Sample records for temperature extremes grid-connected

  1. GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems (Smart Grid Project) (Spain) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected...

  2. Grid Connectivity Research, Development & Demonstration Projects...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Connectivity Research, Development & Demonstration Projects Grid Connectivity Research, Development & Demonstration Projects 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  3. AN "AC INDUCTOR" BASED GRID CONNECTED INVERTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AN "AC INDUCTOR" BASED GRID CONNECTED INVERTER Ilya Zeltser, Student Member, IEEE and Sam Ben proposes a soft switched Output Current Sourcing (OCS) grid connected inverter that applies a high sourcing inverters where the small disturbance at the line voltage may lead to current run away

  4. Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems May 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis...

  5. Selective compensation of voltage harmonics in grid-connected microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    1 Selective compensation of voltage harmonics in grid-connected microgrids Mehdi Savaghebia , Juan is proposed for selective compensation of main voltage harmonics in a grid- connected microgrid. The aim level. Keywords Distributed Generator (DG); microgrid; grid-connected; voltage harmonics compensation. 1

  6. Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and...

  7. July 11 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    July 11 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial And Residential Building End-Use Equipment And Appliances July 11 Public Meeting: Physical...

  8. Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, Brian J.

    Nonparametric Spatial Models for Extremes: Application to Extreme Temperature Data. Montserrat-developed, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order-developed. However, extending these tools to model spatial extreme data is an active area of research. One

  9. Extreme Value Theory, Extreme Temperatures, and demonstration of extRemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extreme Value Theory, Extreme Temperatures, and demonstration of extRemes Eric Gilleland, National;Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Web Page http://www.isse.ucar.edu/extremevalues/evtk.html #12;Background on Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) Motivation Central Limit Theorem Extremal Types Theorem Normal (light tail

  10. Understanding the Benefits of Dispersed Grid-Connected Photovoltaics: From Avoiding the Next Major Outage to Taming Wholesale Power Markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Letendre, Steven E.; Perez, Richard

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thanks to new solar resource assessment techniques using cloud cover data available from geostationary satellites, it is apparent that grid-connected PV installations can serve to enhance electric grid reliability, preventing or hastening recovery from major power outages and serving to mitigate extreme price spikes in wholesale energy markets. (author)

  11. High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

  12. DOE Publishes Notice of Public Meeting for Smart Grid-connected...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Smart Grid-connected Buildings DOE Publishes Notice of Public Meeting for Smart Grid-connected Buildings April 8, 2014 - 9:30am Addthis DOE has published a notice of public...

  13. Performance Test Protocol for Evaluating Inverters Used in Grid-Connected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Performance Test Protocol for Evaluating Inverters Used in Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems....................................................................................... 6 4.1 Inverter Size

  14. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems Case Studies | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: Energy ResourcesNewsInformation Grid-Connected

  15. Aalborg Universitet Frequency Adaptive Selective Harmonic Control for Grid-Connected Inverters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Aalborg Universitet Frequency Adaptive Selective Harmonic Control for Grid-Connected Inverters Yang Harmonic Control for Grid-Connected Inverters. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, 1-13. 10.1109/TPEL Selective Harmonic Control for Grid-Connected Inverters Yongheng Yang, Student Member, IEEE, Keliang Zhou

  16. Changes in concurrent monthlyprecipitation and temperature extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    changes in daily climate extremes of temperature J. Geophys.Bayesian spatial modeling of extreme precipitation returnand Mearns L 2000 Climate extremes: observations, modeling,

  17. Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk Reduction in Geothermal Exploration Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk...

  18. European Temperature Extremes: Mechanisms and Responses to Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    European Temperature Extremes: Mechanisms and Responses to Climate Change PhD Thesis Julien temperature extremes under CC December 22, 2010 1 / 41 #12;Extremes? Why? Summer 2003: public & scientific of summer heat-waves (e.g., Fischer and Schär, 2009). Years ISI Publi's topic: 'Temperature extreme' 1985

  19. Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power control of a wind farm with active stall wind turbines and AC grid connection Anca D. Hansen1 controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of active stall wind turbines with AC grid connection wind farm control involves both the control on wind turbine level as well as the central control

  20. Development of New Three-Level Current-Source Inverter for Grid Connected Photovoltaic System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    Development of New Three-Level Current-Source Inverter for Grid Connected Photovoltaic System-phase three-level current source inverter (CSI) driven by a single gate-drive power supply in both chopper and inverter, and its feasibility on grid connected photovoltaic system application. Using this new topology

  1. Modeling and Grid impedance Variation Analysis of Parallel Connected Grid Connected Inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    Modeling and Grid impedance Variation Analysis of Parallel Connected Grid Connected Inverter based in the same grid interface conditions by means of impedance-based analysis and modeling. Unlike the single grid connected inverter, it is found that multiple parallel connected inverters and grid impedance can

  2. Design of a Robust Digital Current Controller for a Grid Connected Interleaved Inverter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design of a Robust Digital Current Controller for a Grid Connected Interleaved Inverter M. A for a three- phase voltage source grid-connected interleaved inverter. Each phase consists of 6 half of electrical sources include fuel cells, solar cells, wind turbines, flywheel, and batteries. Most

  3. Storage Size Determination for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ru, Yu; Martinez, Sonia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the problem of determining the size of battery storage used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. In our setting, electricity is generated from PV and is used to supply the demand from loads. Excess electricity generated from the PV can be stored in a battery to be used later on, and electricity must be purchased from the electric grid if the PV generation and battery discharging cannot meet the demand. The objective is to minimize the electricity purchase from the electric grid while at the same time choosing an appropriate battery size. More specifically, we want to find a unique critical value (denoted as $E_{max}^c$) of the battery size such that the cost of electricity purchase remains the same if the battery size is larger than or equal to $E_{max}^c$, and the cost is strictly larger if the battery size is smaller than $E_{max}^c$. We propose an upper bound on $E_{max}^c$, and show that the upper bound is achievable for certain scenarios. For the case with ideal PV generat...

  4. An economic analysis of grid-connected residential solar photovoltaic power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Paul R.

    The question of the utility grid-connected residential market for photovoltaics is examined from a user-ownership perspective. The price is calculated at which the user would be economically indifferent between

  5. Impact of externally forced changes on temperature extremes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morak, Simone

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis investigates changes in temperature extremes between 1950-2005, analysing gridded data sets of observations and climate model simulations. It focuses on changes in the (more)

  6. Mitigation of Voltage and Current Harmonics in Grid-Connected Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Mitigation of Voltage and Current Harmonics in Grid-Connected Microgrids Mehdi Savaghebi1 , Josep M-connected microgrids. Two modes of compensation are considered, i.e. voltage and current compensation modes-electronic interface converter to the utility grid or microgrid. Microgrid is a local grid consisting of DGs, energy

  7. Utility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems National Solar Energy Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utility Grid-Connected Distributed Power Systems National Solar Energy Conference ASES Solar 96 at least half of its energy obtained from energy efficiency and renewable resources by the year 2000. Solar energy, distributed generation resource. Investments made in solar power today are expected to provide

  8. REDUCING MISMATCH LOSSES IN GRID-CONNECTED RESIDENTIAL BIPV ARRAYS USING ACTIVE POWER CONVERSION COMPONENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in plant energy production. The introduction of additional power converters in the plant layout intends/Simulink© environment for each topology using a 3 kWp rooftop-type plant. Simulation results show that a considerableREDUCING MISMATCH LOSSES IN GRID-CONNECTED RESIDENTIAL BIPV ARRAYS USING ACTIVE POWER CONVERSION

  9. MODULAR MULTI-LEVEL CONVERTER BASED HVDC SYSTEM FOR GRID CONNECTION OF OFFSHORE WIND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhary, Sanjay

    MODULAR MULTI-LEVEL CONVERTER BASED HVDC SYSTEM FOR GRID CONNECTION OF OFFSHORE WIND POWER PLANT U off-shore wind power plants. The MMC consists of a large number of simple voltage sourced converter offshore wind power plants (WPP) because they offer higher energy yield due to a superior wind profile

  10. Grid-Connected Marine Current Generation System Power Smoothing Control Using Supercapacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Grid-Connected Marine Current Generation System Power Smoothing Control Using Supercapacitors to reduce the fluctuation of generator power. In the second step, Supercapacitor (SC) Energy Storage System fluctuation, swell effect, power smoothing control, supercapacitor. I. [NTRODUCTION [n the recent years

  11. Reactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Haibo

    is widely used in the wind power system for its advantages over other two types [5]. The characteristicsReactive power control of grid-connected wind farm based on adaptive dynamic programming Yufei Tang Wind farm Power system Adaptive control a b s t r a c t Optimal control of large-scale wind farm has

  12. CURRENT SOURCING ISOLATED GRID CONNECTED INVERTER Ilya Zeltser, Student Member, IEEE and Sam Ben-Yaakov, Senior Member, IEEE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CURRENT SOURCING ISOLATED GRID CONNECTED INVERTER Ilya Zeltser, Student Member, IEEE and Sam Ben proposes a soft switched Output Current Sourcing (OCS) grid connected inverter that applies a high inverters where the small disturbance at the line voltage may lead to current run away and consequently

  13. 564 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012 Dynamic Stability of Three-Phase Grid-Connected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    564 IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2012 Dynamic Stability of Three-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System Using Zero Dynamic Design Approach M. A. Mahmud, Student Member of the dynamic response of a three-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system. To control the grid cur- rent

  14. Abstract--This paper focuses on reviewing grid connection of large offshore wind farms (OWFs) employing current state-of-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Claus Leth

    1 Abstract--This paper focuses on reviewing grid connection of large offshore wind farms (OWFs Farms. I. INTRODUCTION owadays, offshore wind penetration into the electrical grid is rapidly increasing grid connection in e.g. the UK. Index Terms--HVDC transmission, Pulse width modulation converters, Wind

  15. Future changes in daily summer temperature variability: driving processes and role for temperature extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    extremes Erich M. Fischer ? Christoph Scha¨r Received: 20 May 2008 / Accepted: 19 September 2008 ? Springer summer temperature extremes, not only due to the mean warming itself, but also due to changes extremes particularly over the Mediterranean and the transitional climate zone (TCZ, between

  16. July 11 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial And Residential Building End-Use Equipment And Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain the three slide decks presented at the public meeting on the Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances, held on July 11, 2014 in Washington, DC.

  17. Active Harmonic Filtering Using Current Controlled Grid-Connected DG Units with Closed-Loop Power Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    1 Active Harmonic Filtering Using Current Controlled Grid- Connected DG Units with Closed converters to actively compensate harmonics, this paper proposes an enhanced current control approach, which seamlessly integrates system harmonic mitigation capabilities with the primary DG power generation function

  18. Method For Synthesizing Extremely High-Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  19. Method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise (Chicago, IL); Glorieux, Benoit (Perpignan, FR)

    2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an aerodynamic levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  20. Influence of Modes of Climate Variability on Global Temperature Extremes JESSE KENYON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Influence of Modes of Climate Variability on Global Temperature Extremes JESSE KENYON Nicholas variability on worldwide summer and winter temperature extremes has been analyzed, namely, that of the El Niño for temperature extremes from world- wide land areas are used describe moderate extremes, such as the number

  1. Smart Energy Management and Control for Fuel Cell Based Micro-Grid Connected Neighborhoods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Mohammad S. Alam

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell power generation promises to be an efficient, pollution-free, reliable power source in both large scale and small scale, remote applications. DOE formed the Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance with the intention of breaking one of the last barriers remaining for cost effective fuel cell power generation. The Alliances goal is to produce a core solid-state fuel cell module at a cost of no more than $400 per kilowatt and ready for commercial application by 2010. With their inherently high, 60-70% conversion efficiencies, significantly reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and negligible emissions of other pollutants, fuel cells will be the obvious choice for a broad variety of commercial and residential applications when their cost effectiveness is improved. In a research program funded by the Department of Energy, the research team has been investigating smart fuel cell-operated residential micro-grid communities. This research has focused on using smart control systems in conjunction with fuel cell power plants, with the goal to reduce energy consumption, reduce demand peaks and still meet the energy requirements of any household in a micro-grid community environment. In Phases I and II, a SEMaC was developed and extended to a micro-grid community. In addition, an optimal configuration was determined for a single fuel cell power plant supplying power to a ten-home micro-grid community. In Phase III, the plan is to expand this work to fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods (mini-grid). The economic implications of hydrogen cogeneration will be investigated. These efforts are consistent with DOEs mission to decentralize domestic electric power generation and to accelerate the onset of the hydrogen economy. A major challenge facing the routine implementation and use of a fuel cell based mini-grid is the varying electrical demand of the individual micro-grids, and, therefore, analyzing these issues is vital. Efforts are needed to determine the most appropriate means of implementing micro-grids and the costs and processes involved with their extended operation. With the development and availability of fuel cell based stand-alone power plants, an electrical mini-grid, encompassing several connected residential neighborhoods, has become a viable concept. A primary objective of this project is to define the parameters of an economically efficient fuel cell based mini-grid. Since pure hydrogen is not economically available in sufficient quantities at the present time, the use of reforming technology to produce and store excess hydrogen will also be investigated. From a broader perspective, the factors that bear upon the feasibility of fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods are similar to those pertaining to the electrification of a small town with a localized power generating station containing several conventional generating units. In the conventional case, the town or locality would also be connected to the larger grid system of the utility company. Therefore, in the case of the fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhoods, this option should also be available. The objectives of this research project are: To demonstrate that smart energy management of a fuel cell based micro-grid connected neighborhood can be efficient and cost-effective;To define the most economical micro-grid configuration; and, To determine how residential micro-grid connected fuel cell(s) can contribute to America's hydrogen energy future.

  2. STATISTICAL METHODS FOR RELATING TEMPERATURE EXTREMES TO LARGE-SCALE METEOROLOGICAL PATTERNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICAL METHODS FOR RELATING TEMPERATURE EXTREMES TO LARGE-SCALE METEOROLOGICAL PATTERNS Rick Extreme Value Analysis: Block Maxima (3) Conditional Extreme Value Analysis: Peaks over Threshold (4) Application to California Temperature Extremes (5) Remaining Work #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 (1) Introduction

  3. Detection of changes in temperature extremes during the second half of the 20th century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Detection of changes in temperature extremes during the second half of the 20th century Nikolaos in extremely warm nights. Human influence on cold nights and days is also detected, although less robustly, but there is no detection of a significant human influence on extremely warm days. In the future, extreme temperatures

  4. Irrigation cooling effect on temperature and heat index extremes David B. Lobell,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kueppers, Lara M.

    Irrigation cooling effect on temperature and heat index extremes David B. Lobell,1 Celine J on average monthly temperatures. Given the importance of temperature (T) extremes to agriculture and human health, we evaluated irrigation induced changes in various metrics of T extremes using daily observations

  5. Changes in daily temperature and precipitation extremes in central and south Asia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein Tank, Albert

    Changes in daily temperature and precipitation extremes in central and south Asia A. M. G. Klein in indices of climate extremes are studied on the basis of daily series of temperature and precipitation, the indices of temperature extremes indicate warming of both the cold tail and the warm tail

  6. Policy Name: Closing due to Indoor Temperature Extremes Originating/Responsible Department: Facilities Management and Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawson, Jeff W.

    Policy Name: Closing due to Indoor Temperature Extremes Originating/Responsible Department to be followed in the event that indoor temperature extremes prompt the closing of any building or work area. The closing of any building or work area due to indoor temperatures extremes shall be subject to operational

  7. Direct power control of grid connected PV systems with three level NPC inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso-Martinez, Jaime; Eloy-Garcia, Joaquin; Arnaltes, Santiago [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the control of a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) voltage source inverter for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. The control method used is the Extended Direct Power Control (EDPC), which is a generic approach for Direct Power Control (DPC) of multilevel inverters based on geometrical considerations. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms, that allow maximal power conversion into the grid, have been included. These methods are capable of extracting maximum power from each of the independent PV arrays connected to each DC link voltage level. The first one is a conventional MPPT which outputs DC link voltage references to EDPC. The second one is based on DPC concept. This new MPPT outputs power increment references to EDPC, thus avoiding the use of a DC link voltage regulator. The whole control system has been tested on a three-level NPC voltage source inverter connected to the grid and results confirm the validity of the method. (author)

  8. Monitoring and analysis of two grid connected PV systems Michael BRESSAN* Valrie DUPE**, Bruno JAMMES**, Thierry TALBERT*, Corinne ALONSO**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Reliability and Availability Abstract In this paper, two grid connected photovoltaic systems are studied and monitored for fault detection ad predictive reliability. The first PV grid, is at CNRS-PROMES laboratory systemsThen, from these measurements, a performance analysis of the photovoltaic power generation

  9. Utility Scale Wind Turbines on a Grid Connected Island Mohit Dua, Anthony L. Rogers, James F. Manwell,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Utility Scale Wind Turbines on a Grid Connected Island Mohit Dua, Anthony L. Rogers, James F utility scale wind turbines on Fox Islands, located 12 miles from the coast of Maine in the United States of electricity itself. Three locations are analyzed in detail as potential sites for wind turbine installations

  10. OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    OFF-SHORE WIND AND GRID-CONNECTED PV: HIGH PENETRATION PEAK SHAVING FOR NEW YORK CITY Richard Perez-shore wind and PV generation using the city of New York as a test case. While wind generation is not known the source of the energy that can meet the demand. While the peak-time availability of wind generation

  11. Introduction Large-scale circulation Clouds Conclusions European temperature extremes in CMIP5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    Introduction Large-scale circulation Clouds Conclusions European temperature extremes in CMIP5 extremes in CMIP5 EUCLIPSE ­ May 2012 ­ Paris #12;Introduction Large-scale circulation Clouds Conclusions Introduction Objectives European temperature extremes: understand model biases & uncertainties under future

  12. Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the IPCC Ensemble of Global Coupled Model Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changes in Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in the IPCC Ensemble of Global Coupled Model September 2006) ABSTRACT Temperature and precipitation extremes and their potential future changes on Climate Change (IPCC) diagnostic exercise for the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). Climate extremes

  13. Extreme Environment Silicon Carbide Hybrid Temperature & Pressure Optical Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nabeel Riza

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report contains the main results from a 3-year program to further investigate the merits of SiC-based hybrid sensor designs for extreme environment measurements in gas turbines. The study is divided in three parts. Part 1 studies the material properties of SiC such as temporal response, refractive index change with temperature, and material thermal response reversibility. Sensor data from a combustion rig-test using this SiC sensor technology is analyzed and a robust distributed sensor network design is proposed. Part 2 of the study focuses on introducing redundancy in the sensor signal processing to provide improved temperature measurement robustness. In this regard, two distinct measurement methods emerge. A first method uses laser wavelength sensitivity of the SiC refractive index behavior and a second method that engages the Black-Body (BB) radiation of the SiC package. Part 3 of the program investigates a new way to measure pressure via a distance measurement technique that applies to hot objects including corrosive fluids.

  14. Electricity storage for grid-connected household dwellings with PV panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mulder, Grietus; Six, Daan [Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek, Unit Energy Technology, Mol (Belgium); Ridder, Fjo De [Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Classically electricity storage for PV panels is mostly designed for stand-alone applications. In contrast, we focus in this article on houses connected to the grid with a small-scale storage to store a part of the solar power for postponed consumption within the day or the next days. In this way the house owner becomes less dependent on the grid and does only pay for the net shortage of his energy production. Local storage solutions pave the way for many new applications like omitting over-voltage of the line and bridging periods of power-line black-out. Since 2009 using self-consumption of PV energy is publicly encouraged in Germany, which can be realised by electric storage. This paper develops methods to determine the optimal storage size for grid-connected dwellings with PV panels. From measurements in houses we were able to establish calculation rules for sizing the storage. Two situations for electricity storage are covered: - the storage system is an optimum to cover most of the electricity needs; - it is an optimum for covering the peak power need of a dwelling. After these calculation rules a second step is needed to determine the size of the real battery. The article treats the aspects that should be taken into consideration before buying a specific battery like lead-acid and lithium-ion batteries. (author)

  15. Arctic daily temperature and precipitation extremes: Observed and simulated physical behavior.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glisan, Justin Michael

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??ARCTIC DAILY TEMPERATURE AND PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: OBSERVED AND SIMULATED PHYSICAL BEHAVIOR Justin M. Glisan Department of Geological and Atmospheric Sciences, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (more)

  16. Detectable Changes in the Frequency of Temperature Extremes SIMONE MORAK AND GABRIELE C. HEGERL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hegerl, Gabriele Clarissa "Gabi"

    Detectable Changes in the Frequency of Temperature Extremes SIMONE MORAK AND GABRIELE C. HEGERL of hot and cold extremes over land can be explained by climate variability or whether they show a detectable response to external influences. The authors analyze changes in the frequency of moderate-to-extreme

  17. Wind observations of extreme ion temperature anisotropies in the D. Clack,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, John

    Wind observations of extreme ion temperature anisotropies in the lunar wake D. Clack,1,2 J. C directional changes show that the wake geometry is dependent upon the prevailing magnetic field orientation (2004), Wind observations of extreme ion temperature anisotropies in the lunar wake, Geophys. Res. Lett

  18. 2014-04-30 Public Meeting Presentation Slides: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014.

  19. Compatibility Study of Protective Relaying in a Grid-Connected Fuel Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 200-kW fuel cell produced by International Fuel Cells (IFC), a United Technologies Company, began operation at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) in early June 2003. The NTRC is a joint Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) and University of Tennessee research facility located in Knoxville, Tennessee. This research activity investigated the protective relaying functions of this fully commercialized fuel cell power plant, which uses ''synthesized'' protective relays. The project's goal is to characterize the compatibility between the fuel cell's interconnection protection system and the local distribution system or electric power system (EPS). ORNL, with assistance from the Electric Power Research Institute-Power Electronics Applications Center (EPRI-PEAC) in Knoxville, Tennessee, monitored and characterized the system compatibility over a period of 6 months. Distribution utility engineers are distrustful of or simply uncomfortable with the protective relaying and hardware provided as part of distributed generation (DG) plants. Part of this mistrust is due to the fact that utilities generally rely on hardware from certain manufacturers whose reliability is well established based on performance over many years or even decades. Another source of concern is the fact that fuel cells and other types of DG do not use conventional relays but, instead, the protective functions of conventional relays are simulated by digital circuits in the distributed generator's grid interface control unit. Furthermore, the testing and validation of internal protection circuits of DG are difficult to accomplish and can be changed by the vendor at any time. This study investigated and documented the safety and protective relaying present in the IFC fuel cell, collected data on the operation of the fuel cell, recorded event data during EPS disturbances, and assessed the compatibility of the synthesized protective circuits and the local distribution system. The project also addressed other important and timely issues. For instance, the study includes an evaluation of the effectiveness of the fuel cell's synthesized relay protection scheme relative to the recently issued IEEE 1547 interconnection standard. Together, these activities should serve to reduce the number of unknowns pertaining to unconventional protective circuits, to the benefit of DG manufacturers, vendors, prospective and current users of DG, and electricity suppliers/distributors. Although more grid-connect fuel cell interruptions were encountered in this study than originally anticipated, and the investigation and findings became quite complex, every effort was made to clearly summarize the interconnection causes and issues throughout the report and especially in the summary found in Sect. 4. ORNL's funding of this study is sponsored equally by (1) the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Distributed Energy Resources and (2) the Distributed Generation Technologies program of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA).

  20. PVGIS approach for assessing the performances of the first PV grid-connected power plant in Morocco

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barhdadi, Abdelfettah

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we apply the PVGIS method for estimating the performance of the first grid-connected PV micro-power plant in Morocco. PVGIS approach provides analysis and assessment of in-site solar energy resources and predicts with good accuracy the potential of PV systems in term of electricity production. We find that annual total power generation of the micro-power is slightly higher than that initially expected at the installation stage and actually measured. The yearly predicted and measured power production values agree to about 2 %. However, individual monthly production can have larger discrepancy.

  1. Solid Nitrogen at Extreme Conditions of High Pressure and Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A; Gregoryanz, E

    2004-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We review the phase diagram of nitrogen in a wide pressure and temperature range. Recent optical and x-ray diffraction studies at pressures up to 300 GPa and temperatures in excess of 1000 K have provided a wealth of information on the transformation of molecular nitrogen to a nonmolecular (polymeric) semiconducting and two new molecular phases. These newly found phases have very large stability (metastability) range. Moreover, two new molecular phases have considerably different orientational order from the previously known phases. In the iota phase (unlike most of other known molecular phases), N{sub 2} molecules are orientationally equivalent. The nitrogen molecules in the theta phase might be associated into larger aggregates, which is in line with theoretical predictions on polyatomic nitrogen.

  2. ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2013, VOL. 6, NO. 5, 312319 Changes in Daily Climate Extremes of Observed Temperature and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extremes of Observed Temperature and Precipitation in China WANG Ai-Hui and FU Jian-Jian Nansen precipitation for 1960­2011 and maxi- mum/minimum temperature extremes for 1960­2008 re- corded at 549 stations in China are utilized to investigate climate extreme variations. A set of indices is derived and analyzed

  3. Three-Phase Modular Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter with Individual MPPT for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Bailu [ORNL; Hang, Lijun [ORNL; Riley, Cameron [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-phase modular cascaded H-bridge multilevel inverter for a grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) system is presented in this paper. To maximize the solar energy extraction of each PV string, an individual maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control scheme is applied, which allows the independent control of each dc-link voltage. PV mismatches may introduce unbalanced power supplied to the three-phase system. To solve this issue, a control scheme with modulation compensation is proposed. The three-phase modular cascaded multilevel inverter prototype has been built. Each H-bridge is connected to a 185 W solar panel. Simulation and experimental results are presented to validate the proposed ideas.

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 57, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2010 3431 A Universal Grid-Connected Fuel-Cell Inverter for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Sudip K.

    . INTRODUCTION THE utilization of fuel cells for distributed power gen- eration requires the development of a low-cost-Connected Fuel-Cell Inverter for Residential Application Sudip K. Mazumder, Senior Member, IEEE, Rajni K. Burra--This paper describes a universal fuel-cell-based grid- connected inverter design with digital

  5. Blanc, I., Beloin-Saint-Pierre, D., Payet, J., Jacquin, P., Adra, N., Mayer, D., Espace-PV: key sensitive parameters for environmental impacts of grid-connected PV systems with LCA , In Proceedings of the 23rd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    sensitive parameters for environmental impacts of grid-connected PV systems with LCA », In Proceedings FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF GRID-CONNECTED PV SYSTEMS WITH LCA I. BLANC1 , D. BELOIN-SAINT-PIERRE1 , J. PAYET2 , P will bring the biggest variation on environmental impact when considering regions with large difference

  6. Extreme Cold Weather Warning Recent subzero wind chill temperatures have understandably brought cold stress to a heighten

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cantlon, Jessica F.

    Extreme Cold Weather Warning Recent subzero wind chill temperatures have understandably brought for Disease Control and Prevention advise that if you are going outside in extreme cold, dress appropriately. Workers who are exposed to extreme cold or work in cold environments may be at risk of cold stress

  7. Extreme temperature robust optical sensor designs and fault-tolerant signal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riza, Nabeel Agha (Oviedo, FL); Perez, Frank (Tujunga, CA)

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) probe designs for extreme temperature and pressure sensing uses a single crystal SiC optical chip encased in a sintered SiC material probe. The SiC chip may be protected for high temperature only use or exposed for both temperature and pressure sensing. Hybrid signal processing techniques allow fault-tolerant extreme temperature sensing. Wavelength peak-to-peak (or null-to-null) collective spectrum spread measurement to detect wavelength peak/null shift measurement forms a coarse-fine temperature measurement using broadband spectrum monitoring. The SiC probe frontend acts as a stable emissivity Black-body radiator and monitoring the shift in radiation spectrum enables a pyrometer. This application combines all-SiC pyrometry with thick SiC etalon laser interferometry within a free-spectral range to form a coarse-fine temperature measurement sensor. RF notch filtering techniques improve the sensitivity of the temperature measurement where fine spectral shift or spectrum measurements are needed to deduce temperature.

  8. April 30 Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Building End-Use Equipment and Appliances

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These documents contain slide decks presented at the Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected Commercial and Residential Buildings End-Use Equipment and Appliances public meeting held on April 30, 2014. The first document includes the first presentation from the meeting: DOE Vision and Objectives. The second document includes all other presentations from the meeting: Terminology and Definitions; End-User and Grid Services; Physical Characterization Framework; Value, Benefits & Metrics.

  9. Composite Materials under Extreme Radiation and Temperature Environments of the Next Generation Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simos, N.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the nuclear energy renaissance, driven by fission reactor concepts utilizing very high temperatures and fast neutron spectra, materials with enhanced performance that exceeds are expected to play a central role. With the operating temperatures of the Generation III reactors bringing the classical reactor materials close to their performance limits there is an urgent need to develop and qualify new alloys and composites. Efforts have been focused on the intricate relations and the high demands placed on materials at the anticipated extreme states within the next generation fusion and fission reactors which combine high radiation fluxes, elevated temperatures and aggressive environments. While nuclear reactors have been in operation for several decades, the structural materials associated with the next generation options need to endure much higher temperatures (1200 C), higher neutron doses (tens of displacements per atom, dpa), and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience on materials accumulated to-date. The most important consideration is the performance and reliability of structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core functions. While there exists a great body of nuclear materials research and operating experience/performance from fission reactors where epithermal and thermal neutrons interact with materials and alter their physio-mechanical properties, a process that is well understood by now, there are no operating or even experimental facilities that will facilitate the extreme conditions of flux and temperature anticipated and thus provide insights into the behaviour of these well understood materials. Materials, however, still need to be developed and their interaction and damage potential or lifetime to be quantified for the next generation nuclear energy. Based on material development advances, composites, and in particular ceramic composites, seem to inherently possess properties suitable for key functions within the operating envelope of both fission and fusion reactors. In advanced fission reactors composite materials are being designed in an effort to extend the life and improve the reliability of fuel rod cladding as well as structural materials. Composites are being considered for use as core internals in the next generation of gas-cooled reactors. Further, next-generation plasma-fusion reactors, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will rely on the capabilities of advanced composites to safely withstand extremely high neutron fluxes while providing superior thermal shock resistance.

  10. TEMPERATURE AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET INTENSITY IN A CORONAL PROMINENCE CAVITY AND STREAMER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kucera, T. A. [NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gibson, S. E.; Schmit, D. J. [HAO/NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Tripathi, D. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag-4, Ganeshkhind, Pune University Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the temperature and EUV line emission of a coronal cavity and surrounding streamer in terms of a morphological forward model. We use a series of iron line ratios observed with the Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on 2007 August 9 to constrain temperature as a function of altitude in a morphological forward model of the streamer and cavity. We also compare model predictions to the EIS EUV line intensities and polarized brightness (pB) data from the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) Mark 4 K-coronameter. This work builds on earlier analysis using the same model to determine geometry of and density in the same cavity and streamer. The fit to the data with altitude-dependent temperature profiles indicates that both the streamer and cavity have temperatures in the range 1.4-1.7 MK. However, the cavity exhibits substantial substructure such that the altitude-dependent temperature profile is not sufficient to completely model conditions in the cavity. Coronal prominence cavities are structured by magnetism so clues to this structure are to be found in their plasma properties. These temperature substructures are likely related to structures in the cavity magnetic field. Furthermore, we find that the model overestimates the EUV line intensities by a factor of 4-10, without overestimating pB. We discuss this difference in terms of filling factors and uncertainties in density diagnostics and elemental abundances.

  11. Evaluation of an 96v Exide XPV23-3 battery pack at temperature extremes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nowak, D.

    1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests with a 96V Exide XPV23-3 battery were conducted to measure the effects of temperature extremes on the performance of EV batteries. The test objectives were to assess the nature and extent of problems encountered at various operating temperatures and to provide the engineering data base for the elimination of the problems.

  12. HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEMPERATURE STRUCTURE OF THE QUIET CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Code 7673, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Williams, David R. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Watanabe, Tetsuya, E-mail: dhbrooks@ssd5.nrl.navy.mi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a differential emission measure (DEM) analysis of the quiet solar corona on disk using data obtained by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. We show that the expected quiet-Sun DEM distribution can be recovered from judiciously selected lines, and that their average intensities can be reproduced to within 30%. We present a subset of these selected lines spanning the temperature range log T = 5.6-6.4 K that can be used to derive the DEM distribution reliably, including a subset of iron lines that can be used to derive the DEM distribution free of the possibility of uncertainties in the elemental abundances. The subset can be used without the need for extensive measurements, and the observed intensities can be reproduced to within the estimated uncertainty in the pre-launch calibration of EIS. Furthermore, using this subset, we also demonstrate that the quiet coronal DEM distribution can be recovered on size scales down to the spatial resolution of the instrument (1'' pixels). The subset will therefore be useful for studies of small-scale spatial inhomogeneities in the coronal temperature structure, for example, in addition to studies requiring multiple DEM derivations in space or time. We apply the subset to 45 quiet-Sun data sets taken in the period 2007 January to April, and show that although the absolute magnitude of the coronal DEM may scale with the amount of released energy, the shape of the distribution is very similar up to at least log T approx 6.2 K in all cases. This result is consistent with the view that the shape of the quiet-Sun DEM is mainly a function of the radiating and conducting properties of the plasma and is fairly insensitive to the location and rate of energy deposition. This universal DEM may be sensitive to other factors such as loop geometry, flows, and the heating mechanism, but if so they cannot vary significantly from quiet-Sun region to region.

  13. Low Frequency Modulation of Extreme Temperature Regimes in a Changing Climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Black, Robert X.

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The project examines long-term changes in extreme temperature episodes (ETE) associated with planetary climate modes (PCMs) in both the real atmospheric and climate model simulations. The focus is on cold air outbreaks (CAOs) and warm waves (WWs) occurring over the continental US during the past 60 winters. No significant long-term trends in either WWs or CAOs are observed over the US. The annual frequency of CAOs is affected by the (i) North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the Southeast US and (ii) PacificNorth American (PNA) pattern over the Northwest US. WW frequency is influenced by the (i) NAO over the eastern US and (ii) combined influence of PNA, Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and ENSO over the southern US. The collective influence of PCMs accounts for as much as 50% of the regional variability in ETE frequency. During CAO (WW) events occurring over the southeast US, there are low (high) pressure anomalies at higher atmospheric levels over the southeast US with oppositely-signed pressure anomalies in the lower atmosphere over the central US. These patterns lead to anomalous northerly (for CAOs) or southerly (for WWs) flow into the southeast leading to cold or warm surface air temperature anomalies, respectively. One distinction is that CAOs involve substantial air mass transport while WW formation is more local in nature. The primary differences among event categories are in the origin and nature of the pressure anomaly features linked to ETE onset. In some cases, PCMs help to provide a favorable environment for event onset. Heat budget analyses indicate that latitudinal transport in the lower atmosphere is the main contributor to regional cooling during CAO onset. This is partly offset by adiabatic warming associated with subsiding air. Additional diagnoses reveal that this latitudinal transport is partly due to the remote physical influence of a shallow cold pool of air trapped along the east side of the Rocky Mountains. ETE and PCM behavior is also studied in (CMIP5) climate model simulations. Although the climate models considered are able to represent the overall behavior of ETEs, the frequency of WWs (CAOs) is too high (low) in many models. While all models qualitatively replicate the overall structure of the PNA pattern, a small minority of models fails to properly simulate the NAO pattern. Model shortcomings in representing the NAO and PNA patterns have important consequences for simulating associated regional variability in surface air temperature and storm track behavior. The influence of PCMs on ETEs is underestimated in most CMIP5 models. In particular, none of the models are able to accurately simulate observed linkages between ETEs and the PDO, due to a gross misrepresentation of the PDO pattern in most models. Our results indicate that predictions of future CAO and WW behavior are currently limited by the ability of climate models to accurately represent PCM characteristics. Our study also considers the behavior of PCMs known as annular modes. It is determined that north-south movements in the stratospheric jet stream (related to the Polar Annular Mode) result in long-lasting impacts upon surface weather conditions including regional air temperature anomalies. The structure and dynamics of the stratospheric northern annular mode (or SNAM, related to changes in the strength of the stratospheric jet stream) was studied in CMIP5 models. In models with poorly-resolved stratospheres, the amplitude of SNAM at stratospheric altitudes is typically too weak, consistent with weaker stratospheric jet variability. However, this distinction does not carry over to the associated tropospheric signature of SNAM. A regional analysis illustrates that most CMIP5 models (regardless of whether the stratosphere is well-resolved) have anomalously weak and eastward shifted (compared to observed SNAM events) storm track and sea level pressure anomaly patterns during SNAM events. Analyses of stratospheretroposphere coupling reveal that large-scale wave activity in the stratosphere is anomalously weak in CMIP5 model

  14. Panel: Microgrid Research and Field Testing IEEE PES General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, Tampa, FL 1 In general, a microgrid can operate in both the grid-connected

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panel: Microgrid Research and Field Testing IEEE PES General Meeting, 24-28 June 2007, Tampa, FL 1 Abstract In general, a microgrid can operate in both the grid-connected mode and the islanded mode where the microgrid is interfaced to the main power system by a fast semiconductor switch called static switch, (SS

  15. This document is a preprint of the final paper: C. Zhang, T. Dragicevic, J. C. Vasquez, and J. M. Guerrero "Resonance damping techniques for grid-connected voltage source converters with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    of these methods. Keywords: LCL filter, Active damp methods, Passive damp methods Grid-connected inverter I advanced control strategies in order to maintain better stability performance [2]. So that many passive feedback" approach, these two strategies aim at modifying the transfer function of LCL filter in closed

  16. Detection and Attribution of Climate Change : From global mean temperature change to climate extremes and high impact weather.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This talk will describe how evidence has grown in recent years for a human influence on climate and explain how the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that it is extremely likely (>95% probability) that human influence on climate has been the dominant cause of the observed global-mean warming since the mid-20th century. The fingerprint of human activities has also been detected in warming of the ocean, in changes in the global water cycle, in reductions in snow and ice, and in changes in some climate extremes. The strengthening of evidence for the effects of human influence on climate extremes is in line with long-held basic understanding of the consequences of mean warming for temperature extremes and for atmospheric moisture. Despite such compelling evidence this does not mean that every instance of high impact weather can be attributed to anthropogenic climate change, because climate variability is often a major factor in many locations, especially for rain...

  17. Grid-Connected Renewables Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: The deadline for the most recent solicitation has passed and the information in this summary is specific to this closed program solicitation. The New Jersey Office of Clean Energy 2013-2014...

  18. Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Fenske, George R. (Downers Grove, IL); Lee, Sam (Gardena, CA); Shepherd, Gary (Los Alamitos, CA); Pruett, Gary J. (Cypress, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

  19. Review on the effects of hydrogen at extreme pressures and temperatures on the mechanical behavior of polymers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecht, Ethan S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of hydrogen on the mechanics (e.g. strength, ductility, and fatigue resistance) of polymer materials are outlined in this report. There are a small number of studies reported in the literature on this topic, and even fewer at the extreme temperatures to which hydrogen service materials will be exposed. Several studies found little evidence that hydrogen affects the static tensile properties, long term creep, or ductile fracture of high density polyethylene or polyamide. However, there has been a report that a recoverable drop in the modulus of high density polyethylene is observable under high hydrogen pressure. A research need exists on the mechanical effects of hydrogen on the wide range of polymers used or considered for use in the hydrogen economy, due to the lack of data in the literature.

  20. Addressing the Impact of Temperature Extremes on Large Format Li-Ion Batteries for Vehicle Applications (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the effects of temperature on large format lithium-ion batteries in electric drive vehicles.

  1. Grid Connectivity Research, Development & Demonstration Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and communication technology * Engage demonstration partners to validate NIST smart grid standards for utility network and sub-meter requirements (includes ANSI, NEMA...

  2. Grid Connectivity Research, Development & Demonstration Projects |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject: GuidanceNotGrandPurchasingGO-102009-2829 *GridDepartment

  3. Geothermal/Grid Connection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, searchGeaugaInformation Mexico - A Survey ofJump to: navigation,Grid

  4. Geothermal/Grid Connection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat Jump to: navigation, searchTo encourage the

  5. Extreme Tourism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadcast Transcript: The stereotype of the Japanese tourist with his camera has been taken to an extreme by one Toshifumi Fujimoto. Mr. Fujimoto likes to don camo clothing and sneak up to the front lines of international ...

  6. Extreme superstarclusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul P. van der Werf; Leonie Snijders

    2006-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of superstarclusters is a characteristic feature of starburst galaxies. We examine the properties of star forming regions and young star clusters in various environments, ranging from common to extreme. We then discuss new high spatial resolution mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of extreme superstarclusters in the obscured region of the Antennae (NGC4038-4039). We find that the PAH emission in this region is not dominated by the superstarclusters but is mostly diffuse. Emission line ratios found in our high spatial resolution data differ significantly from those in larger apertures, strongly affecting the derived results.

  7. Extreme Users WHY engage with extreme users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    Extreme Users METHOD WHY engage with extreme users HOW to engage extreme users Designers engage inspiration from their work-arounds and frameworks. When you speak with and observe extreme users, their needs extreme users are often also needs of a wider population. Determine who's extreme Determining who

  8. Honeywell Parallon Grid-connect Tests Honeywell Grid-connect Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /20/2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 5 15 25 35 0 10 20 30 40 5 15 25 35 0 10 20 30 40-connect Tests 12/20/2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0-connect Tests 12/20/2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0

  9. Extremal Graph Problems, Degenerate Extremal Problems,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simonovits, Miklós

    Extremal Graph Problems, Degenerate Extremal Problems, and Supersaturated Graphs Mikl´os Simonovits´an-type extremal problem. The graphs attaining the maximum will be called extremal and their family will be denoted and multi- ple edges. In 1940, P. Tur´an posed and solved the extremal problem of Kp+1, the complete graph

  10. The dangers of extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of quantum corrections to extreme black holes indicate noeffects [10]. The dangers of extremes 8. Ori, A. : StructureFOUNDATION The dangers of extremes Donald Marolf Published

  11. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, Jinfu (CIW)

    2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

  12. Extreme Optimization Announcements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Extreme Optimization Announcements Assignment 3 due tomorrow @ 5pm. No late days on Extreme, we will hold extra office hours during regular section times. #12;Extreme Optimization Extreme University Fall 2014 #12;Extreme Optimization The radiotherapy problem Saving Lives: Radiotherapy Radiation

  13. Climate Extremes in the Southeast United States: Observed Variability, Spatial Classification, and Related Planning.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, Emily J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Spatial and temporal trends in temperature and precipitation extremes were investigated for the Southeast United States for the period 1948 to 2012 using 27 extreme (more)

  14. Volume-translated cubic EoS and PC-SAFT density models and a free volume-based viscosity model for hydrocarbons at extreme temperature and pressure conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgess, Ward A.; Tapriyal, Deepak; Morreale, Bryan D.; Soong, Yee; Baled, Hseen; O Enick, Robert M; Wu, Yue; Bamgbade, Babatunde A.; McHugh,Mark A.

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This research focuses on providing the petroleum reservoir engineering community with robust models of hydrocarbon density and viscosity at the extreme temperature and pressure conditions (up to 533 K and 276 MPa, respectively) characteristic of ultra-deep reservoirs, such as those associated with the deepwater wells in the Gulf of Mexico. Our strategy is to base the volume-translated (VT) PengRobinson (PR) and SoaveRedlichKwong (SRK) cubic equations of state (EoSs) and perturbed-chain, statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) on an extensive data base of high temperature (278533 K), high pressure (6.9276 MPa) density rather than fitting the models to low pressure saturated liquid density data. This high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) data base consists of literature data for hydrocarbons ranging from methane to C{sub 40}. The three new models developed in this work, HTHP VT-PR EoS, HTHP VT-SRK EoS, and hybrid PC-SAFT, yield mean absolute percent deviation values (MAPD) for HTHP hydrocarbon density of ?2.0%, ?1.5%, and <1.0%, respectively. An effort was also made to provide accurate hydrocarbon viscosity models based on literature data. Viscosity values are estimated with the frictional theory (f-theory) and free volume (FV) theory of viscosity. The best results were obtained when the PC-SAFT equation was used to obtain both the attractive and repulsive pressure inputs to f-theory, and the density input to FV theory. Both viscosity models provide accurate results at pressures to 100 MPa but experimental and model results can deviate by more than 25% at pressures above 200 MPa.

  15. A combined climate extremes index for the Australian Region .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gallant, Ailie J. E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Changes in the area of Australia experiencing concurrent temperature and rainfall extremes are investigated through the use of two combined indices. The indices describe variations (more)

  16. Extremely Low Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address:011-DNA Jump37. It isInformationexplains a4Evendale,Open EnergyTectonics Jump

  17. Temperature Normals/Extremes - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To License

  18. Temperature Normals/Extremes-April - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To LicenseApril Hanford

  19. Temperature Normals/Extremes-August - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To LicenseApril HanfordAugust

  20. Temperature Normals/Extremes-December - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To LicenseApril

  1. Temperature Normals/Extremes-February - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To LicenseAprilFebruary Hanford

  2. Temperature Normals/Extremes-January - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To LicenseAprilFebruary

  3. Temperature Normals/Extremes-July - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To LicenseAprilFebruaryJuly

  4. Temperature Normals/Extremes-June - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To LicenseAprilFebruaryJulyJune

  5. Temperature Normals/Extremes-March - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How To

  6. Temperature Normals/Extremes-May - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How ToMay Hanford Meteorological

  7. Temperature Normals/Extremes-November - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How ToMay Hanford

  8. Temperature Normals/Extremes-October - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How ToMay HanfordOctober Hanford

  9. Temperature Normals/Extremes-September - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience and How ToMay HanfordOctober

  10. Integration Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of usage cycles, impulse, peaktransient, steady state. * Benchmark representative sample motors use to create draft usage cycle definitions. * Benchmark impact on rating as a...

  11. United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    partners conducted extensive design, engineering, and testing of floating offshore wind turbines, then constructed and deployed its 65-foot-tall VolturnUS prototype. At a scale of...

  12. Controlling of grid connected photovoltaic lighting system with fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saglam, Safak; Ekren, Nazmi; Erdal, Hasan [Technical Education Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul 34722 (Turkey)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, DC electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels is converted to AC electrical energy and an indoor area is illuminated using this energy. System is controlled by fuzzy logic algorithm controller designed with 16 rules. Energy is supplied from accumulator which is charged by photovoltaic panels if its energy would be sufficient otherwise it is supplied from grid. During the 1-week usage period at the semester time, 1.968 kWh energy is used from grid but designed system used 0.542 kWh energy from photovoltaic panels at the experiments. Energy saving is determined by calculations and measurements for one education year period (9 months) 70.848 kWh. (author)

  13. Prospects for grid-connected solar PV in Kenya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Amy Michelle

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Kenya's electric power system is heavily reliant on hydropower, leaving it vulnerable during recurring droughts. Supply shortfalls are currently met through the use of expensive leased diesel generation. Therefore, plans ...

  14. Maine: United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in maritime energy infrastructure and ship building to construct this first-of-its-kind wind energy system. As part of a separate project, the University of Maine is planning a...

  15. Integration Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    D.C. vss025bohn2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Grid Interaction Tech Team Codes and Standards to Support Vehicle Electrification Codes and Standards Support Vehicle...

  16. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProvedDecember 2005DepartmentDecemberGlossary of

  17. First Commercial, Grid-Connected, Hydrokinetic Tidal Energy Project in

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched5 Industrial CarbonArticles News(SC) CCIScatteringFacilitiesU.S. DOEFieldNorth

  18. Nevada Deploys Grid-Connected Electricity from Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2Energy Second QuarterRate principles

  19. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Generation Toolkit-Hydroelectric | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is a county in Oklahoma. Its

  20. Performance Parameters for Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006 TheSteven AshbyDepartment ofGE's Manual3PerformanceNational

  1. Circuit Topology Study of Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mansouri, Seyed Akbar

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Many different circuit topologies have been suggested for large scale photovoltaic systems. The cost and the efficiency are still the major issues of large scale (more)

  2. Transatlantic Workshop on Electric Vehicles and Grid Connectivity |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomenthe House Committee on EnergyEnergyThe sun risesThe U.S. Departmentfor

  3. Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial And

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartment of Energy 0

  4. Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Smart and Grid-Connected

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L dDepartment of Energy 0Commercial and Residential Building End-Use

  5. GROWDERS Demonstration of Grid Connected Electricity Systems (Smart Grid

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URIFrontier,Jump to:Wilmette,Transport &GMProject)

  6. United States Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and1TeleworkAgriculture U.S.-ChinaResourcesDepartment of

  7. Public Meeting: Physical Characterization of Grid-Connected Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Definitions; Characterization Protocol Framework; Illustrative Example: Room Air Conditioner (RAC); Process for Developing Characterization Protocols; Overview of...

  8. Issue: April 2013 Algae Go to Extremes with "Borrowed" Genes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schönknecht, Gerald

    Issue: April 2013 Algae Go to Extremes with "Borrowed" Genes by Patricia Waldron Brand-New Genes their extreme environment. For example, some bacteria that live at high temperatures have special molecules that are highly acidic, or full of toxic metals. While most microbes that live in extreme environments

  9. The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Weather and Climate Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Weather and Climate Applications of Extreme Value Statistics Eric;The Extremes Toolkit (extRemes) Web Page http://www.assessment.ucar.edu/toolkit Acknowledgements 1. The Extremes Toolkit is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the NCAR Weather and Cli- mate

  10. Extremal generalized quantum measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Jencova

    2012-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A measurement on a section K of the set of states of a finite dimensional C*-algebra is defined as an affine map from K to a probability simplex. Special cases of such sections are used in description of quantum networks, in particular quantum channels. Measurements on a section correspond to equivalence classes of so-called generalized POVMs, which are called quantum testers in the case of networks. We find extremality conditions for measurements on K and characterize generalized POVMs such that the corresponding measurement is extremal. These results are applied to the set of channels. We find explicit extremality conditions for two outcome measurements on qubit channels and give an example of an extremal qubit 1-tester such that the corresponding measurement is not extremal.

  11. FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study ON EXTREMES · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes (Germany, France) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme Value Theory (EVT) (4) Application of EVT to Verification (5) Frost

  12. FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study on Extremes · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes "Il est impossible que l'improbable n'arrive jamais." #12;3 OUTLINE (1) Motivation (2) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme

  13. FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 FORECAST VERIFICATION OF EXTREMES: USE OF EXTREME VALUE THEORY Rick Katz Institute for Study ON EXTREMES · Emil Gumbel (1891 ­ 1966) -- Pioneer in application of statistics of extremes "Il est impossible que l'improbable n'arrive jamais." #12;3 OUTLINE (1) Motivation (2) Conventional Methods (3) Extreme

  14. Extremal quantum protocols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti; Michal Sedlak

    2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Generalized quantum instruments correspond to measurements where the input and output are either states or more generally quantum circuits. These measurements describe any quantum protocol including games, communications, and algorithms. The set of generalized quantum instruments with a given input and output structure is a convex set. Here we investigate the extremal points of this set for the case of finite dimensional quantum systems and generalized instruments with finitely many outcomes. We derive algebraic necessary and sufficient conditions for extremality.

  15. Extremes (2010) 13:205217 DOI 10.1007/s10687-010-0105-7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extremes (2010) 13:205­217 DOI 10.1007/s10687-010-0105-7 Sources of uncertainty in the extreme in the calculation of extreme value statistics for observed and modeled climate data. Inter-model differences in the CMIP3 dataset. Keywords Extreme temperature · Return value · Uncertainty · Climate models AMS 2000

  16. Extremes in climate science Andreas Sterl (KNMI)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    (non-deterministic) influences: sun, volcanoes, anthropogenic effects (GHG emissions) => deterministic Sterl, PhysMathClim Climate change GHG concentrations increase => Temperature increases => other weather;31.01.2012, Utrecht Andreas Sterl, PhysMathClim EVT - 1 Extremes: tail of a distribution => few observations => tail

  17. Extremal covariant measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Chiribella; G. M. D'Ariano

    2006-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We characterize the extremal points of the convex set of quantum measurements that are covariant under a finite-dimensional projective representation of a compact group, with action of the group on the measurement probability space which is generally non-transitive. In this case the POVM density is made of multiple orbits of positive operators, and, in the case of extremal measurements, we provide a bound for the number of orbits and for the rank of POVM elements. Two relevant applications are considered, concerning state discrimination with mutually unbiased bases and the maximization of the mutual information.

  18. Exploring and quantifying the `co-variability' of the extremes corresponding to different climate components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miami, University of

    Exploring and quantifying the `co-variability' of the extremes corresponding to different climate to the fact that there might be moisture-temperature feedback that has further implications on the extremes. Having said, we aim to study how extreme precipitation and temperature co-vary and are determined

  19. Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Prospectus Extreme Ultraviolet Light Chris Cosio #12;The field of extreme ultraviolet light (XUV to the way XUV interacts with object, XUV properties are difficult to observe. Extreme ultraviolet light is absorbed by all objects it comes in contact with. Furthermore, extreme ultraviolet light also has low

  20. Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extreme Financial cycles$ B. Candelonb, , G. Gauliera , C. Hurlinb aUniversity Maastricht proposes a new approach to date extreme financial cycles. Elabo- rating on recent methods in extreme value theory, it elaborates an extension of the famous calculus rule to detect extreme peaks and troughs

  1. Extremes in Chaotic Dynamical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extremes in Chaotic Dynamical Systems Valerio Lucarini valerio.lucarini@uni-hamburg.de D. Faranda Vortragsthema Datum #12;1. Introduction 2. Classical Theory: Extreme Values for i.i.d. Variables 3. Extreme Values in Dynamical Systems: Theoretical Background 4. Numerical Algorithms for studying Extremes 5

  2. de Sitter Extremal Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayan, K

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study extremal surfaces in de Sitter space in the Poincare slicing in the upper patch, anchored on spatial subregions at the future boundary ${\\cal I}^+$, restricted to constant boundary Euclidean time slices (focussing on strip subregions). We find real extremal surfaces of minimal area as the boundaries of past lightcone wedges of the subregions in question: these are null surfaces with vanishing area. We find also complex extremal surfaces as complex extrema of the area functional, and the area is not always real-valued. In $dS_4$ the area is real and has some structural resemblance with entanglement entropy in a dual $CFT_3$. There are parallels with analytic continuation from the Ryu-Takayanagi expressions for holographic entanglement entropy in $AdS$. We also discuss extremal surfaces in the $dS$ black brane and the de Sitter "bluewall" studied previously. The $dS_4$ black brane complex surfaces exhibit a real finite cutoff-independent extensive piece. In the bluewall geometry, there are real surface...

  3. Origins of the extremely warm European fall of 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    Origins of the extremely warm European fall of 2006 Julien Cattiaux R. Vautard, P. Yiou LSCE ­ IPSL France European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2009 CL1 Session: Climate Extremes and Impacts. #12.Cattiauxetal.,OriginsoftheextremelywarmEuropeanfallof2006 European temperatures and atmospheric circulation #12;The best correlation is found for the V-Wind

  4. THE EXTREME HOSTS OF EXTREME SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neill, James D.; Quimby, Robert; Ofek, Eran; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sullivan, Mark [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gal-Yam, Avishay [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Howell, D. Andrew [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Dr., Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Nugent, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 50F-1650, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8139 (United States); Seibert, Mark [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Overzier, Roderik [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Neff, Susan G. [Laboratory for Astronomy and Solar Physics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bianchi, Luciana [Center for Astrophysical Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Donas, Jose [Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, BP 8, Traverse du Siphon, 13376 Marseille Cedex 12 (France); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of 17 luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M{sub V} < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26, 000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSN hosts on the galaxy NUV - r versus M{sub r} color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how extreme they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low-luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M{sub *}) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M{sub *} in the area having higher sSFR and lower M{sub *}. This preference for low M{sub *}, high sSFR hosts implies that the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M{sub sun}), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR.

  5. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Chiribella; G. M. D'Ariano; P. Perinotti; N. J. Cerf

    2005-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are "extremal" in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called "double-Bell states", whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacements.

  6. Extreme Cosmic String

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. F. Gonzalez-Diaz

    1995-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with the geometry of supermassive cosmic strings. We have used an approach that enforces the spacetime of cosmic strings to also satisfy the conservation laws of a cylindric gravitational topological defect, that is a spacetime kink. In the simplest case of kink number unity, the entire energy range of supermassive strings becomes then quantized so that only cylindrical defects with linear energy density $G\\mu=1/4$ (critical string) and $G\\mu=1/2$ (extreme string) are allowed to occur in this range. It has been seen that the internal spherical coordinate $\\theta$ of the string metric embedded in an Euclidean three-space also evolves on imaginary values, leading to the creation of a covering shell of broken phase that protects the core with trapped energy, even for $G\\mu=1/2$. Then the conical singularity becomes a removable horizaon singularity. We re-express the extreme string metric in the Finkelstein- McCollum standard form and remove the geodesic incompleteness by using the Kruskal technique. The z=const. sections of the resulting metric are the same as the hemispherical section of the metric of a De Sitter kink. Some physical consequences from these results, including the possibility that the extreme string drives inflation and thermal effects in its core, are also discussed.

  7. Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parthapratim Pradhan; Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact that one must evaluate the near-extremal and near-horizon limits of Kerr space-time in a specific order, is shown to a lead to discontinuity in the extremal limit, such that this limiting space-time differs nontrivially from the precisely extremal space-time. This is established by first showing a discontinuity in the extremal limit of the maximal analytic extension of the Kerr geometry, given by Carter. Next, we examine the ISCO of the exactly extremal Kerr geometry and show that on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr black hole, it coincides with the principal null geodesic generator of the horizon, having vanishing energy and angular momentum. We find that there is no such ISCO in the near-extremal geometry, thus garnering additional support for our primary contention. We relate this disparity between the two geometries to the lack of a trapping horizon in the extremal situation.

  8. Extremal covariant measurements Giulio Chiribellaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    Extremal covariant measurements Giulio Chiribellaa and Giacomo Mauro D'Arianob Istituto Nazionale characterize the extremal points of the convex set of quantum measurements that are covariant under a finite operators, and, in the case of extremal measurements, we provide a bound for the number of orbits

  9. Precipitation extremes under climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The response of precipitation extremes to climate change is considered using results from theory, modeling, and observations, with a focus on the physical factors that control the response. Observations and simulations with climate models show that precipitation extremes intensify in response to a warming climate. However, the sensitivity of precipitation extremes to warming remains uncertain when convection is important, and it may be higher in the tropics than the extratropics. Several physical contributions govern the response of precipitation extremes. The thermodynamic contribution is robust and well understood, but theoretical understanding of the microphysical and dynamical contributions is still being developed. Orographic precipitation extremes and snowfall extremes respond differently from other precipitation extremes and require particular attention. Outstanding research challenges include the influence of mesoscale convective organization, the dependence on the duration considered, and the need to...

  10. Climate Policy: Science, Economics, and Extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, A. C; Le, P. V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. Herring, 2013. Explaining extreme events of 2012 from a2010. Fat tails, exponents, extreme uncertainty: SimulatingScience, Economics, and Extremes Anthony C. Fisher and Phu

  11. The Extreme Physics Explorer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin Elvis

    2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Some tests of fundamental physics - the equation of state at supra-nuclear densities, the metric in strong gravity, the effect of magnetic fields above the quantum critical value - can only be measured using compact astrophysical objects: neutron stars and black holes. The Extreme Physics Explorer is a modest sized (~500 kg) mission that would carry a high resolution (R ~300) X-ray spectrometer and a sensitive X-ray polarimeter, both with high time resolution (~5 ?s) capability, at the focus of a large area (~5 sq.m), low resolution (HPD~1 arcmin) X-ray mirror. This instrumentation would enable new classes of tests of fundamental physics using neutron stars and black holes as cosmic laboratories.

  12. Finding Extreme Subdwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. L. Marshall

    2007-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    I develop a new technique to identify M-type extreme subdwarfs (esdMs) and demonstrate that it is substantially more efficient than previous methods. I begin by obtaining spectroscopy and improved photometry of a sample of 54 late-type halo candidates using the rNLTT reduced proper motion (RPM) diagram. From spectroscopy, I find that four of these are esdMs, three of which were previously unknown. From the improved photometry, I show that all four lie in a narrow RPM corridor that contains only 4 non-esdMs. Hence, with good photometry (i.e., without spectroscopy), it appears possible to select esdM candidates with a 50% esdM yield. This is more than an order of magnitude more efficient than previous methods.

  13. Thermodynamics of the Near-Extremal NS5-brane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Harmark; N. A. Obers

    2005-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the thermodynamics of the near-extremal NS5-brane in type IIA string theory. The central tool we use is to map phases of six-dimensional Kaluza-Klein black holes to phases of near-extremal M5-branes with a transverse circle in eleven-dimensional supergravity. By S-duality these phases correspond to phases of the near-extremal type IIA NS5-brane. One of our main results is that in the canonical ensemble the usual near-extremal NS5-brane background, dual to a uniformly smeared near-extremal M5-brane, is subdominant to a new background of near-extremal M5-branes localized on the transverse circle. This new stable phase has a limiting temperature, which lies above the Hagedorn temperature of the usual NS5-brane phase. We discuss the limiting temperature and compare the different behavior of the NS5-brane in the canonical and microcanonical ensembles. We also briefly comment on the thermodynamics of near-extremal Dp-branes on a transverse circle.

  14. Extremal vs. Non-Extremal Correlators with Giant Gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawel Caputa; Robert de Mello Koch; Konstantinos Zoubos

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider extremal and non-extremal three-point functions of two giant gravitons and one point-like graviton using Schur polynomials in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory and holographically, using a semiclassical Born-Infeld analysis as well as bubbling geometries. For non-extremal three-point functions our computations using all three approaches are in perfect agreement. For extremal correlators we find that our results from the bubbling geometry analysis agree with existing results from the gauge theory. The semiclassical Born-Infeld computation for the extremal case is known to give a different answer, which we interpret as a manifestation of the known subtlety of holography for extremal correlators.

  15. Mini-Review Facing extremes: archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eichler, Jerry

    Mini-Review Facing extremes: archaeal surface-layer (glyco)proteins Jerry Eichler Correspondence into the strategies employed by these proteins to survive direct contact with extreme environments, yet has also in extremes of temperature, salt and pH as well as in other seemingly hostile niches has generated substantial

  16. Extreme measures : mechanisms driving changes in climate extremes in Australia.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander, Lisa Victoria

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Changes in the frequency and/or severity of extreme climate events have the potential to have profound societal and ecological impacts and observations suggest that in (more)

  17. Extremality conditions for generalized channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anna Jencova

    2012-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized channel is a completely positive map that preserves trace on a given subspace. We find conditions under which a generalized channel with respect to a positively generated subspace J is an extreme point in the set of all such generalized channels. As a special case, this yields extremality conditions for quantum protocols. In particular, we obtain new extremality conditions for quantum 1-testers with 2 outcomes, which correspond to yes/no measurements on the set of quantum channels.

  18. Impacts of High Resolution Extreme Events on U.S. Energy Demand and CO{sub 2} Emissions in the 21st Century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University

    2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in these areas: Validation of temperature and precipitation extremes; Time of emergence of severe heat stress in the United States; Quantifying the effects of temperature extremes on energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions.

  19. Extreme ultraviolet lithography machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.

  20. Scaling Extreme Astrophysical Phenomena to the Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remington, B A

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and provide a brief look ahead to the coming decade.

  1. On extreme Bosonic linear channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. S. Holevo

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The set of all channels with fixed input and output is convex. We first give a convenient formulation of necessary and sufficient condition for a channel to be extreme point of this set in terms of complementary channel, a notion of big importance in quantum information theory. This formulation is based on the general approach to extremality of completely positive maps in an operator algebra due to Arveson. We then apply this formulation to prove the main result of this note: under certain nondegeneracy conditions, purity of the environment is necessary and sufficient for extremality of Bosonic linear (quasi-free) channel. It follows that Gaussian channel between finite-mode Bosonic systems is extreme if and only if it has minimal noise.

  2. Extreme field physics and QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Heinzl; Anton Ilderton

    2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a brief overview of the most important QED effects that can be studied in the presence of extreme fields such as those expected at the Vulcan laser upgraded to a power of 10 Petawatts.

  3. Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison Stochastic Tail Order Back to Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison of Multivariate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Haijun

    Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison Stochastic Tail Order Back to Multivariate Extremes Dependence Comparison of Multivariate Extremes Haijun Li Department of Mathematics Washington State University IWAP12, Jerusalem Haijun Li Dependence Comparison of Multivariate Extremes IWAP12, Jerusalem 1

  4. Northeast Climate Science Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall to Assess Climate Vulnerability Northeast Climate Science Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall to Assess Climate Vulnerability November 12,...

  5. Study of extreme nuclear shapes in extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan, E-mail: srb@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF, Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies of extreme nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different extreme conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.

  6. Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jungst, Rudolph George (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James Rudolph (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel Richard (Austin, TX)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

  7. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  8. SciTech Connect: Low Frequency Modulation of Extreme Temperature...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ETE onset. In some cases, PCMs help to provide a favorable environment for event onset. Heat budget analyses indicate that latitudinal transport in the lower atmosphere is the...

  9. Extreme Temperature Energy Storage and Generation, for Cost and Risk

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPCof EnergyHouse11forPre-Application (IIP)atReduction in

  10. Persisting cold extremes under 21st-century warming scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K [ORNL; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold events are likely to persist across each land-continent even under 21st-century warming scenarios. The grid-based intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three indices: the coldest annual consecutive three-day average of daily maximum temperature, the annual maximum of consecutive frost days, and the total number of frost days. Nine global climate models forced with a moderate greenhouse-gas emissions scenario compares the indices over 2091 2100 versus 1991 2000. The credibility of model-simulated cold extremes is evaluated through both bias scores relative to reanalysis data in the past and multi-model agreement in the future. The number of times the value of each annual index in 2091 2100 exceeds the decadal average of the corresponding index in 1991 2000 is counted. The results indicate that intensity and duration of grid-based cold extremes, when viewed as a global total, will often be as severe as current typical conditions in many regions, but the corresponding frequency does not show this persistence. While the models agree on the projected persistence of cold extremes in terms of global counts, regionally, inter-model variability and disparity in model performance tends to dominate. Our findings suggest that, despite a general warming trend, regional preparedness for extreme cold events cannot be compromised even towards the end of the century.

  11. Extremal Three-point Correlators in Kerr/CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melanie Becker; Sera Cremonini; Waldemar Schulgin

    2010-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute three-point correlation functions in the near-extremal, near-horizon region of a Kerr black hole, and compare to the corresponding finite-temperature conformal field theory correlators. For simplicity, we focus on scalar fields dual to operators ${\\cal O}_h$ whose conformal dimensions obey $h_3=h_1+h_2$, which we name \\emph{extremal} in analogy with the classic $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ three-point function in the literature. For such extremal correlators we find perfect agreement with the conformal field theory side, provided that the coupling of the cubic interaction contains a vanishing prefactor $\\propto h_3-h_1-h_2$. In fact, the bulk three-point function integral for such extremal correlators diverges as $1/(h_3-h_1-h_2)$. This behavior is analogous to what was found in the context of extremal AdS/CFT three-point correlators. As in AdS/CFT our correlation function can nevertheless be computed via analytic continuation from the non-extremal case.

  12. Extremely correlated quantum liquids B. Sriram Shastry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Extremely correlated quantum liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California; published 20 January 2010 Extreme correlations arise as the limit of strong correlations, when the local-J model, embodying such extreme correlations. We formulate the picture of an extremely correlated electron

  13. Statistical Analysis of EXTREMES in GEOPHYSICS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Statistical Analysis of EXTREMES in GEOPHYSICS Zwiers FW and Kharin VV. 1998. Changes in the extremes of the climate simulated by CCC GCM2 under CO2 dou- bling. J. Climate 11:2200­2222. http://www.ral.ucar.edu/staff/ericg/readinggroup.html #12;Outline · Some background on Extreme Value Statistics ­ Extremal Types Theorem ­ Max

  14. Extremes and Atmospheric Data Eric Gilleland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extremes and Atmospheric Data Eric Gilleland Research Applications Laboratory National Center for Atmospheric Research 2007-08 Program on Risk Analysis, Extreme Events and Decision Theory, opening workshop 16-19 September, North Carolina #12;Extremes · Interest in making inferences about large, rare, extreme phenomena

  15. KNMI publicatie 221 Extreme klimaatverandering en

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    . Superstormen 16 5.1 Introductie: extreme wind en kustverdediging 16 5.2 Extreme wind en wateropzet in het verleden 17 5.3 Detectie van superstormen 18 5.4 Extreme wind en wateropzet in de toekomst 20 5.5 DiscussieKNMI publicatie 221 · · · · · · · · april 2008 Extreme klimaatverandering en waterveiligheid

  16. 4, 23232360, 2007 Extreme precipitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion EGU Abstract Extreme hydro that are not-commonly used by hydro-meteorology community, i.e., Kolmogorov­Smirnov test, Levene's test for small data sets (e.g., less than 100 points) and small distribution parameter difference (e.g., 50

  17. Extremism

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article: Crystal structureComposite--FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASEEmissionsi LEFT-WING

  18. Climate, extreme heat, and electricity demand in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.L.; Hayhoe, K.; Jin, J.; Auffhammer, M.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Climate projections from three atmosphere-ocean climate models with a range of low to mid-high temperature sensitivity forced by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change SRES higher, middle, and lower emission scenarios indicate that, over the 21st century, extreme heat events for major cities in heavily air-conditioned California will increase rapidly. These increases in temperature extremes are projected to exceed the rate of increase in mean temperature, along with increased variance. Extreme heat is defined here as the 90 percent exceedance probability (T90) of the local warmest summer days under the current climate. The number of extreme heat days in Los Angeles, where T90 is currently 95 F (32 C), may increase from 12 days to as many as 96 days per year by 2100, implying current-day heat wave conditions may last for the entire summer, with earlier onset. Overall, projected increases in extreme heat under the higher A1fi emission scenario by 2070-2099 tend to be 20-30 percent higher than those projected under the lower B1 emission scenario, ranging from approximately double the historical number of days for inland California cities (e.g. Sacramento and Fresno), up to four times for previously temperate coastal cities (e.g. Los Angeles, San Diego). These findings, combined with observed relationships between high temperature and electricity demand for air-conditioned regions, suggest potential shortfalls in transmission and supply during T90 peak electricity demand periods. When the projected extreme heat and peak demand for electricity are mapped onto current availability, maintaining technology and population constant only for demand side calculations, we find the potential for electricity deficits as high as 17 percent. Similar increases in extreme heat days are suggested for other locations across the U.S. southwest, as well as for developing nations with rapidly increasing electricity demands. Electricity response to recent extreme heat events, such as the July 2006 heat wave in California, suggests that peak electricity demand will challenge current supply, as well as future planned supply capacities when population and income growth are taken into account.

  19. Extreme Co-movements and Extreme Impacts in High Frequency Data in Finance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengjun

    Extreme Co-movements and Extreme Impacts in High Frequency Data in Finance Zhengjun Zhang, 2006 Abstract Extreme co-movement and extreme impact problems are inherently stochastic control in the future. Extreme co-movements among financial assets have been reported in the literature. However

  20. Extremal limits and black hole entropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sean M. Carroll; Matthew C. Johnson; Lisa Randall

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Taking the extremal limit of a non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole (by externally varying the mass or charge), the region between the inner and outer event horizons experiences an interesting fate -- while this region is absent in the extremal case, it does not disappear in the extremal limit but rather approaches a patch of $AdS_2\\times S^2$. In other words, the approach to extremality is not continuous, as the non-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"om solution splits into two spacetimes at extremality: an extremal black hole and a disconnected $AdS$ space. We suggest that the unusual nature of this limit may help in understanding the entropy of extremal black holes.

  1. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E. (Livermore, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  2. Method for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E. (727 Clara St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Kubiak, G. D. (475 Maple St., Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.

  3. Extremal asymmetric universal cloning machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mingming Jiang; Sixia Yu

    2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The trade-offs among various output fidelities of asymmetric universal cloning machines are investigated. First we find out all the attainable optimal output fidelities for the 1 to 3 asymmetric universal cloning machine and it turns out that there are two kinds of extremal asymmetric cloning machines which have to cooperate in order to achieve some of the optimal output fidelities. Second we construct a family of extremal cloning machines that includes the universal symmetric cloning machine as well as an asymmetric 1 to $1+N$ cloning machine for qudits with two different output fidelities such that the optimal trade-off between the measurement disturbance and state estimation is attained in the limit of infinite $N$.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Extreme event time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAciddroplet size ARMgovMeasurementsExtreme

  5. Extreme inequalities for infinite group problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 3, 2006 ... In this paper we derive new properties of extreme inequalities for infinite group ... (f,f(r)) is called extreme if it cannot be written as a convex...

  6. Extremality of Gaussian quantum states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael M. Wolf; Geza Giedke; J. Ignacio Cirac

    2005-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate Gaussian quantum states in view of their exceptional role within the space of all continuous variables states. A general method for deriving extremality results is provided and applied to entanglement measures, secret key distillation and the classical capacity of Bosonic quantum channels. We prove that for every given covariance matrix the distillable secret key rate and the entanglement, if measured appropriately, are minimized by Gaussian states. This result leads to a clearer picture of the validity of frequently made Gaussian approximations. Moreover, it implies that Gaussian encodings are optimal for the transmission of classical information through Bosonic channels, if the capacity is additive.

  7. Extreme phase and rotated quadrature measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juha-Pekka Pellonp

    2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We determine the extreme points of the convex set of covariant phase observables. Such extremals describe the best phase parameter measurements of laser light - the best in the sense that they are free from classical randomness due to fluctuations in the measuring procedure. We also characterize extreme fuzzy rotated quadratures.

  8. Extreme Events Met Data and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Extreme Events Met Data and Modeling: Needs and Challenges Data Collection and Analysis Modeling and Calibration Design, Construction, O&M Bruce Williams, University of Delaware Tuesday, July 2, 2013 #12;Extreme and marine operations ­ Fatigue and increased maintenance Tuesday, July 2, 2013 #12;What Defines "Extreme

  9. Extremal Problems on Posets and Hypergraphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griggs, Jerrold R.

    Extremal Problems on Posets and Hypergraphs Linyuan Lu University of South Carolina Collaborators, June 16-19, 2014 #12;Overview Extremal problems on posets and hypergraphs Linyuan Lu, University of South Carolina ­ 2 / 32 Extremal problems on subsets (posets) Tur´an problems on (non

  10. Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquids B. Sriram Shastry Physics Department, University of California the theory of an extremely correlated Fermi liquid with U ! 1. This liquid has an underlying auxiliary Fermi liquid Green's function that is further caparisoned by extreme correlations. The theory leads to two

  11. Extreme Web Data Integration August 14, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weske, Mathias

    Extreme Web Data Integration August 14, 2010 Felix Naumann #12;Acknowledgements @IBM Almaden) Open Data community Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | NFIC 2010 2 #12;Overview Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | NFIC 2010 3 Web Data abounds ­ linked, open, and otherwise Web

  12. Presented by Climate Extremes: The Science,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Presented by Climate Extremes: The Science, Impacts, and Policy Relevance Auroop R. Ganguly-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Ganguly_ClimateExtremes_SC10 Global warming is credible: Without-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Ganguly_ClimateExtremes_SC10 Knowledge gaps exist in the science

  13. Maximizing Return on Investment of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    -of-day pricing policy [3] with much higher energy price during peak hours for residential users, incentivizing energy when the electricity price is low and supply energy for use when the electricity price is high [6 total energy cost saving compared to its capital cost (i.e., the purchase price of the system plus its

  14. Optimal Control of a Grid-Connected Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage System for Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    with the introduction of dynamic electricity energy pricing models since electricity consumers can use their PV, and thereby, minimize their electricity bill. Due to the characteristics of a realistic electricity price period under a general electricity energy price function. The proposed algorithm is based on dynamic

  15. The Optimal Power Tracking Control Strategy of Grid-Connected Excited Synchronous Wind Power Generator.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Wen-kai

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??In this thesis, the wind power system is a coaxial coupling structure between servo motor and excited synchronous wind power generator. By using the excited (more)

  16. Developement of a digitally controlled low power single phase inverter for grid connected solar panel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marguet, Raphael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? The work consists in developing a power conversion unit for solar panel connected to the grid. This unit will be a single phase inverter (more)

  17. A lightweight inverter for off-grid and grid-connected systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barone, F. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia). Centre for Photovoltaic Devices and Systems

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a novel bi-directional power processing topology particularly suitable as an inverter for both grid and off-grid alternative energy systems. All semiconductor devices are soft-switched, thereby allowing higher switching frequencies, improving efficiency, and reducing electromagnetic interference (EMI). The topology may utilize a small, light-weight, and inexpensive high-frequency transformer. Experimental results of a 1 kW bi-directional dc-dc converter are presented.

  18. Appropriate storage for high-penetration grid-connected photovoltaic plants A.A. Solomon a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    % of the PV-generated energy, and needing to re-structure the manner in which the grid was then being operated-or-less arbitrarily sized storage example, and allowing a small amount of PV energy dumping, we showed o Article history: Received 5 April 2011 Accepted 10 October 2011 Keywords: Photovoltaics Energy

  19. Environmental impacts of large-scale grid-connected ground-mounted PV installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    deployment and solar energy use are developing rapidly in Europe. In particular, Austria, Switzerland the higher external environmental costs of PV compared to those of nuclear energy and natural-gas-fuel power,6]. They highlighted the photovoltaic potential for a low carbon energy supply and the environmental benefits of PV

  20. GAP analysis towards a design qualification standard development for grid-connected photovoltaic inverters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamizhmani, Govindasamy (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Granata, Jennifer E.; Maracas, George (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Ayyanar, Raja (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ); Marinella, Matthew; Venkataramanan, Sai Balasubramanian Alampoondi (Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dedicated design qualification standard for PV inverters does not exist. Development of a well-accepted design qualification standard, specifically for PV inverters will significantly improve the reliability and performance of inverters. The existing standards for PV inverters such as ANSI/UL 1741 and IEC 62109-1 primarily focus on safety of PV inverters. The IEC 62093 discusses inverter qualification but it includes all the BOS components. There are other general standards for distributed generators including the IEEE 1547 series of standards which cover major concerns like utility integration but they are not dedicated to PV inverters and are not written from a design qualification point of view. In this paper some of the potential requirements for a design qualification standard for PV inverters are addressed. The missing links in existing PV inverter related standards are identified and with the IEC 62093 as a guideline, the possible inclusions in the framework for a dedicated design qualification standard of PV inverter are discussed. Some of the key missing links are related to electric stress tests. Hence, a method to adapt the existing surge withstand test standards for use in design qualification standard of PV inverter is presented.

  1. Homeowners Guide to Financing a Grid-Connected Solar Electric System (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide provides an overview of the financing options that may be available to homeowners who are considering installing a solar electric system on their house.

  2. Nevada Deploys First U.S. Commercial, Grid-Connected Enhanced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    America leads in this growing global industry, helping to create new manufacturing, construction and operation jobs across the country while diversifying our energy portfolio and...

  3. Power Smoothing Control in a Grid-Connected Marine Current Turbine System for Compensating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    similar principles in wind generation systems can be applied in marine current turbine (MCT) systems due

  4. Meeting the New CARB ZEV Mandate Requirements: Grid-Connected Hybrids and City EVs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, Andrew

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EV designed to meet range and performance requirements SalesEV Energy Powercell Corporation Southern Cahforma Edtson Subaru Superfarad Svenska, AB Toyota Motor Sales

  5. First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    deepwater offshore floating wind turbine near Bangor. When the turbine was turned on and electricity began flowing through an undersea cable to Central Maine Power on June 13, the...

  6. Estimating the maximum potential revenue for grid connected electricity storage : arbitrage and regulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond Harry; Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The valuation of an electricity storage device is based on the expected future cash ow generated by the device. Two potential sources of income for an electricity storage system are energy arbitrage and participation in the frequency regulation market. Energy arbitrage refers to purchasing (stor- ing) energy when electricity prices are low, and selling (discharging) energy when electricity prices are high. Frequency regulation is an ancillary service geared towards maintaining system frequency, and is typically procured by the independent system operator in some type of market. This paper outlines the calculations required to estimate the maximum potential revenue from participating in these two activities. First, a mathematical model is presented for the state of charge as a function of the storage device parameters and the quantities of electricity purchased/sold as well as the quantities o ered into the regulation market. Using this mathematical model, we present a linear programming optimization approach to calculating the maximum potential revenue from an elec- tricity storage device. The calculation of the maximum potential revenue is critical in developing an upper bound on the value of storage, as a benchmark for evaluating potential trading strate- gies, and a tool for capital nance risk assessment. Then, we use historical California Independent System Operator (CAISO) data from 2010-2011 to evaluate the maximum potential revenue from the Tehachapi wind energy storage project, an American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) energy storage demonstration project. We investigate the maximum potential revenue from two di erent scenarios: arbitrage only and arbitrage combined with the regulation market. Our analysis shows that participation in the regulation market produces four times the revenue compared to arbitrage in the CAISO market using 2010 and 2011 data. Then we evaluate several trading strategies to illustrate how they compare to the maximum potential revenue benchmark. We conclude with a sensitivity analysis with respect to key parameters.

  7. Novel MIMO Linear Zero Dynamic Controller for the Grid-connected Photovoltaic System with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    sources, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat, are the best choices as alternative sources of energy [1]. All of these renewable sources, solar energy is the most commonly use renewable source in the power system. It is the fastest growing renewable source in the world. The energy report

  8. Optimal Design of Grid-Connected PEV Charging Systems With Integrated Distributed Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    The penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and renewable distributed generation is expected to increase over the next few decades. Large scale unregulated deployment of either technology can have a detrimental impact on ...

  9. Capstone Low Pressure Grid-connect Tests Capstone LP Stand-alone Tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /25/2001 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Seconds Output 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20

  10. First U.S. Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine Installed Off the Coast of

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES ANDIndustrialEnergyFinal FY8 of 864 1.0 EXECUTIVE SUMMARYMaine |

  11. MHK Projects/Evopod E1 1 10 scale grid connected demonstrator | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision hasInformation Earth's Heat JumpIncMAK Technologies Jump to:BW2 TidalMar LandingInformation

  12. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Generation Toolkit-Biomass | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is a county in Oklahoma. Its FIPSGresham

  13. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Generation Toolkit-Geothermal | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:Greer County is a county in Oklahoma. Its FIPSGreshamInformation

  14. A $5 Million Boost for Midsize Wind Turbines and Grid Connectivity |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South Valley ResponsibleSubmissionof Energy 5of Energy

  15. DOE Publishes Notice of Public Meeting for Smart Grid-connected Buildings |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana. DOCUMENTSof Energy DOEDOEAVAILABLE ONLINEfor theDepartment of Energy

  16. Maine Deploys First U.S. Commercial, Grid-Connected Tidal Energy Project |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen OwnedofDepartment ofJared Temanson -of EnergyEqualA newMail

  17. Nevada Deploys First U.S. Commercial, Grid-Connected Enhanced Geothermal

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGYWomen OwnedofDepartment ofJaredOak Ridge’s EMGeothermal

  18. Battery Management for Grid-Connected PV Systems with a Battery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    }@usc.edu ABSTRACT Photovoltaic (PV) power generation systems are one of the most promising renewable power sources-connected systems, Photovoltaic power, Electricity bill 1. INTRODUCTION The number and capacity of photovoltaic (PV for customers to save enough money with lower monthly electricity bills to compensate the initial cost

  19. Mongolia-GTZ Energy Efficiency within the Grid-Connected Energy Supply |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories onFocus Area EnergyMohawk Municipal Comm Jump(EC-LEDS) |Open Energy

  20. MHK Projects/Evopod E35 35kW grid connected demonstrator | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 - 429Lacey,(MonasterLowell Point, Alaska:Luz IILynnM Setek8512

  1. Maine Project Launches First Grid-Connected Offshore Wind Turbine in the

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAX POLICIES7.pdfFuel2007 |KSRS25RV*)BoydLorettaLynn00, 201365-OCT.Community

  2. Performance Test Protocol for Evaluating Inverters Used in Grid-Connected

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartmentNationalRestart of theResourcecomments/rss en GreatPhotovoltaic Systems. | OSTI, US

  3. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Generation Toolkit-Solar | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: Energy ResourcesNews HomeInformationInformation

  4. Grid-Connected Renewable Energy Generation Toolkit-Wind | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany: Energy ResourcesNews

  5. Integration Technology for PHEV-Grid-Connectivity, with Support for SAE

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe U.S.IndianaofPilot ProjectDepartmentof the U.S.Electrical

  6. Chile-GTZ Public Properties for Grid-connected Renewable Energy Projects |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuoCatalyst RenewablesChad-IAEAElectricCountries to theOpen

  7. Hourly Simulation of Grid-Connected PV Systems Using Realistic Building Loads (Preprint)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hayter, S.J. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Weaver, N.L. (InterWeaver Consulting)

    2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one of two companion papers that describe the ENERGY-10 PV design tool computer simulation program. The other paper is titled ''ENERGY-10 Photovoltaics: A New Capability.'' Whereas this paper focuses on the PV aspects of the program, the companion paper focuses on the implementation method. The case study in this paper is a commercial building application, whereas the case study in the companion paper is a residential application with an entirely different building load characteristic. Together they provide a balanced view.

  8. Modeling, simulation, and analysis of grid connected dish-stirling solar power plants.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Dustin F.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??The percentage of renewable energy within the global electric power generation portfolio is expected to increase rapidly over the next few decades due to increasing (more)

  9. Energetic materials at extreme conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Millar, David Iain Archibald

    2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to effectively model the behaviour of energetic materials under operational conditions it is essential to obtain detailed structural information for these compounds at elevated temperature and/or pressures. The ...

  10. Extreme Ultra-Violet Spectroscopy of the Flaring Solar Chromosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milligan, Ryan O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The extreme ultraviolet portion of the solar spectrum contains a wealth of diagnostic tools for probing the lower solar atmosphere in response to an injection of energy, particularly during the impulsive phase of solar flares. These include temperature and density sensitive line ratios, Doppler shifted emission lines and nonthermal broadening, abundance measurements, differential emission measure profiles, and continuum temperatures and energetics, among others. In this paper I shall review some of the advances made in recent years using these techniques, focusing primarily on studies that have utilized data from Hinode/EIS and SDO/EVE, while also providing some historical background and a summary of future spectroscopic instrumentation.

  11. Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beersma, Jules

    Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities Jules Beersma #12;Promotor: Prof. dr. A Onderzoekschool (BBOS) #12;Extreme hydro-meteorological events and their probabilities Extreme hydro

  12. Medical Sequencing at the extremes of Human Body Mass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Medical Sequencing at the Extremes of Human Body Mass Nadavcandidate genes and the extremes of human body mass.especially in the population extremes of a given phenotype

  13. Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A few more pieces of the puzzle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the performance of extreme ultraviolet micro?eld expo-calibration of extreme ultraviolet photoresists, Opticsthree essential components of extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

  14. Effects of Seasonality on the Estimation of Environmental Extremes: A Study of Non-Homogeneous Methods for Estimating Environmental Extremes:.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trahan, A.C.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Extreme value theory is commonly applied in ocean engineering to estimate extreme environmental conditions (e.g. wave height and wind speed). Extreme value models generally assume (more)

  15. Evolution & Ecology In Extreme Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and cold The comfort zone for marine species Suspended food & nutrients available · Hydrodynamic forces? 32 #12;Solar Irradiance IR Convection Conduction Evaporation 33 #12;The heat-budget model takes into account: · Solar irradiance · Air temperature · Tidal height · Wave swash · Wind speed · and Sea

  16. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Conditions. * Collaborating with EMC Corporation to support the Department of Energy's Exascale Initiative, which is aimed...

  17. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Exascale Co-design Center for Materials in Extreme Conditions. Collaborating with EMC Corporation to support the Department of Energy's Exascale Initiative, which is aimed...

  18. Extremely Hazardous Substances Risk Management Act (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This act lays out provisions for local governments to implement regulations and standards for the management of extremely hazardous substances, which are defined and categorized as follows:

  19. NOAA Technical Memorandum ERL GLERL-58 LAKE SUPERIOR COOLING SEASON TEMPERATURE CLIMATOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and extreme temperatures over period of record. Table 51. Summary of Lake Superior, area 8, temperature period of record. Table 51. Summary of Lake Superior, area 11, temperature climatology and extreme profiles. Survey route and lake area locations. Mean survey temperature climatology and stages in cooling

  20. Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme-Red Light Author(s): Eugene Rabinowitch, Govindjee, Jan B. Thomas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme-Red Light Author(s): Eugene Rabinowitch://www.jstor.org #12;Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Some Algae by Extreme"Red Light Abstract. Photosynthesis produced by far-red light (about 700 m,b) is reversibly inhibited in some algae by extreme-red light ( 750 m

  1. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  2. Complex Plasma Research Under Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishihara, Osamu [Faculty of Engineering, Yokohama National University 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya-ku, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex plasma research under extreme conditions is described. The extreme conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.

  3. Ris R 1068EN Extreme Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ris R 1068EN Extreme Winds in Denmark Leif Kristensen and Ole Rathmann Ris National Laboratory of this investigationis to study, on basis of climatologicalrecords, how large extreme wind speeds are in various parts;Abstract Wind-speed data from four sites in Denmark have been analyzed in order to obtain estimates

  4. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  5. Achieving Extreme Efficiency: How to get the job done when energy is extremely

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-5601E Achieving Extreme Efficiency: How to get the job done when energy is extremely expensive the job done when energy is extremely expensive and scarce Rich Brown, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Karina and scarce Rich Brown, Louis-Benoit Desroches, Karina Garbesi and Alan Meier Environmental Energy

  6. Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Spatially Penalized Regression for Extremes Dependence Analysis and Prediction: Case of Precipitation Extremes Debasish Das1,2 , Auroop R. Ganguly1 , Snigdhansu Chatterjee3 , Vipin Kumar4 , Zoran@cs.umn.edu, zoran.obradovic@temple.edu. ABSTRACT The inability to predict precipitation extremes under non

  7. Extreme Bowen-York initial data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergio Dain; Mara E. Gabach Clment

    2008-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bowen-York family of spinning black hole initial data depends essentially on one, positive, free parameter. The extreme limit corresponds to making this parameter equal to zero. This choice represents a singular limit for the constraint equations. We prove that in this limit a new solution of the constraint equations is obtained. These initial data have similar properties to the extreme Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom black hole initial data. In particular, in this limit one of the asymptotic ends changes from asymptotically flat to cylindrical. The existence proof is constructive, we actually show that a sequence of Bowen-York data converges to the extreme solution.

  8. Route to extreme events in excitable systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajat Karnatak; Gerrit Ansmann; Ulrike Feudel; Klaus Lehnertz

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems of FitzHugh-Nagumo units with different coupling topologies are capable of self-generating and -terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics that can be regarded as extreme events due to their rareness and recurrent occurrence. Here we demonstrate the crucial role of an interior crisis in the emergence of extreme events. In parameter space we identify this interior crisis as the organizing center of the dynamics by employing concepts of mixed-mode oscillations and of leaking chaotic systems. We find that extreme events occur in certain regions in parameter space, and we show the robustness of this phenomenon with respect to the system size.

  9. Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 administrivia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damon, Craig A.

    Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 administrivia today assignment 3 due (last assignment!) extreme from original) project designs due 1 Tuesday, October 19, 2010 #12;Extreme ProgrammingCS4150-15 extreme programming extreme programming (XP) is a recent shift about the last decade plus part of agile development

  10. CONDITIONAL EXTREMES AND NEAREXTREMES: CONCEPTS, ASYMPTOTIC THEORY, AND ECONOMIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrieli, John

    CONDITIONAL EXTREMES AND NEAR­EXTREMES: CONCEPTS, ASYMPTOTIC THEORY, AND ECONOMIC APPLICATIONS on Graduate Studies: iii #12; Abstract This dissertation develops the theory of extremal (near­extreme and extreme) quantile re­ gression: estimation, inference, and applications in economics. In particular

  11. Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and maxstable random fields.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Recanati, Catherine

    Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max­stable random fields. Clément Dombry # May 31, 2010 Abstract We consider the extremal shot noise defined by M(y) = sup{mh(y - x); (x, m) # #}, where function. Extremal shot noises naturally appear in extreme value theory as a model for spatial extremes

  12. Maximal rank of extremal marginal tracial states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiromichi Ohno

    2009-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    States on coupled quantum system whose restrictions to each subsystems are normalized traces are called marginal tracial states. We investigate extremal marginal tracial states and maximal rank of such states. Diagonal marginal tracial states are also considered.

  13. Extreme Web Data Integration Keynote @ ICWE 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weske, Mathias

    WILD experience #12;A brief history of data Felix Naumann | Extreme Web Data Integration | ICWE 2012 3 DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS DBMS #12;Linked Data & Data Spaces: A database guy`s point

  14. Extreme events due to localisation of energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colm Mulhern; Stephan Bialonski; Holger Kantz

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a one-dimensional chain of harmonically coupled units in an asymmetric anharmonic soft potential. Due to nonlinear localisation of energy, this system exhibits extreme events in the sense that individual elements of the chain show very large excitations. A detailed statistical analysis of extremes in this system reveals some unexpected properties, e.g., a pronounced pattern in the inter event interval statistics. We relate these statistical properties to underlying system dynamics, and notice that often when extreme events occur the system dynamics adopts (at least locally) an oscillatory behaviour, resulting in, for example, a quick succession of such events. The model therefore might serve as a paradigmatic model for the study of the interplay of nonlinearity, energy transport, and extreme events.

  15. Changes in precipitation characteristics and extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    changes in two different climate scenarios. In the Mediterranean region, precipitation amount, frequencyChanges in precipitation characteristics and extremes Comparing Mediterranean to change Swiss with climate change, with potentially severe impacts on human society and ecosystems. This study analyses

  16. Extremal Channels for a genaral Quantum system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuldeep Dixit; E. C. G. Sudarshan

    2009-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum channels can be mathematically represented as completely positive trace-preserving maps that act on a density matrix. A general quantum channel can be written as a convex sum of `extremal' channels. We show that for an $N$-level system, the extremal channel can be characterized in terms of $N^2$-$N$ real parameters coupled with rotations. We give a representation for $N$= 2, 3, 4.

  17. Drought and the California DeltaA Matter of Extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dettinger, Michael; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    California DeltaA Matter of Extremes Michael Dettinger 1, *1962 California is in an extreme drought as a result of lowIn large part, this extreme variability arises from the

  18. Extreme Value Analysis and Ventures into Space and Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extreme Value Analysis and Ventures into Space and Time 15 Center for Atmospheric Research Copyright NCAR 2013 #12;Extreme Value Analysis'arrive jamais" --Emil Gumbel Copyright NCAR 2013 Extreme Value Analysis #12;Copyright

  19. Thermal Interpretation of Schwinger Effect in Near-Extremal RN Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang Pyo Kim; Hyun Kyu Lee; Yongsung Yoon

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a thermal interpretation of the Schwinger effect for charged scalars and spinors in an extremal and near-extremal Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m (RN) black hole. The emission of charges has the distribution with an effective temperature determined by the Davies-Unruh temperature for accelerating charges by the electric field and the scalar curvature of AdS_2 from the near-horizon geometry AdS_2 X S^2. We find a charge bound for the extremal micro black hole to remain stable against the Schwinger emission in analogy with the Breitenlohlner-Freedman bound for the AdS space. In the in-out formalism we find the one-loop QED effective action consistent with the vacuum persistence and interpret the vacuum persistence as the leading Schwinger effect and the effect of a charged vacuum of the Coulomb field.

  20. Correlated electronic states under extreme conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeffries, Jason Robert

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrical resistivity vs. T for Au-0.5%V . . . . . . .Low temperature electrical resistivity ? vs. temperature Tplotted as reduced electrical resistivity ? ? ? 0 vs reduced

  1. Nanoscale Phase Transitions under Extreme Conditions within an...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    under extreme conditions. Citation: Zhang J, M Lang, RC Ewing, R Devanathan, WJ Weber, and M Toulemonde.2010."Nanoscale Phase Transitions under Extreme Conditions within an...

  2. Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

  3. Photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Felter, T. E. (Alameda County, CA); Kubiak, G. D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces extreme ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods. A photoresist composition for extreme ultraviolet radiation of boron carbide polymers, hydrochlorocarbons and mixtures thereof.

  4. Extreme Science (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ajo-Franklin, Caroline; Klein, Spencer; Minor, Andrew; Torok, Tamas

    2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    On Feb. 27, 2012 at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, four Berkeley Lab scientists presented talks related to extreme science - and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in extreme environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel.

  5. EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leclercq, Remi

    EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE DMITRY JAKOBSON, NIKOLAI NADIRASHVILI extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Clifford torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric

  6. STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICS OF PRECIPITATION EXTREMES: QUANTIFYING CONFIDENCE IN TRENDS Rick Katz Institute of the validity of this analysis." -- Emil Gumbel #12;3 Outline (1) Introduction (2) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Classical Approach (3) Extreme Value Analysis under Stationarity: Modern Approach (4) Extreme

  7. STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE CHANGE Richard W. Katz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE CHANGE Richard W. Katz Institute for Study of Society the application of the statistical theory of extreme values to climate, in general, and to climate change, in particular. The statistical theory of extreme values is briefly reviewed, both the extremal types theorem

  8. STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATE: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS Rick Katz Institute) Unified Modeling of Distributions (6) Resources #12;4 #12;5 (1) Background · Use of Extremal Models -- Stochastic weather generators Improved treatment of extremes #12;6 (2) Observed Tail Behavior · Extreme Value

  9. EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakobson, Dmitry

    EXTREMAL METRIC FOR THE FIRST EIGENVALUE ON A KLEIN BOTTLE DMITRY JAKOBSON, NIKOLAI NADIRASHVILI extremal metrics. The only known extremal metrics are a round sphere, a standard projective plane, a Cli#11;ord torus and an equilateral torus. We construct an extremal metric on a Klein bottle. It is a metric

  10. On Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Alexander J.

    to withstand extreme winds or extreme water levels. The 50­year return level is a level which, on averageOn Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil Departement Mathematik ETH Zentrum CH­8092 Z¨urich Tel in extreme value theory as part of his mathematics degree. He therefore decides to undertake an analysis

  11. On Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNeil, Alexander J.

    extreme winds or extreme water levels. The 50-year return level is a level which, on average, should onlyOn Extremes and Crashes Alexander J. McNeil Departement Mathematik ETH Zentrum CH-8092 Zurich Tel in extreme value theory as part of his mathematics degree. He therefore decides to undertake an analysis

  12. AIR CONDITIONER REQUEST EXTREME MEDICAL CIRCUMSTANCES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AIR CONDITIONER REQUEST DUE TO EXTREME MEDICAL CIRCUMSTANCES TO BE COMPLETED BY ATTENDING Moderate Significant Is the use of an air conditioner desirable Yes No OR essential Yes No to the management of allergy? Is the use of an air conditioner

  13. Where is the extremal Kerr ISCO?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ted Jacobson

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Although the circular photon orbit and ISCO for the Kerr black hole remain distinct from each other and from the horizon in the extremal spin limit on a constant Boyer-Lindquist time slice, on a horizon-crossing slice they both coincide with the null generators of the horizon.

  14. LIFE ON EARTH: EXTREMES AND ASTROBIO IMPLICATIONS...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Yancy

    deep on the ocean floor (no oxygen). #12;#12;·Microorganisms that grow in extremely dry environments withstand 1000 times the radiation dose that would kill a human in minutes. It keeps 5 stacked copies of its thing in the solar system to another water world. An icy crust covers an ocean. #12;Europa #12

  15. Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherkaev, Andrej

    Extremal structures of multiphase heat conducting composites A.V. Cherkaev \\Lambda L.V. Gibiansky y April 19, 1995 Abstract In this paper we construct microstructures of multiphase composites with un be easily gen­ eralized for the three­dimensional composites with arbitrary number of phases. 1 Introduction

  16. ECSS in the eXtreme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William O'Mullane; John Hoar; Uwe Lammers

    2007-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The ESAC Gaia team engages in a form of eXtreme programming while the DPAC will follow a series of six month development cycles modeled on this approach. As a project within the European Space Agency the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) standards are required. We present the bringing together of these realms.

  17. Extremal unital completely positive normal maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anilesh Mohari

    2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the convex set of unital completely positive normal map on a von-Neumann algebra and find a necessary and sufficient condition for an element in the convex set to be extremal. We also deal with the same problem for the convex subset which admits a faithful normal state.

  18. Extreme Value Theory and the Solar Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Asensio Ramos

    2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the statistical properties of the extreme events of the solar cycle as measured by the sunspot number. The recent advances in the methodology of the theory of extreme values is applied to the maximal extremes of the time series of sunspots. We focus on the extreme events that exceed a carefully chosen threshold and a generalized Pareto distribution is fitted to the tail of the empirical cumulative distribution. A maximum likelihood method is used to estimate the parameters of the generalized Pareto distribution and confidence levels are also given to the parameters. Due to the lack of an automatic procedure for selecting the threshold, we analyze the sensitivity of the fitted generalized Pareto distribution to the exact value of the threshold. According to the available data, that only spans the previous ~250 years, the cumulative distribution of the time series is bounded, yielding an upper limit of 324 for the sunspot number. We also estimate that the return value for each solar cycle is ~188, while the return value for a century increases to ~228. Finally, the results also indicate that the most probable return time for a large event like the maximum at solar cycle 19 happens once every ~700 years and that the probability of finding such a large event with a frequency smaller than ~50 years is very small. In spite of the essentially extrapolative character of these results, their statistical significance is very large.

  19. Fuzzy transformations and extremality of Gibbs measures for the Potts model on a Cayley tree

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Kuelske; U. A. Rozikov

    2014-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We continue our study of the full set of translation-invariant splitting Gibbs measures (TISGMs, translation-invariant tree-indexed Markov chains) for the $q$-state Potts model on the Cayley tree. In our previous work we gave the full description of the TISGMs, and showed in particular that at sufficiently low temperatures their number is $2^{q}-1$. In this paper we find some regions for the temperature parameter ensuring that a given TISGM is (non-)extreme in the set of all Gibbs measures. In particular we show the existence of a temperature interval for which there are at least $2^{q-1} + q$ extremal TISGMs. For the Cayley tree of order two we give explicit formulae and some numerical values.

  20. Materials degradation and fatigue under extreme conditions. Final report, 1 April 1994-31 August 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonas, J.

    1997-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This AFOSR URI addressed complex research problems of materials degradation and fatigue in aerospace structures in severe or extreme environments. A better understanding of materials degradation and flaw initiation dynamics was achieved through a multi-disciplinary research program encompassing chemistry, surface physics, materials science and mechanics, both experimental and theoretical. The Subprojects were as follows: (1) Surface Induced Degradation of Fluorocarbon Lubricants; (2) Molecular Tribology of Perfluoroether Lubricants; (3) Fluids, Including Lubricants Under Extreme Conditions of High Pressure/High Temperature and Confinement; (4) Surface Crack Propagation Under Combined Mechanical and High Pressure Fluid Loading; and (5) Lubricant Assisted Fatigue Crack Growth in Ceramics.

  1. Quark number susceptibility of high temperature and finite density QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ari Hietanen; Kari Rummukainen

    2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We utilize lattice simulations of the dimensionally reduced effective field theory (EQCD) to determine the quark number susceptibility of QCD at high temperature ($T>2T_c$). We also use analytic continuation to obtain results at finite density. The results extrapolate well from known perturbative expansion (accurate in extremely high temperatures) to 4d lower temperature lattice data

  2. Quantum-Based Atomistic Simulation of Metals at Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moriarty, J A; Glosli, J N; Hood, R Q; Klepeis, J E; Orlikowski, D A; Soderlind, P; Yang, L H

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    First-principles generalized pseudopotential theory (GPT) provides a fundamental basis for bridging the quantum-atomistic gap from density-functional quantum mechanics to large scale atomistic simulation in metals and alloys. In directionally-bonded bcc transition metals, advanced generation model GPT or MGPT potentials based on canonical d bands have been developed for Ta, Mo and V and successfully applied to a wide range of thermodynamic and mechanical properties at both ambient and extreme conditions of pressure and temperature, including high-pressure phase transitions, multiphase equation of state; melting and solidification; thermoelasticity; and the atomistic simulation of point defects, dislocations and grain boundaries needed for the multiscale modeling of plasticity and strength. Recent algorithm improvements have also allowed an MGPT implementation beyond canonical bands to achieve increased accuracy, extension to f-electron actinide metals, and high computational speed. A further advance in progress is the development temperature-dependent MGPT potentials that subsume electron-thermal contributions to high-temperature properties.

  3. Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Solar Corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Zanna, Giulio

    range of spectroscopic diagnostic tech- niques to determine the temperature distribution, densities a factor of 2 lower than in the quiet sun, with much lower emission measures at temperatures above 106 K been used to infer the temperature structure and the element abundances. The importance of including

  4. Extremely Metal-Poor Galaxies: The Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filho, M E; Muoz-Tun, C; Nuza, S E; Kitaura, F; He, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have analyzed bibliographical observational data and theoretical predictions, in order to probe the environment in which extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies (XMPs) reside. We have assessed the HI component and its relation to the optical galaxy, the cosmic web type (voids, sheets, filaments and knots), the overdensity parameter and analyzed the nearest galaxy neighbours. The aim is to understand the role of interactions and cosmological accretion flows in the XMP observational properties, particularly the triggering and feeding of the star formation. We find that XMPs behave similarly to Blue Compact Dwarfs; they preferably populate low-density environments in the local Universe: ~60% occupy underdense regions, and ~75% reside in voids and sheets. This is more extreme than the distribution of irregular galaxies, and in contrast to those regions preferred by elliptical galaxies (knots and filaments). We further find results consistent with previous observations; while the environment does determine the frac...

  5. Extreme events in discrete nonlinear lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Maluckov; Lj. Hadzievski; N. Lazarides; G. P. Tsironis

    2009-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform statistical analysis on discrete nonlinear waves generated though modulational instability in the context of the Salerno model that interpolates between the intergable Ablowitz-Ladik (AL) equation and the nonintegrable discrete nonlinear Schrodinger (DNLS) equation. We focus on extreme events in the form of discrete rogue or freak waves that may arise as a result of rapid coalescence of discrete breathers or other nonlinear interaction processes. We find power law dependence in the wave amplitude distribution accompanied by an enhanced probability for freak events close to the integrable limit of the equation. A characteristic peak in the extreme event probability appears that is attributed to the onset of interaction of the discrete solitons of the AL equation and the accompanied transition from the local to the global stochasticity monitored through the positive Lyapunov exponent of a nonlinear map.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: resilient to extreme events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1developmentturbineredox-active perovskiteremoving the highlypowerresilient to extreme

  7. Extreme commutative quantum observables are sharp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teiko Heinosaari; Juha-Pekka Pellonp

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    It is well known that, in the description of quantum observables, positive operator valued measures (POVMs) generalize projection valued measures (PVMs) and they also turn out be more optimal in many tasks. We show that a commutative POVM is an extreme point in the convex set of all POVMs if and only if it is a PVM. This results implies that non-commutativity is a necessary ingredient to overcome the limitations of PVMs.

  8. Chiral Gravity, Log Gravity and Extremal CFT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Maloney; Wei Song; Andrew Strominger

    2009-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS3 vacuum have positive energy. Non-chiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity-- the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions --has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic CFT. Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We normally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  9. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maloney, Alexander [Physics Department, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Song Wei [Key Laboratory of Frontiers in Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China); Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Strominger, Andrew [Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS{sub 3} vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  10. Sensitivity of tropical precipitation extremes to climate change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Gorman, Paul Ambrose

    Precipitation extremes increase in intensity over many regions of the globe in simulations of a warming climate1, 2, 3. The rate of increase of precipitation extremes in the extratropics is consistent across global climate ...

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Green Extreme Homes &...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Green Extreme Homes & Carl Franklin Homes, Garland, TX DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Green Extreme Homes & Carl Franklin Homes, Garland, TX Case study of a DOE Zero Energy...

  12. Chaotic Information Processing by Extremal Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Axenides, Minos; Nicolis, Stam

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review an explicit regularization of the AdS$_2$/CFT$_1$ correspondence, that preserves all isometries of bulk and boundary degrees of freedom. This scheme is useful to characterize the space of the unitary evolution operators that describe the dynamics of the microstates of extremal black holes in four spacetime dimensions. Using techniques from algebraic number theory to evaluate the transition amplitudes, we remark that the regularization scheme expresses the fast quantum computation capability of black holes as well as its chaotic nature.

  13. Extremely compliant and highly stretchable patterned graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Shuze; Huang, Yinjun; Li, Teng, E-mail: LiT@umd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene is intrinsically ultra-stiff in its plane. Its huge mechanical mismatch when interfacing with ultra-compliant biological tissues and elastomers (79 orders of magnitude difference in stiffness) poses significant challenge in its application to functional devices such as epidermal electronics and sensing prosthesis. We offer a feasible and promising solution to this significant challenge by suitably patterning graphene into a nanomesh. Through systematic coarse-grained simulations, we show that graphene nanomesh can be made extremely compliant with nearly zero stiffness up to about 20% elongation and then remain highly compliant up to about 50% elongation.

  14. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickrinformation for and ApplicationNuclearLeao BrunoInvestigating Extreme

  15. Extreme Scale Computing, Co-design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy andExsolution Enhanced OilExtracting theExtreme Scale Computing,

  16. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask

  17. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

  18. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme Ultraviolet

  19. Investigating Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography Mask Defects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFunInfrared LandResponses toInvestigating Extreme UltravioletInvestigating

  20. Extremal Quantum Correlations and Cryptographic Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Franz; F. Furrer; R. F. Werner

    2010-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate a fundamental property of device independent security in quantum cryptography by characterizing probability distributions which are necessarily independent of the measurement results of any eavesdropper. We show that probability distributions that are secure in this sense are exactly the extremal quantum probability distributions. This allows us to give a characterization of security in algebraic terms. We apply the method to common examples for two-party as well as multi-party setups and present a scheme for verifying security of probability distributions with two parties, two measurement settings, and two outcomes.

  1. Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10-Managing Pediatric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Squire, Larry R.

    Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10- 05 1 Managing Pediatric Fractures Andrew Pennock, M extremity Fx's Sweden 10- 05 2 Children Are Not Miniature Adults! · Open Growth Plates · Remodeling is Changing "Citius, Altius, Fortius" - Faster, Higher, Stronger #12;Managing Upper extremity Fx's Sweden 10

  2. PROBLEM APPLICATIONS: EXERCISE SESSION ON ANALYSES OF EXTREMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    PROBLEM APPLICATIONS: EXERCISE SESSION ON ANALYSES OF EXTREMES Rick Katz Institute for Study exercises) serves as a companion to the lecture by Richard Smith on Extreme Value Theory. It consists of two parts, the first focuses on climate applications of extreme value theory under stationarity, the second

  3. Extreme Response Analysis A. Naess1,2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nørvåg, Kjetil

    NTNU Extreme Response Analysis A. Naess1,2) 1) Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures (CeSOS) 2) Department of Mathematical Sciences Norwegian University of Science and Technology Trondheim, Norway Extreme Response Analysis ­ p. 1/33 #12;NTNU Introduction The approach to extreme value statistics generally

  4. Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    Climatic extremes improve predictions of spatial patterns of tree species Niklaus E. Zimmermanna,1 of climate extremes suggests the importance of understanding their additional influence on range limits. Here, we assess how measures representing climate extremes (i.e., interannual variability in climate

  5. SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY AND RESPONSES TO GLOBAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY AND RESPONSES TO GLOBAL WARMING Mxolisi Excellent Shongwe #12;ISBN : 978-90-902-5046-5 #12;SEASONAL CLIMATE EXTREMES: MECHANISMS, PREDICTABILITY;. . . Dedicated to my late father John Mabhensa Shongwe #12;ABSTRACT Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural

  6. Robust Extremes in Chaotic Deterministic Systems Renato Vitolo,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robust Extremes in Chaotic Deterministic Systems Renato Vitolo, Mark P. Holland, and Christopher A: December 11, 2008) Abstract A chaotic deterministic system exhibits robust extremes when the statistics of its extreme values depend smoothly on the system's control parameters. Such robustness can

  7. Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Ecosystem recovery after climatic extremes enhanced by genotypic diversity Thorsten B. H. Reusch with such climatic extremes is a question central to contem- porary ecology and biodiversity conservation. Previous, and it may buffer against extreme climatic events. In a manipulative field experiment, increasing

  8. Extremal Properties of Random Structures E. Ben-Naim1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Redner, Sidney

    Extremal Properties of Random Structures E. Ben-Naim1 , P. L. Krapivsky2 , and S. Redner2 1. The extremal characteristics of random structures, including trees, graphs, and networks, are discussed. A statistical physics approach is employed in which extremal properties are obtained through suitably defined

  9. Extreme English Origins of English and its Sibling, Frisian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Extreme English Origins of English and its Sibling, Frisian Eric Gilleland National Center always has been." Chicago Tribune, May 17, 2005 By Nathan Bierma #12;Extreme English -- 23 April 2009 similar to English? #12;Extreme English -- 23 April 2009 Earliest Record of English "This she

  10. Extreme-Point Stability Tests for Discrete-Time Polynomials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TA9 -10:40 Extreme-Point Stability Tests for Discrete-Time Polynomials F. PCrez *, C been an increasinginterest in finding extreme- point results for the study of stability of uncertain in the coefficients space where Schur stability of the extremes im- plies the stability of the entire family 12). Our

  11. Science moves forward, at least in part, by pursuing extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    Science moves forward, at least in part, by pursuing extremes -- seeking what's faster, hotter into space. In chasing such extremes, we often pass milestones, sometimes almost without noticing. Seventy inability to produce the extreme conditions required to see them. But with the rapid and continuing

  12. RisR1238(EN) Extreme Winds over Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø­R­1238(EN) Extreme Winds over Denmark from the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Helmut P. Frank Wind Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark May 2001 #12;Abstract An extreme wind analysis of wind speed calculatedPa, and geostrophic winds at 850 hPa, 1000 hPa, and at the sea level are analyzed. At 10 m height the expected extreme

  13. Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    Seasonal Forecasting of Extreme Wind and Precipitation Frequencies in Europe Matthew J. Swann;Abstract Flood and wind damage to property and livelihoods resulting from extreme precipitation events variability of these extreme events can be closely related to the large-scale atmospheric circulation

  14. Performance of building cladding in urban environments under extreme winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Performance of building cladding in urban environments under extreme winds By Tiphaine Williamsa ABSTRACT: When tropical storms, hurricanes, typhoons and other extreme wind events make landfall-rise construction in these regions, as well as other areas impacted by extreme wind events, generally reveal

  15. Evolutionary algorithms for the design of grid-connected PV-systems Daniel Gmez-Lorente a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granada, Universidad de

    Section, ETSICCP, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva, Granada 18071, Spain b Dept. of Computer Technology), University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain c Dept. of Computer Arquitecture and Electronics, CITE III, University of Almería, La Cañada de San Urbano s/n, Almería 04120, Spain a r t i c l e i n f

  16. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaic-battery storage system (PV+ system). The LPrate). Eq. 1 minimizes net PV+ battery system power output (photovoltaic-battery storage system (PV+ system). The

  17. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or $100- 400 per kWh) at an installed cost of approximatelyinstalled cost of about $400 - $500 per kWh (approximately

  18. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photovoltaic systems with battery storages control based onconnected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems A. Nottrott,combined photovoltaic-battery storage system (PV+ system).

  19. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy bill savings for the utility customer are the only value proposition considered in the valuation of the storage

  20. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the on-peak and off-peak energy markets. Price arbitrage isin the time-of-use energy market, but its success as aEnergy Storage for the Electricity Grid: Benefits and Market

  1. Homeowners Guide to Financing a Grid-Connected Solar Electric System (Brochure), Solar Energy Technologies Program (SETP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This guide provides an overview of the financing options that may be available to homeowners who are considering installing a solar electric system on their house.

  2. Energy dispatch schedule optimization and cost benefit analysis for grid-connected, photovoltaic-battery storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottrott, A.; Kleissl, J.; Washom, B.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State Assembly Bill 2514 Energy storage systems, Energy Storage for the Electricity5. D. Rastler, Electric Energy Storage Technology Options: A

  3. A Generalized Class of Stationary Frame-Current Controllers for Grid-Connected ACDC Converters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hwang, J. George

    Within power systems, high-power pulsewidth-modulated ac-dc converters are used in flexible ac transmission systems controllers and for interfacing renewable energy sources to the grid. These converters traditionally ...

  4. The inverter is a major component of photovoltaic (PV) systems either autonomous or grid connected. It affects the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    and a variety of photovoltaic modules. The PV systems range in size from 2.5 to 3.6 kilowatts. The purposeABSTRACT The inverter is a major component of photovoltaic (PV) systems either autonomous or grid. INTRODUCTION For any grid tied photovoltaic (PV) system, the inverter is the essential piece of equipment

  5. Material dynamics under extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remington, B A; Allen, P; Bringa, E; Hawreliak, J; Ho, D; Lorenz, K T; Lorenzana, H; Meyers, M A; Pollaine, S W; Rosolankova, K; Sadik, B; Schneider, M S; Swift, D; Wark, J; Yaakobi, B

    2005-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state experiments at extreme pressures (10-100 GPa) and strain rates ({approx}10{sup 6}-10{sup 8}s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities, and offer the possibility for exploring new regimes of materials science. These extreme solid-state conditions can be accessed with either shock loading or with a quasi-isentropic ramped pressure drive. Velocity interferometer measurements establish the high pressure conditions. Constitutive models for solid-state strength under these conditions are tested by comparing 2D continuum simulations with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples. Lattice compression, phase, and temperature are deduced from extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, from which the shock-induced {alpha}-{omega} phase transition in Ti and the {alpha}-{var_epsilon} phase transition in Fe are inferred to occur on sub-nanosec time scales. Time resolved lattice response and phase can also be measured with dynamic x-ray diffraction measurements, where the elastic-plastic (1D-3D) lattice relaxation in shocked Cu is shown to occur promptly (< 1 ns). Subsequent large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations elucidate the microscopic dynamics that underlie the 3D lattice relaxation. Deformation mechanisms are identified by examining the residual microstructure in recovered samples. The slip-twinning threshold in single-crystal Cu shocked along the [001] direction is shown to occur at shock strengths of {approx}20 GPa, whereas the corresponding transition for Cu shocked along the [134] direction occurs at higher shock strengths. This slip-twinning threshold also depends on the stacking fault energy (SFE), being lower for low SFE materials. Designs have been developed for achieving much higher pressures, P > 1000 GPa, in the solid state on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser.

  6. Investigation of carbon dioxide phase shift possibility under extreme Antarctic winter conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vashchenko, V M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Antarctic winter atmosphere minimal temperature and pressure series reveal that $CO_2$ phase shift (deposition) is possible in some extreme cases, even leading to possible $CO_2$ snow phenomenon at Vostok Antarctic station and in other near South Pole regions. A hypothesis has been formulated that stable $CO_2$ snow cover might have formed in Earth past which may influence interpretation of glacial chronology records. This effect may also manifest in other minor gases. Its global climate role is discussed.

  7. Extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Vigliano, David; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Williams, Jeffery Thomas; Wouters, Gregg A.; Bacon, Larry Donald; Mar, Alan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work was to understand the fundamental physics of extremely high frequency RF effects on electronics. To accomplish this objective, we produced models, conducted simulations, and performed measurements to identify the mechanisms of effects as frequency increases into the millimeter-wave regime. Our purpose was to answer the questions, 'What are the tradeoffs between coupling, transmission losses, and device responses as frequency increases?', and, 'How high in frequency do effects on electronic systems continue to occur?' Using full wave electromagnetics codes and a transmission-line/circuit code, we investigated how extremely high-frequency RF propagates on wires and printed circuit board traces. We investigated both field-to-wire coupling and direct illumination of printed circuit boards to determine the significant mechanisms for inducing currents at device terminals. We measured coupling to wires and attenuation along wires for comparison to the simulations, looking at plane-wave coupling as it launches modes onto single and multiconductor structures. We simulated the response of discrete and integrated circuit semiconductor devices to those high-frequency currents and voltages, using SGFramework, the open-source General-purpose Semiconductor Simulator (gss), and Sandia's Charon semiconductor device physics codes. This report documents our findings.

  8. Modeling hydrologic and water quality extremes in a changing climate: A statistical approach based on extreme value theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    Modeling hydrologic and water quality extremes in a changing climate: A statistical approach based on extreme value theory Erin Towler,1,2 Balaji Rajagopalan,1,3 Eric Gilleland,2 R. Scott Summers,1 David makes quantifying changes to hydrologic extremes, as well as associated water quality effects

  9. STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART II: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART II: RECONCILING THEORY WITH OBSERVATIONS of Climate/Hydrologic Extremes (3) Unified Approach (Extremes/Non-Extremes) (4) Complex Extreme Climate Design -- No longer only need for extreme value theory · Complex Extreme Events -- e. g., heat waves

  10. Observational constraints of stellar collapse: Diagnostic probes of nature's extreme matter experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fryer, Chris L., E-mail: fryer@lanl.gov; Even, Wesley [CCS Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)] [CCS Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W. [Space Radiation Lab, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)] [Space Radiation Lab, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wong, Tsing-Wai [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States) [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Supernovae are Nature's high-energy, high density laboratory experiments, reaching densities in excess of nuclear densities and temperatures above 10MeV. Astronomers have built up a suite of diagnostics to study these supernovae. If we can utilize these diagnostics, and tie them together with a theoretical understanding of supernova physics, we can use these cosmic explosions to study the nature of matter at these extreme densities and temperatures. Capitalizing on these diagnostics will require understanding a wide range of additional physics. Here we review the diagnostics and the physics neeeded to use them to learn about the supernova engine, and ultimate nuclear physics.

  11. Towards Extreme(ly) Usable Software: Exploring Tensions Between Usability and Agile Software Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCrickard, Scott

    that draws from extreme programming (XP), a widely practiced agile software development process, and scenario that need to be addressed for agile software development methods and usability engineering practices to work with multidisciplinary system design--focusing specifically on agile software development and usability----by developing

  12. Three Essays on the Impact of Climate Change and Weather Extremes on the United States' Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Phu Viet

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ii Contents Essay 3 Impact of Extreme Heating Condition on2 Modeling the Impact of Extreme Heating on FarmlandSuggests that Recent Extreme Droughts Contributed to

  13. Oxygen Loss from Venus and the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEnulty, Tess

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the influence of extreme solar wind conditions on O + escapeand the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions by Tessand the Influence of Extreme Solar Wind Conditions Copyright

  14. Non-extremal fuzzballs and ergoregion emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borun D. Chowdhury; Samir D. Mathur

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the traditional picture of black holes Hawking radiation is created by pair creation from the vacuum at the horizon. In the fuzzball proposal, individual microstates do not have a horizon with the `vacuum' state in its vicinity. For a special family of non-extremal microstates it was recently found that emission occurs due to pair creation in an ergoregion, rather than at a horizon. In this paper we extend this result to a slightly larger class of microstates, again finding exact agreement between the emission in the gravity picture and the CFT dual. We write down an expression for emission from geometries with ergoregions, in terms of the leading falloff behavior of the wavefunctions in the fuzzball region. Finally, we describe another family of nonextremal microstates and find their ergoregion.

  15. Left-Wing Extremism: The Current Threat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karl A. Seger

    2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Left-wing extremism is ''alive and well'' both in the US and internationally. Although the current domestic terrorist threat within the U. S. is focused on right-wing extremists, left-wing extremists are also active and have several objectives. Leftist extremists also pose an espionage threat to U.S. interests. While the threat to the U.S. government from leftist extremists has decreased in the past decade, it has not disappeared. There are individuals and organizations within the U.S. who maintain the same ideology that resulted in the growth of left-wing terrorism in this country in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the leaders from that era are still communicating from Cuba with their followers in the U.S., and new leaders and groups are emerging.

  16. A Road Map to Extreme High Vacuum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganapati Rao Myneni

    2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and the procedures [1,2]. Until now much attention has been paid in minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the chamber material. However, procedures and processing deserves further scrutiny than hitherto given so far. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1 10-12 Torr l/sec need to be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This presentation will discuss: clean assembly procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to extreme high vacuum, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load, cascade pumping, sensitive helium leak detection techniques and the use of modified extractor and residual gas analyzers. Further, alternative back up pumping systems based on active NEGs [3] for turbo molecular pumps will be presented.

  17. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R. (Tracey, CA); Nygren, Richard E. (Los Ranchos de Albuquerque, NM); Ulrickson, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  18. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 9 OCTOBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2112 Extremely strong-coupling superconductivity in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    by strong forces, is revealed by a large specific-heat jump4 at Tc, representing a steep drop of the entropyLETTERS PUBLISHED ONLINE: 9 OCTOBER 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2112 Extremely strong-coupling relative to the transition temperature. This implies that the force holding together the superconducting

  19. Predictive Linear Regression Model for Microinverter Internal Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    , photovoltaic (PV) module temperature, irradiance and AC power data. Time-series environmental, temperature prediction, reliabil- ity, photovoltaic systems. I. INTRODUCTION PV modules equipped with microinverters have system. Reliability of microinverters in harsh and extreme real- world outdoor operating conditions has

  20. A 200 C Universal Gate Driver Integrated Circuit for Extreme Environment Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Huque, Mohammad A [ORNL; Islam, Syed K [ORNL; Blalock, Benjamin J [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-temperature power converters (dc-dc, dc-ac, etc.) have enormous potential in extreme environment applications, including automotive, aerospace, geothermal, nuclear, and well logging. For successful realization of such high-temperature power conversion modules, the associated control electronics also need to perform at high temperature. This paper presents a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based high-temperature gate driver integrated circuit (IC) incorporating an on-chip low-power temperature sensor and demonstrating an improved peak output current drive over our previously reported work. This driver IC has been primarily designed for automotive applications, where the underhood temperature can reach 200 C. This new gate driver prototype has been designed and implemented in a 0.8 {micro}m, 2-poly, and 3-metal bipolar CMOS-DMOS (Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) on SOI process and has been successfully tested for up to 200 C ambient temperature driving a SiC MOSFET and a SiC normally-ON JFET. The salient feature of the proposed universal gate driver is its ability to drive power switches over a wide range of gate turn-ON voltages such as MOSFET (0 to 20 V), normally-OFF JFET (-7 to 3 V), and normally-ON JFET (-20 to 0 V). The measured peak output current capability of the driver is around 5 A and is thus capable of driving several power switches connected in parallel. An ultralow-power on-chip temperature supervisory circuit has also been integrated into the die to safeguard the driver circuit against excessive die temperature ({ge}220 C). This approach utilizes increased diode leakage current at higher temperature to monitor the die temperature. The power consumption of the proposed temperature sensor circuit is below 10 {micro}W for operating temperature up to 200 C.

  1. Impact of horizontal resolution on simulation of precipitation extremes in an aqua-planet version of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.; Algieri, C.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One key question regarding current climate models is whether the projection of climate extremes converges to a realistic representation as the spatial and temporal resolutions of the model are increased. Ideally the model extreme statistics should approach a fixed distribution once the resolutions are commensurate with the characteristic length and time scales of the processes governing the formation of the extreme phenomena of interest. In this study, a series of AGCM runs with idealized 'aquaplanet-steady-state' boundary conditions have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3 to investigate the effect of horizontal resolution on climate extreme simulations. The use of the aquaplanet framework highlights the roles of model physics and dynamics and removes any apparent convergence in extreme statistics due to better resolution of surface boundary conditions and other external inputs. Assessed at a same large spatial scale, the results show that the horizontal resolution and time step have strong effects on the simulations of precipitation extremes. The horizontal resolution has a much stronger impact on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Updrafts are strongly correlated with extreme precipitation at tropics at all the resolutions, while positive low-tropospheric temperature anomalies are associated with extreme precipitation at mid-latitudes.

  2. Development of Polybenzimidazole-Based High-Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assemblies for Stationary and Automotive Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vogel, John A.

    2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The program began on August 1, 2003 and ended on July 31, 2007. The goal of the project was to optimize a high-temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane to meet the performance, durability, and cost targets required for stationary fuel cell applications. These targets were identified in the Fuel Cell section (3.4) of DOEs Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan. A membrane that operates at high temperatures is important to the fuel cell industry because it is insensitive to carbon monoxide (a poison to low-temperature fuel cells), and does not require complex water management strategies. Together, these two benefits greatly simplify the fuel cell system. As a result, the high-temperature fuel cell system realizes a cost benefit as the number of components is reduced by nearly 30%. There is also an inherent reliability benefit as components such as humidifiers and pumps for water management are unnecessary. Furthermore, combined heat and power (CHP) systems may be the best solution for a commercial, grid-connected, stationary product that must offer a cost benefit to the end user. For a low-temperature system, the quality of the heat supplied is insufficient to meet consumer needs and comfort requirements, so peak heaters or supplemental boilers are required. The higher operating temperature of PBI technology allows the fuel cell to meet the heat and comfort demand without the additional equipment. Plug Power, working with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) Polymer Science Laboratory, made significant advances in optimizing the PBI membrane material for operation at temperatures greater than 160oC with a lifetime of 40,000 hours. Supporting hardware such as flow field plates and a novel sealing concept were explored to yield the lower-cost stack assembly and corresponding manufacturing process. Additional work was conducted on acid loss, flow field design and cathode electrode development. Membranes and MEAs were supplied by team member BASF Fuel Cell (formerly PEMEAS), a manufacturer of polymer and fiber. Additional subcontractors Entegris, the University of South Carolina (USC) Fuel Cell Center, and RPIs Fuel Cell Center conducted activities with regard to stack sealing, acid modeling, and electrode development.

  3. Extremal correlations of the tripartite no-signaling polytope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Pironio; Jean-Daniel Bancal; Valerio Scarani

    2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The no-signaling polytope associated to a Bell scenario with three parties, two inputs, and two outputs is found to have 53856 extremal points, belonging to 46 inequivalent classes. We provide a classification of these points according to various definitions of multipartite non-locality and briefly discuss other issues like the interconversion between extremal points seen as a resource and the relation of the extremal points to Bell-type inequalities.

  4. Extremal Graph Numbers of Graphs on Few May 4, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeilberger, Doron

    Extremal Graph Numbers of Graphs on Few Vertices John Kim May 4, 2012 1 Introduction Let H this number to be the extremal graph number of H on n vertices, and we denote it by ex(n, H). When H(n, K3) n 2 2 . A precise formula for ex(n, K3) is given by: ex(n, K3) = n 2 n + 1 2 . The extremal

  5. Predictability of extreme events in a branching diffusion model Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    ... electric power blackouts, economic recessions, stock-market crashes, .... the extreme ones, a cascade process responsible for redistribution of energy (or.

  6. LDRD symposium focuses on materials in extremes, big data, and...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    symposium focuses on materials in extremes, big data, and energy use impacts | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing...

  7. An electronic compendium of extreme functions for the Gomory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Kppe

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov 18, 2014 ... Abstract: In this note we announce the availability of an electronic compendium of extreme functions for Gomory--Johnson's infinite group...

  8. Extreme point inequalities and geometry of the rank sparsity ball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ities balancing the various features of the optimization problem at hand, at the extreme points of the solution set. Keywords Nuclear norm compressed sensing

  9. Joint probability analysis of precipitation and streamflow extremes.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Chia-hung.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis focuses on evaluation of joint occurrence of extreme precipitation and streamflow events at several hydrologic structures in South Florida. An analysis of twelve (more)

  10. Seasonal Climate Extremes : Mechanism, Predictability and Responses to Global Warming.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shongwe, M.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Climate extremes are rarely occurring natural phenomena in the climate system. They often pose one of the greatest environmental threats to human and natural systems. (more)

  11. Radiation from the non-extremal fuzzball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borun D. Chowdhury; Samir D. Mathur

    2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The fuzzball proposal says that the information of the black hole state is distributed throughout the interior of the horizon in a `quantum fuzz'. There are special microstates where in the dual CFT we have `many excitations in the same state'; these are described by regular classical geometries without horizons. Jejjala et.al constructed non-extremal regular geometries of this type. Cardoso et. al then found that these geometries had a classical instability. In this paper we show that the energy radiated through the unstable modes is exactly the Hawking radiation for these microstates. We do this by (i) starting with the semiclassical Hawking radiation rate (ii) using it to find the emission vertex in the CFT (iii) replacing the Boltzman distributions of the generic CFT state with the ones describing the microstate of interest (iv) observing that the emission now reproduces the classical instability. Because the CFT has `many excitations in the same state' we get the physics of a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a thermal gas, and the usually slow Hawking emission increases, by Bose enhancement, to a classically radiated field. This system therefore provides a complete gravity description of information-carrying radiation from a special microstate of the nonextremal hole.

  12. Beamline Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAboutScience ProgramBackground8.0.1 PrintTemperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV

  13. Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Arous, Gérard

    Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu New York University and University at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-3840 E-mail:dvv@math.berkeley.edu Abstract: Free probability analogues- sification of freely max-stable laws and their domains of attraction, using "free extremal convolutions

  14. Construction of new extremal unimodular lattices Philippe Gaborit \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaborit, Philippe

    Construction of new extremal unimodular lattices Philippe Gaborit \\Lambda July 22, 2003 Abstract In this paper we construct new extremal and optimal unimodular lattices in di mensions 36; 38; 42; 45; 52; 54; 60 and 68. We construct them in two ways: first in the case of dimensions congruent to 4 modulo 8

  15. Extremely local MR representations: Youngmi Hur1 & Amos Ron2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    Extremely local MR representations: L-CAMP Youngmi Hur1 & Amos Ron2 Workshop on sparse representations: UMD, May 2005 1 Math, UW-Madison 2 CS, UW-Madison #12;Wavelet and framelet constructions History of all local MR representations #12;L-CAMP: Extremely local MR constructions Bird's view of the CAP

  16. Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data,itiscommontoeithercarry out extensive simulation studies or undertake a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind here is to estimate extreme loads for an offshore wind turbine for which the environmental and load

  17. RisR1437(EN) Wind Simulation for Extreme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø­R­1437(EN) Wind Simulation for Extreme and Fatigue Loads M. Nielsen, G. C. Larsen, J. Mann, S integrity of a wind turbine structure involves analyses of fatigue loading as well as extreme loading University of Denmark, and NEG-Micon A/S, as part of the EFP-2001(Wind) programme sponsored by the Danish

  18. Low-temperature random matrix theory at the soft edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edelman, Alan [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Persson, Per-Olof [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sutton, Brian D. [Department of Mathematics, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Low temperature random matrix theory is the study of random eigenvalues as energy is removed. In standard notation, ? is identified with inverse temperature, and low temperatures are achieved through the limit ? ? ?. In this paper, we derive statistics for low-temperature random matrices at the soft edge, which describes the extreme eigenvalues for many random matrix distributions. Specifically, new asymptotics are found for the expected value and standard deviation of the general-? Tracy-Widom distribution. The new techniques utilize beta ensembles, stochastic differential operators, and Riccati diffusions. The asymptotics fit known high-temperature statistics curiously well and contribute to the larger program of general-? random matrix theory.

  19. PART 1 OF TUTORIAL ON EXTREMES TOOLKIT (1) Installation of R software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    PART 1 OF TUTORIAL ON EXTREMES TOOLKIT (1) Installation of R software R-2.9.2-win32.exe Use default options (2) Installation of Extremes Toolkit extRemes (R package for extreme value analysis): extRemes_1.60.zip ismev (R package used by extRemes): ismev_1.34.zip Lmoments (R package used by extRemes): Lmoments

  20. Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey Lovelace; Mark A. Scheel; Robert Owen; Matthew Giesler; Reza Katebi; Bela Szilagyi; Tony Chu; Nicholas Demos; Daniel A. Hemberger; Lawrence E. Kidder; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Nousha Afshari

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The spin angular momentum $S$ of an isolated Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area $A$ of its apparent horizon: $8\\pi S \\le A$, with equality for extremal black holes. In this paper, we explore the extremality of individual and common apparent horizons for merging, rapidly spinning binary black holes. We consider simulations of merging black holes with equal masses $M$ and initial spin angular momenta aligned with the orbital angular momentum, including new simulations with spin magnitudes up to $S/M^2 = 0.994$. We measure the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, finding that the inequality $8\\pi S extremality by computing the smallest value that Booth and Fairhurst's extremality parameter can take for any scaling. Using this lower bound, we conclude that the common horizons are at least moderately close to extremal just after they appear. Finally, following Lovelace et al. (2008), we construct quasiequilibrium binary-black-hole initial data with "overspun" marginally trapped surfaces with $8\\pi S > A$ and for which our lower bound on their Booth-Fairhurst extremality exceeds unity. These superextremal surfaces are always surrounded by marginally outer trapped surfaces (i.e., by apparent horizons) with $8\\pi Sextremality lower bound on the enclosing apparent horizon is always less than unity but can exceed the value for an extremal Kerr black hole. (Abstract abbreviated.)

  1. Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Otsuka, Takamitsu; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Yugami, Noboru; Yatagai, Toyohiko [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences, Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Kilbane, Deirdre; White, John; Dunne, Padraig; O'Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Jiang, Weihua [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Kami-tomiokamachi 1603-1, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Endo, Akira [Forschungszentrum Dresden, Bautzner Landstrs. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We have demonstrated a laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source operating in the 6.5-6.7 nm region based on rare-earth targets of Gd and Tb coupled with a Mo/B{sub 4}C multilayer mirror. Multiply charged ions produce strong resonance emission lines, which combine to yield an intense unresolved transition array. The spectra of these resonant lines around 6.7 nm (in-band: 6.7 nm {+-}1%) suggest that the in-band emission increases with increased plasma volume by suppressing the plasma hydrodynamic expansion loss at an electron temperature of about 50 eV, resulting in maximized emission.

  2. Note: Enhancement of the extreme ultraviolet emission from a potassium plasma by dual laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Mami; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Nagata, Takeshi [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences and Center for Optical Research (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 Japan (Japan); Ohashi, Hayato [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); DArcy, Rebekah; Dunne, Padraig; OSullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Emission spectra from multiply charged potassium ions ranging from K{sup 3+} to K{sup 5+} have been obtained in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region. A strong emission feature peaking around 38?nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 32.6 eV, is the dominant spectral feature at time-averaged electron temperatures in the range of 8?12 eV. The variation of this emission with laser intensity and the effects of pre-pulses on the relative conversion efficiency (CE) have been explored experimentally and indicate that an enhancement of about 30% in EUV CE is readily attainable.

  3. Extreme events in excitable systems and mechanisms of their generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerrit Ansmann; Rajat Karnatak; Klaus Lehnertz; Ulrike Feudel

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study deterministic systems, composed of excitable units of FitzHugh-Nagumo type, that are capable of self-generating and self-terminating strong deviations from their regular dynamics without the influence of noise or parameter change. These deviations are rare, short-lasting, and recurrent and can therefore be regarded as extreme events. Employing a range of methods we analyze dynamical properties of the systems, identifying features in the systems' dynamics that may qualify as precursors to extreme events. We investigate these features and elucidate mechanisms that may be responsible for the generation of the extreme events.

  4. High Temperatures & Electricity Demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

  5. Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max-stable random fields.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Extremal shot noises, heavy tails and max-stable random fields. Cl´ement Dombry May 31, 2010 Abstract We consider the extremal shot noise defined by M(y) = sup{mh(y - x); (x, m) }, where. Extremal shot noises naturally appear in extreme value theory as a model for spatial extremes and serve

  6. Geocomputation's future at the extremes: high performance computing and nanoclients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clarke, Keith

    Geocomputation's future at the extremes: high performance computing and nanoclients K.C. Clarke; High performance computing; Tractability; Geocom- putation E-mail address: kclarke@geog.ucsb.edu (K

  7. The Argument of an Extremal Dilatation Marvin Ortel; Wayne Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Wayne

    The Argument of an Extremal Dilatation Marvin Ortel; Wayne Smith Proceedings of the American DILATATION MARVIN ORTEL -4ND WAYNE SMITH (Communicated by Irwin Kra) ABSTRACT.Suppose n is the complex

  8. Fitting In: Extreme Corporate Wellness and Organizational Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, Eric Preston

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , and (3) corporeal ethics. First, organizational culture, including espoused values and shared levels of assumptions, took on certain changes because of an emphasis on extreme fitness. Employee participation in CrossFit led to strict notions of strength...

  9. Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts at Extreme Energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aune, Taylor

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Gamma-Ray Bursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . Redshift-CRUZ OBSERVATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AT EXTREME ENERGIES AAncient Unvierse with Gamma-Ray Bursts, pages 330333. AIP,

  10. Mesoscale predictability of an extreme warm-season precipitation event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odins, Andrew Michael

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    During the period of June 29 through July 6, 2002, an extreme precipitation event occurred over Texas, resulting in catastrophic flooding. Operational forecasts performed poorly, neither predicting the copious amounts of rain nor its longevity...

  11. Investigations into High Temperature Components and Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marlino, L.D.; Seiber, L.E.; Scudiere, M.B.; M.S. Chinthavali, M.S.; McCluskey, F.P.

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the work that was performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of the development of high temperature power electronics and components with monies remaining from the Semikron High Temperature Inverter Project managed by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). High temperature electronic components are needed to allow inverters to operate in more extreme operating conditions as required in advanced traction drive applications. The trend to try to eliminate secondary cooling loops and utilize the internal combustion (IC) cooling system, which operates with approximately 105 C water/ethylene glycol coolant at the output of the radiator, is necessary to further reduce vehicle costs and weight. The activity documented in this report includes development and testing of high temperature components, activities in support of high temperature testing, an assessment of several component packaging methods, and how elevated operating temperatures would impact their reliability. This report is organized with testing of new high temperature capacitors in Section 2 and testing of new 150 C junction temperature trench insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBTs) in Section 3. Section 4 addresses some operational OPAL-GT information, which was necessary for developing module level tests. Section 5 summarizes calibration of equipment needed for the high temperature testing. Section 6 details some additional work that was funded on silicon carbide (SiC) device testing for high temperature use, and Section 7 is the complete text of a report funded from this effort summarizing packaging methods and their reliability issues for use in high temperature power electronics. Components were tested to evaluate the performance characteristics of the component at different operating temperatures. The temperature of the component is determined by the ambient temperature (i.e., temperature surrounding the device) plus the temperature increase inside the device due the internal heat that is generated due to conduction and switching losses. Capacitors and high current switches that are reliable and meet performance specifications over an increased temperature range are necessary to realize electronics needed for hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), fuel cell (FC) and plug-in HEVs (PHEVs). In addition to individual component level testing, it is necessary to evaluate and perform long term module level testing to ascertain the effects of high temperature operation on power electronics.

  12. Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffrey Lovelace; Mark A. Scheel; Robert Owen; Matthew Giesler; Reza Katebi; Bela Szilagyi; Tony Chu; Nicholas Demos; Daniel A. Hemberger; Lawrence E. Kidder; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Nousha Afshari

    2015-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The spin angular momentum $S$ of an isolated Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area $A$ of its apparent horizon: $8\\pi S \\le A$, with equality for extremal black holes. In this paper, we explore the extremality of individual and common apparent horizons for merging, rapidly spinning binary black holes. We consider simulations of merging black holes with equal masses $M$ and initial spin angular momenta aligned with the orbital angular momentum, including new simulations with spin magnitudes up to $S/M^2 = 0.994$. We measure the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, finding that the inequality $8\\pi S A$ and for which our lower bound on their Booth-Fairhurst extremality exceeds unity. These superextremal surfaces are always surrounded by marginally outer trapped surfaces (i.e., by apparent horizons) with $8\\pi Sextremality lower bound on the enclosing apparent horizon is always less than unity but can exceed the value for an extremal Kerr black hole. (Abstract abbreviated.)

  13. The extreme efficiency of producing bubbles via electrolysis of water has been put to use in a new design for an integrated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liepmann, Dorian

    ABSTRACT The extreme efficiency of producing bubbles via electrolysis of water has been put to use the complete system cost effective. The valves must use as little power as possible so that the entire system and hydrogen at the electrodes. Since these gas bubbles are the same temperature as their surroundings, they do

  14. Intensification of hot extremes in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah [Stanford University; Ashfaq, Moetasim [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Governments are currently considering policies that will limit greenhouse gas concentrations, including negotiation of an international treaty to replace the expiring Kyoto Protocol. Existing mitigation targets have arisen primarily from political negotiations, and the ability of such policies to avoid dangerous impacts is still uncertain. Using a large suite of climate model experiments, we find that substantial intensification of hot extremes could occur within the next 3 decades, below the 2 C global warming target currently being considered by policy makers. We also find that the intensification of hot extremes is associated with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm-season drying over much of the U.S. The possibility that intensification of hot extremes could result from relatively small increases in greenhouse gas concentrations suggests that constraining global warming to 2 C may not be sufficient to avoid dangerous climate change.

  15. From Extreme Values of I.I.D. Random Fields to Extreme Eigenvalues of Finite-volume Anderson Hamiltonian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arvydas Astrauskas

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to study asymptotic geometric properties almost surely or/and in probability of extreme order statistics of an i.i.d. random field (potential) indexed by sites of multidimensional lattice cube, the volume of which unboundedly increases. We discuss the following topics: (I) high level exceedances, in particular, clustering of exceedances; (II) decay rate of spacings in comparison with increasing rate of extreme order statistics; (III) minimum of spacings of successive order statistics; (IV) asymptotic behavior of values neighboring to extremes and so on. The conditions of the results are formulated in terms of regular variation (RV) of the cumulative hazard function and its inverse. A relationship between RV classes of the present paper as well as their links to the well-known RV classes (including domains of attraction of max-stable distributions) are discussed. The asymptotic behavior of functionals (I)--(IV) determines the asymptotic structure of the top eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions of the large-volume discrete Schr\\" odinger operators with an i.i.d. potential (Anderson Hamiltonian). Thus, another aim of the present paper is to review and comment a recent progress on extreme value theory for eigenvalues of random Schr\\"odinger operators as well as to provide a clear and rigorous understanding of the relationship between the top eigenvalues and extreme values of i.i.d. potentials.

  16. Semiclassical Decay of Near-Extremal Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ted Jacobson

    1998-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Decay of a near-extremal black hole down to the extremal state is studied in the background field approximation to determine the fate of injected matter and Hawking pairs. By examining the behavior of light rays and solutions to the wave equation it is concluded that the singularity at the origin is irrelevant. Furthermore, there is most likely an instability of the event horizon arising from the accumulation of injected matter and Hawking partners there. The possible role of this instability in reconciling the D-brane and black hole pictures of the decay process is discussed.

  17. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  18. Absorption of scalars by extremal black holes in string theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filipe Moura

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the low frequency absorption cross section of minimally coupled massless scalar fields by extremal spherically symmetric black holes in d dimensions in the presence of string-theoretical alpha' corrections is equal to the horizon area. Classically one has the relation sigma=4GS between the absorption cross section and the black hole entropy. We discuss the validity of such relation in the presence of alpha' corrections for extremal black holes, both nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric. The examples we consider seem to indicate that this relation is verified in the presence of alpha' corrections for supersymmetric black holes, but not for nonsupersymmetric ones.

  19. TECA: A Parallel Toolkit for Extreme Climate Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prabhat, Mr; Ruebel, Oliver; Byna, Surendra; Wu, Kesheng; Li, Fuyu; Wehner, Michael; Bethel, E. Wes

    2012-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present TECA, a parallel toolkit for detecting extreme events in large climate datasets. Modern climate datasets expose parallelism across a number of dimensions: spatial locations, timesteps and ensemble members. We design TECA to exploit these modes of parallelism and demonstrate a prototype implementation for detecting and tracking three classes of extreme events: tropical cyclones, extra-tropical cyclones and atmospheric rivers. We process a modern TB-sized CAM5 simulation dataset with TECA, and demonstrate good runtime performance for the three case studies.

  20. Response of precipitation extremes to idealized global warming in an aqua-planet climate model: Towards robust projection across different horizontal resolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, F.; Collins, W.D.; Wehner, M.F.; Williamson, D.L.; Olson, J.G.

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Current climate models produce quite heterogeneous projections for the responses of precipitation extremes to future climate change. To help understand the range of projections from multimodel ensembles, a series of idealized 'aquaplanet' Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) runs have been performed with the Community Atmosphere Model CAM3. These runs have been analysed to identify the effects of horizontal resolution on precipitation extreme projections under two simple global warming scenarios. We adopt the aquaplanet framework for our simulations to remove any sensitivity to the spatial resolution of external inputs and to focus on the roles of model physics and dynamics. Results show that a uniform increase of sea surface temperature (SST) and an increase of low-to-high latitude SST gradient both lead to increase of precipitation and precipitation extremes for most latitudes. The perturbed SSTs generally have stronger impacts on precipitation extremes than on mean precipitation. Horizontal model resolution strongly affects the global warming signals in the extreme precipitation in tropical and subtropical regions but not in high latitude regions. This study illustrates that the effects of horizontal resolution have to be taken into account to develop more robust projections of precipitation extremes.

  1. Environmental conditions and responses of circus elephants transported by truck and railcar during relatively high and low temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toscano, Michael Jeffrey

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and solar radiation were continuously measured during both extremes. Concentrations of ammonia and carbon monoxide during transport were also determined. Body temperature from a sample of elephants for each circus or exhibitor was also measured...

  2. CONDITIONAL EXTREMES FROM HEAVY-TAILED DISTRIBUTIONS: AN APPLICATION TO THE ESTIMATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CONDITIONAL EXTREMES FROM HEAVY-TAILED DISTRIBUTIONS: AN APPLICATION TO THE ESTIMATION OF EXTREME author, Stephane.Girard@inrialpes.fr Abstract - This paper is dedicated to the estimation of extreme on a simulation study. An application to the estimation of pointwise return levels of extreme rainfalls in the C

  3. The effect of climate change on extreme waves in the North Sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vries, Hans de

    #12;Results Extreme wind climate NCK days 18 March 2011 Renske de Winter Difference in wind speeds Sea #12;Results Extreme wind climate Winds exceeding 8 Bf (17 m/s) Means over all ESSENCE members of climate change. The are minor changes in the extreme wind climate Extreme wave heights probably do

  4. Report on the `Aha Huliko'a workshop on extreme events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    talked about my work on extreme wind events in GCMs ­ My main contributions: · Asking when GCMs: Extreme wind events · Extreme windstorm Kyrill (18-19 January 2007) ­ Wind gusts up to 134 mph (216 kphReport on the `Aha Huliko'a workshop on extreme events Held 23-26 January 2007, Honolulu, HI Jeff

  5. Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassanein, Ahmed (Bolingbrook, IL); Konkashbaev, Isak (Bolingbrook, IL)

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

  6. Causal Analysis of the Unanticipated Extremity Exposure at HFEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David E. James; Charles R. Posegate; Thomas P. Zahn; Alan G. Wagner

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the unintended extremity exposure to an operator while handling a metallurgical mount sample of irradiated fuel following an off-scale high beta radiation reading of the sample. The decision was made to continue working after the meter indicated high off-scale by the HPT Supervisor, which resulted in the operator at the next operation being exposed.

  7. EXTREMAL CONFIGURATIONS OF ROBOT ARMS IN THREE DIMENSIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siersma, Dirk

    EXTREMAL CONFIGURATIONS OF ROBOT ARMS IN THREE DIMENSIONS DIRK SIERSMA Abstract. We define a volume function for a robot arm in R3 and give geometric conditions for its critical points. 1. Introduction configurations of planar polygonal linkages and open robot arms considered as the critical points of the oriented

  8. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhurl, Avijit K. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  9. INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govindjee

    INHIBITION OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS IN CERTAIN ALGAE BY EXTREME RED LIGHT GOVINDJEE, EUGENE RABINOWITCH. INTRODUCTION It was shown in preceding papers (9, 10) that when the unicellular red alga Por- phyridium), these algae, when exposed to monochromatic light (bands isolated by a grating monochromator, band half

  10. How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    How Climate Change is Playing Out in Minnesota: Extreme Weather Dr. Mark Seeley Dept of Soil, Water Climate Headlines Data Sources Changing Minnesota Climate Features Climate Consequences Implications for Severe Weather #12;Three Reasons to Accept That Climate Change is Real #12;#12;Stationary (1) Cyclical (2

  11. Measuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Chen California Institute of Technology Jackie Li University of Michigan supported by CarnegieMeasuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity of Water Ice VII to 20 GPa David G. Cahill, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Dallas Trinkle, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Bin

  12. Hamilton cycles in graphs and hypergraphs: an extremal perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osthus, Deryk

    Hamilton cycles in graphs and hypergraphs: an extremal perspective Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete problems, the Hamilton cycle problem has been the subject of intensive and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey these developments and highlight open problems

  13. HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osthus, Deryk

    HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete problems, the Hamilton cycle problem emerged, such as resilience, robustness and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey

  14. HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osthus, Deryk

    HAMILTON CYCLES IN GRAPHS AND HYPERGRAPHS: AN EXTREMAL PERSPECTIVE DANIELA K¨UHN AND DERYK OSTHUS Abstract. As one of the most fundamental and well-known NP-complete prob- lems, the Hamilton cycle problem emerged, such as resilience, robustness and the study of Hamilton cycles in hypergraphs. We survey

  15. Diffractive element in extreme-UV lithography condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Condensers having a mirror with a diffraction grating in projection lithography using extreme ultra-violet significantly enhances critical dimension control. The diffraction grating has the effect of smoothing the illumination at the camera's entrance pupil with minimum light loss. Modeling suggests that critical dimension control for 100 nm features can be improved from 3 nm to less than about 0.5 nm.

  16. An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Provan, Jim

    An extreme cytoplasmic bottleneck in the modern European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum and nuclear diversity in the gene pool of the European cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. tuberosum to amplify polymorphic products in a range of potato cultivars. Combining the data from seven polymorphic cp

  17. Laura Roach Islamic Extremism: Undermining a Fundamentalist Movement in Indonesia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Laura Roach Islamic Extremism: Undermining a Fundamentalist Movement in Indonesia College: COLSA, Major: EREC Freshman Editor: Stephanie Weiner #12;I. Problem Indonesia has the largest Muslim population, Indonesia is not an Islamic state; it is the third largest democracy in the world.1 Unsurprisingly

  18. FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    FRONTIER SYNCHROTRON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY BEAMLINE UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS (FIS) Proposal Team: L INFORMATION · TECHNIQUE(S): Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Raman and visible spectroscopy; Diamond techniques combined with DACs; Laser heating techniques combined with DACs. · SOURCE: Large-gap (90 mm

  19. THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET Nicole Farnsworth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET by Nicole Farnsworth Submitted to Brigham Young Ultraviolet and Thorium-based Mirrors . . . 1 1.2 Project Background the Optical Constants of Thorium Oxide 34 3.1 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements

  20. Quantum Chromodynamics and Nuclear Physics at Extreme Energy Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B.; Bass, S.A.; Chandrasekharan, S.; Mehen, T.; Springer, R.P.

    2005-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The report describes research in theoretical quantum chromodynamics, including effective field theories of hadronic interactions, properties of strongly interacting matter at extreme energy density, phenomenology of relativistic heavy ion collisions, and algorithms and numerical simulations of lattice gauge theory and other many-body systems.

  1. REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REVIEW Open Access Climate change, air pollution and extreme events leading to increasing dramatically during the past few decades not only in industrialized countries. Urban air pollution from motor be explained only in changes occurred in the environment. Despite some differences in the air pollution profile

  2. Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    Extreme conditions during multibubble cavitation: Sonoluminescence as a spectroscopic probe Kenneth Cavitation MBSL Plasma a b s t r a c t We review recent work on the use of sonoluminescence (SL) to probe spectroscopically the conditions created during cavitation, both in clouds of collapsing bubbles (multibubble

  3. Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Extreme Methane Emissions from a Swiss Hydropower Reservoir: Contribution from Bubbling Sediments manuscript received February 3, 2010. Accepted February 15, 2010. Methane emission pathways.Methanediffusionfromthesediment was generally low and seasonally stable and did not account for the high concentration of dissolved methane

  4. Improving Societal Outcomes of Extreme Weather in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases Adaptation: long-term or fundamental changes people make Despite hazard mitigation efforts and scientific and technological ad- vances, extreme weather events and ad- dressing local causes of harm through participatory, community-based efforts formulated within

  5. Instabilities of (near) extremal rotating black holes in higher dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Hollands; Akihiro Ishibashi

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, Durkee and Reall have conjectured a criterion for linear instability of rotating, extremal, asymptotically Minkowskian black holes in $d\\ge 4$ dimensions, such as the Myers-Perry black holes. They considered a certain elliptic operator, $\\cal A$, acting on symmetric traceless tensors intrinsic to the horizon. Based in part on numerical evidence, they suggested that if the lowest eigenvalue, $\\lambda$, of this operator is less than the critical value $-1/4$ ( called "effective BF-bound"), then the black hole is linearly unstable. In this paper, we prove their conjecture. Our proof uses a combination of methods such as (i) the "canonical energy method" of Hollands-Wald, (ii) algebraically special properties of the near horizon geometries associated with the black hole, and (iii) the structure of the (linearized) constraint equations. Our method of proof is also applicable to rotating, extremal asymptotically Anti-deSitter black holes. In that case, our methods show that "all" such black holes are unstable. Although we explicitly discuss in this paper only extremal black holes, we argue that our methods can be generalized straightforwardly to obtain the same results for "near" extremal black holes.

  6. Recent years have witnessed a vigorous growth in the use of Extreme Value Theory and Statistics of Extremes, with relevance to applications in a broad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alves, Maria Isabel Fraga

    FOREWORD Recent years have witnessed a vigorous growth in the use of Extreme Value Theory and Statistics of Extremes, with relevance to applications in a broad spectrum of areas, ranging for example from, through recent advances in the field. Statistics of Extremes and Related Fields consists of six articles

  7. Published in Proceedings of the XL2003 (Response of Structures to Extreme Loading) Conference, Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    , Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS USING INVERSE RELIABILITY K, USA ABSTRACT The reliability of wind turbines against extreme loads is the focus of this study of randomness in the gross wind environment as well as in the extreme response given wind conditions. A detailed

  8. Method for Synthesizing Extremeley High Temperature Melting Materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Saboungi, Marie-Louise and Glorieux, Benoit

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a method of synthesizing high-temperature melting materials. More specifically the invention relates to a containerless method of synthesizing very high temperature melting materials such as borides, carbides and transition-metal, lanthanide and actinide oxides, using an Aerodynamic Levitator and a laser. The object of the invention is to provide a method for synthesizing extremely high-temperature melting materials that are otherwise difficult to produce, without the use of containers, allowing the manipulation of the phase (amorphous/crystalline/metastable) and permitting changes of the environment such as different gaseous compositions.

  9. Silicon carbide absorption features: dust formation in the outflows of extreme carbon stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angela K. Speck; Adrian B. Corman; Kristina Wakeman; Caleb H. Wheeler; Grant Thompson

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared carbon stars without visible counterparts are generally known as extreme carbon stars. We have selected a subset of these stars with absorption features in the 10-13 $\\mu$m range, which has been tentatively attributed to silicon carbide (SiC). We add three new objects meeting these criterion to the seven previously known, bringing our total sample to ten sources. We also present the result of radiative transfer modeling for these stars, comparing these results to those of previous studies. In order to constrain model parameters, we use published mass-loss rates, expansion velocities and theoretical dust condensation models to determine the dust condensation temperature. These show that the inner dust temperatures of the dust shells for these sources are significantly higher than previously assumed. This also implies that the dominant dust species should be graphite instead of amorphous carbon. In combination with the higher condensation temperature we show that this results in a much higher acceleration of the dust grains than would be expected from previous work. Our model results suggest that the very optically thick stage of evolution does not coincide with the timescales for the superwind, but rather, that this is a very short-lived phase. Additionally, we compare model and observational parameters in an attempt to find any correlations. Finally, we show that the spectrum of one source, IRAS 17534$-$3030, strongly implies that the 10-13 $\\mu$m feature is due to a solid state rather than a molecular species.

  10. Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kublak, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

    1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10{sup 11}--10{sup 12} watts/cm{sup 2}) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10--30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle. 5 figs.

  11. Cluster beam targets for laser plasma extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kublak, Glenn D. (124 Turquoise Way, Livermore, Alameda County, CA 94550); Richardson, Martin C. (CREOL

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method and apparatus for producing extreme ultra violet (EUV) and soft x-ray radiation from an ultra-low debris plasma source are disclosed. Targets are produced by the free jet expansion of various gases through a temperature controlled nozzle to form molecular clusters. These target clusters are subsequently irradiated with commercially available lasers of moderate intensity (10.sup.11 -10.sup.12 watts/cm.sup.2) to produce a plasma radiating in the region of 0.5 to 100 nanometers. By appropriate adjustment of the experimental conditions the laser focus can be moved 10-30 mm from the nozzle thereby eliminating debris produced by plasma erosion of the nozzle.

  12. Evidence of molecular adaptation to extreme environments and applicability to space environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. D. Filipovic; S. Ognjanovic; M. Ognjanovic

    2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This is initial study of a gene signatures responsible for adapting microscopic life to the life in extreme Earth environments. We present a results on ID of the clusters of COGs common to several hyperthermophiles and exclusion of those common to a mesophile: E.coli.K12, will yield a group of proteins possibly involved in adaptation to life under extreme T. Methanogens stand out as the only group of organisms that have species capable of growth at 0C (M.frigidum and M.burtonii) and 110C (M.kandleri). Not all the components of heat adaptation can be attributed to novel genes, the chaperones known as heat shock proteins stabilize the enzymes under elevated temperature. Highly conserved chaperons found in bacteria and eukaryots are not present in hyperthermophilic Archea, rather, they have a unique chaperone TF55. Our aim is to use software which we specifically developed for extremophile genome comparative analyses in order to search for additional novel genes involved in hyperthermophile adaptation. The following hyperthermophile genomes incorporated in our software were used for these studies: M.jannaschii, M.kandleri, A.fulgidus and 3 species of Pyrococcus. Common genes were annotated and grouped according to their roles in cellular processes when information was available and proteins not previously implicated in the heat-adaptation of hyperthermophiles were identified. Additional experimental data is needed in order to learn more about these proteins. To address a non-gene based components of thermal adaptation, all sequenced extremophiles were analysed for their GC contents and aminoacid hydrophobicity. We develop a prediction model for optimal growth temperature.

  13. Science at the Theatre - Extreme Science - Promo Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Klein, Spencer

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    On Feb. 27 at 7 pm at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, join four Berkeley Lab scientists as they discuss extreme science -- and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in extreme environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel. Go here for more information and to view videos of previous Science at the Theater events: http://www.lbl.gov/LBL-PID/fobl/

  14. Structure of nuclei at extreme values of the isospin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Dobaczewski

    1999-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Physics of nuclei at extreme values of the isospin is at the focus of present-day nuclear science. Experimentally, thanks to existing and emerging radioactive-ion-beam facilities, we are on the verge of invading the territory of extreme N/Z ratios in an unprecedented way. Theoretically, nuclear exotica represent a formidable challenge for the nuclear many-body theories and their power to predict nuclear properties far from stability. Going to the limits of the nuclear binding is also important for an improvement of our description of normal nuclei from the neighborhood of the beta stability valley. In the present talk, we review several aspects of the present-day mean-field theoretical studies of weakly bound nuclei.

  15. Science at the Theatre - Extreme Science - Promo Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Spencer

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On Feb. 27 at 7 pm at the Berkeley Repertory Theatre, join four Berkeley Lab scientists as they discuss extreme science -- and what it means to you. Topics include: Neutrino hunting in Antarctica. Learn why Spencer Klein goes to the ends of the Earth to search for these ghostly particles. From Chernobyl to Central Asia, Tamas Torok travels the globe to study microbial diversity in extreme environments. Andrew Minor uses the world's most advanced electron microscopes to explore materials at ultrahigh stresses and in harsh environments. And microbes that talk to computers? Caroline Ajo-Franklin is pioneering cellular-electrical connections that could help transform sunlight into fuel. Go here for more information and to view videos of previous Science at the Theater events: http://www.lbl.gov/LBL-PID/fobl/

  16. Improved methods for simulating nearly extremal binary black holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark A. Scheel; Matthew Giesler; Daniel A. Hemberger; Geoffrey Lovelace; Kevin Kuper; Michael Boyle; Bela Szilagyi; Lawrence E. Kidder

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysical black holes could be nearly extremal (that is, rotating nearly as fast as possible); therefore, nearly extremal black holes could be among the binaries that current and future gravitational-wave observatories will detect. Predicting the gravitational waves emitted by merging black holes requires numerical-relativity simulations, but these simulations are especially challenging when one or both holes have mass $m$ and spin $S$ exceeding the Bowen-York limit of $S/m^2=0.93$. We present improved methods that enable us to simulate merging, nearly extremal black holes more robustly and more efficiently. We use these methods to simulate an unequal-mass, precessing binary black hole coalescence, where the larger black hole has $S/m^2=0.99$. We also use these methods to simulate a non-precessing binary black hole coalescence, where both black holes have $S/m^2=0.994$, nearly reaching the Novikov-Thorne upper bound for holes spun up by thin accretion disks. We demonstrate numerical convergence and estimate the numerical errors of the waveforms; we compare numerical waveforms from our simulations with post-Newtonian and effective-one-body waveforms; we compare the evolution of the black-hole masses and spins with analytic predictions; and we explore the effect of increasing spin magnitude on the orbital dynamics (the so-called "orbital hangup" effect).

  17. Simulating merging binary black holes with nearly extremal spins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 14853 (United States); Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela [Theoretical Astrophysics 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Astrophysically realistic black holes may have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e., close to 1 in dimensionless units). Numerical simulations of binary black holes are important tools both for calibrating analytical templates for gravitational-wave detection and for exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. However, all previous simulations of binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown have been limited by an apparently insurmountable barrier: the merging holes' spins could not exceed 0.93, which is still a long way from the maximum possible value in terms of the physical effects of the spin. In this paper, we surpass this limit for the first time, opening the way to explore numerically the behavior of merging, nearly extremal black holes. Specifically, using an improved initial-data method suitable for binary black holes with nearly extremal spins, we simulate the inspiral (through 12.5 orbits), merger and ringdown of two equal-mass black holes with equal spins of magnitude 0.95 antialigned with the orbital angular momentum.

  18. Strings at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arago C. de; Bazeia, D.; Eboli, O.J.P.; Marques, G.C.

    1985-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a semiclassical evaluation of the temperature for which the free energy of the strings of spontaneously broken scalar electrodynamics vanishes. We argue that, above this temperature, these objects should play a significant physical role.

  19. 6, 13011320, 2006 Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban, South Africa H and Physics Discussions Temperature climatology and trend estimates in the UTLS region as observed over Commons License. 1301 #12;ACPD 6, 1301­1320, 2006 Temperature climatology and trend estimates over Durban

  20. Use of the extreme groups approach: A critical reexamination and new recommendations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preacher, K. J.; Rucker, D. D.; MacCallum, R. C.; Nicewander, W. A.

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of continuous variables sometimes proceeds by selecting individuals on the basis of extreme scores of a sample distribution and submitting only those extreme scores to further analysis. This sampling method is ...

  1. An extremely radioresistant green eukaryote for radionuclide bio-decontamination in the nuclear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of adaptation to extreme environments. Introduction Nuclear energy technologies generate radioactiveAn extremely radioresistant green eukaryote for radionuclide bio-decontamination in the nuclear Blignyabcd Nuclear activities generate radioactive elements which require processes for their decontamination

  2. Abstract--This paper deals with the design of a nonlinear con-troller for single-phase grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    exhaustion. The PV system is the most employed renewable energy source among different sources. Residential is designed based on the partial feedback linearization which transforms the nonlinear system into a reduced to design partial feedback linearizing controller. The performance of the proposed controller is evaluated

  3. Sensitivity analysis for optimal sizing of a PV grid connected home G.WARKOZEK S.PLOIX* M.JACOMINO* F.WURTZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    : solver Xg Xs XbPpv PLoad GridBatteryPhotovoltaic panel solver Xg Xs XbPpv PLoad GridBatteryPhotovoltaic panel consumer Figure 1 Cogeneration system (Multi sources) (1) (2) Where a : the annual interest in particular case, like load curve, solar insulation, outdoor hal-00609499,version1-19Jul2011 Author manuscript

  4. Absorption cross section of RN and SdS extremal black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sini R; Nijo Varghese; V C Kuriakose

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of scalar wave functions near the horizon of Reissner Nordstrom (RN) extremal and Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SdS) extremal black holes are found using WKB approximation and the effect of reflection of waves from the horizon. The absorption cross section $\\sigma_{abs}$ when RN extremal and SdS extremal black holes placed in a Klein-Gordon field is calculated.

  5. Towards more realistic extreme load predictions J. Mann, G.C. Larsen and T.J. Larsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generator is demonstrated by emulating a measured extreme negative wind shear event. The aeroelastic response of a wind turbine, exposed to the generated extreme wind field, is assessed, and in addition are extreme (short term) wind shear, extreme wind speed gusts and extreme wind direction gusts. It is common

  6. advanced extremity melanoma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature Rank Place name Temperature Date 1a Omeo -11.7C 15 June 1965 1b Falls Creek -11.7C 3 July 1970 3 Falls Creek -10.5C 6 August 1974 1b & 3 Rainfall -...

  7. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  8. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

    1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  9. Basic Research Needs for Materials Under Extreme Environments. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Materials Under Extreme Environments, June 11-13, 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wadsworth, J.; Crabtree, G. W.; Hemley, R. J.; Falcone, R.; Robertson, I.; Stringer, J.; Tortorelli, P.; Gray, G. T.; Nicol, M.; Lehr, J.; Tozer, S. W.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Fitzsimmons, T.; Vetrano, J. S.; Ashton, C. L.; Kitts, S.; Landson, C.; Campbell, B.; Gruzalski, G.; Stevens, D.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the potential for developing revolutionary new materials that will meet demanding future energy requirements that expose materials to environmental extremes.

  10. Development of an Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility at Princeton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, A B; Tully, C G; Austin, R; Calaprice, F; McDonald, K; Ascione, G; Baker, G; Davidson, R; Dudek, L; Grisham, L; Kugel, H; Pagdon, K; Stevenson, T; Woolley, R

    2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The need for a fundamental understanding of material response to a neutron and/or high heat flux environment can yield development of improved materials and operations with existing materials. Such understanding has numerous applications in fields such as nuclear power (for the current fleet and future fission and fusion reactors), aerospace, and other research fields (e.g., high-intensity proton accelerator facilities for high energy physics research). A proposal has been advanced to develop a facility for testing various materials under extreme heat and neutron exposure conditions at Princeton. The Extreme Environment Materials Research Facility comprises an environmentally controlled chamber (48 m^3) capable of high vacuum conditions, with extreme flux beams and probe beams accessing a central, large volume target. The facility will have the capability to expose large surface areas (1 m^2) to 14 MeV neutrons at a fluence in excess of 10^13 n/s. Depending on the operating mode. Additionally beam line power on the order of 15-75 MW/m2 for durations of 1-15 seconds are planned... The multi-second duration of exposure can be repeated every 2-10 minutes for periods of 10-12 hours. The facility will be housed in the test cell that held the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which has the desired radiation and safety controls as well as the necessary loading and assembly infrastructure. The facility will allow testing of various materials to their physical limit of thermal endurance and allow for exploring the interplay between radiation-induced embrittlement, swelling and deformation of materials, and the fatigue and fracturing that occur in response to thermal shocks. The combination of high neutron energies and intense fluences will enable accelerated time scale studies. The results will make contributions for refining predictive failure modes (modeling) in extreme environments, as well as providing a technical platform for the development of new alloys, new materials, and the investigation of repair mechanisms. Effects on materials will be analyzed with in situ beam probes and instrumentation as the target is exposed to radiation, thermal fluxes and other stresses. Photon and monochromatic neutron fluxes, produced using a variable-energy (4-45 MeV) electron linac and the highly asymmetric electron-positron collisions technique used in high-energy physics research, can provide non-destructive, deep-penetrating structural analysis of materials while they are undergoing testing. The same beam lines will also be able to generate neutrons from photonuclear interactions using existing Bremsstrahlung and positrons on target quasi-monochromatic gamma rays. Other diagnostics will include infrared cameras, residual gas analyzer (RGA), and thermocouples; additional diagnostic capability will be added.

  11. Solidification at the High and Low Rate Extreme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halim Meco

    2004-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructures formed upon solidification are strongly influenced by the imposed growth rates on an alloy system. Depending on the characteristics of the solidification process, a wide range of growth rates is accessible. The prevailing solidification mechanisms, and thus the final microstructure of the alloy, are governed by these imposed growth rates. At the high rate extreme, for instance, one can have access to novel microstructures that are unattainable at low growth rates. While the low growth rates can be utilized for the study of the intrinsic growth behavior of a certain phase growing from the melt. Although the length scales associated with certain processes, such as capillarity, and the diffusion of heat and solute, are different at low and high rate extremes, the phenomena that govern the selection of a certain microstructural length scale or a growth mode are the same. Consequently, one can analyze the solidification phenomena at both high and low rates by using the same governing principles. In this study, we examined the microstructural control at both low and high extremes. For the high rate extreme, the formation of crystalline products and factors that control the microstructure during rapid solidification by free-jet melt spinning are examined in Fe-Si-B system. Particular attention was given to the behavior of the melt pool at different quench-wheel speeds. Since the solidification process takes place within the melt-pool that forms on the rotating quench-wheel, we examined the influence of melt-pool dynamics on nucleation and growth of crystalline solidification products and glass formation. High-speed imaging of the melt-pool, analysis of ribbon microstructure, and measurement of ribbon geometry and surface character all indicate upper and lower limits for melt-spinning rates for which nucleation can be avoided, and fully amorphous ribbons can be achieved. Comparison of the relevant time scales reveals that surface-controlled melt-pool oscillation may be the dominant factor governing the onset of unsteady thermal conditions accompanied by varying amounts of crystalline nucleation observed near the lower limit. At high quench-wheel velocities, the influence of these oscillations is minimal due to very short melt-pool residence times. However, microstructural evidence suggests that the entrapment of gas pockets at the wheel-metal interface plays a critical role in establishing the upper rate limit. An observed transition in wheel-side surface character with increasing melt-spinning rate supports this conclusion.

  12. Low-cost method for producing extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folta, James A. (Livermore, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Fort Collins, CO); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Spiller, Eberhard A. (Mt. Kisco, NY)

    2003-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical and non-spherical optical elements produced by standard optical figuring and polishing techniques are extremely expensive. Such surfaces can be cheaply produced by diamond turning; however, the roughness in the diamond turned surface prevent their use for EUV lithography. These ripples are smoothed with a coating of polyimide before applying a 60 period Mo/Si multilayer to reflect a wavelength of 134 .ANG. and have obtained peak reflectivities close to 63%. The savings in cost are about a factor of 100.

  13. Self-cleaning optic for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Stulen, Richard H.

    2003-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A multilayer reflective optic or mirror for lithographic applications, and particularly extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, having a surface or "capping" layer which in combination with incident radiation and gaseous molecular species such as O.sub.2, H.sub.2, H.sub.2 O provides for continuous cleaning of carbon deposits from the optic surface. The metal capping layer is required to be oxidation resistant and capable of transmitting at least 90% of incident EUV radiation. Materials for the capping layer include Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, Pt and Au and combinations thereof.

  14. MoRu/Be multilayers for extreme ultraviolet applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bajt, Sasa C. (Livermore, CA); Wall, Mark A. (Stockton, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High reflectance, low intrinsic roughness and low stress multilayer systems for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography comprise amorphous layers MoRu and crystalline Be layers. Reflectance greater than 70% has been demonstrated for MoRu/Be multilayers with 50 bilayer pairs. Optical throughput of MoRu/Be multilayers can be 30-40% higher than that of Mo/Be multilayer coatings. The throughput can be improved using a diffusion barrier to make sharper interfaces. A capping layer on the top surface of the multilayer improves the long-term reflectance and EUV radiation stability of the multilayer by forming a very thin native oxide that is water resistant.

  15. 'Extreme Makeover: Home Edition' Builds Efficiently | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment ofEnergy.pdfApplications:AdjustmentDepartment'Extreme Makeover:

  16. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Oldenburg, Postfach 2503 D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Ciencias Fisicas Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  17. Extremal Charged Rotating Dilaton Black Holes in Odd Dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masoud Allahverdizadeh; Jutta Kunz; Francisco Navarro-Lerida

    2010-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing higher order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  18. Leptonic CP violation: zero, maximal or between the two extremes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Farzan; A. Yu. Smirnov

    2006-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Discovery of the CP-violation in the lepton sector is one of the challenges of the particle physics. We search for possible principles, symmetries and phenomenological relations that can lead to particular values of the CP-violating Dirac phase, $\\delta$. In this connection we discuss two extreme cases: the zero phase, $\\delta = 0$, and the maximal CP-violation, $\\delta = \\pm \\pi/2$, and relate them to the peculiar pattern of the neutrino mixing. The maximal CP-violation can be related to the $\

  19. Extreme Value GARCH modelling with Bayesian Xin Zhao, Les Oxley, Carl Scarrott and Marco Reale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hickman, Mark

    Extreme Value GARCH modelling with Bayesian Inference Xin Zhao, Les Oxley, Carl Scarrott and Marco Reale No: 05/2009 #12;2 WORKING PAPER No: 05/2009 Extreme Value GARCH modelling with Bayesian inference, GEV-GARCH, is developed by implementing the GARCH volatility mechanism in these extreme value model

  20. The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Gang

    The robust dynamical contribution to precipitation extremes in idealized warming simulations across shift under climate warming on the distribution of precipitation extremes and the associated sensitivity in the frequency of the most extreme categories of the precipitation events at the poleward side of the midlatitude

  1. SPATIALLY PENALIZED REGRESSION FOR DEPENDENCE ANALYSIS OF RARE EVENTS: A STUDY IN PRECIPITATION EXTREMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    EXTREMES Debasish Das1 , Auroop Ganguly2 , Snigdhansu Chatterjee3 , Vipin Kumar4 and Zoran Obradovic1 1, USA ABSTRACT Discovery of dependence structure between precipitation extremes and other climate understanding the drivers of this complex phenomenon as well as short-term prediction of extremes occurrence

  2. Mining Extremes: Severe Rainfall and Climate Change Debasish Das1,2,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    Mining Extremes: Severe Rainfall and Climate Change Debasish Das1,2,* and Evan Kodra2 and Zoran of extreme value data have tended to focus on limiting cases and assumptions of independence. However and finite data that follow complex processes. The importance of extremes has been rapidly growing in areas

  3. Changes in winter precipitation extremes for the western United States under a warmer climate as simulated

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro, Christopher L.

    Changes in winter precipitation extremes for the western United States under a warmer climate find a consistent and statistically significant increase in the intensity of future extreme winter consistently show an increase in the intensity of extreme winter precipitation with the multi-model mean

  4. Increasing Climate Extremes and the New Climate Dice 10 August 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    1 Increasing Climate Extremes and the New Climate Dice 10 August 2012 James Hansen, Makiko Sato-July data) exceeds any that occurred in the 1930s. We reconfirm our conclusion that the increasing extremity of heat waves and the area covered by extreme events is caused by global warming. The location and timing

  5. hal-00187600,version1-14Nov2007 Models for dependent extremes using stable mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    hal-00187600,version1-14Nov2007 Models for dependent extremes using stable mixtures Running/short title: Models for dependent extremes Anne-Laure Foug`eres ´Equipe Modal'X, Universit´e Paris X-stable, multivariate extreme value distribu- tion, pitting corrosion, random effect, positive stable variables

  6. Notes and Discussion Vole Population Dynamics: Influence of Weather Extremes on Stoppage of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oli, Madan K.

    Notes and Discussion Vole Population Dynamics: Influence of Weather Extremes on Stoppage of Population Growth ABSTRACT.--Effects of 74 episodes of extreme weather on stoppage of population growth of extreme weather may have stopped population growth of only six M. ochrogaster fluctuations and of two M

  7. Bayesian Models for Spatial Extremes Application to inferring high values of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Bayesian Models for Spatial Extremes Application to inferring high values of ground-level ozone by the National Science Foundation (NSF) #12;Outline · Background to Ozone Application · Background to Extreme Value Analysis ­ Two approaches: 1. Model all of the data, and look at extremes. 2. Only model

  8. Climate Extremes Promote Fatal Co-Infections during Canine Distemper Epidemics in African Lions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Climate Extremes Promote Fatal Co-Infections during Canine Distemper Epidemics in African Lions. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America Abstract Extreme climatic conditions may alter historic host to clearly illustrate how climate extremes can promote a complex interplay between epidemic and endemic

  9. Statistical Modelling of Spatial Extremes A. C. Davison, S. A. Padoan and M. Ribatet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribatet, Mathieu

    Statistical Modelling of Spatial Extremes A. C. Davison, S. A. Padoan and M. Ribatet September 5, 2011 Summary The areal modelling of the extremes of a natural process such as rainfall or tempera- ture is important in environmental statistics; for example, understanding extreme areal rainfall is crucial in flood

  10. Modelling spatially-dependent non-stationary extremes with application to hurricane-induced wave heights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    Modelling spatially-dependent non-stationary extremes with application to hurricane-induced wave frequently that the extremes of a variable of interest are non-stationary, varying systematically in space are used to infer the marginal behaviour of the extremes at individual sites, while making proper

  11. A Sparse Bayesian Model for Dependence Analysis of Extremes: Climate Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Obradovic, Zoran

    A Sparse Bayesian Model for Dependence Analysis of Extremes: Climate Applications Debasish Das applications, such as climate, finance and social media among others, we are often interested in extreme events. An important part of modeling extremes is dis- covery of covariates on which the quantities related

  12. Motivation Measurements EVA Results Issues/Future Work Weather and Climate Extremes: cape times shear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilleland, Eric

    Motivation Measurements EVA Results Issues/Future Work Weather and Climate Extremes: cape times Weather/Climate Extremes 1 / 19 c University Corporation for Atmospheric Research. All rights reserved scales. E Gilleland Weather/Climate Extremes 2 / 19 c University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

  13. STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART I: BACKGROUND AND TRADITIONAL APPROACHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    1 STATISTICS OF EXTREMES IN CLIMATOLOGY AND HYDROLOGY PART I: BACKGROUND AND TRADITIONAL APPROACHES;3 Outline (1) Historical Perspective (2) Basic Characteristics of Climate/Hydrologic Extremes (3) Traditional Statistical Analysis of Climate/Hydrologic Extremes (4) Spatial/Temporal Dependence of Climate

  14. Extreme Day Returns on Stocks: Evidence from Sweden* Adri De Ridder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djehiche, Boualem

    Extreme Day Returns on Stocks: Evidence from Sweden* Adri De Ridder Gotland University Visby and Amalia Wallenberg foundation is gratefully acknowledged. #12;Extreme Day Returns on Stocks: Evidence from Sweden Abstract In this study we document that the frequency of extreme trading days, defined

  15. The demographic impacts of shifts in climate means and extremes on alpine butterflies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Thomas E.

    The demographic impacts of shifts in climate means and extremes on alpine butterflies Lauren B and extremes, and how phenotypes mediate these effects. 2. Here, we incorporate demography in a biophysical (mediated by weather means) and egg viability (mediated by weather extremes) over time have varied between

  16. Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impact of Convective Organization on the Response of Tropical Precipitation Extremes to Warming extremes to warming in organized convection is ex- amined using a cloud-resolving model. Vertical shear, the fractional increase of precipitation extremes is similar to that of surface water vapor, which

  17. Persisting cold extremes under 21stcentury warming scenarios Evan Kodra,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Persisting cold extremes under 21stcentury warming scenarios Evan Kodra,1,2 Karsten Steinhaeuser,1 27 April 2011. [1] Analyses of climate model simulations and observations reveal that extreme cold. The gridbased intensity, duration and frequency of cold extreme events are calculated annually through three

  18. Statistics of extremes in hydrology Richard W. Katz a,*, Marc B. Parlange b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katz, Richard

    Statistics of extremes in hydrology Richard W. Katz a,*, Marc B. Parlange b , Philippe Naveau c Abstract The statistics of extremes have played an important role in engineering practice for water resources design and management. How recent developments in the statistical theory of extreme values can

  19. The impact of climate change on rainfall extremes over Northeast Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    The impact of climate change on rainfall extremes over Northeast Africa Bas de Boer August 6, 2007.2 GEV extreme statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 3.3 Selection of the two future climate scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 4 Analysis of rainfall extremes in ERA-40 18 4

  20. Towards a General Theory of Extremes for Observables of Chaotic Dynamical Systems Valerio Lucarini,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towards a General Theory of Extremes for Observables of Chaotic Dynamical Systems Valerio Lucarini the geometrical properties of a chaotic dynamical system and the distribution of extreme values. We show that the extremes of so-called physical observables are distributed according to the classical generalised Pareto

  1. PAST AND FUTURES CHANGES IN THE NORTH SEA EXTREME Sofia Caires1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    on whether swell or wind-sea events are considered. If both types of events are considered, the extremes future changes in the wave extremes: - Dynamically, by using climate models wind speed projectionsPAST AND FUTURES CHANGES IN THE NORTH SEA EXTREME WAVES Sofia Caires1 , Jacco Groeneweg2

  2. Spatial variation in extreme winds predicts large wildfire locations in chaparral ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wildermuth, Mary C

    Click Here for Full Article Spatial variation in extreme winds predicts large wildfire locations. There is a surprising lack of information about extreme wind patterns worldwide, and more quantitative analyses. Hall (2010), Spatial variation in extreme winds predicts large wildfire locations in chaparral

  3. Extreme winds and the connection to reanalysis data Xiaoli Guo Larsn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extreme winds and the connection to reanalysis data Xiaoli Guo Larsén Jakob Mann and Hans Jørgensen in constructing a worldwide extreme wind atlas with the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. In wind engineering, the key resolution. 1 Introduction Ultimately we try to build an extreme wind atlas over the whole globe. The need

  4. Assessing Climate Risks: Extremes in the "A process-based rapprochement to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    -frequency variability of extreme wind events 24Ch. Welker #12;r Ch. Welker Swiss storms vs. cyclone frequencyAssessing Climate Risks: Extremes in the Alps "A process-based rapprochement to the future" Olivia #12;Assessing Climate Risks: Extremes in the Alps Many thanks go to: H. Davies, P. Froidevaux, P

  5. Estimate of Extreme Wind, Wave, Surge, and Current Conditions Wilmington Canyon Integrated Design Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    1 Estimate of Extreme Wind, Wave, Surge, and Current Conditions for the Wilmington Canyon. In order to estimate loads during extreme wind and wave events, these events must be defined. The design. This paper does not treat wave spectral analysis, extreme wind shear, veer, clocking, turbulence intensity

  6. Extreme-Wind Observation Capability for the Next Generation Satellite Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Extreme-Wind Observation Capability for the Next Generation Satellite Wind Scatterometer Instrument ­ 6 June 2013 RadarSAT-2 observation of extreme-winds VH HH Gradual saturation at higher wind Better ­ Matera, Italy, 3 ­ 6 June 2013 VH-GMF for extreme-winds (1) RadarSAT-2 dual-polarisation images of 12

  7. Journal de la Socit Franaise de Statistique Spatial extremes: Max-stable processes at work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribatet, Mathieu

    and conditional simulation of max-stable processes. The paper ends with the modeling of extreme wind gustsSubmission Journal de la Société Française de Statistique Spatial extremes: Max-stable processes many developments to the functional extreme value theory have been made during the last decades

  8. Rubber friction: role of the flash temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. N. J. Persson

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    When a rubber block is sliding on a hard rough substrate, the substrate asperities will exert time-dependent deformations of the rubber surface resulting in viscoelastic energy dissipation in the rubber, which gives a contribution to the sliding friction. Most surfaces of solids have roughness on many different length scales, and when calculating the friction force it is necessary to include the viscoelastic deformations on all length scales. The energy dissipation will result in local heating of the rubber. Since the viscoelastic properties of rubber-like materials are extremely strongly temperature dependent, it is necessary to include the local temperature increase in the analysis. At very low sliding velocity the temperature increase is negligible because of heat diffusion, but already for velocities of order 0.01 m/s the local heating may be very important. Here I study the influence of the local heating on the rubber friction, and I show that in a typical case the temperature increase results in a decrease in rubber friction with increasing sliding velocity for v > 0.01 m/s. This may result in stick-slip instabilities, and is of crucial importance in many practical applications, e.g., for the tire-road friction, and in particular for ABS-breaking systems.

  9. Low rank extremal PPT states and unextendible product bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jon Magne Leinaas; Jan Myrheim; Per yvind Sollid

    2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known how to construct, in a bipartite quantum system, a unique low rank entangled mixed state with positive partial transpose (a PPT state) from an unextendible product basis (a UPB), defined as an unextendible set of orthogonal product vectors. We point out that a state constructed in this way belongs to a continuous family of entangled PPT states of the same rank, all related by non-singular product transformations, unitary or non-unitary. The characteristic property of a state $\\rho$ in such a family is that its kernel $\\Ker\\rho$ has a generalized UPB, a basis of product vectors, not necessarily orthogonal, with no product vector in $\\Im\\rho$, the orthogonal complement of $\\Ker\\rho$. The generalized UPB in $\\Ker\\rho$ has the special property that it can be transformed to orthogonal form by a product transformation. In the case of a system of dimension $3\\times 3$, we give a complete parametrization of orthogonal UPBs. This is then a parametrization of families of rank 4 entangled (and extremal) PPT states, and we present strong numerical evidence that it is a complete classification of such states. We speculate that the lowest rank entangled and extremal PPT states also in higher dimensions are related to generalized, non-orthogonal UPBs in similar ways.

  10. Near Horizon Structure of Extremal Vanishing Horizon Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadeghian, S; Vahidinia, M H; Yavartanoo, H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the near horizon structure of Extremal Vanishing Horizon (EVH) black holes, extremal black holes with vanishing horizon area with a vanishing one-cycle on the horizon. We construct the most general near horizon EVH and near-EVH ansatz for the metric and other fields, like dilaton and gauge fields which may be present in the theory. We prove that (1) the near horizon EVH geometry for generic gravity theory in generic dimension has a three dimensional maximally symmetric subspace; (2) if the matter fields of the theory satisfy strong energy condition either this 3d part is AdS$_3$, or the solution is a direct product of a locally 3d flat space and a $d-3$ dimensional part; (3) these results extend to the near horizon geometry of near-EVH black holes, for which the AdS$_3$ part is replaced with BTZ geometry. We present some specific near horizon EVH geometries in 3, 4 and 5 dimensions for which there is a classification. We also briefly discuss implications of these generic results for generic (gauged) ...

  11. Damage detection in mechanical structures using extreme value statistic.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Worden, K.; Allen, D. W. (David W.); Sohn, H. (Hoon); Farrar, C. R. (Charles R.)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first and most important objective of any damage identification algorithms is to ascertain with confidence if damage is present or not. Many methods have been proposed for damage detection based on ideas of novelty detection founded in pattern recognition and multivariate statistics. The philosophy of novelty detection is simple. Features are first extracted from a baseline system to be monitored, and subsequent data are then compared to see if the new features are outliers, which significantly depart from the rest of population. In damage diagnosis problems, the assumption is that outliers are generated from a damaged condition of the monitored system. This damage classification necessitates the establishment of a decision boundary. Choosing this threshold value is often based on the assumption that the parent distribution of data is Gaussian in nature. While the problem of novelty detection focuses attention on the outlier or extreme values of the data i.e. those points in the tails of the distribution, the threshold selection using the normality assumption weighs the central population of data. Therefore, this normality assumption might impose potentially misleading behavior on damage classification, and is likely to lead the damage diagnosis astray. In this paper, extreme value statistics is integrated with the novelty detection to specifically model the tails of the distribution of interest. Finally, the proposed technique is demonstrated on simulated numerical data and time series data measured from an eight degree-of-freedom spring-mass system.

  12. Graphene defect formation by extreme ultraviolet generated photoelectrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, A., E-mail: a.gao@utwente.nl; Lee, C. J.; Bijkerk, F. [FOM-Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein, The Netherlands and XUV Optics Group, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the effect of photoelectrons on defect formation in graphene during extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiation. Assuming the major role of these low energy electrons, we have mimicked the process by using low energy primary electrons. Graphene is irradiated by an electron beam with energy lower than 80?eV. After e-beam irradiation, it is found that the D peak, I(D), appears in the Raman spectrum, indicating defect formation in graphene. The evolution of I(D)/I(G) follows the amorphization trajectory with increasing irradiation dose, indicating that graphene goes through a transformation from microcrystalline to nanocrystalline and then further to amorphous carbon. Further, irradiation of graphene with increased water partial pressure does not significantly change the Raman spectra, which suggests that, in the extremely low energy range, e-beam induced chemical reactions between residual water and graphene are not the dominant mechanism driving defect formation in graphene. Single layer graphene, partially suspended over holes was irradiated with EUV radiation. By comparing with the Raman results from e-beam irradiation, it is concluded that the photoelectrons, especially those from the valence band, contribute to defect formation in graphene during irradiation.

  13. ACTIVE REGION MOSS: DOPPLER SHIFTS FROM HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, Durgesh [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007 (India); Mason, Helen E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Klimchuk, James A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper, we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode on 2007 December 12 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low-density cutoff as derived by Tripathi et al. in 2010. We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described by Young et al. in 2012. For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km s{sup -1} with an estimated error of 4-5 km s{sup -1}. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blueshift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries toward blueshift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. However, the fact that there are a significant number of pixels showing velocity amplitudes that exceed the uncertainty of 5 km s{sup -1} is suggestive of impulsive heating. Clearly, further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  14. What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1), relative to the average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    What Global Warming Looks Like The July 2010 global map of surface temperature anomalies (Figure 1 anomalies an example of what we can expect global warming to look like? Maps of temperature anomalies, such as Figure 1, are useful for helping people understand the role of global warming in extreme events

  15. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  16. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  17. Adapting to Climate ChangeAdapting to Climate Change ExtremeExtreme Water Levels, Invasive Species andWater Levels, Invasive Species and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Adapting to Climate ChangeAdapting to Climate Change ­­ ExtremeExtreme Water Levels, Invasive." IPCC Risk management is the framework to discuss adaptation to climate change impacts. Risk The Water Resources Working Group will assess and synthesize climate change impacts to Wisconsin's water

  18. Ultrafast Extreme Ultraviolet Induced Isomerization of Acetylene Cations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Y.; Rudenko, Artem; Herrwerth, O.; Foucar, L.; Kurka, M.; Kuhnel, K.; Lezius, M.; Kling, Matthias; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Belkacem, Ali; Ueda, K.; Dusterer, S.; Treusch, R.; Schroter, Claus-Dieter; Moshammer, Robbert; Ullrich, Joachim

    2011-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast isomerization of acetylene cations ([HC = CH]{sup +}) in the low-lying excited A{sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} state, populated by the absorption of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) photons (38 eV), has been observed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg, (FLASH). Recording coincident fragments C{sup +} + CH{sub 2}{sup +} as a function of time between XUV-pump and -probe pulses, generated by a split-mirror device, we find an isomerization time of 52 {+-} 15 fs in a kinetic energy release (KER) window of 5.8 < KER < 8 eV, providing clear evidence for the existence of a fast, nonradiative decay channel.

  19. Method for the protection of extreme ultraviolet lithography optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grunow, Philip A.; Clift, Wayne M.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A coating for the protection of optical surfaces exposed to a high energy erosive plasma. A gas that can be decomposed by the high energy plasma, such as the xenon plasma used for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), is injected into the EUVL machine. The decomposition products coat the optical surfaces with a protective coating maintained at less than about 100 .ANG. thick by periodic injections of the gas. Gases that can be used include hydrocarbon gases, particularly methane, PH3 and H2S. The use of PH3 and H2S is particularly advantageous since films of the plasma-induced decomposition products S and P cannot grow to greater than 10 .ANG. thick in a vacuum atmosphere such as found in an EUVL machine.

  20. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A. (Fremont, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  1. Extremely Close-In Giant Planets from Tidal Capture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Scott Gaudi

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Planets that form around stars born in dense stellar environments are subject to dynamical perturbations from other stars in the system. These perturbations will strip outer planets, forming a population of free-floating planets, some of which will be tidally captured before they evaporate from the system. For systems with velocity dispersion of 1 km/s, Jupiter-mass planets can be captured into orbits with periods of 0.1-0.4 days, which are generally stable over a Gyr, assuming quadratic suppression of eddy viscosity in the convective zones of the host stars. Under this assumption, and that most stars form several massive planets at separations 5-50 AU, about 0.03% of stars in rich, mature open clusters should have extremely close-in tidally captured planets. Approximately 0.005% of field stars should also have such planets, which may be found in field searches for transiting planets. Detection of a population of tidally-captured planets would indicate that most stars formed in stellar clusters. In globular clusters, the fraction of stars with tidally-captured planets rises to 0.1% -- in conflict with the null result of the transit search in 47 Tuc. This implies that, if the quadratic prescription for viscosity suppression is correct, planetary formation was inhibited in 47 Tuc: less than one planet of Jupiter-mass or greater (bound or free-floating) formed per cluster star. Less than half of the stars formed solar-system analogs. Brown dwarfs can also be captured in tight orbits; the lack of such companions in 47 Tuc in turn implies an upper limit on the initial frequency of brown dwarfs in this cluster. However, this upper limit is extremely sensitive to the highly uncertain timescale for orbital decay, and thus it is difficult to draw robust conclusions about the low-mass end of the mass function in 47 Tuc.

  2. BAL QSOs AND EXTREME UFOs: THE EDDINGTON CONNECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; King, Andrew, E-mail: kastytis.zubovas@ftmc.lt [Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a common physical origin connecting the fast, highly ionized winds (UFOs) seen in nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and the slower and less ionized winds of broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs. The primary difference is the mass-loss rate in the wind, which is ultimately determined by the rate at which mass is fed toward the central supermassive black hole (SMBH) on large scales. This is below the Eddington accretion rate in most UFOs, and slightly super-Eddington in extreme UFOs such as PG1211+143, but ranges up to {approx}10-50 times this in BAL QSOs. For UFOs this implies black hole accretion rates and wind mass-loss rates which are at most comparable to Eddington, giving fast, highly ionized winds. In contrast, BAL QSO black holes have mildly super-Eddington accretion rates, and drive winds whose mass-loss rates are significantly super-Eddington, and so are slower and less ionized. This picture correctly predicts the velocities and ionization states of the observed winds, including the recently discovered one in SDSS J1106+1939. We suggest that luminous AGNs may evolve through a sequence from BAL QSO through LoBAL to UFO-producing Seyfert or quasar as their Eddington factors drop during the decay of a bright accretion event. LoBALs correspond to a short-lived stage in which the AGN radiation pressure largely evacuates the ionization cone, but before the large-scale accretion rate has dropped to the Eddington value. We show that sub-Eddington wind rates would produce an M-{sigma} relation lying above that observed. We conclude that significant SMBH mass growth must occur in super-Eddington phases, either as BAL QSOs, extreme UFOs, or obscured from direct observation.

  3. Effect of temperature on performance of {sup 3}He filled neutron proportional counters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, Shraddha S., E-mail: ssdesai@barc.gov.in [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron detectors used for cosmic neutron monitoring and various other applications are mounted in hostile environment. It is essential for detectors to sustain extreme climatic conditions, such as extreme temperature and humidity. Effort is made to evaluate the performance of detectors in extreme temperature in terms of pulse height distribution and avalanche formation. Neutron detectors filled with {sup 3}He incorporate an additive gas with quantity optimized for a particular application. Measurements are performed on neutron detectors filled with {sup 3}He and stopping gases Kr and CF{sub 4}. Detector performance for these fill gas combinations in terms of pulse height distribution is evaluated. Gas gain and Diethorn gas constants measured and analyzed for the microscopic effect on pulse formation. Results from these investigations are presented.

  4. Sensitivity calibration of an imaging extreme ultraviolet spectrometer-detector system for determining the efficiency of broadband extreme ultraviolet sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuchs, S.; Roedel, C.; Bierbach, J.; Paz, A. E.; Foerster, E.; Paulus, G. G. [Institute of Optics und Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institute Jena (Germany); Krebs, M. [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Haedrich, S.; Limpert, J. [Helmholtz-Institute Jena (Germany); Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Kuschel, S.; Wuensche, M.; Hilbert, V.; Zastrau, U. [Institute of Optics und Quantum Electronics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany)

    2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the absolute sensitivity calibration of an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectrometer system that is frequently employed to study emission from short-pulse laser experiments. The XUV spectrometer, consisting of a toroidal mirror and a transmission grating, was characterized at a synchrotron source in respect of the ratio of the detected to the incident photon flux at photon energies ranging from 15.5 eV to 99 eV. The absolute calibration allows the determination of the XUV photon number emitted by laser-based XUV sources, e.g., high-harmonic generation from plasma surfaces or in gaseous media. We have demonstrated high-harmonic generation in gases and plasma surfaces providing 2.3 {mu}W and {mu}J per harmonic using the respective generation mechanisms.

  5. High Temperature Capacitor Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Kosek

    2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

  6. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  7. THE FIRST STRAY LIGHT CORRECTED EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES OF SOLAR CORONAL HOLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Anna C. [Department of Mathematics, 2074 East Hall, University of Michigan, 530 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1043 (United States); Frazin, Richard A. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Science, Space Research Building, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States); Hero III, Alfred O., E-mail: shearerp@umich.edu, E-mail: annacg@umich.edu, E-mail: rfrazin@umich.edu, E-mail: hero@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The College of Engineering, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122 (United States)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Coronal holes are the source regions of the fast solar wind, which fills most of the solar system volume near the cycle minimum. Removing stray light from extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) images of the Sun's corona is of high astrophysical importance, as it is required to make meaningful determinations of temperatures and densities of coronal holes. EUV images tend to be dominated by the component of the stray light due to the long-range scatter caused by the microroughness of telescope mirror surfaces, and this component has proven very difficult to measure in pre-flight characterization. In-flight characterization heretofore has proven elusive due to the fact that the detected image is simultaneously nonlinear in two unknown functions: the stray light pattern and the true image that would be seen by an ideal telescope. Using a constrained blind deconvolution technique that takes advantage of known zeros in the true image provided by a fortuitous lunar transit, we have removed the stray light from solar images seen by the EUVI instrument on STEREO-B in all four filter bands (171, 195, 284, and 304 A). Uncertainty measures of the stray light corrected images, which include the systematic error due to misestimation of the scatter, are provided. It is shown that in EUVI, stray light contributes up to 70% of the emission in coronal holes seen on the solar disk, which has dramatic consequences for diagnostics of temperature and density and therefore estimates of key plasma parameters such as the plasma {beta} and ion-electron collision rates.

  8. Direct effects: Quantity related to precipitation Direct effects: Quantity related to precipitation and temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fay, Noah

    ) Adequate and sufficient water supply: (storage, snow pack reservoir and groundwater levels)snow pack temperature extremes, heat waves and heavy precipitation. Precipitation increases in high latitudes and decreases in most sub-tropical land regions. Increases in annual river runoff and water availability

  9. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  10. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  11. Elevated temperature crack propagation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orange, T.W.

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a summary of two NASA contracts on high temperature fatigue crack propagation in metals. The first evaluated the ability of fairly simple nonlinear fracture parameters to correlate crack propagation. Hastelloy-X specimens were tested under isothermal and thermomechanical cycling at temperatures up to 980 degrees C (1800 degrees F). The most successful correlating parameter was the crack tip opening displacement derived from the J-integral. The second evaluated the ability of several path-independent integrals to correlate crack propagation behavior. Inconel 718 specimens were tested under isothermal, thermomechanical, temperature gradient, and creep conditions at temperatures up to 650 degrees C (1200 degrees F). The integrals formulated by Blackburn and by Kishimoto correlated the data reasonably well under all test conditions.

  12. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  13. Advantages of PDS Products Extreme flexibility that allows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polysilicon doping o Solar cell #12;At diffusion temperature, the active component decomposes to form P2O5 and silicon wafers are edge-stacked perpendicular to the tube axis in cross-slotted furnace carriers. Gases°-1000°C for eight hours PH-1025: 1000°-1025 °C for four hours * See Technical Bulletin "Furnace Carriers

  14. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  15. Ris0-M-2829 2 Extreme Values ofWind Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ris0-M-2829 2 Extreme Values ofWind Speeds overthe Great Belt Region N.O. Jensen and B. Nielsen Ris events 9 4 Extrapolation to the 50-year storm 11 5 Discussion of the 50-year wind 15 6 Crosswind extremes for extreme values of wind speeds. The data material was obtained from a 70-m mast on a small island, Sprog0

  16. Northeast Climate Science Center: Transposing Extreme Rainfall to Assess Climate Vulnerability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Climate models predict significant increases in the magnitude and frequency of extreme rainfalls. However, climate model projections of precipitation vary greatly across models. For communities...

  17. Spectral Control of Emission from Tin Doped Targets for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    control of emissions from tin doped targets for extremearray (UTA) emission around 13.5 nm from solid density tinand tin doped foam targets. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV)

  18. alpha-class extreme ultraviolet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vacuum Society. S0734-211X 00 02506-3 I. INTRODUCTION EUV lithography optics require 5 Solar Dynamics Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Geosciences Websites...

  19. Time dependent changes in extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of Ru mirrors from electron-induced surface chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering Purdue University, West Lafayette verified by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Moreover, the impact on EUV reflectivity (EUVR) with time

  20. How Do You Stay Warm While Saving Money and Energy in Extreme...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    states are getting extreme weather this week, with deep freezes, huge blizzards, and ice storms causing various problems across the country. Such weather can cause us to use...