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1

Two-Sensor System for Absolute Age and Temperature History  

absolute age and/or temperature history of a device or system starting from the time it is assembled or commissioned. Ideally this information could ...

2

Effects of temperature on the absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effect of temperature on absolute permeability has been a point of disagreement in the petroleum literature for many years. Recent work at Stanford University has shown no dependence on temperature of the absolute permeability to water of unconsolidated sand cores. The objective of this report is to extend the investigation to consolidated sandstone by following similar experimental procedures and observing whether any temperature effects exist. Fontainebleau sandstone was chosen as the core sample because of its low porosity and relatively clay-free composition. These characteristics allow the nature of consolidated sandstone permeability to be studied, while minimizing the effects of extraneous factors. Such factors, often present in Berea and Boise sandstones, include interstitital clay swelling in the presence of distilled water. Properties of sandstone differ from those of unconsolidated sand. Consequently, the effects of throughput water volume and flow rate, in addition to temperature, are studied. Mechanical difficulties with parts of the experimental apparatus have prevented the development of a satisfactory conclusion based on results obtained thus far. Recommendations are provided for necessary modifications before further experiments are performed. When these changes are implemented, a final run can be made to complete the analysis. 19 references, 10 figures.

McKay, W.I.; Brigham, W.E.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

The Effect of Temperature on the Absolute Permeability to Distilled Water of Unconsolidated Sand Cores  

SciTech Connect

The work presented herein is a study of the effect of temperature on the absolute permeability to distilled water of unconsolidated sandstones at one confining pressure. The absolute permeability to distilled water of Ottawa silica sand was not dependent on the temperature level.

Sageev, A.; Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

4

Effects of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature on absolute permeability. SUPRI TR-27  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates absolute permeability of consolidated sandstone and unconsolidated sand cores to distilled water as a function of the confining pressure on the core, the pore pressure of the flowing fluid and the temperature of the system. Since permeability measurements are usually made in the laboratory under conditions very different from those in the reservoir, it is important to know the effect of various parameters on the measured value of permeability. All studies on the effect of confining pressure on absolute permeability have found that when the confining pressure is increased, the permeability is reduced. The studies on the effect of temperature have shown much less consistency. This work contradicts the past Stanford studies by finding no effect of temperature on the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand or sandstones to distilled water. The probable causes of the past errors are discussed. It has been found that inaccurate measurement of temperature at ambient conditions and non-equilibrium of temperature in the core can lead to a fictitious permeability reduction with temperature increase. The results of this study on the effect of confining pressure and pore pressure support the theory that as confining pressure is increased or pore pressure decreased, the permeability is reduced. The effects of confining pressure and pore pressure changes on absolute permeability are given explicitly so that measurements made under one set of confining pressure/pore pressure conditions in the laboratory can be extrapolated to conditions more representative of the reservoir.

Gobran, B.D.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction CENTER FOR IMAGING SCIENCE Title of Dissertation: Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature from Remote Thermal

Salvaggio, Carl

6

Absolute permeability as a function of confining pressure, pore pressure, and temperature  

SciTech Connect

This is an investigation of the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand and consolidated sandstone cores to distilled water as a function of the temperature of the system, confining pressure on the core, and the pore pressure of the flowing fluid. The effects of flow rate and throughput are also discussed. In contrast to some previous investigations, no effect of temperature on permeability was found beyond experimental errors and effects caused by volumetric throughput. The probable causes of differing results in previous studies are also presented.

Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Absolute permeability as a function of confining pressure, pore pressure and temperature  

SciTech Connect

This work is an investigation of the absolute permeability of unconsolidated sand and consolidated sandstone cores to distilled water as a function of the temperature of the system, confining pressure on the core and the pore pressure of the flowing liquid. The results of this study indicate that temperatures is not an important variable that needs to be reproduced in the laboratory. Confining pressure and pore pressure affect permeability in a predictable manner. This allows measurements at a lower pressure level to be extrapolated to higher pressure conditions. 21 refs.

Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Atmospheric Temperature and Absolute Humidity Profiles over the Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf from a Microwave Radiometer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Radiometrics MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler (MWRP) provided high temporal resolution atmospheric profiles for temperature and absolute humidity up to 10 km, while 113 radiosondes were launched (and 68 were used in the analysis) over sea ...

Lauren M. Candlish; Richard L. Raddatz; Matthew G. Asplin; David G. Barber

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

The estimation of base temperature for heating and cooling degree days for Korea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In Korea, heating degree days (HDD) and cooling degree days (CDD) have been widely used as climatic indicators for the assessment of the impact of climate change, but arbitrary or customary base temperatures have been used for calculation of HDD ...

Kyoungmi Lee; Hee-Jeong Baek; ChunHo Cho

10

An Absolute Measurement of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Temperature at 10.7 GHz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A balloon-borne experiment has measured the absolute temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) at 10.7 GHz to be Tcmbr = 2.730 +- .014 K. The error is the quadratic sum of several systematic errors, with statistical error of less than 0.1 mK. The instrument comprises a cooled corrugated horn antenna coupled to a total-power radiometer. A cryogenic mechanical waveguide switch alternately connects the radiometer to the horn and to an internal reference load. The small measured temperature difference (load in conjunction with the use of a cold front end keeps systematic instrumental corrections small. Atmospheric and window emission are minimized by flying the instrument at 24 km altitude. A large outer ground screen and smaller inner screen shield the instrument from stray radiation from the ground and the balloon. In-flight tests constrain the magnitude of ground radiation contamination, and low level interference is monitored through observations in several narrow frequency bands.

S. T. Staggs; N. C. Jarosik; S. S. Meyer; D. T. Wilkinson

1996-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

11

The solubility of hydrogen in plutonium in the temperature range 475 to 825 degrees centigrade  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solubility of hydrogen (H) in plutonium metal (Pu) was measured in the temperature range of 475 to 825{degree}C for unalloyed Pu (UA) and in the temperature range of 475 to 625{degree}C for Pu containing two-weight-percent gallium (TWP). For TWP metal, in the temperature range 475 to 600{degree}C, the saturated solution has a maximum hydrogen to plutonium ration (H/Pu) of 0.00998 and the standard enthalpy of formation ({Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)}) is (-0.128 {plus minus} 0.0123) kcal/mol. The phase boundary of the solid solution in equilibrium with plutonium dihydride (PuH{sub 2}) is temperature independent. In the temperature range 475 to 625{degree}C, UA metal has a maximum solubility at H/Pu = 0.011. The phase boundary between the solid solution region and the metal+PuH{sub 2} two-phase region is temperature dependent. The solubility of hydrogen in UA metal was also measured in the temperature range 650 to 825{degree}C with {Delta}H{degree}{sub f(s)} = (-0.104 {plus minus} 0.0143) kcal/mol and {Delta}S{degree}{sub f(s)} = 0. The phase boundary is temperature dependent and the maximum hydrogen solubility has H/Pu = 0.0674 at 825{degree}C. 52 refs., 28 figs., 9 tabs.

Allen, T.H.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Development of Advanced Flow-Through External Pressure-Balanced Reference Electrode for Temperatures up to 400 degrees C.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of an advanced flow-through external pressure-balanced reference electrode opens the door for more accurate measurements of corrosion potential, redox potential, and pH in power plant waters at temperatures up to 400 degrees C. Such measurements allow a more accurate assessment of an environment's corrosivity and promote more effective corrosion control.

1998-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

13

The Characterization of Scintillator Performance at Temperatures up to 400 Degrees Centigrade  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The logging and characterization of geothermal wells requires improved scintillator systems that are capable of operation at temperatures significantly above those commonly encountered in the logging of most conventional oil and gas wells (e.g., temperatures nominally in the range of up to 150oC.) Unfortunately, most of the existing data on the performance of scintillators for radiation detection at elevated temperatures is fragmentary, uncorrelated, and generally limited to relatively low temperatures in most cases to temperatures well below 200oC. We have designed a system for characterizing scintillator performance at temperatures extending up to 400oC under inert atmospheric conditions, and this system is applied here to the determination of scintillator performance at elevated temperatures for a wide range of scintillators including, among others: bismuth germanate, cadmium tungstate, cesium iodide, cesium iodide (Tl), cesium iodide (Na), sodium iodide, sodium iodide (Tl), lutetium oxy-orthosilicate (Ce), zinc tungstate, yttrium aluminum perovskite (Ce), yttrium aluminum garnet (Ce), lutetium aluminum perovskite (Ce), and barium fluoride, strontium iodide(Eu). The results of these high-temperature scintillator performance tests are described in detail here. Comparisons of the relative elevated-temperature properties of the various scintillator materials have resulted in the identification of promising scintillator candidates for high-temperature use in geothermal and fossil-fuel well environments.

Boatner, Lynn A [ORNL; Neal, John S [ORNL; Kolopus, James A [ORNL; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine [ORNL; Akkurt, Hatice [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Reactor User Interface Technology Development Roadmaps for a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Outlet Temperature of 750 degrees C  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report evaluates the technology readiness of the interface components that are required to transfer high-temperature heat from a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) to selected industrial applications. This report assumes that the HTGR operates at a reactor outlet temperature of 750C and provides electricity and/or process heat at 700C to conventional process applications, including the production of hydrogen.

Ian Mckirdy

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Radiometric modeling of mechanical draft cooling towers to assist in the extraction of their absolute temperature from remote thermal imagery.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Determination of the internal temperature of a mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) from remotely-sensed thermal imagery is important for many applications that provide input to (more)

Montanaro, Matthew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction of their Absolute Temperature from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiometric Modeling of Mechanical Draft Cooling Towers to Assist in the Extraction108, Aiken, SC, USA ABSTRACT Determining the internal temperature of a mechanical draft cooling tower is to estimate the temperature of the air exiting a mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) through the use

Salvaggio, Carl

17

Development of global hourly 0.5-degree land surface air temperature datasets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Land surface air temperature (SAT) is one of the most important variables in weather and climate studies, and its diurnal cycle and day-to-day variation are also needed for a variety of applications. Global long-term hourly SAT observational data, ...

Aihui Wang; Xubin Zeng

18

Power Modulation Investigation for High Temperature (175-200 degrees Celcius) Automotive Application  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hybrid electric vehicles were re-introduced in the late 1990s after a century dominated by purely internal combustion powered engines[1]. Automotive players, such as GM, Ford, DaimlerChrysler, Honda, and Toyota, together with major energy producers, such as BPAmoco, were the major force in the development of hybrid electric vehicles. Most notable was the development by Toyota of its Prius, which was launched in Japan in 1997 and worldwide in 2001. The shift to hybrids was driven by the fact that the sheer volume of vehicles on the road had begun to tax the ability of the environment to withstand the pollution of the internal combustion engine and the ability of the fossil fuel industry to produce a sufficient amount of refined gasoline. In addition, the number of vehicles was anticipated to rise exponentially with the increasing affluence of China and India. Over the last fifteen years, major advances have been made in all the technologies essential to hybrid vehicle success, including batteries, motors, power control and conditioning electronics, regenerative braking, and power sources, including fuel cells. Current hybrid electric vehicles are gasoline internal combustion--electric motor hybrids. These hybrid electric vehicles range from micro-hybrids, where a stop/start system cuts the engine while the vehicle is stopped, and mild hybrids where the stop/start system is supplemented by regenerative braking and power assist, to full hybrids where the combustion motor is optimized for electric power production, and there is full electric drive and full regenerative braking. PSA Peugeot Citroen estimates the increased energy efficiency will range from 3-6% for the micro-hybrids to 15-25% for the full hybrids.[2] Gasoline-electric hybrids are preferred in US because they permit long distance travel with low emissions and high gasoline mileage, while still using the existing refueling infrastructure. One of the most critical areas in which technology has been advancing has been the development of electronics that can operate in the high temperature environments present in hybrid vehicles. The temperatures under the hood for a gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle are comparable to those for traditional internal combustion engines. This is known to be a difficult environment with respect to commercial-grade electronics, as there are surface and ambient temperatures ranging from 125 C to 175 C. In addition, some hybrid drive electronics are placed in even harsher environments, such as on or near the brakes, where temperatures can reach 250 C. Furthermore, number of temperature cycles experienced by electronics in a hybrid vehicle is different from that experienced in a traditional vehicle. A traditional internal combustion vehicle will have the engine running for longer periods, whereas a mild or micro-hybrid engine will experience many more starts and stops.[3] This means that hybrid automotive electronics will undergo more cycles of a potential wider temperature cycle than standard automotive electronics, which in turn see temperature cycles of 2 to 3 times the magnitude of the {Delta}T = 50 C-75 C experienced by commercial-grade electronics. This study will discuss the effects of these harsh environments on the failure mechanisms and ultimate reliability of electronic systems developed for gasoline-electric hybrid vehicles. In addition, it will suggest technologies and components that can reasonably be expected to perform well in these environments. Finally, it will suggest areas where further research is needed or desirable. Areas for further research will be highlighted in bold, italic type. It should be noted that the first area where further research is desirable is in developing a clearer understanding of the actual hybrid automotive electronics environment and how to simulate it through accelerated testing, thus: Developing specific mission profiles and accelerated testing protocols for the underhood environment for hybrid cars, as has previously been done for gasoline-powered vehicles, is an important area for further st

McCluskey, F. P.

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

19

Volatile compound evolution from the programmed temperature pyrolysis of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands at a 10 degrees C/min heating rate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Big Clifty (Kentucky) and McKittrick (California) tar sands were pyrolyzed at a 10{degrees}C/min heating rate from room temperature to 900{degrees}C. The volatile compounds were detected on-line and in real time by tandem mass spectrometry using MS and MS/MS detection. This paper reports the programmed temperature pyrolysis behaviors of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands and compares their results. 48 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Absolute nuclear material assay  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Microfracturing in Westerly granite experimentally extended wet and dry at temperatures to 800/degree/C and pressures to 200 MPa  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Microfracturing in Westerly granite specimens, extended wet and dry, at temperatures to 800/degree/C and confining pressures to 200 MPa, is analyzed with a view toward understanding why, in the brittle field, rock strengths decrease with increasing temperature. Intragranular (IGC) and grain-boundary cracks (GBC) are mapped in two dimensions on either side of the tensile macrofracture, using optical microscopy, to determine, quantitatively, crack lengths and densities and, qualitatively, crack widths and orientations are visually examined to aid in interpretation. Temperature and confining pressure tend to favor the development of different microfracture fabrics. Thermal stresses produce a random orientation of cracks while stresses resulting from the external differential loading of a specimen produce a preferred orientation of cracks parallel to the direction of sigma/sub 1/. In dry experiments, between 600/degree/ and 800/degree/C, both GBC and IGC densities increase with increasing temperature. The increase in crack abundance is responsible for the thermal weakening of the rock. With increasing temperature, GBC play a greater role in the deformational history leading to rock failure. 27 refs., 24 figs.

Hopkins, T.W.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

Prieto, Carlos Allende

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Computing Solar Absolute Fluxes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computed color indices and spectral shapes for individual stars are routinely compared with observations for essentially all spectral types, but absolute fluxes are rarely tested. We can confront observed irradiances with the predictions from model atmospheres for a few stars with accurate angular diameter measurements, notably the Sun. Previous calculations have been hampered by inconsistencies and the use of outdated atomic data and abundances. I provide here a progress report on our current efforts to compute absolute fluxes for solar model photospheres. Uncertainties in the solar composition constitute a significant source of error in computing solar radiative fluxes.

Carlos Allende Prieto

2007-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

Radiance Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Temperature using Detectors Calibrated for Absolute Spectral Power Response, HW ... A Third Generation Water Bath Based Blackbody Source, JB ...

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

ABSOLUTE POLARIMETRY AT RHIC.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Precise and absolute beam polarization measurements are critical for the RHIC spin physics program. Because all experimental spin-dependent results are normalized by beam polarization, the normalization uncertainty contributes directly to final physics uncertainties. We aimed to perform the beam polarization measurement to an accuracy Of {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} < 5%. The absolute polarimeter consists of Polarized Atomic Hydrogen Gas Jet Target and left-right pairs of silicon strip detectors and was installed in the RHIC-ring in 2004. This system features proton-proton elastic scattering in the Coulomb nuclear interference (CNI) region. Precise measurements of the analyzing power A{sub N} of this process has allowed us to achieve {Delta}P{sub beam}/P{sub beam} = 4.2% in 2005 for the first long spin-physics run. In this report, we describe the entire set up and performance of the system. The procedure of beam polarization measurement and analysis results from 2004-2005 are described. Physics topics of AN in the CNI region (four-momentum transfer squared 0.001 < -t < 0.032 (GeV/c){sup 2}) are also discussed. We point out the current issues and expected optimum accuracy in 2006 and the future.

OKADA; BRAVAR, A.; BUNCE, G.; GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; MAKDISI, Y.; NASS, A.; WOOD, J.; ZELENSKI, Z.; ET AL.

2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

The information as Absolute  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This article presents and grounds (i.e. presents proof of the existence, the truth, the self-consistence and the completeness of)the informational conception ("the Information as Absolute" conception)in physics and philosophy. the conception defines the information as an ultimately common, real and fundamental concept/phenomenon - "Absolute", which exists as anabsolutely infinite set ("Information" Set) of elements (members) and informational (e.g., logical) linksbetween the elements; where any element itself is some informational structure also. Correspondingly, for example, Matter as the substence, radiation, etc., is some development or realization of informational patterns, constituting a specific - and practically infinitesimal comparing to the Set - subset of the "Information" Set. The conception allows for the resolution, or at least for a consideration on a higher level of comprehension, of the basic ontological and epistemological problems in philosophy and natural sciences; in physics it allows to suggest reasonable model, which makes more clear basic phisical notions,such as space, time, matter, etc.

Sergey V. Shevchenko; Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200.degree. C and method of fabrication  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100.degree. C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Havens, John (San Diego, CA); Jones, Phil (Marlborough, GB)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Fracture and fatigue properties of Mo-Mo{sub 3}Si-Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2} refractory intermetallic alloys at ambient to elevated temperatures (25-1300 degrees Centigrade)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The need for structural materials with high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance coupled with adequate lower-temperature toughness for potential use at temperatures above {approx} 1000 degrees C has remained a persistent challenge in materials science. In this work, one promising class of intermetallic alloys is examined, namely boron-containing molybdenum silicides, with compositions in the range Mo (bal), 12-17 at. percentSi, 8.5 at. percentB, processed using both ingot (I/M) and powder (P/M) metallurgy methods. Specifically, the oxidation (''pesting''), fracture toughness and fatigue-crack propagation resistance of four such alloys, which consisted of {approx}21 to 38 vol. percent a-Mo phase in an intermetallic matrix of Mo3Si and Mo5SiB2 (T2), were characterized at temperatures between 25 degrees and 1300 degrees C. The boron additions were found to confer superior ''pest'' resistance (at 400 degrees to 900 degrees C) as compared to unmodified molybdenum silicides, such as Mo5Si3. Moreover , although the fracture and fatigue properties of the finer-scale P/M alloys were only marginally better than those of MoSi2, for the I/M processed microstructures with coarse distributions of the a-Mo phase, fracture toughness properties were far superior, rising from values above 7 MPa sqrt m at ambient temperatures to almost 12 MPa sqrt m at 1300 degrees C.

Choe, Heeman; Schneibel, J.H.; Ritchie, R.O.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECCENTRIC ECLIPSING BINARY STAR FT ORIONIS  

SciTech Connect

Accurate absolute properties are determined for the first time for the 3.15 day period eccentric eclipsing binary star FT Ori based on new absolute photometry, five differential light curves, and a radial velocity curve. The stars appear to be normal for their spectral types, A0 + A2. The orbit is highly eccentric (e = 0.409) and shows apsidal motion with a period of 536 years. The absolute properties and the degree of central mass concentration of the stars are consistent with current theoretical models at an age of 190 Myr.

Sabby, Jeffrey A. [Physics Department, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL 62025 (United States); Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Ibanoglu, Cafer [Astronomy and Space Sciences Department, Science Faculty, Ege University, 35100 Boronova, Izmir (Turkey); Claret, Antonio, E-mail: jsabby@siue.edu, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: cafer.ibanoglu@ege.edu.tr, E-mail: claret@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apdo. Postal 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

Estimation of Daily Degree-hours  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Degree-hours have many applications in fields such as agriculture, architecture, and power generation. Since daily mean temperatures are more readily available than hourly temperatures, the difference between mean daily degree-hours computed from ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman; Richard L. Lehman

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Long-Term Trends in Air Temperature Distribution and Extremes, Growing Degree?Days, and Spring and Fall Frosts for Climate Impact Assessments on Agricultural Practices in Nebraska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Air temperature influences agricultural practices and production outcomes, making detailed quantifications of temperature changes necessary for potential positive and negative effects on agricultural management practices to be exploited or ...

Kari E. Skaggs; Suat Irmak

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A Study of the Severity of the Midwestern Winters of 1977 and 1978 Using Heating Degree Days Determined from Both Measured and Wind Chill Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The winters of 197677 and 197778 were severe by virtually any standard. In this study, heating degree day (NDD) accumulations for these two winters as well as for the 194170 normals are examined at 31 National Weather Service stations in ...

Patricia M. Dare

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

ARM - Field Campaign - Absolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAbsolute Solar Transmittance Interferometer (ASTI) Comments? We would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Absolute...

36

Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Variable Variable Average Absolute Percent Differences Percent of Projections Over- Estimated Gross Domestic Product Real Gross Domestic Product (Average Cumulative Growth)* (Table 2) 1.0 42.6 Petroleum Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Constant $) (Table 3a) 35.2 18.6 Imported Refiner Acquisition Cost of Crude Oil (Nominal $) (Table 3b) 34.7 19.7 Total Petroleum Consumption (Table 4) 6.2 66.5 Crude Oil Production (Table 5) 6.0 59.6 Petroleum Net Imports (Table 6) 13.3 67.0 Natural Gas Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Constant $) (Table 7a) 30.7 26.1 Natural Gas Wellhead Prices (Nominal $) (Table 7b) 30.0 27.1 Total Natural Gas Consumption (Table 8) 7.8 70.2 Natural Gas Production (Table 9) 7.1 66.0 Natural Gas Net Imports (Table 10) 29.3 69.7 Coal Coal Prices to Electric Generating Plants (Constant $)** (Table 11a)

37

Degree Services Registrar's Office  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Degree Services Registrar's Office Name (please print Fund. of Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier (1) _____ CM/ENT 3978 Hydrogen Measurements Laboratory (1/SS 4520 Sustainable Futures II (3)* _____ ENT 3956 Industrial Health and Safety (2)* _____ ENT 3975 Intro

38

Absolute Spectrophotometry of Northern Compact Planetary Nebulae  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total absolute fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable emission lines. High signal-to noise emission line fluxes of H-alpha, H-beta, [OIII], [NII], and HeI may serve as emission line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available emission line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an H-beta flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3x10E-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.

S. A. Wright; R. L. M. Corradi; M. Perinotto

2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

39

Is the Midlatitude Zonal Flow Absolutely Unstable?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analysis is performed of the growth and propagation of unstable baroclinic wave packets in relatively realistic midlatitude zonal currents. The absolute growth rates are calculated, incorporating the effects of both Ekman friction and ...

S. J. Lin; R. T. Pierrehumbert

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Achieving Climate Change Absolute Accuracy in Orbit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission will provide a calibration laboratory in orbit for the purpose of accurately measuring and attributing climate change. CLARREO measurements establish new climate change ...

Bruce A. Wielicki; D. F. Young; M. G. Mlynczak; K. J. Thome; S. Leroy; J. Corliss; J. G. Anderson; C.O. Ao; R. Bantges; F. Best; K. Bowman; H. Brindley; J. J. Butler; W. Collins; J. A. Dykema; D. R. Doelling; D. R. Feldman; N. Fox; X. Huang; R. Holz; Y. Huang; Z. Jin; D. Jennings; D. G. Johnson; K. Jucks; S. Kato; D. B. Kirk-Davidoff; R. Knuteson; G. Kopp; D. P. Kratz; X. Liu; C. Lukashin; A. J. Mannucci; N. Phojanamongkolkij; P. Pilewskie; V. Ramaswamy; H. Revercomb; J. Rice; Y. Roberts; C. M. Roithmayr; F. Rose; S. Sandford; E. L. Shirley; W.L. Smith; Sr.; B. Soden; P. W. Speth; W. Sun; P.C. Taylor; D. Tobin; X. Xiong

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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41

Absolute Energy USA | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ansgar, Iowa Zip 50472 Product Absolute Energy has built a 100 million gallon per year ethanol plant on the Iowa-Minnesota border near Lyle, Minnesota. Plant was commissioned in...

42

New-generation absolute angle sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes new schemes for absolute angle sensors designed on the modern element base (megapixel CCD- and CMOS-matrices). In these schemes communication between a measured object and a receiving module is organized through an optical channel ...

Yu. A. Grodetskii; Yu. E. Dukarevich; Yu. M. Ivanov

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Molecular Biology DEGREE PROGRAMME  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BSc (Hons) Molecular Biology DEGREE PROGRAMME GUIDE 2013-2014 #12;BSc (Hons) Molecular Biology - Year 2 - Year 3 - Year 4 Introduction Molecular biology aims to understand living systems by focusing on the molecular components upon which they are built. Molecular biology is one of great successes of 20th century

Siddharthan, Advaith

44

Designing for Absolute Moisture Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rarely is an industry trade journal published without at least one article included concerning the topic of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) or the related Sick Building Syndrome (SBI). Whether the subject of the article is a school, an office building or a public assembly building, chances are the origin of the IAQ problems stem from excessive moisture in the space. Excessive moisture in the space can either come from water damage (leaking pipes or poor integrity of the building envelope), or it comes from uncontrolled, excessive humidity in the space. This paper pertains to the latter of these two sources. With the air conditioning technologies available, and the published design data available through ASHRAE today, appropriate HVAC systems can be designed to adequately control not just the temperature in the spaces, but also the humidity.

Nunnelly, R. M.; Fex, J. P.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Heating degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating degree days Heating degree days Dataset Summary Description The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS), in conjunction with the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) publish monthly and annual climate data by state for the U.S., including, heating degree days (total number of days per month and per year). The average values for each state are weighted by population, using 2000 Census data. The base temperature for this dataset is 65 degrees F. Source NOAA Date Released Unknown Date Updated June 24th, 2005 (9 years ago) Keywords climate Heating degree days NOAA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon Heating Degree Data, by State (xls, 208.4 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

46

Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of...

47

Absolut Energy Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Absolut Energy Capital Absolut Energy Capital Jump to: navigation, search Name Absolut Energy Capital Place London, England, United Kingdom Zip W1H - 6HN Sector Renewable Energy Product London-based private equity firm. The firm offers financing for renewable energy ventures. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

48

cooling degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling degree days cooling degree days Dataset Summary Description The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS), in conjunction with the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) publish monthly and annual climate data by state for the U.S., including, cooling degree days (total number of days per month and per year). The average values for each state are weighted by population, using 2000 Census data. The base temperature for this dataset is 65 degrees F. Source NOAA Date Released Unknown Date Updated June 24th, 2005 (9 years ago) Keywords climate cooling degree days NOAA Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon hcs_51_avg_cdd.xls (xls, 215.6 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

49

Heating Degree Days  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Heating Degree Days Heating Degree Days New England ................ 2,626 737 115 2,062 3,105 849 159 2,247 3,184 872 136 2,180 5,541 6,359 6,373 Middle Atlantic .............. 2,326 576 85 1,899 2,906 672 123 2,041 2,924 682 90 1,986 4,886 5,742 5,682 E. N. Central ................. 2,440 621 139 2,150 3,279 772 119 2,343 3,141 726 129 2,230 5,350 6,514 6,227 W. N. Central ................ 2,515 520 143 2,360 3,424 908 103 2,541 3,216 677 152 2,404 5,539 6,976 6,450 South Atlantic ............... 1,129 168 16 992 1,513 217 21 1,059 1,466 202 16 1,010 2,306 2,809 2,695 E. S. Central ................. 1,361 180 28 1,326 1,939 289 16 1,430 1,839 245 23 1,336 2,896 3,675 3,443 W. S. Central ................ 913 38 3 729 1,189 141 2 909 1,150 83 5 821 1,682 2,239 2,060 Mountain ....................... 2,063 542 98 1,741 2,430 689 101 1,885 2,189 642 130 1,817 4,444

50

An Estimate of Global Absolute Dynamic Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We estimate the absolute dynamic topography of the world ocean from the largest scales to a short-wavelength cutoff of about 6700 km for the period July through September 1978. The data base consisted of the time-averaged sea-surface topography ...

Chang-Kou Tai; Carl Wunsch

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Degree Day .Net  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Degree Day .Net Degree Day .Net Logo for Degree Day.net Website that generates heating and cooling degree days for locations worldwide. Degree days are commonly used in calculations relating to building energy consumption. Once you have chosen a weather station (of which there are thousands available) and specified the degree days you want (e.g. what base temperature, do you want them broken down in daily, weekly or monthly format), Degree Days.net will calculate your degree days, and give them to you as a CSV file that you can open directly in a spreadsheet. Screen Shots Keywords degree days, HDD, CDD Validation/Testing A comprehensive suite of automated tests have been written to test the software. Expertise Required Degree Days.net makes it very easy to specify and generate degree days, so

52

Absolute magnetic helicity and the cylindrical magnetic field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The different magnetic helicities conserved under conditions of perfect electrical conductivity are expressions of the fundamental property that every evolving fluid surface conserves its net magnetic flux. This basic hydromagnetic point unifies the well known Eulerian helicities with the Lagrangian helicity defined by the conserved fluxes frozen into a prescribed set of disjoint toroidal tubes of fluid flowing as a permanent partition of the entire fluid [B. C. Low, Astrophys. J. 649, 1064 (2006)]. This unifying theory is constructed from first principles, beginning with an analysis of the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of fluids, separating the ideas of fluid and magnetic-flux tubes and removing the complication of the magnetic vector potential's free gauge from the concept of helicity. The analysis prepares for the construction of a conserved Eulerian helicity, without that gauge complication, to describe a 3D anchored flux in an upright cylindrical domain, this helicity called absolute to distinguish it from the well known relative helicity. In a version of the Chandrasekhar-Kendall representation, the evolving field at any instant is a unique superposition of a writhed, untwisted axial flux with a circulating flux of field lines all closed and unlinked within the cylindrical domain. The absolute helicity is then a flux-weighted sum of the writhe of that axial flux and its mutual linkage with the circulating flux. The absolute helicity is also conserved if the frozen-in field and its domain are continuously deformed by changing the separation between the rigid cylinder-ends with no change of cylinder radius. This hitherto intractable cylindrical construction closes a crucial conceptual gap for the fundamentals to be complete at last. The concluding discussion shows the impact of this development on our understanding of helicity, covering (i) the helicities of wholly contained and anchored fields; (ii) the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions of field evolution; (iii) twist as a topological property of solenoidal fields versus the linkage properties of open and closed discrete curves treated by Gauss, Caligarneau, Berger, and Prior; and (iv) the change of absolute helicity by resistive diffusion. These are important hydromagnetic properties of twisted magnetic fields in the million-degree hot, highly conducting corona of the Sun.

Low, B. C. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado 80307 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

Absolute Energy Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Absolute Energy Capital Absolute Energy Capital Place London, United Kingdom Zip SW1Y 5NQ Product London-based private equity firm. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

54

TWO SENSOR SYSTEM FOR A SOLUTE AGE AND TEMPERATURE HISTORY  

the aging period Can determine absolute age independently of temperature history Suitable for emplacement on circuit boards Numerous commercial ...

55

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Degree Day Forecasts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Forecasts Forecasts Degree Day Forecasts example chart Quick and easy web-based tool that provides free 14-day ahead degree day forecasts for 1,200 stations in the U.S. and Canada. Degree Day Forecasts charts show this year, last year and three-year average. Historical degree day charts and energy usage forecasts are available from the same site. Keywords degree days, historical weather, mean daily temperature Validation/Testing Degree day data provided by AccuWeather.com, updated daily at 0700. Expertise Required No special expertise required. Simple to use. Users Over 1,000 weekly users. Audience Anyone who needs degree day forecasts (next 14 days) for the U.S. and Canada. Input Select a weather station (1,200 available) and balance point temperature. Output Charts show (1) degree day (heating and cooling) forecasts for the next 14

56

Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer to Measure the Absolute Outdoor Longwave Irradiance with Traceability to International System of Units, SI  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a method of measuring the absolute outdoor longwave irradiance using an absolute cavity pyrgeometer (ACP), U.S. Patent application no. 13/049, 275. The ACP consists of domeless thermopile pyrgeometer, gold-plated concentrator, temperature controller, and data acquisition. The dome was removed from the pyrgeometer to remove errors associated with dome transmittance and the dome correction factor. To avoid thermal convection and wind effect errors resulting from using a domeless thermopile, the gold-plated concentrator was placed above the thermopile. The concentrator is a dual compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) with 180{sup o} view angle to measure the outdoor incoming longwave irradiance from the atmosphere. The incoming irradiance is reflected from the specular gold surface of the CPC and concentrated on the 11 mm diameter of the pyrgeometer's blackened thermopile. The CPC's interior surface design and the resulting cavitation result in a throughput value that was characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The ACP was installed horizontally outdoor on an aluminum plate connected to the temperature controller to control the pyrgeometer's case temperature. The responsivity of the pyrgeometer's thermopile detector was determined by lowering the case temperature and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The responsivity is then used to calculate the absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance with an uncertainty estimate (U{sub 95}) of {+-}3.96 W m{sup 02} with traceability to the International System of Units, SI. The measured irradiance was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the Interim World Infrared Standard Group, WISG. A total of 408 readings were collected over three different nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m{sup 2} lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG, with a standard deviation of {+-}0.7 W m{sup -2}. These results suggest that the ACP design might be used for addressing the need to improve the international reference for broadband outdoor longwave irradiance measurements.

Reda, I.; Zeng, J.; Scheuch, J.; Hanssen, L.; Wilthan, B.; Myers, D.; Stoffel, T.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

annual average heating degree days | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average heating degree days average heating degree days Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Heating Degree Days below 18° C (degree days)The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is below 18° C.NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly Average & Annual Sum (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Heating Degree Days Below 18 degrees C (degree days)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords annual average heating degree days climate GIS NASA SWERA UNEP Data application/zip icon Download Shapefile (zip, 2.7 MiB)

58

Standardization of the cumulative absolute velocity  

SciTech Connect

EPRI NP-5930, A Criterion for Determining Exceedance of the Operating Basis Earthquake,'' was published in July 1988. As defined in that report, the Operating Basis Earthquake (OBE) is exceeded when both a response spectrum parameter and a second damage parameter, referred to as the Cumulative Absolute Velocity (CAV), are exceeded. In the review process of the above report, it was noted that the calculation of CAV could be confounded by time history records of long duration containing low (nondamaging) acceleration. Therefore, it is necessary to standardize the method of calculating CAV to account for record length. This standardized methodology allows consistent comparisons between future CAV calculations and the adjusted CAV threshold value based upon applying the standardized methodology to the data set presented in EPRI NP-5930. The recommended method to standardize the CAV calculation is to window its calculation on a second-by-second basis for a given time history. If the absolute acceleration exceeds 0.025g at any time during each one second interval, the earthquake records used in EPRI NP-5930 have been reanalyzed and the adjusted threshold of damage for CAV was found to be 0.16g-set.

O'Hara, T.F.; Jacobson, J.P. (Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States))

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Final Report LDRD 04-ERD-019 Development of absolute spectroscopic diagnostics for non-LTE plasmas  

SciTech Connect

This project sought to further our understanding of non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) processes by providing benchmark data to validate computational models. This has been a difficult regime to study in the laboratory, where experimental scales produce strong gradients while interpretation requires well-characterized uniform plasmas. It has also been a difficult regime to simulate, as evidenced by the large discrepancies in predictions of NLTE spectra for fixed plasma properties. Not surprisingly, discrepancies between data and calculations of recombining laser-produced plasmas have been in evidence since the 1980's. The goal here was to obtain data of sufficient accuracy to help resolve these discrepancies and enable better modeling of the NLTE processes that are integral to high-energy density experiments. Advances in target fabrication, diagnostic development and simulation capabilities provided the foundations for this project. Uniform plasmas were to be achieved by using aerogel foams of low enough density ({approx}mg/cm{sup 3}) and thickness ({approx}mm) to be volumetrically heated by a laser. The foams were doped with Ti to provide K- and L-shell emission and recombination spectra during the experiments. A new absolutely calibrated transmission grating spectrometer provided absolute temporal measurements at 18 frequencies, in addition to a CCD image of the time-integrated spectrum. Finally, atomic models of varying degrees of sophistication and detail, combined with NLTE radiation transport and hydrodynamics, were used to simulate the experiments and understand the observed spectra. The first set of experiments was performed on the NIKE laser at NRL in March, 2004, with the goals of evaluating the performance of the diagnostics and the achieved plasma uniformity. By varying the laser parameters, we determined the required parameters for creating L-shell emission and were able to obtain K-shell (He-like) Ti. Pinhole x-ray images of the K-shell emission showed transverse plasma uniformity depended upon the target quality. Not all targets had acceptable quality, as it proved difficult to fabricate targets of the desired thickness (1/2 mm). Using thicker targets also adversely affected the production of uniform conditions through the plasma, as the plasma was expected to have a moderate optical thickness ({approx}few) to the laser radiation at early times during the laser pulse. Large differences in predictions of target performance by different codes were traced to the differences in the calculation of laser absorption, and this is discussed at length in the reports from UCSD. The first absolutely calibrated, time resolved L-shell emission spectra (from 4 to 26 {angstrom}) were also obtained in this series of experiments. The spectral resolution was not sufficient to match any individual spectral features. However, combined with the time resolution, it was sufficient to demonstrate that the emission shifted to lower photon energies later in time, consistent with the plasma recombining as it cooled. Simulations of these targets produced time-integrated emission in 3 different wavelength bands that matched the experimental measurements within a factor of three and provided a constraint on the average plasma temperature. The simulations also found rise times for the spectral bands similar to those actually observed. However, the highly non-uniform plasma conditions along with the poor spectral resolution did not place any detailed constraints on the NLTE modeling. The first set of experiments succeeded in mapping out the achievable plasma parameters and in identifying the major constraints and deficiencies due to target fabrication and experimental design. The second set of experiments was designed to provide increased spectral resolution, through modifications to the spectrometer, and increased plasma uniformity. Simulations predicted that illuminating the targets from two sides would provide good uniformity and still achieve the desired plasma temperatures with the decreased laser intensity achievable with th

Scott, H A

2010-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

60

Video: Microbial Bebop - "Fifty Degrees North, Four Degrees West" | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Video: Microbial Bebop - "Fifty Degrees North, Four Degrees West" Video: Microbial Bebop - "Fifty Degrees North, Four Degrees West" Share Topic Environment Biology Environmental biology Metagenomics This musical composition was created from data of microbes (bacteria, algae and other microorganisms) sampled in the English Channel. Argonne National Laboratory biologist Peter Larsen created the songs as a unique way to present and comprehend large datasets. More details: All of the data in this composition derives from twelve observed time points collected at monthly intervals at the L4 Station during 2007. The composition is composed of seven choruses. Each chorus has the same chord progression of 12 measures each in which chords are derived from monthly measures of temperature and chlorophyll A concentrations. The

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Absolute nuclear material assay using count distribution (LAMBDA) space  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

62

Heating Degree Day Data Applied to Residential Heating Energy Consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Site-specific total electric energy and heating oil consumption for individual residences show a very high correlation with National Weather Service airport temperature data when transformed to heating degree days. Correlations of regional total ...

Robert G. Quayle; Henry F. Diaz

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

2degrees | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

degrees degrees Jump to: navigation, search Name 2degrees Place Oxford, England, United Kingdom Zip OX2 7HT Product Oxford-based collaborative network provider for sustainability professionals. Coordinates 43.781517°, -89.571699° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.781517,"lon":-89.571699,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

64

The generation of HCl in the system NaCl-KCl-H{sub 2}O-quartz at 600{degrees}C: Implications regarding HCl in natural systems at lower temperatures  

SciTech Connect

In experiments at 600C in the system NaCI-KCI-H2O, within the analytical uncertainty, stoichiometric quantities of Cl and total alkali metals (Na+K) appear to dissolve in steam coexisting with chloride-rich brine at high pressures in the absence of solid salt. In contrast, at lower pressures, where steam coexists with precipitated salts, significant excess chloride as associated hydrogen chloride (HCI) dissolves in steam. The HCI appears to be generated by the reaction of solid NaCl(s) (halite) with steam, producing solid NaOH(s) that diffuses into halite, forming a solid solution. Where HCI is present highly associated NaOH as well as associated NaCI appear to dissolve in steam, and the solubility of each is increased as the mole fraction of NaOH(s) in halite increases. In our quasi-static experiments, compared to dynamic flow-through experiments of others, higher initial ratios of H2O/NaCI have resulted in higher mole fractions of NaOH(s) in solid solution in halite and, accordingly, higher solubilities of NaCI" and NaOH" dissolved in steam. Addition of quartz to the system NaCI-KCI-H2O results in the formation of sodium disilicate by reaction of silica with NaOH(s) and an order of magnitude increase in the concentration of HCl dissolved in steam. In natural hydrothermal systems at lower temperatures where brine or brine plus steam are present in the absence of precipitated salt, the pH of the brine is controlled mainly by base exchange reactions involving a variety of silicates that fix Na+/H+ and K+/H+ activity ratios. Where feldspars are present pH values generally are near neutral. Where mica, but no feldspar is present pH values may become only moderately acid. High acidity in salt-absent brine systems occurs only where all feldspars and mica have been altered to other minerals (generally pyrophyllite/ kaolinite or alunite). The situation changes significantly when salt precipitates. Hydrolysis produces HCI by the reaction of water with NaCl when halite is present. The NaOH(s) that is produced as a byproduct is likely to react with quartz plus various alumino-silicates, producing a variety of alteration products and allowing steam to become greatly enriched in HCl compared to the composition of steam that is attained in the simple system NaCI-KCI-H2O with halite present. Also, when a natural high-temperature hydrothermal system changes from one in which the pore fluid is brine to one in which the pore fluid is dry steam there is a drastic change in Na+/H+ and K+/H+ activity ratios in the pore fluid because the hydrogen ions that were predominantly dissociated species in the brine become predominantly associated species in steam. The net result is the stabilization of alkali feldspars in contact with steam that may contain appreciable HCI that is produced by the reaction of precipitated salt with the steam.

Fournier, Robert O.; Thompson, J. Michael

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

65

A Liquid-Helium-Cooled Absolute Reference Cold Load forLong-Wavelength Radiometric Calibration  

SciTech Connect

We describe a large (78-cm) diameter liquid-helium-cooled black-body absolute reference cold load for the calibration of microwave radiometers. The load provides an absolute calibration near the liquid helium (LHe) boiling point, accurate to better than 30 mK for wavelengths from 2.5 to 25 cm (12-1.2 GHz). The emission (from non-LHe temperature parts of the cold load) and reflection are small and well determined. Total corrections to the LHe boiling point temperature are {le} 50 mK over the operating range. This cold load has been used at several wavelengths at the South Pole and at the White Mountain Research Station. In operation, the average LHe loss rate was {le} 4.4 l/hr. Design considerations, radiometric and thermal performance and operational aspects are discussed. A comparison with other LHe-cooled reference loads including the predecessor of this cold load is given.

Bensadoun, M.; Witebsky, C.; Smoot, George F.; De Amici,Giovanni; Kogut, A.; Levin, S.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Testing the quasi-absolute method in photon activation analysis  

SciTech Connect

In photon activation analysis (PAA), relative methods are widely used because of their accuracy and precision. Absolute methods, which are conducted without any assistance from calibration materials, are seldom applied for the difficulty in obtaining photon flux in measurements. This research is an attempt to perform a new absolute approach in PAA - quasi-absolute method - by retrieving photon flux in the sample through Monte Carlo simulation. With simulated photon flux and database of experimental cross sections, it is possible to calculate the concentration of target elements in the sample directly. The QA/QC procedures to solidify the research are discussed in detail. Our results show that the accuracy of the method for certain elements is close to a useful level in practice. Furthermore, the future results from the quasi-absolute method can also serve as a validation technique for experimental data on cross sections. The quasi-absolute method looks promising.

Sun, Z. J. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Wells, D. [Physics Department, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, 501 E. Saint Joseph St. Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States); Starovoitova, V.; Segebade, C. [Idaho Accelerator Center, Idaho State University, 921 S. 8th Ave. Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

67

3Degrees | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Degrees Degrees Jump to: navigation, search Logo: 3Degrees Name 3Degrees Address 2 Embarcadero Center Suite 2950 Place San Francisco, California Zip 94111 Sector Bioenergy, Buildings, Carbon, Geothermal energy, Services, Solar, Wind energy Product Environmental Commodities Year founded 2007 Number of employees 51-200 Phone number 415.449.0500 Website http://www.3degreesinc.com/ Coordinates 37.7983181°, -122.4000032° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":37.7983181,"lon":-122.4000032,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

68

Engineering and design Taught degrees  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Mechanical Engineering MSc in Satellite Communication Systems MSc in Sustainable Energy Technology Research, mathematics, physics or an applied science. Also refer to Applicant profile, listed with relevant course in Mechanical Engineering, the MSc in Sustainable Energy Technology or a research degree, we must receive your

Sussex, University of

69

Thermal disconnect for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A new type of high temperature thermal disconnect has been developed to protect electrical and mechanical equipment from damage caused by operation at extreme temperatures. These thermal disconnects allow continuous operation at temperatures ranging from 250.degree. C. to 450.degree. C., while rapidly terminating operation at temperatures 50.degree. C. to 150.degree. C. higher than the continuous operating temperature.

Jungst, Rudolph George (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James Rudolph (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel Richard (Austin, TX)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Absolute Timing of the Crab Pulsar with RXTE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have monitored the phase of the main X-ray pulse of the Crab pulsar with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) for almost eight years, since the start of the mission in January 1996. The absolute time of RXTE's clock is sufficiently accurate to allow this phase to be compared directly with the radio profile. Our monitoring observations of the pulsar took place bi-weekly (during the periods when it was at least 30 degrees from the Sun) and we correlated the data with radio timing ephemerides derived from observations made at Jodrell Bank. We have determined the phase of the X-ray main pulse for each observation with a typical error in the individual data points of 50 us. The total ensemble is consistent with a phase that is constant over the monitoring period, with the X-ray pulse leading the radio pulse by 0.0102+/-0.0012 period in phase, or 344+/-40 us in time. The error estimate is dominated by a systematic error of 40 us in the radio data, arising from uncertainties in the variable amount of pulse delay due to interstellar scattering and instrumental calibration. The statistical error is 0.00015 period, or 5 us. The separation of the main pulse and interpulse appears to be unchanging at time scales of a year or less, with an average value of 0.4001+/-0.0002 period. There is no apparent variation in these values with energy over the 2-30 keV range. The lag between the radio and X-ray pulses may be constant in phase (rotational) or constant in time (linear pathlength). We are not (yet) able to distinguish between these two interpretations.

Arnold H. Rots; Keith Jahoda; Andrew G. Lyne

2004-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

71

Six degree of freedom sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing.

Vann, Charles S. (Fremont, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Six degree of freedom sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This small, non-contact optical sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines by detecting its relative position to a workpiece in all six degrees of freedom (DOF). At a fraction of the cost, it is over 200 times faster and up to 25 times more accurate than competing 3-DOF sensors. Applications range from flexible manufacturing to a 6-DOF mouse for computers. Until now, highly agile and accurate machines have been limited by their inability to adjust to changes in their tasks. By enabling them to sense all six degrees of position, these machines can now adapt to new and complicated tasks without human intervention or delay--simplifying production, reducing costs, and enhancing the value and capability of flexible manufacturing. 3 figs.

Vann, C.S.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

73

Moist Absolute Instability: The Sixth Static Stability State  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is argued that a sixth static stability state, moist absolute instability, can be created and maintained over mesoscale areas of the atmosphere. Examination of over 130 000 soundings and a numerical simulation of an observed event are employed ...

George H. Bryan; Michael J. Fritsch

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

First Observations of Microbaroms with Single Absolute Barometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The first observations of microbaroms with single absolute barometers are presented and discussed. Microbaroms are pulses of atmospheric infrasound emitted by ocean surface waves. They can propagate over thousands of kilometers through the ...

Ganesh K. Subramanian; Andreas Muschinski

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF  

SciTech Connect

A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

77

Method to obtain absolute impurity density profiles combining charge exchange and beam emission spectroscopy without absolute intensity calibration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Investigation of impurity transport properties in tokamak plasmas is essential and a diagnostic that can provide information on the impurity content is required. Combining charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES), absolute radial profiles of impurity densities can be obtained from the CXRS and BES intensities, electron density and CXRS and BES emission rates, without requiring any absolute calibration of the spectra. The technique is demonstrated here with absolute impurity density radial profiles obtained in TEXTOR plasmas, using a high efficiency charge exchange spectrometer with high etendue, that measures the CXRS and BES spectra along the same lines-of-sight, offering an additional advantage for the determination of absolute impurity densities.

Kappatou, A.; Delabie, E. [FOM Institute DIFFER - Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jaspers, R. J. E.; Jakobs, M. A. [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Marchuk, O.; Biel, W. [Institute for Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, 52425 Julich (Germany)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Low temperature cryoprobe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Statistical comparison of the effect of relative and absolute humidity on fixed-bed carbon adsorption capacity. Report for January 1987-July 1988  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes statistical methods used to evaluate data for toluene (at several typical operating temperatures and humidity levels) and to determine which measure of humidity (relative or absolute) is more important in determining carbon adsorption efficiency. The water content of a solvent-laden stream is critical for its control via carbon adsorption, especially at relative humidities about 50-70%. (Relative humidity is the percent of saturation: absolute humidity is the total water content.)

Dunn, J.E.; Nunez, C.; Kosusko, M.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Estimated Seasonal Cycle of North Atlantic Eighteen Degree Water Volume  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The seasonal cycle in the volume and formation rate of Eighteen Degree Water (EDW) in the North Atlantic is quantified over the 3-yr period from 2004 to 2006. The EDW layer is defined as all waters that have a temperature between 17 and 19C. ...

Gal Forget; Guillaume Maze; Martha Buckley; John Marshall

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Absolute Calibration of Analog Detectors by using Parametric Down Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we report our systematic study of a promising absolute calibration technique of analog photo-detectors, based on the properties of parametric down conversion. Our formal results and a preliminary uncertainty analysis show that the proposed method can be effectively developed with interesting applications to metrology.

Giorgio Brida; Maria Chekhova; Marco Genovese; Alexander Penin; Maria Luisa Rastello; Ivano Ruo-Berchera

2007-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

82

Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three standard reference materials, flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, were analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Absolute Calibration of a Large-diameter Light Source  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method of absolute calibration for large aperture optical systems is presented, using the example of the Pierre Auger Observatory fluorescence detectors. A 2.5 m diameter light source illuminated by an ultra--violet light emitting diode is calibrated with an overall uncertainty of 2.1 % at a wavelength of 365 nm.

Brack, J T; Dorofeev, A; Gookin, B; Harton, J L; Petrov, Y; Rovero, A C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis

Filippetto, D; Zolotorev, Max Samuil; Stupakov, G V

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

EFFECT OF DENTAL POLYMER DEGREE OF CONVERSION ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effect of Dental Polymer Degree of Conversion on Oral Biofilms. Alison Kraigsley, Sheng Lin-Gibson, Nancy J. Lin. National ...

86

New concept for quantification of similarity relates entropy and energy of objects: First and Second Law entangled, equivalence of temperature and time proposed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the difference between changes in energy and entropy at a given temperature is correlated with the ratio between the same changes in energy and entropy at zero average free energy of an ensemble of similar but distinct molecule-sized objects, a highly significant linear dependence results from which a relationship between energy and entropy is derived and the degree of similarity between the distinctly different members within the group of objects can be quantified. This fundamental energy-entropy relationship is likely to be of general interest in physics, most notably in particle physics and cosmology. We predict a consistent and testable way of classifying mini black holes, to be generated in future Large Hadron Collider experiments, by their gravitational energy and area entropy. For any isolated universe we propose absolute temperature and absolute time to be equivalent, much in the same way as energy and entropy are for an isolated ensemble of similar objects. According to this principle, the cosmo...

Zimak, Petr; Strazewski, Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Absolute calibration of Analog Detectors using Stimulated Parametric Down Conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spontaneous parametric down conversion has been largely exploited as a tool for absolute calibration of photon counting detectors, photomultiplier tubes or avalanche photodiodes working in Geiger regime. In this work we investigate the extension of this technique from very low photon flux of photon counting regime to the absolute calibration of analog photodetectors at higher photon flux. Moving toward higher photon rate, i.e. at high gain regime, with the spontaneous parametric down conversion shows intrinsic limitations of the method, while the stimulated parametric down conversion process, where a seed beam properly injected into the crystal in order to increase the photon generation rate in the conjugate arm, allows us to work around this problem. A preliminary uncertainty budget is discussed.

G. Brida; M. Chekhova; M. Genovese; M. L. Rastello; I. Ruo-Berchera

2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

88

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements by Incoherent Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and successfully tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the rms bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC; Zolotorev, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Filippetto, D.; /INFN, Rome; Jagerhofer, L.; /Vienna, Tech. U.

2009-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

89

Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Organic Solar Cells: Absolute Measurement of Domain Composition and Nanoscale Size Distribution Explains Performance in Solar Cells Print Tuesday, 22 January 2013 00:00 This front cover represents the morphology and resulting device dynamics in organic solar cell blend films of PTB7 and PC71BM, as revealed by combined resonant x-ray scattering and microscopy done at the Advanced Light Source. Harald Ade and co-workers find that the fullerene molecules (red) are miscible in the polymer (blue) up to 30 wt.%, above which they begin to agglomerate (bottom). This agglomeration is important for the optoelectronic processes within the device, but the agglomerates must be kept to small sizes by the solvent processing additive diiodooctane (DIO). Correlation of this morphology with the spectrally resolved quantum efficiency shows that the yellow excitons created upon photoabsorption must arrive at the agglomerate interface for charge separation to occur. The blue electrons and green holes can then percolate through appropriate molecules in the mixed matrix to the electrodes for harvesting of electrical energy. Article Link (PDF)

90

Absolute photoionization cross-section of the propargyl radical  

SciTech Connect

Using synchrotron-generated vacuum-ultraviolet radiation and multiplexed time-resolved photoionization mass spectrometry we have measured the absolute photoionization cross-section for the propargyl (C{sub 3}H{sub 3}) radical, {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(E), relative to the known absolute cross-section of the methyl (CH{sub 3}) radical. We generated a stoichiometric 1:1 ratio of C{sub 3}H{sub 3} : CH{sub 3} from 193 nm photolysis of two different C{sub 4}H{sub 6} isomers (1-butyne and 1,3-butadiene). Photolysis of 1-butyne yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(26.1{+-}4.2) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(23.4{+-}3.2) Mb, whereas photolysis of 1,3-butadiene yielded values of {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.213 eV)=(23.6{+-}3.6) Mb and {sigma}{sub propargyl}{sup ion}(10.413 eV)=(25.1{+-}3.5) Mb. These measurements place our relative photoionization cross-section spectrum for propargyl on an absolute scale between 8.6 and 10.5 eV. The cross-section derived from our results is approximately a factor of three larger than previous determinations.

Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Combustion Research Facility, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Soorkia, Satchin [Institut des Sciences Moleculaires d'Orsay, Universite Paris-Sud 11, Orsay (France); Selby, Talitha M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Washington County Campus, West Bend, Wisconsin 53095 (United States)

2012-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

91

JOINT DEGREE PROGRAM LEADING TO THE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

programs prior to beginning their graduate work. If a student decides to enter the combined program after with advanced work may be admitted to the Graduate School through the Graduate Program in Urban PlanningJOINT DEGREE PROGRAM LEADING TO THE MASTER OF URBAN PLANNING AND MASTER OF ARTS IN GEOGRAPHY DEGREE

Peterson, Blake R.

92

Combining Inverted Echo Sounder and Horizontal Electric Field Recorder Measurements to Obtain Absolute Velocity Profiles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Profiles of absolute velocity are difficult to obtain in the ocean, especially over long periods of time at the same location. This paper presents a method of estimating full water column absolute horizontal velocity profiles as a function of ...

Christopher S. Meinen; Douglas S. Luther; D. Randolph Watts; Karen L. Tracey; Alan D. Chave; James Richman

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

High temperature furnace  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

Borkowski, Casimer J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

94

Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

95

Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

2007-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

97

Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method of differential-phase/absolute-amplitude QAM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of quadrature amplitude modulation involving encoding phase differentially and amplitude absolutely, allowing for a high data rate and spectral efficiency in data transmission and other communication applications, and allowing for amplitude scaling to facilitate data recovery; amplitude scale tracking to track-out rapid and severe scale variations and facilitate successful demodulation and data retrieval; 2.sup.N power carrier recovery; incoherent demodulation where coherent carrier recovery is not possible or practical due to signal degradation; coherent demodulation; multipath equalization to equalize frequency dependent multipath; and demodulation filtering.

Dimsdle, Jeffrey William (Overland Park, KS)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

99

Precision Absolute Beam Current Measurement of Low Power Electron Beam  

SciTech Connect

Precise measurements of low power CW electron beam current for the Jefferson Lab Nuclear Physics program have been performed using a Tungsten calorimeter. This paper describes the rationale for the choice of the calorimeter technique, as well as the design and calibration of the device. The calorimeter is in use presently to provide a 1% absolute current measurement of CW electron beam with 50 to 500 nA of average beam current and 1-3 GeV beam energy. Results from these recent measurements will also be presented.

Ali, M. M.; Bevins, M. E.; Degtiarenko, P.; Freyberger, A.; Krafft, G. A.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Measuring the absolute deuterium-tritium neutron yield using the magnetic recoil spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Knauer, J. P.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, UR, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Bionta, R. M.; Bleuel, D. L.; Doeppner, T.; Glenzer, S.; Hartouni, E.; Hatchett, S. P.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; MacKinnon, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Absolute motion Galilean relativity (hence Einsteins) not correct  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of relativity of motion was first introduced by Galileo. In his principle of invariance he stated that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames. He used the Galileos ship thought experiment in his argument, among other arguments. This principle of invariance was then modified by Einstein (special relativity), which included the speed of light to be invariant in all inertial frames. Therefore, the relativity theory we know today is based on Galileos principle of invariance. There is no sound argument yet in support of relativity of motion. Simply because an observer hasnt been able to identify between illusion of motion and real motion cannot be taken as a sound argument to support relativity of motion. However, in the usual arguments of relativity of motion, to detect absolute motion is difficult. In this paper, a sound argument against Galileos principle of invariance will be presented, which will prove the notion of absolute motion to be correct and disprove relativity of motion, both Galileos and Einsteins. Discussion Imagine two hypothetical identical solar systems in space, initially at rest relative to each other, separated by some distance, with an observer in each solar system. For simplicity, assume that each solar system has one sun and one planet only, the two solar systems do not affect each other, and that the planetary orbits are both circular.

Henok Tadesse; Electrical Engineer

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

The Absolute Magnitude of RRc Variables From Statistical Parallax  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first definitive measurement of the absolute magnitude of RR Lyrae c-type variable stars (RRc) determined purely from statistical parallax. We use a sample of 247 RRc selected from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) for which high-quality light curves, photometry and proper motions are available. We obtain high-resolution echelle spectra for these objects to determine radial velocities and abundances as part of the Carnegie RR Lyrae Survey (CARRS). We find that M_(V,RRc) = 0.52 +/- 0.11 at a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.59. This is to be compared with previous estimates for RRab stars (M_(V,RRab) = 0.75 +/- 0.13 and the only direct measurement of an RRc absolute magnitude (RZ Cephei, M_(V, RRc) = 0.27 +/- 0.17). We find the bulk velocity of the halo to be (W_pi, W_theta, W_z) = (10.9,34.9,7.2) km/s in the radial, rotational and vertical directions with dispersions (sigma_(W_pi), sigma_(W_theta), sigma_(W_z)) = (154.7, 103.6, 93.8) km/s. For the disk, we find (W_pi, W_theta, W_z) = (8.5, 213...

Kollmeier, Juna A; Burns, Christopher R; Gould, Andrew; Thompson, Ian B; Preston, George W; Sneden, Christopher; Crane, Jeffrey D; Dong, Subo; Madore, Barry F; Morrell, Nidia; Prieto, Jose L; Shectman, Stephen; Simon, Joshua D; Villanueva, Edward

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

International Conservation Emphasis Resource Conservation Degree  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Conservation Emphasis Resource Conservation Degree Faculty Advisors Steve Siebert) 243-6062, Office: CHCB 467 Goals The International Conservation emphasis is an interdisciplinary course of study that addresses opportunities and constraints to the use, management and conservation

Crone, Elizabeth

104

The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF  

SciTech Connect

The neutron spectrum produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) inertial confinement fusion implosions contains a wealth of information about implosion performance including the DT yield, ion-temperature, and areal-density. The Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute neutron spectrum from 3 to 30 MeV at OMEGA and 3 to 36 MeV at the NIF. These measurements have been used to diagnose the performance of cryogenic target implosions to unprecedented accuracy. Interpretation of MRS data requires a detailed understanding of the MRS response and background. This paper describes ab initio characterization of the system involving Monte Carlo simulations of the MRS response in addition to the commission experiments for in situ calibration of the systems on OMEGA and the NIF.

Casey, D. T.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Seguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu.; Katz, J.; Magoon, J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M.; Ulreich, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Ashabranner, R. C.; Bionta, R. M.; Carpenter, A. C.; Felker, B.; Khater, H. Y.; LePape, S.; MacKinnon, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Absolute Current Calibrations of 1muA CW Electron Beam  

SciTech Connect

The future experimental program at Jefferson Lab requires an absolute current calibration of a 1{mu}A CW electron beam to better than 1% accuracy. This paper presents the mechanical and electrical design of a Tungsten calorimeter that is being constructed to provide an accurate measurement of the deposited energy. The energy is determined by measuring the change in temperature after beam exposure. Knowledge of the beam energy then yields number of electrons stopped by the calorimeter during the exposure. Simulations show that the energy losses due to electromagnetic and hadronic losses are the dominant uncertainty. Details of the precision thermometry and calibration, mechanical design, thermal simulations and GEANT simulations will be presented.

A. Freyberger, M.E. Bevins, A.R. Day, P. Degtiarenko, A. Saha, S. Slachtouski, R. Gilman

2005-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

106

Using Absolute Humidity and Radiochemical Analyses of Water Vapor Samples to Correct Underestimated Atmospheric Tritium Concentrations  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) emits a wide variety of radioactive air contaminants. An extensive ambient air monitoring network, known as AIRNET, is operated on-site and in surrounding communities to estimate radioactive doses to the public. As part of this monitoring network, water vapor is sampled continuously at more than 50 sites. These water vapor samples are collected every two weeks by absorbing the water vapor in the sampled air with silica gel and then radiochemically analyzing the water for tritium. The data have consistently indicated that LANL emissions cause a small, but measurable impact on local concentrations of tritium. In early 1998, while trying to independently verify the presumed 100% water vapor collection efficiency, the author found that this efficiency was normally lower and reached a minimum of 10 to 20% in the middle of summer. This inefficient collection was discovered by comparing absolute humidity (g/m{sup 3}) calculated from relative humidity and temperature to the amount of water vapor collected by the silica gel per cubic meter of air sampled. Subsequent experiments confirmed that the elevated temperature inside the louvered housing was high enough to reduce the capacity of the silica gel by more than half. In addition, their experiments also demonstrated that, even under optimal conditions, there is not enough silica gel present in the sampling canister to absorb all of the moisture during the higher humidity periods. However, there is a solution to this problem. Ambient tritium concentrations have been recalculated by using the absolute humidity values and the tritium analyses. These recalculated tritium concentrations were two to three times higher than previously reported. Future tritium concentrations will also be determined in the same manner. Finally, the water vapor collection process will be changed by relocating the sampling canister outside the housing to increase collection efficiency and, therefore, comparability to the true ambient concentrations of tritium.

Eberhart, C.F.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Absolute Transports of Mass and Temperature for the North Atlantic Current Subpolar Front System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The flow of subtropical waters carried into the northern North Atlantic Ocean by the North Atlantic Current subpolar front system (NACSPF) is an important component of the meridional overturning circulation. These waters become colder and ...

Paula Prez-Brunius; Tom Rossby; D. Randolph Watts

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Low temperature cryoprobe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

Sungaila, Z.F.

1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

109

On the RMS Anisotropy at 7 degrees and 10 degrees Observed in the COBE-DMR Two Year Sky Maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The frequency-independent RMS temperature fluctuations determined from the COBE-DMR two year sky maps are used to infer the parameter Q_{rms-PS}, which characterizes the normalization of power law models of primordial cosmological temperature anisotropy. In particular, a 'cross'-RMS statistic is used to determine Q_{rms-PS} for a forced fit to a scale-invariant Harrison-Zel'dovich (n = 1) spectral model. Using a joint analysis of the 7 degree and 10 degree RMS temperature derived from both the 53 and 90 GHz sky maps, we find Q_{rms-PS} = 17.0^{+2.5}_{-2.1} uK when the low quadrupole is included, and Q_{rms-PS} = 19.4^{+2.3}_{-2.1} uK excluding the quadrupole. These results are consistent with the n = 1 fits from more sensitive methods (e.g. power spectrum, correlation function). The effect of the low quadrupole derived from the COBE-DMR data on the inferred Q_{rms-PS} normalization is investigated. A bias to lower Q_{rms-PS} is found when the quadrupole is included. The higher normalization for a forced n = 1 fit is then favored by the cross-RMS technique. As initially pointed out in Wright et al. (1994a) and further discussed here, analytic formulae for the RMS sky temperature fluctuations will NOT provide the correct normalization amplitude.

A. J. Banday; K. M. Gorski; L. Tenorio; E. L. Wright; G. F. Smoot; C. H. Lineweaver; A. Kogut; G. Hinshaw; C. L. Bennett

1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

110

Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through a screen at least partially opaque at the wavelength. The screen has an aperture sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector spaced some distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam as well as a set of intensities displaced from a center of the aperture. The distance from the source to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, and beam intensity.

Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Allison, Stephen W [Knoxville, TN; Cates, Michael R [Oak Ridge, TN; Sanders, Alvin J [Knoxville, TN

2002-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

111

Full field imaging based instantaneous hyperspectral absolute refractive index measurement  

SciTech Connect

Multispectral refractometers typically measure refractive index (RI) at discrete monochromatic wavelengths via a serial process. We report on the demonstration of a white light full field imaging based refractometer capable of instantaneous multispectral measurement of absolute RI of clear liquid/gel samples across the entire visible light spectrum. The broad optical bandwidth refractometer is capable of hyperspectral measurement of RI in the range 1.30 1.70 between 400nm 700nm with a maximum error of 0.0036 units (0.24% of actual) at 414nm for a = 1.50 sample. We present system design and calibration method details as well as results from a system validation sample.

Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE TRIPLE STAR CF TAURI  

SciTech Connect

CF Tau is now known to be an eclipsing triple star with relatively deep total and annular eclipses. New light and radial velocity curves as well as new times of minima were obtained and used for further modeling of the system. Very accurate (better than 0.9%) masses and radii of the eclipsing pair are determined from analysis of the two new light curves, the radial velocity curve, and the times of minimum light. The mass and luminosity of the distant third component is accurately determined as well. Theoretical models of the detached, evolved eclipsing pair match the observed absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 4.3 Gyr and [Fe/H] = -0.14.

Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Claret, Antonio, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: claret@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apdo. Postal 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE ECLIPSING BINARY STAR V335 SERPENTIS  

SciTech Connect

V335 Ser is now known to be an eccentric double-lined A1+A3 binary star with fairly deep (0.5 mag) partial eclipses. Previous studies of the system are improved with 7456 differential photometric observations from the URSA WebScope and 5666 from the NFO WebScope, and 67 high-resolution spectroscopic observations from the Tennessee State University 2 m automatic spectroscopic telescope. From dates of minima, the apsidal period is about 880 years. Accurate (better than 2%) masses and radii are determined from analysis of the two new light curves and the radial velocity curve. Theoretical models match the absolute properties of the stars at an age of about 380 Myr, though the age agreement for the two components is poor. Tidal theory correctly confirms that the orbit should still be eccentric, but we find that standard tidal theory is unable to match the observed asynchronous rotation rates of the components' surface layers.

Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Physics Department, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Fekel, Francis C. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Claret, Antonio, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: fekel@evans.tsuniv.edu, E-mail: claret@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apdo. Postal 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Yeast and Temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Yeast and Temperature Yeast and Temperature Name: Alyssaaum Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: How does temperature affect yeast? Replies: Dear Alyssa, At low temperatures (0-10 C) yeast will not grow, but not die either. At temperatures 10-37 C yeast will grow and multiply, faster at higher temperatures with an optimal growth at 30 or 37 C (that depends on the species). At higher temperature the cells become stressed, meaning that their content becomes damaged and which can be repaired to some degree. At high temperatures (>50 C) the cells die. The bacteria can survive freezing under certain conditions. When baking bread all yeast dies during the process. Dr. Trudy Wassenaar yeast is a unique type of fungi that grows quickly by rapid cell division. It grows best at about 100 degrees fahrenheit, colder will cause it to go dormant, much warmer could kill it

115

Commissioning of SLAC SLD 45-Degree Chambers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The SLD experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center had a significant gap in its muon tracking coverage, provided by the Warm Iron Calorimeter. Supplemental planes of limited streamer tube chambers were added to improve the coverage in the vicinity of the gap at 0.65 commissioning of the forty-five degree chamber region of the SLAC SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter is presented. This task involved the completion of the forty-five degree chamber region geometry for the Warm Iron Calorimeter's fitter and swimmer and the changing of the way multiple scattering effects are treated in the fitter algorithm.

V. O. Eschenburg

2002-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Climate: monthly and annual average cooling degree days above...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

at one-degree resolution of the World from NASASSE

(Abstract):
Cooling Degree Days above 10 C (degree days)
The monthly accumulation of degrees when...

117

Estimates of Spatial Degrees of Freedom  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial degrees of freedom (dof) of atmospheric flows are estimated by comparing the variance of the theoretical standardized chi-squared distribution with the sum of the squared eigenvalues of a spatial correlation matrix, dof = N2/?I = 1N?i...

Klaus Fraedrich; Christine Ziehmann; Frank Sielmann

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Method and apparatus for making absolute range measurements  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to a method and apparatus for making absolute distance or ranging measurements using Fresnel diffraction. The invention employs a source of electromagnetic radiation having a known wavelength or wavelength distribution, which sends a beam of electromagnetic radiation through an object which causes it to be split (hereinafter referred to as a "beamsplitter"), and then to a target. The beam is reflected from the target onto a screen containing an aperture spaced a known distance from the beamsplitter. The aperture is sized so as to produce a Fresnel diffraction pattern. A portion of the beam travels through the aperture to a detector, spaced a known distance from the screen. The detector detects the central intensity of the beam. The distance from the object which causes the beam to be split to the target can then be calculated based upon the known wavelength, aperture radius, beam intensity, and distance from the detector to the screen. Several apparatus embodiments are disclosed for practicing the method embodiments of the present invention.

Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Key, William S. (Knoxville, TN); Sanders, Alvin J. (Knoxville, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1994: Appendixes  

SciTech Connect

This survey is designed to include those programs sponsored by the Department of Energy. The survey is designed to include those programs offering a major in nuclear engineering or course work equivalent to a major in other engineering disciplines that prepare the graduates to perform as nuclear engineers. This survey provides data on nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees for use in labor market analyses, information on education programs for students, and information on new graduates to employers, government agencies, academia and professional societies.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

SAGBO Mechanism on High Temperature Cracking Behavior of Ni ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

mode I stress intensity factor, Q is the activation energy, R is the universal gas constant and T is the absolute temperature. Accordingly, a plot of log (da/dt)...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Climate: monthly and annual average cooling degree days above 10° C GIS  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

cooling degree days above 10° C GIS cooling degree days above 10° C GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Cooling Degree Days above 10° C (degree days)The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is above 10° C.NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly Average & Annual Sum (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Cooling Degree Days Above 10 degrees C (degree days)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180,

122

Climate: monthly and annual average heating degree days below 18° C GIS  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

heating degree days below 18° C GIS heating degree days below 18° C GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Heating Degree Days below 18° C (degree days)The monthly accumulation of degrees when the daily mean temperature is below 18° C.NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly Average & Annual Sum (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Heating Degree Days Below 18 degrees C (degree days)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180,

123

Near-threshold absolute angle-differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of argon and xenon  

SciTech Connect

Absolute angle-differential cross sections for electron-impact excitation of argon and xenon atoms to the lowest four np{sup 5}(n+1)s levels, and the 5p{sup 5}5d[7/2]{sub 3} level in xenon, have been measured and calculated as a function of electron energy up to a few eV above threshold at a fixed scattering angle of 135 degree sign . For argon, very good agreement is observed between the experimental data and predictions from a Breit-Pauli B-spline R-matrix (BSR) method, in which nonorthogonal orbital sets are used to optimize the target description. The agreement is still satisfactory for the more complex xenon target, suggesting that predictions from the BSR model should already be sufficiently accurate for many modeling applications. Nevertheless, the remaining discrepancies indicate the need for further refinement of the theoretical model.

Allan, M.; Zatsarinny, O.; Bartschat, K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Fribourg (Switzerland); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311 (United States)

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

124

Observed Changes in Return Values of Annual Temperature Extremes over Argentina  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Extreme temperature events are one of the most studied extreme events since their occurrence has a huge impact on society. In this study, the frequency of occurrence of absolute extreme temperature events in Argentina is analyzed. Four annual ...

Matilde Rusticucci; Brbara Tencer

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Nonlinear conformal-degree preserving Dirac equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nonlinear Dirac equations in D+1 space-time are obtained by variation of the spinor action whose Lagrangian components have the same conformal degree and the coupling parameter of the self-interaction term is dimensionless. In 1+1 dimension, we show that these requirements result in the "conventional" quartic form of the nonlinear interaction and present the general equation for various coupling modes. These include, but not limited to, the Thirring and Gross-Neveu models. We obtain a numerical solution for the special case of the spin and pseudo-spin symmetric modes..

A. D. Alhaidari

2012-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

126

Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics method for the absolute free energy of liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Free volume hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics method for the absolute free energy of liquids for calculating the absolute entropy, S, and free energy, F, by analyzing Boltzmann samples obtained by Monte. In this paper we remove the excluded volume EV restriction, replacing it by a "free volume" FV approach

Meirovitch, Hagai

127

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: Degree Day Reports  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reports Degree Day Reports image Quick and easy web-based tool that provides free historical degree days for 1,200 stations in the U.S. and Canada, 1994 to present. Degree Day...

128

The Euclidean Distance Degree of an Algebraic Variety  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

polynomials F1,...,Fc of degrees d1,...,dc whose variety has ED degree larger than (2.8). ...... Rekha Thomas, University of Washington, Box 354350, Seattle, WA...

129

On degree bounds for separating invariants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let a group $G$ act on a finite dimensional vector space $V$ over an algebraically closed field $K$ of characteristic $p$. Then $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)$ is the minimal number such that, for any $V$, the invariants of degree less or equal than this number have the same separating properties as the whole invariant ring $K[V]^{G}$. Derksen and Kemper have shown $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)\\le |G|$. We show $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)=|G|$ for $p$-groups and cyclic groups, and $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)=\\infty$ for infinite unipotent groups. We also show $\\beta_{\\sep}(G)\\le \\beta_{\\sep}(G/N)\\beta_{\\sep}(N)$ for a normal divisor $N$ of finite index.

Kohls, Martin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Low temperature proton conducting oxide devices  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for conducting protons at a temperature below 550.degree. C. includes a LAMOX ceramic body characterized by an alpha crystalline structure.

Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN); Payzant, Edward A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Speakman, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Greenblatt, Martha (Highland Park, NJ)

2008-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

131

Multiple-degree-of-freedom vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-degree-of-freedom vehicle employs a compliant linkage to accommodate the need for a variation in the distance between drive wheels or drive systems which are independently steerable and drivable. The subject vehicle is provided with rotary encodes to provide signals representative of the orientation of the steering pivot associated with each such drive wheel or system, and a linear encoder which issues a signal representative of the fluctuations in the distance between the drive elements. The wheels of the vehicle are steered and driven in response to the linear encoder signal, there being provided a controller system for minimizing the fluctuations in the distance. The controller system is a software implementation of a plurality of controllers, operating at the chassis level and at the vehicle level. A trajectory interpolator receives x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals and produces to the vehicle level controller trajectory signals corresponding to interpolated control signals. The x-displacement, y-displacement, and .theta.-displacement signals are received from a human operator, via a manipulable joy stick.

Borenstein, Johann (Ann Arbor, MI)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Absolute Spectral Irradiance Measurements of Lightning from 375 to 880 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectrometer-detector optical multichannel analyzer system capable of absolute spectral irradiance measurements has been used to record the time-integrated emissions (150 or 300 ms) from cloud-to-ground lightning. Two detectors, one operating ...

Richard E. Orville; Ronald W. Henderson

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

An Improved Gaussian Jet Model for Deriving Absolute Geostrophic Velocity from Satellite Altimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Key aspects of a Gaussian jet model for deriving absolute geostrophic velocity from TOPEX/Poseidon altimeter data are improved. Velocities are obtained by synthesizing Gaussian fits to cross-stream velocity anomaly profiles of the Kuroshio and ...

Seung-Bum Kim; M. A. Saunders

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

White-light scanning interferometer for absolute nano-scale gap thickness measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A special configuration of white-light scanning interferometer is described for measuring the absolute air gap thickness between two planar plates brought into close proximity. The measured gap is not located in any ...

Xu, Zhiguang

135

The magnetic recoil spectrometer for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the NIF D. T. Casey, J. A. Frenje, M. Gatu Johnson, F. H. Séguin, C. K. Li et al. Citation: Rev. Sci for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum at OMEGA and the NIF D. T. Casey,1,a) J. A. Frenje,1 M. Gatu used at both the OMEGA laser facility and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the absolute

136

The degree and connectivity of Internet's scale-free topology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we theoretically and empirically study the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at the autonomous system (AS) level. The basic features of the scale-free network have influence on the normalization constant of the degree distribution p(k). We develop a mathematics model of the Internet's scale-free topology. On this model we theoretically get the formulas of the average degree, the ratios of the kmin-degree (minimum degree) nodes and the kmax-degree (maximum degree) nodes, the fraction of the degrees (or links) in the hands of the richer (top best-connected) nodes. We find the average degree is larger for smaller power-law exponent {\\lambda} and larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the kmin-degree nodes is larger for larger {\\lambda} and smaller kmin or kmax. The ratio of the kmax-degree ones is larger for smaller {\\lambda} and kmax or larger kmin. The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of the AS-level Internet topology. In addition, we reveal the rati...

Zhang, Lianming; Yu, Jianping; Wu, Xiangsheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

ORISE: Report shows number of health physics degrees for 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORISE report shows number of health physics degrees increased for graduates, decreased for undergraduates in 2010 Decreased number of B.S. degrees remains higher than levels in the...

138

Health Physics Enrollents and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data  

SciTech Connect

This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2004 Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This annual report details the the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 28 U.S. universities in 2004.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005.

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data  

SciTech Connect

This annual report details the number of nuclear engineering bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. it also looks at nuclear engineering degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in nuclear engineering degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005.

Oak RIdge Institute for Science and Education

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Pore geometry in woven fiber structures: 0{degree}/90{degree} plain-weave cloth layup preform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Composite preform fiber architectures range from the very simple to the complex, and the extremes are typified by parallel continuous fibers and complicated three-dimensional woven structures. Subsequent processing of these preforms to produce dense composites may depend critically on the geometry of the interfiber porosity. The goal of this study is to fully characterize the structure of a 0{degree}/90{degree} cloth layup preform using x-ray tomographic microscopy (XTM). This characterization includes the measurement of intercloth channel widths and their variability, the transverse distribution of through-cloth holes, and the distribution of preform porosity. The structure of the intercloth porosity depends critically on the magnitude and direction of the offset between adjacent cloth layers. The structures observed include two-dimensional networks of open pipes linking adjacent holes, arrays of parallel one-dimensional pipes linking holes, and relatively closed channels exhibiting little structure, and these different structures would appear to offer very different resistances to gas flow through the preform. These measurements, and future measurements for different fiber architectures, will yield improved understanding of the role of preform structure on processing. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

Lee, S. [Republic of Korea Army Headquarters, Chungnam, Nonsan, Duma Namson (Republic of Korea); Stock, S.R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia30332-0245 (United States); Butts, M.D. [Chicago Bridge and Iron, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Starr, T.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia30332-0245 (United States); Breunig, T.M. [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of California, San Francisco, California94143-0758 (United States); Kinney, J.H. [Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California94550 (United States)

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

ORISE: Report shows number of health physics degrees for 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

report shows number of health physics degrees increased for report shows number of health physics degrees increased for graduates, decreased for undergraduates in 2010 Decreased number of B.S. degrees remains higher than levels in the early 2000 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Dec. 20, 2011 FY12-09 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-The number of health physics graduate degrees increased for both master's and doctoral candidates in 2010, but decreased for bachelor's degrees, says a report released this year by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education. The ORISE report, Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2010 Data, surveyed 24 academic programs with enrollment and degree data and included students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major, such as other health physics-based programs embedded in life

144

Nuclear Engingeering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SURVEY UNIVERSE SURVEY UNIVERSE The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007, and August 31, 2008, and fall 2008 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2008, and data was provided by all thirty-one programs. DEGREE DATA Bachelor's Degrees. The number of B.S. degrees granted in 2008 by nuclear engineering programs increased by 10% over 2007, and is the highest number reported since 1988. (See Table 1.) This is the fifth consecutive year of increases. The rate of increase in 2008 was, however, the lowest in five years. Nuclear engineering majors accounted for 89% of all B.S. degrees. (See Table 2.) Graduate Degrees. The number of master's degrees granted in 2008 increased for the sixth consecutive

145

Measurement of H and H sub 2 populations in a low-temperature plasma by vacuum ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new technique, vacuum ultraviolet laser absorption spectroscopy, has been developed to quantitatively determine the absolute density of H and H{sub 2} within a plasma. The technique is particularly well suited to measurement in a plasma, where high charged particle and photon backgrounds complicate other methods of detection. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the technique allows for the measurement of the rotational-vibrational state distribution of H{sub 2} as well as the translational temperature of the atoms and molecules. The technique has been used to study both pulsed and continuous plasma discharges. H{sub 2} state distributions show a high degree of internal excitation, with levels up to v=5 and J=8 being observed. Hydrogen atom measurements indicate that, even for modest discharge currents, the fraction of H{sub 2} molecules dissociated can be greater than 0.15.

Young, A.T.; Stutzin, G.C.; Schlachter, A.S.; Stearns, J.W.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (US)); Worth, G.T.; Stevens, R.R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (USA))

1989-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

146

Measurements of the Air Temperature Profile near the Ground by Two Laser Beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two neon-helium gas lasers were used for temperatures profile measurements near the ground. The experiment was carried out during the cold season (when absolute humidity is small on the asphalt pavement) to be free from humidity effects. The ...

Takehisa Yokoi

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Absolute rate measurements of two-photon process of gases, liquids, and solids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Due to rapid improvements in high-power laser performance, two-photon absorption processes have become a very useful tool for studying the molecular structures of various gases, liquids and solids. However, measurements of absolute two-photon absorption cross sections were more or less ignored previously because of their small size. In this work, we obtained not only the two-photon absorption spectra, but also measurements of their absolute cross sections for various gases, liquids, and solids. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Chen, C.H.; McCann, M.P.; Payne, M.G.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Process for stabilizing dimensions of duplex stainless steels for service at elevated temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Duplex stainless steel materials containing austenite plus delta ferrite, are dimensionally stabilized by heating the material to a reaction temperature between about 1050.degree.-1450.degree. F. (566.degree.-788.degree. C.), holding it at this temperature during transformation of delta ferrite to austenite plus sigma phase, and subsequently heating to a reversion temperature between about 1625.degree.-1750.degree. F. (885.degree.-954.degree. C.), whereby the sigma phase transforms back to ferrite, but the austenite remains dispersed in the ferrite phase. Final controlled cooling permits transformation of ferrite to austenite plus sigma and, later, precipitation of carbides.

Hull, Frederick C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Tobin, John C. (Richland, WA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

New Degree Programs Plug Students in to Energy Fields - Materials ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 25, 2009 ... ESTEC now has four energy system programs and plans to add a nuclear operations degree in January and hydroelectric and geothermal...

150

Brief 70 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary Information  

SciTech Connect

The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2011, and data was received from all thirty-two programs. The data for two nuclear engineering programs include enrollments and degrees in health physics options that are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees data.

Dr. Don Johnson

2012-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

151

Spin and Charge Degrees of Freedom in the Copper Oxide ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Spin and Charge Degrees of Freedom in the Copper Oxide Superconductor La 2-x Ba x CuO 4. Sarah Dunsiger, McMaster University. ...

152

Relative and absolute components of leapfrogging in mobile phones by developing countries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper suggests a novel way of measuring the important concept of leapfrogging in mobile phones. It argues that an adequate measure of leapfrogging needs to include absolute as well as relative components. The new measure is used to measure the performance ... Keywords: Diffusion, ICT, New technology, Penetration, Technology

Jeffrey James

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

A California Statewide Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Model from Both Absolute and Differential Times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A California Statewide Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Model from Both Absolute and Differential of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model

Shearer, Peter

154

The Impact of Different Absolute Solar Irradiance Values on Current Climate Model Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of the pre-industrial and doubled CO2 climates are made with the GISS GCMAM using two different estimates of the absolute solar irradiance value, a higher value measured by solar radiometers in the 1990s and the lower value measured ...

David H. Rind; Judith L. Lean; Jeffrey Jonas

155

On the vanishing of Tor of the absolute integral Hans Schoutens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

submitted to Elsevier Science 03.06.2003 #12;by Kunz's Theorem, that R is regular (here R1/p denotes NYC College of Technology City University of New York NY, NY 11201 (USA) Abstract Let R be an excellent local domain of positive characteristic with residue field k and let R+ be its absolute integral

Schoutens, Hans

156

Absolute Geostrophic Velocity Determination from Historical Hydrographic Data in the Western North Atlantic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Beta-spiral calculations are presented using averaged western North Atlantic hydrographic data from the period 191473. Profiles of long-term mean geostrophic flow relative to ISM db along 70W from 26 to 32N are shown. Absolute reference ...

Eric J. Lindstrom; David W. Behringer; Bruce A. Taft; Curtis C. Ebbesmeyer

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Absolutely continuous spectrum implies ballistic transport for quantum particles in a random potential on tree graphs  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the dynamical implications of the recent proof that for a quantum particle in a random potential on a regular tree graph absolutely continuous (ac) spectrum occurs non-perturbatively through rare fluctuation-enabled resonances. The main result is spelled in the title.

Aizenman, Michael [Departments of Physics and Mathematics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Warzel, Simone [Zentrum Mathematik, TU Munich, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85747 Garching (Germany)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

158

Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2007 Data  

SciTech Connect

The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2006 and August 31, 2007. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2007. Twenty-nine academic programs were included in the survey universe, and 28 of the 29 responded. The report includes data by degree level including citizenship, gender, and race/ethnicity plus enrollments of junior and senior undergraduate students and graduate students.

Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Brief 67 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data  

SciTech Connect

This survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2009. Twenty-four academic programs were included in the survey universe, and all twenty-four responded. The report includes data by degree level including citizenship, gender, and race/ethnicity, plus enrollments of junior and senior undergraduate students and graduate students.

Dr. Larry M. Blair, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Bachelor of Arts in Social Work Degree (BASW) Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bachelor of Arts in Social Work Degree (BASW) Program e School of Social Work offers a Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in Social Work. is new BASW program is the only baccalaureate social work program in the Oregon University System. e Portland State University's School of Social Work is excited

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Cooling Degree Days, by State (Weighted by Population, per 2000 Census) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Degree Days, by State (Weighted by Population, per 2000 Census) Cooling Degree Days, by State (Weighted by Population, per 2000 Census) Dataset Summary Description The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS), in conjunction with the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) publish monthly and annual climate data by state for the U.S., including, cooling degree days (total number of days per month and per year). The average values for each state are weighted by population, using 2000 Census data. The base temperature for this dataset is 65 degrees F. Included here are monthly and annual values averaged over several periods of time: 1931-2000, 1931-60, 1941-70, 1951-80, 1961-90, 1971-2000 (standard deviation is also provided). Detailed monthly climatic information (including cooling degree days) is available for the time period between 1895 and 2011, from NOAA (http://www7.ncdc.noaa.gov/CDO/CDODivisionalSelect.jsp#).

162

Composite bearing and seal materials for advanced heat engine applications to 900 degree C  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Plasma sprayed composite coatings of metal-bonded chromium carbide with additions of silver and thermochemically stable fluorides were previously reported to be lubricative in pin on disk bench tests from room temperature to 900{degree}C. An early coating formulation of this type, designated as PS200, was successfully tested as a cylinder coating in a Stirling engine at a TRRT of 760{degree}C (1450{degree}F) in a hydrogen atmosphere, and as a backup lubricant for gas bearings to 650{degree}C (1250{degree}F). A subsequent optimization program as shown that tribological properties are further improved by increasing the solid lubricant content. The improved coating is designated as PS212. The same powder formulation has been used to make free-standing powder metallurgy (PM212) parts by sintering or hot isostatic pressing. The process is very attractive for making parts that cannot be readily plasma sprayed such as bushings and cylinders that have small bore diameters and/or high length to diameter ratios. The properties of coatings and free-standing parts fabricated from these powders are reviewed. 6 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Sliney, H.E.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Nematic State of Pnictides Stabilized by Interplay between Spin, Orbital, and Lattice Degrees of Freedom  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nematic state of the iron-based superconductors is studied in the undoped limit of the three-orbital (xz, yz, xy) spin-fermion model via the introduction of lattice degrees of freedom. Monte Carlo simulations show that in order to stabilize the experimentally observed lattice distortion and nematic order, and to reproduce photoemission experiments, both the spin-lattice and orbital-lattice couplings are needed. The interplay between their respective coupling strengths regulates the separation between the structural and Ne el transition temperatures. Experimental results for the temperature dependence of the resistivity anisotropy and the angle-resolved photoemission orbital spectral weight are reproduced by the present numerical simulations.

Liang, Shuhua [ORNL; Moreo, Adriana [ORNL; Dagotto, Elbio R [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Absolute entropy and free energy of fluids using the hypothetical scanning method. I. Calculation of transition probabilities from local grand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absolute entropy and free energy of fluids using the hypothetical scanning method. I. Calculation the absolute entropy and free energy from a Boltzmann sample generated by Monte Carlo, molecular dynamics for the free energy. We demonstrate that very good results for the entropy and the free energy can be obtained

Meirovitch, Hagai

165

Absolute response of Fuji imaging plate detectors to picosecond-electron bunches  

SciTech Connect

The characterization of the absolute number of electrons generated by laser wakefield acceleration often relies on absolutely calibrated FUJI imaging plates (IP), although their validity in the regime of extreme peak currents is untested. Here, we present an extensive study on the dependence of the sensitivity of BAS-SR and BAS-MS IP to picosecond electron bunches of varying charge of up to 60 pC, performed at the electron accelerator ELBE, making use of about three orders of magnitude of higher peak intensity than in prior studies. We demonstrate that the response of the IPs shows no saturation effect and that the BAS-SR IP sensitivity of 0.0081 photostimulated luminescence per electron number confirms surprisingly well data from previous works. However, the use of the identical readout system and handling procedures turned out to be crucial and, if unnoticed, may be an important error source.

Zeil, K.; Kraft, S. D.; Jochmann, A.; Kroll, F.; Jahr, W.; Schramm, U. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD), Dresden 01314 (Germany); Karsch, L.; Pawelke, J. [TU Dresden, OncoRay-Radiation Research in Oncology, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Hidding, B.; Pretzler, G. [Heinrich-Heine Universitaet Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf 40225 (Germany)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Precise Measurement of the Absolute Yield of Fluorescence Photons in Atmospheric Gases  

SciTech Connect

We have performed a measurement of the absolute yield of fluorescence photons at the Fermilab Test Beam. A systematic uncertainty at 5% level was achieved by the use of Cherenkov radiation as a reference calibration light source. A cross-check was performed by an independent calibration using a laser light source. A significant improvement on the energy scale uncertainty of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays is expected.

Ave, M.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Bohacova, M.; /Chicago U., EFI; Daumiller, K.; /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.; Di Carlo, P.; /INFN, Aquila; Di Giulio, C.; /INFN, Rome; Luis, P.Facal San; /Chicago U., EFI; Gonzales, D.; /Karlsruhe U., EKP; Hojvat, C.; /Fermilab; Horandel, J.R.; /Nijmegen U., IMAPP; Hrabovsky, M.; /Palacky U.; Iarlori, M.; /INFN, Aquila /Karlsruhe, Inst. Technol.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Absolute Bunch Length Measurements at the ALS by Incoherent Synchrotron Radiation Fluctuation Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

By analyzing the pulse to pulse intensity fluctuations of the radiation emitted by a charge particle in the incoherent part of the spectrum, it is possible to extract information about the spatial distribution of the beam. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and tested a simple scheme based on this principle that allows for the absolute measurement of the bunch length. A description of the method and the experimental results are presented.

Filippetto, D.; /Frascati; Sannibale, F.; Zolotorev, Max Samuil; /LBL, Berkeley; Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

2008-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

168

The Complexity of Approximating Bounded-Degree Boolean #CSP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The degree of a CSP instance is the maximum number of times that a variable may appear in the scope of constraints. We consider the approximate counting problem for Boolean CSPs with bounded-degree instances for constraint languages containing the two unary constant relations {0} and {1}. When the maximum degree is at least 25 we obtain a complete classification of the complexity of this problem. It is exactly solvable in polynomial-time if every relation in the constraint language is affine. It is equivalent to the problem of approximately counting independent sets in bipartite graphs if every relation can be expressed as conjunctions of {0}, {1} and binary implication. Otherwise, there is no FPRAS unless NP=RP. For lower degree bounds, additional cases arise in which the complexity is related to the complexity of approximately counting independent sets in hypergraphs.

Dyer, Martin; Jalsenius, Markus; Richerby, David

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Degree-Day Formulations and Application in Turkey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Degree-days are fundamental design parameters in many application fields such as power generation and consumption, agriculture, architecture, snow melt estimation, environmental energy planning, population siting, and military domains. Depending ...

Mikdat Kadioglu; Zekai ?en

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Estimating Historical Heating and Cooling Needs. Per Capita Degree Days  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Time series of approximate United States average annual per capita heating and cooling degree days for the years 18951983 are presented. The data reflect the combined effects of climate fluctuations and population shifts, and can be used in ...

M. W. Downton; T. R. Stewart; K. A. Miller

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A kinematic coupling based 6 degrees of freedom dynamometer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new 6-degree of freedom dynamometer is presented. Six load cells measure the normal forces at the contact points of a three groove kinematic coupling. Three toggle clamps are used to preload the machine, so that it does ...

Moreu Gamazo, Jaime

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Energy Management Degree Specialization at Texas A&M University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Department of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M offers unique degree programs with a specialization in energy management. The most popular of the degree offered is a professional degree, the Master of Engineering, which blends technical courses in energy management with professional development courses such as finance, management accounting, and economics. The industrial-oriented degree also requires a 3-6 month internship in industry, for which the students receive academic credit. The internship program allows students to receive valuable on-the-job experience while providing industries with trained engineers to assist in solving specific problems. The overall objective of the energy management program is to train industrial energy managers who will be able to help solve one of the most urgent, long-term problems facing this country--the energy shortage.

Murphy, W. E.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Variability of Population-Weighted Seasonal Heating Degree Days  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Regional and national heating fuel demand is related to both weather and population density. This study analyzes the variability of population-weighted, seasonal heating degree days for the coterminous 48 states. A risk assessment of unusual ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

German noch so: scalar degree operator and negative polarity item  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a puzzle introduced by German noch so, a degree operator and Negative Polarity Item. Noch so sentences allow for paraphrases containing a scalar particle (like even), suggesting that its polarity sensitivity can receive an analysis ...

Bernhard Schwarz

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

College of Agriculture Departments and Degree Programs Agricultural  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Agricultural Education Animal & Range Sciences Land Resources & Environmental Sciences Immunology & Infectious Diseases Multi Disciplinary Agricultural Business Agricultural Education Animal Science Natural Resources & Rangeland Ecology Environmental Sciences Pre-Vet Program (non-degree) Biotechnology Sustainable Foods

Lawrence, Rick L.

176

Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data  

SciTech Connect

The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007, and August 31, 2008, and fall 2008 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2008, and data was provided by all thirty-one programs.

Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

177

Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2007 Data  

SciTech Connect

The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2006, and August 1, 2007, and fall 2007 enrollments. Thirty-one academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2007, and data was obtained for all thirty-one.

Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Brief 66 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2009 Data  

SciTech Connect

The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2008 and August 31, 2009, and fall 2009 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2009, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

Dr. Larry M. Blair, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2008 Data  

SciTech Connect

The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2007 and August 31, 2008. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2008. Twenty-six academic programs were included in the survey universe, and all 26 programs provided data.

Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

2009-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

180

Dynamics of Manipulators with Less Than One Degree of Freedom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed an efficient Lagrangian formulation of manipulators with small numbers of degrees of freedom. The efficiency derives from the lack of velocities, accelerations, and generalized forces. The number of ...

Hillis, D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Absolute Ages of Globular Clusters and the Age of the Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main sequence turnoff luminosity is the best stellar `clock' which can be used to determine the absolute ages of globular clusters. This is due to the fact that it is generally assumed that the luminosity and lifetimes of main sequence globular cluster stars are independent of the properties of stellar convection and atmospheres, two areas of stellar evolution which are poorly understood. Several possible sources of error in this stellar clock are discussed, and isochrones are constructed using a variety of different physical assumptions. The mean age of the oldest globular clusters are determined from these isochrones and it is found that the uncertainties in the input physics can lead to changes in the derived age of $\\pm 15\\%$. Surprisingly the largest source of error is the mixing length theory of convection. It is well known that uncertainties in the distance scale and chemical composition of globular cluster stars lead to changes of order $\\sim 22\\%$ in the determination of absolute ages. Combining the various sources of error, the absolute age of the oldest globular clusters are found to lie in the range 11 --- 21 Gyr. This is meant to be a total theoretical range. For the standard inflationary model ($\\Omega = 1, \\Lambda = 0$), a minimum age of the universe of 11 Gyr requires $H_o \\la 60~\\kmsmpc$.

Brian Chaboyer

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

182

Diamond growth at low substrate temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Diamond films are deposited on silicon wafers at a temperature of less than 600{degree}C by a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition process using methane in hydrogen as a source of carbon. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Hsu, W.L.; Tung, D.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Diamond growth at low substrate temperatures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Diamond films are deposited on silicon wafers at a temperature of less than 600{degree}C by a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition process using methane in hydrogen as a source of carbon. 9 refs., 3 figs.

Hsu, W.L.; Tung, D.M.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

184

Photo of the Week: What You Needed to Contain 100 Million Degree Plasma for  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Photo of the Week: What You Needed to Contain 100 Million Degree Photo of the Week: What You Needed to Contain 100 Million Degree Plasma for 100 Millionths of a Second... in 1974 Photo of the Week: What You Needed to Contain 100 Million Degree Plasma for 100 Millionths of a Second... in 1974 April 22, 2013 - 4:59pm Addthis In the early years of magnetic fusion, there was talk among scientists of controlling nuclear energy to create useful power. To do this, scientists heated plasma to temperatures as high as 100 million degrees Celsius -- ten times hotter than the center of the sun. Controlling such high levels of energy required the construction of large machines that could withstand these extremely high energy levels. In this 1974 photo, laboratory scientists are shown working on Scyllac, one of the largest machines used for magnetic fusion experiments, located at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Scyllac filled a 100-by-100-foot building from wall to wall, and used 12 miles of one-inch cables and 3,000 capacitors to contain hot plasma the size of a small garden hose for just 100 millionths of a second. Learn more about early magnetic fusion experiments at LANL. | Photo courtesy of Los Alamos National Laboratory.

185

Heating Degree Days, by State (Weighted by Population, per 2000 Census) |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

66 66 Varnish cache server Browse Upload data GDR 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142278566 Varnish cache server Heating Degree Days, by State (Weighted by Population, per 2000 Census) Dataset Summary Description The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Services (NESDIS), in conjunction with the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) publish monthly and annual climate data by state for the U.S., including, heating degree days (total number of days per month and per year). The average values for each state are weighted by population, using 2000 Census data. The base temperature for this dataset is 65 degrees F. Included here are monthly and annual values averaged over several periods of time: 1931-2000, 1931-60, 1941-70, 1951-80, 1961-90, 1971-2000 (standard deviation is also provided). Detailed monthly climatic information (including heating degree days) is available for the time period between 1895 and 2011, from NOAA (http://www7.ncdc.noaa.gov/CDO/CDODivisionalSelect.jsp#).

186

An Accurate Fast Response Temperature System Using Thermocouples  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An accurate and fuss response thermocouple-based temperature system has been developed for use in the atmospheric surface layer. The absolute accuracy is better than 0.01C and the relative accuracy between thermocouples is 0.01C. A number of ...

Noel R. Cheney; Joost A. Businger

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Intermediate temperature electrolytes for SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify a new set of materials that would allow the operation of the solid oxide fuel cell in the 600--800{sup degrees}C temperature range. The approach that is being used is to start with a systematic evaluation of new electrolyte materials and then to develop compatible electrode and interconnect materials.

Bloom, I.; Krumpelt, M.; Hash, M.C.; Zebrowski, J.P.; Zurawski, D.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Intermediate temperature electrolytes for SOFC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to identify a new set of materials that would allow the operation of the solid oxide fuel cell in the 600--800{sup degrees}C temperature range. The approach that is being used is to start with a systematic evaluation of new electrolyte materials and then to develop compatible electrode and interconnect materials.

Bloom, I.; Krumpelt, M.; Hash, M.C.; Zebrowski, J.P.; Zurawski, D.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Degree Distribution in Quantum Walks on Complex Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this theoretical study, we analyze quantum walks on complex networks, which model network-based processes ranging from quantum computing to biology and even sociology. Specifically, we analytically relate the average long time probability distribution for the location of a unitary quantum walker to that of a corresponding classical walker. The distribution of the classical walker is proportional to the distribution of degrees, which measures the connectivity of the network nodes and underlies many methods for analyzing classical networks including website ranking. The quantum distribution becomes exactly equal to the classical distribution when the walk has zero energy and at higher energies the difference, the so-called quantumness, is bounded by the energy of the initial state. We give an example for which the quantumness equals a Renyi entropy of the normalized weighted degrees, guiding us to regimes for which the classical degree-dependent result is recovered and others for which quantum effects dominate.

Mauro Faccin; Tomi Johnson; Jacob Biamonte; Sabre Kais; Piotr Migda?

2013-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

190

Degree of Polarization at Simultaneous Transmit: Theoretical Aspects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider weather radar measurements at simultaneous transmission and simultaneous reception of horizontal and vertical polarizations and show that the degree of polarization at simultaneous transmit (p{sub s}) is related to differential reflectivity and copolar correlation coefficient at simultaneous transmit (namely, Z{sub DR}s and {rho}{sub hy}s). We evaluate the potential of degree of polarization at simultaneous transmit for weather radar applications. Ultimately, we explore the consequences of adjusting the transmit polarization state of dual-polarization weather radars to circular polarization.

Galletti M.; Zrnic, D. S.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Metallic substrates for high temperature superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A biaxially textured face-centered cubic metal article having grain boundaries with misorientation angles greater than about 8.degree. limited to less than about 1%. A laminate article is also disclosed having a metal substrate first rolled to at least about 95% thickness reduction followed by a first annealing at a temperature less than about 375.degree. C. Then a second rolling operation of not greater than about 6% thickness reduction is provided, followed by a second annealing at a temperature greater than about 400.degree. C. A method of forming the metal and laminate articles is also disclosed.

Truchan, Thomas G. (Chicago, IL); Miller, Dean J. (Darien, IL); Goretta, Kenneth C. (Downers Grove, IL); Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Foley, Robert (Chicago, IL)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Absolute free energies estimated by combining pre-calculated molecular fragment libraries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The absolute free energy -- or partition function, equivalently -- of a molecule can be estimated computationally using a suitable reference system. Here, we demonstrate a practical method for staging such calculations by growing a molecule based on a series of fragments. Significant computer time is saved by pre-calculating fragment configurations and interactions for re-use in a variety of molecules. We employ such fragment libraries and interaction tables for amino acids and capping groups to estimate free energies for small peptides. Equilibrium ensembles for the molecules are generated at no additional computational cost, and are used to check our results by comparison to standard dynamics simulation.

Zhang, Xin; Zuckerman, Daniel M

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Degree centrality for semantic abstraction summarization of therapeutic studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automatic summarization has been proposed to help manage the results of biomedical information retrieval systems. Semantic MEDLINE, for example, summarizes semantic predications representing assertions in MEDLINE citations. Results are presented as a ... Keywords: Automatic summarization, Degree centrality, Disease treatment, Graph theory, Natural language processing, Semantic processing

Han Zhang; Marcelo Fiszman; Dongwook Shin; Christopher M. Miller; Graciela Rosemblat; Thomas C. Rindflesch

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Commissioning of the CMS zero degree calorimeter using LHC beam  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports on the commissioning and first running experience of the CMS Zero Degree Calorimeters during December 2009. All channels worked correctly. The ZDCs were timed into the data acquisition system using beam splash events. These data also allowed us to make a first estimate of channel-by-channel variations in gain.

O. Grachov; M. Murray; J. Wood; Y. Onel; S. Sen; T. Yetkin

2010-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

195

An Assessment Model on Green Degree of Biodegradable Packaging Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An assessment model of green degree of biodegradable packaging materials is built. The first-order assessment indexes are composed of environmental properties, energy properties, resource properties and economy and the second order assessment index are ... Keywords: packaging materials, analytic hierarchy process, life cycle assessment

Xiaoming Zuo; Zhaomei Xu

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

A cumulative belief-degree approach for nuclear safeguards evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nuclear safeguards are a set of activities to verify that a State is living up to its international undertakings not to use nuclear programs for nuclear weapons purposes. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) uses a hierarchical assessment system ... Keywords: cumulative belif degree, decision making, fuzzy linguistic terms, nuclear safeguards

zgr Kabak; Da Ruan

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Joint Degree Program in Social Work and Law  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joint Degree Program in Social Work and Law MSW and JD The complexity of current national debates and programs, and social work advocacy activities, including clinical practice, and the law. It is therefore work to remain in good standing and for graduation, the MSW Program follows the Graduate School

Peterson, Blake R.

198

Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

Forster, George A. (Westmont, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40 percent of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, EIA has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. In AEO2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

2011-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

200

Trends in Heating and Cooling Degree Days: Implications for Energy Demand Issues (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Weather-related energy use, in the form of heating, cooling, and ventilation, accounted for more than 40 percent of all delivered energy use in residential and commercial buildings in 2006. Given the relatively large amount of energy affected by ambient temperature in the buildings sector, EIA has reevaluated what it considers normal weather for purposes of projecting future energy use for heating, cooling, and ventilation. In AEO2008, estimates of normal heating and cooling degree-days are based on the population-weighted average for the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006.

Information Center

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High Temperature Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase change materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant temperature during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the temperatures near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These temperatures were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for temperatures near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C temperatures, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.

Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

ORISE: Nuclear engineering degrees at highest ranges since 1980s  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ORISE report shows graduation, enrollment rates for nuclear engineering ORISE report shows graduation, enrollment rates for nuclear engineering candidates are still at highest ranges reported since 1980s Report also shows shifts in career opportunities beyond graduation in nuclear utilities FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Nov. 2, 2011 FY12-04 OAK RIDGE, Tenn.-After a one-year decline, the number of graduate and undergraduate nuclear engineering degrees earned in the United States bounced back in 2010. A recent report from the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education shows enrollments of both undergraduate and graduate nuclear engineering students are still in the highest ranges reported since the early 1980s. Despite the continued growth trend in enrollments and degrees, the report also revealed that the reported plans of graduates show fewer had plans to

203

METHOD FOR SENSING DEGREE OF FLUIDIZATION IN FLUIDIZED BED  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for detecting, indicating, and controlling the degree of fluidization in a fluid-bed reactor into which powdered material is fed. The method comprises admitting of gas into the reactor, inserting a springsupported rod into the powder bed of the reactor, exciting the rod to vibrate at its resonant frequency, deriving a signal responsive to the amplitude of vibi-ation of the rod and spring, the signal being directiy proportional to the rate of flow of the gas through the reactor, displaying the signal to provide an indication of the degree of fluidization within the reactor, and controlling the rate of gas flow into the reactor until said signal stabilizes at a constant value to provide substantially complete fluidization within the reactor. (AEC)

Levey, R.P. Jr.; Fowler, A.H.

1961-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

204

Degree-distribution stability of scale-free networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Based on the concept and techniques of first-passage probability in Markov chain theory, this letter provides a rigorous proof for the existence of the steady-state degree distribution of the scale-free network generated by the Barabasi-Albert (BA) model, and mathematically re-derives the exact analytic formulas of the distribution. The approach developed here is quite general, applicable to many other scale-free types of complex networks.

Zhenting Hou; Xiangxing Kong; Dinghua Shi; Guanrong Chen

2008-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

205

Measurements of electron and proton heating temperatures from extreme-ultraviolet light images at 68 eV in petawatt laser experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 68 eV extreme-ultraviolet light imaging diagnostic measures short pulse isochoric heating by electrons and protons in petawatt laser experiments. Temperatures are deduced from the absolute intensities and comparison with modeling using a radiation hydrodynamics code.

Gu Peimin; Zhang, B.; Key, M. H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Barbee, T.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K.; Hey, D.; King, J. A.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Snavely, R. A.; Stephens, R. B. [College of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Ohio State University, 425 Stillman Hall, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1123 (United States); Department of Applied Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); College of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Ohio State University, 425 Stillman Hall, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1123 (United States); Department of Applied Science, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

206

ABSOLUTE MEASUREMENT OF THE POLARIZATION OF HIGH ENERGY PROTON BEAMS AT RHIC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires knowledge of the beam polarization to better than 5%. Such a goal is made the more difficult by the lack of knowledge of the analyzing power of high energy nuclear physics processes. To overcome this, a polarized hydrogen jet target was constructed and installed at one intersection region in RHIC where it intersects both beams and utilizes the precise knowledge of the jet atomic hydrogen beam polarization to measure the analyzing power in proton-proton elastic scattering in the Nuclear Coulomb Interference (CNI) region at the prescribed RHIC proton beam energy. The reverse reaction is used to assess the absolute beam polarization. Simultaneous measurements taken with fast high statistics polarimeters that measure the p-Carbon elastic scattering process also in the CNI region use the jet results to calibrate the latter.

MAKDISI,Y.; BRAVAR, A. BUNCE, G. GILL, R.; HUANG, H.; ET AL.

2007-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

207

Quantitative Resolution to some "Absolute Discrepancies" in Cancer Theories: a View from Phage lambda Genetic Switch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Is it possible to understand cancer? Or more specifically, is it possible to understand cancer from genetic side? There already many answers in literature. The most optimistic one has claimed that it is mission-possible. Duesberg and his colleagues reviewed the impressive amount of research results on cancer accumulated over 100 years. It confirms the a general opinion that considering all available experimental results and clinical observations there is no cancer theory without major difficulties, including the prevailing gene-based cancer theories. They have then listed 9 "absolute discrepancies" for such cancer theory. In this letter the quantitative evidence against one of their major reasons for dismissing mutation cancer theory, by both in vivo experiment and a first principle computation, is explicitly pointed out.

P. Ao

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

208

Possible Observation of Nuclear Reactor Neutrinos Near the Oscillation Absolute Minimum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After a summary of the basic three neutrino oscillation formalism we review briefly our present empirical knowledge of the oscillation parameters and conclude that the 2-neutrinos model is adequate to describe the survival probability of the electronic neutrino P(nue->nue). Then we proceed to the evaluation of P(nue->nue) relative to the antineutrinos emitted by the nuclear power stations presently in operation along the the Rhone valley. We assume that a detector has been installed in a existing cavity located under the Mont Ventoux at a depth equivalent to 1500 m of water. We show that such an experiment would provide the opportunity to observe neutrinos near the oscillation absolute minimum. We end by a rough estimate of the counting rate.

C. Bouchiat

2003-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

209

Absolute angle-differential vibrational excitation cross sections for electron collisions with diacetylene  

SciTech Connect

Absolute vibrational excitation cross sections were measured for diacetylene (1,3-butadiyne). The selectivity of vibrational excitation reveals detailed information about the shape resonances. Excitation of the C{identical_to}C stretch and of double quanta of the C-H bend vibrations reveals a {sup 2}{Pi}{sub u} resonance at 1 eV (autodetachment width {approx}30 meV) and a {sup 2}{Pi}{sub g} resonance at 6.2 eV (autodetachment width 1-2 eV). There is a strong preference for excitation of even quanta of the bending vibration. Excitation of the C-H stretch vibration reveals {sigma}* resonances at 4.3, 6.8, and 9.8 eV, with autodetachment widths of {approx}2 eV. Detailed information about resonances permits conclusions about the mechanism of the dissociative electron attachment.

Allan, M.; May, O.; Fedor, J.; Ibanescu, B. C.; Andric, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Chemin du Musee 9, CH-1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); UPMC, Universite Paris 06, LCPMR, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France) and CNRS, LCPMR (UMR 7614), 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

210

Improved Complexity Bound of Vertex Cover for Low degree Graph  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we use a new method to decrease the parameterized complexity bound for finding the minimum vertex cover of connected max-degree-3 undirected graphs. The key operation of this method is reduction of the size of a particular subset of edges which we introduce in this paper and is called as "real-cycle" subset. Using "real-cycle" reductions alone we compute a complexity bound $O(1.15855^k)$ where $k$ is size of the optimal vertex cover. Combined with other techniques, the complexity bound can be further improved to be $O(1.1504^k)$. This is currently the best complexity bound.

Yue, Weiya; Cao, Weiwei

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

TRENDS: TEMPERATURE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Graphics Digital Data J.R. Petit, D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France J. Jouzel and G. Delaygue Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA/CNRS, L'Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France N.I. Barkov Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa Street 38, 199397 St. Petersburg, Russia V.M. Kotlyakov Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, per 29, Moscow 109017, Russia DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.006 Period of Record 420,000 years BP-present Methods Because isotopic fractions of the heavier oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation

212

90-Degree Bragg Reflection from a Thin Crystalline Film  

SciTech Connect

Experimental observations of synchrotron radiation diffraction from a thin surface layer at a 90-degree Bragg reflection are reported and discussed. The synchrotron experiments were performed using a bending magnet source at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France and undulator sources at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the U.S. and SPring-8 in Japan. Thin (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 micron) InGaAs films deposited on a GaAs (100) substrate were studied near the 90- degree using the GaAs (800) reflection. A slight, less than 0.1%, difference in the lattice spacing between the layer and the substrate is sufficient to allow a direct and exclusive observation of the diffraction profile from a thin layer as if it was a 'free-standing' thin crystal. This research opens new possibilities for x-ray optical schemes and the development of novel analytical techniques for surface/interface x-ray diffraction studies.

Nikulin, A.Y.; Davis, J.R.; Usher, B.F.; Freund, A.K.; Ishikawa, T.

2001-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

213

Designing fault-tolerant manipulators: How many degrees of freedom?  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important parameters to consider when designing a manipulator is the number of degrees of freedom (DOFs). This article focuses on the question: How many DOFs are necessary and sufficient for fault tolerance, and how should these DOFs be distributed along the length of the manipulator? A manipulator is fault tolerant if it can complete its task even when one of its joints fails and is immobilized. The number of DOFs needed for fault tolerance strongly depends on the knowledge available about the task. In this article, two approaches are explored. First, for the design of a general purpose fault-tolerant manipulator, it is assumed that neither the exact task trajectory nor the redundancy resolution algorithm are known a priori and the manipulator has no joint limits. In this case, two redundant DOFs are necessary and sufficient to sustain one joint failure, as is demonstrated in two design templates for spatial fault-tolerant manipulators. In this second approach, both the Cartesian task path and the redundancy resolution algorithm are assumed to be known. The design of such a task-specific fault-tolerant manipulator requires only one degree of redundancy. 22 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Paredis, C.J.J.; Khosla, P.K. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Absolute intensity calibration of flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet spectrometer using radial profiles of visible and extreme ultraviolet bremsstrahlung continuum emitted from high-density plasmas in Large Helical Device  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A precise absolute intensity calibration of a flat-field space-resolved extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in wavelength range of 60-400 A is carried out using a new calibration technique based on radial profile measurement of the bremsstrahlung continuum in Large Helical Device. A peaked vertical profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum has been successfully observed in high-density plasmas (n{sub e}{>=} 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}) with hydrogen ice pellet injection. The absolute calibration can be done by comparing the EUV bremsstrahlung profile with the visible bremsstrahlung profile of which the absolute value has been already calibrated using a standard lamp. The line-integrated profile of measured visible bremsstrahlung continuum is firstly converted into the local emissivity profile by considering a magnetic surface distortion due to the plasma pressure, and the local emissivity profile of EUV bremsstrahlung is secondly calculated by taking into account the electron temperature profile and free-free gaunt factor. The line-integrated profile of the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum is finally calculated from the local emissivity profile in order to compare with measured EUV bremsstrahlung profile. The absolute intensity calibration can be done by comparing measured and calculated EUV bremsstrahlung profiles. The calibration factor is thus obtained as a function of wavelength with excellent accuracy. It is also found in the profile analysis that the grating reflectivity of EUV emissions is constant along the direction perpendicular to the wavelength dispersion. Uncertainties on the calibration factor determined with the present method are discussed including charge-coupled device operation modes.

Dong Chunfeng; Wang Erhui [Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Morita, Shigeru; Goto, Motoshi [Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Thermal fuse for high-temperature batteries  

SciTech Connect

A thermal fuse, preferably for a high-temperature battery, comprising leads and a body therebetween having a melting point between approximately 400.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. The body is preferably an alloy of Ag--Mg, Ag--Sb, Al--Ge, Au--In, Bi--Te, Cd--Sb, Cu--Mg, In--Sb, Mg--Pb, Pb--Pd, Sb--Zn, Sn--Te, or Mg--Al.

Jungst, Rudolph G. (Albuquerque, NM); Armijo, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Frear, Darrel R. (Austin, TX)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

A rigid cone in the truth-table degrees with jump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The automorphism group of the truth-table degrees with order and jump is fixed on the set of degrees above the fourth jump of 0.

Kjos-Hanssen, Bjrn

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure in a class of crystalline materials having anisotropic thermal coefficients and having a coefficient of linear compression along the crystalline c-axis substantially the same as those perpendicular thereto. Temperature is determined by monitoring the fluorescence half life of a probe of such crystalline material, e.g., ruby. Pressure is determined by monitoring at least one other fluorescent property of the probe that depends on pressure and/or temperature, e.g., absolute fluorescent intensity or frequency shifts of fluorescent emission lines.

Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Haugen, Gilbert R. (Pleasanton, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

In-Flight Measurement of the Absolute Energy Scale of the Fermi Large Area Telescope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky from 20 MeV to several hundreds of GeV. In this energy band there are no astronomical sources with sufficiently well known and sharp spectral features to allow an absolute calibration of the LAT energy scale. However, the geomagnetic cutoff in the cosmic ray electron-plus-positron (CRE) spectrum in low Earth orbit does provide such a spectral feature. The energy and spectral shape of this cutoff can be calculated with the aid of a numerical code tracing charged particles in the Earth's magnetic field. By comparing the cutoff value with that measured by the LAT in different geomagnetic positions, we have obtained several calibration points between {approx}6 and {approx}13 GeV with an estimated uncertainty of {approx}2%. An energy calibration with such high accuracy reduces the systematic uncertainty in LAT measurements of, for example, the spectral cutoff in the emission from gamma ray pulsars.

Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Allafort, A.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Barbiellini, G.; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bloom, E.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Bouvier, A.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Buehler, R.; /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Buson, S.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /CSIC, Catalunya /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Unlisted, US /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ASDC, Frascati /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Montpellier U. /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Ecole Polytechnique /Hiroshima U. /Stanford U., HEPL /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Bari Polytechnic /INFN, Bari /INFN, Bari /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; /more authors..

2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

219

Absolute energy calibration for relativistic electron beams with pointing instability from a laser-plasma accelerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The pointing instability of energetic electron beams generated from a laser-driven accelerator can cause a serious error in measuring the electron spectrum with a magnetic spectrometer. In order to determine a correct electron spectrum, the pointing angle of an electron beam incident on the spectrometer should be exactly defined. Here, we present a method for absolutely calibrating the electron spectrum by monitoring the pointing angle using a scintillating screen installed in front of a permanent dipole magnet. The ambiguous electron energy due to the pointing instability is corrected by the numerical and analytical calculations based on the relativistic equation of electron motion. It is also possible to estimate the energy spread of the electron beam and determine the energy resolution of the spectrometer using the beam divergence angle that is simultaneously measured on the screen. The calibration method with direct measurement of the spatial profile of an incident electron beam has a simple experimental layout and presents the full range of spatial and spectral information of the electron beams with energies of multi-hundred MeV level, despite the limited energy resolution of the simple electron spectrometer.

Cha, H. J.; Choi, I. W.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, I J.; Nam, K. H.; Jeong, T. M.; Lee, J. [Advanced Photonics Research Institute, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

220

Absolute reactivity calibration of accelerator-driven systems after RACE-T experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The RACE-T experiments that were held in november 2005 in the ENEA-Casaccia research center near Rome allowed us to improve our knowledge of the experimental techniques for absolute reactivity calibration at either startup or shutdown phases of accelerator-driven systems. Various experimental techniques for assessing a subcritical level were inter-compared through three different subcritical configurations SC0, SC2 and SC3, about -0.5, -3 and -6 dollars, respectively. The area-ratio method based of the use of a pulsed neutron source appears as the most performing. When the reactivity estimate is expressed in dollar unit, the uncertainties obtained with the area-ratio method were less than 1% for any subcritical configuration. The sensitivity to measurement location was about slightly more than 1% and always less than 4%. Finally, it is noteworthy that the source jerk technique using a transient caused by the pulsed neutron source shutdown provides results in good agreement with those obtained from the area-ratio technique. (authors)

Jammes, C. C. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Imel, G. R. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Geslot, B. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique CEA, Centre de Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Rosa, R. [Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, L'Energia e l'Ambiente, Centro della Casaccia, Via Anguillarese, 301, 00060 Roma I (Italy)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Setting Whole-Building Absolute Energy Use Targets for the K-12 School, Retail, and Healthcare Sectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper helps owners' efficiency representatives to inform executive management, contract development, and project management staff as to how specifying and applying whole-building absolute energy use targets for new construction or renovation projects can improve the operational energy performance of commercial buildings.

Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Absolute light yield measurements on SrF$_{2}$ and BaF$_{2}$ doped with rare earth ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results of absolute light output measurements on strontium and barium fluoride doped with PrF$_3$ and CeF$_3$ are presented and compared with scintillators having well-known light output (NaI-Tl, CsI-Tl, BGO). For pure SrF$_2$ crystal we obtain a value of about 28600 photons/MeV.

Shendrik, Roman

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Setting Whole-Building Absolute Energy Use Targets for the K-12 School, Retail, and Healthcare Sectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper helps owners' efficiency representatives to inform executive management, contract development, and project management staff as to how specifying and applying whole-building absolute energy use targets for new construction or renovation projects can improve the operational energy performance of commercial buildings.

Leach, M.; Bonnema, E.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Aluminum hydrolysis constants to 250[degrees]C from boehmite solubility measurements  

SciTech Connect

Boehmite solubilities were measured at 150, 200, and 250[degrees]C at pH values from 1 to 10 at 100 bars total pressure and used to determine the stability constants for the mononuclear aluminum hydroxide complexes Al(OH)[sup 2+], Al(OH)[sup +][sub 2], Al(OH)[sub 0][sub 3], AL(OH)[sup -][sub 4], and the solubility product of boehmite. Buffer solutions of HCl-KCl, acetic acid-sodium acetate, sodium bicarbonate-carbonic acid, and boric acid-potassium hydroxide were used to control pH. Our solubility data are in good agreement with boehmite solubility measurements in perchloric acid and sodium hydroxide solutions reported by KUYUNKO et al. (1983). The stability constants for the aluminum hydroxide species were determined from the solubility data using a Ridge regression technique. The results indicate that aluminum ion hydrolysis becomes stronger at higher temperatures, and the stability field of the neutral complex Al(OH)[sup 0][sub 3] becomes larger. The results are used to provide a set of equilibrium constants for aluminum hydroxide complex formation and boehmite hydrolysis from 0-300[degrees]C.

Bourcier, W.L.; Knauss, K.G.; Jackson, K.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Polar studies of the sphericity degree of V/HTR nuclear fuel particles  

SciTech Connect

Advanced nuclear power reactor designs such as (Very) High Temperature Reactors (V/HTR) employ TRISO fuel particles that typically have a sub-millimetre U-based fuel kernel coated with three isotropic ceramic layers-a layer of silicon carbide sandwiched between pyrocarbon layers of different density. Evaluation of the ceramic layer thickness and of the degree of sphericity of these typical nuclear fuel particles is required at each step of the fabrication, in order to estimate future fuel performance under irradiation conditions. This study is based on the image processing of polished cross-sections, realized near the equatorial plane. From these 2D images, some measurements are carried out, giving an estimation of the diameter values for a sample of particles at each step of the coating process. These values are then statistically extended to the third dimension in order to obtain the thickness of each layer and the degree of sphericity of each particle. A representation of diameter and layer thickness in polar coordinates enables one to identify steps for which the coating process is defective or deviating from nominal objectives.

Robert-Inacio, F. [Institut Superieur de l'Electronique et du Numerique de Toulon, L2MP UMR CNRS 6137, place Pompidou, F-83000 Toulon (France)]. E-mail: frederique.robert@isen.fr; Boschet, C. [Institut Superieur de l'Electronique et du Numerique de Toulon, L2MP UMR CNRS 6137, place Pompidou, F-83000 Toulon (France); Charollais, F. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/CAD/DEC/SPUA, Bat. 315, BP1, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)]. E-mail: francois.charollais@cea.fr; Cellier, F. [Framatome ANP, an AREVA and Siemens Company, Plants Sector, 10, rue Juliette Recamier, 69456 Lyon Cedex 06 (France)

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

QCD Equation of State From a Chiral Hadronic Model Including Quark Degrees of Freedom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work presents an effective model for strongly interacting matter and the QCD equation of state (EoS). The model includes both hadron and quark degrees of freedom and takes into account the transition of chiral symmetry restoration as well as the deconfinement phase transition. At low temperatures $T$ and baryonic densities $\\rho_B$ a hadron resonance gas is described using a SU(3)-flavor sigma-omega model and a quark phase is introduced in analogy to PNJL models for higher $T$ and $\\rho_B$. In this way, the correct asymptotic degrees of freedom are used in a wide range of $T$ and $\\rho_B$. Here, results of this model concerning the chiral and deconfinement phase transitions and thermodynamic model properties are presented. Large hadron resonance multiplicities in the transition region emphasize the importance of heavy-mass resonance states in this region and their impact on the chiral transition behavior. The resulting phase diagram of QCD matter at small chemical potentials is in line with latest lattice QCD and thermal model results.

Philip Rau; Jan Steinheimer; Stefan Schramm; Horst Stcker

2013-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

227

A degree-day method for residential heating load calculations specifically incorporating the utilization of solar gains  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple and well known method of estimating residential heating loads is the variable base degree-day method, in which the steady-state heat loss rate (UA) is multiplied by the degree-days based from the balance temperature of the structure. The balance temperature is a function of the UA as well as the average rate of internal heat gains, reflecting the displacement of the heating requirements by these gains. Currently, the heat gains from solar energy are lumped with those from appliances to estimate an average rate over the day. This ignores the effects of the timing of the gains from solar energy, which are more highly concentrated during daytime hours, hence more frequently exceeding the required space heat and less utilizable than the gains from appliances. Simulations or specialized passive solar energy calculation methods have previously been required to account for this effect. This paper presents curves of the fraction of the absorbed solar energy utilized for displacement of space heat, developed by comparing heating loads calculated using a variable base degree-day method (ignoring solar gains) to heating loads from a large number of detailed DOE-2 simulations. The difference in the loads predicted by the two methods can be interpreted as the utilized solar gains. The solar utilization decreases as the thermal integrity increases, as expected, and the solar utilizations are similar across climates. They can be used to estimate the utilized fraction of the absorbed solar energy and, with the load predicted by the variable base degree-day calculation, form a modified degree-day method that closely reproduces the loads predicted by the DOE-2 simulation model and is simple enough for hand calculations. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Lucas, R.G.; Pratt, R.G.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Beamline Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Temperatures Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 493.2242 mA Date: 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 493.2 mA 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 LN:MainTankLevel 124.4 in LN:MainTankPress 56.9 psi SPEAR-BL:B120HeFlow 15.4 l/min SPEAR-BL:B131HeFlow 22.2 l/min BL 4 BL02:LCW 0.0 ℃ BL02:M0_LCW 31.5 ℃ BL 4-1 BL04-1:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom1 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom2 47.0 ℃ BL04-1:Lower 32.0 ℃ BL04-1:Moly 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalA -167.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalB -172.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalA -177.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalB -175.0 ℃ BL 4-2 BL04-2:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom1 24.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom2 25.0 ℃

229

Number of degrees of freedom of two-dimensional turbulence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We derive upper bounds for the number of degrees of freedom of two-dimensional Navier--Stokes turbulence freely decaying from a smooth initial vorticity field $\\omega(x,y,0)=\\omega_0$. This number, denoted by $N$, is defined as the minimum dimension such that for $n\\ge N$, arbitrary $n$-dimensional balls in phase space centred on the solution trajectory $\\omega(x,y,t)$, for $t>0$, contract under the dynamics of the system linearized about $\\omega(x,y,t)$. In other words, $N$ is the minimum number of greatest Lyapunov exponents whose sum becomes negative. It is found that $N\\le C_1R_e$ when the phase space is endowed with the energy norm, and $N\\le C_2R_e(1+\\ln R_e)^{1/3}$ when the phase space is endowed with the enstrophy norm. Here $C_1$ and $C_2$ are constant and $R_e$ is the Reynolds number defined in terms of $\\omega_0$, the system length scale, and the viscosity $\

Chuong V. Tran; Luke Blackbourn

2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

230

The Absolute Magnitude and Kinematics of RR Lyrae Stars via Statistical Parallax  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present new statistical parallax solutions for the absolute magnitude and kinematics of RR Lyrae stars. New proper motion, radial velocity, and abundance data are used; the new data set is 50% larger, and of higher quality, than previously available data sets. Based on an a priori kinematic study, we separate the stars into halo and thick disk sub-populations. Statistical parallax solutions on these sub-samples yield M_V(RR) = +0.71 +/- 0.12 at = -1.61 for the halo (162 stars), and M_V(RR) = +0.79 +/- 0.30 at = -0.76 for the thick disk (51 stars). The solutions yield kinematic parameters (solar motion and velocity ellipsoid) in good agreement with estimates of the halo and thick disk kinematics derived from both RR Lyrae stars and other stellar tracers. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the solutions are accurate, and that the errors may be smaller than the estimates above. The simulations reveal a small bias in the disk solutions, and appropriate corrections are derived. The large uncertainty in the disk M_V(RR) prevents ascertaining the slope of the M_V(RR)-[Fe/H] relation. We find that (1) the distance to the Galactic Center is 7.6 +/- 0.4 kpc; (2) the mean age of the 17 oldest Galactic globular clusters is 16.5 _{-1.9}^{+2.1} Gyr; and (3) the distance modulus of the LMC is 18.28 +/- 0.13 mag. Estimates of H_0 which are based on an LMC distance modulus of 18.50 (e.g., Cepheid studies) increase by 10% if they are recalibrated to match our LMC distance modulus.

A. C. Layden; R. B. Hanson; S. L. Hawley; A. R. Klemola; C. J. Hanley

1996-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

231

A New Light-Speed Anisotropy Experiment: Absolute Motion and Gravitational Waves Detected  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Data from a new experiment measuring the anisotropy of the one-way speed of EM waves in a coaxial cable, gives the speed of light as 300,000+/-400+/-20km/s in a measured direction RA=5.5+/-2hrs, Dec=70+/-10deg S, is shown to be in excellent agreement with the results from seven previous anisotropy experiments, particularly those of Miller (1925/26), and even those of Michelson and Morley (1887). The Miller gas-mode interferometer results, and those from the RF coaxial cable experiments of Torr and Kolen (1983), De Witte (1991) and the new experiment all reveal the presence of gravitational waves, as indicated by the last +/- variations above, but of a kind different from those supposedly predicted by General Relativity. The understanding of the operation of the Michelson interferometer in gas-mode was only achieved in 2002 and involved a calibration for the interferometer that necessarily involved Special Relativity effects and the refractive index of the gas in the light paths. The results demonstrate the reality of the Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction as an observer independent relativistic effect. A common misunderstanding is that the anisotropy of the speed of light is necessarily in conflict with Special Relativity and Lorentz symmetry - this is explained. All eight experiments and theory show that we have both anisotropy of the speed of light and relativistic effects, and that a dynamical 3-space exists - that absolute motion through that space has been repeatedly observed since 1887. These developments completely change fundamental physics and our understanding of reality.

Reginald T Cahill

2006-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

232

Absolute frequency measurement for the emission transitions of molecular iodine in the 982 - 985 nm range  

SciTech Connect

We report high-precision frequency measurements of the separate hyperfine structure (HFS) components of the emission B - X system transitions of {sup 127}I{sub 2} molecules in the 982 - 985 nm range. To resolve the HFS of the emission lines, advantage was taken of the method of three-level laser spectroscopy. The function of exciting radiation was fulfilled by the second harmonic of a cw Nd : YAG laser, and the probe radiation in the 968 - 998 nm range was generated by an external-cavity diode laser. The output Nd : YAG laser frequency was locked to an HFS component of the absorption transition and the probing laser radiation to the emission transition component. When both frequencies were locked to HFS components with a common upper level, the output diode laser frequency was precisely equal to the emission transition frequency. The output frequency of the thus stabilised diode laser was measured with the help of a femtosecond optical frequency synthesiser based on a Ti : sapphire laser. We present the results of the absolute frequency measurements of 20 HFS components belonging to six vibrational - rotational transitions of the B - X system of iodine [R56(32 - 48)a1, P58(32 - 48)a1, P85(33 - 48)a1, R87(33 - 48a1, R88(33 - 48)a10] and all 15 components of the R86(33 - 48) line. The relative measurement uncertainty is equal to 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} and is determined by the frequency instability of the diode laser radiation.

Matyugin, Yu A; Ignatovich, S M; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Nesterenko, M I; Okhapkin, M V; Pivtsov, V S; Skvortsov, Mikhail N; Bagaev, Sergei N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Aging of Alloy 617 at 650 and 750 Degrees C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alloy 617 has been selected as the primary candidate for heat exchanger applications in advanced reactors. For the VHTR this application could require extended service up to a reactor outlet temperature of 950C. A key hurdle to using this alloy in the VHTR heat exchanger application is qualifying the alloy for Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In order to Code qualify the material it is necessary to characterize the influence of long term aging on the mechanical behavior. Alloy 617 has been aged at 650 and 750C for times up to 5300 hours. The microstructure after aging has been characterized using optical and transmission electron microscopies. It has been determined that in addition to carbides, a significant volume fraction of ? phase (Ni3Al) is formed at these temperatures. The ? does not contribute significantly to changing the tensile or impact properties of the aged material. It does, however, appear to increase creep resistance and impede creep crack growth.

Julian Benz; Thomas Lillo; Richard Wright

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Low temperature joining of ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 degrees C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or cermaic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 degrees C. to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Nosrati, Mohammad (Ames, IA); Unal, Ozer (Ames, IA)

2001-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

235

Low temperature joining of ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 degrees C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or cermaic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 degrees C. to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Nosrati, Mohammad (Ames, IA); Unal, Ozer (Ames, IA)

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

236

Low temperature joining of ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 degrees C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or ceramic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 degrees C. to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix. 3 figs.

Barton, T.J.; Anderson, I.E.; Ijadi-Maghsoodi, S.; Nosrati, M.; Unal, O.

1999-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

Low temperature joining of ceramic composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of joining similar or dissimilar ceramic and ceramic composite materials, such as SiC continuous fiber ceramic composites, at relatively low joining temperatures uses a solventless, three component bonding agent effective to promote mechanical bond toughness and elevated temperature strength to operating temperatures of approximately 1200 degrees C. The bonding agent comprises a preceramic precursor, an aluminum bearing powder, such as aluminum alloy powder, and mixtures of aluminum metal or alloy powders with another powder, and and boron powder in selected proportions. The bonding agent is disposed as an interlayer between similar or dissimilar ceramic or ceramic composite materials to be joined and is heated in ambient air or inert atmosphere to a temperature not exceeding about 1200 degrees C. to form a strong and tough bond joint between the materials. The bond joint produced is characterized by a composite joint microstructure having relatively soft, compliant aluminum bearing particulate regions dispersed in a ceramic matrix.

Barton, Thomas J. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Sina (Ames, IA); Nosrati, Mohammad (Ames, IA); Unal, Ozer (Ames, IA)

1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

238

New Method for Calculating the Absolute Free Energy of Binding: The Effect of a Mobile Loop on the Avidin/Biotin Complex  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New Method for Calculating the Absolute Free Energy of Binding: The Effect of a Mobile Loop Hypothetical scanning molecular dynamics (HSMD) is a relatively new method for calculating the absolute free as a byproduct of the simulation. The binding mechanism of biotin to avidin involves a mobile loop

Meirovitch, Hagai

239

Lower and upper bounds for the absolute free energy by the hypothetical scanning Monte Carlo method: Application to liquid argon and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lower and upper bounds for the absolute free energy by the hypothetical scanning Monte Carlo method The hypothetical scanning HS method is a general approach for calculating the absolute entropy S and free energy F to provide the free energy through the analysis of a single configuration. © 2004 American Institute

Meirovitch, Hagai

240

Modeling the Impact of Summer Temperatures on National Electricity Consumption  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

National population-weighted weekly degree day totals, which have been used to model and assess temperature-related natural gas consumption, are compared with summertime electricity consumption. A very close relationship between national cooling ...

Douglas M. Le Comte; Henry E. Warren

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

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241

Chaotic Dynamics of N-degree of Freedom Hamiltonian Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the connection between local and global dynamics of two N-degree of freedom Hamiltonian systems with different origins describing one-dimensional nonlinear lattices: The Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU) model and a discretized version of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation related to Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC). We study solutions starting in the vicinity of simple periodic orbits (SPOs) representing in-phase (IPM) and out-of-phase motion (OPM), which are known in closed form and whose linear stability can be analyzed exactly. Our results verify that as the energy E increases for fixed N, beyond the destabilization threshold of these orbits, all positive Lyapunov exponents exhibit a transition between two power laws, occurring at the same value of E. The destabilization energy E_c per particle goes to zero as N goes to infinity following a simple power-law. However, using SALI, a very efficient indicator we have recently introduced for distinguishing order from chaos, we find that the two Hamiltonians have very different dynamics near their stable SPOs: For example, in the case of the FPU system, as the energy increases for fixed N, the islands of stability around the OPM decrease in size, the orbit destabilizes through period-doubling bifurcation and its eigenvalues move steadily away from -1, while for the BEC model the OPM has islands around it which grow in size before it bifurcates through symmetry breaking, while its real eigenvalues return to +1 at very high energies. Still, when calculating Lyapunov spectra, we find for the OPMs of both Hamiltonians that the Lyapunov exponents decrease following an exponential law and yield extensive Kolmogorov--Sinai entropies per particle, in the thermodynamic limit of fixed energy density E/N with E and N arbitrarily large.

Chris Antonopoulos; Tassos Bountis; Charalampos Skokos

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

242

Shape control of manipulators with hyper degrees of freedom  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides a theoretical framework for controlling a manipulator with hyper degrees of freedom (HDOF) . An HDOF manipulator has the capability to achieve various kinds of tasks. To make full use of its capability, shape control is proposed here; that is, not only the tip of a manipulator, but also its whole body is controlled. To formulate control objectives for shape control, the authors define a shape correspondence between an HDOF manipulator and a spatial curve that prescribes a desired shape. The shape correspondence is defined by using solutions of a nonlinear optimization problem termed the shape-inverse problem. They give theorems on the existence of the solutions, and on an existence region that allows them to convert shape-control problems into more tractable ones. A shape-regulation control problem is considered first to bring an HDOF manipulator onto a given time-invariant curve. The idea of estimating the desired curve parameters is the crucial key to solving the problem by Lyapunov design. The derived shape-regulation law includes the estimator, which infers the desired curve parameters corresponding to the desired joint positions on the curve. The idea of the desired curve-parameter estimation is also effective for shape tracking where a time-varying curve is used for prescribing a moving desired shape. Considering an estimator with second-order dynamics enables the authors to find two shape-tracking control laws by utilizing conventional tracking methods in manipulator control. They show the simulation results of applying the derived shape-tracking control laws to a 20-DOF manipulator.

Mochiyama, Hiromi; Shimemura, Etsujiro [Japan Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology Hokuriku, Ishikawa (Japan). School of Information Science] [Japan Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology Hokuriku, Ishikawa (Japan). School of Information Science; Kobayashi, Hisato [Hosei Univ., Koganei, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering] [Hosei Univ., Koganei, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Design of JET ELM control coils for operation at 350 degrees C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study has confirmed the feasibility of designing, fabricating and installing resonant magnetic field perturbation (RMP) coils in JET(1) with the objective of controlling edge localized modes (ELM). A system of two rows of in-vessel coils, above the machine midplane, has been chosen as it not only can investigate the physics of and achieve the empirical criteria for ELM suppression, but also permits variation of the spectra allowing for comparison with other experiments. These coils present several engineering challenges. Conditions in JET necessitate the installation of these coils via remote handling, which will impose weight, dimensional and logistical limitations. And while the encased coils are designed to be conventionally wound and bonded, they will not have the usual benefit of active cooling. Accordingly, coil temperatures are expected to reach 350 degrees C during bakeout as well as during plasma operations. These elevated temperatures are beyond the safe operating limits of conventional OFHC copper and the epoxies that bond and insulate the turns of typical coils. This has necessitated the use of an alternative copper alloy conductor C18150 (CuCrZr). More importantly, an alternative to epoxy had to be found. An R&D program was initiated to find the best available insulating and bonding material. The search included polyimides and ceramic polymers. The scope and status of this R&D program, as well as the critical engineering issues encountered to date are reviewed and discussed.

Zatz, I J [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Baker, R [Association EURATOM-CCFE, Abingdon, UK; Brooks, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Cole, Michael J [ORNL; Neilson, G. H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Nuclear engineering enrollments decreased 9 percent overall in 1994; undergraduate degrees increased, while master`s and doctoral degrees decreased. No. 30  

SciTech Connect

The survey of ``Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees, 1994`` was sent to 51 institutions offering a major in nuclear engineering. Results of the survey are given.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

The earth's absolute gravitation potential function in the prospect 'gravitational potential metering' of geological objects and earthquake centers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The direct problem of the detection of the Earth's absolute gravitation potential maximum value (MGP) was solved. The inverse problem finding of the Earth maximum gravitation (where there is a maximum of gravitation field intensity and a potential function has a 'bending point') with the help of MGP was solved as well. The obtained results show that the revealed Earth maximum gravitation coincides quite strictly with the cseismic D" layer on the border of the inner and outer (liquid) core. The validity of the method of an absolute gravitation potential detection by the equal- potential velocity was proved as 'gravitation potential measurement' or 'Vs-gravity method'. The prospects of this method for detecting of low-power or distant geological objects with abnormal density and the possible earthquakes with low density was shown.

Aleksandr Fridrikson; Marina Kasatochkina

2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

246

Absolute calibration of image plates for electrons at energy between 100 keV and 4 MeV  

SciTech Connect

We measured the absolute response of image plate (Fuji BAS SR2040) for electrons at energies between 100 keV and 4 MeV using an electron spectrometer. The electron source was produced from a short pulse laser irradiated on solid density targets. This paper presents the calibration results of image plate photon stimulated luminescence per electron at this energy range. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX results are also presented for three representative incident angles onto the image plates and corresponding electron energy depositions at these angles. These provide a complete set of tools that allows extraction of our absolute calibration to other spectrometer setting at this electron energy range.

Chen Hui; Back, Norman L.; Eder, David C.; MacPhee, Andrew G.; Ping Yuan; Song, Peter M.; Throop, Alan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States); Bartal, Teresa; Beg, F. N. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Link, Anthony J.; Van Woerkom, Linn [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Absolute Calibration of Image Plate for electrons at energy between 100 keV and 4 MeV  

SciTech Connect

The authors measured the absolute response of image plate (Fuji BAS SR2040) for electrons at energies between 100 keV to 4 MeV using an electron spectrometer. The electron source was produced from a short pulse laser irradiated on the solid density targets. This paper presents the calibration results of image plate Photon Stimulated Luminescence PSL per electrons at this energy range. The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX results are also presented for three representative incident angles onto the image plates and corresponding electron energies depositions at these angles. These provide a complete set of tools that allows extraction of the absolute calibration to other spectrometer setting at this electron energy range.

Chen, H; Back, N L; Eder, D C; Ping, Y; Song, P M; Throop, A

2007-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

248

Telescope Spectrophotometric and Absolute Flux Calibration, and National Security Applications, Using a Tunable Laser on a Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a tunable laser-based satellite-mounted spectrophotometric and absolute flux calibration system, to be utilized by ground- and space-based telescopes. As spectrophotometric calibration may play a significant role in the accuracy of photometric redshift measurement, and photometric redshift accuracy is important for measuring dark energy using SNIa, weak gravitational lensing, and baryon oscillations, a method for reducing such uncertainties is needed. We propose to improve spectrophotometric calibration, currently obtained using standard stars, by placing a tunable laser and a wide-angle light source on a satellite by early next decade (perhaps included in the upgrade to the GPS satellite network) to improve absolute flux calibration and relative spectrophotometric calibration across the visible and near-infrared spectrum. As well as fundamental astrophysical applications, the system proposed here potentially has broad utility for defense and national security applications such as ground target illumination and space communication.

Justin Albert; William Burgett; Jason Rhodes

2006-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

249

Supplementary absolute differential cross sections for the excitation of atomic hydrogen's n=3 and 4 levels by electron impact  

SciTech Connect

We have conducted measurements of absolute differential cross sections for the excitation of hydrogen atoms to their n=3(3S+3P+3D) and 4(4S+4P+4D+4F) levels. A modulated, crossed-beam method was employed, and the impact energies were 40 and 60 eV. Comparison of our results with those of others is quite favorable.

Sweeney, Christopher J.; Shyn, Tong W. [Center for Space Physics, Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, Massachussetts 02215-1401 (United States); Grafe, Alan [Department of Computer Science, Engineering Science, and Physics, University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, Michigan 48502-1950 (United States)

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

SER Temperature Coefficient  

SciTech Connect

Experimentally determine the overall isothermal temperature coefficient of the SER up to the design operating temperatures.

Johnson, J.L.

1959-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

Calculation of absolute free energy of binding for theophylline and its analogs to RNA aptamer using nonequilibrium work values  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The massively parallel computation of absolute binding free energy with a well-equilibrated system (MP-CAFEE) has been developed [H. Fujitani, Y. Tanida, M. Ito, G. Jayachandran, C. D. Snow, M. R. Shirts, E. J. Sorin, and V. S. Pande, J. Chem. Phys. ${\\bf 123}$, 084108 (2005)]. As an application, we perform the binding affinity calculations of six theophylline-related ligands with RNA aptamer. Basically, our method is applicable when using many compute nodes to accelerate simulations, thus a parallel computing system is also developed. To further reduce the computational cost, the adequate non-uniform intervals of coupling constant $\\lambda$, connecting two equilibrium states, namely bound and unbound, are determined. The absolute binding energies $\\Delta G$ thus obtained have effective linear relation between the computed and experimental values. If the results of two other different methods are compared, thermodynamic integration (TI) and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) by the paper of Gouda $et al$ [H. Gouda, I. D. Kuntz, D. A. Case, and P. A. Kollman, Biopolymers ${\\bf 68}$, 16 (2003)], the predictive accuracy of the relative values $\\Delta\\Delta G$ is almost comparable to that of TI: the correlation coefficients (R) obtained are 0.99 (this work), 0.97 (TI), and 0.78 (MM-PBSA). On absolute binding energies meanwhile, a constant energy shift of $\\sim$ -7 kcal/mol against the experimental values is evident. To solve this problem, several presumable reasons are investigated.

Yoshiaki Tanida; Masakatsu Ito; Hideaki Fujitani

2007-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

252

Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering and  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering and Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering and Scientific Applications Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering and Scientific Applications Abstract Temperature data obtained in boreholes serve as critical input to many fields of engineering, exploration, and research: (1) in well completions, (2) gas and fluid production engineering, (3) in the exploration for hydrocarbons and ore minerals, and (4) for testing hypotheses concerning the evolution of the Earth's crust and tectonic processes. Wireline-conveyed maximum-recording thermometers and continuous-reading thermistors are used to measure absolute temperatures, differential

253

MAGNETIZATION DEGREE OF GAMMA-RAY BURST FIREBALLS: NUMERICAL STUDY  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative strength between forward and reverse shock emission in early gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow reflects that of magnetic energy densities in the two shock regions. We numerically show that with the current standard treatment, the fireball magnetization is underestimated by up to two orders of magnitude. This discrepancy is especially large in the sub-relativistic reverse shock regime (i.e., the thin shell and intermediate regime), where most optical flashes were detected. We provide new analytic estimates of the reverse shock emission based on a better shock approximation, which well describe numerical results in the intermediate regime. We show that the reverse shock temperature at the onset of afterglow is constant, ( {Gamma}-bar{sub d}-1){approx}8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}, when the dimensionless parameter {xi}{sub 0} is more than several. Our approach is applied to case studies of GRB 990123 and 090102, and we find that magnetic fields in the fireballs are even stronger than previously believed. However, these events are still likely to be due to a baryonic jet with {sigma} {approx} 10{sup -3} for GRB 990123 and {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 3 for GRB 090102.

Harrison, Richard; Kobayashi, Shiho, E-mail: R.M.Harrison@2006.ljmu.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

ac and dc current-induced motion of a 360 degrees domain wall  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

he response of 360 [360 degrees]domain walls in narrow magnetic stripes to applied dc and ac currents, investigated by micromagnetic simulation, differs qualitatively from the response of 180 [180 degrees] domain walls. ...

Mascaro, Mark D.

255

Research of sludge compost maturity degree modeling method based on wavelet neural network for sewage treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the complicated interaction of the sludge compost components, it makes the compost maturity degree judging system appear the nonlinearity and uncertainty. According to the physical circumstances of sludge compost, a compost maturity degree ...

Meijuan Gao; Jingwen Tian; Wei Jiang; Kai Li

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Amplifier circuit operable over a wide temperature range  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An amplifier circuit having stable performance characteristics over a wide temperature range from approximately 0.degree. C up to as high as approximately 500.degree. C, such as might be encountered in a geothermal borehole. The amplifier utilizes ceramic vacuum tubes connected in directly coupled differential amplifier pairs having a common power supply and a cathode follower output stage. In an alternate embodiment, for operation up to 500.degree. C, positive and negative power supplies are utilized to provide improved gain characteristics, and all electrical connections are made by welding. Resistor elements in this version of the invention are specially heat treated to improve their stability with temperature.

Kelly, Ronald D. (San Pedro, CA); Cannon, William L. (Encino, CA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Brief 71 Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees, 2011 Summary (11-12  

SciTech Connect

The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2010 and August 31, 2011. Enrollment information refers to the fall term 2011. The enrollment and degree data include students majoring in health physics or in an option program equivalent to a major. Twenty-four academic programs reported having health physics programs during 2011. The data for two health physics options within nuclear engineering programs are also included in the enrollments and degrees that are reported in the nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees data.

Dr. Don Johnson

2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

258

Table 1.9 Heating Degree-Days by Census Division  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Normala 2012 2013 Percent Change Normala 2012 2013 ... F would report 25 heating degree-days for that day ... See ...

259

Modeling of Sludge Compost Maturity Degree Based on Radial Basic Function Network for Sewage Treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the complicated interaction of the sludge compost components, it makes the compost maturity degree judging system appear the non-linearity and uncertainty. According to the physical circumstances of sludge compost, a compost maturity degree ... Keywords: Compost, Maturity degree, Radial basic function network, Modeling

Jingwen Tian; Meijuan Gao; Yanxia Liu; Shiru Zhou; Fan Zhang

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Determination of electron-heated temperatures of petawatt laser-irradiated foil targets with 256 and 68 eV extreme ultraviolet imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Measurements of plasma temperature at the rear surface of foil targets due to heating by hot electrons, which were produced in short pulse high intensity laser matter interactions using the 150 J, 0.5 ps Titan laser, are reported. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging at 256 and 68 eV energies is used to determine spatially resolved target rear surface temperature patterns by comparing absolute intensities to radiation hydrodynamic modeling. XUV mirrors at these two energies were absolutely calibrated at the Advanced Light Source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Temperatures deduced from both imagers are validated against each other within the range of 75-225 eV.

Ma, T. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); MacPhee, A. G.; Key, M. H.; Hatchett, S. P.; Barbee, T. W.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Akli, K. U.; Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Chen, C. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Freeman, R. R.; Link, A.; Offermann, D. T.; Ovchinnikov, V.; Van Woerkom, L. D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (United States); King, J. A.; Beg, F. N. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Zhang, B. [University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Experimental studies of oxygen isotope fractionation in the carbonic acid system at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In light of recent studies that show oxygen isotope fractionation in carbonate minerals to be a function of HCO3 2-; and CO3 2- concentrations, the oxygen isotope fractionation and exchange between water and components of the carbonic acid system (HCO3 2-, CO3 2-, and CO2(aq)) were investigated at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C. To investigate oxygen isotope exchange between HCO3 2-, CO3 -2, and H2O, NaHCO3 solutions were prepared and the pH was adjusted over a range of 2 to 12 by the addition of small amounts of HCl or NaOH. After thermal, chemical, and isotopic equilibrium was attained, BaCl2 was added to the NaHCO3 solutions. This resulted in immediate BaCO3 precipitation; thus, recording the isotopic composition of the dissolved inorganic carbon. Data from experiments at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C (1 atm) show that the oxygen isotope fractionation between HCO3 2-; and H2O as a function of temperature is governed by the equation: 1000 ;HCO3--H2O = 2.66 + 0.05(106T-2) + 1.18 + 0.52. where is the fractionation factor and T is in kelvins. The temperature dependence of oxygen isotope fractionation between CO32 and H2O is 1000 CO32--H2O = 2.28 + 0.03(106T-2) - 1.50 + 0.29. The oxygen isotope fractionation between CO2(aq) and H2O was investigated by acid stripping CO2(aq) from low pH solutions; these data yield the following equation: 1000 CO2(aq)-H2O = 2.52 + 0.03(106T-2) + 12.12 + 0.33. The kinetics of oxygen isotope exchange were also investigated. The half-times for exchange between HCO3- and H2O were 3.6, 1.4, and 0.25 h at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees)C, respectively. The half-times for exchange between CO2 and H2O were 1200, 170, and 41 h at 15, 25, and 40 (degrees) C, respectively. These results show that the 18O of the total dissolved inorganic carbon species can vary as much as 17 at a constant temperature. This could result in temperature independent variations in the 18O of precipitated carbonate minerals, especially in systems that are not chemically buffered.

Beck, William Cory

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Develpment of Higher Temperature Membrane and Electrode Assembly (MEA) for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Our work will fucus on developing higher temperature MEAs based on SPEKK polymer blends. Thse MEAs will be designed to operatre at 120 degrees C Higher temperatures, up to 200 degrees C will also be explored. This project will develop Nafion-free MEAs using only SPEKK blends in both membrane and catalytic layers.

Susan Agro, Anthony DeCarmine, Shari Williams

2005-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

263

CDIAC Temperature Data Sets  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Temperature CDIAC Climate Holdings Containing Temperature Data Global Data Sets Data Set Name Investigators Data TypeFormat Period of Record NASA GISS Surface Temperature...

264

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High Temperatures & Electricity Demand An Assessment of Supply Adequacy in California Trends.......................................................................................................1 HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND.....................................................................................................................7 SECTION I: HIGH TEMPERATURES AND ELECTRICITY DEMAND ..........................9 BACKGROUND

265

Kinetics and energy states of nanoclusters in the initial stage of homogeneous condensation at high supersaturation degrees  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The condensation of metal vapor in an inert gas is studied by the molecular dynamics method. Two condensation regimes are investigated: with maintenance of partial pressure of the metal vapor and with a fixed number of metal atoms in the system. The main focus is the study of the cluster energy distribution over the degrees of freedom and mechanisms of the establishment of thermal equilibrium. It is shown that the internal temperature of a cluster considerably exceeds the buffer gas temperature and the thermal balance is established for a time considerably exceeding the nucleation time. It is found that, when the metal vapor concentration exceeds 0.1 of the argon concentration, the growth of clusters with the highest possible internal energy occurs, the condensation rate being determined only by the rate of heat removal from clusters.

Vorontsov, A. G., E-mail: sas@physics.susu.ac.ru [South Ural State University (Russian Federation); Gel'chinskii, B. R.; Korenchenko, A. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy, Ural Branch (Russian Federation)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

The Araucaria Project: Dependence of mean K, J, and I absolute magnitudes of red clump stars on metallicity and age  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Abridged) We present results of deep near-infrared JK imaging of LMC, SMC, and the Carina and Fornax dwarf galaxies. A comparison of the extinction-corrected K-band red clump star magnitudes with the tip of the red giant branch magnitude, the mean RR Lyrae star V-band magnitude, and the mean K-band magnitude of Cepheid variables at a period of 10 days (for the LMC and SMC) strongly suggest that the red clump star absolute K-band magnitude has a very low (if any) dependence on metallicity over the broad range of metallicities covered by our target galaxies. This finding is in contrast to the mean I-band and J-band red clump star magnitudes, which do have a clear metallicity dependence which we calibrate from our data. Excellent agreement with the former calibration of the red clump I-band magnitude dependence on metallicity of Udalski is found from our new data. We use the Galactic cluster K-band red clump star data of Grocholski and Sarajedini to demonstrate that the K-band red clump star absolute magnitude also has very little (if any) dependence on age. The present study therefore provides clear evidence that the mean K-band magnitude of red clump stars is an excellent distance indicator, with very small (if any) population corrections to be applied over a large range in metallicity and age. Comparing derived distances to those coming from the observed mean I-band magnitudes of the red clump stars, we find evidence that there is likely to be a problem in the photometric calibration of the local, solar neighborhood red clump star K-band or I-band magnitudes which amounts to some 0.2 mag. A re-determination of the absolute photometric calibration of the Hipparcos-observed nearby red clump stars seems necessary to resolve this problem.

G. Pietrzy{?}ski; W. Gieren; A. Udalski

2003-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

267

Large (and Small) Energy Fluctuations in a Single Classical Degree of Freedom and the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Energy fluctuations in a single classical degree of freedom above the ground state at thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T are typically of average magnitude {approx}k{sub B}T. However, we show that the average magnitude of such fluctuations can be much larger (or much smaller) than k{sub B}T, indeed, that at least in principle it can be infinite (or arbitrarily close to 0). Nevertheless, the average energy fluctuation magnitude being untypically large (or untypically small) does not violate the second law of thermodynamics. For, if the average magnitude of energy fluctuations is much larger than k{sub B}T, then particle motion along the degree of freedom must manifest extreme spatial delocalization. The cost of locating the fluctuating particle along its degree of freedom equals or exceeds the large energy gain obtained upon finding it with an energy of much more than k{sub B}T above its ground state. The particle loses as much or more ability to do work via its spatial delocalization than it gains via the energy fluctuation. Similarly, if the average magnitude of energy fluctuations is much smaller than k{sub B}T, then the small energy yield obtainable upon locating the particle is compensated for by the small cost of locating it.

Denur, Jack [Electric and Gas Technology, Inc., 3233 West Kingsley Road, Garland, Texas 75041-2205 (United States)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A wearable system that learns a kinematic model and finds structure in everyday manipulation by using absolute orientation sensors and a camera  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents Duo, the first wearable system to autonomously learn a kinematic model of the wearer via body-mounted absolute orientation sensors and a head-mounted camera. With Duo, we demonstrate the significant ...

Kemp, Charles C. (Charles Clark), 1972-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

average air temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average air temperature average air temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords average air temperature

270

Variability in daily, zonal mean lower-stratospheric temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Satellite data from the microwave sounding unit (MSU) channel 4, when carefully merged, provide daily zonal anomalies of lower-stratosphere temperature with a level of precision between 0.01[degrees] and 0.08[degrees]C per 2.5[degrees] latitude band. Global averages of these daily zonal anomalies reveal the prominent warming events due to volcanic aerosol in 1982 (El Chichon) and 1991 (Mt. Pinatubo), which are on the order of 1[degrees]C. The quasibiennel oscillation (QBO) may be extracted from these zonal data by applying a spatial filter between 15[degrees]N and 15[degrees]S latitude, which resembles the meridional curvature. Previously published relationships between the QBO and the north polar stratospheric temperatures during northern winter are examined but were not found to be reproduced in the MSU4 data. Sudden stratospheric warmings in the north polar region are represented in the MSU4 data for latitudes poleward of 70[degrees]N. In the Southern Hemisphere, there appears to be a moderate relationship between total ozone concentration and MSU4 temperatures, though it has been less apparent in 1991 and 1992. In terms of empirical modes of variability revealed significant power in the 15-20 day period band.

Christy, J.R. (Univ. of Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)); Drouilhet, S.J. Jr. (Moorhead State Univ., MN (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Development of Rail Temperature Prediction Model SUMMARY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preventing track buckling is important to the railroad industrys goal of operational safety. It is a common practice for railroads to impose slow orders during hot weather when the risk of track buckling is high. Numerous factors affect track buckling, but the instantaneous rail temperatures and stress-free (neutral) rail temperatures are the most critical factors. Unfortunately, neither of these two temperatures is easily obtainable. Decisions for slow orders are often based on an arbitrary, ambient temperature limit. The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) Office of Research and Development has initiated a research project to develop a model for predicting rail temperatures based on real-time meteorological forecast data. The rail temperature prediction model is based on the heat transfer process of a rail exposed to the sun. In developing such a model, a rail-weather station was established, composed of a portable weather station and a short segment of rail track with temperature sensors installed on both rails. The model has proven to be able to predict the maximum rail temperature within a few degrees and within 30 minutes of the actual time when the maximum rail temperature occurs during the day. The model is being validated for three locations where real-time weather data and rail temperature are collected. A prototype webbased

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Theory, electro-optical design, testing, and calibration of a prototype atmospheric supersaturation, humidity, and temperature sensor. Final report Mar 81-Jul 82  

SciTech Connect

A new infrared differential absorption - passive thermal emission based instrument designed to make accurate in-cloud measurements of absolute humidity, air temperature, relative humidity, and ice and water supersaturations has been developed. Absolute humidity is measured by the differential infrared absorption of a broad-band light beam between 2.45 microns wavelength and the strongly absorbing water vapor band at 2.67 microns. Air temperature is sensed by a passive radiometric measurement of the Planck's law radiance emitted by carbon dioxide molecules in their very intense emission band at 4.25 microns. Significant operational advantages over previous 14-16 micron band radiometers are achieved. These non-contact optical measurements of absolute humidity and true air temperature can then be combined to yield relative humidity values with respect to both water and ice which remain valid in condensing supersaturated conditions and in spite of hydrometeors in the sample volume.

Nelson, L.D.

1982-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

cooling degree-days - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Alternative Fuels. Includes hydropower, solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and ethanol. ... Cooling degree-days. There are no record(s) that match your search criteria.

274

Department of Energy manpower assessment brief Number 46: Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees  

SciTech Connect

Based on a survey of 42 institutions, nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees decreased overall in 1999, continuing a steady decline of several years.

2000-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

Feedback improves the generalized degrees of freedom of the strong interference channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wireless net- works within o(log(snr)) - the impact of relays, feedback, co- operation andoperation on the generalized degrees of freedom of interference and other wireless

Cadambe, Viveck R; Jafar, Syed A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Improve Industrial Temperature Measurement Precision for Cost-Effective Energy Usage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Temperature measurement and energy efficiencies have always been tightly interrelated. Recent years have seen substantial advancements in the ability to make industrial temperature measurements with absolute accuracy. This capability should continue to have a great impact on industrial energy efficiency. "Absolute Accuracy" is a new concept in industrial temperature measurement. Making a measurement with "Absolute Accuracy" has enormous advantages in major industrial processes from heat-transfer to combustion thermal efficiency. Absolute measurement accuracy is especially critical when one temperature measurement is to be compared to another temperature measurement or if the measurement is to be used as part of a calculation formula such as BTU usage or compensated flow. The thermocouple and the RTD sensor continue to be the workhorse sensors for industrial measurements, but the precision measurement capability of the RTD sensor is showing real value in new installations. For temperature measurements under 1,000F, the RTD is extremely stable and repeatable in almost all measurement conditions. There have been significant advances in the ability to accurately read these sensors, particularly in industrial applications where the temperature sensor is installed in a remote location. Four-wire sensor measurement techniques can now be used for reading RTD's in industrial applications. These four-wire measurement techniques have improved the practical measurement accuracy in industrial applications to better than 0.1C. This is at least ten times better than any practical industrial temperature measurement accuracy made prior to 1980. These significant accuracy improvements have been matched by similar improvements in measurement stability, particularly from smart temperature transmitters. Measurement accuracy and stability improvements have allowed for similar advances in process control strategies and in precision energy use studies. Until recently, the inaccuracy of process temperature measurements have stymied implementation of sophisticated control algorithms. With the advent of precise, stable temperature measurements, a number of process control strategies can be implemented using real-time enthalpy balances for control of batch and continuous reactions. These control strategies can result in very significant improvements in both throughput and quality. Similar improvements can be made where it is important to compare an industrial temperature measurements. These comparisons are frequent in energy use studies to identify and isolate potential energy savings. This article examines the advances in remote temperature measurement techniques for the process and utility industries. It offers several examples of the significance of the on-line control techniques.

Lewis, C. W.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Measurement of H and H/sub 2/ populations in-situ in a low-temperature plasma by vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new technique, vacuum-ultraviolet laser-absorption spectroscopy, has been developed to quantitatively determine the absolute density of H and H/sub 2/ within a plasma. The technique is particularly well suited to measurement in a plasma, where high charged particle and photon background complicate other methods of detection. The high selectivity and sensitivity of the technique allows for the measurement of the rotational-vibrational state distribution of H/sub 2/ as well as the translational temperature of the atoms and molecules. The technique has been used to study both pulsed and continuous H/sup /minus// ion-source plasma discharges. H/sub 2/ state distributions in a multicusp ''volume'' H/sup /minus// ion- source plasma show a high degree of internal excitation, with levels up to v = 5 and J = 8 being observed. The method is applicable for a very wide range of plasma conditions. Emission measurements from excited states of H are also reported. 17 refs., 9 figs.

Schlachter, A.S.; Young, A.T.; Stutzin, G.C.; Stearns, J.W.; Doebele, H.G.; Leung, K.N.; Kunkel, W.B.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Mass and temperature limits for blackbody radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A spherically symmetric distribution of classical blackbody radiation is considered, at conditions in which gravitational self-interaction effects become not negligible. Static solutions to Einstein field equations are searched for, for each choice of the assumed central energy density. Spherical cavities at thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e. filled with blackbody radiation, are then studied, in particular for what concerns the relation among the mass M of the ball of radiation contained in them and their temperature at center and at the boundary. For these cavities it is shown, in particular, that: i) there is no absolute limit to M as well to their central and boundary temperatures; ii) when radius R is fixed, however, limits exist both for mass and for boundary energy density rho_B: M <= K M_S(R) and rho_B <= Q/R^2, with K = 0.493 and Q = 0.02718, dimensionless, and M_S(R) the Schwarzschild mass for that radius. Some implications of the existence and the magnitude of these limits are considered. Finally the radial profiles for entropy for these systems are studied, in their dependence on the mass (or central temperature) of the ball of radiation.

Alessandro Pesci

2006-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

279

Pre-medical Studies Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences Degree Schemes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pre-medical Studies A900 Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences Degree Schemes Our Pre-medical Studies course provides an opportunity for entry into medical education for individuals with non to enter year 1 of the Liverpool University MBChB medical degree studying at Lancaster or Liverpool

Meju, Max

280

Cleaning random d-regular graphs with brushes using a degree-greedy algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the recently introduced model for cleaning a graph with brushes, we use a degree-greedy algorithm to clean a random d-regular graph on n vertices (with dn even). We then use a differential equations method to find the (asymptotic) ... Keywords: cleaning process, degree--greedy algorithm, differential equations method, random d-regular graphs

Margaret-Ellen Messinger; Pawe? Pra?at; Richard J. Nowakowski; Nicholas Wormald

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! Unleash your creativity...  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! Unleash your creativity... Spend a semester at Indonesia's premiere institution for visual and performing arts... StudytheArtsinIndonesia Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! ACICIS #12;w w w . a c i c i s . m u r d o c h . e d u . a u

282

Directional Stress Indices and Stress Intensification Factors for 90 Degree Elbows (PWRMRP-06)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides equations, based on analyses and test data, for determining the directional stress indices and stress intensification factors (SIFs) for 90 degree elbows. Present methodologies used to determine these parameters are generally overly conservative. The report contains results of an investigation into the stress intensification factors and directional stress indices of 90 degree elbows.

1999-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

283

High-Temperature Thermodynamic Data for Species in Aqueous Solution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of experimental and theoretical research on the high-temperature thermodynamic properties of aqueous species important to nuclear reactor water chemistry. Methods of predicting thermodynamic functions are presented for electrolytes up to 300 degrees Celsius for use in supplementing experimental data. The report includes tables (up to 300 degrees Celsius) of (1) important equilibrium constants for 78 reactions encountered in corrosion and precipitation in nuclear reactor...

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Optical pH Sensors for High Temperature Environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel pH measurement system based on remote absorption spectroscopy via two uni-directional optical fibers has been developed for use in cooling water sampling lines in power plants. The system was designed to operate at 200 degrees Celsius (392 degrees Fahrenheit) and 1379 kPa (200 psi) and, so far, has been shown to measure reproducibly the pH of a flowing stream at room temperature and 1379 kPa (200 psi).

2000-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

285

Dissolution of quartz in lead and sodium electrolyte solutions between 25 and 300[degrees]C: Effect of the nature of surface complexes and reaction affinity  

SciTech Connect

The dissolution rate of quartz has been measured at 25[degrees]C in batch reactors and at 200 and 300[degrees]C in mixed flow reactors. Those experiments have been carried out in both pure H[sub 2]O and solutions containing Na or Pb at various ionic strengths and pH. The measured rates were found to increase significantly with the addition of either Na or Pb. In an attempt to determine the mechanism of these effects, the degree of adsorption of Na and Pb were measured on amorphous silica at 25 and 150[degrees]C. At 25[degrees]C, Na is found to adsorb on the quartz surface as an outer-sphere complex, and the corresponding dissolution rate increase is explained by an increase of the ionic strength. By contrast, at 25[degrees], lead, which forms inner-sphere complexes, increases the quartz dissolution rate specifically. At high temperature, quartz dissolution is promoted in the presence of both Na and Pb by a pH-dependent formation of surface inner-sphere complexes. This effect tends to vanish when the degree of saturation of the solution increases, as a result of the competition between electrolyte and aqueous silica adsorption on quartz surface. These results show that the electrolytes which adsorb as inner-sphere complexes dominate the overall reaction at conditions far from equilibrium only. Consequently, for a large range of chemical affinity quartz dissolution in Na and Pb electrolyte solutions can be modeled within the framework of the Transition State Theory by simply taking into account the protonated surface species and the ionic strength of the solution.

Berger, G.; Cadore, E.; Schott, J. (Laboratoire de Geochimi, Toulouse (France)); Dove, P.M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

COMPARISON OF VENTED AND ABSOLUTE PRESSURE TRANSDUCERS FOR WATER-LEVEL MONITORING IN HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU WELLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Automated water-level data collected using vented pressure transducers deployed in Hanford Site Central Plateau wells commonly display more variability than manual tape measurements in response to barometric pressure fluctuations. To explain this difference, it was hypothesized that vented pressure transducers installed in some wells are subject to barometric pressure effects that reduce water-level measurement accuracy. Vented pressure transducers use a vent tube, which is open to the atmosphere at land surface, to supply air pressure to the transducer housing for barometric compensation so the transducer measurements will represent only the water pressure. When using vented transducers, the assumption is made that the air pressure between land surface and the well bore is in equilibrium. By comparison, absolute pressure transducers directly measure the air pressure within the wellbore. Barometric compensation is achieved by subtracting the well bore air pressure measurement from the total pressure measured by a second transducer submerged in the water. Thus, no assumption of air pressure equilibrium is needed. In this study, water-level measurements were collected from the same Central Plateau wells using both vented and absolute pressure transducers to evaluate the different methods of barometric compensation. Manual tape measurements were also collected to evaluate the transducers. Measurements collected during this study demonstrated that the vented pressure transducers over-responded to barometric pressure fluctuations due to a pressure disequilibrium between the air within the wellbores and the atmosphere at land surface. The disequilibrium is thought to be caused by the relatively long time required for barometric pressure changes to equilibrate between land surface and the deep vadose zone and may be exacerbated by the restriction of air flow between the well bore and the atmosphere due to the presence of sample pump landing plates and well caps. The disequilibrium is likely limited to wells screened across the water table (i.e., open to the deep vadose zone) where the depth to water is large or a low-permeability layer occurs in the vadose zone. Such wells are a pathway for air movement between the deep vadose zone and land surface and this sustains the pressure disequilibrium between the well bore and the atmosphere for longer time periods. Barometric over-response was not observed with the absolute pressure transducers because barometric compensation was achieved by directly measuring the air pressure within the well. Users of vented pressure transducers should be aware of the over-response issue in certain Hanford Site wells and ascertain if it will affect the use of the data. Pressure disequilibrium between the well and the atmosphere can be identified by substantial air movement through the wellbore. In wells exhibiting pressure disequilibrium, it is recommended that absolute pressure transducers be used rather than vented transducers for applications that require precise automated determinations of well water-level changes in response to barometric pressure fluctuations.

MCDONALD JP

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

287

Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g. 37 Ar ). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

The recent absolute total np and pp cross section determinations: quality of data description and prediction of experimental observables  

SciTech Connect

The absolute total cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Systematic deviations from the ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-3.3 evaluations are found to exist in the low-energy region. Comparison of the np evaluation with the result of most recent np total and differential cross section measurements will be discussed. Results of those measurements were not used in the evaluation database. A comparison was done to check a quality of evaluation and its capabilities to predict experimental observables. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

Laptev, Alexander B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haight, Robert C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Arndt, Richard A [GWU; Briscoe, William J [GWU; Paris, Mark W [GWU; Strakovsky, Igor I [GWU; Workman, Ron L [GWU

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Solid-state track recorder dosimetry device to measure absolute reaction rates and neutron fluence as a function of time  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solid state track recording type dosimeter is disclosed to measure the time dependence of the absolute fission rates of nuclides or neutron fluence over a period of time. In a primary species an inner recording drum is rotatably contained within an exterior housing drum that defines a series of collimating slit apertures overlying windows defined in the stationary drum through which radiation can enter. Film type solid state track recorders are positioned circumferentially about the surface of the internal recording drum to record such radiation or its secondary products during relative rotation of the two elements. In another species both the recording element and the aperture element assume the configuration of adjacent disks. Based on slit size of apertures and relative rotational velocity of the inner drum, radiation parameters within a test area may be measured as a function of time and spectra deduced therefrom.

Gold, Raymond (1393 George Washington Way, Suite No. 7, P.O. Box 944, Richland, WA 99352); Roberts, James H. (1393 George Washington Way, Suite No. 7, P.O. Box 944, Richland, WA 99352)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

earth skin temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

earth skin temperature earth skin temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Earth Skin Temperature (° C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Earth Skin Temperature (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords climate

291

Method of low temperature operation of an electrochemical cell array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In the method of operating an electrochemical cell generator apparatus containing a generator chamber (20) containing an array of cells (12) having interior and exterior electrodes with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where a hot gas (F) contacts the outside of the cells (12) and the generating chamber normally operates at over 850.degree. C., where N.sub.2 gas is fed to contact the interior electrode of the cells (12) in any case when the generating chamber (20) temperature drops for whatever reason to within the range of from 550.degree. C. to 800.degree. C., to eliminate cracking within the cells (12).

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Transition between the 1 x 1 and ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface structures of GaN in the vapor-phase environment  

SciTech Connect

Out-of-plane structures of the GaN(0001) surface in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) environment have been determined using in situ grazing-incidence X-ray scattering. The authors measured 11{bar 2}{ell} crystal truncation rod intensities at a variety of temperatures and ammonia partial pressures on both sides of the 1 x 1 to ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} surface phase transition. The out-of-plane structure of the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase appears to be nearly independent of temperature below the transition, while the structure of the 1 x 1 phase changes increase rapidly as the phase transition is approached from above. A model for the structure of the 1 x 1 phase with a partially-occupied top Ga layer agrees well with the data. The observed temperature dependence is consistent with a simple model of the equilibrium between the vapor phase and the surface coverage of Ga and N. In addition, the authors present results on the kinetics of reconstruction domain coarsening following a quench into the ({radical}3 x 2{radical}3)R30{degree} phase field.

Munkholm, A.; Thompson, C.; Stephenson, G. B.; Eastman, J. A.; Auciello, O.; Fini, P.; Speck, J. S.; DenBaars, S. P.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

293

Effects of neutron irradiation on fatigue and creep-fatigue crack propagation in type 316 stainless steel at 649 degree C produced no significant effect on the crack propagation rate when compared with unirradiated steel tested at 649 degree C  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The fatigue and creep-fatigue crack propagation performance of Type 316 stainless steel has been investigated following fast neutron (n) irradiation. The purpose was to evaluate the effects of neutron fluence and temperature on the crack propagation resistance and failure mode of the steel. Results are presented from fatigue tests of the annealed steel that were irradiated at 649 degree C Scanning electron microscope examination of the fracture surfaces of the tested specimens revealed that the failure mode of the specimens which exhibited increased crack propagation rates was primarily intergranular while a transgranular mode was observed for specimens with lower crack propagation rates. The results point toward a synergistic relationship between thermomechanical history, precipitate formation, and hold time effects as the responsible mechanism for the crack propagation performance.

Michel, D.J.; Smith, H.H.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Strangeness at high temperatures: from hadrons to quarks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appropriate combinations of up to fourth order cumulants of net strangeness fluctuations and their correlations with net baryon number and electric charge fluctuations, obtained from lattice QCD calculations, have been used to probe the strangeness carrying degrees of freedom at high temperatures. For temperatures up to the chiral crossover separate contributions of strange mesons and baryons can be well described by an uncorrelated gas of hadrons. Such a description breaks down in the chiral crossover region, suggesting that the deconfinement of strangeness takes place at the chiral crossover. On the other hand, the strangeness carrying degrees of freedom inside the quark gluon plasma can be described by a weakly interacting gas of quarks only for temperatures larger than twice the chiral crossover temperature. In the intermediate temperature window these observables show considerably richer structures, indicative of the strongly interacting nature of the quark gluon plasma.

A. Bazavov; H. -T. Ding; P. Hegde; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; E. Laermann; Y. Maezawa; Swagato Mukherjee; H. Ohno; P. Petreczky; C. Schmidt; S. Sharma; W. Soeldner; M. Wagner

2013-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

295

High Temperature, Buried Permanent Magnet, Brushless DC Motor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high temperature magnetic bearing system using high temperature permanent magnets from Electron Energy Corporation (EEC) is under development. The system consists of two radial bearings, one thrust bearing, two radial catcher bearings and one motor. The purpose of this research is to develop one of the critical components of the system, namely, the High Temperature Permanent Magnet motor. A novel High Temperature Permanent Magnet (HTPM) Brushless DC(BLDC) motor capable of operating at 1000 degrees F (538 degrees C) is designed. HTPMs developed at Electron Energy Corporation are buried into the rotor. The high temperature motor is designed to produce 5.1kw of power at a top running speed of 20000 rpm. The numerical values of the motor voltage, power and torque output are predicted from calculations of the nonlinear finite element model of the motor. The motor stator is wound, potted, cured and high potential tested at 1000 degrees F. A servo amplifier from Advanced Motion Control is used to drive the high temperature motor. High temperature displacement sensors are set up for sensing the rotor position to form a closed loop motion control. However, the noise problem of the high temperature sensors causes a failure of this approach. An open loop approach is then developed and this approach succeeds in spinning the rotor with the capability of self-starting. The status of the full system assembling is introduced. Some other components of the system are briefly presented.

Zhang, Zhengxin

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Characterization of lithium niobate electro-optic modulators at cryogenic temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the operation of lithium niobate electro-optic waveguide modulators at temperatures down to 15{degrees}K. Commercial and laboratory fiber pigtailed devices have successfully been cooled without any increases in insertion loss from temperature induced stresses in device packaging. Three x-cut devices exhibited a linear increase in V{pi} voltage of 8%{plus_minus}1% when cooled from room temperature to {approximately} 20{degree}K. The broadband frequency response improved at lower temperature. A velocity-matched experimental modular has shown increased bandwidth when cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.

Morse, J.; McCammon, K.; McConaghy, C.; Masquelier, D.; Garrett, H.; Lowry, M.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Automorphisms of the truth-table degrees are fixed on some cone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Let Dtt denote the set of truth-table degrees. A bijection p from Dtt to Dtt is an automorphism if for all truth-table degrees x and y we have x =tt b we have p(x) = x. We first prove that for every 2-generic real X we have X' is not tt below X + 0'. We next prove that for every real X >=tt 0' there is a real Y such that Y + 0' =tt Y' =tt X. Finally, we use this to demonstrate that every automorphism of the truth-table degrees is fixed on some cone.

Anderson, Bernard A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

Morgan, John P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Joint Professional/Graduate Degree Program FORM: The faculties of the College of _____ and the College/School/Department of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Joint Professional/Graduate Degree Program FORM: The faculties of the College of _____ and the College/School/Department of ___________ have approved a joint degree program culminating in both/Specialist/Engineer/Master of _____ degree, awarded by the College/School/Department of ______. Under the joint degree program, a student can

Roy, Subrata

300

The Complexity of Approximating Bounded-Degree Boolean #CSP (Extended Abstract)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The degree of a CSP instance is the maximum number of times that a variable may appear in the scope of constraints. We consider the approximate counting problem for Boolean CSPs with bounded-degree instances, for constraint languages containing the two unary constant relations {0} and {1}. When the maximum degree is at least 25 we obtain a complete classification of the complexity of this problem. It is exactly solvable in polynomial-time if every relation in the constraint language is affine. It is equivalent to the problem of approximately counting independent sets in bipartite graphs if every relation can be expressed as conjunctions of {0}, {1} and binary implication. Otherwise, there is no FPRAS unless NP=RP. For lower degree bounds, additional cases arise in which the complexity is related to the complexity of approximately counting independent sets in hypergraphs.

Dyer, Martin E; Jalsenius, Markus; Richerby, David

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Effective real-world project collaboration: Strategies from a cyber security degree program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The undergraduate degree of computer and cyber security has been offered at the School of Information Technology, Phetchaburi Rajabhat University, Thailand since 2005. Our program requires direct field experience when students are taking upper-level ...

Wajee Chookittikul; Peter E. Maher

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Wind: monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASASSE

(Abstract): Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m...

303

Table 1.10 Cooling Degree-Days by Census Division, 1949-2011  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 1.10 Cooling Degree-Days by Census Division, 1949-2011: Year: New England: Middle Atlantic: East North Central: West North Central: South Atlantic: East South

304

SoundStrand : a tangible interface for composing music with limited degrees of freedom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents SoundStrand, a novel tangible interface for composing music. A new paradigm is also presented - one that allows for music composition with limited degrees of freedom, and therefore is well suited for ...

Shahar, Eyal

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

Cresap, Richard L. (Portland, OR); Taylor, Carson W. (Portland, OR); Kreipe, Michael J. (Portland, OR)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The BoPen : a tangible pointer tracked in six degrees of freedom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I designed and implemented an optical system for freehand interactions in six degrees of freedom. A single camera captures a pen's location and orientation, including roll, tilt, x, y, and z by reading ...

Taub, Daniel Matthew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

The Effective Number of Spatial Degrees of Freedom of a Time-Varying Field  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors systematically investigate two easily computed measures of the effective number of spatial degrees of freedom (ESDOF), or number of independently varying spatial patterns, of a time-varying field of data. The first measure is based on ...

Christopher S. Bretherton; Martin Widmann; Valentin P. Dymnikov; John M. Wallace; Ileana Blad

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND FAMILY STUDIES What can I do with this degree?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

services agencies Federal, state and local government particularly Departments of Welfare and Health Degree? Page 3 AREAS EMPLOYERS STRATEGIES GOVERNMENT Federal, state and local government agencies agencies Summer camp programs Adult and child daycare providers Programs servicing children and adults

Escher, Christine

309

Stability ofBifurcatingSolutionsbyLeray-SchauderDegree D. H. SATTINGER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

problems in nuclear reactor design, etc. For the purposes of this paper the principle of linearized at hand. There is, in addition, a natural motivation for using degree theory which is explained in w4

Zakharov, Vladimir

310

Brief 68.1 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2010 Data  

SciTech Connect

The survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2009 and August 31, 2010, and fall 2010 enrollments. Thirty-two academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2010, and data was obtained from all thirty-two.

Dr. Don Johnson, Analysis and Evaluation, Science Education Programs

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

311

Resonant Third-Degree Diurnal Tides in the Seas off Western Europe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Third-degree diurnal tides are estimated from long time series of sea level measurements at three North Atlantic tide gauges. Although their amplitudes are only a few millimeters or less, their admittances are far larger than those of second-...

Richard D. Ray

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D. Bhagawati. 2003. Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994). NDP-081. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, U.S....

313

Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994) (NDP-081) DOI: 10.3334CDIAClue.ndp081 PDF PDF Contributors James W. Raich 1,...

314

Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

D. Bhagawati. 2003. Interannual Variability in Global Soil Respiration on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (1980-1994). ORNLCDIAC-144, NDP-081. Available on-line http:...

315

Recent and Future Trends in U.S. Undergraduate Meteorology Enrollments, Degree Recipients, and Employment Opportunities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using data derived from the American Meteorological SocietyUniversity Corporation for Atmospheric Research Curricula and U.S. Department of Education statistics, it is found that the number of meteorology bachelor's degree recipients in the ...

John A. Knox

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

A complete minimal system of covariants for the binary form of degree 7  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A minimal system of 147 homogeneous generators of the algebra of covariants for the binary form of degree 7 is calculated. Keywords: Classical invariant theory, Covariants of binary form, Derivations

Leonid Bedratyuk

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

PTAS for maximum weight independent set problem with random weights in bounded degree graphs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Finding the largest independent set in a graph is a notoriously difficult NP-complete combinatorial optimization problem. Moreover, even for graphs with largest degree 3, no polynomial time approximation algorithm exists ...

Gamarnik, David

318

Low sintering temperature glass waste forms for sequestering radioactive iodine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Materials and methods of making low-sintering-temperature glass waste forms that sequester radioactive iodine in a strong and durable structure. First, the iodine is captured by an adsorbant, which forms an iodine-loaded material, e.g., AgI, AgI-zeolite, AgI-mordenite, Ag-silica aerogel, ZnI.sub.2, CuI, or Bi.sub.5O.sub.7I. Next, particles of the iodine-loaded material are mixed with powdered frits of low-sintering-temperature glasses (comprising various oxides of Si, B, Bi, Pb, and Zn), and then sintered at a relatively low temperature, ranging from 425.degree. C. to 550.degree. C. The sintering converts the mixed powders into a solid block of a glassy waste form, having low iodine leaching rates. The vitrified glassy waste form can contain as much as 60 wt % AgI. A preferred glass, having a sintering temperature of 500.degree. C. (below the silver iodide sublimation temperature of 500.degree. C.) was identified that contains oxides of boron, bismuth, and zinc, while containing essentially no lead or silicon.

Nenoff, Tina M.; Krumhansl, James L.; Garino, Terry J.; Ockwig, Nathan W.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

319

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425[degrees]C and a cold-side temperature of 25[degrees]C could be varied between 17.6 W/m[sup 2] and 7,000 W/m[sup 2]. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50[degrees]C to 250[degrees]C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Variable pressure insulating jackets for high-temperature batteries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new method is proposed for controlling the temperature of high-temperature batteries namely, varying the hydrogen pressure inside of multifoil insulation by varying the temperature of a reversible hydrogen getter. Calculations showed that the rate of heat loss through 1.5 cm of multifoil insulation between a hot-side temperature of 425{degrees}C and a cold-side temperature of 25{degrees}C could be varied between 17.6 W/m{sup 2} and 7,000 W/m{sup 2}. This change in heat transfer rate can be achieved by varying the hydrogen pressure between 1.0 Pa and 1,000 Pa, which can be done with an available hydrogen gettering alloy operating in the range of 50{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. This approach to battery cooling requires cylindrical insulating jackets, which are best suited for bipolar batteries having round cells approximately 10 to 18 cm in diameter.

Nelson, P.A.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Malecha, R.F.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Degree of compression and energy efficiency of a capillary compressor of femtosecond laser pulses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A relation between the degree of pulse compression and energy efficiency is derived for femtosecond laser pulse compressors that utilise spectral broadening of pulses in a gas-filled capillary. We show that the degree of compression has a maximum at an energy efficiency from 15% to 30%. A 15-fold compression of a 290-fs pulse with an energy efficiency of 24% is demonstrated.

Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Kostryukov, P V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

322

On Algebraic Solutions of Polynomial Equations of Degree n in one Variable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We will show that the roots of a polynomial equation in one variable of degree n are related to the solutions of a symmetric quadratic form in n-1 variables with constant positive integer coefficients. The classic polynomial notation will be rewritten to define a characteristic discriminant of a polynomial of degree n. A new set of characteristic roots allows expressing the characteristic discriminant as the result of a symmetric quadratic form.

Gerry Martens

2006-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

323

Low-temperature volumetric receiver concept  

SciTech Connect

This document describes an alternative solar central receiver concept that offers the potential for a substantial reduction in the cost of electrical energy. The concept consists of a low temperature volumetric receiver which supplies 1100/degree/F air to a Kalina cycle heat engine. Hot air can also be supplied to a packed bed of Dresser basalt where the hot air is used to heat the bed. The thermal energy stored in the bed can be extracted and supplied to the Kalina cycle during periods of low insolation. Previous investigations of the volumetric receiver concentrated on high temperature applications. The results showed that the volumetric concept could be very efficient, but the receiver was expensive and there were significant technical problems. Areas of technical uncertainty included fiber durability, the feasibility of inducing a preswirl and cost effective applications. The use of the volumetric receiver to produce low temperature will avoid the problems identified in the high temperature studies. The attractiveness of the low temperature concept is enhanced by the availability of the Kalina cycle. This heat engine was developed as a bottoming cycle for Brayton and Rankine cycle power plants. The key feature of the Kalina cycle is its ability to efficiently utilize the energy in a relatively low temperature heat source. The combination of the low temperature volumetric receiver and the Kalina cycle is particularly interesting. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Drost, M.K.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Crystallization and doping of amorphous silicon on low temperature plastic  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method or process of crystallizing and doping amorphous silicon (a-Si) on a low-temperature plastic substrate using a short pulsed high energy source in a selected environment, without heat propagation and build-up in the substrate. The pulsed energy processing of the a-Si in a selected environment, such as BF3 and PF5, will form a doped micro-crystalline or poly-crystalline silicon (pc-Si) region or junction point with improved mobilities, lifetimes and drift and diffusion lengths and with reduced resistivity. The advantage of this method or process is that it provides for high energy materials processing on low cost, low temperature, transparent plastic substrates. Using pulsed laser processing a high (>900.degree. C.), localized processing temperature can be achieved in thin films, with little accompanying temperature rise in the substrate, since substrate temperatures do not exceed 180.degree. C. for more than a few microseconds. This method enables use of plastics incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures (higher than 180.degree. C.) but which are much lower cost, have high tolerance to ultraviolet light, have high strength and good transparency, compared to higher temperature plastics such as polyimide.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Truher, Joel B. (Palo Alto, CA); Weiner, Kurt H. (Campbell, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Beaverton, OR)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION STUDY INTERIM REPORT FOR THE PERIOD NOVEMBER 1958 THROUGH MAY 1959  

SciTech Connect

Samples of grade A Monel snd grade A nickel were subjected statically in a single reactor to an undiluted atmosphere of gaseous fluorine at pressures up to one atmosphere absolute and temperatures up to 1500 deg F. The grade A Monel was conservatively estimated to have consumed at least 40 times as much fluorine as grade A nickel during the entire period of the investigation. Samples of fused alpha Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/- MgO spinel, and alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-NiO--nickel cermet were exposed to undiluted fluorine at one atinosphere absolute pressure at temperatures of 1340 and 1500 deg F. Results indicated that the alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is as good as the Ni in the region of 1300 deg F. Grade A nickel samples coated with nickel fluoride filins of 37,000 and 74,000 A, respectively, were exposed to an absolute pressure of gaseous UF/sub 6/ of 12 cm of Hg at temperatures of 1000 and 1800 deg F. (W.L.H.)

Hale, C.F.; Barber, E.J.; Bernhardt, H.A.; Rapp, K.E.

1959-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

326

Enzymatic temperature change indicator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

Klibanov, Alexander M. (Newton, MA); Dordick, Jonathan S. (Iowa City, IA)

1989-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

327

Temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties of SiC/B{sub 4}C  

SciTech Connect

We report on the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties of {ital p}-type SiC/B{sub 4}C system for thermoelectric devices. Measurements of electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity were made on SiC as a function of both B{sub 4}C doping concentration over the range 0.2%{similar_to}60 wt. % and temperature over the range from room temperature up to 600 {degree}C. The figure of merit increases from 2 to 5 decades with temperature increase from room temperature to 600 {degree}C. We conclude that the SiC/B{sub 4}C system with around 10% of B{sub 4}C is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications in the temperature range 400{similar_to}600 {degree}C. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Okamoto, Y.; Aruga, A.; Kasai, H.; Morimoto, J.; Miyakawa, T.; Fujimoto, S. [Natl. Def. Acad., Dept. MSE (Japan)

1994-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

328

Low temperature catalysts for methanol production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst and process useful at low temperatures (below about 160.degree. C.) and preferably in the range 80.degree.-120.degree. C. used in the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is disclosed. The catalyst is used in slurry form and comprises a complex reducing agent derived from the component structure NaH--RONa--M(OAc).sub.2 where M is selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pd, and Co and R is a lower alkyl group containing 1-6 carbon atoms. This catalyst is preferably used alone but is also effective in combination with a metal carbonyl of a group VI (Mo, Cr, W) metal. The preferred catalyst precursor is Nic (where M=Ni and R=tertiary amyl). Mo(CO).sub.6 is the preferred metal carbonyl if such component is used. The catalyst is subjected to a conditioning or activating step under temperature and pressure, similar to the parameters given above, to afford the active catalyst.

Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946); O' Hare, Thomas E. (11 Geiger Pl., Huntington Station, NY 11746); Mahajan, Devinder (14 Locust Ct., Selden, NY 11784)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

High-temperature helium-loop facility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100/sup 0/F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system.

Tokarz, R.D.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Absolute Value Programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ber 2005, was supported by National Science Foundation Grants CCR-0138308 and IIS-0511905, the Microsoft Corporation and ExxonMobil. References. 1.

331

Quantitative Vapor-phase IR Intensities and DFT Computations to Predict Absolute IR Spectra based on Molecular Structure: I. Alkanes  

SciTech Connect

Recently recorded quantitative IR spectra of a variety of gas-phase alkanes are shown to have integrated intensities in both the C-H stretching and C-H bending regions that depend linearly on the molecular size, i.e. the number of C-H bonds. This result is well predicted from CH4 to C15H32 by DFT computations of IR spectra at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of DFT theory. A simple model predicting the absolute IR band intensities of alkanes based only on structural formula is proposed: For the C-H stretching band near 2930 cm-1 this is given by (in km/mol): CH_str = (343)*CH (4160) where CH is number of C-H bonds in the alkane. The linearity is explained in terms of coordinated motion of methylene groups rather than the summed intensities of autonomous -CH2- units. The effect of alkyl chain length on the intensity of a C-H bending mode is explored and interpreted in terms of conformer distribution. The relative intensity contribution of a methyl mode compared to the total C-H stretch intensity is shown to be linear in the number of terminal methyl groups in the alkane, and can be used to predict quantitative spectra a priori based on structure alone.

Williams, Stephen D.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sharpe, Steven W.; Yavelak, Veronica; Oats, R. P.; Brauer, Carolyn S.

2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

332

Absolute high-resolution Se{sup +} photoionization cross-section measurements with Rydberg-series analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements for Se{sup +} ions were performed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the photo-ion merged-beams technique. Measurements were made at a photon energy resolution of 5.5 meV from 17.75 to 21.85 eV spanning the 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 3} {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}{sup o} ground-state ionization threshold and the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2}{sup o},{sup 2}P{sub 1/2}{sup o},{sup 2}D{sub 5/2}{sup o}, and{sup 2}D{sub 3/2}{sup o} metastable state thresholds. Extensive analysis of the complex resonant structure in this region identified numerous Rydberg series of resonances and obtained the Se{sup 2+} 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 23}P{sub 2} and 4s{sup 2}4p{sup 21}S{sub 0} state energies. In addition, particular attention was given to removing significant effects in the measurements due to a small percentage of higher-order undulator radiation.

Esteves, D. A. [University of Nevada, Reno, Department of Physics, MS 0220, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bilodeau, R. C. [Western Michigan University, MS 5252, 1903 W. Michigan Ave, Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008 (United States); Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sterling, N. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 3248, Biomedical Physical Sciences, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-2320 (United States); Phaneuf, R. A. [University of Nevada, Reno, Department of Physics, MS 0220, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Red, E. C.; Aguilar, A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Iran cannot have claimed to be building a thermonuclear reactor -To build a thermonuclear reactor by its own efforts is a task absolutely beyond Iran's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iran cannot have claimed to be building a thermonuclear reactor - expert To build a thermonuclear reactor by its own efforts is a task absolutely beyond Iran's strength, and reports that Iran has made such claims must be a misunderstanding, a nuclear specialist said._Georgy Yeliseyev, chief specialist

334

Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Uncertainty: Pyrgeometers Compared to an Absolute Sky-Scanning Radiometer, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer, and Radiative Transfer Model Calculations  

SciTech Connect

Because atmospheric longwave radiation is one of the most fundamental elements of an expected climate change, there has been a strong interest in improving measurements and model calculations in recent years. Important questions are how reliable and consistent are atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations and what are the uncertainties? The First International Pyrgeometer and Absolute Sky-scanning Radiometer Comparison, which was held at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Souther Great Plains site in Oklahoma, answers these questions at least for midlatitude summer conditions and reflects the state of the art for atmospheric longwave radiation measurements and calculations. The 15 participating pyrgeometers were all calibration-traced standard instruments chosen from a broad international community. Two new chopped pyrgeometers also took part in the comparison. And absolute sky-scanning radiometer (ASR), which includes a pyroelectric detector and a reference blackbody source, was used for the first time as a reference standard instrument to field calibrate pyrgeometers during clear-sky nighttime measurements. Owner-provided and uniformly determined blackbody calibration factors were compared. Remarkable improvements and higher pyrgeometer precision were achieved with field calibration factors. Results of nighttime and daytime pyrgeometer precision and absolute uncertainty are presented for eight consecutive days of measurements, during which period downward longwave irradiance varied between 260 and 420 W m-2. Comparisons between pyrgeometers and the absolute ASR, the atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer, and radiative transfer models LBLRTM and MODTRAN show a surprisingly good agreement of <2 W m-2 for nighttime atmospheric longwave irradiance measurements and calculations.

Philipona, J. R.; Dutton, Ellsworth G.; Stoffel, T.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Reda, I.; Stifter, Armin; Wendling, Peter; Wood, Norm; Clough, Shepard A.; Mlawer, Eli J.; Anderson, Gail; Revercomb, Henry E.; Shippert, Timothy R.

2001-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

335

A Model for Decision Making Based on NWS Monthly Temperature Outlooks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Gaussian model for evaluating the probability of occurrence of forecast-contingent monthly average temperature and degree day outcomes is developed by use of forecast-verification data, and proposed for use in decision making. The model 1) ...

Richard L. Lehman

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

The Doubled CO2 Climate: Impact of the Sea Surface Temperature Gradient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Even though five different general circulation models are all currently producing about a 4 1C warming for doubled CO2, there is still substantial model disagreement about the degree of high latitude amplification of the surface temperature ...

David Rind

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Test report for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker Electrochemical Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is the test report that summarizes the results of the tests on the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20{degrees}F and +120{degrees}F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. The test consisted of operating five Whittaker electrochemical cells in an environmental chamber that was varied in temperature from -20{degrees}F to +120{degrees}F. As the rate rise of the voltage from the cells changed, after exposure to a gas concentration of 1% hydrogen at the different temperatures, the voltage was recorded on a computer controlled data acquisition system. Analysis of the data was made to determine if the cells maximum output voltages and rise times were effected by temperature.

Vargo, G.F., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

338

Seasonal and Regional Variation of Pan-Arctic Surface Air Temperature over the Instrumental Record  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Instrumental surface air temperature (SAT) records beginning in the late 1800s from 59 Arctic stations north of 64N show monthly mean anomalies of several degrees and large spatial teleconnectivity, yet there are systematic seasonal and regional ...

James E. Overland; Michael C. Spillane; Donald B. Percival; Muyin Wang; Harold O. Mofjeld

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

High-temperature zirconia insulation and method for making same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to a highly pure, partially stabilized, fibrous zirconia composite for use as thermal insulation in environments where temperatures up to about 2000.degree. C. are utilized. The composite of the present invention is fabricated into any suitable configuration such as a cone, cylinder, dome or the like by vacuum molding an aqueous slurry of partially stabilized zirconia fibers into a desired configuration on a suitably shaped mandrel. The molded fibers are infiltrated with zirconyl nitrate and the resulting structure is then dried to form a rigid structure which may be removed and placed in a furnace. The structure is then heated in air to a temperature of about 600.degree. C. for driving off the nitrate from the structure and for oxidizing the zirconyl ion to zirconia. Thereafter, the structure is heated to about 950.degree. to 1,250.degree. C. to fuse the zirconia fibers at their nexi in a matrix of zirconia. The composite produced by the present invention is self-supporting and can be readily machined to desired final dimensions. Additional heating to about 1800.degree. to 2000.degree. C. further improves structural rigidity.

Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Lewis, Jr., John (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Temperature Variability over Africa  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The variation of near-surface air temperature anomalies in Africa between 1979 and 2010 is investigated primarily using Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) total lower-tropospheric temperature data from the Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) and the ...

Jennifer M. Collins

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Fish and Temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fish and Temperature Name: Christopher Location: NA Country: NA Date: NA Question: Dear Sirs, I am doing a project on a sand tiger shark and i was wondering if temperature...

342

Climatic Temperature Normals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The published 195180 daily normals of maximum and minimum temperatures were prepared by interpolating between average monthly values. This study compares the published normal and 30-yr average daily temperatures in the eastern half of the United ...

Nathaniel B. Guttman; Marc S. Plantico

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Hygrometry with Temperature Stabilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for stabilizing the temperature of air to allow the use of temperature-sensitive, humidity sensors for direct determination of an invariant humidity characteristic such as specific humidity and/or its fluctuations. Problems ...

Krzysztof E. Haman; Andrzej M. Makulski

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry Axis: Alignment with Other Cosmic Asymmetries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a global pixel based estimator to identify the axis of the residual Maximum Temperature Asymmetry (MTA) (after the dipole subtraction) of the WMAP 7 year Internal Linear Combination (ILC) CMB temperature sky map. The estimator is based on considering the temperature differences between opposite pixels in the sky at various angular resolutions (4 degrees-15 degrees and selecting the axis that maximizes this difference. We consider three large scale Healpix resolutions (N_{side}=16 (3.7 degrees), N_{side}=8 (7.3 degrees) and N_{side}=4 (14.7 degrees)). We compare the direction and magnitude of this asymmetry with three other cosmic asymmetry axes (\\alpha dipole, Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) and find that the four asymmetry axes are abnormally close to each other. We compare the observed MTA axis with the corresponding MTA axes of 10^4 Gaussian isotropic simulated ILC maps (based on LCDM). The fraction of simulated ILC maps that reproduces the observed magnitude of the MTA asymmetry and alignment with the observed \\alpha dipole is in the range of 0.1%-0.5%$ (depending on the resolution chosen for the CMB map). The corresponding magnitude+alignment probabilities with the other two asymmetry axes (Dark Energy Dipole and Dark Flow) are at the level of about 1%. We propose Extended Topological Quintessence as a physical model qualitatively consistent with this coincidence of directions.

Antonio Mariano; Leandros Perivolaropoulos

2012-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

345

High temperature water adsorption on The Geysers rocks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In order to measure water retention by geothermal reservoir rocks at the actual reservoir temperature, the ORNL high temperature isopiestic apparatus was adapted for adsorption measurements. The quality of water retained by rock samples taken from three different wells of The Geysers geothermal reservoir was measured at 150{sup degree}C, 200{sup degree}C, and 250{sup degree}C as a function of pressure in the range 0.00 {<=}p/p{sub degree} {<=} 0.98, where p{sub degree} is the saturated water vapor pressure. Both adsorption (increasing pressure) and desorption (decreasing pressure) runs were made in order to investigate the nature and the extent of the hysteresis. Additionally, low temperature gas adsorption analyses were performed on the same rock samples. Nitrogen or krypton adsorption and desorption isotherms at 77 K were used to obtain BET specific surface areas, pore volumes and their distributions with respect to pore sizes. Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also used to obtain similar information extending to very large pores (macropores). A correlation is sought between water adsorption, the surface properties, and the mineralogical and petrological characteristics of the solids.

Gruszkiewicz, M.S.; Horita, J.; Simonson, J.M.; Mesmer, R.E.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Anisotropic Curie Temperature Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications -III. Presentation Title, Anisotropic Curie Temperature Materials. Author(s), Harsh Deep Chopra, Jason...

347

Temperature-profile detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

348

Temperature profile detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors, creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Experimental determination of DT ion temperatures in laser fusion targets  

SciTech Connect

Using the time-of-flight technique, energy distribution measurements were made of the fusion produced $alpha$ particles emitted from laser implosions of DT gas contained in glass microshells. The number of nuclear reactions was determined by an absolute measurement of both the number of $alpha$ particles and the number of neutrons. From the FWHM of the $alpha$ particle energy distributions, upper limits of the plasmas ion temperature have been inferred. By applying corrections for the broadening of the distribution due to the fuel and the pusher, ion temperatures of 2-3 keV have been calculated. These measurements constitute significant evidence that the implosions produced thermonuclear burn of the DT fuel. (auth)

Ahlstrom, H.G.; Slivinsky, V.W.; Tirsell, K.G.; Storm, E.K.; Glaros, S.S.; Campbell, D.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Static Temperature Survey (Cull, 1981) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(Cull, 1981) (Cull, 1981) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Static Temperature Survey (Cull, 1981) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Static Temperature Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Although absolute values of heat flow may not be accurately determined with conventional techniques even at depths of 1000 m, data useful for exploration can be obtained in shallower holes at a suitably chosen standard depth; constant corrections are then applicable but they need not be specified for relative heat flow. These values can then be used in modeling the local thermal structure which may then indicate a geothermal resource. For geothermal exploration it is preferable to measure heat flow

351

Temperature discovery search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Temperature Discovery Search (TDS) is a new minimax-based game tree search method designed to compute or approximate the temperature of a combinatorial game. TDS is based on the concept of an enriched environment, where a combinatorial game G ... Keywords: ?? algorithm, amazons, combinatorial games, go, temperature discovery search

Martin Mller; Markus Enzenberger; Jonathan Schaeffer

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Winter Morning Air Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of temperature measurements, which may be applied to inference of winter temperatures in data-sparse areas, are presented. The morning air temperatures during three winters were measured at 80 places in a 10 km 30 km area along the ...

A. Hogan; M. Ferrick

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

High temperature sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Method and apparatus for cooling high temperature superconductors with neon-nitrogen mixtures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus and methods for cooling high temperature superconducting materials (HTSC) to superconductive temperatures within the range of 27.degree. K. to 77.degree. K. using a mixed refrigerant consisting of liquefied neon and nitrogen containing up to about ten mole percent neon by contacting and surrounding the HTSC material with the mixed refrigerant so that free convection or forced flow convection heat transfer can be effected.

Laverman, Royce J. (South Holland, IL); Lai, Ban-Yen (Hinsdale, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Trade-off between computation time and Hamiltonian degree in adiabatic graph-state quantum computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC) and adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) are two very different computational methods. While in MBQC computation is driven by adaptive measurements on a large entangled state, in AQC it is the adiabatic transition to a ground state holding the solution to the problem which results in computation. In this paper we combine MBQC on graph states with AQC and investigate how properties, such as computational depth, energy gap and Hamiltonian degree, translate into each other. Following an approach proposed by Bacon and Flammia, we show that any measurement-based quantum computation on a graph state with gflow can be converted into an adiabatic computation, which we call adiabatic graph-state quantum computation (AGQC). We then identify how a trade-off can be made between computational depth and Hamiltonian degree, and clarify the effects of out-of-order measurements in the adiabatic computation. In the extreme case, we present a translation to AGQC where all computations can be carried out in constant time, at the expense of having high degree starting Hamiltonian. This leads to a natural conjecture for a lower bound on the cost of simulating large degree operators using smaller degree operators.

Bobby Antonio; Damian Markham; Janet Anders

2013-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

356

Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

Miller, Joel S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I. (Salt Lake City, UT)

2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

357

Sealant materials for solid oxide fuels and other high-temperature ceramics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Glass-ceramic sealing materials have been developed with mechanical and chemical properties suitable for a variety of high-temperature applications. We have demonstrated the ability to tailor the thermal expansion coefficient between 8 and 12 x 10{sup -6}/{degrees}C, and the softening temperature can be adjusted such that the materials have suitable viscosities for a soft, compliant seal at temperatures ranging from 650 to 1000{degrees}C. These materials form excellent bonds to a variety of ceramics and metals during heating to the target operation temperature. They have limited reactivity with the fuel cell materials tested and are stable in both air and reducing environments.

Kueper, T.W.; Bloom, I.D.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

The effect of drying temperature on the composition of biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The compositional quality of different lignocellulosic feedstocks influences their performance and potential demand at a biorefinery. Many analytical protocols for determining the composition or performance characteristics of biomass involve a drying step, where the drying temperature can vary depending on the specific protocol. To get reliable data, it is important to determine the correct drying temperature to vaporize the water without negatively impacting the compositional quality of the biomass. A comparison of drying temperature between 45 degrees C and 100 degrees C was performed using wheat straw and corn stover. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra were taken of the dried samples and compared using principal component analysis (PCA). Carbohydrates were analyzed using quantitative saccharification to determine sugar degradation. Analysis of variance was used to determine if there was a significant difference between drying at different temperatures. PCA showed an obvious separation in samples dried at different temperatures due to sample water content. However, quantitative saccharification data shows, within a 95% confidence interval, that there is no significant difference in sugar content for drying temperatures up to 100 degrees C for wheat straw and corn stover.

Houghton, T.P.; Stevens, D.N.; Wright, C.T.; Radtke, C.W.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Optimizing Energy Management Strategy and Degree of Hybridization for a Hydrogen Fuel Cell SUV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Previous work examined degree of hybridization on the fuel economy of a hybrid electric sport utility vehicle. It was observed that not only was the vehicle control strategy important, but that its definition should be coupled with the component sizing process. Both degree of hybridization and the energy management strategy have been optimized simultaneously in this study. Simple mass scaling algorithms were employed to capture the effect of component and vehicle mass variations as a function of degree of hybridization. Additionally, the benefits of regenerative braking and power buffering have been maximized using optimization methods to determine appropriate battery pack sizing. Both local and global optimization routines were applied to improve the confidence in the solution being close to the true optimum. An optimal configuration and energy management strategy that maximizes the benefit of hybridization for a hydrogen fuel cell hybrid SUV was derived. The optimal configuration was explored, and sensitivity to drive cycle in the optimization process was studied.

Keith Wipke Tony; Tony Markel; Doug Nelson

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

Mosher, Dan Michael (Plano, TX)

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Temperature compensated photovoltaic array  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

Mosher, D.M.

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

362

Absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using a diffraction-based iterative method  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we report a method of precise and fast absolute x-ray energy calibration over a wide energy range using an iterative x-ray diffraction based method. Although accurate x-ray energy calibration is indispensable for x-ray energy-sensitive scattering and diffraction experiments, there is still a lack of effective methods to precisely calibrate energy over a wide range, especially when normal transmission monitoring is not an option and complicated micro-focusing optics are fixed in place. It is found that by using an iterative algorithm the x-ray energy is only tied to the relative offset of sample-to-detector distance, which can be readily varied with high precision of the order of 10{sup -5}-10{sup -6} spatial resolution using gauge blocks. Even starting with arbitrary initial values of 0.1 A, 0.3 A, and 0.4 A, the iteration process converges to a value within 3.5 eV for 31.122 keV x-rays after three iterations. Different common diffraction standards CeO{sub 2}, Au, and Si show an energy deviation of 14 eV. As an application, the proposed method has been applied to determine the energy-sensitive first sharp diffraction peak of network forming GeO{sub 2} glass at high pressure, exhibiting a distinct behavior in the pressure range of 2-4 GPa. Another application presented is pair distribution function measurement using calibrated high-energy x-rays at 82.273 keV. Unlike the traditional x-ray absorption-based calibration method, the proposed approach does not rely on any edges of specific elements, and is applicable to the hard x-ray region where no appropriate absorption edge is available.

Hong Xinguo; Chen Zhiqiang [Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Duffy, Thomas S. [Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

What Causes High-temperature Superconductivity? | U.S. DOE Office of  

Office of Science (SC) Website

What Causes High-temperature Superconductivity? What Causes High-temperature Superconductivity? Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » March 2013 What Causes High-temperature Superconductivity? A phase change at absolute zero temperature may provide key insights into the decades-old mystery of high-temperature superconductivity. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of Ames Laboratory

364

Automatic temperature control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automatic temperature control system is described for maintaining a preset temperature in an enclosed space in a building, comprising: heating and cooling means for conditioning the air in the enclosed space to maintain the preset temperature; exterior thermostat means outside the building for sensing ambient exterior temperature levels; interior thermostat means in the enclosed space, preset to the preset temperature to be maintained and connected with the heating and cooling means to energize the means for heating or cooling, as appropriate, when the preset temperature is reached; means defining a heat sink containing a volume of air heated by solar radiation, the volume of the heat sink being such that the temperature level therein is not affected by minor or temporary ambient temperature fluctuations; and heat sink thermostat means in the heat sink sensing the temperature in the heat sink, the heat sink thermostat means being connected in tandem with the exterior thermostat means and operative with the exterior thermostat means to switch the interior thermostat means to either a first readiness state for heating or a second readiness state for cooling, depending upon which mode is indicated by both the exterior and heat sink thermostat means, whereby the system automatically switches between heating and cooling, as required, in response to a comparison of exterior and heat sink temperatures.

Sheridan, J.P.

1986-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

365

Manpower Assessment Brief {number_sign}42: Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Decreased at all Levels in 1997  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the findings from a 1997 enrollment and degree survey sent to 46 institutions offering a major in nuclear engineering or an option program received their degrees within the nuclear engineering major programs.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

High performance steam development. Final report, Phase No. 3: 1500{degree}F steam plant for industrial cogeneration prototype development tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a key part of DOE`s and industry`s R&D efforts to improve the efficiency, cost, and emissions of power generation, a prototype High Performance Steam System (HPSS) has been designed, built, and demonstrated. The world`s highest temperature ASME Section I coded power plant successfully completed over 100 hours of development tests at 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psig on a 56,000 pound per hour steam generator, control valve and topping turbine at an output power of 5500 hp. This development advances the HPSS to 400{degrees}F higher steam temperature than the current best technology being installed around the world. Higher cycle temperatures produce higher conversion efficiencies and since steam is used to produce the large majority of the world`s power, the authors expect HPSS developments will have a major impact on electric power production and cogeneration in the twenty-first century. Coal fueled steam plants now produce the majority of the United States electric power. Cogeneration and reduced costs and availability of natural gas have now made gas turbines using Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG`s) and combined cycles for cogeneration and power generation the lowest cost producer of electric power in the United States. These gas fueled combined cycles also have major benefits in reducing emissions while reducing the cost of electricity. Development of HPSS technology can significantly improve the efficiency of cogeneration, steam plants, and combined cycles. Figure 2 is a TS diagram that shows the HPSS has twice the energy available from each pound of steam when expanding from 1500{degrees}F and 1500 psia to 165 psia (150 psig, a common cogeneration process steam pressure). This report describes the prototype component and system design, and results of the 100-hour laboratory tests. The next phase of the program consists of building up the steam turbine into a generator set, and installing the power plant at an industrial site for extended operation.

Duffy, T.; Schneider, P.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Daily Temperature Lag  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daily Temperature Lag Daily Temperature Lag Name: Shyammayi Status: teacher Grade: K-2 Country: Mauritius Date: Summer 2011 Question: At what time of the day is the temperature hottest? At what time of the day is the temperature coldest? Replies: In general, the hottest part of the day is late afternoon. The sun has passed its peak in the sky but still heats the Earth up until very late in the afternoon. The lowest temperatures are around dawn. Earth has had all night to get rid of the day's heat by radiating it into space. After sunrise, temperatures begin to climb. This can be changed by local storms, sea breezes or mountain breezes and even monsoon winds. Hope this helps. R. W. "Bob" Avakian Instructor Arts and Sciences/CRC Oklahoma State Univ. Inst. of Technology Shyammayi

368

Work integrated learning rationale and practices in Australian information and communications technology degrees  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To obtain a better understanding of WIL rationale and practices in Australian ICT degrees, a survey of managers and educational leaders of ICT was undertaken. These survey results were analysed and informed by discussions at a forum of ICT educational ... Keywords: academia, industry, professional practice, student experience, work integrated learning

Chris J Pilgrim, Tony Koppi

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

The CompuTer SCienCe program The bachelor of science degree in computer science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The CompuTer SCienCe program The bachelor of science degree in computer science offered in the fundamentals of computer science, elements of practical application and an appreciation for liberal learning to work within various areas of computer science and to work across other disciplines. program edu

Suzuki, Masatsugu

370

Study in Indonesia... and gain credit towards your degree! JournalismProfessionalPracticum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study in Indonesia... and gain credit towards your degree! JournalismProfessionalPracticum inIndonesia will deep- en their understanding of Indonesia whilst developing their journalism skills within will be a high-calibre journalist who has experience with different elements of the media in both Indonesia

371

Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! InternationalRelationsinIndonesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! InternationalRelationsinIndonesia, Europe and the United States as well as Indonesia, are highly qualified and ex- perienced as both the Australia Indonesia Institute, the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, the Myer

372

Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! DevelopmentStudiesImmersionProgram ACICIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Study in Indonesia and gain credit towards your degree! DevelopmentStudiesImmersionProgram ACICIS an internship in Indonesia! © Photograph by James Walsh #12;w w w . a c i c i s . m u r d o c h . e d u . a u development issues in Indonesia while also gaining im- portant practical skills related to advocacy

373

The greedy algorithm for domination in graphs of maximum degree 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We show that for a connected graph with n nodes and e edges and maximum degree at most 3, the size of the dominating set found by the greedy algorithm is at most 10n - 2e/13 if e ? 11/10n, 11n - ... Keywords: algorithms, dominating set, maximum size

Suzanne M. Seager

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Absence of Zeros for the Chromatic Polynomial on Bounded Degree Graphs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, I give a short proof of a recent result by Sokal, showing that all zeros of the chromatic polynomial $P_G(q)$ of a finite graph $G$ of maximal degree $D$ lie in the disk $|q|< K D$, where $K$ is a constant that is strictly smaller than ...

Christian Borgs

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

The Curriculum Planning Process for Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, postsecondary institutions in the UK and the U.S. have started to create game degree programs. Though ... Keywords: Education, curriculum, game, instruction

Monica M. McGill

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Steady-State Operational Degrees of Freedom with Application to Refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PROCESS DESIGN AND CONTROL Steady-State Operational Degrees of Freedom with Application to Refrigeration Cycles Jørgen Bauck Jensen and Sigurd Skogestad* Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian Uni of the circulating refrigerant are also discussed. Two liquified natural gas (LNG) processes of current interest

Skogestad, Sigurd

377

Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

Chaplin, James E. (66 Overlook Rd., Bloomingdale, NJ 07403)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

High-temperature sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

Not Available

1981-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

379

High temperature refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

Steyert, Jr., William A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

External vs. body temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External vs. body temperature External vs. body temperature Name: jacqui Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: If one's internal body temperature is approximately 98.6, WHY when the external temperature is 98.6 do we feel hot? Since both temperatures are "balanced", shouldn't we feel comfortable? I am assuming here that humidity levels are controlled, and play no factor in the external temperature. Replies: First of all, skin temperature is lower than 98.6F; 98.6F is internal body temperature, so air at 98.6F is hotter than skin. But more important, it is the nervous system, and the cells in your skin that your brain uses to detect temperature that determine whether you "feel" hot or not, not whether the air is hotter than your skin. These are set so that you feel hot when the air is actually colder than your skin. Why? They are probably set to make you feel hot whenever the air is warm enough so that your body has some trouble getting rid of the excess heat it produces through metabolism. This insures that you take some actions to help your body cool off. Like drinking cool water, or reducing exercise

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Surface Temperature of IGUs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

117 117 Surface Temperatures of Insulated Glazing Units: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith, Daniel Türler, and Dariush Arasteh Building Technologies Program Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 USA Fax: 510-486-6046, email: D_Arasteh@lbl.gov Abstract Data are presented for the distribution of surface temperatures on the warm-side surface of seven different insulated glazing units. Surface temperatures are measured using infrared thermography and an external referencing technique. This technique allows detailed mapping of surface temperatures that is non-intrusive. The glazings were placed between warm and cold environmental chambers that were operated at conditions

382

High Temperature Corrosion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 18, 2010 ... Protective Coatings for Corrosion Resistance at High Temperatures: Vilupanur Ravi1; Thuan Nguyen1; Alexander Ly1; Kameron Harmon1;...

383

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A 1990 GLOBAL INVENTORY FOR SO(X) AND NO(X) ON A 1(DEGREE) X 1(DEGREE) LATITUDE-LONGITUDE GRID.  

SciTech Connect

Sulfur and nitrogen oxides emitted to the atmosphere have been linked to the acidification of water bodies and soils and perturbations in the earth's radiation balance. In order to model the global transport and transformation of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x}, detailed spatial and temporal emission inventories are required. Benkovitz et al. (1996) published the development of an inventory of 1985 global emissions of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} from anthropogenic sources. The inventory was gridded to a 1{degree} x 1{degree} latitude-longitude grid and has served as input to several global modeling studies. There is now a need to provide modelers with an update of this inventory to a more recent year, with a split of the emissions into elevated and low level sources. This paper describes the development of a 1990 update of the SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} global inventories that also includes a breakdown of sources into 17 sector groups. The inventory development starts with a gridded global default EDGAR inventory (Olivier et al, 1996). In countries where more detailed national inventories are available, these are used to replace the emissions for those countries in the global default. The gridded emissions are distributed into two height levels (0-100m and >100m) based on the final plume heights that are estimated to be typical for the various sectors considered. The sources of data as well as some of the methodologies employed to compile and develop the 1990 global inventory for SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} are discussed. The results reported should be considered to be interim since the work is still in progress and additional data sets are expected to become available.

VAN HEYST,B.J.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Rattlesnake Mountain Observator (46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W) multispectral optical depth measurements, 1979--1994  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface measurements of solar irradiance of the atmosphere were made by a multipurpose computer-controlled scanning photometer at the Rattlesnake Mountain Observatory. The observatory is located at 46.4{degrees}N, 119.6{degrees}W at an elevation of 1088 m above mean sea level. The photometer measures the attenuation of direct solar radiation for different wavelengths using 12 filters. Five of these filters (ie., at 428 nm, 486 nm, 535 nm, 785 nm, and 1010 nm, with respective half-power widths of 2, 2, 3, 18, and 28 nm) are suitable for monitoring variations in the total optical depth of the atmosphere. Total optical depths for the five wavelength bands were derived from solar irradiance measurements taken at the observatory from August 5, 1979, to September 2, 1994; these total optical depth data are distributed with this numeric data package (NDP). To determine the contribution of atmospheric aerosols to the total optical depths, the effects of Rayleigh scattering and ozone absorption were subtracted (other molecular scattering was minimal for the five filters) to obtain total column aerosol optical depths. The total aerosol optical depths were further decomposed into tropospheric and stratospheric components by calculating a robustly smoothed mean background optical depth (tropospheric component) for each wavelength using data obtained during periods of low stratospheric aerosol loading. By subtracting the smoothed background tropospheric aerosol optical depths from the total aerosol optical depths, residual aerosol optical depths were obtained. These residuals are good estimates of the stratospheric aerosol optical depth at each wavelength and may be used to monitor the long-term effects of volcanic eruptions on the atmosphere. These data are available as an NDP from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), and the NDP consists of this document and a set of computerized data files.

Daniels, R.C. [ed.] [ed.

1995-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

385

Fiber optic temperature sensor  

SciTech Connect

Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

Rabold, D.

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Electrolysis High Temperature Hydrogen  

INL has developed a high-temperature process the utilizes solid oxide fuel cells that are operated in the electrolytic mode. The first process includes combining a high-temperature heat source (e.g. nuclear reactor) with a hydrogen production facility ...

387

Temperature stratified turbine compressors  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for improving the efficiency of a compressor of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The inlet gas entering the compressor is stratified into two portions of different temperatures. The higher temperature gas is introduced adjacent the outer tipe of the compressor blades to reduce the relative Mach number of the flow at the area.

Earnest, E.R.; Passinos, B.

1979-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

388

High Temperature ESP Monitoring  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

2011-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

389

Impact Testing of Stainless Steel Material at Cold Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Stainless steels are used for the construction of numerous spent nuclear fuel or radioactive material containers that may be subjected to high strains and moderate strain rates during accidental drop events. Mechanical characteristics of these base materials and their welds under dynamic loads in the strain rate range of concern are not well documented. However, a previous paper [1] reported on impact testing and analysis results performed at the Idaho National Laboratory using 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel base material specimens at room and elevated temperatures. The goal of the work presented herein is to add recently completed impact tensile testing results at -20 degrees F conditions for dual-marked 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steel material specimens (hereafter referred to as 304L and 316L, respectively). Recently completed welded material impact testing at -20 degrees F, room, 300 degrees F, and 600 degrees F is also reported. Utilizing a drop-weight impact test machine and 1/4-inch to 1/2-inch thick dog-bone shaped test specimens, the impact tests achieved strain rates in the 4 to 40 per second range, depending upon the material temperature. Elevated true stress-strain curves for these materials reflecting varying strain rates and temperatures are presented herein.

Spencer D. Snow; D. Keith Morton; Robert K. Blandford

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Optimal Constant-Time Approximation Algorithms and (Unconditional) Inapproximability Results for Every Bounded-Degree CSP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Raghavendra (STOC 2008) gave an elegant and surprising result: if Khot's Unique Games Conjecture (STOC 2002) is true, then for every constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), the best approximation ratio is attained by a certain simple semidefinite programming and a rounding scheme for it. In this paper, we show that a similar result holds for constant-time approximation algorithms in the bounded-degree model. Specifically, we present the followings: (i) For every CSP, we construct an oracle that serves an access, in constant time, to a nearly optimal solution of a basic LP relaxation of the CSP. (ii) Using the oracle, we present a constant-time rounding scheme that achieves an approximation ratio coincident with the integrality gap of the basic LP. (iii) We give a generic conversion from integrality gaps of basic LPs to hardness results. All of those results are ``unconditional.'' Therefore, for every bounded-degree CSP, we give the best constant-time approximation algorithm among all.

Yoshida, Yuichi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Lattice polytopes having h?-polynomials with given degree and linear coefficient  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The h?-polynomial of a lattice polytope is the numerator of the generating function of the Ehrhart polynomial. Let P be a lattice polytope with h?-polynomial of degree d and with linear coefficient h ? 1. We show that P has to be a lattice pyramid over a lower-dimensional lattice polytope, if the dimension of P is greater or equal to h ? 1 (2d + 1) + 4d ? 1. This result has a purely combinatorial proof and generalizes a recent theorem of Batyrev. As an application we deduce from an inequality due to Stanley that the volume of a lattice polytope is bounded by a function depending only on the degree and the two heighest non-zero coefficients of the h?-polynomial.

Benjamin Nill

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Wind: monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of monthly and annual average wind GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 5 Data Set (Jan. 2005)10-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 1993) Parameter: Wind Speed At 50 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (m/s) Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/ Note: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections online Created: October 4, 2005 See the NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) web site at http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/. The source data was downloaded from the SSE website at Data Retrieval: Meteorology and Solar Energy > Global data sets as text files. The tabular data was then converted to the shapefile format.

393

Cosmological dynamics of $f(R)$ gravity scalar degree of freedom in Einstein frame  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$f(R)$ gravity models belong to an important class of modified gravity models where the late time cosmic accelerated expansion is considered as the manifestation of the large scale modification of the force of gravity. $f(R)$ gravity models can be expressed in terms of a scalar degree of freedom by redefinition of models variable. The conformal transformation of the action from Jordan frame to Einstein frame makes the scalar degree of freedom more explicit and can be studied conveniently. We have investigated the features of the scalar degree of freedoms and the consequent cosmological implications of the power-law ($\\xi R^n$) and the Starobinsky (disappearing cosmological constant) $f(R)$ gravity models numerically in the Einstein frame. Both the models show interesting behaviour of their scalar degree of freedom and could produce the accelerated expansion of the Universe in the Einstein frame with the negative equation of state of the scalar field. However the scalar field potential for the power-law model is the well behaved function of the field, whereas the potential becomes flat for higher value of field in the case of the Starobinsky model. Moreover, the equation of state of the scalar field for the power-law model is always negative and less than -1/3, which corresponds to the behaviour of the dark energy that produces the accelerated expansion of the Universe. This is not always the case for the Starobinsky model. At late times Starobinsky model behaves as cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ as behaves by power-law model for the values of $n\\rightarrow 2$ at all times.

Umananda Dev Goswami; Kabita Deka

2013-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

394

{100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Fever and Body Temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fever and Body Temperature Fever and Body Temperature Name: Ying Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Hi, I have a few questions that I want to ask you: Why does your body chose to raise its temperature when you have a fever? Replies: Most bacteria and viruses that live in your body grow best at body temperature. They don't grow very well when the temperature is raised. When there are bacteria in your body they give off chemicals that signal white blood cells to come to try to eat them and also affect an area in your brain called the hypothalamus. This part of the brain controls alot of the automatic functions in your body and is also the site of your body's "thermostat". When the chemicals from the bacteria circulate through the hypothalamus it sets the body's temperature higher. This is called a fever. Your body kind of tries to "sweat out" the bacteria and kill them with a higher temperature. Some scientists question whether trying to bring down a fever is the best thing to do. If it isn't too high, some believe we should just let it work

396

Maintaining body temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maintaining body temperature Maintaining body temperature Name: Jeff Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What keeps the human body at a constant temperature of 98.6? Replies: Maintaining body temperature is very complex. It also takes a lot of energy. About 80% of the energy from the food you eat goes to maintaining body temperature. Basically, the chemical reactions of metabolism of stored food, especially fats, generate heat as a by product. This heat warms the body. The brain reads temperature and controls to some extent the rate of this metabolism. There are also many other mechanisms triggered by the brain to keep the core of your body warm, even if the periphery (skin) is cold. Blood vessels to the fingers and toes constrict, so that the cold air doesn't cool the blood too much, so that cooled blood doesn't cool down the heart and brain when it returns. In severe cases, your body will sacrifice a finger or a toe to keep you from dying of cold core temperature (frostbite: it saves your life!). Also the brain can order a lot of muscles to contract rapidly. This generates a lot of heat quickly, a response called shivering. There's much more to this exciting field of research.

397

Commissioning the 90 Degree Lattice for the PEP II High Energy Ring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to benefit from further reduction of the vertical IP beta function of the PEP-II high energy ring (HER) the bunch length should be reduced. This will be achieved by changing the phase advance from 60 degree to 90 degree in the four arcs not adjacent to the IR region, thus reducing momentum compaction by about 30% and reducing bunch length from a present 12 mm down to 8.5 mm at low beam current. In preparation to implement the 90 degree lattice the main HER quadrupole and sextupole strings and their power supplies have been reconfigured. The synchrotron tune initially will be lower but can be brought back by raising the rf voltage. Beam emittance is held at 48 nmr by introducing a significant dispersion beat in the arcs. The lattice was successfully commissioned at currents up to 800 mA in August 2007. In this paper we will compare the actual machine with the predicted behaviour, explain the correction strategies used and give an overall assessment of the operation and the benefit of the new lattice configuration.

Wittmer, W.; Cai, Y.; Cheng, W.X.; Colocho, W.S.; Decker, F.J.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A.S.; Nosochkov, Y.; Novokhatski, A.; Sullivan, M.K.; Wienands, U.; Yan, Y.T.; Yocky, G.; /SLAC

2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

398

REALIZING PRESSURE, TEMPERATURE, AND LENGTH ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The basic concept behind the proposed apparatus is illustrated in ... at room temperature, requiring realization of thermodynamic temperature near 23 ...

2013-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

399

High Temperature Capacitor Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The absence of high-temperature electronics is an obstacle to the development of untapped energy resources (deep oil, gas and geothermal). US natural gas consumption is projected to grow from 22 trillion cubic feet per year (tcf) in 1999 to 34 tcf in 2020. Cumulatively this is 607 tcf of consumption by 2020, while recoverable reserves using current technology are 177 tcf. A significant portion of this shortfall may be met by tapping deep gas reservoirs. Tapping these reservoirs represents a significant technical challenge. At these depths, temperatures and pressures are very high and may require penetrating very hard rock. Logistics of supporting 6.1 km (20,000 ft) drill strings and the drilling processes are complex and expensive. At these depths up to 50% of the total drilling cost may be in the last 10% of the well depth. Thus, as wells go deeper it is increasingly important that drillers are able to monitor conditions down-hole such as temperature, pressure, heading, etc. Commercial off-the-shelf electronics are not specified to meet these operating conditions. This is due to problems associated with all aspects of the electronics including the resistors and capacitors. With respect to capacitors, increasing temperature often significantly changes capacitance because of the strong temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. Higher temperatures also affect the equivalent series resistance (ESR). High-temperature capacitors usually have low capacitance values because of these dielectric effects and because packages are kept small to prevent mechanical breakage caused by thermal stresses. Electrolytic capacitors do not operate at temperatures above 150oC due to dielectric breakdown. The development of high-temperature capacitors to be used in a high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) drilling environment was investigated. These capacitors were based on a previously developed high-voltage hybridized capacitor developed at Giner, Inc. in conjunction with a unique high-temperature electrolyte developed during the course of the program. During this program the feasibility of operating a high voltage hybridized capacitor at 230oC was demonstrated. Capacitor specifications were established in conjunction with potential capacitor users. A method to allow for capacitor operation at both ambient and elevated temperatures was demonstrated. The program was terminated prior to moving into Phase II due to a lack of cost-sharing funds.

John Kosek

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Power Potential of Geothermal Wells Related to Reservoir Temperature  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For equal flows of hot water wells, the electric power which can be generated increases with feed water temperature. However, high temperature wells discharge greater flows than that of lower temperature wells of similar permeability, with the result of enhanced power potential. In fact, where fluids are exploited utilizing two-stage flash, these factors combine to give a power potential which is proportional to the cube of the feed water temperature in degrees celsius. Hence a feed of 315 C would generate twice the power of that of water at 250 C for wells of good permeability and where the reservoir exists under conditions of boiling point with depth. Higher temperature water (exceeding 300 C) has, however, a commensurate higher tendency to mineral deposition in reinjection water lines and this disposes design to single-stage flash with slightly reduced power, compared with the two-stage alternative.

James, Russell

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Moderate Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Moderate Temperature Moderate Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Moderate Temperature Dictionary.png Moderate Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid between 190°C and 230°C is considered by Sanyal to be "moderate temperature." "The next higher resource temperature limit is chosen as 230°C, which is lower than the minimum initial resource temperature encountered in

402

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

403

ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsVirtual temperature govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems MWRP : Microwave Radiometer Profiler RWP : Radar Wind Profiler

404

Complete Urban Surface Temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An observation program using ground and airborne thermal infrared radiometers is used to estimate the surface temperature of urban areas, taking into account the total active surface area. The authors call this the complete urban surface ...

J. A. Voogt; T. R. Oke

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Showing 7 properties using this type. A Property:AvgGeoFluidTemp C Property:Combustion Intake Air Temperature F Property:FirstWellTemp G Property:GeofluidTemp M...

406

Temperature-aware microarchitecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With power density and hence cooling costs rising exponentially, processor packaging can no longer be designed for the worst case, and there is an urgent need for runtime processor-level techniques that can regulate operating temperature when the package's ...

Kevin Skadron; Mircea R. Stan; Wei Huang; Sivakumar Velusamy; Karthik Sankaranarayanan; David Tarjan

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Low-temperature resource assessment program. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy - Geothermal Division (DOE/GD) recently sponsored the Low-Temperature Resource Assessment project to update the inventory of the nation`s low- and moderate-temperature geothermal resources and to encourage development of these resources. A database of 8,977 thermal wells and springs that are in the temperature range of 20{degrees}C to 150{degrees}C has been compiled for ten western states, an impressive increase of 82% compared to the previous assessments. The database includes location, descriptive data, physical parameters, water chemistry and references for sources of data. Computer-generated maps are also available for each state. State Teams have identified 48 high-priority areas for near-term comprehensive resource studies and development. Resources with temperatures greater than 50{degrees}C located within 8 km of a population center were identified for 271 collocated cities. Geothermal energy cost evaluation software has been developed to quickly identify the cost of geothermally supplied heat to these areas in a fashion similar to that used for conventionally fueled heat sources.

Lienau, P.J. [Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center] [Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center; Ross, H. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.] [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Earth Sciences and Resources Inst.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Radiometric Validation of ERS-1 Along-Track Scanning Radiometer Average Sea Surface Temperature in the Atlantic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ERS-1 along-track scanning radiometer (ATSR) provides a half-degree latitude by half-degree longitude average sea surface temperature (ASST) measurement representative of the thermal skin layer of the ocean that is intended for use in global ...

Craig J. Donlon; Ian S. Robinson

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

An updated global grid point surface air temperature anomaly data set: 1851--1990  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document presents land-based monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1951--1970 reference period mean) on a 5{degree} latitude by 10{degree} longitude global grid. Monthly surface air temperature anomalies (departures from a 1957--1975 reference period mean) for the Antarctic (grid points from 65{degree}S to 85{degree}S) are presented in a similar way as a separate data set. The data were derived primarily from the World Weather Records and the archives of the United Kingdom Meteorological Office. This long-term record of temperature anomalies may be used in studies addressing possible greenhouse-gas-induced climate changes. To date, the data have been employed in generating regional, hemispheric, and global time series for determining whether recent (i.e., post-1900) warming trends have taken place. This document also presents the monthly mean temperature records for the individual stations that were used to generate the set of gridded anomalies. The periods of record vary by station. Northern Hemisphere station data have been corrected for inhomogeneities, while Southern Hemisphere data are presented in uncorrected form. 14 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

Sepanski, R.J.; Boden, T.A.; Daniels, R.C.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Role of Modeling When Designing for Absolute Energy Use Intensity Requirements in a Design-Build Framework: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Research Support Facility was designed to use half the energy of an equivalent minimally code-compliant building, and to produce as much renewable energy as it consumes on an annual basis. These energy goals and their substantiation through simulation were explicitly included in the project's fixed firm price design-build contract. The energy model had to be continuously updated during the design process and to match the final building as-built to the greatest degree possible. Computer modeling played a key role throughout the design process and in verifying that the contractual energy goals would be met within the specified budget. The main tool was a whole building energy simulation program. Other models were used to provide more detail or to complement the whole building simulation tool. Results from these specialized models were fed back into the main whole building simulation tool to provide the most accurate possible inputs for annual simulations. This paper will detail the models used in the design process and how they informed important program and design decisions on the path from preliminary design to the completed building.

Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Guglielmetti, R.; Torcellini, P. A.; Okada, D.; Antia, P.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Role of Modeling When Designing for Absolute Energy Use Intensity Requirements in a Design-Build Framework: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The Research Support Facility was designed to use half the energy of an equivalent minimally code-compliant building, and to produce as much renewable energy as it consumes on an annual basis. These energy goals and their substantiation through simulation were explicitly included in the project's fixed firm price design-build contract. The energy model had to be continuously updated during the design process and to match the final building as-built to the greatest degree possible. Computer modeling played a key role throughout the design process and in verifying that the contractual energy goals would be met within the specified budget. The main tool was a whole building energy simulation program. Other models were used to provide more detail or to complement the whole building simulation tool. Results from these specialized models were fed back into the main whole building simulation tool to provide the most accurate possible inputs for annual simulations. This paper will detail the models used in the design process and how they informed important program and design decisions on the path from preliminary design to the completed building.

Hirsch, A.; Pless, S.; Guglielmetti, R.; Torcellini, P. A.; Okada, D.; Antia, P.

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

High Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: High Temperature Dictionary.png High Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid between 230°C and 300°C is considered by Sanyal to be "high temperature." "Above a temperature level of 230°C, the reservoir would be expected to become two-phase at some point during exploitation. The next higher

413

Results of First Outdoor Comparison Between Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) and Infrared Integrating Sphere (IRIS) Radiometer at PMOD (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ACP and IRIS are developed to establish a world reference for calibrating pyrgeometers with traceability to SI units. The two radiometers are unwindowed with negligible spectral dependence, and traceable to SI units through the temperature scale (ITS-90). The first outdoor comparison between the two designs was held from January 28 to February 8, 2013 at the Physikalisch-Metorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD). The difference between the irradiance measured by ACP and that of IRIS was within 1 W/m2. A difference of 5 W/m2 was observed between the irradiance measured by ACP&IRIS and that of the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG).

Reda, I.; Grobner, J.; Wacker, S.; Stoffel, T.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Flux control and one-hundred and eighty degree core systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-phase or four-phase electric machine includes a first stator part and a second stator part disposed about ninety electrical degrees apart. Stator pole parts are positioned near the first stator part and the second stator part. An injector injects a third-harmonic frequency current that is separate from and not produced by the fundamental current driving the first stator part and the second stator part. The electric angular speed of the third-harmonic rotating field comprises .theta. ##EQU00001## where p comprises the number of pole pairs, .theta. comprises a mechanical angle and t comprise time in seconds.

Hsu, John S

2012-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

415

Alloys for 1000 degree C service in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant NERI 05-0191  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed research is to define strategies for the improvement of alloys for structural components, such as the intermediate heat exchanger and primary-to-secondary piping, for service at 1000 degree C in the He environment of the NGNP. Specifically, we will investigate the oxidation/carburization behavior and microstructure stability and how these processes affect creep. While generating this data, the project will also develop a fundamental understanding of how impurities in the He environment affect these degradation processes and how this understanding can be used to develop more useful life prediction methodologies.

Gary S. Was; J.W. Jones; T. Pollock

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

416

Longitudinal permeability of collisional plasmas under arbitrary degree of degeneration of electron gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electric conductivity and dielectric permeability of the non-degenerate electronic gas for the collisional plasmas under arbitrary degree of degeneration of electron gas is found. The kinetic equation of Wigner - Vlasov - Boltzmann with collision integral in relaxation form BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) in coordinate space is used. Dielectric permeability with using of the relaxation equation in the momentum space has been received by Mermin. Comparison with Mermin's formula has been realized. It is shown, that in the limit when Planck's constant tends to zero expression for dielectric permeability passes in the classical.

A. V. Latyshev; A. A. Yushkanov

2010-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

417

The effect of water vapor on the corrosion of carbon steel at 65{degree}C  

SciTech Connect

AISI 1020 carbon steel was exposed to air at various relative humidities at 65{degrees}C. A ``critical relative humidity`` (CRH) of 75--85% was determined. The CRH is the transitional relative humidity where oxidation/corrosion changes from dry oxidation to aqueous film electrochemical corrosion. Short term testing suggests that aqueous film electrochemical corrosion results in the formation of an inner oxide of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and an outer oxide of a powdery Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and/or Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O.

Gdowski, G.E.; Estill, J.C.

1995-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

418

Developments in the Nuclear Safeguards and Security Engineering Degree Program at Tomsk Polytechnic University  

SciTech Connect

Over the last six years, Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU) has developed a 5 year engineering degree program in the field of Material Protection Control and Accounting (MPC&A). In 2009 the first students graduated with this new degree. There were 25 job offers from nuclear fuel cycle enterprises of Russia and Kazakhstan for 17 graduates of the program. Due to the rather wide selection of workplaces, all graduates have obtained positions at nuclear enterprises. The program was developed within the Applied Physics and Engineering Department (APED). The laboratory and methodological base has been created taking into consideration the experience of the similar program at the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI). However, the TPU program has some distinguishing features such as the inclusion of special courses pertaining to fuel enrichment and reprocessing. During the last two years, three MPC&A laboratories have been established at APED. This was made possible due to several factors such as establishment of the State innovative educational program at TPU, assistance of the U.S. Department of Energy through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the financial support of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority and some Russian private companies. All three of the MPC&A laboratories are part of the Innovative Educational Center Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation, which deals with many topics including research activities, development of new curricula for experts training and retraining, and training of masters students. In 2008, TPU developed a relationship with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which was familiarized with APEDs current resources and activities. The IAEA has shown interest in creation of a masters degree educational program in the field of nuclear security at TPU. A future objective is to acquaint nuclear fuel cycle enterprises with new APED capabilities and involve the enterprises in the scientific and educational projects implemented through the Nuclear Technologies and Non-Proliferation Center. This paper describes the development of the MPC&A engineering degree program and future goals of TPU in the field of nonproliferation education.

Boiko, Vladimir I.; Demyanyuk, Dmitry G.; Silaev, Maxim E.; Duncan, Cristen L.; Heinberg, Cynthia L.; Killinger, Mark H.; Goodey, Kent O.; Butler, Gilbert W.

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

419

Solar abundances and helioseismology: fine structure spacings and separation ratios of low-degree p modes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have used 4752 days of data collected by the Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) to determine very precise oscillation frequencies of acoustic low-degree modes that probe the solar core. We compare the fine (small frequency) spacings and frequency separation ratios formed from these data with those of different solar models. We find that models constructed with low metallicity are incompatible with the observations. The results provide strong support for lowering the theoretical uncertainties on the neutrino fluxes. These uncertainties had recently been raised due to the controversy over the solar abundances.

Sarbani Basu; William J. Chaplin; Yvonne Elsworth; Roger New; Aldo M. Serenelli; Graham A. Verner

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

420

Oil-Well Cement and C3S Hydration Under High Pressure as Seen by In Situ X-Ray Diffraction, Temperatures ;= 80 degrees C with No Additives  

SciTech Connect

The hydration kinetics of a white cement and batches of both Class G and H oil-well cements were examined between 0 and 60 MPa, at {le}80 C, using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. This gives a continuous measure of the C{sub 3}S (Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5}), CH (Ca(OH){sub 2}), C{sub 4}AF (Ca{sub 2}FeAlO{sub 5}), ettringite, and other phases in the hydrating slurries. Slurries prepared from single-phase C{sub 3}S; synthetic C{sub 4}AF, and gypsum; and white cement, synthetic C{sub 4}AF and gypsum were also examined. An increasing pressure enhanced the rate of hydration for all slurries. Analysis of the data, using a kinetic model, provided rate constants that were used to obtain activation volumes for C{sub 3}S hydration. For all the cement and C{sub 3}S slurries studied, similar activation volumes were obtained (average {Delta}V{double_dagger}{sup -}-35 cm{sup 3}/mol), indicating that the presence of cement phases other than C{sub 3}S has a modest influence on the pressure dependence of C{sub 3}S hydration. An alternative analysis, using the time at which 90% of the initial C{sub 3}S remained, gave similar activation volumes. Pressure accelerated the formation of ettringite from synthetic C{sub 4}AF in the presence of gypsum. However, in slurries containing cement, the pressure dependence of C{sub 3}S hydration plays a major role in determining the pressure dependence of ettringite formation.

Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Funkhouser, Garry P. (Halliburton); (GIT)

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

High temperature thermometric phosphors  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

Allison, Stephen W. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Gillies, George T. (Earlysville, VA)

1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

Aqueous Solvation Free Energies of Ions and Ion?Water Clusters Based on an Accurate Value for the Absolute Aqueous Solvation Free Energy of the Proton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TITLE RUNNING HEAD: Aqueous solvation free energies of ions and ion?water clusters Abstract: Thermochemical cycles that involve pKa, gas-phase acidities, aqueous solvation free energies of neutral species, and gas-phase clustering free energies have been used with the cluster pair approximation to determine the absolute aqueous solvation free energy of the proton. The best value obtained in this work is in good agreement with the value reported by Tissandier et al. (Tissandier, M. D.; Cowen, K. A.;

Christopher J. Cramer; Donald G. Truhlar

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

J. Math. Biol. DOI 10.1007/s00285-013-0672-8 Mathematical Biology Absolute stability and dynamical stabilisation in predator-prey systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Many ecological systems exhibit multi-year cycles. In such systems, invasions have a complicated spatiotemporal structure. In particular, it is common for unstable steady states to exist as long-term transients behind the invasion front, a phenomenon known as dynamical stabilisation. We combine absolute stability theory and computation to predict how the width of the stabilised region depends on parameter values. We develop our calculations in the context of a model for a cyclic predator-prey system, in which the invasion front and spatiotemporal oscillations of predators and prey are separated by a region in which the coexistence steady state is dynamically stabilised.

unknown authors

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Low Temperature | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Temperature Temperature Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF Sanyal Temperature Classification: Low Temperature Dictionary.png Low Temperature: No definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Sanyal Temp Classification This temperature scheme was developed by Sanyal in 2005 at the request of DOE and GEA, as reported in Classification of Geothermal Systems: A Possible Scheme. Extremely Low Temperature Very Low Temperature Low Temperature Moderate Temperature High Temperature Ultra High Temperature Steam Field Reservoir fluid between 150°C and 190°C is considered by Sanyal to be "low temperature." "The mobile fluid phase in these reservoirs is liquid water. A number of commercial power projects have been operated over the last two decades

425

temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

temperature temperature Dataset Summary Description Freedom Field is a not-for-profit organization formed to facilitate development and commercialization of renewable energy solutions. The organization has installed a variety of renewable energy generating technologies at their facility (located at Rock River Water Reclamation in Rockford, IL), with the intention of serving as a demonstration facility. The facility monitors data (at 5-minute intervals) from a weather station, 12.4 kW of PV panels (56 220-watt panels), a 10kW wind turbine (HAWT), a 1.2 kW wind turbine (VAWT), an absorption cooling system, and biogas burners. Source Freedom Field Date Released July 19th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords biogas monitoring data PV radiance solar temperature

426

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

Forsberg, Charles W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Temperature initiated passive cooling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

Forsberg, C.W.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Complexation of Plutonium (IV) with Fluoride at Variable Temperatures  

SciTech Connect

The complexation of Pu(IV) with fluoride at elevated temperatures was studied by solvent extraction technique. A solution of NaBrO3 was used as holding oxidant to maintain the oxidation state of plutonium throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-F- complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of fluoride ions on the distribution ratio. The thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy of complexation between Pu(IV) and fluoride at 25 degrees C - 55 degrees C were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures by using the Vant Hoff equation.

Xia, Yuanxian; Rao, Linfeng; Friese, Judah I.; Moore, Dean A.; Bachelor, Paula P.

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

429

Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.

Lu, Shin-Yee (Pleasanton, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Global Patterns of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Soils on a 0.5 Degree Grid Cell Basis (DB-1015) DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/lue.db1015 This data has been updated. Please see NDP-081. Contributed by: James W. Raich 1 and Christopher S. Potter2 1Department of Botany Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 USA Email: jraich@iastate.edu 2NASA Ames Research Center MS 242-2 Moffett Field, CA 94035 USA Email: cpotter@gaia.arc.nasa.gov Prepared by L.M. Olsen. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center Date Published: March, 1996 (Revised for the web: 2002) The Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center is a part of the Environmental Sciences Division of the OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY (ORNL) and is located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6290. The ORNL is managed by University of Tennessee-Battelle, LLC for the U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

431

Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.

Lu, S.Y.

1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

432

EXOPLANETS FROM THE ARCTIC: THE FIRST WIDE-FIELD SURVEY AT 80 Degree-Sign N  

SciTech Connect

Located within 10 Degree-Sign of the North Pole, northern Ellesmere Island offers continuous darkness in the winter months. This capability can greatly enhance the detection efficiency of planetary transit surveys and other time domain astronomy programs. We deployed two wide-field cameras at 80 Degree-Sign N, near Eureka, Nunavut, for a 152 hr observing campaign in 2012 February. The 16 megapixel camera systems were based on commercial f/1.2 lenses with 70 mm and 42 mm apertures, and they continuously imaged 504 and 1295 deg{sup 2}, respectively. In total, the cameras took over 44,000 images and produced better than 1% precision light curves for approximately 10,000 stars. We describe a new high-speed astrometric and photometric data reduction pipeline designed for the systems, test several methods for the precision flat fielding of images from very-wide-angle cameras, and evaluate the cameras' image qualities. We achieved a scintillation-limited photometric precision of 1%-2% in each 10 s exposure. Binning the short exposures into 10 minute chunks provided a photometric stability of 2-3 mmag, sufficient for the detection of transiting exoplanets around the bright stars targeted by our survey. We estimate that the cameras, when operated over the full Arctic winter, will be capable of discovering several transiting exoplanets around bright (m{sub V} < 9.5) stars.

Law, Nicholas M.; Sivanandam, Suresh [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Carlberg, Raymond; Salbi, Pegah; Ngan, Wai-Hin Wayne; Kerzendorf, Wolfgang [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Ahmadi, Aida [University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Steinbring, Eric; Murowinski, Richard, E-mail: law@di.utoronto.ca [National Science Infrastructure, National Research Council Canada, Victoria, British Columbia, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Finite Temperature Aging Holography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct the gravity background which describes the dual field theory with aging invariance. We choose the decay modes of the bulk scalar field in the internal spectator direction to obtain the dissipative behavior of the boundary correlation functions of the dual scalar fields. In particular, the two-time correlation function at zero temperature has the characteristic features of the aging system: power law decay, broken time translation and dynamical scaling. We also construct the black hole backgrounds with asymptotic aging invariance. We extensively study characteristic behavior of the finite temperature two-point correlation function via analytic and numerical methods.

Seungjoon Hyun; Jaehoon Jeong; Bom Soo Kim

2011-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

434

Temperature determination using pyrometry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

Breiland, William G. (Albuquerque, NM); Gurary, Alexander I. (Bridgewater, NJ); Boguslavskiy, Vadim (Princeton, NJ)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Fluorescent temperature sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

436

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Information for potential graduate applicants who do not have a degree in Chemical  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering Information for potential graduate applicants who do not have a degree in Chemical Engineering The department of chemical and biological engineering frequently admits applicants who have a bachelor's degree in a field other than chemical engineering. Many

437

B.S. in Chemical Science The Chemical Science degree is designed for students who plan programs in fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B.S. in Chemical Science The Chemical Science degree is designed for students who plan programs, and Geology. In addition, Chemical Science can be a valuable major for those interested in business and law. This degree is not intended as a chemical preparation for people who wish to do work directly in Chemistry

Weston, Ken

438

Low temperature thin films formed from nanocrystal precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Nanocrystals of semiconductor compounds are produced. When they are applied as a contiguous layer onto a substrate and heated they fuse into a continuous layer at temperatures as much as 250, 500, 750 or even 1000.degree. K below their bulk melting point. This allows continuous semiconductor films in the 0.25 to 25 nm thickness range to be formed with minimal thermal exposure.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Goldstein, Avery N. (Oakland, CA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Spotlighting quantum critical points via quantum correlations at finite temperatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We extend the program initiated by T. Werlang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 095702 (2010)] in several directions. Firstly, we investigate how useful quantum correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord, are in the detection of critical points of quantum phase transitions when the system is at finite temperatures. For that purpose we study several thermalized spin models in the thermodynamic limit, namely, the XXZ model, the XY model, and the Ising model, all of which with an external magnetic field. We compare the ability of quantum discord, entanglement, and some thermodynamic quantities to spotlight the quantum critical points for several different temperatures. Secondly, for some models we go beyond nearest neighbors and also study the behavior of entanglement and quantum discord for second nearest neighbors around the critical point at finite temperature. Finally, we furnish a more quantitative description of how good all these quantities are in spotlighting critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite T, bridging the gap between experimental data and those theoretical descriptions solely based on the unattainable absolute zero assumption.

Werlang, T.; Ribeiro, G. A. P.; Rigolin, Gustavo [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP 13565-905 (Brazil)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

440

Variability of Temperature in Wisconsin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daily maximum and minimum temperatures since 1897 at three stations in Wisconsin are examined, and the hypothesis is tested that there is no association between interdiurnal or interannual temperature and either the local mean temperature or an ...

W. A. R. Brinkmann

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Temperature differential detection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

Girling, Peter M. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Temperature differential detection device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

Girling, P.M.

1986-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

443

Low Temperature Waste Energy Recovery at Chemical Plants and Refineries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technologies to economically recover low-temperature waste energy in chemical plants and refineries are the holy grail of industrial energy efficiency. Low temperature waste energy streams were defined by the Texas Industries of the Future Chemical and Refining Sectors Advisory Committee as streams with a temperature below 400 degrees F. Their waste energy streams were also characterized as to state, flow rate, heat content, source and temperature. These criteria were then used to identify potential candidates of waste heat recovery technologies that might have an application in these industries. Four technologies that met the criteria of the Advisory Committee included: organic rankine cycle (ORC), absorption refrigeration and chilling, Kalina cycle, and fuel cell technologies. This paper characterizes each of these technologies, technical specifications, limitations, potential costs/ payback and commercialization status as was discussed in the Technology Forum held in Houston, TX in May 2012 (TXIOF 2012).

Ferland, K.; papar, R.; Quinn, J.; Kumar, S.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Temperature dependence of the radiation inactivation of proteins  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation inactivation method allows determination of the relative molecular mass (Mr) of proteins by exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation. The analysis by target theory of biological activity decay curves yields the size of the protein. A correction factor for Mr has been routinely used in the literature when irradiation is conducted at low temperature. Since the radiation inactivation of proteins is affected by temperature, we propose a general equation which relates Mr of a protein to D37,t, the dose in megarads at a given temperature t (in degree C) where 37% of its initial biological activity remains log Mr = 5.89 - log D37,t - 0.0028t. It is concluded that temperature affects the amount of absorbed radiation energy required to inactivate 1 mol of protein.

Beauregard, G.; Potier, M.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Obliquity factors for {sup 60}Co and 4, 10, and 18 MV x rays for concrete, steel, and lead and angles of incidence between 0{degrees} and 70{degrees}  

SciTech Connect

The attenuation of {sup 60}Co gamma rays and photons of 4, 10, and 18 MV x-ray beams by concrete, steel, and lead has been studied using the Monte Carlo technique for angles of incidence 0{degrees}, 30{degrees}, 45{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 70{degrees}. Transmission factors have been determined down to < 2 x 10{sup {minus}5} in all cases. The results show that deviation from the obliquity factor increases with angle but is not significant for angles {le} 45{degrees}. AT 70{degrees} angle of incidence and a transmission factor of 10{sup {minus}5}, the obliquity factor varies between 1.2 and 1.9 for concrete, between 1.4 and 1.7 for steel, and between 1.4 and 1.5 for lead for the range of energies investigated. This amounts to an additional 86 and 50 cm of concrete, 25 and 23 cm of steel, and 8 and 14 cm of lead for {sup 60}Co and 18 MV x rays, respectively. The results for {sup 60}Co is concrete and lead are in good agreement with previously published experimental work. Fits to the data using mathematical models allow reconstruction of all data curves to better than 1% on average and 7% in the worst single case. 9 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

Biggs, P.J. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Note: Rotaphone, a new self-calibrated six-degree-of-freedom seismic sensor  

SciTech Connect

We have developed and tested (calibration, linearity, and cross-axis errors) a new six-degree-of-freedom mechanical seismic sensor for collocated measurements of three translational and three rotational ground motion velocity components. The device consists of standard geophones arranged in parallel pairs to detect spatial gradients. The instrument operates in a high-frequency range (above the natural frequency of the geophones, 4.5 Hz). Its theoretical sensitivity limit in this range is 10{sup -9} m/s in ground velocity and 10{sup -9} rad/s in rotation rate. Small size and weight, and easy installation and maintenance make the instrument useful for local-earthquake recording and seismic prospecting.

Brokesova, Johana [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Malek, Jiri [Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, ASCR, 182 09 Prague (Czech Republic); Evans, John R. [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

DETECTION OF HIGH-DEGREE PROGRADE SECTORAL MODE SEQUENCES IN THE A-STAR KIC 8054146?  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines the 46 frequencies found in the {delta} Sct star KIC 8054146 involving a frequency spacing of exactly 2.814 cycles day{sup -1} (32.57 {mu}Hz), which is also a dominant low-frequency peak near or equal to the rotational frequency. These 46 frequencies range up to 146 cycles day{sup -1}. Three years of Kepler data reveal distinct sequences of these equidistantly spaced frequencies, including the basic sequence and side lobes associated with other dominant modes (i.e., small amplitude modulations). The amplitudes of the basic sequence show a high-low pattern. The basic sequence follows the equation f{sub m} = 2.8519 + m*2.81421 cycles day{sup -1} with m ranging from 25 to 35. The zero-point offset and the lack of low-order harmonics eliminate an interpretation in terms of a Fourier series of a non-sinusoidal light curve. The exactness of the spacing eliminates high-order asymptotic pulsation. The frequency pattern is not compatible with simple hypotheses involving single or multiple spots, even with differential rotation. The basic high-frequency sequence is interpreted in terms of prograde sectoral modes. These can be marginally unstable, while their corresponding low-degree counterparts are stable due to stronger damping. The measured projected rotation velocity (300 km s{sup -1}) indicates that the star rotates with {approx}>70% of the Keplerian break-up velocity. This suggests a near equator-on view. We qualitatively examine the visibility of prograde sectoral high-degree g-modes in integrated photometric light in such a geometrical configuration and find that prograde sectoral modes can reproduce the frequencies and the odd-even amplitude pattern of the high-frequency sequence.

Breger, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Lenz, P. [Institut fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180, Wien (Austria); Pamyatnykh, A. A. [Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

2013-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

448

Chemical Equilibration at the Hagedorn Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One important question in relativistic heavy ion collisions is if hadrons, specifically anti-hyperons, are in equilibrium before thermal freezeout because strangeness enhancement has long been pointed to as a signature for Quark Gluon Plasma. Because anti-baryons have long equilibration times in the hadron gas phase it has been suggested that they are "born" into equilibrium. However, Hagedorn states, massive resonances, which are thought to appear near the critical temperature, contribute to fast chemical equilibration times for a hadron gas by providing extra degrees of freedom. Here we use master equations to describe the interplay between Hagedorn resonances, pions, and baryon anti-baryon pairs as they equilibrate over time and observe if the baryons and anti-baryons are fully equilibrated within the fireball.

J. Noronha-Hostler; C. Greiner; I. A. Shovkovy

2007-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

449

A Second Examination of Fragments of Unirradiated and Irradiated CANDU Fuel, and Irradiated LWR Fuel, Oxidized in Air at 130 Degrees Centigrade and 170 Degrees Centigrade for Approximately One Thousand Days  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thisreport documents the examination of unclad fragments of unirradiated CANDU fuel, and irradiated LWR fuel, after approximately 2.8 years of oxidation in air at 130 degrees Centigrade and 170 degrees Centigrade. During oxidation, the various fuel specimens were isolated in separate vials, which were designed to permit free access of air, while preventing cross-contamination. Two specimens of each fuel type were recovered for examination from each experiment. The irradiated fuel specimens were weighed a...

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Method for preparing high transition temperature Nb.sub.3 Ge superconductors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Bulk coatings of Nb.sub.3 Ge superconductors having transition temperatures in excess of 20 K are readily formed by a chemical vapor deposition technique involving the coreduction of NbCl.sub.5 and GeCl.sub.4 in the presence of hydrogen. The NbCl.sub.5 vapor may advantageously be formed quantitatively in the temperature range of about 250.degree. to 260.degree. C by the chlorination of Nb metal provided the partial pressure of the product NbCl.sub.5 vapor is maintained at or below about 0.1 atm.

Newkirk, Lawrence R. (Los Alamos, NM); Valencia, Flavio A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Fenske, George R. (Downers Grove, IL); Lee, Sam (Gardena, CA); Shepherd, Gary (Los Alamitos, CA); Pruett, Gary J. (Cypress, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Gaguk Zakaria received his Stratum One (Bachelor of Science) degree in Electrical Engineering in 1985 from Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, and his  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Engineering in 1985 from Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, Indonesia, and his Master of Science degree

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

453

Six-Degree-of-Freedom Sensor Fish Design: Governing Equations and Motion Modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Sensor Fish device is being used at Northwest hydropower projects to better understand the conditions fish experience during passage through hydroturbines and other dam bypass alternatives. Since its initial development in 1997, the Sensor Fish has undergone numerous design changes to improve its function and extend the range of its use. The most recent Sensor Fish design, the three degree of freedom (3DOF) device, has been used successfully to characterize the environment fish experience when passing through turbines, in spill, or in engineered fish bypass facilities at dams. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is in the process of redesigning the current 3DOF Sensor Fish device package to improve its field performance. Rate gyros will be added to the new six degree of freedom (6DOF) device so that it will be possible to observe the six linear and angular accelerations of the Sensor Fish as it passes the dam. Before the 6DOF Sensor Fish device can be developed and deployed, governing equations of motion must be developed in order to understand the design implications of instrument selection and placement within the body of the device. In this report, we describe a fairly general formulation for the coordinate systems, equations of motion, force and moment relationships necessary to simulate the 6DOF movement of an underwater body. Some simplifications are made by considering the Sensor Fish device to be a rigid, axisymmetric body. The equations of motion are written in the body-fixed frame of reference. Transformations between the body-fixed and interial reference frames are performed using a formulation based on quaternions. Force and moment relationships specific to the Sensor Fish body are currently not available. However, examples of the trajectory simulations using the 6DOF equations are presented using existing low and high-Reynolds number force and moment correlations. Animation files for the test cases are provided in an attached CD. The next phase of the work will focus on the refinement and application of the 6DOF simulator developed in this project. Experimental and computational studies are planned to develop a set of force and moment relationships that are specific to the Sensor Fish body over the range of Reynolds numbers that it experiences. Lab testing of prototype 6DOF Sensor Fish will also allow for refinement of the trajectory simulations through comparison with observations in test flumes. The 6DOF simulator will also be an essential component in tools to analyze field data measured using the next generation Sensor Fish. The 6DOF simulator will be embedded in a moving-machinery computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for hydroturbines to numerically simulate the 6DOF Sensor Fish.

Deng, Zhiqun; Richmond, Marshall C.; Simmons, Carver S.; Carlson, Thomas J.

2004-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

454

Absolute atomic oxygen and nitrogen densities in radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure cold plasmas: Synchrotron vacuum ultra-violet high-resolution Fourier-transform absorption measurements  

SciTech Connect

Reactive atomic species play a key role in emerging cold atmospheric pressure plasma applications, in particular, in plasma medicine. Absolute densities of atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen were measured in a radio-frequency driven non-equilibrium plasma operated at atmospheric pressure using vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) absorption spectroscopy. The experiment was conducted on the DESIRS synchrotron beamline using a unique VUV Fourier-transform spectrometer. Measurements were carried out in plasmas operated in helium with air-like N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} (4:1) admixtures. A maximum in the O-atom concentration of (9.1 {+-} 0.7) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} was found at admixtures of 0.35 vol. %, while the N-atom concentration exhibits a maximum of (5.7 {+-} 0.4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} at 0.1 vol. %.

Niemi, K.; O'Connell, D.; Gans, T. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Oliveira, N. de; Joyeux, D.; Nahon, L. [Synchrotron Soleil, l'Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Booth, J. P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas-CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

Skillful Seasonal Predictions of Boreal Winter Accumulated Heating Degree-Days and Relevance for the Weather Derivative Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is demonstrated that boreal winter accumulated heating degree-days, a weather derivative product that is frequently demanded by energy suppliers (among others), can be skillfully predicted with a lead time of 1 month, that is, at the beginning ...

S. Brands

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Projecting Monthly Natural Gas Sales for Space Heating Using a Monthly Updated Model and Degree-days from Monthly Outlooks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of projecting monthly residential natural gas sales and evaluating interannual changes in demand is investigated using a linear regression model adjusted monthly. with lagged monthly heating degree-days as the independent variable. ...

Richard L. Lehman; Henry E. Warren

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Low-Order Spectral Analysis of the Kirchhoff Matrix for a Probabilistic Graph With a Prescribed Expected Degree Sequence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the eigenvalue distribution of the Kirchhoff matrix of a large-scale probabilistic network with a prescribed expected degree sequence. This spectrum plays a key role in many dynamical and structural network problems ...

Preciado, Victor M.

458

Professional Master's Degree in Wetlands Conservation This program is designed for students who want professional training in the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

want professional training in the multidisciplinary field of wetlands science and management Management POLSCI 786 Policy Evaluation POLSCI 784 Environmental Policy POLSCI 787 Policy Analysis & ChoiceProfessional Master's Degree in Wetlands Conservation This program is designed for students who

Schweik, Charles M.

459

Neuro-fuzzy control of a multi-degree of freedom structure with semi-active magnetorheological dampers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This research illustrates semi-active structural control of a three-story nonlinear building using magnetorheological dampers and a neuro-fuzzy algorithm. The structure being studied was developed for a third generation benchmark problem that is being investigated on a worldwide basis. A magnetorheological (MR) damper is tested experimentally and employed as a control device. An MRD-300kN-240 MR damper, which is manufactured by the Sanwa Tekki Corporation, is tested in a controlled laboratory environment to obtain a set of experimental data. A model of the damper is trained and validated via an adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) algorithm. Next, an array of trained and validated MR damper models is inserted between the ground and the first floor of the benchmark building and numerically simulated under seismic excitation. To control response of the benchmark structure, a neuro-fuzzy control (NEFCON) strategy is applied with acceleration feedback. Training of a NEFCON controller is accomplished through use of an artificial earthquake. Next, performance of a fuzzy controller is validated by investigating time histories of the absolute acceleration response and the overall performance indices when the structure is subjected to a set of actual earthquakes. Numerical results indicate that the proposed semi-active control strategy satisfactorily mitigates absolute accelerations in comparison with response of the uncontrolled structure. In addition, performance indices indicate reduction in response of the structure in comparison with some passive-off and passive-on states of the control devices.

Likhitruangsilp, Visit

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Effects of Temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 1   Typical elevated temperatures in engineering applications...825??975 0.45??0.50 Pressure vessels and piping in nuclear reactors 316 stainless steel 650??750 0.35??0.40 Reactor skirts in nuclear reactors 316 stainless steel 850??950 0.45??0.55 Gas turbine blades Nickel-base superalloys 775??925 0.45??0.60 Burner cans for gas turbine engines Oxide dispersion-strengthened...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "temperature absolute degrees" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Thermionic Converter Temperature Controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

Shaner,B. J.; Wolf, Joseph H.; Johnson, Robert G. R.

1999-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

462

Thermionic converter temperature controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

463

Circuit for monitoring temperature of high-voltage equipment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improved circuit for measuring temperature in a region at high electric potential and generating a read-out of the same in a region at lower potential. The circuit is specially designed to combine high sensitivity, stability, and accuracy. A major portion of the circuit situated in the high-potential region can take the form of an integrated circuit. The preferred form of the circuit includes an input section which is situated in the high-potential region and comprises a temperature-compensated thermocouple circuit for sensing temperature, an oscillator circuit for generating a train of ramp voltages whose rise time varies inversely with the thermocouple output, a comparator and switching circuit for converting the oscillator output to pulses whose frequency is proportional to the thermocouple output, and a light-emitting diode which is energized by these pulses. An optical coupling transmits the light pulses generated by the diode to an output section of the circuit, situated in a region at ground. The output section comprises means for converting the transmitted pulses to electrical pulses of corresponding frequency, means for amplifying the electrical pulses, and means for displaying the frequency of the same. The preferred embodiment of the overall circuit is designed so that the frequency of the output signal in hertz and tenths of hertz is equal to the sensed temperature in degrees and tenths of degrees.

Jacobs, Martin E. (Chillicothe, OH)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Revealing the Degree of Magnetic Frustration by Non-Magnetic Impurities  

SciTech Connect

Imaging the magnetic fields around a non-magnetic impurity can provide a clear benchmark for quantifying the degree of magnetic frustration. Focusing on the strongly frustrated J{sub 1}-J{sub 2} model and the spatially anisotropic J{sub 1a}-J{sub 1b}-J{sub 2} model, very distinct low energy behaviors reflect different levels of magnetic frustration. In the J{sub 1}-J{sub 2} model, bound magnons appear trapped near the impurity in the ground state and strongly reduce the ordered moments for sites proximal to the impurity. In contrast, local moments in the J{sub 1a}-J{sub 1b}-J{sub 2} model are enhanced on the impurity neighboring sites. These theoretical predictions can be probed by experiments such as nuclear magnetic resonance and scanning tunneling microscopy, and the results can elucidate the role of frustration in antiferromagnets and help narrow the possible models to understand magnetism in the iron pnictdies.

Not Available

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

465

Test beam results on the Proton Zero Degree Calorimeter for the ALICE experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The proton Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZP) for the ALICE experiment will measure the energy of the spectator protons in heavy ion collisions at the CERN LHC. Since all the spectator protons have the same energy, the calorimeter's response is proportional to their number, providing a direct information on the centrality of the collision. The ZP is a spaghetti calorimeter, which collects and measures the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in silica optical fibers embedded in a brass absorber. The details of its construction will be shown. The calorimeter was tested at the CERN SPS using pion and electron beams with momenta ranging from 50 to 200 GeV/c. The response of the calorimeter and its energy resolution have been studied as a function of the beam energy. Also, the signal uniformity and a comparison between the transverse profile of the hadronic and electromagnetic shower are presented. Moreover, the differences between the calorimeter's responses to protons and pio