (rest potential) for the alloy was measured with SSRT tests. The cracking was observed by metallographic examination and electron probe micro analyzer. Also, the corrosion behavior of the alloy was evaluated by anodic polarized measurement at 30 C. Resulting from the tests, cracking was characterized by cracking behavior, crack length and crack growth rate, and lead effects on cracking. The cracking was mainly intergranular in mode, approximately from 60 um to 450 um in crack length, and approximately 10{sup {minus}6} to 10{sup {minus}7} mmS-1 in crack velocity. The cracking was evaluated through the variation the corrosion potential in potential-time and lead behavior during SSRTs. The lead effect in corrosion was evaluated through active to passive transition behavior in anodic polarized curves. The corrosion reactions in the cracking region were confirmed by electron probe microanalysis. Alloy 690 is used for steam generation tubes in pressurized water reactors.

Chung, K.K. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, J.K. [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Watanabe, Yutaka; Shoji, Tetsuo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Fracture Technology

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Investigation of Gold Nanoparticle Inks for Low-Temperature Lead-Free Packaging Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Investigation of Gold Nanoparticle Inks for Low-Temperaturee-mail: tim_b@eecs.berkeley.edu Gold nanoparticle inks wereInvestigation of Gold Nanoparticle Inks for Low-Temperature

Bakhishev, Teymur; Subramanian, Vivek

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

An attempt to minimize the temperature gradient along a plug-flow methane/steam reforming reactor by adopting locally controlled heating zones  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plug flow reactors are very common in the chemical process industry, including methane/steam reforming applications. Their operation presents many challenges, such as a strong dependence of temperature and composition distribution on the inlet conditions. The strongly endothermic methane/steam reforming reaction might result in a temperature drop at the inlet of the reactor and consequently the occurrence of large temperature gradients. The strongly non-uniform temperature distribution due to endothermic chemical reaction can have tremendous consequences on the operation of the reactor, such as catalyst degradation, undesired side reactions and thermal stresses. To avoid such unfavorable conditions, thermal management of the reactor becomes an important issue. To carry out thermal management properly, detailed modeling and corresponding numerical analyses of the phenomena occurring inside the reforming system is required. This paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the methane/steam reforming process inside a plug-flow reactor. To optimize the reforming reactors, detailed data about the entire reforming process is required. In this study the kinetics of methane/steam reforming on the Ni/YSZ catalyst was experimentally investigated. Measurements including different thermal boundary conditions, the fuel flow rate and the steam- to-methane ratios were performed. The reforming rate equation derived from experimental data was used in the numerical model to predict gas composition and temperature distribution along the steam-reforming reactor. Finally, an attempt was made to control the temperature distribution by adopting locally controlled heating zones.

M Mozdzierz; G Brus; A Sciazko; Y Komatsu; S Kimijima; J S Szmyd

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Low temperature iron- and nickel-catalyzed reactions leading to coalbed gas formation  

SciTech Connect

Hydrocarbon hydrogenolysis and CO{sub 2} hydrogenation in the presence of Fe/SiO{sub 2} and Ni/SiO{sub 2} catalysts were evaluated as potential mechanisms contributing to natural gas formation in coalbeds. The hydrocarbons used as reactants in hydrogenolysis included butane, octane, 1-octene, and 1-dodecene. The reactions carried out in a laboratory batch reactor produced gas that contained methane concentrations greater than 90%, which resembles the composition of natural gas. Reaction temperatures were selected to resemble natural coalbed conditions. Evidence is presented to show that iron and nickel minerals, which can be present in coals at levels of 2,000 and 10 ppm, respectively, can become active under geologic conditions. The oxides (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and NiO) used as precursors of the active catalysts (Fe and Ni metals) were reduced at 200 C under a hydrogen atmosphere. Moessbauer spectroscopy showed that ca. 6% of the iron oxide was converted to the metal; in the case of nickel, oxygen titration showed that the extent of reduction to the metal was ca. 29%. The resultant fractions of the active metals in coals are adequate to catalyze generation of appreciable amounts of methane over geologic time.

Medina, J.C.; Butala, S.J.; Bartholomew, C.H.; Lee, M.L.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Analysis of effect of temperature gradients on surface-tension phenomena in gas-tungsten-arc welds  

SciTech Connect

Fluid motion directed by surface tension is considered as a contributor to heat penetration in a weld pool. The potential phenomena at the gas-liquid interface were analyzed, and the dependence of surface motion on temperature in the gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welding process was examined. An existing heat-transfer model was used and was able to predict weld size to +- 50% of the actual value. A momentum-transfer equation was derived by considering the contribution of Lorentz force. The momentum boundary condition was developed and was able to predict the Marangoni effect. The magnitude of surface-tension-driven force is comparable to the gravitational force on one gram. An empirical approach was proposed to couple heat-transfer and momentum-transfer phenomena. A dimensional analysis identified the pertinent dimensionless groups as Reynolds, Weber, Froude, Peclet, and Power numbers and a dimensionless velocity. A simplified form of the correction was developed by combining dimensionless groups to yield a correlation with the Bond, Prandtl, and modified power numbers. Future experimental work was proposed to test the functionality of the dimensionless groups.

Lee, H.A.; Chien, P.S.J.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Were Archaean continental geothermal gradients much steeper than today? (reply)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... -We did not intend to suggest that our gradients bore any relationship to near-surface geothermal gradients. It may have been clearer to have termed them average ... gradients. It may have been clearer to have termed them average geothermal gradients. Our purpose in quoting these gradients was simply to emphasise that the temperature ...

KEVIN BURKE; W. S. F. KIDD

1978-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

76

Retention of Hydrogen in FCC Metals Irradiated at Temperatures Leading to High Densities of Bubbles or Voids  

SciTech Connect

Large amounts of hydrogen and helium are generated in structural metals in accelerator-driven systems. It is shown that under certain conditions, hydrogen can be stored in irradiated nickel and stainless steels at levels strongly in excess of that predicted by Sieverts Law. These conditions are first, the availability of hydrogen from various radiolytic and environmental sources and second, the formation of radiation-induced cavities to store hydrogen. These cavities can be highly pressurized bubbles or under-pressurized voids, with concurrent helium in the cavities at either low or very high levels. Transmutant sources of hydrogen are often insufficient to pressurize these cavities, and therefore environmental sources are required. The stored hydrogen appears to be stable for many years at room temperature. A conceptual model to describe such behavior requires the continuous generation of hydrogen from (n, p) reactions and possibly other radiolytic sources which can create a supersaturation of hydrogen in the metal, leading to the pressurization of voids and helium bubbles. Once captured in a bubble, the hydrogen is assumed to be in molecular form. Dissolution back into the metal requires chemisorption and dissociation on the bubble surface. Both of these processes have large activation barriers, particularly when oxygen, carbohydrates, and other impurities poison the bubble surface. However, these chemisorbed poisons may reduce but not entirely restrict the ingress or egress of atomic hydrogen.

Garner, Francis A.; Simonen, Edward P.; Oliver, Brian M.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Grossbeck, M L.; Wolfer, W. G.; Scott, P M.

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Microinstabilities in weak density gradient tokamak systems  

SciTech Connect

A prominent characteristic of auxiliary-heated tokamak discharges which exhibit improved (''H-mode type'') confinement properties is that their density profiles tend to be much flatter over most of the plasma radius. Depsite this favorable trend, it is emphasized here that, even in the limit of zero density gradient, low-frequency microinstabilities can persist due to the nonzero temperature gradient.

Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.; Chen, L.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Simplified modeling of liquid sodium medium with temperature and velocity gradient using real thermal-hydraulic data. Application to ultrasonic thermometry in sodium fast reactor  

SciTech Connect

In the framework of the French R and D program for the Generation IV reactors and specifically for the sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR), studies are carried out on innovative instrumentation methods in order to improve safety and to simplify the monitoring of fundamental physical parameters during reactor operation. The aim of the present work is to develop an acoustic thermometry method to follow up the sodium temperature at the outlet of subassemblies. The medium is a turbulent flow of liquid sodium at 550 Degree-Sign C with temperature inhomogeneities. To understand the effect of disturbance created by this medium, numerical simulations are proposed. A ray tracing code has been developed with Matlab Copyright-Sign in order to predict acoustic paths in this medium. This complex medium is accurately described by thermal-hydraulic data which are issued from a simulation of a real experiment in Japan. The analysis of these results allows understanding the effects of medium inhomogeneities on the further thermometric acoustic measurement.

Massacret, N.; Jeannot, J. P. [DEN/DTN/STPA/LIET, CEA Cadarache, Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Moysan, J.; Ploix, M. A.; Corneloup, G. [Aix-Marseille Univ, LMA UPR 7051 CNRS, site LCND, 13625 Aix-en-Provence (France)

2013-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

79

Fast Self-Healing Gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present CRF-Gradient, a self-healing gradient algorithm that provably reconfigures in O(diameter) time. Self-healing gradients are a frequently used building block for distributed self-healing systems, but previous ...

Beal, Jacob

80

Temperature-gradient calendering of recycled boxboard  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the TG calendering technique was applied to multi-ply boxboard samples made from 100% recycled fibers. The effects of the following three calendering techniques on the surface properties and bulk of the board are investigated: conventional calendering, two-sided TG calendering, and one-sided TG calendering.

Gratton, M.F. (Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, Pointe Claire, Que. (CA))

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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81

Analysis of natural gradient descent for multilayer neural networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural gradient descent is a principled method for adapting the parameters of a statistical model on-line using an underlying Riemannian parameter space to redefine the direction of steepest descent. The algorithm is examined via methods of statistical physics that accurately characterize both transient and asymptotic behavior. A solution of the learning dynamics is obtained for the case of multilayer neural network training in the limit of large input dimension. We find that natural gradient learning leads to optimal asymptotic performance and outperforms gradient descent in the transient, significantly shortening or even removing plateaus in the transient generalization performance that typically hamper gradient descent training.

Magnus Rattray and David Saad

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Ciliate diversity and distribution across an environmental and depth gradient in Long Island  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ciliate diversity and distribution across an environmental and depth gradient in Long Island Sound- trichia (Spirotrichea) and Choreotrichia (Spirotrichea) across an environmental gradient. We assessed SSU- tion showed any clear relationship to measured environmental parameters (temperature, salinity

Katz, Laura

83

Recurrent policy gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......for recurrent neural networks Recurrent policy gradients Daan Wierstra Alexander Forster...POMDPs) is a challenge as it requires policies with an internal state. Traditional approaches...offer a natural framework for dealing with policy learning using hidden state and require......

Daan Wierstra; Alexander Förster; Jan Peters; Jürgen Schmidhuber

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Microconvection effects at double?diffusive gradient zone boundaries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microconvection in double?diffusive gradient zones is predicted to occur near the zone boundaries because of effects of boundary undulation and temperature modulation caused by impinging thermals in adjacent convecting zones. The equations that govern convective motion in a double?diffusive horizontal slab are solved for boundary conditions that incorporate these effects. Solution of these equations predicts a weakened salinity gradient near the gradient zone boundary between the rising thermals. When the salinity gradient is too weak instability occurs taking the form of descending plumes which are seen in experiments.

John R. Hull; Yojana Katti

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Shorts due to diagnostic leads  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting toroidal field coils that are being tested in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) are heavily instrumented. General Electric coil, a lead wire of an internal sensor became shorted across an estimated three or four turns of the pancake winding. This short occurred during the final stages of the winding fabrication and was not accessible for repair. Resistance, voltage gradient, and transient voltage decay measurements were performed to characterize the short and the magnetic damping of the large steel bobbin and outer structural ring. The 32-gage wire causing the short was estimated to be about 10 cm long, with a resistance of 55 m..cap omega... As a safety measure, we decided to burn out the shorted wire at room temperature before installing the coil in LCTF. Tests were made to determine the energy needed to vaporize a small wire. Computer calculations indicated that within the voltage limits set for the coil, it was not feasible to burn out the wire by rapidly dumping the coil from a low-current dc charge-up. We accomplished the burnout by applying 800 V at 3.25 A, and 60 Hz for about 1 s. Transient voltage decay measurements made after the burnout and compared with those made before the attempt confirmed that the short had indeed been opened.

Ellis, J.F.; Lubell, M.S.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Shen, S.S.; Thome, R.J.; Walstrom, P.L.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1976) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1976) Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1976) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date 1976 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Temperatures have been obtained to depths up to 133 m in 22 boreholes with measurements being made at least four times in each borehole. Geothermal gradients ranged from 240C/km to 450 0C/km. References Combs, J. (1 December 1976) Heat flow determinations and implied thermal regime of the Coso geothermal area, California Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Thermal_Gradient_Holes_At_Coso_Geothermal_Area_(1976)&oldid=511217"

87

Electron profile stiffness and critical gradient studies  

SciTech Connect

Electron profile stiffness was studied in DIII-D L-mode discharges by systematically varying the heat flux in a narrow region with electron cyclotron heating and measuring the local change produced in {nabla}T{sub e}. Electron stiffness was found to slowly increase with toroidal rotation velocity. A critical inverse temperature gradient scale length 1/L{sub C} {approx} 3 m{sup -1} was identified at {rho}=0.6 and found to be independent of rotation. Both the heat pulse diffusivity and the power balance diffusivity, the latter determined by integrating the measured dependence of the heat pulse diffusivity on -{nabla}T{sub e}, were fit reasonably well by a model containing a critical inverse temperature gradient scale length and varying linearly with 1/L{sub T} above the threshold.

DeBoo, J. C.; Petty, C. C.; Burrell, K. H.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); White, A. E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Doyle, E. J.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L. [University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); McKee, G. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Energy in density gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inhomogeneous plasmas and fluids contain energy stored in inhomogeneity and they naturally tend to relax into lower energy states by developing instabilities or by diffusion. But the actual amount of energy in such inhomogeneities has remained unknown. In the present work the amount of energy stored in a density gradient is calculated for several specific density profiles in a cylindric configuration. This is of practical importance for drift wave instability in various plasmas, and in particular in its application in models dealing with the heating of solar corona because the instability is accompanied with stochastic heating, so the energy contained in inhomogeneity is effectively transformed into heat. It is shown that even for a rather moderate increase of the density at the axis in magnetic structures in the corona by a factor 1.5 or 3, the amount of excess energy per unit volume stored in such a density gradient becomes several orders of magnitude greater than the amount of total energy losses per unit ...

Vranjes, J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

lead-isotope dating  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

lead-isotope dating, lead-lead dating, lead-isotope age measurement, lead-lead age measurement ? Blei-Isotopen(-Alters)bestimmung, f, Blei-Isotopen-Datierung

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Gradient Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Resources Resources Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Gradient Resources Name Gradient Resources Address 9670 Gateway Drive, Suite 200 Place Reno, Nevada Zip 89521 Sector Geothermal energy Year founded 1991 Company Type For Profit Phone number (775) 284-8842 Website http://www.gradient.com/ Region Rockies Area References Gradient Resources Website[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! Gradient Resources is a company based in Reno, Nevada. Gradient Resources is engaged in the exploration and development of geothermal resources as well as the construction, ownership and operation of geothermal power plants. The Company is headquartered in Reno, Nevada with a regional office, drilling operations center, and well-cementing

91

Hierarchically deflated conjugate gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a multi-level algorithm for the solution of five dimensional chiral fermion formulations, including domain wall and Mobius Fermions. The algorithm operates on the red-black preconditioned Hermitian operator, and directly accelerates conjugate gradients on the normal equations. The coarse grid representation of this matrix is next-to-next-to-next-to-nearest neighbour and multiple algorithmic advances are introduced, which help minimise the overhead of the coarse grid. The treatment of the coarse grids is purely four dimensional, and the bulk of the coarse grid operations are nearest neighbour. The intrinsic cost of most of the coarse grid operations is therefore comparable to those for the Wilson case. We also document the implementation of this algorithm in the BAGEL/Bfm software package and report on the measured performance gains the algorithm brings to simulations at the physical point on IBM BlueGene/Q hardware.

P A Boyle

2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

92

Gradient Sliding for Composite Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor). Gradient Sliding for Composite Optimization. Guanghui Lan the date of receipt and acceptance should ...

2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

93

Global energy gradients and size in colonial organisms: Worker mass and worker number  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global energy gradients and size in colonial organisms: Worker mass and worker number in ant size varies globally is a key challenge to ecology. Solar energy may shape gradients of body size by its effects on local temperature and net primary productivity (16­20). Rising global temperatures (21

Kaspari, Mike

94

High field gradient particle accelerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications is disclosed. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle. 10 figs.

Nation, J.A.; Greenwald, S.

1989-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

High field gradient particle accelerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high electric field gradient electron accelerator utilizing short duration, microwave radiation, and capable of operating at high field gradients for high energy physics applications or at reduced electric field gradients for high average current intermediate energy accelerator applications. Particles are accelerated in a smooth bore, periodic undulating waveguide, wherein the period is so selected that the particles slip an integral number of cycles of the r.f. wave every period of the structure. This phase step of the particles produces substantially continuous acceleration in a traveling wave without transverse magnetic or other guide means for the particle.

Nation, John A. (Ithaca, NY); Greenwald, Shlomo (Haifa, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

lead-isotope age  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

lead-isotope age, lead-lead age [An age in years calculated from the ratio of lead-207 to lead-206, a by-product of the uranium-thorium-lead age method] ? Blei-Isotopen-Alter n

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example alternatives  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example -4 -2 0 2 4 alternatives value 0 10 20 30 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0;Correlated Knowledge Gradients: Example -4 -2 0 2 4 alternatives value 0 10 20 30 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 num measurements log(KGfactor) 0 10 20 30 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 num measurements opportunitycost #12;Correlated Knowledge

Keinan, Alon

98

Solar energy storage by salinity gradient solar pond: Pilot plant construction and gradient control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental solar pond pilot plant was constructed in Solvay-Martorell, facilities, Catalonia (NE part of the Iberian Peninsula) to capture and store solar energy. The body of the pond is a cylindrical reinforced concrete tank, 3 m height, 8 m diameter and total area of 50 m2. Salinity and thermal gradient were properly established by using the salinity distribution methodology. The gradient in the pond was maintained by feeding salt (NaCl) through a cylindrical salt charger to the bottom at a height of 80 cm from the pond floor. Continuous surface washing using tap water supply maintained the salinity of the top convective layer at a low level and compensate loses by evaporation. An acidification method by addition of \\{HCl\\} at different heights was used to control the clarity of the pond. The salinity gradient was fully established on 30 September 2009 and has been maintained until the date. After winter time (February 2010), the pond warms up and the temperature increased continuously until it reached its maximum (55 °C) in August 2010. The salinity gradient observed great stability after one year of continuous control and maintenance and under different weather conditions.

César Valderrama; Oriol Gibert; Jordina Arcal; Pau Solano; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh; Enric Larrotcha; José Luis Cortina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Temperatures and intervalgeothermal...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Temperatures and interval geothermal-gradient determinations from wells in National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map |...

100

Thermal Gradient Holes At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Chocolate Mountains Area (Alm, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Chocolate Mountains Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes "Shallow temperature gradient drilling began at the CMAGR in January of 2010. 13 temperature gradient holes were completed to a depth of 500' below ground surface. Sites were selected based on the compilation of previous exploration and resulting data is being integrated into the most recent geologic model. This model will form the basis for the selection of a deeper (2000'-4000') temperature gradient drilling campaign at the CMAGR in

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Coal Ranks and Geothermal Gradients in High-volatile Bituminous Coalfields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 380; Sw. No., 6. If it is assumed that no great changes in geothermal gradient have occurred since the early Pleistocene, this coal was metamorphosed at a temperature ... Silesia5. The most obvious explanation is that of a nearly two to one difference in geothermal gradient. Comparison of data from the Carboniferous coalfields of the Netherlands with analyses of ...

R. P. SUGGATE; J. O. ELPHICK

1964-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

102

Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Exchange, Partial Pressure Gradients, and the Oxygen Window Johnny E. Brian, Jr., M of circulatory and gas transport physiology, and the best place to start is with normobaric physiology. LIFE affect the precise gas exchange occurring in individual areas of the lungs and body tissues. To make

Riba Sagarra, Jaume

103

The Extended Finite Element Method for High Gradient Solutions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Outline Enrichment functions for high gradient solutions Motivation High gradient inside the domain (Shocks) High gradient at the boundary (boundary layers) Optimal set of enrichment functions Numerical for high gradient solutions Outline Enrichment functions for high gradient solutions Motivation High

104

Double-Diffusive Intrusions in a Stable Salinity Gradient “Heated from Below”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-dimensional direct numerical simulations (DNS) are used to investigate the growth and nonlinear equilibration of spatially periodic double-diffusive intrusion for negative vertical temperature Tz salinity Sz gradients, which are ...

Julian Simeonov; Melvin E. Stern

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Salinity Gradient Energy at River Mouths  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Salinity Gradient Energy at River Mouths ... River mouths are potentially abundant locations for the exploitation of the clean and renewable salinity gradient energy (SGE) as here perpetually fresh water mixes with saline seawater. ...

Oscar Alvarez-Silva; Christian Winter; Andres F. Osorio

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

106

Revisiting an Old Concept: The Gradient Wind  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gradient wind is defined as a horizontal wind having the same direction as the geostrophic wind but with a magnitude consistent with a balance of three forces: the pressure gradient force, the Coriolis force, and the centrifugal force arising ...

Keith F. Brill

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor-Critic Algorithms Bayesian Policy Gradient and Actor Yaakov Engel yakiengel@gmail.com Editor: Abstract Policy gradient methods are reinforcement learning algorithms that adapt a param- eterized policy by following a performance gradient estimate. Many

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

109

Getting the Lead Out  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Discarded electronics no longer pose an environmental hazard from lead solder thanks to a lead-free alternative developed at the Ames Laboratory.

Gibson, Kerry

2011-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

110

Heat pipes for wing leading edges of hypersonic vehicles. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Wing leading edge heat pipes were conceptually designed for three types of vehicle: an entry research vehicle, aero-space plane, and advanced shuttle. A full scale, internally instrumented sodium/Hastelloy X heat pipe was successfully designed and fabricated for the advanced shuttle application. The 69.4 inch long heat pipe reduces peak leading edge temperatures from 3500 F to 1800 F. It is internally instrumented with thermocouples and pressure transducers to measure sodium vapor qualities. Large thermal gradients and consequently large thermal stresses, which have the potential of limiting heat pipe life, were predicted to occur during startup. A test stand and test plan were developed for subsequent testing of this heat pipe. Heat pipe manufacturing technology was advanced during this program, including the development of an innovative technique for wick installation.

Boman, B.L.; Citrin, K.M.; Garner, E.C.; Stone, J.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

It's Elemental - The Element Lead  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thallium Thallium Previous Element (Thallium) The Periodic Table of Elements Next Element (Bismuth) Bismuth The Element Lead [Click for Isotope Data] 82 Pb Lead 207.2 Atomic Number: 82 Atomic Weight: 207.2 Melting Point: 600.61 K (327.46°C or 621.43°F) Boiling Point: 2022 K (1749°C or 3180°F) Density: 11.342 grams per cubic centimeter Phase at Room Temperature: Solid Element Classification: Metal Period Number: 6 Group Number: 14 Group Name: none What's in a name? From the Anglo-Saxon word lead. Lead's chemical symbol comes from the Latin word for waterworks, plumbum. Say what? Lead is pronounced as LED. History and Uses: Lead has been known since ancient times. It is sometimes found free in nature, but is usually obtained from the ores galena (PbS), anglesite (PbSO4), cerussite (PbCO3) and minum (Pb3O4). Although lead makes up only

112

RAHEL, FRANK J. Anomalous temperature and oxygen gradients ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mar 18, 1996 ... quent winds that remove snow cover, thus allowing solar heating ... MAGNUSON, J. J., A. L. BECKEL, K. MILLS, AND S. B.. BRANDT. 1985.

2000-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

113

Ocean Temperature Gradients: Solar Power from the Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...col-lection of sunlight and storage of en-ergy. Undoubtedly...condenser cooled by cold seawater. A very important and...probably because it used seawater, which has a very low...submerged system, the seawater's hydrostatic pressure...shellfish with water pumped up from a depth of 870...

William D. Metz

1973-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

114

Investigation of iron opacity experiment plasma gradients with synthetic data analyses  

SciTech Connect

Experiments have been performed at Sandia National Laboratories Z-facility to validate iron opacity models relevant to the solar convection/radiation zone boundary. Sample conditions were measured by mixing Mg with the Fe and using Mg K-shell line transmission spectra, assuming that the plasma was uniform. We develop a spectral model that accounts for hypothetical gradients, and compute synthetic spectra to quantitatively evaluate the plasma gradient size that can be diagnosed. Two sample designs are investigated, assuming linear temperature and density gradients. First, Mg uniformly mixed with Fe enables temperature gradients greater than 10% to be detected. The second design uses Mg mixed into one side and Al mixed into the other side of the sample in an attempt to more accurately infer the sample gradient. Both temperature and density gradients as small as a few percent can be detected with this design. Experiments have successfully recorded spectra with the second design. In future research, the spectral model will be used to place bounds on gradients that exist in Z opacity experiments.

Nagayama, T.; Bailey, J. E.; Rochau, G. A.; Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Mancini, R. C. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); MacFarlane, J. J.; Golovkin, I. [Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

115

Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Salt Wells Area (Bureau of Land Management, 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Salt Wells Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date 2008 - 2008 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Vulcan increased exploration efforts in the summer and fall of 2008, during which time the company drilled two temperature gradient holes (86-15 O on Pad 1 and 17-16 O on Pad 3); conducted seismic, gravity and magnetotelluric surveys; and drilled deep exploration wells at Pads 6 and 8 and binary wells at Pads 1, 2, 4, and 7. Notes

116

Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Hot Springs Ranch Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes In 2005, Nevada Geothermal Power Company drilled four geothermal gradient wells, PVTG-1, -2, -3, and -4, and all four encountered geothermal fluids. The holes provided valuable water geochemistry, supporting the geothermometry results obtained from the hot springs and Magma well. The temperature data gathered from all the wells clearly indicates the presence of a major plume of thermal water centered on the Pumpernickel Valley

117

Large Scale Marine Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation Along a Linear Gradient: Cooperation, Strategic Behavior or Conservation Autarky?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we investigate effects of overlap in species between ecosystems along a linear gradient on the location of marine protected areas (MPAs) under full cooperation, ... and conservation autarky lead to ...

Maarten J. Punt; Hans-Peter Weikard…

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Optimization of synchronization in gradient clustered networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider complex clustered networks with a gradient structure, where sizes of the clusters are distributed unevenly. Such networks describe more closely actual networks in biophysical systems and in technological applications than previous models. Theoretical analysis predicts that the network synchronizability can be optimized by the strength of the gradient field but only when the gradient field points from large to small clusters. A remarkable finding is that, if the gradient field is sufficiently strong, synchronizability of the network is mainly determined by the properties of the subnetworks in the two largest clusters. These results are verified by numerical eigenvalue analysis and by direct simulation of synchronization dynamics on coupled-oscillator networks.

Xingang Wang; Liang Huang; Ying-Cheng Lai; Choy Heng Lai

2007-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

119

Optimization Online - An Accelerated Proximal Coordinate Gradient ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Jul 7, 2014 ... An Accelerated Proximal Coordinate Gradient Method and its Application to Regularized Empirical Risk Minimization. Qihang Lin(qihang-lin ...

Qihang Lin

2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

120

Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The awardee conducted seismic, gravity, resistivity, and airborne magnetic surveys, drilled temperature-gradient wells, and selected a location for a test well (52-7). The test well was drilled to a total depth of 770 m during 2003. Maximum temperatures approached 140degrees C and a short flow test suggested that a production well could be drilled to 600 m and produce economic volumes of 130-140degrees C fluid. A final assessment of the resource is currently being performed. References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D. A. Sanchez, J.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Palaeoclimate Coordinating Lead Authors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6 Palaeoclimate Coordinating Lead Authors: Eystein Jansen (Norway), Jonathan Overpeck (USA) Lead (UK) This chapter should be cited as: Jansen, E., J. Overpeck, K.R. Briffa, J.-C. Duplessy, F. Joos, V

122

Lead and Lead-210 in Rainwater  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... residence time of the lead-210 can be estimated from the ratio of its specific activity to that of one of its decay products, bismuth-210 or polonium-21058, this ... rainwater. The samples, of between 1 and 6 L, were filtered through a fritted glass filter before analysis. Analyses of both portions of the sample showed that less than ...

G. L. TER HAAR; R. B. HOLTZMAN; H. F. LUCAS

1967-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

123

Lattice Boltzmann model for simulating temperature-sensitive ferrofluids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann model for simulating temperature-sensitive ferrofluids is presented. The lattice Boltzmann equation for modeling the magnetic field is formulated using a scalar magnetic potential. Introducing a time derivative into the original elliptic equation for the scalar potential leads to an advection-diffusion equation, with an effective velocity determined by the temperature gradient. The time derivative is multiplied by an adjustable preconditioning parameter to ensure that the lattice Boltzmann solution remain close to a solution of the original elliptic equation for the scalar potential. To test the present lattice Boltzmann model, numerical simulations for the thermomagnetic nature convection of the ferrofluids in a cubic cavity are carried out. Good agreement between the obtained results and experimental data shows that the present lattice Boltzmann model is promising for studying temperature-sensitive ferrofluid flows.

Xiao-Dong Niu; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Keisuke Yoshikawa

2009-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

124

Chapter 5 Salinity Gradient Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There exists a huge potential for the generation of energy from the mixing of saltwater and freshwater. The potential is 2.6 TW, which is more than the global electricity consumption (2.0 TW). Two membrane-based technologies exist to convert this potentially available energy into useful power: pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED). In PRO, water is transported through a semipermeable membrane from the less concentrated solution toward the concentrated salt solution to generate power. In RED, salt ions are transported from the concentrated salt solution through ion exchange membranes toward the less concentrated solution to extract the energy. Both technologies were developed in the 1970s and 1980s and both regained interest lately due to recent developments in membrane technology and the need for sustainable energy processes. This chapter describes the potential of salinity gradient energy of both processes in detail, and an overview of the relevant literature on both technologies is presented. Furthermore, it summarizes the recent developments, pilot testing, scale-up, and future expectations of both technologies.

Kitty Nijmeijer; Sybrand Metz

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Leading neutron spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that the observation of the spectra of leading neutrons from proton beams can be a good probe of absorptive and migration effects. We quantify how these effects modify the Reggeized pion-exchange description of the measurements of leading neutrons at HERA. We are able to obtain a satisfactory description of all the features of these data. We also briefly discuss the corresponding data for leading baryons produced in hadron-hadron collisions.

A. B. Kaidalov; V. A. Khoze; A. D. Martin; M. G. Ryskin

2006-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

126

Bell-Plesset effects for an accelerating interface with contiguous density gradients  

SciTech Connect

A Plesset-type treatment [J. Appl. Phys. 25, 96 (1954)] is used to assess the effects of contiguous density gradients at an accelerating spherical classical interface on Rayleigh-Taylor and Bell-Plesset perturbation growth. Analytic expressions are obtained that describe enhanced Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth from contiguous density gradients aligned with the acceleration and which increase the effective Atwood number of the perturbed interface. A new pathway for geometric amplification of surface perturbations on an accelerating interface with contiguous density gradients is identified. A resonance condition between the density-gradient scalelength and the radius of the interface is also predicted based on a linearized analysis of Bernoulli's equation, potentially leading to enhanced perturbation growth. Comparison of the analytic treatment with detailed two-dimensional single-mode growth-factor simulations shows good agreement for low-mode numbers where the effects of spherical geometry are most manifested.

Amendt, P

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

127

Measurement of thermodynamics using gradient flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze bulk thermodynamics and correlation functions of the energy-momentum tensor in pure Yang-Mills gauge theory using the energy-momentum tensor defined by the gradient flow and small flow time expansion. Our results on thermodynamic observables are consistent with those obtained by the conventional integral method. The analysis of the correlation function of total energy supports the energy conservation. It is also addressed that these analyses with gradient flow require less statistics compared with the previous methods. All these results suggest that the energy-momentum tensor can be successfully defined and observed on the lattice with moderate numerical costs with the gradient flow.

Masakiyo Kitazawa; Masayuki Asakawa; Tetsuo Hatsuda; Takumi Iritani; Etsuko Itou; Hiroshi Suzuki

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

Surface Temperature and Surface-Layer Turbulence in a Convective Boundary Layer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The vertical gradient of horizontal wind-speed was estimateda larger vertical gradient of horizontal wind-speed in thewind speed, direction, temperature, humidity up to 20 km with a vertical

Garai, Anirban; Pardyjak, Eric; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Kleissl, Jan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

MICROBIOLOGY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the entire salinity gradient, whereas isolates from Euprymna were the least uniform at Vibrio populations [2]. Since temper- ature and salinity gradients are known to change overMICROBIOLOGY OF AQUATIC SYSTEMS Salinity and Temperature Effects on Physiological Responses

Nishiguchi, Michele

130

Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Lazaro, Et Al., 2010) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Lazaro, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Hawthorne Area (Lazaro, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Hawthorne Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The Navy recently completed a temperature gradient hole (TGH) drilling campaign. Results suggest multiple resources may exist on HAD lands. To further define the shallow resource, the Navy will drill one or two

131

Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

Hersam, Mark C. (Evanston, IL); Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Arnold, Michael S. (Northbrook, IL)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

132

Separation of carbon nanotubes in density gradients  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The separation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), by chirality and/or diameter, using centrifugation of compositions of SWNTs in and surface active components in density gradient media.

Hersam, Mark C. (Evanston, IL); Stupp, Samuel I. (Chicago, IL); Arnold, Michael S. (Northbrook, IL)

2010-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

133

The proximal-proximal gradient algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aug 23, 2013 ... to consider a proximal gradient algorithm [11] for solving (1), where one ...... Hence, in the case when ? = 1 and M is surjective so that T = MR for ...

2013-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

134

Program predicts two-phase pressure gradients  

SciTech Connect

The calculator program discussed, ORK, was designed for the HP-41CV hand-held calculator and uses the Orkiszewski correlation for predicting 2-phase pressure gradients in vertical tubulars. Accurate predictions of pressure gradients in flowing and gas lift wells over a wide range of well conditions can be obtained with this method, which was developed based on data from 148 wells. The correlation is one of the best generalized 2-phase pressure gradient prediction methods developed to date for vertical flow. It is unique in that hold-up is derived from observed physical phenomena, and the pressure gradient is related to the geometrical distribution of the liquid and gas phase (flow regime).

Jacks, D.C.; Hill, A.D.

1983-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

135

Scintillation properties of lead sulfate  

SciTech Connect

We report on the scintillation properties of lead sulfate (PbSO{sub 4}), a scintillator that show promise as a high energy photon detector. It physical properties are well suited for gamma detection, as its has a density of 6.4 gm/cm{sup 3}, a 1/e attenuation length for 511 keV photons of 1.2 cm, is not affected by air or moisture, and is cut and polished easily. In 99.998% pure PbSO{sub 4} crystals at room temperature excited by 511 keV annihilation photons, the fluorescence decay lifetime contains significant fast components having 1.8 ns (5%) and 19 ns (36%) decay times, but with longer components having 95 ns (36%) and 425 ns (23%) decays times. The peak emission wavelength is 335 nm, which is transmitted by borosilicate glass windowed photomultiplier tubes. The total scintillation light output increases with decreasing temperature fro 3,200 photons/MeV at +45{degrees}C to 4, 900 photons/MeV at room temperature (+25{degrees}C) and 68,500 photons/MeV at {minus}145{degrees}C. In an imperfect, 3 mm cube of a naturally occurring mineral form of PbSO{sub 4} (anglesite) at room temperature, a 511 keV photopeak is seen with a total light output of 60% that BGO. There are significant sample to sample variations of the light output among anglesite samples, so the light output of lead sulfate may improve when large synthetic crystals become available. 10 refs.

Moses, W.W.; Derenzo, S.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Shlichta, P.J. [Crystal Research, San Pedro, CA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Category:Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in category "Thermal Gradient Holes" This category contains only the following page. T Thermal Gradient Holes Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:T...

137

Site Lead TQP Standard  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Qualification Standard for the Qualification Standard for the Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Site Lead Program May 2011 Office of Enforcement and Oversight Office of Health, Safety and Security U.S. Department of Energy 1 Qualification Standard for the Office of Safety and Emergency Management Evaluations Site Lead Program A Site Lead is an individual, normally at a senior General Schedule (GS) level or Excepted Service, who is assigned the responsibility to assess and evaluate management systems, safety and health programs, and technical activities associated with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. Typically, a Site Lead has previously qualified as a Nuclear Safety Specialist or a Senior Technical Safety Manager. For exceptionally qualified individuals,

138

Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area (Benoit & Blackwell, 2006) Exploration Activity Details Location Upper Hot Creek Ranch Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Ten temperature gradient holes up to 500' deep were initially planned but higher than anticipated drilling and permitting costs within a fixed budget reduced the number of holes to five. Four of the five holes drilled to depths of 300 to 400' encountered temperatures close to the expected regional thermal background conditions. These four holes failed to find any evidence of a large thermal anomaly surrounding the UHCR hot springs. The

139

Grant Reference Lead / Sole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rank Overall Score Grant Reference Lead / Sole Grant Grant Holder Research Organisation Project sediment-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 1 9 NE-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 2 8 NE/K015184/1 Y Alistair Pike

140

Steep Gradient Flume | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Steep Gradient Flume Steep Gradient Flume Jump to: navigation, search Basic Specifications Facility Name Steep Gradient Flume Overseeing Organization University of Iowa Hydrodynamic Testing Facility Type Flume Length(m) 20.1 Beam(m) 0.9 Depth(m) 0.5 Cost(per day) Contact POC Special Physical Features Tilting flume from -1.5 to +16% slope; <3mm sedimentation recirculation capabilities; instrumentation rails Towing Capabilities Towing Capabilities None Wavemaking Capabilities Wavemaking Capabilities None Channel/Tunnel/Flume Channel/Tunnel/Flume Yes Recirculating Yes Wind Capabilities Wind Capabilities None Control and Data Acquisition Cameras Yes Number of Color Cameras 1 Available Sensors Acoustics, Flow, Thermal, Turbulence, Velocity Data Generation Capability Real-Time Yes

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Thermal Gradient Holes | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes Thermal Gradient Holes Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Thermal Gradient Holes Details Activities (50) Areas (39) Regions (4) NEPA(29) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Drilling Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Exploration Drilling Parent Exploration Technique: Exploration Drilling Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Stratigraphic/Structural: Hydrological: Field wide fluid flow characteristics if an array of wells are drilled Thermal: Mapping and projecting thermal anomalies Cost Information Low-End Estimate (USD): 5.00500 centUSD 0.005 kUSD 5.0e-6 MUSD 5.0e-9 TUSD / foot Median Estimate (USD): 16.501,650 centUSD 0.0165 kUSD 1.65e-5 MUSD 1.65e-8 TUSD / foot High-End Estimate (USD): 50.005,000 centUSD

142

Formation of morphogen gradients: Local accumulation time  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spatial regulation of cell differentiation in embryos can be provided by morphogen gradients, which are defined as the concentration fields of molecules that control gene expression. For example, a cell can use its surface receptors to measure the local concentration of an extracellular ligand and convert this information into a corresponding change in its transcriptional state. We characterize the time needed to establish a steady-state gradient in problems with diffusion and degradation of locally produced chemical signals. A relaxation function is introduced to describe how the morphogen concentration profile approaches its steady state. This function is used to obtain a local accumulation time that provides a time scale that characterizes relaxation to steady state at an arbitrary position within the patterned field. To illustrate the approach we derive local accumulation times for a number of commonly used models of morphogen gradient formation.

Alexander M. Berezhkovskii; Christine Sample; Stanislav Y. Shvartsman

2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

143

High-pressure liquid chromatographic gradient mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gradient mixer effects the continuous mixing of any two miscible solvents without excessive decay or dispersion of the resultant isocratic effluent or of a linear or exponential gradient. The two solvents are fed under low or high pressure by means of two high performance liquid chromatographic pumps. The mixer comprises a series of ultra-low dead volume stainless steel tubes and low dead volume chambers. The two solvent streams impinge head-on at high fluxes. This initial nonhomogeneous mixture is then passed through a chamber packed with spirally-wound wires which cause turbulent mixing thereby homogenizing the mixture with minimum band-broadening.

Daughton, C.G.; Sakaji, R.H.

1982-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

144

Thermoelectrically Cooled Temperature-Gradient Apparatus for Comparative Cell and Virus Temperature Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...zontal metal cabinet and insulated on all sides with polyethylene foam. The top has two parallel...aluminum bar. Each opening has an insulated lid. To the underside of each...means of coaxial connectors and cables to the first 10 positions of...

H. F. Clark; F. Kaminski; D. T. Karzon

1970-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Elevated temperature crack propagation  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

Orange, T.W.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Photopolymerization in Microfluidic Gradient Generators: Microscale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-compliance profiles that are tunable on the micro- scale. The most straightforward way to create substrates with vari through the development of microfluidic networks,[7,8] with which one can easily generate solution (e microscale gradients with microfluidic networks, and a recent study that demon- strated

147

Porting the NAS-NPB Conjugate Gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Porting the NAS-NPB Conjugate Gradient Benchmark to CUDA NVIDIA Corporation #12;Outline ! Overview of CG benchmark ! Overview of CUDA Libraries ! CUSPARSE ! CUBLAS ! Porting Sequence ! Algorithm Analysis ! Data/Code Analysis This porting approach uses CUDA Libraries exclusively. (We will not write

Crawford, T. Daniel

148

Fourier Accelerated Conjugate Gradient Lattice Gauge Fixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide details of the first implementation of a non-linear conjugate gradient method for Landau and Coulomb gauge fixing with Fourier acceleration. We find clear improvement over the Fourier accelerated steepest descent method, with the average time taken for the algorithm to converge to a fixed, high accuracy, being reduced by a factor of 2 to 4.

R. J. Hudspith

2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

149

Joining of Tungsten Armor Using Functional Gradients  

SciTech Connect

The joining of low thermal expansion armor materials such as tungsten to high thermal expansion heat sink materials has been a major problem in plasma facing component (PFC) development. Conventional planar bonding techniques have been unable to withstand the high thermal induced stresses resulting from fabrication and high heat flux testing. During this investigation, innovative functional gradient joints produced using vacuum plasma spray forming techniques have been developed for joining tungsten armor to copper alloy heat sinks. A model was developed to select the optimum gradient architecture. Based on the modeling effort, a 2mm copper rich gradient was selected. Vacuum plasma pray parameters and procedures were then developed to produce the functional gradient joint. Using these techniques, dual cooling channel, medium scale mockups (32mm wide x 400mm length) were produced with vacuum plasma spray formed tungsten armor. The thickness of the tungsten armor was up to 5mm thick. No evidence of debonding at the interface between the heat sink and the vacuum plasma sprayed material was observed.

John Scott O'Dell

2006-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

Scattering polarization in the CaII Infrared Triplet with Velocity Gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magnetic field topology, thermal structure and plasma motions are the three main factors affecting the polarization signals used to understand our star. In this theoretical investigation, we focus on the effect that gradients in the macroscopic vertical velocity field have on the non-magnetic scattering polarization signals, establishing the basis for general cases. We demonstrate that the solar plasma velocity gradients have a significant effect on the linear polarization produced by scattering in chromospheric spectral lines. In particular, we show the impact of velocity gradients on the anisotropy of the radiation field and on the ensuing fractional alignment of the CaII levels, and how they can lead to an enhancement of the zero-field linear polarization signals. This investigation remarks the importance of knowing the dynamical state of the solar atmosphere in order to correctly interpret spectropolarimetric measurements, which is important, among other things, for establishing a suitable zero field refe...

Carlin, E S; Ramos, A Asensio; Bueno, J Trujillo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Gradient zone-boundary control in salt-gradient solar ponds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for suppressing zone boundary migration in a salt gradient solar pond includes extending perforated membranes across the pond at the boundaries, between the convective and non-convective zones, the perforations being small enough in size to prevent individual turbulence disturbances from penetrating the hole, but being large enough to allow easy molecular diffusion of salt thereby preventing the formation of convective zones in the gradient layer. The total area of the perforations is a sizeable fraction of the membrane area to allow sufficient salt diffusion while preventing turbulent entrainment into the gradient zone.

Hull, J.R.

1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Transient hydrodynamic, heat and mass transfer in a salinity gradient solar pond: A numerical study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The impoverishment of our planet in non-renewable energies has incited researchers to design salinity gradient solar ponds to collect and store solar energy at a lower cost. It is in this context that the present research work lies to focus on the numerical study of the transient hydrodynamic, heat and mass transfer in a salinity gradient solar pond. The problem is tackled using the dimensionless governing equations of Navier–Stokes, thermal energy and mass transfer, which are solved numerically by finite-volume method to provide the temperature, concentration and velocity fields in transient regime. The pond is filled with salty water of various salinities to form three zones of salty water: Upper Convective Zone (UCZ), Non-Convective Zone (NCZ) and Lower Convective Zone (LCZ). To prevent convective movements induced by the internal heating of salty water due to solar radiation absorption, a salinity gradient is used in the solar pond. Representative results illustrating the influence of internal Rayleigh number on the thermal performance of the pond and the effect of the aspect ratio on the distribution of temperature and velocity fields in the salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP) are discussed. In addition, results for the transient average temperature of UCZ and LCZ are presented and discussed for various parametric conditions.

Ridha Boudhiaf; Mounir Baccar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

NEW RADIAL ABUNDANCE GRADIENTS FOR NGC 628 AND NGC 2403  

SciTech Connect

Motivated by recent interstellar medium studies, we present high quality MMT and Gemini spectroscopic observations of H II regions in the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 2403 in order to measure their chemical abundance gradients. Using long-slit and multi-object mask optical spectroscopy, we obtained measurements of the temperature sensitive auroral lines [O III] ?4363 and/or [N II] ?5755 at a strength of 4? or greater in 11 H II regions in NGC 628 and 7 regions in NGC 2403. These observations allow us, for the first time, to derive an oxygen abundance gradient in NGC 628 based solely on 'direct' oxygen abundances of H II regions: 12 + log(O/H) = (8.43 ± 0.03) + (–0.017 ± 0.002) × R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of ? = 0.10 dex, from 14 regions with a radial coverage of ?2-19 kpc. This is a significantly shallower slope than found by previous 'strong-line' abundance studies. In NGC 2403, we derive an oxygen abundance gradient of 12 + log(O/H) = (8.48 ± 0.04) + (–0.032 ± 0.007)× R{sub g} (dex kpc{sup –1}), with a dispersion in log(O/H) of ? = 0.07 dex, from seven H II with a radial coverage of ?1-10 kpc. Additionally, we measure the N, S, Ne, and Ar abundances. We find the N/O ratio decreases with increasing radius for the inner disk, but reaches a plateau past R{sub 25} in NGC 628. NGC 2403 also has a negative N/O gradient with radius, but we do not sample the outer disk of the galaxy past R{sub 25} and so do not see evidence for a plateau. This bi-modal pattern measured for NGC 628 indicates dominant contributions from secondary nitrogen inside of the R{sub 25} transition and dominantly primary nitrogen farther out. As expected for ?-process elements, S/O, Ne/O, and Ar/O are consistent with constant values over a range in oxygen abundance.

Berg, Danielle A.; Skillman, Evan D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Croxall, Kevin V. [Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Marble, Andrew R. [National Solar Observatory, 950 N Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Gordon, Karl [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Garnett, Donald R., E-mail: berg@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: croxall.5@osu.edu, E-mail: amarble@nso.edu, E-mail: jd.smith@utoledo.edu, E-mail: kgordon@stsci.edu, E-mail: robk@ast.cam.ac.uk

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Surface Tension of Binary Mixtures Including Polar Components Modeled by the Density Gradient Theory Combined with the PC-SAFT Equation of State  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, the Cahn–Hilliard density gradient theory (GT) is used for predicting the surface tension of various binary mixtures at relatively wide temperature ranges and for testing the application of the GT ...

Václav Vinš; Barbora Planková; Jan Hrubý

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Get the Lead Out! | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lead Out Get the Lead Out Bioremediation research vies to eliminate subsurface heavy metal hazard Heavy metal contamination of subsurface soils, groundwater and surface water is...

156

Environmental lead: insidious health problem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental lead: insidious health problem ... Several federal programs aim to reduce human exposure to lead, but which source is most dangerous is subject of growing controversy ...

LOIS R. EMBER; C&EN; WASHINGTON

1980-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Thermal Gradient Holes At Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hualalai Northwest Rift Hualalai Northwest Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Hualalai Northwest Rift Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Although not part of the current effort, two deep (approximately 2000 m) exploratory wells were drilled on the north flank of Hualalai near Puu Waawaa cinder cone. The geophysical data used for siting these wells were proprietary and hence unavailable for publication; however, the temperatures measured at the bottoms of the wells were reported to be below 20degrees C. Chemical analysis of water samples taken from these wells did not provide useful geothermal data due to contamination of the well water with drilling muds References Donald M. Thomas (1 January 1986) Geothermal Resources Assessment In

158

Analysis of zeotropic mixtures used in high-temperature Organic Rankine cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The paper investigates the performance of high-temperature Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) with zeotropic mixtures as working fluid. A numerical model, which has been validated by comparing with the published data, is developed to predict the first law thermal efficiency of the cycle. The effects of mixture concentration, temperature gradient of the heat transfer fluid, pinch temperature difference, pressure ratio, and condensation pressure on the first law efficiency are presented firstly using a purposely designed program, and then the suitable conditions for the described ORC are suggested based on the results of the simulation. It is demonstrated that the use of zeotropic mixtures leads to an efficiency increase compared to pure fluids.

Bensi Dong; Guoqiang Xu; Yi Cai; Haiwang Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Automated apparatus for producing gradient gels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for producing a gradient gel which serves as a standard medium for a two-dimensional analysis of proteins, the gel having a density gradient along its height formed by a variation in gel composition, with the apparatus including first and second pumping means each including a plurality of pumps on a common shaft and driven by a stepping motor capable of providing small incremental changes in pump outputs for the gel ingredients, the motors being controlled, by digital signals from a digital computer, a hollow form or cassette for receiving the gel composition, means for transferring the gel composition including a filler tube extending near the bottom of the cassette, adjustable horizontal and vertical arms for automatically removing and relocating the filler tube in the next cassette, and a digital computer programmed to automatically control the stepping motors, arm movements, and associated sensing operations involving the filling operation.

Anderson, Norman L. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

The long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to tensile and compressive stress gradients  

SciTech Connect

Zircaloy-4, which is used widely as a core structural material in pressurized water reactors (PWRs), picks up hydrogen during service. Hydrogen solubility in Zircaloy-4 is low and zirconium hydride phases precipitate after the Zircaloy-4 lattice becomes supersaturated with hydrogen. These hydrides embrittle the Zircaloy-4, degrading its mechanical performance as a structural material. Because hydrogen can move rapidly through the Zircaloy-4 lattice, the potential exists for large concentrations of hydride to accumulate in local regions of a Zircaloy component remote from its point of entry into the component. Much has been reported in the literature regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy under concentration gradients and temperature gradients. Relatively little has been reported, however, regarding the long range migration of hydrogen under stress gradients. This paper presents experimental results regarding the long range migration of hydrogen through Zircaloy in response to both tensile and compressive stress gradients. The importance of this driving force for hydrogen migration relative to concentration and thermal gradients is discussed.

Kammenzind, B.F.; Berquist, B.M.; Bajaj, R.; Kreyns, P.H.; Franklin, D.G.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

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161

The Argonne Zero Gradient Synchrotron (ZGS)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 12.5 billion electron volt (BeV) particle accelerator the Zero Gradient Synchrotron was constructed and put into operation at the Argonne National Laboratory in August 1963. The ZGS will form the center for high energy physics research in the Midwestern part of this country. In this paper a brief description of the ZGS is given together with a discussion of the aims methods and equipment of experimental high energy physics research.

L. C. Teng

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

The Boussinesq Problem in Dipolar Gradient Elasticity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The three-dimensional axisymmetric Boussinesq problem of an isotropic half-space subjected to a concentrated normal quasi-static load is studied within the framework of linear dipolar gradient elasticity. Our main concern is to determine possible deviations from the predictions of classical linear elastostatics when a more refined theory is employed to attack the problem. Of special importance is the behavior of the new solution near to the point of application of the load where pathological singularities exist in the classical solution. The use of the theory of gradient elasticity is intended here to model the response of materials with microstructure in a manner that the classical theory cannot afford. A linear version of this theory results by considering a linear isotropic expression for the strain-energy density that depends on strain-gradient terms, in addition to the standard strain terms appearing in classical elasticity. Through this formulation, a microstructural material constant is introduced, in addition to the standard Lam\\'e constants. The solution method is based on integral transforms and is exact. The present results show significant departure from the predictions of classical elasticity. Indeed, continuous and bounded displacements are predicted at the points of application of the concentrated load. Such a behavior of the displacement field is, of course, more natural than the singular behavior exhibited in the classical solution.

H. G. Georgiadis; P. A. Gourgiotis; D. S. Anagnostou

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

Lead Research and Development Activity for High Temperature,...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

cross-over with conductivity maintained * Low cost * High longevity and endurance in fuel cell environment * Mechanical integrity and good chemical properties 9 Summary *...

164

Room-Temperature Synthesis Leading to Nanocrystalline Frederic Sauvage,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.; Laffont, L.; Leriche, J.-B.; Masquelier, C. Solid State Ionics 2006, 177, 333­341. (3) Sauvage, F.; Baudrin, E.; Gengembre, L.; Tarascon, J.-M. Solid State Ionics 2005, 176, 1869­1876. (4) Drezen, T.; Kwon. Introduction The need for energy storage gave rise to the lithium-ion battery, while the effort given

Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

165

Gradient-based Methods for Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gradient-based Methods for Production Optimization of Oil Reservoirs Eka Suwartadi Doctoral Thesis oil reservoirs. Gradient- based optimization, which utilizes adjoint-based gradient computation optimization for water flooding in the secondary phase of oil recovery is the main topic in this thesis

Foss, Bjarne A.

166

Lepidium latifolium reproductive potential and seed dispersal along salinity and moisture gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preserve where the salinity gradient was narrow. Conversely,production along the salinity gradient between the freshdispersal along salinity and moisture gradients Samuel P.

Leininger, Samuel P.; Foin, Theodore C.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Subsurface temperature distributions in south Texas  

SciTech Connect

Isothermal surfaces and temperature gradients confirm the presence of anomalously high geothermal gradients within south Texas. The authors have analyzed over 2,200 oil and gas well logs and compiled more than 5,200 corrected bottom-hole temperature measurements. The data show that temperature gradients often steepen from around 30{degree}C/km up to 60{degree}C/km near the top of geopressure (> 15.8 kPa/m from 1,800 to 3,600 m) through much of the south Texas Gulf Coast. However, the highest gradients coincide with the Wilcox growth-fault zone. Within the Wilcox trend, isotherms indicate that the elevated temperatures become more prominent with depth. Their qualitative analyses indicate that the thermal anomaly is caused by advecting fluids moving upward, along and just coastward of the Wilcox fault zone. In addition, preliminary computer modeling indicates that a pulse or pulses of deep upwelling fluids could create the anomalous temperatures. Petrographic and geochemical data are also consistent with enhanced fluid flux in the zones of elevated temperatures, as are the distributions of hydrocarbon and uranium deposits. Higher temperatures also exist above the top of geopressure along the Wilcox trend, which suggests that fluids are escaping from the geopressured zone via growth faults and perturbing the temperature field in the overlying meteoric regime. Although a few areas of the Vicksburg-Frio growth fault zones have elevated temperature gradients below the top of geopressure, it is still unknown why such a prominent thermal anomaly occurs along the Wilcox trend but not along the Vicksburg and Frio trends.

Pfeiffer, D.S.; Sharp, J.M. Jr. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

The effect of density gradient on the growth rate of relativistic Weibel instability  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the effect of density gradient on the Weibel instability growth rate is investigated. The density perturbations in the near corona fuel, where temperature anisotropy, ?, is larger than the critical temperature anisotropy, ?{sub c}, (??>??{sub c}), enhances the growth rate of Weibel instability due to the sidebands coupled with the electron oscillatory velocity. But for ???2. The analysis shows that relativistic effects and density gradient tend to stabilize the Weibel instability. The growth rate can be reduced by 88% by reducing ? by a factor of 100 and increasing relativistic parameter by a factor of 3.

Mahdavi, M., E-mail: m.mahdavi@umz.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47415-416, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi Azadboni, F., E-mail: f.khodadadi@stu.umz.ac.ir [Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, P.O. Box 47415-416, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers Club, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 48161-194, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

169

Breakthrough: Lead-free Solder  

SciTech Connect

Ames Laboratory senior metallurgist Iver Anderson explains the importance of lead-free solder in taking hazardous lead out of the environment by eliminating it from discarded computers and electronics that wind up in landfills. Anderson led a team that developed a tin-silver-copper replacement for traditional lead-tin solder that has been adopted by more than 50 companies worldwide.

Anderson, Iver

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Preparation and characterization of gradient polymer films  

SciTech Connect

Gradient polymers are multicomponent polymers whose chemical constitution varies with depth in the sample. Although these polymers may possess unique mechanical, optical, and barrier properties they remain relatively unexplored. This work is a study of the preparation of gradient polymers by sequential exposure of films to a diffusing monomer followed by electron beam irradiation. Initial experiments involved immersion of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films in styrene or n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) for various time periods followed by irradiation with 1 or 10 megarads of accelerated electrons. A significant amount of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) formed in PVC/BMA systems, but little polystyrene could be found in the PVC/styrene films. A second set of experiments involved immersion of PVC and polyethylene (PE) films in BMA for 20, 40, 60, and 720 minutes followed by irradiation with 10 megarads of electrons. These films were then characterized using optical microscopy, quantitative transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a depth profiling procedure based on quantitative attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR. It was concluded that the mechanism of PBMA formation in the polyethylene films was a result of events immediately following irradiation. Atmospheric oxygen diffusing into irradiated films trapped free radicals at the film surfaces. This was followed by storage in an evacuated desiccator where unintentional exposure to BMA vapor took place. This BMA reacted with free radicals that remained within the film cores, polymerizing to PBMA.

Smith, S.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment Deeper Temperature Gradient Drilling Abstract Temperature gradient drilling has historically been a key tool in the exploration for geothermal resources in the Great Basin, USA, but regulatory, environmental, and accessibility issues, as well as the expense of drilling, are increasingly limiting its use. In cases where thermal groundwater is not overlain by near-surface cold aquifers, it is possible to augment temperature gradient drilling with temperatures measured from a 2-meter depth. We discuss the development of a rapid, efficient, and

172

Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double-Gradient Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microbial Ecology Analysis of Bacterial Communities in Seagrass Bed Sediments by Double, including the presence or absence of vegetation, depth into sediment, and season. Double- gradient of these similarity coefficients were used to group banding patterns by depth into sediment, presence or absence

Sherman, Tim

173

Modeling soil salinity distribution along topographic gradients in tidal salt marshes in Atlantic and Gulf coastal regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Soil salinity plays a very important role in determining the distribution of vegetation, plant productivity, and biogeochemical processes in coastal marsh ecosystems. Salinity gradients and salinity–vegetation associations in salt marshes have often been observed but rarely explained. A quantitative and systematic study on the soil salinity distribution in salt marshes is not only important to the understanding of coastal marsh ecosystems but also to the development of a potentially useful ecological and environmental indicator. In this research, we developed a salt marsh soil salinity model based on an existing salt and water balance model with modifications to several key features to examine the impacts of tidal forcing, climate, soil, vegetation, and topography on soil salinity distributions of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal marshes. This model was calibrated and validated using field observations from the St. Marks National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) of northwestern Florida, USA. The results showed that the model had good agreement (r2 = 0.84, n = 15, P salinity maximum in a coastal salt marsh. Simulations indicate that tidal irregularity primarily controls the width of the salinity maximum band. Evapotranspiration, temperature, hydraulic conductivity, and incoming tidal salinity significantly affect the salinity maximum band, which may lead to the formation of salt barrens/flats when reaching a threshold level.

Hongqing Wang; Y. Ping Hsieh; Mark A. Harwell; Wenrui Huang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding  

SciTech Connect

Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially of planned decommissioning operations. Thus lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for contaminated lead is removing the superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a scaled-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling.

Lussiez, G.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding  

SciTech Connect

Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium trader pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of contaminated lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding  

SciTech Connect

Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radioisotopes and is therefore a RCRA D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Laboratory decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 50 tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium trader pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 40 psig rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a sump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process. The process generates small volumes of contaminated lead slurry that can be solidified and, because it passes the TCLP, is not a mixed waste. The decontaminated lead can be released for recycling.

Lussiez, G.W.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Surface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 19931999  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and salinity of a fluid parcel. There is a marked surface density gradient across the ACC, with temperaturesSurface temperature and salinity variations between Tasmania and Antarctica, 1993­1999 Alexis 2002. [1] Continuous surface temperature and salinity measurements have been collected onboard a supply

178

2-D Temperature Mapping in Fluorocarbon Plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Two-dimensional maps of rotational temperature in CF4 plasmas were determined using planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CF A2{sigma}+ - X2{pi} (1,0). Rotational temperatures are expected to be in equilibrium with gas temperatures under the present conditions. Experiments were performed in a capacitively-coupled, parallel-plate reactor at pressures from 27 Pa to 107 Pa and powers of 10 W to 30 W. The effects of electrode cooling and having a wafer present were also examined. Measured temperatures ranged between 273 K{+-}15 K and 480 K{+-}15 K. The strong temperature gradients found in these plasmas can have serious effects on density measurements that probe a single rotational level, as well as on reaction rate constants and interpretation of density gradients.

Steffens, Kristen L.; Sobolewski, Mark A. [Process Measurements Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

2005-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

179

Manufacture of gradient micro-structures of magnesium alloys using two stage extrusion dies  

SciTech Connect

This paper aims to manufacture magnesium alloy metals with gradient micro-structures using hot extrusion process. The extrusion die was designed to have a straight channel part combined with a conical part. Materials pushed through this specially-designed die generate a non-uniform velocity distribution at cross sections inside the die and result in different strain and strain rate distributions. Accordingly, a gradient microstructure product can be obtained. Using the finite element analysis, the forming temperature, effective strain, and effective strain rate distributions at the die exit were firstly discussed for various inclination angles in the conical die. Then, hot extrusion experiments with a two stage die were conducted to obtain magnesium alloy products with gradient micro-structures. The effects of the inclination angle on the grain size distribution at cross sections of the products were also discussed. Using a die of an inclination angle of 15°, gradient micro-structures of the grain size decreasing gradually from 17 ?m at the center to 4 ?m at the edge of product were achieved.

Hwang, Yeong-Maw; Huang, Tze-Hui [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 70, Lien-Hai Rd., Kaohsiung, 804, Taiwan (China); Alexandrov, Sergei [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Naimark, Oleg Borisovich [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Perm (Russian Federation); Jeng, Yeau-Ren [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-tech Innovations, National Chung Cheng University, Ming-Hsiung, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

180

Improving DWF Simulations: the Force Gradient Integrator and the Möbius Accelerated DWF Solver  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have implemented a variant of the force gradient integrator proposed by Kennedy et.al. and are using it in our production 2+1 flavor DWF simulations with pion masses of 180 MeV in (4.5fm)3 volumes. We find modest speed-ups (\\sim 20%) from using the force gradient integrator, compared to our previously used Omelyan integrator. On other ensembles, primarily finite temperature 2+1 flavor DWF QCD, we have extensively tuned the Hasenbusch preconditioning masses and achieved speed-ups of 2-3x. Here we have also switched to the force gradient integrator, but this change has not had any impact on the speed. We also report on an improved solver for DWF, which uses M\\"obius fermions, with a smaller fifth dimension than the original DWF fermions, as an intermediate step in the generation of solutions of the Dirac equation. This approach cuts the number of effective Dirac applications by approximately a factor of 2 when the conjugate gradient iteration count is large.

Hantao Yin; Robert D. Mawhinney

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Long wavelength gradient drift instability in Hall plasma devices. II. Applications  

SciTech Connect

Hall plasma devices with electron E × B drift are subject to a class of long wavelength instabilities driven by the electron current, gradients of plasma density, temperature, and magnetic field. In the first companion paper [Frias et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 072112 (2012)], the theory of these modes was revisited. In this paper, we apply analytical theory to show that modern Hall thrusters exhibit azimuthal and axial oscillations in the frequency spectrum from tens KHz to few MHz, often observed in experiments. The azimuthal phase velocity of these modes is typically one order of magnitude lower than the E × B drift velocity. The growth rate of these modes scales inversely with the square root of the ion mass, ?1/?(m){sub i}. It is shown that several different thruster configurations share the same common feature: the gradient drift instabilities are localized in two separate regions, near the anode and in the plume region, and absent in the acceleration region. Our analytical results show complex interaction of plasma and magnetic field gradients and the E × B drift flow as the sources of the instability. The special role of plasma density gradient is revealed and it is shown that the previous theory is not applicable in the region where the ion flux density is not uniform. This is particularly important for near anode region due to ionization and in the plume region due to diverging ion flux.

Frias, Winston; Smolyakov, Andrei I. [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, 116 Science Place, Saskatoon SK S7N 5E2 (Canada); Kaganovich, Igor D.; Raitses, Yevgeny [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Prediction of nonlinear structural response in LMFBR elevated-temperature piping  

SciTech Connect

The development of structural analysis capabilities to investigate possible accident initiations caused by structural degradation of liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) piping is summarized. The ABAQUS finite element code is used to perform a nonlinear analysis of a bench mark problem proposed by the Pressure Vessel Research Committee. The problem is representative both in geometry and loading of an LMFBR elevated-temperature piping system, and published analytical results are available for comparison. Results show the system to be most sensitive to large, radial, thermal gradients that occur when the system experiences certain thermal transients. Repeated cycles of these transients will lead to thermal ratcheting, causing progressive deformation and strain accumulation in the system. Future work will verify the accuracy of the finite element model and quantify damage accumulated during the lifetime of an LMFBR elevated-temperature piping system.

Farrar, C.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

High energy X-ray diffraction study of a dental ceramics–titanium functional gradient material prepared by field assisted sintering technique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A functional gradient material with eleven layers composed of a dental ceramics and titanium was successfully consolidated using field assisted sintering technique in a two-step sintering process. High energy X-ray diffraction studies on the gradient were performed at High Energy Material Science beamline at Desy in Hamburg. Phase composition, crystal unit edges and lattice mismatch along the gradient were determined applying Rietveld refinement procedure. Phase analysis revealed that the main crystalline phase present in the gradient is ?-Ti. Crystallinity increases stepwisely along the gradient with a decreasing increment between every next layer, following rather the weight fraction of titanium. The crystal unit edge a of titanium remains approximately constant with a value of 2.9686(1) Å, while c is reduced with increasing amount of titanium. In the layer with pure titanium the crystal unit edge c is constant with a value of 4.7174(2) Å. The lattice mismatch leading to an internal stress was calculated over the whole gradient. It was found that the maximal internal stress in titanium embedded in the studied gradient is significantly smaller than its yield strength, which implies that the structure of titanium along the whole gradient is mechanically stable.

K. Witte; W. Bodnar; N. Schell; H. Lang; E. Burkel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Photo of the Week: The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Photo of the Week: The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron March 11, 2013 - 6:00pm Addthis Since 1960, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) has been one of the world's premiere particle accelerators, well known for the three Nobel Prizes won as a result of research performed there. The AGS name is derived from the concept of alternating gradient focusing, in which the field gradients of the accelerator's 240 magnets are successively alternated inward and outward, permitting particles to be propelled and focused in both the horizontal and vertical plane at the same time. In this 1958 photo, giant magnets await installation into the AGS accelerator ring tunnel at Brookhaven National Laboratory. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory.

185

Photo of the Week: The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron Photo of the Week: The Alternating Gradient Synchrotron March 11, 2013 - 6:00pm Addthis Since 1960, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) has been one of the world's premiere particle accelerators, well known for the three Nobel Prizes won as a result of research performed there. The AGS name is derived from the concept of alternating gradient focusing, in which the field gradients of the accelerator's 240 magnets are successively alternated inward and outward, permitting particles to be propelled and focused in both the horizontal and vertical plane at the same time. In this 1958 photo, giant magnets await installation into the AGS accelerator ring tunnel at Brookhaven National Laboratory. | Photo courtesy of Brookhaven National Laboratory.

186

High gradient lens for charged particle beam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

Chen, Yu-Jiuan

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

187

High-gradient compact linear accelerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter.

Carder, Bruce M. (205 Rogue River Hwy., Gold Hill, OR 97525)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

High-gradient compact linear accelerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-gradient linear accelerator comprises a solid-state stack in a vacuum of five sets of disc-shaped Blumlein modules each having a center hole through which particles are sequentially accelerated. Each Blumlein module is a sandwich of two outer conductive plates that bracket an inner conductive plate positioned between two dielectric plates with different thicknesses and dielectric constants. A third dielectric core in the shape of a hollow cylinder forms a casing down the series of center holes, and it has a dielectric constant different that the two dielectric plates that sandwich the inner conductive plate. In operation, all the inner conductive plates are charged to the same DC potential relative to the outer conductive plates. Next, all the inner conductive plates are simultaneously shorted to the outer conductive plates at the outer diameters. The signal short will propagate to the inner diameters at two different rates in each Blumlein module. A faster wave propagates quicker to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the closer spacing and lower dielectric constant. When the faster wave reaches the inner extents of the outer and inner conductive plates, it reflects back outward and reverses the field in that segment of the dielectric core. All the field segments in the dielectric core are then in unipolar agreement until the slower wave finally propagates to the third dielectric core across the dielectric plates with the wider spacing and higher dielectric constant. During such unipolar agreement, particles in the core are accelerated with gradients that exceed twenty megavolts per meter. 10 figs.

Carder, B.M.

1998-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

189

A Sparsity Preserving Stochastic Gradient Method for Composite ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 23, 2011 ... Abstract: We propose new stochastic gradient algorithms for solving convex composite optimization problems. In each iteration, our algorithms ...

Qihang Lin

2011-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

190

A Sparsity Preserving Stochastic Gradient Method for Composite ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Apr 23, 2011 ... We propose new stochastic gradient algorithms for solving convex composite optimization problems. In each iteration, our algorithms utilize a ...

2011-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

191

Thermal Gradient Holes At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Date 1978 - 1985 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Thermal gradient drilling also continued during this period, consisting of several holes including: The...

192

Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (EERE, 2010)...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EERE, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (EERE, 2010) Exploration Activity...

193

Policy Gradient Methods: Variance Reduction and Stochastic Convergence .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In a reinforcement learning task an agent must learn a policy for performing actions so as to perform well in a given environment. Policy gradient… (more)

Greensmith, Evan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Evapotranspiration along an elevation gradient in California's Sierra Nevada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soil-moisture use by mixed conifer forest in a summer- dryforest, Sierra mixed conifer forest, and Subalpine forest)Climate Gradient Sierran Mixed Conifer Forest Sierra Climate

Goulden, M. L.; Anderson, R. G.; Bales, R. C.; Kelly, A. E.; Meadows, M.; Winston, G. C.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski,...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Warpinski, Et Al., 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al.,...

196

Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Erkan, Et Al...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Erkan, Et Al., 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Geothermal Area (Erkan, Et Al., 2007)...

197

Thermal Gradient Holes At Obsidian Cliff Area (Hulen, Et Al....  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Obsidian Cliff Area (Hulen, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Obsidian Cliff Area (Hulen,...

198

An inexact accelerated proximal gradient method for large scale ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accelerated proximal gradient (APG) method, first proposed by Nesterov, and later refined by Beck and Teboulle, and studied in a unifying manner by Tseng.

2011-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

199

An accelerated proximal gradient algorithm for nuclear norm ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mar 27, 2009 ... An accelerated proximal gradient algorithm for nuclear norm regularized least squares problems. Kim-Chuan Toh (mattohkc ***at*** nus.edu.sg)

Kim-Chuan Toh

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

200

Thermal Gradient Holes At Glass Mountain Area (Cumming And Mackie...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Area (Cumming And Mackie, 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Enabling Technologies Lead: Mark Davis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies Technologies Lead: Mark Davis 3.2 Omics Platforms for Systems Biology Lead: Tim Tschaplinski 3.3 Advanced Pretreatment Configuration and Conditions Lead: Charles Wyman 3.1 Characterization of Biomass Features that Enhance Sugar Release Lead: Art Ragauskas 3.1.1 Support for Identification of the TOP40 Recalcitrant Lines (Gjersing) 3.1.2 In-Depth Cell Wall Characterization (Ragauskas) 3.2.1 Transcriptomics & Resequencing (Brown) 3.2.2 Proteomics (Hettich) 3.3.4 Demonstration of Improved Plants with CBP Organisms (Yee) 3.4 Computational Biology Lead: Ying Xu 3.3.1 Enhance Understanding of Pretreatment Fundamentals and Control Recalcitrance (Wyman) 3.3.2 Integrate, Optimize, and Understand Pretreatment with Advanced Plants (Wyman) 3.4.1 An Integrated Omics Data Analysis and

202

Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al., Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Spencer Hot Springs Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Spencer Hot Springs Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Collaboration with the gold mining industry has brought two new geothermal discoveries to the attention of the geothermal community. Exploration holes at Tungsten Mountain and McGuiness Hills (Spencer Hot Springs?) in 2004 and 2005 encountered hot water and steam at depths of meters with fluid geothermometry indicating reservoir temperatures of 170 to 200oC. More information can be obtained from the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology web

203

Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the mudline to the rig floor so as to maintain the bottom hole pressure. Several methods have been developed to achieve the dual gradient drilling principle. For this research project, we paid more attention to the liquid lift, dual gradient drilling (riser...

Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Evaluation of liquid lift approach to dual gradient drilling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the mudline to the rig floor so as to maintain the bottom hole pressure. Several methods have been developed to achieve the dual gradient drilling principle. For this research project, we paid more attention to the liquid lift, dual gradient drilling (riser...

Okafor, Ugochukwu Nnamdi

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

205

Were Archaean continental geothermal gradients much steeper than today?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... km depth) did not generally exceed 800 C. From this they deduce a surface geothermal gradient of less than 23 C km'1 compared with 17 C km'1 in ... P-T determinations on Archaean granulites (summarised in ref. 2) their calculation of the geothermal gradient does not comply with conductive properties and distribution of heat producing elements within the ...

S. A. DRURY

1978-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

206

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradients by Forward Osmosis–Electrokinetics ... Through the use of a salinity gradient, a suction force is created to induce a hydrodynamic flow in the FO submodule based on the principle of FO. ... Kiviat, F. E.Energy Recovery from Saline Water by Means of Electrochemical Cells Science 1976, 194, 719– 720 ...

Yanmei Jiao; Chun Yang; Yuejun Kang

2014-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

207

Numerical simulation of supercritical heat transfer under severe axial density gradient in a narrow vertical tube  

SciTech Connect

A number of computational works have been performed so far for the simulation of heat transfer in a supercritical fluid. The simulations, however, faced a lot of difficulties when heat transfer deteriorates due either to buoyancy or by acceleration. When the bulk temperature approaches the pseudo-critical temperature the fluid experiences a severe axial density gradient on top of a severe radial one. Earlier numerical calculations showed, without exception, unrealistic over-predictions, as soon as the bulk temperature exceeded the pseudo-critical temperature. The over-predictions might have been resulted from an inapplicability of widely-used turbulence models. One of the major causes for the difficulties may probably be an assumption of a constant turbulent Prandtl number. Recent research, both numerical and experimental, indicates that the turbulent Prandtl number is never a constant when the gradient of physical properties is significant. This paper describes the applicability of a variable turbulent Prandtl number to the numerical simulation of heat transfer in supercritical fluids flowing in narrow vertical tubes. (authors)

Bae, Y. Y.; Hong, S. D.; Kim, Y. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., 1045 Daedeokdaero, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

California at Santa Cruz, University of

209

Experimental characterization of multiscale and multifield turbulence as a critical gradient threshold is surpassed in the DIII-D tokamak  

SciTech Connect

A critical gradient for long wavelength (k{sub ?}?{sub s}?0.4) electron temperature fluctuations has been observed in an experiment in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], where below a threshold value of L{sub T{sub e}{sup ?1}}=|?T{sub e}|/T{sub e} electron temperature fluctuations are constant and above they steadily increase. Above the critical gradient, the electron heat flux inferred by power balance also increases rapidly. Critical gradients are a predicted attribute of turbulence arising from linear instabilities and are thought to be related to transport stiffness. The presented results are the first direct, systematic demonstration of critical gradient behavior in turbulence measurements in a tokamak. The experiment was performed by changing the deposition location of electron cyclotron heating shot-to-shot to locally scan L{sub T{sub e}{sup ?1}} at r/a = 0.6 in L-mode plasmas; rotation was also varied by changing the momentum input from neutral beam injection. Temperature fluctuations were measured with a correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) radiometry system. In addition to the CECE measurements, an array of turbulence measurements were acquired to characterize fluctuations in multiple fields and at multiple scales as L{sub T{sub e}{sup ?1}} and rotation were modified: long wavelength (k{sub ?}?{sub s}?0.5) density fluctuations were acquired with beam emission spectroscopy, the phase angle between electron temperature and density fluctuations was measured by coupling the CECE system and a reflectometer, intermediate scale (k{sub ?}?{sub s}?0.8) density fluctuations were measured with a Doppler backscattering (DBS) system, and low frequency flows were also measured with DBS. The accumulated measurements and trends constrain identification of the instability responsible for the observed critical gradient to the ?T{sub e}-driven trapped electron mode.

Hillesheim, J. C.; Peebles, W. A.; Carter, T. A.; Wang, G.; Rhodes, T. L.; Schmitz, L.; Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, PO Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90024-1547 (United States)] [University of California Los Angeles, PO Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90024-1547 (United States); DeBoo, J. C.; Staebler, G. M.; Burrell, K. H.; Petty, C. C.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1687 (United States)] [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Dr., Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1687 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)] [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); White, A. E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

NATIONAL LEAD ,COMPANY OF OHIO  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

tic.. 02-j . . NATIONAL LEAD ,COMPANY OF OHIO 2186002 I ,""ll"IAWl OF NL. Irl>"Or"ICI. INC. CINCINNATI. OHIO 45239 June 1, 1979 TRIP REPORT - VISIT M THORILIM STORAGE FACILITY OF...

211

Environmental causes for plant biodiversity gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...families exposed to a high energy load tend to be both more...in the Cape of South Africa, a likely product of...Phylogeny Plant Transpiration Solar Energy Temperature Ultraviolet...in the Cape of South Africa, a likely product of...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Efficient and robust gradient enhanced Kriging emulators.  

SciTech Connect

%E2%80%9CNaive%E2%80%9D or straight-forward Kriging implementations can often perform poorly in practice. The relevant features of the robustly accurate and efficient Kriging and Gradient Enhanced Kriging (GEK) implementations in the DAKOTA software package are detailed herein. The principal contribution is a novel, effective, and efficient approach to handle ill-conditioning of GEK's %E2%80%9Ccorrelation%E2%80%9D matrix, RN%CC%83, based on a pivoted Cholesky factorization of Kriging's (not GEK's) correlation matrix, R, which is a small sub-matrix within GEK's RN%CC%83 matrix. The approach discards sample points/equations that contribute the least %E2%80%9Cnew%E2%80%9D information to RN%CC%83. Since these points contain the least new information, they are the ones which when discarded are both the easiest to predict and provide maximum improvement of RN%CC%83's conditioning. Prior to this work, handling ill-conditioned correlation matrices was a major, perhaps the principal, unsolved challenge necessary for robust and efficient GEK emulators. Numerical results demonstrate that GEK predictions can be significantly more accurate when GEK is allowed to discard points by the presented method. Numerical results also indicate that GEK can be used to break the curse of dimensionality by exploiting inexpensive derivatives (such as those provided by automatic differentiation or adjoint techniques), smoothness in the response being modeled, and adaptive sampling. Development of a suitable adaptive sampling algorithm was beyond the scope of this work; instead adaptive sampling was approximated by omitting the cost of samples discarded by the presented pivoted Cholesky approach.

Dalbey, Keith R.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

along an estuarine salinity gradient: Combined influences oftidal cycles [56], salinity gradients [57,58], dissolved

Wu, C.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Determination of salinity gradient power potential in Québec, Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrical energy can be produced from the chemical potential difference of two liquids with dissimilar salinities. This source of energy is known as salinity gradient power. In this paper the theory the technologies used to exploit the power the major challenges and their development trends are first presented. Then a modeling of fluxes across semi permeable membranes is proposed and validated. Next an energy balance study is done in order to estimate the power potential for a given salinity gradient system. By applying this study to several rivers in Quebec the salinity power gradient potential is estimated to 45 TWh/yr based on the minimal flow rate of each river.

Y. Berrouche; P. Pillay

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Dayrl Briggs Lead Cleanroom Engineer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature silicon oxide (LTO), and doped oxides such as borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG) and phosphosilicate glass (PSG). · PECVD deposition of silicon oxide, oxy-nitride, and silicon nitride thin films on single

Pennycook, Steve

216

Temperature Effects on Energy Production by Salinity Exchange  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From the comparison between CDLE and DLPE we can conclude that in general the salinity difference is a better technology and that the potential advantage of the new proposal is the large availability of water with thermal gradients. ... It only requires electrodes with enough surface area and can be implemented wherever water or any other solvent at two temperatures and/or salinities is available. ... from the salinity gradient. ...

Silvia Ahualli; María M. Fernández; Guillermo Iglesias; Ángel V. Delgado; María L. Jiménez

2014-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

217

Lead Auditor - Auditor Preparation Checklist  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lead Auditor - Auditor Preparation Checklist Lead Auditor - Auditor Preparation Checklist |Number|Item|Status | ||Staff the Audit || ||Auditor Qualifications|| ||Audit Notification & Audit Plan Issued|| ||Auditor access issues resolved|| ||Audit team facilities|| ||Auditor audit areas / elements assigned|| ||Check lists Prepared Issued || ||Audited Org Docs to team QPP Work plans etc|| ||Past Audits to team || ||PC availability for Auditors|| ||Audit forms to auditors People Interviewed Documents reviewed Entrance Meeting Attendance Exit Meeting Attendance, Issue Development Sheet[1] Form 11 Form 21|| ||Audit protocols, conduct of auditors|| ||Entrance meeting slides|| ||Exit meeting slide outline|| ||Report Shell to Team|| ----------------------- [1] Use of this will be explained in the second article of the series

218

Niche expansion leads to small-scale adaptive divergence along an elevation gradient in a medium-sized passerine bird  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...among populations. We tested values of K from 1 to 8 with a burn-in of 200000 followed by 1000 iterations, with 10 runs for...Protocol (ARC no. 2005-126-02). We thank the McKinneys, Dan Roe and CEMEX who kindly permitted land use and provided logistical...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

A gradient index sonic lens based on acoustic metamaterials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report a method to design and characterize broadband gradient index lenses. The lenses are based on two?dimensional sonic crystals which are periodic arrangements of elastic cylinders embedded in air. It will be shown that gradient index sonic lenses built with rigid cylinders are more powerful than conventionally curved lenses. We also demonstrate that the designing possibilities increased by considering the mixture of two types of cylinders in the sonic crystal. So a gradient index lens with zero reflectance at the surface is proposed by employing a mixture of aerogel and rigid cylinders. Finally a multiple scatteringtheory has been employed to compare the performance of conventionally curved lenses and gradient index lenses. [Work supported by MEC of Spain and GVA of Valencia.

José Sánchez?Dehesa; Daniel Torrent

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Potential use of hollow spheres in dual gradient drilling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing number of significant deepwater discoveries has pushed the operator and service oil companies to focus their efforts on developing new technologies to drill in deeper water. Dual gradient drilling (DGD) will allow reaching deeper...

Vera Vera, Liliana

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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221

Use of gradient magnets in low emittance electron storage rings  

SciTech Connect

The use of gradient magnets for a low emittance electron storage ring is discussed and a magnetic lattice for a 6 GeV electron energy synchrotron radiation source adopting this feature is presented.

Vignola, G.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

A three-term conjugate gradient method with sufficient descent ...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

k?1yk?1. ,. (1.2) where yk?1 is defined by yk?1 = gk ? gk?1 and · denotes the l2 ...... [15] M.R. Hestenes and E. Stiefel, Methods of conjugate gradients for solving

2009-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

223

Functionally gradient titanium-aluminide composites produced by laser cladding  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The laser surface cladding of Ti-Al/TiB2...composites was investigated as a means of producing a functionally gradient material on a commercially pure Ti substrate. Single and double layers were produced. The pro...

J. H. Abboud; D. R. F. West; R. D. Rawlings

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A parametric study of thermomechanical behavior of functionally gradient materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(FSDT) that accounts for the transverse shear strains and the rotations, coupled with a three dimensional heat conduction equation is formulated for a functionally gradient plate. Both problems are studied by varying the volume fraction of a ceramic...

Chin, Che-Doong

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Computational Inversion of Electron Tomography Images -Gradient Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computational Inversion of Electron Tomography Images Using L2 -Gradient Flows Guoliang Xu 1) Ming Computing Institute of Computational Mathematics, Academy of Mathematics and System Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China 2) Department of Computer Sciences and Institute

Texas at Austin, University of

226

Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoretical/computer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range geothermal systems. "The 300-meter heat flow holes are essentially useless for finding the "hidden" reservoirs. Clearly, the best results are obtained from the SP and MT surveys, with DC resistivity a close third. It is concluded that the best

227

Generation of Gradients Having Complex Shapes Using Microfluidic Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Generation of Gradients Having Complex Shapes Using Microfluidic Networks Stephan K. W. Dertinger, Harvard University, 12 Oxford Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 This paper describes the generation each carrying different concentrations of substances laminarly and side-by-side generated step

Prentiss, Mara

228

A Tree-Ring Reconstruction of the Salinity Gradient in the Northern Estuary of San Francisco Bay  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ring Reconstruction of the Salinity Gradient in the Northernof the seasonal salinity gradient, or low salinity zone (the longitudinal salinity gradient in the northern estuary (

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Effects of interspecific competition and coastal oceanography on population dynamics of the Olympia oyster, Ostrea lurida, along estuarine gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

across estuarine salinity gradients. Ecology 85:2539- Dalby,abundance along a salinity gradient. Ecology Lamb, E. G. andalong an estuarine salinity gradient. Oikos Etter, R. J.

Deck, Anna K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

t-t AL- 1. + T fi r,y* t ,.- . NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO Ofll i iy Ci)wp HEALTH AND SAFETY DIVISION - ANALYTICAL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET U-G b ;33y jl:tL G c-w &3(y I...

231

A leading German government official  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Transatlantic Coopera- tion, called the Upstate Honors hosts German M.P. "an impressive example of our strong German- American partnership" and described Greenville as a leading example of close transatlantic busi program during their May 2012 visit to Berlin. In his role as Coordinator for Transatlantic Coopera- tion

Duchowski, Andrew T.

232

Osteochondral Interface Tissue Engineering using Macroscopic Gradients of Physicochemical Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of tissue interfaces. Yet, just because tissues are separated from one another by type, function, location, or anatomical prevalence, does not necessarily mean that the interfaces are as easily distinguishable, as the interfaces themselves are highly complex... not yield a “true” continuous gradient, it can have many discrete advantages over continuous gradients. Because of the inherent discontinuous fabrication methods (developing sections separately and fusing together), however, design effort must be placed...

Dormer, Nathan Henry

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

233

Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy ... Current status of ion exchange membranes for power generation from salinity gradients ...

Geoffrey M. Geise; Michael A. Hickner; Bruce E. Logan

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

234

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternating gradient focusing Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gradient focusing Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Gradient Estimation in Global Optimization Algorithms Megan Hazen, Member, IEEE and Maya R. Gupta, Member, IEEE Summary:...

235

Single molecule studies of meso/macro porous silica materials and gradient films.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The preparation of mesoporous/macroporous silica materials and polarity gradient thin film are introduced in this thesis. These porous silica materials and gradient materials have the… (more)

Ye, Fangmao

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Survey Conducted at Desert Peak, Nevada, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Development of 2-Meter Soil Temperature Probes and Results of Temperature Survey Conducted at Desert Peak, Nevada, USA Abstract Temperature gradient drilling has historically been a key tool in the exploration for geothermal resources in the Great Basin, USA but regulatory, environmental, and accessibility issues, as well as the expense of drilling, are increasingly limiting its use. In cases where thermal groundwater is not overlain by near-surface cold aquifers, temperatures measured at a depth of 2-meters is an efficient method for mapping thermal anomalies at a high level of detail. This is useful for augmenting deeper

237

Leadership and Leading Indicators Presentation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leadership Leadership and Leading Indicators Peter S. Winokur, Ph.D., Member Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Thanks to Matt Moury and Doug Minnema August 28, 2008 Objectives * A few thoughts about leadership * Actions taken by leaders * Role of leading indicators * Consider the future August 28, 2008 2 3 Safety Culture Safety culture is an organization's values and behaviors - modeled by its leaders and internalized by its members - that serve to make nuclear safety an overriding priority.* - Dating back to SEN-35-91, it's DOE Policy; - It's perishable; - EFCOG/DOE ISMS Safety Culture Task Team. *INPO, Principles for a Strong Nuclear Safety Culture, November 2004. August 28, 2008 4 Leadership & Mission Top 10 Ways To Know You Have A Safety Culture: * #1 is Leadership - the talk and the walk

238

Role of Changes in Mean Temperatures versus Temperature Gradients in the Recent Widening of the Hadley Circulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Hadley circulation (HC) has widened in recent decades, and it widens as the climate warms in simulations. But the mechanisms responsible for the widening remain unclear, and the widening in simulations is generally smaller than observed.

Ori Adam; Tapio Schneider; Nili Harnik

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

High-pressure-temperature gradient instrument: use for determining the temperature and pressure limits of bacterial growth.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...shows the valve manifold (VM), the polystyrene foam insulation (U), and the therm- istor probe (TM) for determining...which the samples were loaded. U is the polystyrene foam insulation, AB is the aluminum block, TW the thermometer well...

A A Yayanos; R van Boxtel; A S Dietz

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermal Gradient Holes At Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., Chena Area (Erkan, Et. Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Chena Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes MULTI-STAGE DRILLING Once a hole is drilled the natural-state pressure distribution with depth is essentially unrecoverable (Grant et al., 1982). One of the best ways to mitigate this effect is to use multi-stage drilling (White et al., 1975; Grant et al., 1982). This type of drilling was applied at Chena and its usefulness in understanding the natural flow regimes is demonstrated. Here, we illustrate how high-quality equilibrium temperature logs can often be used to identify permeable fractures. The independent interpretations of flow regimes based on temperature-depth curves and the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A PV View of the Zonal Mean Distribution of Temperature and Wind in the Extratropical Troposphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dependence of the temperature and wind distribution of the zonal mean flow in the extratropical troposphere on the gradient of potential vorticity along isentropes is examined. The extratropics here refer to the region outside the Hadley ...

De-Zheng Sun; Richard S. Lindzen

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Determination of thermal conductivity and formation temperature from cooling history of friction-heated probes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of geothermal gradient and thermal conductivity of rocks or sediments...the formation temperature and thermal conductivity. Ideally, to...measurements require extra battery power supply and an additional...cooling curve for deducing the thermal properties has been contemplated......

Tien-Chang Lee; A. D. Duchkov; S. G. Morozov

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Rate of decrease of the specific surface area of dry snow: Isothermal and temperature gradient conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

crystals. These effects drive sublimation/condensation cycles that modify the sizes and shapes of snow through sublimation/condensation and adsorption/desorption cycles. Adsorbed gases can diffuse inside snow variations must be described in models of snow physics and chemistry [Flin et al., 2003; Legagneux and Domine

Domine, Florent

244

Edge Temperature Gradient as Intrinsic Rotation Drive in Alcator C-Mod Tokamak Plasmas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Intrinsic rotation has been observed in I-mode plasmas from the C-Mod tokamak, and is found to be similar to that in H mode, both in its edge origin and in the scaling with global pressure. Since both plasmas have similar ...

Rice, John E.

245

ESTIMATION OF IN-SITU THERMAL CONDUCTIVITIES FROM TEMPERATURE GRADIENT MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the fluid, and the rate of heat transfer from the fluidSpi11ette t A.G~t "Heat Transfer During Hot Fluid Injectionin the fluid is solved, the heat transfer at the wall is

Hoang, V.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

A Microfluidic Device with a Linear Temperature Gradient for Parallel and Combinatorial Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-dimensional grid such as a DNA chip or a multiwell plate. Variables such as buffer conditions, chemical composition on the simple solution to the Fourier heat diffusion equation16 when heat flow is restricted to one direction the direction of heat transfer, and k is the thermal conductivity of the medium in which the heat is flowing

247

Temperature gradients are supported by cantori in chaotic fields S.R. Hudson  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

devil's staircase. [1] T. E. Evans, R. A. Moyer, P. R. Thomas, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 235003 (2004

Hudson, Stuart

248

A planar ion trap chip with integrated structures for an adjustable magnetic field gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

field necessary for magnetic-gradient- induced coupling between ionic effective spins. We dem- onstrate] magnetic field gradient, however, such coupling is induced. Also, coupling between spin states of different-gradient- induced coupling (MAGIC). A static gradient can be generated by permanent mag- nets [15, 16] or by current

Wunderlich, Christof

249

Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Pumpernickel Valley Geothermal Project Thermal Gradient Wells Details Activities (4) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: The Pumpernickel Valley geothermal project area is located near the eastern edge of the Sonoma Range and is positioned within the structurally complex Winnemucca fold and thrust belt of north-central Nevada. A series of approximately north-northeast-striking faults related to the Basin and Range tectonics are superimposed on the earlier structures within the project area, and are responsible for the final overall geometry and distribution of the pre-existing structural features on the property. Two of these faults, the Pumpernickel Valley fault and Edna Mountain fault,

250

Deep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 21832204 Temperature and salinity variability in the exit passages  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-strait gradient in near-surface temperature and salinity through the outflow straits, except in Lombok StraitDeep-Sea Research II 50 (2003) 2183­2204 Temperature and salinity variability in the exit passages pressure gauges at each side of the straits, equipped with temperature and salinity sensors

Sprintall, Janet

251

Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead February 4, 2013 Nick Nick Wright has been named head of the National Energy...

252

Distributed Generation Lead-by-Example Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

State governments can lead by example by promoting renewable energy programs and policies. Efforts to lead by example include using renewable energy resources (including alternative fuel for...

253

Nonlinear elastic free energies and gradient Young-Gibbs measures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate, in a fairly general setting, the limit of large volume equilibrium Gibbs measures for elasticity type Hamiltonians with clamped boundary conditions. The existence of a quasiconvex free energy, forming the large deviations rate functional, is shown using a new interpolation lemma for partition functions. The local behaviour of the Gibbs measures can be parametrized by Young measures on the space of gradient Gibbs measures. In view of unboundedness of the state space, the crucial tool here is an exponential tightness estimate that holds for a vast class of potentials and the construction of suitable compact sets of gradient Gibbs measures.

Roman Kotecký; Stephan Luckhaus

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

254

Speed-gradient principle for nonstationary processes in thermodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The speed-gradient variational principle (SG-principle) is formulated and applied to thermodynamical systems. It is shown that Prigogine's principle of minimum entropy production and Onsager's symmetry relations can be interpreted in terms of the SG-principle and, therefore, are equivalent to each other. In both cases entropy of the system plays a role of the goal functional. The speed-gradient formulation of thermodynamic principles provide their extended versions, describing transient dynamics of nonstationary systems far from equilibrium. As an example a model of transient (relaxation) dynamics for maximum entropy principle is derived.

Alexander L. Fradkov

2007-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

255

TRENDS: TEMPERATURE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Graphics Digital Data J.R. Petit, D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France J. Jouzel and G. Delaygue Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA/CNRS, L'Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France N.I. Barkov Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa Street 38, 199397 St. Petersburg, Russia V.M. Kotlyakov Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, per 29, Moscow 109017, Russia DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.006 Period of Record 420,000 years BP-present Methods Because isotopic fractions of the heavier oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation

256

Life in the salinity gradient: Discovering mechanisms behind a new biodiversity pattern  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A recently discovered paradoxical maximum of planktonic protistan species in the salinity gradient of the Baltic Sea revealed an inverse trend of species number/salinity relation in comparison to the previously accepted species-minimum model for macrozoobenthos. Here, we review long-term data on organisms of different size classes and ecological groups to show that eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes in plankton demonstrate a maximum species richness in the challenging zone of the critical salinity 5–8, where the large-bodied bottom dwellers (macrozoobenthos, macroalgae and aquatic higher plants) experience large-scale salinity stress which leads to an impoverished diversity. We propose a new conceptual model to explain why the diversity of small, fast-developing, rapidly evolving unicellular plankton organisms benefits from relative vacancy of brackish-water ecological niches and impaired competitiveness therein. The ecotone theory, Hutchinson's Ecological Niche Concept, species–area relationships and the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis are considered as a theoretical framework for understanding extinctions, speciation and variations in the evolution rates of different aquatic species in ecosystems with the pronounced salinity gradient.

Irena Telesh; Hendrik Schubert; Sergei Skarlato

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

High temperature corrosion research at the Albany Research Center  

SciTech Connect

The Severe Environment Corrosion and Erosion Research Facility (SECERF) at the Albany Research Center is operational. SECERF consists of 6 modules that share the availability of up to 10 different gases to produce environments for high temperature corrosion and erosion research. Projects to be conducted in the modules include: corrosion sensors for fossil energy systems, thermal gradient effects on high temperature corrosion, the development of sulfidation resistant alloys, determination of the effects of ash on the corrosion of metals and alloys in coal and waste combustion and coal gasification environments, high temperature erosion-corrosion of metals, and molten slag effects on refractories. Results from two areas, the effect of ash deposits on alloy corrosion and thermal gradient effects on the corrosion of metals, will be highlighted. Ash produced in coal gasifiers, coal combustors, and waste combustors, when deposited on metal surfaces, provides sites for corrosion attack and contributes chemical species that participate in the corrosion reaction. Results are presented for the corrosion of 304L stainless steel, that was either uncoated or coated with ash or with ash containing NaCl or Na2SO4, in air-water vapor mixtures at 600 C. The presence of high heat fluxes and temperature gradients in many fossil energy systems creates the need for an understanding of their effects on corrosion and oxidation. Such information would be useful for both improved alloy design and for better translation of isothermal laboratory results to field use. Temperature gradients in a solid oxide result in two changes that modify diffusion within the oxide. The first is when a gradient in point defect concentration is created within the oxide, for example, where more vacancies are expected at a higher temperature. The second change is when the presence of a temperature gradient biases the diffusion jump of an atom. Results of tests are presented for cobalt with metal surface temperatures of approximately 920-950 C in N2 plus 1-10 vol% O2 environments with a heat flux of about 40 kW/m2. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics were used to develop oxidation rate equations in temperature gradients that were combined with point defect information of CoO to predict oxidation rates.

Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Russell, James H.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, Margaret; Matthes, Steven A.; Chinn, R.E.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Gradient-Based Distance Estimation for Spatial Computers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the reduced width area, the average gradient value Gout avg and the SMG value Gout si are shown using Equation (12) and (13). If...Gin si as shown using Equation (14) and (15). Gout avg = nl (a - 1) + nl a + nl (a + 1) nl = a......

Qingzhi Liu; Andrei Pruteanu; Stefan Dulman

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Finite-Pressure-Gradient Influences on Ideal Spheromak Equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Spatially resolved measurements of the magnetic field of a spheromak have been analyzed and compared with expectations for the ratio of j?B from the pressure-gradient-free Taylor model and a model with pressure due to Morikawa. Better agreement is found with the model containing finite pressure.

G. W. Hart; C. Chin-Fatt; A. W. DeSilva; G. C. Goldenbaum; R. Hess; R. S. Shaw

1983-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

260

Simulation of IPA Gradients in Hybrid Network Systems Benjamin Melamed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation of IPA Gradients in Hybrid Network Systems Benjamin Melamed Rutgers University Rutgers Atlanta, GA 30332 October 26, 2005 Abstract Infinitesimal Perturbation Analysis (IPA) provides formulas paths of stochastic systems. In practice, IPA derivatives may be computed either from simulation runs

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Seasonal mass balance gradients in Norway L. A. Rasmussen1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) P. O. Box 5091 Majorstua, N-0301 Oslo, Norway16 Aug 05 Seasonal mass balance gradients in Norway L. A. Rasmussen1 and L. M. Andreassen2 1 in Norway exists in their profiles of both seasonal balances, winter bw(z) and summer bs(z). Unlike many

Rasmussen, L.A.

262

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Treated Wastewater Effluent Reduces Sperm Motility Along an Osmolality Gradient H. L. Schoenfuss Ã? 2008 Ã? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008 Abstract Many toxic effects of treated wastewater environment of treated wastewater effluent frequently differs consider- ably from that of its receiving waters

Julius, Matthew L.

263

NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

~y-f-hjLo-- yy; 4: j ).,Ic ~y-f-hjLo-- yy; 4: j ).,Ic +- NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO s _ HEALTH AND SAFETY DIVISION - ANALYTICAL DEPT. . ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET o-0 1. H. NO. TRIAL, HYGIENE AND RADIATION DEPT. AMPLE Nti.1. //- 6:itEC TEDI it/;/L 5 .,- -..-- -- -.._-. -. I --- --- 1 ANALYTICA .OATE RECeiVEDi mri /-2-v& 3 Li >,a. HCJ _-..k.-*..- -.v._ 1 NO. DISTRIBUTION OF COPIES 1 Analytlcal Labwatwy (RECORD COPP) 2 Industrial Hygiene 8 Radlation Dept. . 3' Water Treatment Plant (Far Water Smmplos Only)' t' , /,' 30 ,I7 \ I _- ' -I .;35; /z , / /-7 . jj ,j> b :3 cl /1' , i),: A,' . i] NLO-HbS-736 (REV. 10/14~6Or I. .-- . s N A T I O N A L L E A D C O M P A N Y O F O H IO H E A L T H A N D S A F E T Y DIVISION - A N A L Y T I C A L D E P T . A N A L Y T I C A L D A T A S H E E T i. I- . '4 ( '.. /a ' li 4 '. r I if 1. - I :

264

Investigations of low-temperature geothermal potential in New York State  

SciTech Connect

Temperature gradient map and published heat flow data indicate a possible potential for a geothermal resource in western and central New York State. A new analysis of bottom-hole temperature data for New York State confirms the existence of three positive gradient anomalies: the East Aurora, Cayuga, and Elmira anomalies, with gradients as high as 32/sup 0/C/km, 36/sup 0/C/km, and 36/sup 0/C/km, respectively. Ground waters from two of these anomalies are enriched in silica relative to surrounding areas. Heat flows based on silica geothermometry are 50 to 70 mWm/sup -2/ for the anomalies and 41.4 mWm/sup -2/ for bordering regional flux. A correlation between Bouguer gravity anomalies and the temperature gradient map suggests that the geothermal anomalies may occur above radioactive granites in the basement.

Hodge, D.S.; De Rito, R.; Hifiker, K.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.A.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Towards a theory of ecotone resilience: Coastal vegetation on a salinity gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ecotones represent locations where vegetation change is likely to occur as a result of climate and other environmental changes. Using a model of an ecotone vulnerable to such future changes, we estimated the resilience of the ecotone to disturbances. The specific ecotone is that between two different vegetation types, salinity-tolerant and salinity-intolerant, along a gradient in groundwater salinity. In the case studied, each vegetation type, through soil feedback loops, promoted local soil salinity levels that favor itself in competition with the other type. Bifurcation analysis was used to study the system of equations for the two vegetation types and soil salinity. Alternative stable equilibria, one for salinity-tolerant and one for salinity intolerant vegetation, were shown to exist over a region of the groundwater salinity gradient, bounded by two bifurcation points. This region was shown to depend sensitively on parameters such as the rate of upward infiltration of salinity from groundwater into the soil due to evaporation. We showed also that increasing diffusion rates of vegetation can lead to shrinkage of the range between the two bifurcation points. Sharp ecotones are typical of salt-tolerant vegetation (mangroves) near the coastline and salt-intolerant vegetation inland, even though the underlying elevation and groundwater salinity change very gradually. A disturbance such as an input of salinity to the soil from a storm surge could upset this stable boundary, leading to a regime shift of salinity-tolerant vegetation inland. We showed, however, that, for our model as least, a simple pulse disturbance would not be sufficient; the salinity would have to be held at a high level, as a ‘press’, for some time. The approach used here should be generalizable to study the resilience of a variety of ecotones to disturbances.

Jiang Jiang; Daozhou Gao; Donald L. DeAngelis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Atom interferometric techniques for measuring gravitational acceleration and constant magnetic field gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss two techniques for probing the effects of a homogeneous force acting on cold atoms, such as that due to gravity or a constant magnetic field gradient, using grating echo-type atom interferometers. A comprehensive theoretical description of signals generated by both two-pulse and three-pulse interferometers, accounting for magnetic sub-levels in the atomic ground state, is shown to agree with experimental results. Laser-cooled samples of $^{85}$Rb with temperatures as low as 2.4 $\\mu$K have been achieved in a relatively large glass cell with well-suppressed magnetic fields. Using transit time limited interferometer signals, we demonstrate sensitivity to externally applied magnetic gradients as small as $\\sim 4$ mG/cm. With these timescales we estimate that precision measurements of the gravitational acceleration, $g$, are possible with both the two-pulse and three-pulse echo interferometers. Whereas the two-pulse signal is a position-sensitive technique to measure the absolute value of $g$, the thre...

Barrett, B

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Temperature differential detection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

Girling, Peter M. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

CORROSION OF LEAD SHIELDING IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS PACKAGES  

SciTech Connect

Inspection of United States-Department of Energy (US-DOE) model 9975 nuclear materials shipping package revealed corrosion of the lead shielding induced by off-gas constituents from organic components in the package. Experiments were performed to determine the corrosion rate of lead when exposed to off-gas or degradation products of these organic materials. The results showed that the room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) sealant was the most corrosive organic species followed by the polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) glue. The fiberboard material induced corrosion to a much lesser extent than the PVAc glue and RTV, and only in the presence of condensed water. The results indicated faster corrosion at temperatures higher than ambient and with condensed water as expected. A corrosion rate of 0.05 mm/year measured for coupons exposed to the most aggressive conditions was recommended as a conservative estimate for use in package performance calculations.

Subramanian, K; Kerry Dunn, K

2007-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

269

Radial temperature variations in cylindrical waveguides and implications for flow measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A quantitative treatment of radial temperature variations in a cylindrical duct on ultrasonic flow meter performance is discussed in the laminar flow regime. First based on the continuity equation the Navier–Stokes equations and an energy equation including loss mechanisms due to heat conduction and viscous effects the steady?state temperature and flow spatial distributions are determined in two cases of practical interest: (a) cylinder wall temperature is maintained at a constant value and (b) cylinder wall temperature decreases linearly with cylinder axial distance. It is shown that while radial temperature variations are insignificant in case (a) radial temperature gradients as large as 100–200 K/m are possible in case (b) for a fixed axial temperature gradient decrease of 0.1 K/m. Such strong temperature gradients have strong and unfortunate consequences for flow measurement. Large flow meter errors—up to several percentages—are possible using typical parameter values for water as medium. Finally it is shown that effective ways exist such as to diminish the influence of temperature gradients on flow meter performance. Besides the obvious choice of insulating the flow meter tube flow measurement errors due to radial temperature variations can be effectively suppressed by reducing the cylinder radius and/or ultrasound frequency.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Children and lead: new findings and concerns  

SciTech Connect

An editorial dealing with lead in the environment and its health risks to children is presented. Young children are particularly vulnerable to lead exposure. Through hand-to-mouth activities, such as thumb sucking, nail biting, or eating with dirty hands, lead in house dust and garden soil readily enters their bodies. Children with pica are exposed to more lead because they eat such items as paint chips, broken plaster, and dirt. Moreover, intestinal lead absorption is greater in children than in adults. The author recommends a concerted effort to reduce undue lead absorption in children. (JMT)

Lin-Fu, J.S.

1982-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

271

High-Pressure and High-Temperature Powder Diffraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...pressure and varies the motor speed is often used...12.398 is from the quantum mechanical relationship...detectors could in the future reduce data collection...kind of studies in the future. Other more fundamental...addressed in the near future. Temperature gradients...

Yingwei Fei; Yanbin Wang

272

Method for cooling nanostructures to microkelvin temperatures  

SciTech Connect

We propose a new scheme aimed at cooling nanostructures to microkelvin temperature based on the well established technique of adiabatic nuclear demagnetization: we attach each device measurement lead to an individual nuclear refrigerator, allowing efficient thermal contact to a microkelvin bath. On a prototype consisting of a parallel network of nuclear refrigerators, temperatures of {approx}1 mK simultaneously on ten measurement leads have been reached upon demagnetization, thus completing the first steps toward ultracold nanostructures.

Clark, A. C.; Schwarzwaelder, K. K.; Bandi, T.; Maradan, D.; Zumbuehl, D. M. [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel CH-4056 (Switzerland)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Quantitative analysis of damage in an octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazonic-based composite explosive subjected to a linear thermal gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The microstructure within a slowly heated consolidated explosive will be influenced by both physical changes and chemical reactions prior to thermal ignition. Thermal expansion exothermic decomposition endothermic phase change and increased binder viscosity play significant roles in the cook-off to detonation. To further explore the details of this intricate cook-off process we have conducted a series of experiments in which a carefully controlled temperature gradient has been applied along a cylinder of PBX 9501 [94.9/2.5/2.5/0.1-wt % octahydro-1 3 5 7-tetranitro-1 3 5 7-tetrazocine (HMX)/Estane 5703/a eutectic mixture of bis(2 2 dinitropropyl) acetal and bis(2 2-dinitropropyl) formal [abbreviated BDNPA-F]/Irganox] and maintained for a specified amount of time. After heating and subsequent cooling of the PBX 9501 the sample morphology has been probed with polarized light microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering. Using these techniques we have quantitatively characterized the particle morphology porosity and chemical state of the explosive as a function of position and therefore thermal treatment. Results of the analyses clearly show that thermal damage in PBX 9501 can be classified into two separate temperature regimes—an initial low-temperature regime ( 155 – 174 ° C ) dominated by the endothermic ? - ? crystalline phase change thermal expansion and Ostwald ripening and a high-temperature regime ( 175 – 210 ° C ) dominated by exothermic chemical decomposition. The results further show the complex interplay between the evolving sample morphology and the chemical reactions leading to a potential thermal self-ignition in the explosive.

Paul D. Peterson; Joseph T. Mang; Blaine W. Asay

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Quantitative analysis of damage in an octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazonic-based composite explosive subjected to a linear thermal gradient  

SciTech Connect

The microstructure within a slowly heated, consolidated explosive will be influenced by both physical changes and chemical reactions prior to thermal ignition. Thermal expansion, exothermic decomposition, endothermic phase change, and increased binder viscosity play significant roles in the cook-off to detonation. To further explore the details of this intricate cook-off process, we have conducted a series of experiments in which a carefully controlled temperature gradient has been applied along a cylinder of PBX 9501 [94.9/2.5/2.5/0.1-wt % octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX)/Estane 5703/a eutectic mixture of bis(2,2 dinitropropyl) acetal and bis(2,2-dinitropropyl) formal [abbreviated BDNPA-F]/Irganox] and maintained for a specified amount of time. After heating and subsequent cooling of the PBX 9501, the sample morphology has been probed with polarized light microscopy and small-angle x-ray scattering. Using these techniques we have quantitatively characterized the particle morphology, porosity, and chemical state of the explosive as a function of position, and therefore thermal treatment. Results of the analyses clearly show that thermal damage in PBX 9501 can be classified into two separate temperature regimes--an initial low-temperature regime (155-174 deg. C) dominated by the endothermic {beta}-{delta} crystalline phase change, thermal expansion, and Ostwald ripening, and a high-temperature regime (175-210 deg. C) dominated by exothermic chemical decomposition. The results further show the complex interplay between the evolving sample morphology and the chemical reactions leading to a potential thermal self-ignition in the explosive.

Peterson, Paul D.; Mang, Joseph T.; Asay, Blaine W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Thermal Gradient Holes At Cove Fort Area - Vapor (Warpinski, Et Al., 2002)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

2) 2) Exploration Activity Details Location Cove Fort Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The project at Cove Fort/Sulphurdale in Utah, T26S R6/7W, is concerned with locating and drilling a 900-meter well to explore the western extension of the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale geothermal area. The geophysical exploration consisted of resistivity, ground magnetic, and microgravity surveys that were made to site the well in an optimum location. Drilling of the test well was completed in the fall of 2001 and results are currently being evaluated. The total depth of the well is 598 m with a non-equilibrated maximum temperature probably in the range of 157degrees C and a very complicated geologic structure.

276

Thermal Gradient Holes At Tungsten Mountain Area (Kratt, Et Al., 2008) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kratt, Et Al., 2008) Kratt, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Tungsten Mountain Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes twenty-three gold exploration holes were drilled by Newcrest Resources, Inc. during 2005 and 2006 along the range front. These holes approached or exceeded 300 m in depth and all holes encountered hot water and/or steam. Despite the high temperatures encountered at relatively shallow depths, there are no active geothermal features such as hot springs or steam vents at the surface. The presence of small outcrops of argillic alteration containing anomalous gold attracted the interest of exploration geologists. References Christopher Kratt, Mark Coolbaugh, Chris Sladek, Rick Zehner, Robin

277

Thermal Gradient Holes At Tungsten Mountain Area (Shevenell, Et Al., 2008)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Shevenell, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Tungsten Mountain Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Collaboration with the gold mining industry has brought two new geothermal discoveries to the attention of the geothermal community. Exploration holes at Tungsten Mountain and McGuiness Hills (Figure 1) in 2004 and 2005 encountered hot water and steam at depths of meters with fluid geothermometry indicating reservoir temperatures of 170 to 200oC. More information can be obtained from the Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology web site (www.nbmg.unr.edu/geothermal/gtmap.pdf), and from a PowerPoint presentation titled 'Geothermal Exploration Short Stories' posted on the Geothermal Resources Council web site

278

A Technique for Dynamic Corrosion Testing in Liquid Lead Alloys  

SciTech Connect

An experimental apparatus for the investigation of the flow-assisted dissolution and precipitation (corrosion) of potential fuel cladding and structural materials to be used in liquid lead alloy cooled reactors has been designed. This experimental project is part of a larger research effort between Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology to investigate the suitability of lead, lead-bismuth, and other lead alloys for cooling fast reactors designed to produce low-cost electricity as well as for actinide burning. The INEEL forced convection corrosion cell consists of a small heated vessel with a shroud and gas flow system. The gas flow rates, heat input, and shroud and vessel dimensions have been adjusted so that a controlled coolant flow rate, temperature, and oxygen potential are created within the downcomer located between the shroud and vessel wall. The ATHENA computer code was used to design the experimental apparatus and estimate the fluid conditions. The corrosion cell will test steel that is commercially available in the U. S. to temperatures above 650oC.

Loewen, Eric Paul; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Beamline Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Temperatures Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 493.2242 mA Date: 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 493.2 mA 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 LN:MainTankLevel 124.4 in LN:MainTankPress 56.9 psi SPEAR-BL:B120HeFlow 15.4 l/min SPEAR-BL:B131HeFlow 22.2 l/min BL 4 BL02:LCW 0.0 ℃ BL02:M0_LCW 31.5 ℃ BL 4-1 BL04-1:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom1 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom2 47.0 ℃ BL04-1:Lower 32.0 ℃ BL04-1:Moly 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalA -167.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalB -172.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalA -177.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalB -175.0 ℃ BL 4-2 BL04-2:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom1 24.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom2 25.0 ℃

280

Studies On Advanced Lead-Acid Batteries.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Subsequent to the studies on precursor lead-acid systems by Daniel, Grove and Sindesten, practical lead-acid batteries began with the research and inventions of Raymond Gaston… (more)

Martha, Surendra Kumar

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Elastic Relaxation and Correlation of Local Strain Gradients with  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Elastic Relaxation and Correlation Elastic Relaxation and Correlation of Local Strain Gradients with Ferroelectric Domains in (001) BiFeO3 Nanostructures Elastic Relaxation and Correlation of Local Strain Gradients with Ferroelectric Domains in (001) BiFeO3 Nanostructures Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory (MSD and CNM) have recently performed first worldwide studies of effects of nanopatterning on fundamental phenomena in mutiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) nanostructures, using the APS-CNM nanoprobe beam (50 nm diameter). Nano-focused x-ray diffraction microscopy provided new insights into the relationship between film strain and ferroelectric domains in nanostructures, namely: i) an out-of-plane strain enhancement of as much as -1.8% Δc/c in a BFO film-based nanostructure relative to a planar film; ii) out-of-plane BFO C-axis

282

Gradient Plasticity Model and its Implementation into MARMOT  

SciTech Connect

The influence of strain gradient on deformation behavior of nuclear structural materials, such as boby centered cubic (bcc) iron alloys has been investigated. We have developed and implemented a dislocation based strain gradient crystal plasticity material model. A mesoscale crystal plasticity model for inelastic deformation of metallic material, bcc steel, has been developed and implemented numerically. Continuum Dislocation Dynamics (CDD) with a novel constitutive law based on dislocation density evolution mechanisms was developed to investigate the deformation behaviors of single crystals, as well as polycrystalline materials by coupling CDD and crystal plasticity (CP). The dislocation density evolution law in this model is mechanism-based, with parameters measured from experiments or simulated with lower-length scale models, not an empirical law with parameters back-fitted from the flow curves.

Barker, Erin I.; Li, Dongsheng; Zbib, Hussein M.; Sun, Xin

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Gradient instabilities of electromagnetic waves in Hall thruster plasma  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a linear analysis of gradient plasma instabilities in Hall thrusters. The study obtains and analyzes the dispersion equation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves based on the two-fluid model of a cold plasma. The regions of parameters corresponding to unstable high frequency modes are determined and the dependence of the increments and intrinsic frequencies on plasma parameters is obtained. The obtained results agree with those of previously published studies.

Tomilin, Dmitry [Department of Electrophysics, Keldysh Research Centre, Moscow 125438 (Russian Federation)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

284

Bioaccumulation of Perfluorochemicals in Pacific Oyster under Different Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bioaccumulation of Perfluorochemicals in Pacific Oyster under Different Salinity Gradients ... Where Kdsw and Kd0 represent the distribution coefficients in saline and pure water, respectively, S is salinity and kads is a constant for sorption salting constant (?kads = 0.0352?). ... Based on the fact that biotransformation of PFCs is negligible (35), the faster depuration rate for PFCs at higher salinities is attributable to increases in the uptake volume of water associated with increased salinity. ...

Junho Jeon; Kurunthachalam Kannan; Han Kyu Lim; Hyo Bang Moon; Jin Sung Ra; Sang Don Kim

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

285

Determination of dispersivities from a natural-gradient dispersion test  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and radioactive wastes. Contaminant hydrogeology is presently a focal point in the realm of hydrologic modeling. Generally, models are designed to represent simplified versions of reality and The style and format of this document was taken from the Journal... dispersivities, v ia a graphical approach, from a natural-gradient dispersion test in which artificial pollution was injected into an aquifer. The dispersion test was conducted by Sud icky et al. (1983) in order to characterize the dispersive properties...

Hoover, Caroline Marie

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Diffusion coefficient and radial gradient of galactic cosmic rays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the temporal changes of the diffusion coefficient K of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) at the Earth orbit calculated based on the experimental data using two different methods. The first approach is based on the Parker convection-diffusion approximation of GCR modulation [1]: i.e. K~Vr=dI where dI is the variation of the GCR intensity measured by neutron monitors (NM),V is the solar wind velocity and r is the radial distance. The second approach is based on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data. It was suggested that parallel mean free path can be expressed in terms of B as in [2]-[4]. Using data of the product of the parallel mean free path and radial gradient of GCR calculated based on the GCR anisotropy data (Ahluwalia et al., this conference ICRC 2013, poster ID: 487 [5]), we estimate the temporal changes of the radial gradient of GCR at the Earth orbit. We show that the radial gradient exhibits a strong solar cycle dependence (11-year variation) and a weak solar magnetic cycle dependence (2...

Modzelewska, Renata

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Principal processes within the estuarine salinity gradient: A review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The salinity gradient is one of the main features characteristic of any estuarine ecosystem. Within this gradient in a critical salinity range of 5–8 PSU the major biotic and abiotic processes demonstrate non-linear dynamics of change in rates and directions. In estuaries, this salinity range acts as both external ecological factor and physiological characteristics of internal environment of aquatic organisms; it divides living conditions appropriate for freshwater and marine faunas, separates invertebrate communities with different osmotic regulation types, and defines the distribution range of high taxa. In this paper, the non-linearity of biotic processes within the estuarine salinity gradient is illustrated by the data on zooplankton from the Baltic estuaries. The non-tidal Baltic Sea provides a good demonstration of the above phenomena due to gradual changes of environmental factors and relatively stable isohalines. The non-linearity concept coupled with the ecosystem approach served the basis for a new definition of an estuary proposed by the authors.

Irena V. Telesh; Vladislav V. Khlebovich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Virioplankton community structure along a salinity gradient in a solar saltern  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The virioplankton community structure along a salinity gradient from near seawater (40‰) to saturated ... . The viral community structure changed along the salinity gradient. Cluster analysis of the viral genome-...

Ruth-Anne Sandaa; Evy Foss Skjoldal; Gunnar Bratbak

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

High-Performance Ionic Diode Membrane for Salinity Gradient Power Generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High-Performance Ionic Diode Membrane for Salinity Gradient Power Generation ... These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solns., such as thermolytic salts. ... saline brines because of the higher power d. ...

Jun Gao; Wei Guo; Dan Feng; Huanting Wang; Dongyuan Zhao; Lei Jiang

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

290

Creation of nonlinear density gradients for use in internal wave research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method was developed to create a nonlinear density gradient in a tank of water. Such gradients are useful for studying internal waves, an ocean phenomenon that plays an important role in climate and ocean circulation. ...

Harris, Victoria Siân

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - alpine elevation gradient Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ecosystems, generated only by a water availability gradient, the ... Source: Colorado at Boulder, University of - Alpine Microbial Observatory Collection: Environmental...

292

Dielectric-Loaded Microwave Cavity for High-Gradient Testing of Superconducting Materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an energy distribution. Data was taken from the CRC Handbook 90th edition [13]. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 17 10 Current state of high gradient cavities in the SRF world. Note these points are champion cavities, the average gradient of all... an energy distribution. Data was taken from the CRC Handbook 90th edition [13]. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 17 10 Current state of high gradient cavities in the SRF world. Note these points are champion cavities, the average gradient of all...

Pogue, Nathaniel Johnston

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - african latitudinal gradient Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

richness... latitudinal gradients. Keywords Fleas, geographic range, ... Source: Poulin, Robert - Department of Zoology, University of Otago Collection: Biology and Medicine...

294

Benthic biodiversity indices versus salinity gradient in the southern Baltic Sea  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Benthic biodiversity indices versus salinity gradient in the southern Baltic Sea Michael L. Zettler Biotic Index) and BQI (Benthic Quality Index), were tested along a salinity gradient in the southern; Ecological quality; Salinity gradient; Water Framework Directive; Oxygen depletion 1. Introduction

Zettler, Michael

295

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin-Film Composite Pressure Retarded Osmosis Membranes for Sustainable Power Generation from Salinity Gradients ... Pressure retarded osmosis has the potential to produce renewable energy from natural salinity gradients. ... Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) and reverse electrodialysis (RED) are emerging membrane-based technologies that can convert chemical energy in salinity gradients to useful work. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Alberto Tiraferri; William A. Phillip; Jessica D. Schiffman; Laura A. Hoover; Yu Chang Kim; Menachem Elimelech

2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

296

Long-term ecological dynamics: reciprocal insights from natural and anthropogenic gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...be studied by using natural springs that create gradients of CO2 gas, and which are at...gradients There are many natural gradients of climate...adjacent areas in natural forests in Hawaii...such as how trophic cascades and other community...

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Adaptive Restart for Accelerated Gradient Schemes Brendan O'Donoghue Emmanuel Cand`es  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adaptive Restart for Accelerated Gradient Schemes Brendan O'Donoghue Emmanuel Cand`es April 13- matically improve the convergence rate of accelerated gradient schemes. The analysis of the technique relies. In what we refer to as the `high momentum' regime the iterates generated by an accelerated gradient scheme

Candes, Emmanuel J.

298

Low-temperature vortex dynamics in a high-temperature superconductor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Magnetic-field gradients in the mixed state of a type-II superconductor are studied using Tl205 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) on Tl2Ba2Ca2Cu3O10+?. An anomalous peak was observed in the temperature dependence of the transverse relaxation rate at T/Tc?0.25. We attribute this behavior to magnetic-field flucutations from vortex dynamics. We interpret this behavior as a crossover of the principal time scale for vortex dynamics with that of the NMR experiment, approximately 100 ?s. The temperature dependence of this time scale is discussed.

Y.-Q. Song; S. Tripp; W. P. Halperin; L. Tonge; T. J. Marks

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Net weekly variation of vertical temperature structure in the upper ocean layers (Autumn, North Atlantic)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of vet and dry bulb air temperature, vind force, and cloud cover, daily graphs of net surface heat flux vere constructed. From observations of temperature structure by bathythermograph (BT), daily graphs of temperature change to a depth of 60 feet vera... is density of air (Sverdrup, 1942), g is resistance co- 2 ~ ffioient, u is wind speed at anenometer height, u is the gradient vind speed, Q is pressure gradient on the weather nap and K is a correction for isobar curvature. With this expression for C...

Gilcrest, Robert A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

300

Rapid sonochemical preparation of shape-selective lead iodide  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: SEM morphologies of various PbI2 products obtained with the iodine concentration of 6.7 g/L and irradiation time of 1 minute at the reaction temperatures of 35 °C (a), 25 °C (b), and 15 °C (c). Highlights: ? PbI{sub 2} with various morphologies were rapidly formed at room temperature. ? We could well control the morphologies of PbI{sub 2} by changing reaction conditions. ? The PbI{sub 2} films could better resist rolling in a liquid media. -- Abstract: Lead iodide (PbI{sub 2}) films/crystals with various nano/micro morphologies (e.g., Nanoflake, block and microrod) were rapidly synthesized by taking advantage of a simple sonochemical method. The PbI{sub 2} crystals with uniform nanoflake structures could be fabricated directly on lead foils with the irradiation time as short as 36 s via interfacial reaction between lead foils and elemental iodine in ethanol at ambient temperature. It was found experimentally that the morphologies of the resulting thin films/crystals could be well controlled by the adjustment of several parameters including irradiation time, reaction solvents, iodine concentration, ultrasonic power, and reaction temperature. Most importantly, the resultant PbI{sub 2} films are stable enough to resist rolling under the drastic ultrasound irradiation in a liquid media. This method is believed to be the fastest way for in situ fabrication of morphology-controlled semiconductor films on various metal substrates for subsequent applications related to the other metal iodide or metal sulfide semiconductor films.

Huang, Baojun [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China); He, Qin [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)] [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China); Fa, Wenjun; Li, Pinjiang; Zhang, Yange [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China); Zheng, Zhi, E-mail: zzheng@xcu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Micro-Nano Materials for Energy Storage and Conversion of Henan Province, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials, Xuchang University, Xuchang, Henan 461000 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Abundance and diversity of tidal marsh plants along the salinity gradient of the San Francisco Estuary: implications for global change ecology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plants along the salinity gradient of the San Franciscotransects along the salinity gradient of the San Franciscoacross the full salinity gradient of the San Francisco

Watson, Elizabeth Burke; Byrne, Roger

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Hottest spot temperatures in ventilated dry type transformers  

SciTech Connect

The hottest spot temperature allowance to be used for the different insulation system temperature classes is a major unknown facing IEEE Working Groups developing standards and loading guides for ventilated dry type transformers. In 1944, the hottest spot temperature allowance for ventilated dry type transformers was established as 30 C for 80 C average winding temperature rise. Since 1944, insulation temperature classes have increased to 220 C but IEEE standards continue to use a constant 30 C hottest spot temperature allowance. IEC standards use a variable hottest spot temperature allowance from 5 to 30 C. Six full size test windings were manufactured with imbedded thermocouples and 133 test runs performed to obtain temperature rise data. The test data indicated that the hottest spot temperature allowance used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA is too low. This is due to the large thermal gradient from the bottom to the top of the windings caused by natural convection air flow through the cooling ducts. A constant ratio of hottest spot winding temperature rise to average winding temperature rise should be used in product standards for all insulation temperature classes. A ratio of 1.5 is suggested for ventilated dry type transformers above 500 kVA. This would increase the hottest spot temperature allowance from 30 C to 60 C and decrease the permissible average winding temperature rise from 150 C to 120 C for the 220 C insulation temperature class.

Pierce, L.W. (General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Salinity gradient energy potential in Colombia considering site specific constraints  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The theoretical potential of salinity gradient energy in river mouth systems is the maximum amount of energy that can be extracted from the controlled mixing of river water and seawater. It is calculated using the Gibbs free energy of mixing equations considering as inputs the mean rivers' discharge and the long term salinity of the ocean basin. However, this theoretical amount of energy can be far from the reality because both, the river discharge and the salinity of the ocean, have natural variations in different time scales. In this paper we expose the site constraints related with the variability of the salinity gradients that must be considered in order to make a more accurate estimation of the available resources and calculate the so-called site specific potential for the most important and feasible river mouths of Colombia. The results show that in Colombia a mean site specific potential of 15.6 GW can be achieved, mainly in the Magdalena River mouth (97% of total). But more important, the results show that the salinity structure of the studied systems have different responses to variations of the environmental forcing, despite being located in the same ocean basin, and therefore, the energy potential for each river mouth has different variability patterns at different time scales. Decreases of the estimated energy potential up to 69% were found when the site specific potential is calculated instead of the theoretical potential. This prove that more detailed input data than long term discharges and salinities are necessary in order to make accurate estimations of local and regional salinity gradient energy potentials.

Oscar Alvarez-Silva; Andrés F. Osorio

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Fabrication of high gradient insulators by stack compression  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Individual layers of a high gradient insulator (HGI) are first pre-cut to their final dimensions. The pre-cut layers are then stacked to form an assembly that is subsequently pressed into an HGI unit with the desired dimension. The individual layers are stacked, and alignment is maintained, using a sacrificial alignment tube that is removed after the stack is hot pressed. The HGI's are used as high voltage vacuum insulators in energy storage and transmission structures or devices, e.g. in particle accelerators and pulsed power systems.

Harris, John Richardson; Sanders, Dave; Hawkins, Steven Anthony; Norona, Marcelo

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

The gradient flow running coupling with twisted boundary conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the gradient flow for Yang-Mills theories with twisted boundary conditions. The perturbative behavior of the energy density $\\langle E(t)\\rangle$ is used to define a running coupling at a scale given by the linear size of the finite volume box. We compute the non-perturbative running of the pure gauge $SU(2)$ coupling constant and conclude that the technique is well suited for further applications due to the relatively mild cutoff effects of the step scaling function and the high numerical precision that can be achieved in lattice simulations. We also comment on the inclusion of matter fields.

A. Ramos

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

306

High and ulta-high gradient quadrupole magnets  

SciTech Connect

Small bore conventional dc quadrupoles with apertures from 1 to 2.578cm were designed and prototypes built and measured. New fabrication techniques including the use of wire electric discharge milling (EDM) to economically generate the pole tip contours and aperture tolerances are described. Magnetic measurement data from a prototype of a 1cm aperture quadrupole with possible use in future e/sup +//e/sup -/ super colliders are presented. At a current of 400A, the lens achieved a gradient of 2.475 T/cm, and had an efficiency of 76.6%.

Brunk, W.O.; Walz, D.R.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Superconducting travelling wave ring with high gradient accelerating section  

SciTech Connect

Use of a superconducting traveling wave accelerating (STWA) structure instead of a standing wave cavity has major advantages in increasing the accelerating gradient in the ILC. In contrast with standing wave cavity STWA requires feedback loop, which sends wave from the structure output to input, making a superconducting traveling wave ring (STWR). One or few input couplers need to excite STWR and compensate power dissipations due to beam loading. To control traveling wave regime in the structure two independent knobs can be used for tuning both resonant ring frequency and backward wave. We discuss two variants of the STWR with one and two feed couplers.

Avrakhov, P.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Gradient index liquid crystal devices and method of fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Laser beam apodizers using cholesteric liquid crystals provides soft edge profile by use of two separate cholesteric liquid crystal mixtures with different selective reflection bands which in an overlap region have a gradient index where reflectivity changes as a function of position. The apodizers can be configured as a one-dimensional beam apod INTRODUCTION The U.S. government has rights in the invention under Contract No. DE-FC03-85DP40200 between the University of Rochester and the Department of Energy.

Lee, J.C.; Jacobs, S.

1991-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

309

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 11331143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline in Africa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Policy 29 (2001) 1133­1143 Ethanol as a lead replacement: phasing out leaded gasoline cost of lead additives and of gasoline, and the falling cost of ethanol and sugarcane, have created sugarcane is produced in Africa to replace all the lead used in African gasoline; this would require Africa

Thomas, Valerie

310

Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program - Bangladesh ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Redirect page Jump to: navigation, search REDIRECT Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowEmissionsAsianDevel...

311

Procurement Standards Lead-by-Example Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

State and local governments can lead by example by promoting energy efficiency programs and policies for public facilities, equipment, and government operations.

312

Building Standards Lead-by-Example Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

State and local governments can lead by example by promoting energy efficiency programs and policies for public facilities, equipment, and government operations.

313

Lead in Maple Syrup Produced in Connecticut  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lead in Maple Syrup Produced in Connecticut ... Department of Analytical Chemistry, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, P.O. ... Box 1106, New Haven, Connecticut 06504 ...

David E. Stilwell; Craig L. Musante

1996-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

314

Energy Efficiency Lead-by-Example Resources  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

State and local governments can lead by example by promoting energy efficiency programs and policies for public facilities, equipment, and government operations.

315

Observation of a Magnetic Modulation of the Lattice Electric-Field Gradient of Fe2+ Substituted in 1T-TaS2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An unusual temperature dependence of the quadrupole splitting of Fe2+ in 1T-Fe0.1Ta0.9S2 can be understood in terms of a magnetic modulation of the lattice electric-field gradient. This modulation is produced by a strictive interaction between the local lattice environment and the continuous low-spin-high-spin transition of Fe2+. The onset of the charge-density-wave instability can also be observed.

M. Eibschütz and M. E. Lines

1977-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

316

Coalescence of Drops Near A Hydrophilic Boundary Leads to Long Range Directed Motion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new mechanism for the passive removal of drop on a horizontal surface is described that does not require pre-fabrication of a surface energy gradient. The method relies upon the preparation of alternate hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on a surface. When one side of this surface is exposed to steam, with its other surface convectively cooled with cold water, steam condenses as a continuous film on the hydrophilic stripes but as droplets on the hydrophobic stripes. Coalescence leads to a random motion of the center of mass of the fused drops on the surface, which are readily removed as they reach near the boundary of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones thus resulting in a net diffusive flux of the coalesced drops from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic stripes of the surface. Although an in-situ produced thermal gradient due to differential heat transfer coefficients of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes could provide additional driving force for such a motion, it is, however, not a necessary condition for motion to occur. This method of creating directed motion of drops does not require a pre-existing wettability gradient and may have useful applications in thermal management devices.

Manoj K. Chaudhury; Aditi Chakrabarti; Tapasya Tibrewal

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

317

Analytic energy gradients for constrained DFT-configuration interaction  

SciTech Connect

The constrained density functional theory-configuration interaction (CDFT-CI) method has previously been used to calculate ground-state energies and barrier heights, and to describe electronic excited states, in particular conical intersections. However, the method has been limited to evaluating the electronic energy at just a single nuclear configuration, with the gradient of the energy being available only via finite difference. In this paper, we present analytic gradients of the CDFT-CI energy with respect to nuclear coordinates, which gives the potential for accurate geometry optimization and molecular dynamics on both the ground and excited electronic states, a realm which is currently quite challenging for electronic structure theory. We report the performance of CDFT-CI geometry optimization for representative reaction transition states as well as molecules in an excited state. The overall accuracy of CDFT-CI for computing barrier heights is essentially unchanged whether the energies are evaluated at geometries obtained from quadratic configuration-interaction singles and doubles (QCISD) or CDFT-CI, indicating that CDFT-CI produces very good reaction transition states. These results open up tantalizing possibilities for future work on excited states.

Kaduk, Benjamin; Tsuchimochi, Takashi; Van Voorhis, Troy, E-mail: tvan@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

318

Ultra-High Gradient Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-high gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators are a potential option for a linear collider afterburner since they are immune to the ion collapse and electron/positron asymmetry problems implicit in a plasma based afterburner. The first phase of an experiment to study the performance of dielectric Cerenkov wakefield accelerating structures at extremely high gradients in the GV/m range has been completed. The experiment took advantage of the unique SLAC FFTB electron beam and its ultra-short pulse lengths and high currents (e.g., {sigma}{sub z} = 20 {micro}m at Q = 3 nC). The FFTB electron beam was successfully focused down and sent through short lengths of fused silica capillary tubing (ID = 200 {micro}m/OD = 325 {micro}m). The pulse length of the electron beam was varied to produce a range of electric fields between 2 and 20 GV/m at the inner surface of the dielectric tubes. We observed a sharp increase in optical emissions from the capillaries in the middle part of this surface field range which we believe indicates the transition between sustainable field levels and breakdown. If this initial interpretation is correct, the surfaced fields that were sustained equate to on axis accelerating field of several GV/m. In future experiments being developed for the SLAC SABER and BNL ATF we plan to use the coherent Cerenkov radiation emitted from the capillary tube as a field strength diagnostic and demonstrate GV/m range particle energy gain.

Thompson, M C; Badakov, H; Rosenzweig, J B; Travish, G; Hogan, M; Ischebeck, R; Kirby, N; Siemann, R; Walz, D; Muggli, P; Scott, A; Yoder, R

2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

319

Ultra-High Gradient Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator Experiments  

SciTech Connect

Ultra-high gradient dielectric wakefield accelerators are a potential option for a linear collider afterburner since they are immune to the ion collapse and electron/positron asymmetry problems implicit in a plasma based afterburner. The first phase of an experiment to study the performance of dielectric Cerenkov wakefield accelerating structures at extremely high gradients in the GV/m range has been completed. The experiment took advantage of the unique SLAC FFTB electron beam and its ultra-short pulse lengths and high currents (e.g., {sigma}z = 20 {mu}m at Q = 3 nC). The FFTB electron beam was successfully focused down and sent through short lengths of fused silica capillary tubing (ID = 200 {mu}m / OD = 325 {mu}m). The pulse length of the electron beam was varied to produce a range of electric fields between 2 and 20 GV/m at the inner surface of the dielectric tubes. We observed a sharp increase in optical emissions from the capillaries in the middle part of this surface field range which we believe indicates the transition between sustainable field levels and breakdown. If this initial interpretation is correct, the surfaced fields that were sustained equate to on axis accelerating field of several GV/m. In future experiments being developed for the SLAC SABER and BNL ATF we plan to use the coherent Cerenkov radiation emitted from the capillary tube as a field strength diagnostic and demonstrate GV/m range particle energy gain.

Thompson, M. C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California, 90095 (United States); Badakov, H.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Travis, G. [UCLA Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, California, 90095 (United States); Hogan, M.; Ischebeck, R.; Kirby, N.; Siemann, R.; Walz, D. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, California, 94309 (United States); Muggli, P. [University of Southern California Los Angeles, California, 90089 (United States); Scott, A. [UCSB Department of Physics, Santa Barbara, California, 93106 (United States); Yoder, R. [Manhattan College, Riverdale, New York, 10471 (United States)

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

320

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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321

Dielectric-Lined High-Gradient Accelerator Structure  

SciTech Connect

Rectangular particle accelerator structures with internal planar dielectric elements have been studied, with a view towards devising structures with lower surface fields for a given accelerating field, as compared with structures without dielectrics. Success with this concept is expected to allow operation at higher accelerating gradients than otherwise on account of reduced breakdown probabilities. The project involves studies of RF breakdown on amorphous dielectrics in test cavities that could enable high-gradient structures to be built for a future multi-TeV collider. The aim is to determine what the limits are for RF fields at the surfaces of selected dielectrics, and the resulting acceleration gradient that could be achieved in a working structure. The dielectric of principal interest in this study is artificial CVD diamond, on account of its advertised high breakdown field ({approx}2 GV/m for dc), low loss tangent, and high thermal conductivity. Experimental studies at mm-wavelengths on materials and structures for achieving high acceleration gradient were based on the availability of the 34.3 GHz third-harmonic magnicon amplifier developed by Omega-P, and installed at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. Peak power from the magnicon was measured to be about 20 MW in 0.5 {micro}s pulses, with a gain of 54 dB. Experiments for studying RF high-field effects on CVD diamond samples failed to show any evidence after more than 10{sup 5} RF pulses of RF breakdown up to a tangential surface field strength of 153 MV/m; studies at higher fields were not possible due to a degradation in magnicon performance. A rebuild of the tube is underway at this writing. Computed performance for a dielectric-loaded rectangular accelerator structure (DLA) shows highly competitive properties, as compared with an existing all-metal structure. For example, comparisons were made of a DLA structure having two planar CVD diamond elements with a all-metal CERN structure HDS operating at 30 GHz. It was shown that the ratio of maximum surface electric field to accelerating field at the metal wall is only 0.35-0.4 for DLA, much smaller than the value 2.2 for HDS; and the ratio of surface magnetic field to accelerating field is 3.0 mA/V for DLA, compared with 3.45 mA/V for HDS. These values bode well for DLA in helping to avoid breakdown and to reducing pulsed surface heating and fatigue. The shunt impedance is found to be 160-175 M{Omega}/m for DLA, as compared to 99 M{Omega}/m for HDS. Conclusions are reached from this project that CVD diamond appears promising as a dielectric with a high threshold for RF breakdown, and that rectangular accelerator structures can be devised using planar CVD diamond elements that could be operated at higher acceleration gradients with low probability of RF breakdown, as compared with corresponding all-metallic structures.

Jay L. Hirshfield

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

322

Fan-fold shielded electrical leads  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are fan-folded electrical leads made from copper cladded Kapton, for example, with the copper cladding on one side serving as a ground plane and the copper cladding on the other side being etched to form the leads. The Kapton is fan folded with the leads located at the bottom of the fan-folds. Electrical connections are made by partially opening the folds of the fan and soldering, for example, the connections directly to the ground plane and/or the lead. The fan folded arrangement produces a number of advantages, such as electrically shielding the leads from the environment, is totally non-magnetic, and has a very low thermal conductivity, while being easy to fabricate. 3 figs.

Rohatgi, R.R.; Cowan, T.E.

1996-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

323

Uptake of ?DDT, Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, and Lead by Lettuce and Radish Grown in Contaminated Horticultural Soils  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uptake of ?DDT, Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, and Lead by Lettuce and Radish Grown in Contaminated Horticultural Soils ... Supplementary lighting was not used, and the temperature was maintained between 10 and 25 °C with an average minimum temperature of 14 °C and an average maximum temperature of 24 °C obtained for the duration of the trial. ... horticulture ...

S. K. Gaw; N. D. Kim; G. L. Northcott; A. L. Wilkins; G. Robinson

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Exploring the effect of Al2O3 ALD coating on a high gradient ILC single-cell cavity  

SciTech Connect

Encouraged by work at Argonne National Lab, we investigated atomic layer deposition technique (ALD) for high gradient superconducting RF cavities at JLab with an ALD coating system of Old Dominion University located on the JLab site. The goal of this study was to look into the possibility of coating a dielectric layer on top of RF niobium surface at a lower temperature of 120 C as compared to ANL coatings at 200 C to preserve niobium pentoxide on niobium surface. The initial coatings showed complete, but non-uniform coatings of the surface with several areas exhibiting discoloration, which was probably due to the temperature variation across the cavity surface. The initial coating showed a high RF losses, which were improved after discolored areas on the beam tubes were removed with HF rinse of the beam tubes only. The best result was 2 109 low field Q0 and Eacc = 18 MV/m limited by available power.

Grigory Eremeev, Anne-Marie Valente, Andy Wu, Diefeng Gu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Opacity and gradients in aluminum wire array z-pinch implosions on the Z pulsed power facility  

SciTech Connect

Aluminum wire array z pinches imploded on the Z generator are an extremely bright source of 1–2?keV radiation, with close to 400?kJ radiated at photon energies >1?keV and more than 50?kJ radiated in a single line (Al Ly-?). Opacity plays a critical role in the dynamics and K-shell radiation efficiency of these pinches. Where significant structure is present in the stagnated pinch this acts to reduce the effective opacity of the system as demonstrated by direct analysis of spectra. Analysis of time-integrated broadband spectra (0.8–25?keV) indicates electron temperatures ranging from a few 100?eV to a few keV are present, indicative of substantial temperature gradients.

Ampleford, D. J., E-mail: damplef@sandia.gov; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C. A.; Jones, B.; Coverdale, C. A.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Rochau, G. A.; Dunham, G.; Moore, N. W.; Harding, E. C.; Cuneo, M. E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Chong, Y.-K.; Clark, R. W.; Ouart, N.; Thornhill, J. W.; Giuliani, J.; Apruzese, J. P. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

326

Static Temperature Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Static Temperature Survey At Coso Geothermal Area Static Temperature Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Static Temperature Survey Activity Date 1977 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Temperature logs were taken during and after drilling: Results: Convective heat flow and temperatures greater than 350 F appear to occur only along an open fracture system encountered between depths of 1850 and 2775 feet. Temperature logs indicate a negative thermal gradient below 3000 feet. Water chemistry indicates that this geothermal resource is a hot-water rather than a vapor-dominated system. References Galbraith, R. M. (1 May 1978) Geological and geophysical analysis of Coso Geothermal Exploration Hole No. 1 (CGEH-1), Coso Hot Springs KGRA,

327

Sustainability Peer Educator Group Lead Positions Position: Sustainability Peer Educators Group Lead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sustainability Peer Educator Group Lead Positions Position: Sustainability Peer Educators Group times) Term of position: September 2013 ­ April 2014 Position Summary: Working with the Sustainability Project Coordinator, the Sustainability Peer Educator Group Leads will be responsible

Boonstra, Rudy

328

Thermal Gradient Holes At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) Thermal Gradient Holes At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Socorro Mountain Area (Owens, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Socorro Mountain Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Pre-existing evidence includes heat gradients of upwards of 490mW/m2 from thermal-gradient wells, tepid spring waters (32oC) and silica geochemistry indicating thermal waters with a minimum of 82 degrees C at depth References Lara Owens, Richard Baars, David Norman, Harold Tobin (2005) New Methods In Exploration At The Socorro Peak Kgra- A Gred Iii Project Retrieved from

329

Modified Magnicon for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D  

SciTech Connect

Analysis, and low-power cold tests are described on a modified design intended for the Ka-band pulsed magnicon now in use for high-gradient accelerator R and D and rare elementary particle searches at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory. The modification is mainly to the output cavity of the magnicon, which presently operates in the TM310 mode. It is proposed to substitute for this a dual-chamber TE311 cavity structure. The first chamber is to extract about 40% of the beam power (about 25 MW) at 34.272 GHz, while the second chamber is to convey the power to four WR-28 output waveguides. Minor design changes are also proposed for the penultimate 11.424 GHz cavity and the beam collector. The intention of these design changes is to allow the magnicon to operate reliably 24/7, with minor sensitivity to operating parameters.

Jay L. Hirshfield

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

330

Optimization of the Oktay-Kronfeld Action Conjugate Gradient Inverter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improving the Fermilab action to third order in heavy quark effective theory yields the Oktay-Kronfeld action, a promising candidate for precise calculations of the spectra of heavy quark systems and weak matrix elements relevant to searches for new physics. We have optimized the bi-stabilized conjugate gradient inverter in the SciDAC QOPQDP library and are developing a GPU code. The action is rewritten and the needed gauge-link combinations are precalculated. In tests with a MILC coarse lattice, this procedure accelerates the inverter by a factor of four. The remaining floating-point operations are mostly simple matrix multiplications between gauge links and fermion vectors, which we accelerate by more than an order of magnitude by using CUDA. Further gains could be achieved by using QUDA.

Yong-Chull Jang; Jon A. Bailey; Weonjong Lee; Carleton DeTar; Mehmet B. Oktay; Andreas S. Kronfeld

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

331

Salinity gradient solar pond technology applied to potash solution mining  

SciTech Connect

A solution mining facility at the Eddy Potash Mine, Eddy County, New Mexico has been proposed that will utilize salinity gradient solar pond (SGSP) technology to supply industrial process thermal energy. The process will include underground dissolution of potassium chloride (KCl) from pillars and other reserves remaining after completion of primary room and pillar mining using recirculating solutions heated in the SGSP. Production of KCl will involve cold crystallization followed by a cooling pond stage, with the spent brine being recirculated in a closed loop back to the SGSP for reheating. This research uses SGSP as a renewable, clean energy source to optimize the entire mining process, minimize environmental wastes, provide a safe, more economical extraction process and reduce the need for conventional processing by crushing, grinding and flotation. The applications of SGSP technology will not only save energy in the extraction and beneficiation processes, but also will produce excess energy available for power generation, desalination, and auxiliary structure heating.

Martell, J.A.; Aimone-Martin, C.T.

2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

332

Thermal Gradient Holes At Coso Geothermal Area (1974) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coso Geothermal Area (1974) Coso Geothermal Area (1974) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date 1974 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Use heat flow studies for the first time at Coso to indicate the presence or absence of abnormal heat Notes Located 10 sites for heat flow boreholes using available seismic ground noise and electrical resistivity data; data collected from 9 of 10; thermal conductivity measurements were completed using both the needle probe technique and the divided bar apparatus with a cell arrangement. In the upper few hundred meters of the subsurface heat is being transferred by a conductive heat transfer mechanism with a value of ~ 15 µcal/cm2sec; the background heat flow is ~ 3.5 HFU.

333

THE EXTENSIVE AGE GRADIENT OF THE CARINA DWARF GALAXY  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of small systems such as dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) is likely to have been a balance between external environmental effects and internal processes within their own relatively shallow potential wells. Assessing how strong such environmental interactions may have been is therefore an important element in understanding the baryonic evolution of dSphs and their derived dark matter distribution. Here we present results from a wide-area CTIO/MOSAIC II photometric survey of the Carina dSph, reaching down to about two magnitudes below the oldest main-sequence turnoff (MSTO). This data set enables us to trace the structure of Carina in detail out to very large distances from its center, and as a function of stellar age. We observe the presence of an extended structure made up primarily of ancient MSTO stars, at distances between 25' and 60' from Carina's center, confirming results in the literature that Carina extends well beyond its nominal tidal radius. The large number statistics of our survey reveals features such as isophote twists and tails that were undetected in other previous, shallower surveys. This is the first time that such unambiguous signs of tidal disruption have been found in a Milky Way 'classical' dwarf other than Sagittarius. We also demonstrate the presence of a negative age gradient in Carina directly from its MSTOs, and trace it out to very large distances from the galaxy center. The signs of interaction with the Milky Way make it unclear whether the age gradient was already in place before Carina underwent tidal disruption.

Battaglia, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Irwin, M. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB03 0HA (United Kingdom); Tolstoy, E.; De Boer, T. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Mateo, M., E-mail: gbattaglia@oabo.inaf.it [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1090 (United States)

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

334

Property:LeadAgency | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

LeadAgency LeadAgency Jump to: navigation, search Property Name LeadAgency Property Type Page Pages using the property "LeadAgency" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) B BLM-NV-WN-ES-08-01-1310, NV-020-08-01 + BLM + C CA-017-05-051 + BLM + CA-170-02-15 + BLM + CA-650-2005-086 + BLM + CA-670-2010-107 + BLM + CA-670-2010-CX + BLM + CA-96062042 + United States Forest Service + D DOE-EA-1116 + United States Department of Energy + DOE-EA-1621 + United States Department of Energy + DOE-EA-1676 + United States Department of Energy + DOE-EA-1733 + United States Department of Energy + DOE-EA-1759 + United States Department of Energy + DOE-EA-1849 + United States Department of Energy + DOE-EA-1961 + United States Department of Energy +

335

Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

Lara-Curzio, Edgar (Lenoir City, TN); An, Ke (Knoxville, TX); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dudney, Nancy J. (Knoxville, TN); Contescu, Cristian I. (Knoxville, TN); Baker, Frederick S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Armstrong, Beth L. (Clinton, TN)

2011-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

336

Lightweight, durable lead-acid batteries  

SciTech Connect

A lightweight, durable lead-acid battery is disclosed. Alternative electrode materials and configurations are used to reduce weight, to increase material utilization and to extend service life. The electrode can include a current collector having a buffer layer in contact with the current collector and an electrochemically active material in contact with the buffer layer. In one form, the buffer layer includes a carbide, and the current collector includes carbon fibers having the buffer layer. The buffer layer can include a carbide and/or a noble metal selected from of gold, silver, tantalum, platinum, palladium and rhodium. When the electrode is to be used in a lead-acid battery, the electrochemically active material is selected from metallic lead (for a negative electrode) or lead peroxide (for a positive electrode).

Lara-Curzio, Edgar; An, Ke; Kiggans, Jr., James O; Dudney, Nancy J; Contescu, Cristian I; Baker, Frederick S; Armstrong, Beth L

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

337

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, K. E.; Galloway, K.; McCray, C. W.; Aitken, D. W.

2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

338

INEEL Lead Recycling in a Moratorium Environment  

SciTech Connect

Since 1999, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Lead Project successfully recycled over 700,000 pounds of excess INEEL lead to the private sector. On February 14, 2000, the Secretary of Energy, Bill Richardson, formalized the January 12, 2000, moratorium on recycling radioactive scrap metal that prevented the unrestricted release of recycled scrap metals to the private sector. This moratorium created significant problems for the INEEL lead recycling program and associated plans; however, through the cooperative efforts of the INEEL and Idaho State University as well as innovative planning and creative thinking the recycling issues were resolved. This collaboration has recycled over 160,000 pounds of excess lead to Idaho State University with a cost savings of over $.5M.

Kooda, Kevin Evan; Mc Cray, Casey William; Aitken, Darren William; Galloway, Kelly

2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Richard Gerber! NERSC! User Services Group Lead  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group Lead Debugging and Optimization Tools Thanks t o W oo---Sun Y ang a nd H elen H e Outline * Take---Aways * Debugging * Performance O p:miza:on * NERSC " automa:c" t ools...

340

Primer on lead-acid storage batteries  

SciTech Connect

This handbook was developed to help DOE facility contractors prevent accidents caused during operation and maintenance of lead-acid storage batteries. Major types of lead-acid storage batteries are discussed as well as their operation, application, selection, maintenance, and disposal (storage, transportation, as well). Safety hazards and precautions are discussed in the section on battery maintenance. References to industry standards are included for selection, maintenance, and disposal.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Temperature and Tidal Dynamics in a Branching Estuarine System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

along an estuarine salinity gradient: Combined influences ofthe along-channel salinity gradient, contrary to previouslysignificant salinity, density gradients were predominantly

Wagner, Richard Wayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Nekton community change along estuarine salinity gradients: Can salinity zones be defined?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organisms tend to inhabit predictable portions of estuaries along salinity gradients between the ocean inlets (salinity > 35 psu) and the freshwater tributaries (salinity = 0). Previous studies have suggested ......

Marin F. D. Greenwood

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Species richness, diversity and density of understory vegetation along disturbance gradients in the Himalayan conifer forest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated whether species richness, diversity and density of understory herbaceous plants differed along logging (gap) and grazing (primarily by cattle) disturbance gradients, and sought to identify drivers...

Kesang Wangchuk; András Darabant; Prem Bahadur Rai…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

345

Lead Coolant Test Facility Technical and Functional Requirements, Conceptual Design, Cost and Construction Schedule  

SciTech Connect

This report presents preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research need listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements of basis are identified: Develop and Demonstrate Prototype Lead/Lead-Bismuth Liquid Metal Flow Loop Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control Demonstrate Safe Operation and Provision for Future Testing. These five broad areas are divided into twenty-one (21) specific requirements ranging from coolant temperature to design lifetime. An overview of project engineering requirements, design requirements, QA and environmental requirements are also presented. The purpose of this T&FRs is to focus the lead fast reactor community domestically on the requirements for the next unique state of the art test facility. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 420oC. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M. It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

Soli T. Khericha

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure  

SciTech Connect

This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

Trotter, R.T. II (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Sandia National Laboratories: Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Due Diligence on Lead Acid Battery Recycling March 23, 2011 Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet Lead Acid Batteries on secondary containment pallet In 2004, the US...

349

Application of high temperature superconductors for fusion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) materials in future fusion machines can increase the efficiency drastically. For ITER, W7-X and JT-60SA the economic benefit of HTS current leads was recognized after a 70 kA HTS current lead demonstrator was designed, fabricated and successfully tested by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, which is a merge of former Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and University of Karlsruhe). For ITER, the Chinese Domestic Agency will provide the current leads as a part of the superconducting feeder system. KIT is in charge of design, construction and test of HTS current leads for W7-X and JT-60SA. For W7-X 14 current leads with a maximum current of 18.2 kA are required that are oriented with the room temperature end at the bottom. JT60-SA will need 26 current leads (20 leads @ 20 kA and 6 leads @ 25.7 kA) which are mounted in vertical, normal position. These current leads are based on BiSCCO HTS superconductors, demonstrating that HTS material is now state of the art for highly efficient current leads. With respect to future fusion reactors, it would be very promising to use HTS material not only in current leads but also in coils. This would allow a large increase of efficiency if the coils could be operated at temperatures ?65 K. With such a high temperature it would be possible to omit the radiation shield of the coils, resulting in a less complex cryostat and a size reduction of the machine. In addition less refrigeration power is needed saving investment and operating costs. However, to come to an HTS fusion coil it is necessary to develop low ac loss HTS cables for currents well above 20 kA at high fields well above 10 T. The high field rules BiSCCO superconductors out at temperatures above 50 K, but RE-123 superconductors are promising. The development of a high current, high field RE-123 HTS fusion cable will not be targeted outside fusion community and has to be in the frame of a long term development programme for DEMO. KIT has already demonstrated a scalable concept using RE-123 HTS tapes that are assembled to Roebel type conductors. This concept can be expanded to form Rutherford cables as starting point for a development of a high current fusion cable. The status and prospect of using HTS conductors for fusion is discussed.

W.H. Fietz; R. Heller; S.I. Schlachter; W. Goldacker

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Scrape-off Layer Flows With Pressure Gradient Scale Length ~ {rho}{sub p}  

SciTech Connect

A heuristic model for the plasma scrape-off width balances magnetic drifts against parallel loss at c{sub s} /2, resulting in a SOL width ~ {rho}{sub p}. T{sub sep} is calculated from Spitzer–Härm parallel thermal conduction. This results in a prediction for the power scrape-off width in quantitative agreement both in magnitude and scaling with recent experimental data. To achieve the ~ c{sub s} /2 flow assumed in this model and measured experimentally sets requirements on the ratio of upstream to total SOL particle sources, relative to the square-root of the ratio of target to upstream temperature. The Pfisch-Schlüter model for equilibrium flows has been modified to allow near-sonic flows, appropriate for gradient scale lengths of order {rho}{sub p}, resulting in a new quadrupole radial flow pattern. The strong parallel flows and plasma charging implied by this model suggest a mechanism for H-mode transition, consistent with many observations

Robert J. Goldston

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

351

Lightning arrestor connector lead magnesium niobate qualification pellet test procedures.  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced knowledge preservation for DOE DP technical component activities has recently received much attention. As part of this recent knowledge preservation effort, improved documentation of the sample preparation and electrical testing procedures for lead magnesium niobate--lead titanate (PMN/PT) qualification pellets was completed. The qualification pellets are fabricated from the same parent powders used to produce PMN/PT lightning arrestor connector (LAC) granules at HWF&T. In our report, the procedures for fired pellet surface preparation, electrode deposition, electrical testing and data recording are described. The dielectric measurements described in our report are an information only test. Technical reasons for selecting the electrode material, electrode size and geometry are presented. The electrical testing is based on measuring the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of the pellet during cooling from 280 C to 220 C. The most important data are the temperature for which the peak dielectric constant occurs (Curie Point temperature) and the peak dielectric constant magnitude. We determined that the peak dielectric constant for our procedure would be that measured at 1 kHz at the Curie Point. Both the peak dielectric constant and the Curie point parameters provide semi-quantitative information concerning the chemical and microstructural homogeneity of the parent material used for the production of PMN/PT granules for LACs. Finally, we have proposed flag limits for the dielectric data for the pellets. Specifically, if the temperature of the peak dielectric constant falls outside the range of 250 C {+-} 30 C we propose that a flag limit be imposed that will initiate communication between production agency and design agency personnel. If the peak dielectric constant measured falls outside the range 25,000 {+-} 10,000 we also propose that a flag limit be imposed.

Tuohig, W. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Mahoney, Patrick A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Wheeler, Jill Susanne

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

NERSC seeks Computational Systems Group Lead  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

seeks Computational Systems Group Lead seeks Computational Systems Group Lead NERSC seeks Computational Systems Group Lead January 6, 2011 by Katie Antypas Note: This position is now closed. The Computational Systems Group provides production support and advanced development for the supercomputer systems at NERSC. Manage the Computational Systems Group (CSG) which provides production support and advanced development for the supercomputer systems at NERSC (National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center). These systems, which include the second fastest supercomputer in the U.S., provide 24x7 computational services for open (unclassified) science to world-wide researchers supported by DOE's Office of Science. Duties/Responsibilities Manage the Computational Systems Group's staff of approximately 10

353

Leading By Example | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Leading By Example Leading By Example Leading By Example November 3, 2011 - 3:08pm Addthis New cool roofs installed on the Energy Department’s headquarters building in Washington DC in November, 2010. | Image credit Quentin Kruger, Energy Department New cool roofs installed on the Energy Department's headquarters building in Washington DC in November, 2010. | Image credit Quentin Kruger, Energy Department Brian Costlow Director, Office of Administration Brian Costlow has won several awards for his work recently, including the Federal Energy and Water Management Award and the Energy Department Energy Management Award for Exceptional Service for his efforts to make the Department's headquarter buildings models of sustainability. Every day, employees across the Energy Department work to make America more

354

Leading By Example | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Leading By Example Leading By Example Leading By Example November 3, 2011 - 3:08pm Addthis New cool roofs installed on the Energy Department’s headquarters building in Washington DC in November, 2010. | Image credit Quentin Kruger, Energy Department New cool roofs installed on the Energy Department's headquarters building in Washington DC in November, 2010. | Image credit Quentin Kruger, Energy Department Brian Costlow Director, Office of Administration Brian Costlow has won several awards for his work recently, including the Federal Energy and Water Management Award and the Energy Department Energy Management Award for Exceptional Service for his efforts to make the Department's headquarter buildings models of sustainability. Every day, employees across the Energy Department work to make America more

355

Leading Teams and Projects | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Leading Teams and Projects Leading Teams and Projects Leading Teams and Projects February 18, 2014 8:30AM EST to February 19, 2014 4:00PM EST Registration Procedure: Please use the Corporate Human Resource Information System (CHRIS) Workflow process to request training enrollment. Session: 002487 Course Code: 0001. Cost $400. For organizations not currently using the CHRIS workflow process, please follow your existing interoffice training registration process. The Office of Learning and Workforce Development (HC-20) will assess the course cost for this training session directly through each Headquarters organization's Working Capital Fund account. Field office participants should register via CHRIS. They should ensure to note the cost of the training course in the tuition field of the training request.

356

Thermoforming plastic in lead shield construction  

SciTech Connect

Radiation treatments using low energy X-rays or electrons frequently require a final field defining shield to be placed on the patient's skin. A custom made lead cut-out is used to provide a close fit to a particular patient's surface contours. We have developed a procedure which utilizes POLYFORM thermoplastic to obtain a negative mold of the patient instead of the traditional plaster bandage or dental impression gel. The Polyform is softened in warm water, molded carefully over the patient's surface, and is removed when set or hardened, usually within five minutes. Then lead sheet cut-outs can be formed within this negative. For shielding cut-outs requiring thicker lead sheet, a positive is made from dental stone using this Polyform negative. We have found this procedure to be neat, fast and comfortable for both patient and the dosimetrist.

Abrahams, M.E.; Chow, C.H.; Loyd, M.D. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Leading Edge Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Leading Edge Technologies Inc Leading Edge Technologies Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Leading Edge Technologies Inc Place Lakeland, Florida Product Profitable manufacturer of lithium ion batteries for consumer electronics makers that merged with Skylab Technologies Group Inc in September 2001 to form Solicore. Coordinates 35.264796°, -89.724114° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.264796,"lon":-89.724114,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

358

Temperature and Salinity Effects on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Penaeid Shrimps: Implications for the Influence of River  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

along a salinity gradient in an estuary. In addition, we will look for a relationship between shrimpTemperature and Salinity Effects on the Growth and Survival of Juvenile Penaeid Shrimps estuaries for wetland restoration. These freshwater flows directly alter the temperature and salinity

359

Surreptitious Lead Exposure from an Asian Indian Medication  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......case-report Case Report Surreptitious Lead Exposure from an...during routine biological monitoring for lead exposure conducted...the general public. Surreptitious lead exposure from an...during routine biological monitoring for lead exposure conducted......

Leon A. Saryan

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effects of pressure gradient on global Alfvén eigenmodes in reversed field pinch  

SciTech Connect

The effects of pressure gradient on the existence of global Alfvén eigenmodes (GAE) in Reversed Field Pinch are studied by numerical calculation. It is found that GAEs near the plasma core can exist when pressure gradient is sufficiently large. The calculated mode frequency and structure are consistent with the experimental results in the Madison Symmetric Torus.

Cai, Huishan, E-mail: hscai@mail.ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)] [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Fu, Guoyong, E-mail: fu@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)] [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lin, Liang; Ding, Weixing; Brower, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Liu, D. Y. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Hu, Y. J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (China)] [Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (China)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Quantification of the electrochemical proton gradient and activation of ATP synthase in leaves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantification of the electrochemical proton gradient and activation of ATP synthase in leaves Available online 12 April 2008 Keywords: ATP synthase Electrochemical proton gradient Membrane potential We of the ATP synthase (Junge, W., Rumberg, B. and Schröder, H., Eur. J. Biochem. 14 (1970) 575

362

SYNTHESIS Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, USA 7 Center for Marine Biodiversity and Conservation, Scripps Insti- tution of Oceanography and Michael Turelli18 Abstract A latitudinal gradient in biodiversity has existed since before the time gradient represents a major challenge to future research. Keywords Biodiversity, biotic interactions

Roy, Kaustuv

363

Deformation-induced inverted metamorphic eld gradients: an example from the southeastern Canadian Cordillera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deformation-induced inverted metamorphic ®eld gradients: an example from the southeastern Canadian allochthon and Monashee complex, exhibits an inverted metamorphic ®eld gradient. New data presented preserving evidence of strongly diachronous deformation and an apparent inverted metamorphism. # 1999

Gibson, Dan

364

High Efficiency in Energy Generation from Salinity Gradients with Reverse Electrodialysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High Efficiency in Energy Generation from Salinity Gradients with Reverse Electrodialysis ... Reverse electrodialysis; Renewable energy; Efficiency; Entropy; Salinity gradient energy; Ion exchange membranes ... power from the sequential flow of fresh and saline water, without the need for auxiliary processes or converters. ...

David A. Vermaas; Joost Veerman; Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech; Michel Saakes; Kitty Nijmeijer

2013-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

365

Thermodynamic, Energy Efficiency, and Power Density Analysis of Reverse Electrodialysis Power Generation with Natural Salinity Gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic, Energy Efficiency, and Power Density Analysis of Reverse Electrodialysis Power Generation with Natural Salinity Gradients ... solns. of different salinities. ... River mouths are potentially abundant locations for the exploitation of the clean and renewable salinity gradient energy (SGE) as here perpetually fresh water mixes with saline seawater. ...

Ngai Yin Yip; David A. Vermaas; Kitty Nijmeijer; Menachem Elimelech

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

366

Regional patterns and controls of ecosystem salinization with grassland afforestation along a rainfall gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

salinization with grassland afforestation along a rainfall gradient, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 22, GB2015, doiRegional patterns and controls of ecosystem salinization with grassland afforestation along a rainfall gradient M. D. Nosetto,1,2 E. G. Jobba´gy,1 T. To´th,3 and R. B. Jackson4,5 Received 25 April 2007

Jackson, Robert B.

367

Sub-100 nm Confinement of Magnetic Nanoparticles Using Localized Magnetic Field Gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that generate large magnetic gradients. In a homogeneous magnetic field, the field lines are parallel; that is, then the field lines converge into the ferromagnet. This convergence forms a shallow magnetic field gradient, to minimize the magnetic potential energy, the field lines exiting one magnet converge into the other magnet

Prentiss, Mara

368

Ionosphere Spatial Gradient Threat for LAAS: Mitigation and Tolerable Threat Space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Ionosphere Spatial Gradient Threat for LAAS: Mitigation and Tolerable Threat Space Ming Luo, Sam and a threat space was extrapolated based on the 6 April 2000 ionospheric storm. It was showed that the impact of the ionospheric anomalies depends on the threat parameters, namely, the ionospheric gradient, the slope width

Stanford University

369

Integrated thermal-microstructure model to predict the property gradients in resistance spot steel welds  

SciTech Connect

An integrated model approach was proposed for relating resistance welding parameters to weldment properties. An existing microstructure model was used to determine the microstructural and property gradients in resistance spot welds of plain carbon steel. The effect of these gradients on the weld integrity was evaluated with finite element analysis. Further modifications to this integrated thermal-microstructure model are discussed.

Babu, S.S.; Riemer, B.W.; Santella, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Feng, Z. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Development and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine boundary layer during INDOEX (1999)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine boundary layer during INDOEX (1999) Matthew Simpson and Sethu Raman Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences, North and propagation of a pollution gradient in the marine boundary layer over the Arabian Sea during the Intensive

Raman, Sethu

371

Spatially resolved lasers using a glassy cholesteric liquid crystal film with lateral pitch gradient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spatially resolved lasers using a glassy cholesteric liquid crystal film with lateral pitch crystal CLC lasers, a lateral pitch gradient was introduced by thermally activated diffusion across efficiencies, 0.2%­1.5%, are superior to those reported to date for gradient-pitch CLC lasers. © 2011 American

Chen, Shaw H.

372

TESTING FOR AZIMUTHAL ABUNDANCE GRADIENTS IN M101  

SciTech Connect

New optical spectra of 28 H II regions in the M101 disk have been obtained, yielding 10 new detections of the [O III] {lambda}4363 auroral line. The oxygen abundance gradient measured from these data, combined with previous observations, displays a local scatter of 0.15 {+-} 0.03 dex along an arc in the west side of the galaxy, compared with a smaller scatter of 0.08 {+-} 0.01 dex in the rest of the disk. One of the H II regions in our sample (H27) has a significantly lower oxygen abundance than surrounding nebulae at a similar galactocentric distance, while an additional, relatively nearby one (H128) was already known to have a high oxygen abundance for its position in the galaxy. These results represent marginal evidence for the existence of moderate deviations from chemical abundance homogeneity in the interstellar medium of M101. Using a variety of strong-line abundance indicators, we find no evidence for significant large-scale azimuthal variations of the oxygen abundance across the whole disk of the galaxy.

Li, Yanxia; Bresolin, Fabio [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)] [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

2013-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

373

Brine clarity maintenance in salinity-gradient solar ponds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brine transparency is an important part of the maintenance of a salinity-gradient solar pond as it affects the amount of solar radiation reaching the storage zone and hence has an influence on the thermal performance. There is a wide range of factors that can hinder the transmission of light in a solar pond. Algal and microbial growths are the most common problems encountered in working solar ponds and control of their densities is essential to maintain transparency. Two different chemical treatment methods for algae growth prevention are described in this paper: chlorine and a novel chemical product – copper ethylamine complex. The latter method has never been implemented previously in a working pond. This paper discusses the theory of the algae control methods used and presents the experimental results of the chemical treatments. The results showed that Cupricide is more effective than chlorine and is therefore the recommended chemical for algae control in solar ponds; it improves the water transparency especially in the upper convective zone and lower convective zone with all measurement values less than 1 NTU. Chlorine was found to be more corrosive than Cupricide due to the acidic effect it has on the pH. The preliminary cost analysis showed that granular chlorine is the cheapest chemical. A more detailed financial analysis is nevertheless required to refine these costs.

Neus Gasulla; Yusli Yaakob; Jimmy Leblanc; Aliakbar Akbarzadeh; Jose Luis Cortina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

GRADIENT INDEX SPHERES BY THE SEQUENTIAL ACCRETION OF GLASS POWDERS  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy is seeking a method for fabricating mm-scale spheres having a refractive index that varies smoothly and continuously from the center to its surface [1]. The fabrication procedure must allow the creation of a range of index profiles. The spheres are to be optically transparent and have a refractive index differential greater than 0.2. The sphere materials can be either organic or inorganic and the fabrication technique must be capable of scaling to low cost production. Mo-Sci Corporation proposed to develop optical quality gradient refractive index (GRIN) glass spheres of millimeter scale (1 to 2 mm diameter) by the sequential accretion and consolidation of glass powders. Other techniques were also tested to make GRIN spheres as the powder-accretion method produced non-concentric layers and poor optical quality glass spheres. Potential ways to make the GRIN spheres were (1) by "coating" glass spheres (1 to 2 mm diameter) with molten glass in a two step process; and (2) by coating glass spheres with polymer layers.

MARIANO VELEZ

2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Lead Poisoning of Seabirds:? Environmental Risks from Leaded Paint at a Decommissioned Military Base  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here we utilized lead isotopic fingerprinting to investigate sources of elevated lead exposure to Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) chicks in the Midway Island National Wildlife Refuge, which was established on the site of a decom missioned military base that previously had undergone lead remediation. ... Midway has had multiple uses over the past century and was the center of a major battle during World War II. ...

Myra E. Finkelstein; Roberto H. Gwiazda; Donald R. Smith

2003-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

376

tHe LeAdING MBA IN JAPAN Japan's Leading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tHe LeAdING MBA IN JAPAN MBA Japan #12;Japan's Leading Master of Business adMinistration prograM the mcgill mBa JaPan Program, oFFered By mcgill University's desaUtels FacUlty oF management, is the leading mBa Program in JaPan. the two-weekends-Per-month Format allows stUdents to comPlete a FUll, to

Shoubridge, Eric

377

Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area Thermal Gradient Holes At Lightning Dock Area (Cunniff & Bowers, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Lightning Dock Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The two gradient holes were sited on federal geothermal leases owned by Lightning Dock Geothermal, Inc. and both were drilled into lakebed sediments some distance from the intense shallow geothermal anomaly located in the eastern half of Section 7, Township 25 South, Range 19 West. References Roy A. Cunniff, Roger L. Bowers (2005) Final Technical Report, Geothermal Resource Evaluation And Definitioni (Gred) Program-Phases I, Ii, And Iii For The Animas Valley, Nm Geothermal Resource Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Thermal_Gradient_Holes_At_Lightning_Dock_Area_(Cunniff_%26_Bowers,_2005)&oldid=387460"

378

Archaeological Lead Findings in the Ukraine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In June?August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for low?radioactive archaeological lead at the bottom of the Black Sea near the Crimean peninsula (Ukraine) was organised by a Korean?Ukrainian collaboration. The first samples with ?0.2 tons of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century B.C. This lead was used as ballast in the keel of the ship. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X?ray fluorescence and ICP?MS analyses. The first preliminary limits on the 210 Pb contamination of the samples are less than a few hundreds mBq/kg. The measurements were performed using gamma spectroscopy with HPGe?detectors and alpha spectroscopy with commercial ??detectors. Measurements of 40K Th/U in the lead samples were undertaken in Kiev and in the underground laboratories of the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS Italy). If it was found to be radio?clean this lead could be used as high efficiency shield for ultra low?level detectors and as raw material for growing radio?pure scintillation crystals such as PbMoO4 or PbWO4 for the search for rare processes.

F. A. Danevich; S. K. Kim; H. J. Kim; A. B. Kostezh; V. V. Kobychev; B. N. Kropivyansky; M. Laubenstein; V. M. Mokina; S. S. Nagorny; A. S. Nikolaiko; S. Nisi; D. V. Poda; V. I. Tretyak; S. A. Voronov

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Inadvertent Climate Modification Due to Anthropogenic Lead  

SciTech Connect

The relationship between atmospheric particulate matter and the formation of clouds is among the most uncertain aspects of our current understanding of climate change1. One specific question that remains unanswered is how anthropogenic particulate emissions are affecting the nucleation of ice crystals. Satellites show ice clouds cover more than a third of the globe2 and models suggest that ice nucleation initiates the majority of terrestrial precipitation3. It is therefore not possible to adequately understand either climate change or the global water cycle without understanding ice nucleation. Here we show that lead-containing particles are among the most efficient ice nucleating substances commonly found in the atmosphere. Field observations were conducted with mass spectrometry and electron microscopy at two remote stations on different continents, far removed from local emissions. Laboratory studies within two cloud chambers using controlled experimental conditions support the field data. Because the dominate sources of particulate lead are anthropogenic emissions such as aviation fuel, power generation, smelting, and the re-suspension of residue from tetra-ethyl leaded gasoline4, it is likely that cloud formation and precipitation have been affected when compared to pre-industrial times. A global climate model comparing pre-industrial and anthropogenically perturbed conditions shows that lead-containing particles may be increasing the outgoing longwave radiation by 0.2 to 0.8 W m-2, thereby offsetting a portion of the warming attributed to greenhouse gases1.

Cziczo, Daniel J.; Stetzer, Olaf; Worringen, Annette; Ebert, Martin; Weinbruch, Stephan; Kamphus, M.; Gallavardin, S. J.; Curtius, J.; Borrmann, S.; Froyd, Karl D.; Mertes, S.; Mohler, Ottmar; Lohmann, U.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Quality Support G. Q. Kirk, Lead (4)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quality Support G. Q. Kirk, Lead (4) R. L. Bullock (4) A. C. Hendricks (4) G. H. Henkel (4) D. L) Quality Systems and Services Division February 11, 2011 Operations Analysis E. L. Griffis L. R. Brown. Kendrick M. O. Williams Maintenance Engineering L. W. Burkle III G. L. Christensen R. A. Evans R. E. Galyon

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The Commonwealth's Leading College of Engineering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

into an unsafe urban environment to collect data. Virginia Tech's College Of Engineering #12;College and responsibility lies before the College to advance engineering curricula that will educate the engineerThe Commonwealth's Leading College of Engineering is at Virginia Tech Faculty Expertise Guide 2010

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

382

Lead toxicity, vulnerable subpopulations and emergency preparedness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality-health endpoints for which the elderly...over the past 30 y, potential health risks from environmental Pb...mortality study. Environ. Health Perspect (2006) 114:1538-1541...cadmium, cobalt and lead as more dangerous than hitherto expected. Carcinogenesis......

Norm Healey

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Felix Wrsten ETH Zurich enjoys a leading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Felix Würsten ETH Zurich enjoys a leading position in the quantum sciences. The Executive Board now research in this area. "ETH Zurich has secured it- self a good starting position and now wishes to use physics will become the tool of the engineer." Fundamental development Together with the ETH Zurich Foun

Leonardo, Degiorgi

384

Observing Nucleon Decay in Lead Perchlorate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead perchlorate, part of the OMNIS supernova neutrino detector, contains two nuclei, 208Pb and 35Cl, that might be used to study nucleon decay. Both would produce signatures that will make them especially useful for studying less-well-studied neutron decay modes, e.g., those in which only neutrinos are emitted.

R. N. Boyd; T. Rauscher; S. D. Reitzner; P. Vogel

2003-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

University of Illinois Temperature Sensors  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) University of Illinois Project 29609 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of ferritic alloys for advanced reactor applications. The FeCr-based alloy system is considered the lead alloy system for a variety of advanced reactor components and applications. Irradiations of FeCr alloy samples were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in a static capsule in the A-11 position of the ATR.

K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Computer program to analyze multipass pressure-temperature-spinner surveys  

SciTech Connect

A computer program has been developed to analyze multipass pressure-temperature-spinner surveys and summarize the data in graphical form on two plots: (1) an overlay of spinner passes along with a fluid velocity profile calculated from the spinner and (2) an overlay of pressure, pressure gradient, and temperature profiles from each pass. The program has been written using SmartWare II Software. Fluid velocity is calculated for each data point using a cross-plot of tool speed and spinner counts to account for changing flow conditions in the wellbore. The program has been used successfully to analyze spinner surveys run in geothermal wells with two-phase flashing flow.

Spielman, Paul

1994-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

387

Ion temperatures in Ormak from Doppler broadening  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rapid-scanning spectrometric techniques have permitted the determination of ion temperatures in ORMAK as a function of time during the discharge pulse for ORMAK plasma currents up to 180 kA. Emission spectra of hydrogen atoms are Doppler-broadened in the line wings, characteristic of the initial proton motions prior to charge exchange, and give ion "temperatures" generally less than kT+ ~ 300 eV. Impurity spectra of C III and O V, as well as the spectra of He II in helium discharges, lead to somewhat higher ion temperatures ranging up to a maximum of kT+ ~ 700 eV.

J. Rand McNally Jr.; R.V. Neidigh

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Analysis of Gradient-Based Routing Protocols in Sensor Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sensor networks are envisioned to be widely used for habitat and environmental monitoring where, etc. Every physical event leaves some fingerprints in the environment in terms of the event's effect; e.g., fire increases the temperature, chemical spilling increases the contamination, nuclear leakage

389

Gradient biomaterials and their influences on cell migration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...varying the diffusion time, gas type, humidity and temperature...and directs cell migration. Hale et al. designed a polyacrylamide...polyethylene prepared in a shielded gas plasma. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces...14712598.2.8.805 ) 149 Hale, N. A. , Yang, Y., Rajagopalan...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Leading Index Hits Bump in the Road  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the seasonally adjusted data reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment IndexCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Leading Index Hits Bump in the Road The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using an index

Ahmad, Sajjad

391

CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Coincident Index Rises, Leading Index Pauses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the seasonally adjusted data reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment IndexCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Coincident Index Rises, Leading Index Pauses The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using

Ahmad, Sajjad

392

Lead contamination in soil and groundwater in and around a lead processing industry: a case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Environmental pollution is of major concern across the world, which is affected by a variety of contaminants. Lead is one of the major heavy metals used in industrial activity. Unscientific handling and disposal of lead bearing residues or lead waste has led to contamination of the surrounding soil and water environment. A detailed investigation of soil and groundwater was carried out in and around a selected lead processing industry located in a designated industrial area in Bangalore, India. The results of the investigations carried out indicated that there is no groundwater contamination, but lead concentration in top soil is found to exceed the prescribed standard limits at many places within the industrial premises. Considering the site condition and extent of contamination ex-situ remediation can be considered as the feasible remedial option.

A. Ramesh; P.V. Sivapullaiah; H. Lakshmi Kantha; B.S. Nangendra Prakesh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Development of Brazing Technology for Use in High- Temperature Gas Separation Equipment  

SciTech Connect

The development of high-temperature electrochemical devices such as oxygen and hydrogen separators, fuel gas reformers, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors is part of a rapidly expanding segment of the solid state technology market. These devices employ an ionic conducting ceramic as the active membrane that establishes the electrochemical potential of the device, either under voltage (i.e. to carry out gas separation) or under chemical gradient (to develop an electrical potential and thereby generate electrical power). Because the device operates under an ionic gradient that develops across the electrolyte, hermiticity across this layer is paramount. That is, not only must this thin ceramic membrane be dense with no interconnected porosity, but it must be connected to the rest of the device, typically constructed from a heat resistant alloy, with a high-temperature, gas-tight seal. A significant engineering challenge in fabricating these devices is how to effectively join the thin electrochemically active membrane to the metallic body of the device such that the resulting seal is hermetic, rugged, and stable during continuous high temperature operation. Active metal brazing is the typical method of joining ceramic and metal engineering components. It employs a braze alloy that contains one or more reactive elements, often titanium, which will chemically reduce the ceramic faying surface and greatly improve its wetting behavior and adherence with the braze. However, recent studies of these brazes for potential use in fabricating high-temperature electrochemical devices revealed problems with interfacial oxidation and subsequent joint failure [1,2]. Specifically, it was found that the introduction of the ceramic electrolyte and/or heat resistant metal substrate dramatically affects the inherent oxidation behavior of the braze, often in a deleterious manner. These conclusions pointed to the need for an oxidation resistant, high-temperature ceramic-to-metal braze and consequently lead to the development of the novel reactive air brazing (RAB) concept. The goal in RAB is to reactively modify one or both oxide faying surfaces with an oxide compound dissolved in a molten noble metal alloy such that the newly formed surface is readily wetted by the remaining liquid filler material. In many respects, this concept is similar to active metal brazing, except that joining can be conducted in air and the final joint will be resistant to oxidation at high temperature. Potentially, there are a number of metal oxide-noble metal systems that can be considered for RAB, including Ag-CuO, Ag-V2O5, and Pt-Nb2O5. Our current interest is in determining whether the Ag-CuO system is suitable for air brazing functional ceramic-to-metal joints such as those needed in practical electrochemical devices. In a series of studies, the wetting behavior of the Ag-CuO braze was investigated with respect to a number of potential hydrogen separation, oxygen separation, and fuel cell electrolyte membrane materials and heat resistant metal systems, including: alumina, (La0.6Sr0.4)(Co0.2Fe0.8)O3, (La0.8Sr0.2)FeO3, YSZ, fecralloy, and Crofer-22APU. Selected findings from these studies as well as from our work on joint strength and durability during high-temperature exposure testing will be discussed.

Weil, K.S.; Hardy, J.S.; Kim, J.Y.

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

394

Rapid Depresurizations: Can they lead to irreversible damage?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rapid gas depressurization leads to gas cooling that is followed by slow gas warming when the cavern is kept idle. The decrease in the temperature of gas depends upon the relative withdrawal rate (in %/day), and cavern size and shape. Gas cooling may result in the onset of tensile stresses at cavern walls and roofs that may generate fractures or cracks. However, in most cases, the depth of penetration of these fractures is small, and they are perpendicular to the cavern wall. The distance between two parallel fractures becomes larger when fractures penetrate deeper into the rock mass, as some fractures stop growing. Fractures form a polygonal pattern. Salt slabs are created, with boundaries formed by the opened fractures. As long as the depth of penetration of the fracture remains small, these slabs remain strongly bonded to the rock mass, and it is believed that, in many cases, their weights are not large enough to allow them to break off the cavern wall.

Berest, Pierre; Brouard, Benoît; Hévin, Grégoire

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Advanced Research: Innovation Leading to Successes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research: Innovation Leading to Research: Innovation Leading to Successes Exploring the "Grand Challenges" of Fossil Fuels December 2010 3 Exploring the "Grand Challenges" of Fossil Fuels NETL Advanced Research The Advanced Research (AR) Program within the Office of Coal and Power Systems of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the research arm of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), fosters the development of innovative, cost-effective technologies for improving the efficiency, reliability, and environmental performance of advanced coal and power systems. In addition, AR bridges the gap between fundamental research into technology alternatives and applied research aimed at scale-up, deployment, and commercialization of the most promising technologies identified.

396

Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nick Wright Named Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead Nick Wright Named Advanced Technologies Group Lead February 4, 2013 Nick Nick Wright has been named head of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center's (NERSC) Advanced Technologies Group (ATG), which focuses on understanding the requirements of current and emerging applications to make choices in hardware design and programming models that best serve the science needs of NERSC users. ATG specializes in benchmarking, system performance, debugging and analysis, workload monitoring, use of application modeling tools, and future algorithm scaling and technology assessment. The team also engages with vendors and the general research community to advocate technological features that will enhance the effectiveness of systems for NERSC scientists.

397

Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated.

Swift, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Bergum, John W. (Concord, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated. 3 figs.

Swift, C.D.; Bergum, J.W.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

399

High-temperature superconductor applications development at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Developments at Argonne National Laboratory of near and intermediate term applications using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Near-term applications of liquid-nitrogen depth sensors, current leads, and magnetic bearings are discussed in detail.

Hull, J.R.; Poeppel, R.B.

1992-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

400

Electron Coherence in a Melting Lead Monolayer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the Pb(1,0) spots in the LEED patterns of Fig. 1, B to D...azimuthal modulation of the LEED intensities above Tm is likely not a manifestation...associated with the particular LEED spot, and {xi} is the temperature-dependent...British Columbia V6T1Z4, Canada. Electron coherence in a melting...

F. Baumberger; W. Auwärter; T. Greber; J. Osterwalder

2004-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Electron Coherence in a Melting Lead Monolayer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...azimuthal modulation of the LEED intensities above Tm is likely...sixfold symmetric elementary building blocks of the 2D liquid. The slight anisotropy...associated with the particular LEED spot, and {xi} is the temperature-dependent...British Columbia V6T1Z4, Canada. Electron coherence in a melting...

F. Baumberger; W. Auwärter; T. Greber; J. Osterwalder

2004-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

402

Thomas-Fermi model: The leading correction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The correct treatment of strongly bound electrons is grafted smoothly onto the Thomas-Fermi computation of the total binding energy of neutral atoms. This provides a clearcut demonstration of the leading correction of relative order Z-13 which, with effects of relative order Z-23, gives an accurate account of the binding energy over a wide range of Z values. There is a brief discussion of relativistic corrections, with results that are somewhat at variance with previous numerical estimates.

Julian Schwinger

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

L I NATIONAL' LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

L L I NATIONAL' LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO tJw HEALTH AND SAFETY DI"ISION - ANALITICIL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET _I . . NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY O F OHIO HEALTH AND SAFETY DIY1SION - ANALYTICAL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET NATIONA-i LEn' D COMPANY OF OHIO HEALTH AND SAFETY Dl"lSlDN - m4ALITICAL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET NO. I DlSTRlBUTlON OF COPIES I I A,w,lytlc.al Loboratorr (RBCORD COPI) 2 Induswlol Hvalen. B Rodhtlon Dept. 3 1 Water Trsotmmt Plant c=.z w&w hnp,., Only, - . _. NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO HEALiH ANO SAFETY OIVISIOH - w4ALYTICAL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET INDUSTRIAL, HYGlENE AND RADIATION DEPT. 1 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY SECTION i. H. NO. IHPLEN0S.i . 7 RO"Te TO, D.TB RECEIVED, B", 464 9 - sD6:LzTEo, lB"' S/24/61 I DP

404

Comparing linear ion-temperature-gradient-driven mode stability of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and a shaped tokamak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experiment and a shaped tokamak J. A. Baumgaertel, G. W. Hammett, and D. R. Mikkelsen Citation: Phys. Plasmas superconducting tokamak Phys. Plasmas 20, 022311 (2013) Identification and control of plasma vertical position using neural network in Damavand tokamak Rev. Sci. Instrum. 84, 023504 (2013) On the toroidal plasma

Hammett, Greg

405

Influence of the Coast and Vegetation on Temperature Gradients across the Los Angeles Basin using Mobile Transect Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1:3 for loc = 1:4 % Load data % Cut GPS data data = load(['time constraint it causes % Load data location = {'Venice','2 for rep = 1:3 for loc = 1:4 % Load data data = load(['E:\\

Lee, Audrey

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Influence of the Coast and Vegetation on Temperature Gradients across the Los Angeles Basin using Mobile Transect Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SURFACES AND SHADE TREES TO REDUCE ENERGY USE AND IMPROVEInfluence of tree cover on summertime surface energy balance19% more energy was measured over an area with 30% tree and

Lee, Audrey

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Influence of the Coast and Vegetation on Temperature Gradients across the Los Angeles Basin using Mobile Transect Techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from sensible heat flux. Remote Sensing of Environment, 99(heat island study in winter by mobile transect and remote

Lee, Audrey

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(WRF) and COAMPS atmospheric models. The SST-induced wind response is assessed from eight simulations of the surface wind relative to the SST gradient. #12;3 1. Introduction Positive correlations of local surfaceModeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature Natalie

Kurapov, Alexander

409

Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Wind Response to Mesoscale Sea Surface Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to local SST perturbations decreases rapidly with height to near-zero at 150-300m. The simulated wind speed of local SST perturbations, and the orientation of the surface wind to the SST gradient. #12;3 1. Introduction Positive correlations of local surface wind anomalies with sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies

410

Brussels, 07.10.2003 Position paper: Europe should lead the fight against global warming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Brussels, 07.10.2003 Position paper: Europe should lead the fight against global warming Climate, and withdraw completely from oldfashioned energy sources, i.e. coal, petroleum and natural gas by 2050. Most. In addition, the EU must set a long-term global threshold of the temperatures not raising more than two

Laughlin, Robert B.

411

Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank & Neggemann, 2004) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank & Neggemann, 2004) Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank & Neggemann, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank & Neggemann, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue Mountain Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Brian D. Fairbank, Kim V. Niggemann (2004) Deep Blue No 1- A Slimhole Geothermal Discovery At Blue Mountain, Humboldt County, Nevada Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Thermal_Gradient_Holes_At_Blue_Mountain_Area_(Fairbank_%26_Neggemann,_2004)&oldid=386709" Category: Exploration Activities What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

412

An Elementary Extension of Korn's First Inequality to H(Curl) motivated by Gradient Plasticity with Plastic Spin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove a Korn-type inequality for tensor fields without gradient structure, which generalizes Korn's first inequality.

Patrizio Neff; Dirk Pauly; Karl-Josef Witsch

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

413

Indicators Of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources In Northern Louisiana  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Indicators Of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources In Northern Louisiana Indicators Of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources In Northern Louisiana And Central Mississippi Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Indicators Of Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources In Northern Louisiana And Central Mississippi Details Activities (2) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Measurements of heat flow and near-surface (< 500 m) geothermal gradients in the Gulf Coastal Plain suggest a zone of low-grade geothermal resources extending from northern Louisiana across south-central Mississippi. Subsurface temperatures exceeding 50°C, suitable for space-heating use, seem probable at depths of 1 km. Thermal conditions within the zone are comparable to those known for areas having attractive thermal energy prospects on the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

414

Quench development in a high temperature superconducting tape  

SciTech Connect

Normal zone propagation experiments have been performed on a long length of Bi-2223/Ag high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape. Tests were conducted with liquid nitrogen and gaseous helium cooling in temperatures from 5 to 77 K. No sustained expansion of a {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} zone was observed with a short resistive heater. Non-uniform critical currents were, however, observed over the length of the conductor. When the conductor was charged and held at a current above the critical currents of weaker sections, a quench was being developed without distinctive {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} zone propagation. Because of the high temperature margin and broad resistive transition of the superconductor, and the good thermal conductivity of the Ag-matrix, the quench process was very slow. and no large temperature gradient along the conductor was observed.

Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Aized, D.; Campbell, J.M.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Quench development in a high temperature superconducting tape  

SciTech Connect

Normal zone propagation experiments have been per-formed on a long length of Bi2223/Ag high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape. Tests were performed in liquid nitrogen and with gaseous helium cooling in temperatures ranging from 4.2 K to 77 K. No sustained expansion of a ``normal`` zone was observed with a short resistive heater. Non-uniform critical currents were, however, observed over the length of the conductor. When the conductor was charged and held at a current above the critical currents of weaker sections, a quench was being developed without distinctive ``normal`` zone propagation. Because of the high temperature margin and broad resistive transition of the superconductor, and the good thermal conductivity of the Ag-matrix, the quench process was very slow, and no large temperature gradient along the conductor was observed in the test duration of a few minutes.

Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Aized, D.; Campbell, J.M.; Schwall, R.E. [American Superconductor Corp., Westborough, MA (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

In situ generation of pH gradients in microfluidic devices for biofabrication of freestanding, semi-permeable chitosan membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In situ generation of pH gradients in microfluidic devices for biofabrication of freestanding, semiH gradients in microfluidic devices for biofabrication of freestanding, semi-permeable chitosan membranes membrane structure in microfluidic networks where pH gradients are generated at the converging interface

Rubloff, Gary W.

417

From the mountains to the sea: assemblage structure and dynamics in Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) in the Clyde River estuarine gradient,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and non-random with respect to spatial position along the salinity gradient although relatively random with respect to temporal shifts between the five seasonal samples. Generally, the salinity gradient had strong). The estuarine salinity gradient balance also may affect bioaccumulation of heavy metals and trans- port

Cranston, Peter S.

418

Asian anthropogenic lead contamination in the North Pacific Ocean as evidenced by stable lead isotopic compositions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and North Central Pacific Ocean. Deep Sea Res. Part II Top.Lead Within the Northwest Pacific Ocean Evidenced by Leadventilation flux of the Pacific Ocean. J. Geophys. Res. 106(

Zurbrick, Cheryl Marie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Northern Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Northern Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoretical/computer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range geothermal systems. "The 300-meter heat flow holes are essentially useless for finding the "hidden" reservoirs. Clearly, the best results are obtained from the SP and MT surveys, with DC resistivity a close third. It is concluded that the best

420

Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea East Rift Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kilauea East Rift Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Two separate phases of geothermal exploratory drilling have occurred on the lower East Rift. The first was essentially a wildcat venture with relatively little surface exploratory data having been gathered, whereas the second was initiated after somewhat more geoscience information had been acquired under the Hawaii Geothermal Project. The results of the successful exploratory drilling program on the Kilauea

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Kilauea Summit Area (Keller, Et Al., 1979) Exploration Activity Details Location Kilauea Summit Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes A deep borehole was drilled at the summit of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, between April 6 and July 9, 1973. The hole is located approximately 1 km south of the edge of Halemaumau crater (Figs. 1 and 2), a crater within the summit caldera of the volcano. The total depth of the hole is 1262 m (4141 ft) measured from the derrick floor at an altitude of 1102 m (3616 ft). A description of the drilling program and some of the results obtained have

422

Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Crump's Hot Springs Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Crump's Hot Springs Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes 8 wells References (1 January 2011) GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Thermal_Gradient_Holes_At_Crump%27s_Hot_Springs_Area_(DOE_GTP)&oldid=402699"

423

Rapid acquisition of specular and diffuse normal maps from polarized spherical gradient illumination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We estimate surface normal maps of an object from either its diffuse or specular reflectance using four spherical gradient illumination patterns. In contrast to traditional photometric stereo, the spherical patterns allow normals to be estimated simultaneously ...

Wan-Chun Ma; Tim Hawkins; Pieter Peers; Charles-Felix Chabert; Malte Weiss; Paul Debevec

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Salt Gradient Solar Pond for Solar Heat Collection and Lang Term Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Work is described concerning the instrumentation, thermal modelling and laboratory tests on a salt gradient solar pond to be used for heat collection and storage. A densitameter capable of measuring the salinity....

V. Phillips; P. J. Unsworth; N. A. Al-Saleh

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Morphophysiological adaptation aspects of different Haloxylon aphyllum (Chenopodiaceae) genotypes along a salinity gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The seedlings of Haloxylon aphyllum...from seeds with different genetic characteristics, which were collected in three natural subpopulations along a soil salinity gradient, were investigated. The plants grown un...

E. V. Shuyskaya; E. V. Li; Z. F. Rahmankulova…

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Phenanthrene mineralization along a natural salinity gradient in an Urban Estuary, Boston Harbor, Massachusetts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of varying salinity on phenanthrene and glutamate mineralization was examined in sediments along a natural salinity gradient in an urban tidal river. Mineralization was...14CO2 from sediment slurries d...

Michael P. Shiaris

427

Distributions of picophytoplankton and phytoplankton pigments along a salinity gradient in the Changjiang River Estuary, China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated the abundance of different picophytoplankton groups and the phytoplankton pigment ratio in relation to environmental factors such as nutrients and suspended solids along a salinity gradient in the...

Baoli Wang; Congqiang Liu; Fushun Wang; Siliang Li…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Mass–density relationship changes along salinity gradient in Suaeda salsa L.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whether and why the biomass–density (M–N) scaling relationship varies along environmental gradients were continuously debated in theoretical ecology. In this study, how soil salinity stress affects on the M–N sca...

Hao Zhang; Genxuan Wang; Kefeng Zheng; Weiping Zhang

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Changes in the biota of Chany Lake along a salinity gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Relationships among salinity and diversity, abundance, biomass of major ... western Siberia, Russia) are examined across a salinity gradient. As salinity increased from 0.8 to 6.4...?1, the species richness of aq...

Laura M. Kipriyanova; Nadezhda I. Yermolaeva; Dmitry M. Bezmaternykh…

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Distribution and speciation of phosphorus along a salinity gradient in intertidal marsh sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We examined forms of solid phosphorus fractions in intertidal marsh sediments along a salinity (0–22‰) gradient in a river-dominated estuary and in ... the importance of humic-P decreased with increasing salinity

Claus Paludan; James T. Morris

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Thermodynamic and Energy Efficiency Analysis of Power Generation from Natural Salinity Gradients by Pressure Retarded Osmosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In ...

Ngai Yin Yip; Menachem Elimelech

2012-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

432

Plasma homeostasis and cloacal urine composition inCrocodylus porosus caught along a salinity gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Juveniles of the Estuarine or Saltwater Crocodile,Crocodylus porosus..., maintain both osmotic pressure and plasma electrolyte homeostasis along a salinity gradient from fresh water to the sea. In...C. porosus in...

Gordon C. Grigg

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Transition from Planktonic to Benthic Algal Dominance Along a Salinity Gradient  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Highly regulated salinity gradients in solar salt pond concentrating sequences provide...in situ salinity impacts on aquatic flora and fauna. The ... at Useless Inlet in Western Australia vary in salinity from se...

Richard D. Segal; Anya M. Waite; David P. Hamilton

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

An innovative approach to heat extraction from a salinity gradient solar pond to enhance overall efficiency.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A solar pond is a simple and low-cost solar collector with long-term thermal storage. It utilizes a large body of salinity gradient water to absorb… (more)

Yaakob, Y

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Biodiversity and Structure of Macroinvertebrate Communities Along a Small Permanent Salinity Gradient (Meurthe River, France)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in the macroinvertebrate community were investigated over 10 months at four sites along a 19 km salinity gradient (0.21–2.60 g l?1...) in a sixth-order stream, the Meurthe River, northeastern France. Abio...

Christophe Piscart; Jean-Claude Moreteau; Jean-Nicolas Beisel

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Uncertainty Quantification in Viscous Hypersonic Flows using Gradient Information and Surrogate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Uncertainty Quantification in Viscous Hypersonic Flows using Gradient Information and Surrogate models for the purposes of uncertainty quantification within the context of viscous hypersonic flows quantification in hypersonic flows. I. Introduction and Motivation The increasing reliance on numerical

Rumpfkeil, Markus Peer

437

Study of inkjet printing as additive manufacturing process for gradient polyurethane material  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reactive inkjet printing as additive manufacturing technique is evaluated for generation of gradient ... . This study does not examine the complete additive manufacturing process to build whole 3D objects but...O...

Marco Müller; Quang-Ut Huynh; Eckart Uhlmann; Manfred H. Wagner

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Suppression of Zeeman gradients by nuclear polarization in double quantum dots  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use electric dipole spin resonance to measure dynamic nuclear polarization in InAs nanowire quantum dots. The resonance shifts in frequency when the system transitions between metastable high and low current states, indicating the presence of nuclear polarization. We propose that the low and the high current states correspond to different total Zeeman energy gradients between the two quantum dots. In the low current state, dynamic nuclear polarization efficiently compensates the Zeeman gradient due to the $g$-factor mismatch, resulting in a suppressed total Zeeman gradient. We present a theoretical model of electron-nuclear feedback that demonstrates a fixed point in nuclear polarization for nearly equal Zeeman splittings in the two dots and predicts a narrowed hyperfine gradient distribution.

S. M. Frolov; J. Danon; S. Nadj-Perge; K. Zuo; J. W. W. van Tilburg; V. S. Pribiag; J. W. G. van den Berg; E. P. A. M. Bakkers; L. P. Kouwenhoven

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

439

Approximating the solar/stellar energy generation rate, luminosity gradient, and the hydrogen content  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper we wish to develop an analytical technique for modelling the energy generation rate and the luminosity gradient for ... 1989) we derive dimensionless variables for the energy generation rate and lum...

John F. Doorish

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

High-Gradient Tests of the Single-Cell SC Cavity with a Feedback Waveguide  

SciTech Connect

Use of a superconducting (SC) traveling-wave accelerating (STWA) structure with a small phase advance per cell, rather than a standing-wave structure, may provide a significant increase in the accelerating gradient in the ILC linac [1]. For the same surface electric and magnetic fields, the STWA achieves an accelerating gradient 1.2 larger than TESLA-like standing-wave cavities. In addition, the STWA allows longer acceleration cavities, reducing the number of gaps between them. However, the STWA structure requires a SC feedback waveguide to return the few hundreds of MW of circulating RF power from the structure output to the structure input. A test single-cell cavity with feedback was designed and manufactured to demonstrate the possibility of proper processing to achieve a high accelerating gradient. The first results of high-gradient tests of a prototype 1.3 GHz single-cell cavity with feedback waveguide will be presented.

Yakovlev, V.; Solyak, N.; Wu, G.; Ge, M.; Gonin, I.; Khabiboulline, T.; Ozelis, J.; Rowe, A. [Fermilab, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Avrakhov, P.; Kanareykin, A. [Euclid TechLabs, LLC, Solon, Ohio 44139 (United States); Rathke, J. [AES, Medford, NY 11763 (United States)

2010-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Gradient analysis of landscape spatial and temporal pattern changes in Beijing metropolitan area  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The gradient based landscape metrics analysis is now widely used to study the landscape pattern changes in respond to the urbanization. In order to discover the trend of spatio-temporal changes in Beijing metr...

YeTao Yang; QiMing Zhou; JianYa Gong; YingYing Wang

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Generation of Monolayer Gradients in Surface Energy and Surface Chemistry for Block Copolymer Thin Film Studies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gradients in surface energy/chemistry enable high-throughput studies because a continuous range of surface energies/chemistries can be explored on a single surface, enabling faster screening and discovery of materials and phenomena. ... Furthermore, these gradients are susceptible to degradation, having a shelf life of only a few days under atmospheric conditions or a few weeks when stored in a cool, dark desiccator. ... For example, gradients could be created with a relatively narrow surface energy range (?6 mJ/m2 in this work) for high-resolution examination of morphology changes in polymer films, or gradients with a larger surface energy range could be created for a broader survey, simply by changing the chlorosilane functionalities. ...

Julie N. L. Albert; Michael J. Baney; Christopher M. Stafford; Jennifer Y. Kelly; Thomas H. Epps; III

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Systematic Optimization of Long Gradient Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for Deep Analysis of Brain Proteome  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of high-resolution liquid chromatography (LC) is essential for improving the sensitivity and throughput of mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics. Here we present systematic optimization of a long gradient LC–MS/MS platform to enhance ...

Hong Wang; Yanling Yang; Yuxin Li; Bing Bai; Xusheng Wang; Haiyan Tan; Tao Liu; Thomas G. Beach; Junmin Peng; Zhiping Wu

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Page, Et Al., 2010) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Geothermal Area (Page, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Twenty-Nine Palms Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes From November 2008 to March 2009, Seabees from the Naval Construction Division (NCD) successfully completed fivetemperature gradient holes for the GPO. Samples taken from each hole were similar in nature; mixtures of sand and conglomerates with the occasional granite sections were typically encountered. Each hole varied slightly in depth, ranging from 600ft to 1,000ft; however, each hole has been completed to acceptable standards of the GPO. Upon completion of drilling, 3" metal tubing was inserted to

445

Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Twenty-Nine Palms Geothermal Area (Sabin, Et Al., 2010) Exploration Activity Details Location Twenty-Nine Palms Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The first and only Seabee drilling project was the installation of five TGHs at the Camp Wilson region of the MCAGCC Marine base near Twenty-Nine Palms, CA. While the program was a success and GPO identified an anomaly where a deep, slim hole is to be drilled in June, 2010, the Seabee rig was sent oversees soon after drilling was completed. If/when another rig

446

Thermal Gradient Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Thermal Gradient Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Fish Lake Valley Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Fish Lake Valley Area Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes 2 wells References (1 January 2011) GTP ARRA Spreadsheet Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Thermal_Gradient_Holes_At_Fish_Lake_Valley_Area_(DOE_GTP)&oldid=511222" Categories:

447

Thermal Gradient Holes At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermal Gradient Holes At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Thermal Gradient Holes At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Thermal Gradient Holes At Nw Basin & Range Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Thermal Gradient Holes Activity Date Usefulness not useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoretical/computer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range geothermal systems. "The 300-meter heat flow holes are essentially useless for finding the "hidden" reservoirs. Clearly, the best results are obtained from the SP and MT surveys, with DC resistivity a close third. It is concluded that the best

448

Anthropogenic lead dynamics in the terrestrial and marine environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...shown in gure 7, re ect the introduction and phase-out of leaded petrol. Measuring lead concentrations in ice near Camp Century, Greenland, Murozumi et al. (1969) rst observed the Arctic anthropogenic transient, with lead concentrations increas...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Lead-Free Solders: Focus on Fundamentals, Reliability, and Applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although lead-free solders have been adopted by much of the commercial electronics industry, the implementation of lead-free processes still faces some challenges. The performance of lead-free solder joints in hi...

Babak Arfaei

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs widely in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lead in Your Drinking Water Lead (Pb) is an extremely toxic heavy metal that unfortunately occurs of metallic lead in the soil (4) Drinking water ­ water as it leaves the treatment plant has no lead;Common metals used for the supply pipe are lead, copper and galvanized iron. Also in the system

Maynard, J. Barry

451

Influence of surface heating on the boundary layer stability of flows with favorable pressure gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INFLUENCE OF SURFACE HEATING ON THE BOUNDARY LAYER STABILITY OF FLOWS WITH FAVORABI E PRESSURE GRADIENTS A Thesis by DAVID BRIAN LANDRUM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1986 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering INFLUENCE OF SURFACE HEATING ON THE BOUNDARY LAYER STABILITY OF FLOWS WITH FAVORABLE PRESSURE GRADIENTS A Thesis by DAVID BRIAN LANDRUM Approved as to style and content...

Landrum, David Brian

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

Poblano v1.0 : a Matlab toolbox for gradient-based optimization.  

SciTech Connect

We present Poblano v1.0, a Matlab toolbox for solving gradient-based unconstrained optimization problems. Poblano implements three optimization methods (nonlinear conjugate gradients, limited-memory BFGS, and truncated Newton) that require only first order derivative information. In this paper, we describe the Poblano methods, provide numerous examples on how to use Poblano, and present results of Poblano used in solving problems from a standard test collection of unconstrained optimization problems.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Acar, Evrim (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Faster Time Response by the Use of Wire Electrodes in Capacitive Salinity Gradient Energy Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comparing salinity gradient power to other ocean power sources, such as wind, ocean currents, wave, tidal streams, and thermal gradients, it is supreme partly in that it has the second largest power potential, but foremost because it is focused at river deltas (rather than being distributed over the ocean areas across the world). ... We also studied the asymmetric behavior of response time in concentrated saline solution and dilute saline solution that is reported for our branch of technologies. ... solns. of different salinities. ...

Odne S. Burheim; Fei Liu; Bruno B. Sales; Olivier Schaetzle; Cees J. N. Buisman; Hubertus V. M. Hamelers

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

454

The effects of an ambient salinity gradient on the dilution of dense brine jets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY WAYNE MCCULLOUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering THE EFFECTS OF AN AMBIENT SALINITY GRADIENT ON THE DILUTION OF DENSE BRINE JETS A Thesis by GARY NAYNE MCCULLOUGH Approved as to style and content by: Robert E. Randall (Chair of Committee...

McCullough, Gary Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

455

Effect of pressure gradient on the drag reduction performance of two and three dimensional riblets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integral Parameters . 4. 2 Law of the Wall Profiles 4. 3 Pressure Gradient Parameters 4. 4 Preston Tube Measurements 4. 5 Roughness Function 4. 6 Growth of the Internal Layer 4. 7 Turbulence Measurements 4. 7. 1 Turbulence intensity 4. 7. 2 Third.... 4 Spectra for favorable pressure gradient 4. 8. 5 Roughness effects on the bursting process V CONCLUSION . REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B 50 50 51 94 134 175 177 180 183 . . 185 VITA . . 210 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Proportions...

Hall, Aaron Chenault

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Yeast and Temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Yeast and Temperature Yeast and Temperature Name: Alyssaaum Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How does temperature affect yeast? Replies: Dear Alyssa, At low temperatures (0-10 C) yeast will not grow, but not die either. At temperatures 10-37 C yeast will grow and multiply, faster at higher temperatures with an optimal growth at 30 or 37 C (that depends on the species). At higher temperature the cells become stressed, meaning that their content becomes damaged and which can be repaired to some degree. At high temperatures (>50 C) the cells die. The bacteria can survive freezing under certain conditions. When baking bread all yeast dies during the process. Dr. Trudy Wassenaar yeast is a unique type of fungi that grows quickly by rapid cell division. It grows best at about 100 degrees fahrenheit, colder will cause it to go dormant, much warmer could kill it

457

Exploring approximations to the GW self-energy ionic gradients  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The accuracy of the many-body perturbation theory GW formalism to calculate electron-phonon coupling matrix elements has been recently demonstrated in the case of a few important systems. However, the related computational costs are high and thus represent strong limitations to its widespread application. In the present study, we explore two less demanding alternatives for the calculation of electron-phonon coupling matrix elements on the many-body perturbation theory level. Namely, we test the accuracy of the static Coulomb-hole plus screened-exchange (COHSEX) approximation and further of the constant screening approach, where variations of the screened Coulomb potential W upon small changes of the atomic positions along the vibrational eigenmodes are neglected. We find this latter approximation to be the most reliable, whereas the static COHSEX ansatz leads to substantial errors. Our conclusions are validated in a few paradigmatic cases: diamond, graphene and the C60 fullerene. These findings open the way f...

Faber, C; Attaccalite, C; Cannuccia, E; Duchemin, I; Deutsch, T; Blase, X

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Applications of salinity gradient solar technologies in the Southwest -- An overview  

SciTech Connect

This paper is an overview of recent applications of salinity gradient solar technologies (SGST) in the Southwest and especially in the State of Texas. SGST is a generic title for using a salinity gradient in a body of water to suppress convection and collect solar energy for a desired application, for example, salinity gradient solar ponds. Following initial work in the early 1980s at the El Paso Solar Pond project and funding of the Texas Solar Pond Consortium by the State of Texas and the Bureau of Reclamation, several applications involving the use of salinity gradient solar technologies have emerged. These applications include a biomass waste to energy project using heat from a solar pond at Bruce Foods Corporation; an industrial process heat application for sodium sulfate mining near Seagraves, Texas; overwintering thermal refuges for mariculture in Palacios, Texas; a potential salt management project on the Brazos River near Abilene, Texas; and use of solar ponds for brine disposal at a water desalting project in a small colonia east of El Paso. This paper discusses salinity gradient solar technology requirements and the abundance of resources available in Texas and the Southwest which makes this an attractive location for the commercial development of salinity gradient projects. Barriers to development as well as catalysts are discussed before a brief overview of the projects listed above is provided.

Swift, A.H.P.; Lu, H. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

459

TEACHER NOTES The Effect of Temperature on Electrical Resistance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

superconducting tape2 , resistor, wire and/or other materials to serve as resistive samples Wire leadsTEACHER NOTES The Effect of Temperature on Electrical Resistance Abstract: This project allows students to experimentally discover the temperature dependence of resistance using a copper wire

Quigg, Chris

460

Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic Heavy Metals: The Next Generation of Personal Exposure Electrochemical Sensors for the Detection of Lead and Other Toxic Heavy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature gradient leading" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Scheibe named lead scientist for EMSL computing | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lead scientist for EMSL computing He will oversee Multiscale Modeling and High Performance Computing Tim Scheibe EMSL has selected Tim Scheibe as lead scientist for Multiscale...

462

Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly Reduces Wind Turbine Performance Research Led by Sandia Reveals Leading-Edge Erosion Significantly Reduces Wind...

463

Inspiration from world-class scientists leads Patricia Langan...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

leads student to nanoscience Inspiration from world-class scientists leads Patricia Langan to nanoscience Graduate research assistant discovered her passion while interning as...

464

Anthropogenic Lead Emissions in the Ocean: The Evolving Global Experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review the current distribution of lead and lead isotopes in the ocean with regard to the evolving pattern of human emissions during the past decades and centuries.

Lee, Jong-Mi

465

AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results AVTA: 2010 Honda Civic HEV with Experimental Ultra Lead Acid Battery Testing Results The Vehicle...

466

Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study, 2013 Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study, 2013 Thermal...

467

Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate. Hydrogen diffusion in Lead Zirconate Titanate and Barium Titanate. Abstract: Hydrogen is a potential clean-burning,...

468

Cambodia-Low Emissions Asian Development (LEAD) Program | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

in up to 11 partner countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. USAID LEAD Factsheet LEAD Fact...

469

University of Maryland Wins Architecture Prize, Pulls Into Lead...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maryland Wins Architecture Prize, Pulls Into Lead in 2011 Solar Decathlon University of Maryland Wins Architecture Prize, Pulls Into Lead in 2011 Solar Decathlon September 28, 2011...

470

6, 13011320, 2006 Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban, South Africa H and Physics Discussions Temperature climatology and trend estimates in the UTLS region as observed over Commons License. 1301 #12;ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban

Boyer, Edmond

471

Thermoelectric Temperature Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the controller can supply the power required to bring the device to the desired temperature and maintain a stableNOTE 201TM TECHNICAL Optimizing Thermoelectric Temperature Control Systems #12;2 May 1995 92 of applications that require extremely stable temperature control. System design can be complex, but improved

Saffman, Mark

472

Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer Research Plans  

SciTech Connect

The MPACT-funded Lead Slowing Down Spectrometry (LSDS) project has been evaluating the feasibility of using LSDS techniques to assay fissile isotopes in used nuclear fuel assemblies. The approach has the potential to provide considerable improvement in the assay of fissile isotopic masses in fuel assemblies compared to other non-destructive techniques in a direct and independent manner. The LSDS collaborations suggests that the next step to in empirically testing the feasibility is to conduct measurements on fresh fuel assemblies to understand investigate self-attenuation and fresh mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel rodlets so we may betterto understand extraction of masses for 235U and 239Pu. While progressing toward these goals, the collaboration also strongly suggests the continued development of enabling technology such as detector development and algorithm development, thatwhich could provide significant performance benefits.

Warren, Glen A.; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Gavron, Victor; Danon, Yaron; Weltz, Adam; Harris, Jason; Stewart, T.

2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

473

Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate  

SciTech Connect

Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Materials Lab.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited X-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An operational X-ray laser (30) is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition X-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The X-ray laser (30) is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam (32) illuminates a free-standing thin foil (34) that may be associated with a substrate (36) for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the X-ray laser gain medium. The X-ray laser (30) may be driven by more than one optical laser beam (32, 44). The X-ray laser (30) has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, Edward M. (Pleasanton, CA); Rosen, Mordecai D. (Berkeley, CA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Density gradient free electron collisionally excited x-ray laser  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An operational x-ray laser is provided that amplifies 3p-3s transition x-ray radiation along an approximately linear path. The x-ray laser is driven by a high power optical laser. The driving line focused optical laser beam illuminates a free-standing thin foil that may be associated with a substrate for improved structural integrity. This illumination produces a generally cylindrically shaped plasma having an essentially uniform electron density and temperature, that exists over a long period of time, and provides the x-ray laser gain medium. The x-ray laser may be driven by more than one optical laser beam. The x-ray laser has been successfully demonstrated to function in a series of experimental tests.

Campbell, E.M.; Rosen, M.D.

1984-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

476

OPTICAL-NEAR-INFRARED COLOR GRADIENTS AND MERGING HISTORY OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

It has been suggested that merging plays an important role in the formation and the evolution of elliptical galaxies. While gas dissipation by star formation is believed to steepen metallicity and color gradients of the merger products, mixing of stars through dissipation-less merging (dry merging) is believed to flatten them. In order to understand the past merging history of elliptical galaxies, we studied the optical-near-infrared (NIR) color gradients of 204 elliptical galaxies. These galaxies are selected from the overlap region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Stripe 82 and the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). The use of optical and NIR data (g, r, and K) provides large wavelength baselines, and breaks the age-metallicity degeneracy, allowing us to derive age and metallicity gradients. The use of the deep SDSS Stripe 82 images makes it possible for us to examine how the color/age/metallicity gradients are related to merging features. We find that the optical-NIR color and the age/metallicity gradients of elliptical galaxies with tidal features are consistent with those of relaxed ellipticals, suggesting that the two populations underwent a similar merging history on average and that mixing of stars was more or less completed before the tidal features disappeared. Elliptical galaxies with dust features have steeper color gradients than the other two types, even after masking out dust features during the analysis, which can be due to a process involving wet merging. More importantly, we find that the scatter in the color/age/metallicity gradients of the relaxed and merging feature types decreases as their luminosities (or masses) increase at M > 10{sup 11.4} M{sub Sun} but stays large at lower luminosities. Mean metallicity gradients appear nearly constant over the explored mass range, but a possible flattening is observed at the massive end. According to our toy model that predicts how the distribution of metallicity gradients changes as a result of major dry merging, the mean metallicity gradient should flatten by 40% and its scatter becomes smaller by 80% per a mass-doubling scale if ellipticals evolve only through major dry merger. Our result, although limited by a number statistics at the massive end, is consistent with the picture that major dry merging is an important mechanism for the evolution for ellipticals at M > 10{sup 11.4} M{sub Sun }, but is less important at the lower mass range.

Kim, Duho; Im, Myungshin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-rho, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-rho, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Computational and Experimental Development of Novel High-Temperature Alloys  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Development of Novel High-Temperature Alloys Background The need for fossil-fueled power plants to run cleaner and more efficiently leads toward ever-higher operating temperatures and pressures. Gas turbines, which can be fueled by natural gas, synthetic gas (syngas), or a high-hydrogen stream derived from coal, are critical components in this development. High-temperature operation of turbines is generally achieved by using nickel-chrome superalloys with coatings

478

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

Mosher, D.M.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

479

Comparison of leading and next-to-leading logarithmic electroweak corrections to Higgs production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using soft-collinear effective theory, the leading-log radiative electroweak corrections are written in a closed and analytical form for the hadronic cross section of Higgs production through vector boson fusion, qq->qqH, one of the most promising channels for studying the Higgs boson at the LHC. The simple leading-log resummation is compared with a full next-to-leading-log calculation, and its accuracy is found to be of order 1% up to 10 TeV, i.e. better than the accuracy of PDFs. Corrections are found to be larger than predicted by one-loop fixed order approximations at LHC energies. The method provides a simple way of incorporating the electroweak corrections in software packages, improving the accuracy of simulations.

Fabio Siringo

2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

480

Comparison of leading and next-to-leading logarithmic electroweak corrections to Higgs production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using soft-collinear effective theory, the leading-log radiative electroweak corrections are written in a closed and analytical form for the hadronic cross section of Higgs production through vector boson fusion, qq->qqH, one of the most promising channels for studying the Higgs boson at the LHC. The simple leading-log resummation is compared with a full next-to-leading-log calculation, and its accuracy is found to be of order 1% up to 10 TeV, i.e. comparable with the accuracy of PDFs. Corrections are found to be larger than predicted by one-loop fixed order approximations at LHC energies. The method provides a simple way of incorporating the electroweak corrections in software packages, improving the accuracy of simulations.

Siringo, Fabio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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481

Cryogenic experiences during W7-X HTS-current lead tests  

SciTech Connect

The Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) was responsible for design, production and test of the High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL) for the stellerator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X). 16 current leads were delivered. Detailed prototype tests as well as the final acceptance tests were performed at KIT, using a dedicated test cryostat assembled beside and connected to the main vacuum vessel of the TOSKA facility. A unique feature is the upside down orientation of the current leads due to the location of the power supplies in the basement of the experimental area of W7-X. The HTS-CL consists of three main parts: the cold end for the connection to the bus bar at 4.5 K, the HTS part operating in the temperature range from 4.5 K to 65 K and a copper heat exchanger (HEX) in the temperature range from 65 K to room temperature, which is cooled with 50 K helium. Therefore in TOSKA it is possible to cool test specimens simultaneously with helium at two different temperature levels. The current lead tests included different scenarios with currents up to 18.2 kA. In total, 10 cryogenic test campaigns with a total time of about 24 weeks were performed till beginning of 2013. The test facility as well as the 2 kW cryogenic plant of ITEP showed a very good reliability. However, during such a long and complex experimental campaign, one has to deal with failures, technical difficulties and incidents. The paper gives a summary of the test performance comprising the test preparation and operation. This includes the performance and reliability of the refrigerator and the test facility with reference to the process measuring and control system, the data acquisition system, as well as the building infrastructure.

Richter, Thomas; Lietzow, Ralph [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

482

Lead Poisoning: A Preventable Childhood Disease of the Slums  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...complications prevention & control Paint poisoning Socioeconomic Factors...han-dled better and more cheaply by robots. "If manned planetary exploration...the lead from chipping leaded paint in old buildings. Lead poisoning...objects, such as chips of leaded paint, even if they are not hungry-a...

Mark W. Oberle

1969-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

483

Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Honeymoons Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont to someone by E-mail Share Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont on Facebook Tweet about Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont on Twitter Bookmark Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont on Google Bookmark Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont on Delicious Rank Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont on Digg Find More places to share Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: Honeymoons Lead to Upgrades in Western Vermont on AddThis.com... Better Buildings Residential Network Progress

484

Role of Ash Deposits in the High Temperature Corrosion of Boiler Tubes  

SciTech Connect

Ash deposits cause accelerated corrosion of waterwall boiler tubes in waste to energy (WTE) incinerators. To study this effect, a series of experiments were planned to determine the mechanism of corrosion of carbon steel boiler tubes under ash deposits. Results reported here were for carbon steel tubes exposed to an environment consisting of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and water vapor. Future experiments will include HCl and SO{sub 2}. Test procedures included both isothermal and thermal gradient tests. Temperatures ranged from 300 C to 510 C for the isothermal tests and a metal/gas temperature of 450/670 C for the thermal gradient test. Initial results indicated that increasing temperature caused the isothermal corrosion rates of ash-covered samples to increase. A shakedown test of a thermal gradient test apparatus was conducted at a metal/gas temperature of 450/670 C, a more severe environment than normally encountered in WTE waterwalls. Results showed that the corrosion rate under those conditions exceeds the isothermal corrosion rates at the same metal temperature by a factor of 2 or more.

Covino, B.S., Jr.; Russell, J.H.; Cramer, S.D.; Holcomb, G.R.; Bullard, S.J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Matthes, S.A.; White, M.L.

2003-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

485

Batch sorption of lead (II) from aqueous solutions using natural kaolinite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The potential to remove lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions using natural kaolinite was investigated. The effects of several parameters including solution pH, adsorbent dose, ionic strength and solution temperature on adsorption were examined. The sorption data followed the Freundlich, Langmuir and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherms. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. Dynamics of the sorption process were studied and the values of rate constant of adsorption were calculated. The kaolinite can be used to remove lead (II) ions from aqueous solutions.

Xue-Song Wang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Alternative Fuels Data Center: San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

San Diego Leads in San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs on AddThis.com... Sept. 3, 2011 San Diego Leads in Promoting EVs W atch how San Diego is leading the way in promoting electric vehicles. For information about this project, contact San Diego Regional Clean Cities

487

Lead(ii) Detection An Exceptionally Selective Lead(ii)-Regulatory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-spore- forming bacillus that flourishes in millimolar concentrations of toxic heavy metals.[12] It is the only that responds to lead(ii) ions with a high selectivity over other heavy metal ions. This has not been achieved developed for the detection of other small molecules, but with limited success for heavy metal ions

He, Chuan

488

Lead Safety Awareness This Bulletin provides information on the safe handling of lead  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

per cubic meter of air (50 ug/m 3 ), averaged over an 8-hour work-day. For potentially higher exposure necessary, seal off the work area with 6-millimeter plastic and wear properly fitting High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) respirator and protective clothing and equipment. · Post warning signs where lead

489

Lead Defendant Cases Filed Injunctions - Remands  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

NEPA Cases Filed in 2011 2011 NEPA Case Dispositions NEPA Cases Filed in 2011 2011 NEPA Case Dispositions Lead Defendant Cases Filed Injunctions - Remands Judgment for defendant 79 ARMY-USACE 3 2 Dismissal w/o settlement 20 DHS-USCG 1 1 Settlement 18 DOD 0 0 Adverse dispositions: 29 DOE-Energy 2 0 TRO 0 DOE-FERC 0 0 Preliminary Injunction 5 DOE-NNSA 0 0 Permanent Injunction 3 DOI-BIA 0 0 Remand 21 DOI-BLM 22 8 DOI-BOEM 0 0 Basis for 2011 NEPA Dispositions DOI-BOR 1 2 Jurisdictional - P prevailed 2 DOI-FWS 4 2 Jurisdictional - D prevailed 20 DOI-NPS 4 0 NEPA - Not required 4 DOJ 0 0 NEPA - Is required 4 DOS 0 0 CE - Adequate 5 DOT-FMCSA 1 0 CE - Not Adequate 5 DOT-FAA 3 1 EA - Adequate* 24 DOT-FHWA 14 2 EA - Not Adequate* 5 DOT-FTA 2 0 EIS - Adequate* 32 DOT-STB 0 1 EIS - Not Adequate* 15

490

Lead removal by using carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exposure to lead (Pb) can cause anemia, diseases of the liver and kidneys, brain damage and ultimately death. For these reasons, heavy metals must be removed as much as possible from water. The removal of Pb (II) ions from aqueous solution using carbon nanotubes (CNT) as the adsorbent was investigated. The effects of pH were studied at 25°C. Batch mode adsorption study has revealed that the removal of Pb (II) ions was maximum (85% removal) at pH 5 and achieved 83% removal at 40 mg/L of CNTs. The adsorption continuously increased in the pH range of 3-5, beyond which the adsorption could not be carried out due to the precipitation of metal. This study was also supported by characterisation of CNTs using FESEM. The characterisation suggested that at acidic condition (pH 5), the surfaces of CNTs are more aligned and well-integrated compared to CNTs at different pHs. Finally, it can be concluded that CNTs could be a potential adsorbent for the removal of Pb from wastewater.

A.A. Muataz; M. Fettouhi; A. Al-Mammum; N. Yahya

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Daily Temperature Lag  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daily Temperature Lag Daily Temperature Lag Name: Shyammayi Status: teacher Grade: K-2 Country: Mauritius Date: Summer 2011 Question: At what time of the day is the temperature hottest? At what time of the day is the temperature coldest? Replies: In general, the hottest part of the day is late afternoon. The sun has passed its peak in the sky but still heats the Earth up until very late in the afternoon. The lowest temperatures are around dawn. Earth has had all night to get rid of the day's heat by radiating it into space. After sunrise, temperatures begin to climb. This can be changed by local storms, sea breezes or mountain breezes and even monsoon winds. Hope this helps. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Instructor Arts and Sciences/CRC Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology Shyammayi

492

Seawater feed reverse osmosis preheating appraisal, Part I: leading element performance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the seawater reverse osmosis preheating process, and presents a parametric study of the process. The basic transport equations describing the leading element are exhibited and appraised. The leading element, which governs the whole system performance, is studied and analysed. The incorporated and investigated operating parameters are the feed pressure and the temperature for different feed salt concentrations. In addition, different feed flow rates, effects on permeate flux and permeator salt rejection, together with the permeator recovery, are studied. A seawater membrane of a well-known data, for instance FT30SW380HR, is used to perform the study. The membrane water permeability coefficient Kw is determined and correlated. Furthermore, the membrane salt permeability coefficient Ks from the manufacturer system analysis program (ROSA) is given and discussed. The transport governing equations are programmed in a way that facilitates the achievement of a realistic parametric study. The results showed that the permeate flux increases significantly as the feed pressure increases. Also, it increases significantly as the feed salt concentration decreases, and also as the feed temperature and pressure increase. Meanwhile, the permeator salt rejection increases significantly as the feed pressure increases, and decreases significantly as the feed temperature increases. The study of the leading element of the array showed that there are constraints that must be considered, such as maximum membrane flux, maximum applied feed pressure, maximum feed flow rate and maximum feed temperature. Therefore, to attain the maximum membrane flux, the applied feed pressure must be lowered when the feed temperature is increased. In the case where the feed temperature is increased from 18°C to 45°C, a pressure saving of between 7% and 26% is achieved, according to the feed salt concentration and feed flow rate.

Aly Karameldin; Mahmoud S. Saadawy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Moorland pools as refugia for endangered species characteristic of raised bog gradients  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In intact raised bog landscapes transitions from ombrotrophic into minerotrophic conditions occur. These gradients are lost from many bogs due to peat harvesting and drainage, and are difficult to restore. To determine which endangered species are characteristic of pristine raised bog gradients and their current status in degraded bogs, plants and macroinvertebrates were surveyed in Estonian intact raised bogs and Dutch degraded bog remnants. Dutch national distribution data were used to determine whether communities with these species occurred outside bog habitats. Water chemistry data were used to describe associated environmental conditions. Intact bog gradients were the preferred habitat for six plant species and fifteen macroinvertebrate species, all of which are endangered. In degraded bogs these species were scarce or not recorded. In intact bogs these species lived at sites where runoff from the bog massif came into contact with regional ground water resulting in a gradient in pH, alkalinity, Ca, Fe and ionic ratio. Analysis of Dutch national distribution data revealed aggregations of these endangered species in moorland pools. These pools contained water chemistry gradients similar to those found in pristine bogs, which occurred at sites were groundwater seepage and stream water came in contact. In the past, stream water has been used to increase pH and trophic status of moorland pools facilitating fisheries. Today, this practice offers a conservation strategy for the protection of endangered species for which no short-term alternatives are available.

Hein H. van Kleef; Gert-Jan A. van Duinen; Wilco C.E.P. Verberk; Rob S.E.W. Leuven; Gerard van der Velde; Hans Esselink

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Surface Temperature of IGUs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

117 117 Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith, Daniel Türler, and Dariush Arasteh Building Technologies Program Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Fax: 510-486-6046, email: D_Arasteh@lbl.gov Abstract Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions

496

External vs. body temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External vs. body temperature External vs. body temperature Name: jacqui Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: If one's internal body temperature is approximately 98.6, WHY when the external temperature is 98.6 do we feel hot? Since both temperatures are "balanced", shouldn't we feel comfortable? I am assuming here that humidity levels are controlled, and play no factor in the external temperature. Replies: First of all, skin temperature is lower than 98.6F; 98.6F is internal body temperature, so air at 98.6F is hotter than skin. But more important, it is the nervous system, and the cells in your skin that your brain uses to detect temperature that determine whether you "feel" hot or not, not whether the air is hotter than your skin. These are set so that you feel hot when the air is actually colder than your skin. Why? They are probably set to make you feel hot whenever the air is warm enough so that your body has some trouble getting rid of the excess heat it produces through metabolism. This insures that you take some actions to help your body cool off. Like drinking cool water, or reducing exercise

497

Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Property:GeofluidTemp M Property:MeanReservoirTemp R Property:ReservoirTemp T Property:Temperature U Property:USGSMeanReservoirTemp Retrieved from "http:...

498

ARM - Temperature Converter  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 F for the freezing...

499

Low Temperature Proton Conductivity  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation by Tom Zawodzinski to DOE's Fuel Cell Operations at Sub-Freezing Temperatures Workshop held February 1-5, 2005 in Phoenix, Arizona.

500

Temperature and productivity  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

symptoms and performance of office work under combined exposure to temperature, noise and air pollution. PhD Thesis. International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy,...