Sample records for temblor pearsall tuscaloosa

  1. Lower Tuscaloosa of southern Mississippi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devery, D.M.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Lower Tuscaloosa Formation of the upper Cretaceous currently is producing primarily oil from more than 50 fields in the interior salt basin of Mississippi. These fields are located within an area extending from east Louisiana into SW and S.-central Mississippi (Jefferson, Adams, Franklin, Lincoln, Amite, Pike, Walthall, Lamar, Forrest, and Pearl River Counties). Stratigraphically, the Lower Tuscaloosa unconformably overlies lower Cretaceous sediments of the Dantzler Formation and underlies lower Cretaceous shales of the Middle Tuscaloosa. The formation consists of a transgressive sequence that grades upward from alluvial plain through delta to marine deposits. Prospecting for oil and gas as well as developing new fields in the Lower Tuscaloosa can be difficult. There is generally a lack of strong structural closure; accumulation of oil and gas is controlled largely by stratigraphy, with lenticular sands pinching out into shales.

  2. Temblor, de Rosa Montero: anti-utopía y desfamiliarización

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pertusa, Inmaculada

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conversaciones con Rosa Montero". Anales de Park, IL:Altemative Future. 4. n-DI Temblor, de Rosa MonteroMontero, Rosa. Crónica del desamor. Madrid: Debate, 1981. La

  3. Thrust faulting in Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonson, R.R.

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface and subsurface studies confirm the presence of overthrusting in the Temblor Range between Gonyer Canyon and Recruit Pass. In the subsurface, three wells have penetrated the Cree fault, the Hudbay Cree' No. 1 (7,300 ft), the Frantzen Oil Company Cree' No. 1 (5,865 ft) and the Arco Cree Fee' 1A well (5,915 ft). Below the fault, 25 to 35{degree} of westerly dips on the west flank of the sub-thrust Phelps anticline are encountered. The McDonald section below the fault is comprised of siliceous fractured shale which contains live oil and gas showings. A drill-stem test of the interval from 8,247 to 8,510 ft in the Frantzen well resulted in a recovery of 1,200 ft clean 34{degree} oil and 40 MCF per day gas. The shut in pressure was 3,430 lb, which is a normal hydrostatic pressure common to the producing structures in the southern San Joaquin Valley. The equivalent of this interval has produced over 7,000 bbl of oil in the Arco Cree' 1A well. The Arco Cree Fee' No. 1A well crossed the axis of the Phelps Anticline as indicated by good dipmeter and bottomed in Lower Zemorrian at 14,512 ft total depth. This well was not drilled deep enough to reach the Point of Rocks Sand and did not test the gas showings in the lower Miocene section. In the Gonyer Canyon area, subsurface evidence indicated conditions are similar to those in the Cree area because a large structure is present below a thrust fault. It is believed that significant accumulations will be found beneath thrust faults in the eastern part of the Temblor Range where conditions are similar to those that were instrumental in forming fields such as the Elk Hills, B. V. Hills, Belgian Anticline and others.

  4. Depositional environment of Upper Cretaceous deep Tuscaloosa Sandstones, Profit Island field, east Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, Susan Viola

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in thickness from 12 ft to 17 ft (4 m to 5 m). Finally, thin-bedded, distinctly parallel-laminated and ripple-laminated sandstones represent overbank deposits which range in thickness from 4 ft to 9 ft (1 m to 3 m) ~ Black marine shales with thinly... Island field is in the lower Tuscaloosa sandstones. The exact age of the Tuscaloosa has recently been the subj ect of many stratigraphic studies. It has generally been assumed that the 11 deep Tuscaloosa of Louisiana and the Woodbine of East Texas...

  5. Depositional environment of the "stringer sand" member, Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous), Mallalieu field, Mississippi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Billy Charles

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with the lower Unit being subdivided into an upper "sand and shale section" a middle "marine section", and a lower "massive sand section". The Mississippi Geological Society (1957) subdivided the subsurface Tuscaloosa Group into the Upper, Marine, and Lower...) described the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation of southern Mississippi as a unit of "rapidly alternating sands and shales of shallow marine origin, overlying a nearly unbroken sand sec- tion of still shallower marine or continental origin". Braunstein ai. so...

  6. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtle Airships Jump to: navigation,

  7. Diagenesis within the deep Tuscaloosa formation, Profit Island field, Louisiana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hudder, Karen Ann Gilchrist

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facies controlled. Initially primary porosity of these turbidite sandstones was obliterated by minor physical compaction and abundant calcite cemen- tation. During deep burial, however, extensive leaching of cement, feldspars, and volcanic rock... and precipitation of abun- dant euhedral chlorite took place. Chlorite occurs as grain coatings and pore-linings which inhibits further cement development, and facilitates maintenance of optimum reservoir qualities. Kaolinite, iv illite, smectite, and some...

  8. Tuscaloosa County, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtle Airships Jump to: navigation, searchTusayan,

  9. Depositional environment of the "stringer sand" member, Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous), Mallalieu field, Mississippi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Billy Charles

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resi- due deposits are found around a number of these domes, indicating that at one time there were accumulations of oil. The cause of the volatile material escaping and leaving these "fossil oil fields" has not been definitely established... showing the location of Mallalieu field and other nearby oil fields . 14 Structure ma. p of Mallalieu field Mallalieu field electric log correlation secrion. Legend for grain size and lithology logs. 40 49 Quartz grain size, electric log...

  10. Errors Associated with Sampling and Measurement of Solids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Shirley E.

    ­ Harrisburg; Middletown, PA, USA 2 University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL, USA With assistance from many past

  11. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  12. 2011: A Year of Alberta Elementary was destroyed by the tornado that hit Tuscaloosa in April. By September, the school site and close-in neighborhoods had been

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handy, Susan L.

    . An update from some of the hardest hit areas. By Meghan Stromberg and Kirstin Kuenzi ' hether climate change is considering building a greenway along the tornado's path, much of which is designated floodway. It could sized stream channels (5), and underground stormwater pipes (6), to be used where the green- way

  13. Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Mayagez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    . Esta secuencia sísmica se ha caracterizado por la ocurrencia de temblores menores, o sea sismos con

  14. Stephen C. Ruppel Principal Investigator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    distribution and thermal maturity ·Upscaling ·Wireline log & 3D calibration ·Rock mechanics: geomechanical Shale, Texas, Louisiana ·Eagle Ford Shale, South Texas ·Pearsall Shale, Gulf Coast Basin ·Bakken Shale

  15. Informacin durante o despus de una emergencia : Llame al nmero 459-INFO (4636)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    cabeza con los brazos. · Valla al punto designado por su edificio. Sismo / Temblor E · Llame al número

  16. Modeling the resolution of inexpensive, novel non-seismic geophysical monitoring tools to monitor CO2 injection into coal beds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reservoirs of the Black Warrior Basin: Tuscaloosa, Alabama,test planned in the Black Warrior basin in Alabama. In theof coal in the Black Warrior basin decreases exponentially

  17. DOE Award Number DE-FG26-04NT42195

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL Shen-En Chen, Yangguang Liu, Peng Wang, and Benjamin Smith University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC Report Issued: June 2014...

  18. USLHC | Angels & Demons Lecture Night - The Science Revealed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    USA | Canada | Denmark | France | Germany | Puerto Rico | Spain | Switzerland Alabama City Date Time Place Speaker Contact Tuscaloosa May 22 7:30 pm University of Alabama, Gallalee...

  19. Treinta años de dramaturgia en el Perú (1950-1980)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dí az, Gré gor

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    para la ingeniería, el vuelo necesario para proyectar la ilusión. SPRING 1998 179 En Collacocha, v.g., la cabana debe estremecerse ante sucesivos temblores; los movimientos y ruidos que logra la tramoya deben producir los efectos del sismo, sin...

  20. SOURCE QUANTIFICATION OF INAPPROPRIATE DISCHARGES TO STORM DRAINAGE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    ............................................................. ..................8 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Types of Models................................................. ...........................................17 3.2. Library Data...........................................................................................21 3.2.1. Preparation of Library File 3.2.1.1. Preparation of Library File for Tuscaloosa

  1. Gravity monitoring of CO2 movement during sequestration: Model studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gasperikova, E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reservoirs of the Black Warrior Basin: Tuscaloosa, Alabama,a pilot test planned in the Black Warrior basin in Alabama.Coal seams in the Black Warrior basin are distributed

  2. Presented at: The 2002 Borchardt Conference, A Seminar on Advancements in Water and Wastewater. The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Feb. 2002.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pitt, Robert E.

    . The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Feb. 2002. STORMWATER TREATMENT AT CRITICAL SOURCE AREAS USING THE MULTI The University of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 Abstract The Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT) was developed

  3. Modeling Combustion in Current Candidate Scenarios for Thermonuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combustion in Current Candidate Scenarios for Thermonuclear Supernovae Mar 26 2015 03:00 PM - 04:00 PM Dean M. Townsley, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Physics Division...

  4. Band-dropping via coupled photonic crystal Mehmet Bayindir and Ekmel Ozbay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bayindir, Mehmet

    , 1937­1939 (2000). 6. O. Painter, R. K. Lee, A. Scherer, A. Yariv, J. D. O'Brien, P. D. Dapkus, and I Localization in the 21st Century (Kluwer, Dortrecht, 2001). 3. A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Vuckovic, A. Scherer, and T. P. Pearsall, "Waveguiding in planar photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77

  5. Evaluation of Herbicides For Weed Control and Crop Injury in Snap Beans: 2004 Russell W. Wallace, Ph.D.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Evaluation of Herbicides For Weed Control and Crop Injury in Snap Beans: 2004 Russell W. Wallace and potential phytotoxicity on snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) grown in the Pearsall, Texas region. Materials, then disking the field and planting beans in 5-row beds. Snap beans (var. "BBL 156") were planted on February

  6. Review Meeting Mudrock Systems Research Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    Ford Formation, South Texas Basin: Wang Prospectivity and Producibility of Shale Oil Resource Systems system of the Marcellus Shale: Milliken 11:25 ­ 11:55 AM Variations in pore types and abundance in the Pearsall Shale: Ko 11:55 ­ 1:00 PM CATERED LUNCH 1:00 ­ 1:30 PM Microfractures in Organic-Rich Mudrocks

  7. Interpretation of well log response in the Austin chalk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hinds, Gregory Scott

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regional Structure Sedimentology . Diagenesis Petrophysical Properties . PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS Introduction . Production and Completion Methods Decline Curve Analysis . Methods . ORGANIC CONTENT Introduction . Source Rock Zonation Oil Types...-1956, technological advances such as acidizing and hydraulic fracturing created renewed interest in Pearsall field. However, oil prices were low ($2 per barrel) at the time and ultimate recoveries of approximately 30, 000 bbls per well were not economical. The Arab...

  8. Revue de presse ANGLAIS Semaine du 24 au 30 janvier 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rennes, Université de

    foundered at the first hurdle: most of the debris left by the temblor has yet to be cleared. Energy / Economy Iceland Has the World's Cleanest Electricity (By Mark HALPER) : But can renewable energy recharge of their benefit. #12;The Economist ­ January 29, 2011 Middle East and Africa Protest in Egypt - Another Arab

  9. Ciudad Universitaria 7 de junio de 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islas, León

    OLVERA Estudia los efectos de los sismos. Foto: Justo Suárez. En los últimos años se ha dedicado efectos de los temblores. En este caso, trata de representar los daños de un sismo que hubo

  10. CX-000743: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Site Characterization for Carbon Dioxide Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of AlabamaCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1Date: 01/22/2010Location(s): Tuscaloosa, AlabamaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. Upper Carboniferous Insects from the Pottsville Formation of Northern Alabama (Insecta: Ephemeropterida, Palaeodictyopterida, Odonatoptera)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckemeyer, Roy J.; Engel, Michael S.

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    coal zone, in northern Alabama from localities associated with strip mines. All the sites are in the Black Warrior coal basin (Murrie et al., 1976); two are in Walker County and one in Tuscaloosa County (Fig. 1). Most of the fossils...

  12. CX-000741: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Site Characterization for Carbon Dioxide Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of AlabamaCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.1Date: 01/22/2010Location(s): Tuscaloosa, AlabamaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  13. Magnetic anisotropy in epitaxial CrO2 and CrO2/Cr2O3 bilayer thin films N. A. Frey, S. Srinath, and H. Srikanth*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    3 as the system is cooled below the antiferromagnetic transition has been widely studied MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487, USA Received 7 January 2006; revised for the room temperature anisotropy constant scaled with the film thickness and the TS data is influenced

  14. Intergas `95: International unconventional gas symposium. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Unconventional Gas Symposium was held on May 14--20, 1995 in Tuscaloosa, Alabama where 52 reports were presented. These reports are grouped in this proceedings under: geology and resources; mine degasification and safety; international developments; reservoir characterization/coal science; and environmental/legal and regulatory. Each report has been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Min

    sensor networks, energy-efficient reliable MAC protocol, and slotted FAMA MAC protocol and low1 CHAPTER 1 MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER FOR UNDERWATER SENSOR NETWORKS* Yanping Zhang* , Yang Xiao of Alabama Tuscaloosa, AL 35487-0290 USA E-mail: yangxiao@ieee.org + Dept. of Electrical and Computer

  16. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott; Current, Caitlin J.

    2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  17. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  18. Universidad de Puerto Rico Recinto de Mayagez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbes, Fernando

    . Este sismo generó una secuencia de réplicas para la cual la RSPR ha localizado un total de 72 temblores Información detallada sobre los sismos que ocurrieron en este mes. Informe especial de campo de Guayama 2007 de Italia Informe sísmico para el mes de abril de 2009 Información detallada sobre los sismos que

  19. A combination of air and fluid drilling technique for zones of lost circulation in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, S.L.; Niederhofer, J.D.; Beavers, W.M.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural geologic information available for the coal-bearing formations in the Black Warrior basin documents the occurrence of numerous fault and fracture zones. A combination air/fluid drilling technique may be advantageous to coalbed-methane operations in this and other areas with similar hydrologic and geologic conditions. The authors successfully used this technique recently on coalbed-methane wells in Tuscaloosa County, AL.

  20. E F tE F tEnergy FactsEnergy Facts Gloria and John L. Blackburn Academic Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver, Jeffrey C.

    E F tE F tEnergy FactsEnergy Facts Gloria and John L. Blackburn Academic Symposium Tuscaloosa, AL F, U.S. Department of Energy Download this talk at http://www.science.doe.gov/SC-2/Deputy_Director-speeches-presentations.htm #12;400 Years of Energy Use in the U.S.400 Years of Energy Use in the U.S. Petroleum40 U.S. Energy

  1. Comparison of caprock pore networks which potentially will be impacted by carbon sequestration projects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCray, John (Colorado School of Mines); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis (Colorado School of Mines); Mouzakis, Katherine (Colorado School of Mines); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Injection of CO2 into underground rock formations can reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Caprocks present above potential storage formations are the main structural trap inhibiting CO2 from leaking into overlying aquifers or back to the Earth's surface. Dissolution and precipitation of caprock minerals resulting from reaction with CO2 may alter the pore network where many pores are of the micrometer to nanometer scale, thus altering the structural trapping potential of the caprock. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of pores at these scales are poorly characterized. In order to evaluate the overall risk of leakage of CO2 from storage formations, a first critical step is understanding the distribution and shape of pores in a variety of different caprocks. As the caprock is often comprised of mudstones, we analyzed samples from several mudstone formations with small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging to compare the pore networks. Mudstones were chosen from current or potential sites for carbon sequestration projects including the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Expandable clay contents ranged from 10% to approximately 40% in the Gothic shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. During SANS, neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e., minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume and arrangement of pores in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of the pore network. On such plots slopes from -2 to -3 represent mass fractals while slopes from -3 to -4 represent surface fractals. Scattering data showed surface fractal dimensions for the Kirtland formation and one sample from the Tuscaloosa formation close to 3, indicating very rough surfaces. In contrast, scattering data for the Gothic shale formation exhibited mass fractal behavior. In one sample of the Tuscaloosa formation the data are described by a surface fractal at low Q (larger pores) and a mass fractal at high Q (smaller pores), indicating two pore populations contributing to the scattering behavior. These small angle neutron scattering results, combined with high-resolution TEM imaging, provided a means for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the differences in pore networks between these various mudstones.

  2. Geochemical relationships of petroleum in Mesozoic reservoirs to carbonate source rocks of Jurassic Smackover Formation, southwestern Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claypool, G.E.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Algal carbonate mudstones of the Jurassic Smackover Formation are the main source rocks for oil and condensate in Mesozoic reservoir rocks in southwestern Alabama. This interpretation is based on geochemical analyses of oils, condensates, and organic matter in selected samples of shale (Norphlet Formation, Haynesville Formation, Trinity Group, Tuscaloosa Group) and carbonate (Smackover Formation) rocks. Potential and probable oil source rocks are present in the Tuscaloosa Group and Smackover Formation, respectively. Extractable organic matter from Smackover carbonates has molecular and isotopic similarities to Jurassic oil. Although the Jurassic oils and condensates in southwestern Alabama have genetic similarities, they show significant compositional variations due to differences in thermal maturity and organic facies/lithofacies. Organic facies reflect different depositional conditions for source rocks in the various basins. The Mississippi Interior Salt basin was characterized by more continuous marine to hypersaline conditions, whereas the Manila and Conecuh embayments periodically had lower salnity and greater input of clastic debris and terrestrial organic matter. Petroleum and organic matter in Jurassic rocks of southwestern Alabama show a range of thermal transformations. The gas content of hydrocarbons in reservoirs increases with increasing depth and temperature. In some reservoirs where the temperature is above 266/degrees/F(130/degrees/C), gas-condensate is enriched in isotopically heavy sulfur, apparently derived from thermochemical reduction of Jurassic evaporite sulfate. This process also resulted in increase H/sub 2/S and CO in the gas, and depletion of saturated hydrocarbons in the condensate liquids.

  3. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

  4. Primary geologic controls on coalbed methane content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, W.A.; Hines, R.A.

    1985-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Three primary factors that control gas content in coal beds are present depth of coal, maximum original burial depth, and depositional environments of the coal. Complex distribution of gas content suggests an interplay between these primary factors, as well as other controls. Present depth can be predicted in terms of surface geology and structure. Four closely spaced core holes in the Tuscaloosa area provide detailed data for interpretation of depositional environments and for inference of relative original depth of burial. Gas content apparently is higher in bayfill and bay-margin coals than in coals that were deposited in other environments. Data from petrophysical logs of petroleum wells can be used for regional stratigraphic mapping to outline extent of depositional systems. Correlations show that the section in the Cahaba synclinorium is thicker and contains more coal beds than that in the Black Warrior basin. 15 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Initial characterization of mudstone nanoporosity with small angle neutron scattering using caprocks from carbon sequestration sites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCray, John (Colorado School of Mines); Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis (Colorado School of Mines); Mouzakis, Katherine (Colorado School of Mines); Heath, Jason E.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Rother, Gernot (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geological carbon sequestration relies on the principle that CO{sub 2} injected deep into the subsurface is unable to leak to the atmosphere. Structural trapping by a relatively impermeable caprock (often mudstone such as a shale) is the main trapping mechanism that is currently relied on for the first hundreds of years. Many of the pores of the caprock are of micrometer to nanometer scale. However, the distribution, geometry and volume of porosity at these scales are poorly characterized. Differences in pore shape and size can cause variation in capillary properties and fluid transport resulting in fluid pathways with different capillary entry pressures in the same sample. Prediction of pore network properties for distinct geologic environments would result in significant advancement in our ability to model subsurface fluid flow. Specifically, prediction of fluid flow through caprocks of geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration reservoirs is a critical step in evaluating the risk of leakage to overlying aquifers. The micro- and nanoporosity was analyzed in four mudstones using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). These mudstones are caprocks of formations that are currently under study or being used for carbon sequestration projects and include the Marine Tuscaloosa Group, the Lower Tuscaloosa Group, the upper and lower shale members of the Kirtland Formation, and the Pennsylvanian Gothic shale. Total organic carbon varies from <0.3% to 4% by weight. Expandable clay contents range from 10% to {approx}40% in the Gothic shale and Kirtland Formation, respectively. Neutrons effectively scatter from interfaces between materials with differing scattering length density (i.e. minerals and pores). The intensity of scattered neutrons, I(Q), where Q is the scattering vector, gives information about the volume of pores and their arrangement in the sample. The slope of the scattering data when plotted as log I(Q) vs. log Q provides information about the fractality or geometry of the pore network. Results from this study, combined with high-resolution TEM imaging, provide insight into the differences in volume and geometry of porosity between these various mudstones.

  6. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells: Detailed completion prognosis for geopressured-geothermal well of opportunity, prospect #2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A geopressured-geothermal test of Martin Exploration Company's Crown Zellerbach Well No. 2 will be conducted in the Tuscaloosa Trend. The Crown Zellerbach Well No. 1 will be converted to a saltwater disposal well for disposal of produced brine. The well is located in the Satsuma Area, Livingston parish, Louisiana. Eaton proposes to test the Tuscaloosa by perforating the 7 inch casing from 16,718 feet to 16,754 feet. The reservoir pressure at an intermediate formation depth of 16,736 feet is anticipated to be 12,010 psi and the temperature is anticipated to be 297 F. Calculated water salinity is 16,000 ppm. The well is expected to produce a maximum of 16,000 barrels of water a day with a gas content of 51 SCF/bbl. Eaton will re-enter the test well, clean out to 17,000 feet, run production casing and complete the well. The disposal well will be re-entered and completed in the 9-5/8 inch casing for disposal of produced brine. Testing will be conducted similar to previous Eaton annular flow WOO tests. An optional test from 16,462 feet to 16,490 feet may be performed after the original test and will require a workover with a rig on location to perform the plugback. The surface production equipment utilized on previous tests will be utilized on this test. The equipment has worked satisfactorily and all parties involved in the testing are familiar with its operation. Weatherly Engineering will operate the test equipment. The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) and Mr. Don Clark will handle sampling, testing and reservoir engineering evaluation, respectively. wireline work required will be awarded on basis of bid evaluation. At the conclusion of the test period, the D.O.E. owned test equipment will be removed from the test site, the test and disposal wells plugged and abandoned and the sites restored to the satisfaction of all parties.

  7. Observation of induced fractures intercepted by mining in the Warrior Basin, Alabama. Topical report. Rock Creek methane from multiple coal seams completion project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steidl, P.F.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes research and inspection of induced fractures that have been intercepted by mining. Induced fractures from 13 wells intercepted by mining were inspected at the Jim Walter Resources' (JWR) No. 4 and 5 Mines in Tuscaloosa County, and the Oak Grove Mine in Jefferson County, Alabama. In this area the Mary Lee and Blue Creek coalbeds average 1.3 ft and 4 to 5.5 ft, respectively at depths of about 2,000 ft at the JWR mines and 1,000 ft in the Oak Grove Mine. These seams are usually separated by 2 to 10 ft of rock parting. The wells were completed open hole from 1982 to 1986. Hydraulic fracture treatments were used to stimulate production. Some expected results include: in general, the fractures followed the coal face cleat direction; they were vertical, and were sandpacked close to the wall. Other observations include the following: (1) most of the fractures and proppant were present in the parting and roof rock, (2) results were similar in the JWR and Oak Grove Mines even though there is 1,000 ft less overburden at the Oake Grove Mine, and (3) no horizontal fractures were observed in the study; though other stimulations have propagated horizontal fractures at Oak Grove.

  8. Utilization of a fuel cell power plant for the capture and conversion of gob well gas. Final report, June--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Przybylic, A.R.; Haynes, C.D.; Haskew, T.A.; Boyer, C.M. II; Lasseter, E.L.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study has been made to determine if a 200 kW fuel cell power plant operating on variable quality coalbed methane can be placed and successfully operated at the Jim Walter Resources No. 4 mine located in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. The purpose of the demonstration is to investigate the effects of variable quality (50 to 98% methane) gob gas on the output and efficiency of the power plant. To date, very little detail has been provided concerning the operation of fuel cells in this environment. The fuel cell power plant will be located adjacent to the No. 4 mine thermal drying facility rated at 152 M British thermal units per hour. The dryer burns fuel at a rate of 75,000 cubic feet per day of methane and 132 tons per day of powdered coal. The fuel cell power plant will provide 700,000 British thermal units per hour of waste heat that can be utilized directly in the dryer, offsetting coal utilization by approximately 0.66 tons per day and providing an avoided cost of approximately $20 per day. The 200 kilowatt electrical power output of the unit will provide a utility cost reduction of approximately $3,296 each month. The demonstration will be completely instrumented and monitored in terms of gas input and quality, electrical power output, and British thermal unit output. Additionally, real-time power pricing schedules will be applied to optimize cost savings. 28 refs., 35 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Quarterly Review of Methane from Coal-Seams Technology. Volume 9, Number 1, November 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBane, R.A.; Schwochow, S.D.; Stevens, S.H.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper contains: basin activities--(Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, Wind River Basin-Wyoming, Greater Green River coal region-Wyoming and Colorado, Uinta Basin-Utah, Piceance Basin-Colorado, San Juan Basin-Colorado and New Mexico, Raton Basin-Colorado and New Mexico, and Black Warrior Basin-Alabama); features--(relation between basin hydrology and fruitland gas composition, San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico); methane from coal seams research--(western Cretaceous coal seam project, multiple coal seams project, coalbed methane technology development in the Appalachian Basin, methane from coal deposits technical evaluation and data base (reservoir engineering and analysis), development of formation evaluation technology for coalbed methane development, improved evaluation of coal reservoirs through specialized core analysis, and effective design, real-data analysis, and post-job evaluation of hydraulic fracturing treatments); technical events--(the Coalbed Methane Forums in Denver, Eastern Coalbed Methane Forum in Tuscaloosa, Society of Petroleum Engineers--Gas Technology Symposium, and Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration--annual meeting).

  10. A combination air and fluid drilling technique for zones of lost circulation in the Black Warrior Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, S.L.; Beavers, W.M.; Niederhofer, J.D.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the drilling of coalbed methane wells in the Black Warrior Basin, the possibility of penetrating a highly permeable fault or fracture zone is likely. These fracture zones, and occasionally the faults, are the source of large quantities of water. When air is being used as the drilling medium, problems may arise with producing and disposing of the formation water. When rotary drilling with fluid, loss of returns may also become a problem. The use of conventional lost circulation materials have been demonstrated-in this situation--to be both ineffective and expensive. Also, lost circulation materials substantially reduce the effective secondary permeability of the coal seams, severely limiting the ultimate methane production potential of the well. If the wellbore is generally competent, one inexpensive solution to the problem is to drill with air to a point where surface recovery tanks are full of produced formation water. Drilling can continue by switching to conventional fluid drilling until the surface storage tanks are pumped dry. This process of alternating fluid and air drilling can be continued until reaching total depth. Structural geologic information, available for the coal-bearing formations in the Black Warrior Basin, documents the occurrence of numerous fault and fracture zones. A combination air and fluid drilling technique may prove to be advantageous to coalbed methane operations in this and other areas with similar hydrologic and geologic conditions. Recently, this technique was successfully utilized on TRW, Inc., coalbed methane wells in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama.

  11. Dry Creek salt dome, Mississippi Interior Salt basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, S.L.; Ericksen, R.L.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent drilling of salt dome flanks in the Mississippi Salt basin has resulted in important new discoveries and the opening of a frontier play. This play is focused on gas/condensate reserves in several Cretaceous formations, most notably the Upper Cretaceous Eutaw and lower Tuscaloosa intervals and Lower Cretaceous Paluxy and Hosston formations. As many as eight domes have been drilled thus far; sandstones in the upper Hosston Formation comprise the primary target. Production has been as high as 3-5 Mcf and 500-1200 bbl of condensate per day, with estimated ultimate reserves in the range of 0.2 to 1.5 MBOE (million barrels oil equivalent) per well. As typified by discovery at Dry Creek salt dome, traps are related to faulting, unconformities, and updip loss of permeability. Previous drilling at Dry Creek, and in the basin generally, avoided the flank areas of most domes, due to geologic models that predicted latestage (Tertiary) piercement and breached accumulations. Recent data from Dry Creek and other productive domes suggest that growth was episodic and that piercement of Tertiary strata did not affect deeper reservoirs charged with hydrocarbons in the Late Cretaceous.

  12. Resource Assessment of the In-Place and Potentially Recoverable Deep Natural Gas Resource of the Onshore Interior Salt Basins, North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ernest A. Mancini; Donald A. Goddard

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal research effort for the first six months of Year 2 of the project has been petroleum system characterization. Understanding the burial and thermal maturation histories of the strata in the onshore interior salt basins of the North Central and Northeastern Gulf of Mexico areas is important in petroleum system characterization. The underburden and overburden rocks in these basins and subbasins are a product of their rift-related geohistory. Petroleum source rock analysis and thermal maturation and hydrocarbon expulsion modeling indicate that an effective regional petroleum source rock in the onshore interior salt basins, the North Louisiana Salt Basin, Mississippi Interior Salt Basin, Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin, was the Upper Jurassic Smackover lime mudstone. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa shale was an effective local petroleum source rock in the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin and a possible local source bed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Early Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the North Louisiana Salt Basin and the Mississippi Interior Salt Basin. Hydrocarbon generation and expulsion was initiated in the Late Cretaceous and continued into the Tertiary in the Manila Subbasin and Conecuh Subbasin. Reservoir rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary siliciclastic and carbonate strata. Seal rocks include Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary anhydrite and shale beds. Petroleum traps include structural and combination traps.

  13. Geochemical studies of crude oil generation, migration, and destruction in Mississippi salt basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sassen, R.; Moore, C.H.; Nunn, J.A.; Meendsen, F.C.; Heydari, E.

    1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main source for crude oil in the Mississippi salt basin is the laminated lime mudstone facies of the lower Smackover. Crude oil generation and migration commenced at a level of thermal maturity equivalent to about 0.55% vitrinite reflectance. Short-range lateral migration of crude oil was focused on upper Smackover and Norphlet reservoirs, but vertical migration also charged some overlying Cotton Valley, Rodessa, lower Tuscaloosa, and Eutaw reservoirs. Following migration from the lower Smackover, thermal maturity history of reservoir rocks controls the preservation of crude oil, gas condensate, and methane. Slow thermal cracking of crude oil occurred in deep upper Smackover reservoirs, resulting in formation of gas condensate and precipitation of solid bitumen. The maximum thermal maturity for preservation of condensate is equivalent to about 1.3% vitrinite reflectance. Only methane, pyrobitumen, and nonhydrocarbon gases, including hydrogen sulfide, persist at higher levels of thermal maturity. Early destruction of methane in deep upper Smackover reservoirs near the Wiggins arch is driven by thermochemical sulfate reduction. Lesser availability of sulfate in Norphlet reservoirs could account for methane preservation at higher levels of thermal maturity. One basic geochemical strategy for further exploration of the Mississippi salt basin is to focus exploration effort on traps with reservoirs in the thermal maturity window for hydrocarbon preservation. Another strategy is to avoid drilling traps with overmature reservoir rocks.

  14. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6.-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently investigating the costs and operational viability of re-entering the well and conducting an FMI (fracture detection) log and/or an acid stimulation. No final decision or detailed plans have been made regarding these potential interventions at this time.

  15. Stevens and earlier miocene turbidite sandstones, southern San Joaquin Valley, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, G.W.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thick marine turbidite succession, dominantly coarse sandstone, underlies the southern part of the San Joaquin Valley. Sands are pebbly to fine grained, commonly poorly sorted, quartzose to arkosic, and are interbedded with dark shales bearing deep-water foraminifers. Graded bedding is common and, with the depths of 2000 to 6000 ft (610 to 1830 m) implied by the fauna, is taken to indicate a turbidity-current origin for most of the sands. The upper, middle, and lower Miocene turbidite section was revealed by extensive coring at Paloma, and is similar to the more widespread and oil and gas productive upper Miocene Stevens sandstone. The central-basin Stevens was deposited as channel sands on deep-sea fans derived from several discrete troughs or canyons on the eastern and southeastern margin of the basin prior to their burial by prograding Santa Margarita sand. Sand channels and lobes in the Bakersfield arch area were controlled locally by compaction structures. The rising Paloma anticline deflected Stevens sands for a time and the very last sands were guided also by incipient folds on the outer Bakersfield arch. Coarse Stevens conglomerates and sands shed from the emergent Temblor Range were deflected by the Buena Vista Hills, Elk Hills, and other anticlinal shoals and were deposited in intervening gaps as thick oil-productive channel sands. They merge with sands from the east side in flowing axially into the distal northwestern basin. Facies recognized in the subsurface include a meander-channel facies developed in the prograded muddy slope area upstream from the massive braided-sand facies.

  16. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios K.; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, J. Alexandra; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising, however, possible CO{sub 2} or CO{sub 2}-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define trace metal source terms from the reaction of supercritical CO{sub 2}, storage reservoir brines, reservoir and cap rocks. Storage reservoir source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, basalts and cements from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin – Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution is tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g. pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments due to the presence of CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rock exceed the MCLs by an order of magnitude while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the reservoir and caprock source term to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  17. Trace Metal Source Terms in Carbon Sequestration Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karamalidis, Athanasios; Torres, Sharon G.; Hakala, Jacqueline A.; Shao, Hongbo; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT: Carbon dioxide sequestration in deep saline and depleted oil geologic formations is feasible and promising; however, possible CO2 or CO2-saturated brine leakage to overlying aquifers may pose environmental and health impacts. The purpose of this study was to experimentally define to provide a range of concentrations that can be used as the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations. Storage source terms for trace metals are needed to evaluate the impact of brines leaking into overlying drinking water aquifers. The trace metal release was measured from cements and sandstones, shales, carbonates, evaporites, and basalts from the Frio, In Salah, Illinois Basin, Decatur, Lower Tuscaloosa, Weyburn-Midale, Bass Islands, and Grand Ronde carbon sequestration geologic formations. Trace metal dissolution was tracked by measuring solution concentrations over time under conditions (e.g., pressures, temperatures, and initial brine compositions) specific to the sequestration projects. Existing metrics for maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for drinking water as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) were used to categorize the relative significance of metal concentration changes in storage environments because of the presence of CO2. Results indicate that Cr and Pb released from sandstone reservoir and shale cap rocks exceed the MCLs byan order of magnitude, while Cd and Cu were at or below drinking water thresholds. In carbonate reservoirs As exceeds the MCLs by an order of magnitude, while Cd, Cu, and Pb were at or below drinking water standards. Results from this study can be used as a reasonable estimate of the trace element source term for reservoirs and leakage pathways in risk simulations to further evaluate the impact of leakage on groundwater quality.

  18. Single-well tracer methods for hydrogeologic evaluation of target aquifers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, S.H.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Designing an efficient well field for an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) project requires measuring local groundwater flow parameters as well as estimating horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity. Effective porosity determines the volume of aquifer needed to store a given volume of heated or chilled water. Ground-water flow velocity governs the migration of the thermal plume, and dispersion and heat exchange along the flow path reduces the thermal intensity of the recovered plume. Stratigraphic variations in the aquifer will affect plume dispersion, may bias the apparent rate of migration of the plume, and can prevent efficient hydraulic communication between wells. Single-well tracer methods using a conservative flow tracer such as bromide, along with pumping tests and water-level measurements, provide a rapid and cost-effective means for estimating flow parameters. A drift-and-pumpback tracer test yields effective porosity and flow velocity. Point-dilution tracer testing, using new instrumentation for downhole tracer measurement and a new method for calibrating the point-dilution test itself, yields depth-discrete hydraulic conductivity as it is affected by stratigraphy, and can be used to estimate well transmissivity. Experience in conducting both drift-and-pumpback and point-dilution tests at three different test sites has yielded important information that highlights both the power and the limitations of the single-well tracer methods. These sites are the University of Alabama Student Recreation Center (UASRC) ATES well field and the VA Medical Center (VA) ATES well field, both located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and the Hanford bioremediation test site north of Richland, Washington.

  19. Petroleum source rock potential of Mesozoic condensed section deposits in southwestern Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mancini, E.A; Tew, B.H.; Mink, R.M. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa (United States))

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because condensed section deposits in carbonates and siliclastics are generally fine-grained lithologies often containing relatively high concentrations of organic matter, these sediments have the potential to be petroleum source rocks if buried under conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation. In the Mesozoic deposits of southwestern Alabama, only the Upper Jurassic Smackover carbonate mudstones of the condensed section of the LZAGC-4.1 cycle have realized their potential as hydrocarbon source rocks. These carbonate mudstones contain organic carbon concentrations of algal and amorphous kerogen of up to 1.7% and have thermal alteration indices of 2- to 3+. The Upper Cretaceous Tuscaloosa marine claystones of the condensed section of the UZAGC-2.5 cycle are rich (up to 2.9%) in herbaceous and amorphous organic matter but have not been subjected to burial conditions favorable for hydrocarbon generation. The Jurassic Pine Hill/Norphlet black shales of the condensed section of the LZAGC-3.1 cycle and the Upper Jurassic Haynesville carbonate mudstones of the condensed section of the LZAGC-4.2 cycle are low (0.1%) in organic carbon. Although condensed sections within depositional sequences should have the highest source rock potential, specific environmental, preservational, and/or burial history conditions within a particular basin will dictate whether or not the potential is realized as evidenced by the condensed sections of the Mesozoic depositional sequences in southwestern Alabama. Therefore, petroleum geologists can use sequence stratigraphy to identify potential source rocks; however, only through geochemical analyses can the quality of these potential source rocks be determined.

  20. Biomarkers and carbon isotopes of oils in the Jurassic Smackover trend of the Gulf Coast states, U. S. A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofer, Z. (Consultant, Austin, TX (USA))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The geochemistry of 25 oils from 23 fields in Alabama and the Mississippi and Louisiana-Arkansas Jurassic salt basins was evaluated. Results show that the oils were generated by a carbonate source rock which was deposited under highly anoxic conditions, and which contains mainly marine derived organic matter. The Mississippi and Louisiana-Arkansas oils are geochemically similar, indicating similar depositional environments for the source. Although the Alabama oils were also derived from a carbonate source rock, they are dissimilar to the Mississippi and Louisiana-Arkansas oils. Terpane biomarkers suggest that in addition to marine derived organic matter, the source for the Alabama oils had an organic input from a more near shore (paralic) environment, i.e. with a component of terrestrially-derived kerogen. Within each area the oils are similar. Therefore, the Norphlet and Upper Smackover oils in Alabama share a common source and the Upper Smackover, Cotton Valley and some of the Lower Tuscaloosa oils (where production is from faulted structures) in Mississippi also share a common source. Maturities of the oils in the three areas vary from low in the updip Mississippi salt basin, high in the Louisiana-Arkansas salt basin, to very high in portions of Alabama. Based on the maturity of oils in Mississippi, oil generation and migration commenced during the Cretaceous when the source was at modest levels of thermal maturity. Oils migrated relatively short distances into nearby reservoir rocks. Some oils reached high maturities in the reservoirs, resulting in abundant late-forming bitumen and pyrobitumen deposition in pore spaces.

  1. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6{Delta}-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 and 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor attempted in July, 2006, to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Application of surfactant in the length of the horizontal hole, and acid over the fracture zone at 10,236 was also planned. This attempt was not successful in that the clean out tools became stuck and had to be abandoned.

  2. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were drilled and lined through the problematic shale member without major stability problems. The top of the targeted Monterey was thought to be seen at the expected TVD of 10,000 ft where the 7-in. liner was set at a 60{sup o} hole angle. Significant oil and gas shows suggested the fractured interval anticipated at the heel location had been penetrated. A total of 2572 ft of 6 1/8-in. near-horizontal interval was placed in the shale section, extending planned well length by approximately 470 ft. Very little hydrocarbon in-flow was observed from fractures along the productive interval. This may be a result of the well trajectory falling underneath the Monterey fractured zone. Hydrocarbon observations, cuttings analysis and gamma-ray response indicated additional fractured intervals were accessed along the last {+-}900 ft of well length. The well was completed with a 2 7/8-in. tubing string set in a production packer in preparation for flow and swab tests to be conducted later by a service rig. The planned well time was estimated as 39 days and overall cost as $2.4 million. The actual results are 66 days at a total cost of $3.4 million. Well productivity responses during subsequent flow and swabbing tests were negative. The well failed to inflow and only minor amounts (a few barrels) of light oil were recovered. The lack of production may suggest that actual sustainable reservoir pressure is far less than anticipated. Temblor is currently planning to re-enter and clean out the well and run an Array Induction log (primarily for resistivity and correlation purposes), and an FMI log (for fracture detection). Depending on the results of these logs, an acidizing or re-drill program will be planned.

  3. Advanced Technologies for Monitoring CO2 Saturation and Pore Pressure in Geologic Formations: Linking the Chemical and Physical Effects to Elastic and Transport Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, G.; Vanorio, T.; Vialle, S.; Saxena, N.

    2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities were measured over a range of confining pressures while injecting CO2 and brine into the samples. Pore fluid pressure was also varied and monitored together with porosity during injection. Effective medium models were developed to understand the mechanisms and impact of observed changes and to provide the means for implementation of the interpretation methodologies in the field. Ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities in carbonate rocks show as much as 20-50% decrease after injection of the reactive CO2-brine mixture; the changes were caused by permanent changes to the rock elastic frame associated with dissolution of mineral. Velocity decreases were observed under both dry and fluid-saturated conditions, and the amount of change was correlated with the initial pore fabrics. Scanning Electron Microscope images of carbonate rock microstructures were taken before and after injection of CO2-rich water. The images reveal enlargement of the pores, dissolution of micrite (micron-scale calcite crystals), and pitting of grain surfaces caused by the fluid- solid chemical reactivity. The magnitude of the changes correlates with the rock microtexture – tight, high surface area samples showed the largest changes in permeability and smallest changes in porosity and elastic stiffness compared to those in rocks with looser texture and larger intergranular pore space. Changes to the pore space also occurred from flow of fine particles with the injected fluid. Carbonates with grain-coating materials, such as residual oil, experienced very little permanent change during injection. In the tight micrite/spar cement component, dissolution is controlled by diffusion: the mass transfer of products and reactants is thus slow and the fluid is expected to be close to thermodynamical equilibrium with the calcite, leading to very little dissolution, or even precipitation. In the microporous rounded micrite and macropores, dissolution is controlled by advection: because of an efficient mass transfer of reactants and products, the fluid remains acidic, far from thermodynamical equilibrium and the dissolution of calcite is important. These conclusions are consistent with the lab observations. Sandstones from the Tuscaloosa formation in Mississippi were also subjected to injection under representative in situ stress and pore pressure conditions. Again, both P- and S-wave velocities decreased with injection. Time-lapse SEM images indicated permanent changes induced in the sandstone microstructure by chamosite dissolution upon injection of CO2-rich brine. After injection, the sandstone showed an overall cleaner microstructure. Two main changes are involved: (a) clay dissolution between grains and at the grain contact and (b) rearrangement of grains due to compaction under pressure Theoretical and empirical models were developed to quantify the elastic changes associated with injection. Permanent changes to the rock frame resulted in seismic velocity-porosity trends that mimic natural diagenetic changes. Hence, when laboratory measurments are not available for a candidate site, these trends can be estimated from depth trends in well logs. New theoretical equations were developed to predict the changes in elastic moduli upon substitution of pore-filling material. These equations reduce to Gassmann’s equations for the case of constant frame properties, low seismic frequencies, and fluid changes in the pore space. The new models also predict the change dissolution or precipitation of mineral, which cannot be described with the conventional Gassmann theory.