National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for technology penetration varied

  1. Fact #805: November 25, 2013 Vehicle Technology Penetration | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy 5: November 25, 2013 Vehicle Technology Penetration Fact #805: November 25, 2013 Vehicle Technology Penetration As new vehicle technologies are introduced into the market their initial and overall adoption rate can vary widely. The figure below shows select technologies and their production share over time since first significant use. Fuel injection was adopted fairly quickly after its introduction nearly 40 years ago and reached 100% of the market share, completely replacing the

  2. Market penetration of new energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Packey, D.J.

    1993-02-01

    This report examines the characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, and, for some, the mathematical formulas of forecasting methods that can be used to forecast the market penetration of renewable energy technologies. Among the methods studied are subjective estimation, market surveys, historical analogy models, cost models, diffusion models, time-series models, and econometric models. Some of these forecasting methods are more effective than others at different developmental stages of new technologies.

  3. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  4. High Penetration, Grid Connected Photovoltaic Technology Codes and Standards: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports the interim status in identifying and reviewing photovoltaic (PV) codes and standards (C&S) and related electrical activities for grid-connected, high-penetration PV systems with a focus on U.S. electric utility distribution grid interconnection.

  5. Penetration and air-emission-reduction benefits of solar technologies in the electric utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a study of four solar energy technologies and the electric utility industry are reported. The purpose of the study was to estimate the penetration by federal region of four solar technologies - wind, biomass, phtovoltaics, and solar thermal - in terms of installed capacity and power generated. The penetration by these technologies occurs at the expense of coal and nuclear power. The displacement of coal plants implies a displacement of their air emissions, such as sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter. The main conclusion of this study is that solar thermal, photovoltaics, and biomass fail to penetrate significantly by the end of this century in any federal region. Wind energy penetrates the electric utility industry in several regions during the 1990s. Displaced coal and nuclear generation are also estimated by region, as are the corresponding reductions in air emissions. The small-scale penetration by the solar technologies necessarily limits the amount of conventional fuels displaced and the reduction in air emissions. A moderate displacement of sulfur dioxide and the oxides of nitrogen is estimated to occur by the end of this century, and significant lowering of these emissions should occur in the early part of the next century.

  6. Government policy and market penetration opportunities for US renewable energy technology in India and Pakistan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sathaye, J.; Weingart, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Some US renewable energy industries are now looking abroad, especially to the rapidly developing Asia-Pacific region, in order to increase sales and expand markets. The developing world appears in principle to be an important market for renewable energy technologies. These international markets have proven extremely difficult to penetrate, and the US competitive position is threatened by strong, well-organized, government-supported competition from Japan and Western Europe. For example, US photovoltaic manufacturers held 80% of the world PV market in 1980; today their market share is down to 35%. Less developed countries (LDCs) present a potentially significant but highly elusive market for renewable energy technologies. This market may develop for three major reasons; the shortage of electricity supply and the high cost of grid extension to rural areas, the high cost of oil imports and the scarcity of light oil products, and the gradual replacement of traditional fuels with modern ones. The focus of this report is on the policies and attitudes of national and regional governments in India and Pakistan towards renewable energy technology and how these policies and attitudes affect the potential for penetration of these markets by US industry. We have attempted to provide some useful insight into the actual market environment in India and Pakistan rather than just report on official laws, regulations, and policies. The report also examines the economics of technologies in comparison with more traditional sources of energy. It concentrates primarily on technologies, such as photovoltaics and wind electric systems, that would benefit from foreign participation, but also identifies potential market opportunities for advanced solar desalination and other renewable energy technologies. 31 refs.

  7. On the Use of Energy Storage Technologies for Regulation Services in Electric Power Systems with Significant Penetration of Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Bo; Makarov, Yuri V.; DeSteese, John G.; Vishwanathan, Vilanyur V.; Nyeng, Preben; McManus, Bart; Pease, John

    2008-05-27

    Energy produced by intermittent renewable resources is sharply increasing in the United States. At high penetration levels, volatility of wind power production could cause additional problems for the power system balancing functions such as regulation. This paper reports some partial results of a project work, recently conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project proposes to mitigate additional intermittency with the help of Wide Area Energy Management System (WAEMS) that would provide a two-way simultaneous regulation service for the BPA and California ISO systems by using a large energy storage facility. The paper evaluates several utility-scale energy storage technology options for their usage as regulation resources. The regulation service requires a participating resource to quickly vary its power output following the rapidly and frequently changing regulation signal. Several energy storage options have been analyzed based on thirteen selection criteria. The evaluation process resulted in the selection of flywheels, pumped hydro electric power (or conventional hydro electric power) plant and sodium sulfur or nickel cadmium batteries as candidate technologies for the WAEMS project. A cost benefit analysis should be conducted to narrow the choice to one technology.

  8. Factors Affecting the Rate of Penetration of Large-Scale Electricity Technologies: The Case of Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. McFarland; Howard J. Herzog

    2007-05-14

    This project falls under the Technology Innovation and Diffusion topic of the Integrated Assessment of Climate Change Research Program. The objective was to better understand the critical variables that affect the rate of penetration of large-scale electricity technologies in order to improve their representation in integrated assessment models. We conducted this research in six integrated tasks. In our first two tasks, we identified potential factors that affect penetration rates through discussions with modeling groups and through case studies of historical precedent. In the next three tasks, we investigated in detail three potential sets of critical factors: industrial conditions, resource conditions, and regulatory/environmental considerations. Research to assess the significance and relative importance of these factors involved the development of a microeconomic, system dynamics model of the US electric power sector. Finally, we implemented the penetration rate models in an integrated assessment model. While the focus of this effort is on carbon capture and sequestration technologies, much of the work will be applicable to other large-scale energy conversion technologies.

  9. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  10. Approach to market-penetration analysis for advanced electric-power-generation technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamontagne, J.; Love, P.; Queirolo, A.

    1980-12-01

    If commercialization of new technologies is the primary objective of the Department of Energy's Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) programs, the ultimate measure of benefit from RD and D programs is the extent of commercial acceptance of the developed technologies. Uncertainty about barriers to commercialization - government policy, fuel supply, etc. - make the task of estimating this acceptance very difficult. However, given that decisions must be made regarding allocation of RD and D funds, the best information available, with due regard for uncertainty, should serve as input to these decisions. An approach is presented for quantifying the range of market potential for new technologies (specifically in the utility sector) based on historical information and known plans for the future.

  11. high renewable energy penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high renewable energy penetration - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future ...

  12. Penetration equations Young, C.W. [Applied Research Associates...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; EARTH PENETRATORS; EQUATIONS; NUCLEAR WEAPONS; SOILS; ICE; ROCKS; CONCRETES; PERMAFROST; SCALING LAWS In 1967, Sandia...

  13. Explosive shaped charge penetration into tuff rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil, M.G.

    1988-10-01

    Analysis and data for the use of Explosive Shaped Charges (ESC) to generate holes in tuff rock formation is presented. The ESCs evaluated include Conical Shaped Charges (CSC) and Explosive Formed Projectiles (EFP). The CSCs vary in size from 0.158 to 9.1 inches inside cone diameter. The EFPs were 5.0 inches in diameter. Data for projectile impact angles of 30 and 90 degrees are presented. Analytically predicted depth of penetration data generally compared favorably with experimental data. Predicted depth of penetration versus ESC standoff data and hole profile dimensions in tuff are also presented. 24 refs., 45 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Penetration resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoover, William R.; Mead, Keith E.; Street, Henry K.

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a barrier for resisting penetration by such as hand tools and oxy-acetylene cutting torches. The barrier comprises a layer of firebrick, which is preferably epoxy impregnated sandwiched between inner and outer layers of steel. Between the firebrick and steel are layers of resilient rubber-like filler.

  15. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (Energy-SMARRT): Surface/Near Surface Indication - Characterization of Surface Anomalies from Magnetic Particle and Liquid Penetrant Indications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, John

    2014-02-20

    The systematic study and characterization of surface indications has never been conducted. Producers and users of castings do not have any data on which they can reliably communicate the nature of these indications or their effect on the performance of parts. Clearly, the ultimate intent of any work in this area is to eliminate indications that do in fact degrade properties. However, it may be impractical physically and/or financially to eliminate all surface imperfections. This project focused on the ones that actually degrade properties. The initial work was to identify those that degrade properties. Accurate numerical simulations of casting service performance allow designers to use the geometric flexibility of castings and the superior properties of steel to produce lighter weight and more energy efficient components for transportation systems (cars and trucks), construction, and mining. Accurate simulations increase the net melting energy efficiency by improving casting yield and reducing rework and scrap. Conservatively assuming a 10% improvement in yield, approximately 1.33 x 1012 BTU/year can be saved with this technology. In addition, CO2 emissions will be reduced by approximately 117,050 tons per year.

  16. Models for evaluation of energy technology and policy options to maximize low carbon source penetration in the United States energy supply.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickard, Paul S.; Kataoka, Dawn; Reno, Marissa Devan; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Peplinski, William J.; Roach, Jesse D.; Brainard, James Robert; West, Todd H.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2009-12-01

    An initial version of a Systems Dynamics (SD) modeling framework was developed for the analysis of a broad range of energy technology and policy questions. The specific question selected to demonstrate this process was 'what would be the carbon and import implications of expanding nuclear electric capacity to provide power for plug in hybrid vehicles?' Fifteen SNL SD energy models were reviewed and the US Energy and Greenhouse gas model (USEGM) and the Global Nuclear Futures model (GEFM) were identified as the basis for an initial modeling framework. A basic U.S. Transportation model was created to model U.S. fleet changes. The results of the rapid adoption scenario result in almost 40% of light duty vehicles being PHEV by 2040 which requires about 37 GWy/y of additional electricity demand, equivalent to about 25 new 1.4 GWe nuclear plants. The adoption rate of PHEVs would likely be the controlling factor in achieving the associated reduction in carbon emissions and imports.

  17. Penetration in GTA welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The size and shape of the weld bead produced in GTA welding depends on the magnitude and distribution of the energy incident on the workpiece surfaces as well as the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece. The input energy is largely controllable through the welding parameters selected, however the dissipation of that energy in the workpiece is less subject to control. Changes in energy dissipation can produce large changes in weld shape or penetration. Heat transport away from the weld pool is almost entirely by conduction, but heat transport in the weld pool is more complicated. Heat conduction through the liquid is an important component, but heat transport by convection (mass transport) is often the dominant mechanism. Convective heat transport is directional and changes the weld pool shape from that produced by conduction alone. Surface tension gradients are often the dominant forces driving fluid flow in GTA weld pools. These gradients are sensitive functions of weld pool chemistry and the energy input distribution to the weld. Experimental and theoretical work conducted primarily in the past decade has greatly enhanced our understanding of weld pool fluid flow, the forces which drive it, and its effects on weld pool shape. This work is reviewed here. While less common, changes in energy dissipation through the unmelted portion of the workpiece can also affect fusion zone shape or penetration. These effects are also described. 41 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Monolithic ballasted penetrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickerson, Jr., James P.; Zanner, Frank J.; Baldwin, Michael D.; Maguire, Michael C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is a monolithic ballasted penetrator capable of delivering a working payload to a hardened target, such as reinforced concrete. The invention includes a ballast made from a dense heavy material insert and a monolithic case extending along an axis and consisting of a high-strength steel alloy. The case includes a nose end containing a hollow portion in which the ballast is nearly completely surrounded so that no movement of the ballast relative to the case is possible during impact with a hard target. The case is cast around the ballast, joining the two parts together. The ballast may contain concentric grooves or protrusions that improve joint strength between the case and ballast. The case further includes a second hollow portion; between the ballast and base, which has a payload fastened within this portion. The penetrator can be used to carry instrumentation to measure the geologic character of the earth, or properties of arctic ice, as they pass through it.

  19. High Penetration Project Summary

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Energy Technologies Program Peer Review Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative SUNGRIN Rick Meeker Florida State University Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) meeker@caps.fsu.edu 850.645.1711 26 May 2010 FSU CAPS, UCF FSEC, USF PCUE FP&L, JEA, FMPA, GRU, OUC, Lakeland Electric Satcon Technologies, Sunpower Corp., AMEC "This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information" 2 | Solar Energy Technologies Program

  20. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Technology Development Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Development Projects NREL works on several distributed energy integration technology development projects, including the following: High Penetration Photovoltaics ...

  1. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  2. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Phillip W.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Bradley, Orvil D.

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  3. Ground Penetrating Radar, Barrow, Alaska

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    John Peterson

    2015-03-06

    This is 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar collected along the AB Line in Intensive Site 1 beginning in October 2012 and collected along L2 in Intensive Site 0 beginning in September 2011. Both continue to the present.

  4. Rooftop Photovoltaics Market Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paidipati, J.; Frantzis, L.; Sawyer, H.; Kurrasch, A.

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to model the market penetration of rooftop photovoltaics (PV) in the United States under a variety of scenarios, on a state-by-state basis, from 2007 to 2015.

  5. Market penetration scenarios for fuel cell vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, C.E.; James, B.D.; Lomax, F.D. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel cell vehicles may create the first mass market for hydrogen as an energy carrier. Directed Technologies, Inc., working with the US Department of Energy hydrogen systems analysis team, has developed a time-dependent computer market penetration model. This model estimates the number of fuel cell vehicles that would be purchased over time as a function of their cost and the cost of hydrogen relative to the costs of competing vehicles and fuels. The model then calculates the return on investment for fuel cell vehicle manufacturers and hydrogen fuel suppliers. The model also projects the benefit/cost ratio for government--the ratio of societal benefits such as reduced oil consumption, reduced urban air pollution and reduced greenhouse gas emissions to the government cost for assisting the development of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicle technologies. The purpose of this model is to assist industry and government in choosing the best investment strategies to achieve significant return on investment and to maximize benefit/cost ratios. The model can illustrate trends and highlight the sensitivity of market penetration to various parameters such as fuel cell efficiency, cost, weight, and hydrogen cost. It can also illustrate the potential benefits of successful R and D and early demonstration projects. Results will be shown comparing the market penetration and return on investment estimates for direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles compared to fuel cell vehicles with onboard fuel processors including methanol steam reformers and gasoline partial oxidation systems. Other alternative fueled vehicles including natural gas hybrids, direct injection diesels and hydrogen-powered internal combustion hybrid vehicles will also be analyzed.

  6. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macknick, Jordan; Cohen, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    This analysis provides a detailed national and regional description of the water-related impacts and constraints of high solar electricity penetration scenarios in the U.S. in 2030 and 2050. A modified version of the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model that incorporates water resource availability and costs as a constraint in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions was utilized to explore national and regional differences in water use impacts and solar deployment locations under different solar energy cost and water availability scenarios (Macknick et al. 2015). Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013a). Scenarios analyzed include two business-as-usual solar energy cost cases, one with and one without considering available water resources, and four solar energy cost cases that meet the SunShot cost goals (i.e., $1/watt for utility-scale PV systems), with varying levels of water availability restrictions. This analysis provides insight into the role solar energy technologies have in the broader electricity sector under scenarios of water constraints.

  7. Assessing the Impact of Heat Rejection Technology on CSP Plant Revenue: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, M. J.; Kutscher, C. F.

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of cooling technology on revenue for hybrid-cooled plants with varying wet cooling penetration for four representative locations in the American Southwest. The impact of ACC design-point initial temperature difference (ITD - the difference between the condensing steam temperature and ambient dry-bulb) is also included in the analysis.

  8. High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

  9. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.

    2008-04-03

    This report examines the economic drivers, technology constraints, and market potential for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in the U.S. A PHEV is a hybrid vehicle with batteries that can be recharged by connecting to the grid and an internal combustion engine that can be activated when batteries need recharging. The report presents and examines a series of PHEV market penetration scenarios. Based on input received from technical experts and industry representative contacted for this report and data obtained through a literature review, annual market penetration rates for PHEVs are presented from 2013 through 2045 for three scenarios. Each scenario is examined and implications for PHEV development are explored.

  10. Strategies to Mitigate Declines in the Economic Value of Wind and Solar at High Penetration in California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This resource evaluates several options to reduce and eliminate the decline in the value of wind and solar PV technology, as a previous study had quantified the decline as penetration levels increased. Researchers found that largest increase in the value of PV at high penetration levels comes from assuming that low-cost bulk power storage is an investment option. Other attractive options, particularly at more modest penetration levels, include real-time pricing and technology diversity.

  11. Geothermal Technology Development Program annual progress report, October 1982-September 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehold mechanics, diagnostics technology, and permeability enhancement.

  12. Technolog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research in Science and Technolog y Sandia pushes frontiers of knowledge to meet the nation's needs, today and tomorrow Sandia National Laboratories' fundamental science and technology research leads to greater understanding of how and why things work and is intrinsic to technological advances. Basic research that challenges scientific assumptions enables the nation to push scientific boundaries. Innovations and breakthroughs produced at Sandia allow it to tackle critical issues, from

  13. Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Technology Delivering science to the marketplace through commercialization, spinoffs and industry partnerships. News Releases Science Briefs Photos Picture of the Week Publications Social Media Videos Fact Sheets Gary Grider (second from right) with the 2015 Richard P. Feynman Innovation Prize. Also pictured (left to right): Duncan McBranch, Chief Technology Officer of Los Alamos National Laboratory; Terry Wallace, Program Associate Director for Global Security at Los Alamos; and Lee

  14. Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The HiWAIS technology is a significant step forward in the warfighter support arena. Honeybees for Explosive Detection Honeybees for Explosive Detection Los Alamos researchers have ...

  15. Technolog

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research in Science and Technolog y Sandia pushes frontiers of knowledge to meet the nation's needs, today and tomorrow ... Basic research that challenges scientific assumptions ...

  16. Cable Braid Electromagnetic Penetration Model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry K.; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, W. A.

    2015-06-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles and reciprocity for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also setup in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multipoles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. This is used in a simplified application of reciprocity to be able to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  17. A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control Technologies A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control ...

  18. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Elliott, J.

    1997-08-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in-place penetration test is practical. 14 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. In-place HEPA filter penetration test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, kK.; Elliott, J.; Bettencourt, B.; Slawski, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    We have demonstrated the feasibility of conducting penetration tests on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters as installed in nuclear ventilation systems. The in-place penetration test, which is designed to yield equivalent penetration measurements as the standard DOP efficiency test, is based on measuring the aerosol penetration of the filter installation as a function of particle size using a portable laser particle counter. This in-place penetration test is compared to the current in-place leak test using light scattering photometers for single HEPA filter installations and for HEPA filter plenums using the shroud method. Test results show the in-place penetration test is more sensitive than the in-place leak test, has a similar operating procedure, but takes longer to conduct. Additional tests are required to confirm that the in-place penetration test yields identical results as the standard dioctyl phthalate (DOP) penetration test for HEPA filters with controlled leaks in the filter and gasket and duct by-pass leaks. Further development of the procedure is also required to reduce the test time before the in- place penetration test is practical.

  20. higher penetration of renewable energy sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    higher penetration of renewable energy sources - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy ...

  1. High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Through the High Penetration Solar Deployment program, DOE is funding solar projects that are accelerating the placement of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into existing and newly designed...

  2. Stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vadnais, Kenneth G.; Bashforth, Michael B.; Lewallen, Tricia S.; Nammath, Sharyn R.

    1994-01-01

    A stepped frequency ground penetrating radar system is described comprising an RF signal generating section capable of producing stepped frequency signals in spaced and equal increments of time and frequency over a preselected bandwidth which serves as a common RF signal source for both a transmit portion and a receive portion of the system. In the transmit portion of the system the signal is processed into in-phase and quadrature signals which are then amplified and then transmitted toward a target. The reflected signals from the target are then received by a receive antenna and mixed with a reference signal from the common RF signal source in a mixer whose output is then fed through a low pass filter. The DC output, after amplification and demodulation, is digitized and converted into a frequency domain signal by a Fast Fourier Transform. A plot of the frequency domain signals from all of the stepped frequencies broadcast toward and received from the target yields information concerning the range (distance) and cross section (size) of the target.

  3. Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear configurations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H. H.; Wang, Z. X.; Wang, X. Q. [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [MOE Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Beams of the Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, X. G. [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)] [School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Error-field penetration in reversed magnetic shear (RMS) configurations is numerically investigated by using a two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic model in slab geometry. To explore different dynamic processes in locked modes, three equilibrium states are adopted. Stable, marginal, and unstable current profiles for double tearing modes are designed by varying the current intensity between two resonant surfaces separated by a certain distance. Further, the dynamic characteristics of locked modes in the three RMS states are identified, and the relevant physics mechanisms are elucidated. The scaling behavior of critical perturbation value with initial plasma velocity is numerically obtained, which obeys previously established relevant analytical theory in the viscoresistive regime.

  4. Fact #886: August 17, 2015 New Light-Vehicle Leasing Penetration for 2014 -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dataset | Department of Energy 6: August 17, 2015 New Light-Vehicle Leasing Penetration for 2014 - Dataset Fact #886: August 17, 2015 New Light-Vehicle Leasing Penetration for 2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for New Light-Vehicle Leasing Penetration for 2014 fotw#886_web.xlsx (289.38 KB) More Documents & Publications Vehicle Technologies Office Fall 2015 Quarterly Analysis Review Fact #847: November 17, 2014 Cars were Over 50% of Light Vehicle Production in 2014 - Dataset Fact #853

  5. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A.

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  6. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications.

  7. Funding Opportunity Announcement: SunShot Technology to Market...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    program will enable the widespread market penetration of highly impactful solar energy technologies and solutions through technology research, development, and demonstration to...

  8. Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Predictive Models for Target Response During Penetration You are accessing a...

  9. Sunshot Initiative High Penetration Solar Portal

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy cost-competitive with other forms of energy by the end of the decade. Reducing the installed cost of solar energy systems by about 75% will drive widespread large-scale adoption of this renewable energy and restore U.S. leadership in the global clean energy race. The High Penetration Solar Portal was created as a resource to aggregate the most relevant and timely information related to high penetration solar scenarios and integrating solar into the grid. The site is designed so that utilities, grant awardees, regulators, researchers, and other solar professionals can easily share data, case studies, lessons learned, and demonstration project findings. [from https://solarhighpen.energy.gov/about_the_high_penetration_solar_portal

  10. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR EARTH PENETRATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, W.M.

    1963-12-24

    A nuclear reactor apparatus for penetrating into the earth's crust is described. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical nuclear core operating at a temperature that is higher than the melting temperature of rock. A high-density ballast member is coupled to the nuclear core such that the overall density of the core-ballast assembly is greater than the density of molten rock. The nuclear core is thermally insulated so that its heat output is constrained to flow axially, with radial heat flow being minimized. In operation, the apparatus is placed in contact with the earth's crust at the point desired to be penetrated. The heat output of the reactor melts the underlying rock, and the apparatus sinks through the resulting magma. The fuel loading of the reactor core determines the ultimate depth of crust penetration. (AEC)

  11. Synthesis and processing of composites by reactive metal penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loehman, R.E.; Ewsuk, K.G.; Tomsia, A.P.

    1997-04-01

    Achieving better performance in commercial products and processes often is dependent on availability of new and improved materials. Ceramic-metal composites have advantages over more conventional materials because of their high stiffness-to-weight ratios, good fracture toughness, and because their electrical and thermal properties can be varied through control of their compositions and microstructures. However, ceramic composites will be more widely used only when their costs are competitive with other materials and when designers have more confidence in their reliability. Over the past four years reactive metal penetration has been shown to be a promising technique for making ceramic and metal-matrix composites to near-net-shape with control of both composition and microstructure. It appears that, with sufficient development, reactive metal penetration could be an economical process for manufacturing many of the advanced ceramic composites that are needed for light-weight structural and wear applications for transportation and energy conversion devices. Near-net-shape fabrication of parts is a significant advantage because costly and energy intensive grinding and machining operations are substantially reduced, and the waste generated from such finishing operations is minimized. The most promising compositions to date consist of Al and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}; thus, these composites should be of particular interest to the aluminum industry. The goals of this ceramic-metal composite research and development program are: (1) to identify compositions favorable for making composites by reactive metal penetration; (2) to understand the mechanism(s) by which these composites are formed; (3) to control and optimize the process so that composites and composite coatings can be made economically; and (4) to apply R&D results to problems of interest to the aluminum industry.

  12. Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Essien, Marcelino; Keicher, David M.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Jellison, James L.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

  13. The effect of welding parameters on penetration in GTA welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shirali, A.A. ); Mills, K.C. )

    1993-07-01

    The effect of various welding parameters on the penetration of GTA welds has been investigated. Increases in welding speed were found to reduce penetration; however, increases in welding current were observed to increase the penetration in high sulfur (HS) casts and decrease penetration in low sulfur (LS) steels. Plots of penetration as a function of increasing linear energy (the heat supplied per unit length of weld) revealed a similar trend with increased penetration in HS casts, but the penetration in LS casts was unaffected by increases in linear energy. These results support the Burgardt-Heiple proposition that changes in welding parameters on penetration can be explained in terms of their effect, sequentially, on the temperature gradient and the Marangoni forces operating in the weld pool. Increases in arc length were found to decrease weld penetration regardless of the sulfur concentration of the steel, and the effects of electrode geometry and welding position on weld penetration were also investigated.

  14. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seguin, Rich; Woyak, Jeremy; Costyk, David; Hambrick, Josh; Mather, Barry

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been developed as part of a five-year research project which began in 2010. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed together to analyze the impacts of high-penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to leverage the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the significant installation of 500 MW of commercial scale PV systems (1-5 MW typically) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE’s service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC).

  15. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California: Year 2 Project Update; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Neal, R.

    2012-08-01

    Southern California Edison (SCE) is well into a five-year project to install a total of 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy within its utility service territory. Typical installations to date are 1-3 MW peak rooftop PV systems that interconnect to medium-voltage urban distribution circuits or larger (5 MW peak) ground-mounted systems that connect to medium-voltage rural distribution circuits. Some of the PV system interconnections have resulted in distribution circuits that have a significant amount of PV generation compared to customer load, resulting in high-penetration PV integration scenarios. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE have assembled a team of distribution modeling, resource assessment, and PV inverter technology experts in order to investigate a few of the high-penetration PV distribution circuits. Currently, the distribution circuits being studied include an urban circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 46% and a rural circuit with a PV penetration of approximately 60%. In both cases, power flow on the circuit reverses direction, compared to traditional circuit operation, during periods of high PV power production and low circuit loading. Research efforts during year two of the five-year project were focused on modeling the distribution system level impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, the development and installation of distribution circuit data acquisition equipment appropriate for quantifying the impacts of high-penetration PV integrations, and investigating high-penetration PV impact mitigation strategies. This paper outlines these research efforts and discusses the following activities in more detail: the development of a quasi-static time-series test feeder for evaluating high-penetration PV integration modeling tools; the advanced inverter functions being investigated for deployment in the project's field demonstration and a power hardware-in-loop test of a 500-kW PV inverter implementing a

  16. Intense x-ray machine for penetrating radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucht, R.A.; Eckhouse, S.

    1989-01-01

    Penetrating radiography has been used for many years in the nuclear weapons research programs. In frequently penetrating radiography has been used in conventional weapons research programs. For example the Los Alamos PHERMEX machine was used to view uranium rods penetrating steel for the GAU-8 program, and the Ector machine was used to see low-density regions in forming metal jets. The armor/anti-armor program at Los Alamos has created a need for an intense flash x-ray machine that can be dedicated to conventional weapons research. The Balanced Technology Initiative, through DARPA, has funded the design and construction of such a machine at Los Alamos. It will be an 8- to 10-MeV diode machine capable of delivering a dose of 500 R at 1 m with a spot size of less than 5 mm. The machine used an 87.5-stage low-inductance Marx generator that charges up a 7.4-/Omega/, 32-ns water line. The water line is discharged through a self-breakdown oil switch into a 12.4-/Omega/ water line that rings up the voltage into the high-impendance x-ray diode. A long (233-cm) vacuum drift tube is used to separate the large-diameter oil-insulated diode region from the x-ray source area that may be exposed to high overpressures by the explosive experiments. The electron beam is self-focused at the target area using a low-pressure background gas. 15 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Experimental Approach to Controllably Vary Protein Oxidation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond ... Vary Protein Oxidation While Minimizing Electrode Adsorption for Boron-Doped Diamond ...

  18. Benchmark field study of deep neutron penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, J.F.; Sale, K. ); Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C. )

    1991-06-10

    A unique benchmark neutron field has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to study deep penetration neutron transport. At LLNL, a tandem accelerator is used to generate a monoenergetic neutron source that permits investigation of deep neutron penetration under conditions that are virtually ideal to model, namely the transport of mono-energetic neutrons through a single material in a simple geometry. General features of the Lawrence Tandem (LATAN) benchmark field are described with emphasis on neutron source characteristics and room return background. The single material chosen for the first benchmark, LATAN-1, is a steel representative of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessels (PV). Also included is a brief description of the Little Boy replica, a critical reactor assembly designed to mimic the radiation doses from the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima, and its us in neutron spectrometry. 18 refs.

  19. Utilizing Electric Vehicles to Assist Integration of Large Penetrations of Distributed Photovoltaic Generation Capacity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Gowri, Krishnan

    2012-11-30

    Executive Summary Introduction and Motivation This analysis provides the first insights into the leveraging potential of distributed photovoltaic (PV) technologies on rooftop and electric vehicle (EV) charging. Either of the two technologies by themselves - at some high penetrations – may cause some voltage control challenges or overloading problems, respectively. But when combined, there – at least intuitively – could be synergistic effects, whereby one technology mitigates the negative impacts of the other. High penetration of EV charging may overload existing distribution system components, most prominently the secondary transformer. If PV technology is installed at residential premises or anywhere downstream of the secondary transformer, it will provide another electricity source thus, relieving the loading on the transformers. Another synergetic or mitigating effect could be envisioned when high PV penetration reverts the power flow upward in the distribution system (from the homes upstream into the distribution system). Protection schemes may then no longer work and voltage violation (exceeding the voltage upper limited of the ANSI voltage range) may occur. In this particular situation, EV charging could absorb the electricity from the PV, such that the reversal of power flow can be reduced or alleviated. Given these potential mutual synergistic behaviors of PV and EV technologies, this project attempted to quantify the benefits of combining the two technologies. Furthermore, of interest was how advanced EV control strategies may influence the outcome of the synergy between EV charging and distributed PV installations. Particularly, Californian utility companies with high penetration of the distributed PV technology, who have experienced voltage control problems, are interested how intelligent EV charging could support or affect the voltage control

  20. Deploying High Penetration Photovoltaic Systems: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M. H.; Baca, D.; Kroposki, B. D.; Basso, T.

    2011-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system capacity penetration, or simply 'penetration,' is often defined as the rated power output of the aggregate PV systems on a distribution circuit segment divided by the peak load of that circuit segment. Industry experts agree that a single value defining high penetration is not universally applicable. However, it is generally agreed that a conservative value to designate high penetration is the condition when the ratio of aggregate PV systems ratings to peak load exceeds 15%. This case study illustrates the case of a distribution feeder which is able to accommodate a traditional capacity penetration level of 47%, and perhaps more. New maximum penetration levels need to be defined and verified and enhanced definitions for penetration on a distribution circuit need to be developed. The new penetration definitions and studies will help utility engineers, system developers, and regulatory agencies better agree what levels of PV deployment can be attained without jeopardizing the reliability and power quality of a circuit.

  1. High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity High Penetration Solar Deployment Funding Opportunity Through the High Penetration Solar Deployment program, DOE is funding solar projects that are accelerating the placement of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems into existing and newly designed distribution circuits in the electrical grid. The High Penetration Solar Deployment projects are working with teams that include utility partners to model, test, and evaluate solutions to

  2. High Penetration Photovoltaic Case Study Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Mather, B.; Keller, J.; Coddington, M.

    2013-01-01

    Technical concerns with integrating higher penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) systems include grid stability, voltage regulation, power quality (voltage rise, sags, flicker, and frequency fluctuations), and protection and coordination. The current utility grid was designed to accommodate power flows from the central generation source to the transmission system and eventually to the distribution feeders. At the distribution level, the system was designed to carry power from the substation toward the load. Renewable distributed generation, particularly solar PV, provides power at the distribution level challenging this classical paradigm. As these resources become more commonplace the nature of the distribution network and its operation is changing to handle power flow in both directions. This report is focused on large PV installations in which penetration is significantly greater than 15% of maximum daytime feeder load. These case studies are intended to demonstrate success stories with integration of large PV plants at the distribution level as well as some of the solutions used by the utility to ensure safe, reliable operation of both the PV system and the distribution network.

  3. First principles cable braid electromagnetic penetration model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William A.

    2016-01-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also set up in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multi-poles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinitemore » periodic planar geometry. Furthermore, this is used to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.« less

  4. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, M.B.; Gardner, D.; Patrick, D.; Lewallen, T.A.; Nammath, S.R.; Painter, K.D.; Vadnais, K.G.

    1996-03-12

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system is described embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals is produced by a single radio frequency source and provided to a transmit antenna for transmission to a target and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna. A phase modulator modulates those portions of the radio frequency signals to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal is combined in a mixer with the original radio frequency signal to produce a resultant signal which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals, the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform Unit 44 into frequency domain data wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target. 6 figs.

  5. Wide band stepped frequency ground penetrating radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bashforth, Michael B.; Gardner, Duane; Patrick, Douglas; Lewallen, Tricia A.; Nammath, Sharyn R.; Painter, Kelly D.; Vadnais, Kenneth G.

    1996-01-01

    A wide band ground penetrating radar system (10) embodying a method wherein a series of radio frequency signals (60) is produced by a single radio frequency source (16) and provided to a transmit antenna (26) for transmission to a target (54) and reflection therefrom to a receive antenna (28). A phase modulator (18) modulates those portion of the radio frequency signals (62) to be transmitted and the reflected modulated signal (62) is combined in a mixer (34) with the original radio frequency signal (60) to produce a resultant signal (53) which is demodulated to produce a series of direct current voltage signals (66) the envelope of which forms a cosine wave shaped plot (68) which is processed by a Fast Fourier Transform unit 44 into frequency domain data (70) wherein the position of a preponderant frequency is indicative of distance to the target (54) and magnitude is indicative of the signature of the target (54).

  6. Obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Romero, Carlos E.; Zumstein, James E.; Chang, John T.; Leach, Jr.. Richard R.

    2006-12-12

    An obstacle penetrating dynamic radar imaging system for the detection, tracking, and imaging of an individual, animal, or object comprising a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units that produce a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object, and a processing system for said set of return radar signals for detection, tracking, and imaging of the individual, animal, or object. The system provides a radar video system for detecting and tracking an individual, animal, or object by producing a set of return radar signals from the individual, animal, or object with a multiplicity of low power ultra wideband radar units, and processing said set of return radar signals for detecting and tracking of the individual, animal, or object.

  7. First principles cable braid electromagnetic penetration model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Langston, William L.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Johnson, William A.

    2016-01-01

    The model for penetration of a wire braid is rigorously formulated. Integral formulas are developed from energy principles for both self and transfer immittances in terms of potentials for the fields. The detailed boundary value problem for the wire braid is also set up in a very efficient manner; the braid wires act as sources for the potentials in the form of a sequence of line multi-poles with unknown coefficients that are determined by means of conditions arising from the wire surface boundary conditions. Approximations are introduced to relate the local properties of the braid wires to a simplified infinite periodic planar geometry. Furthermore, this is used to treat nonuniform coaxial geometries including eccentric interior coaxial arrangements and an exterior ground plane.

  8. Automatic control of oscillatory penetration apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucon, Peter A

    2015-01-06

    A system and method for controlling an oscillatory penetration apparatus. An embodiment is a system and method for controlling a sonic drill having a displacement and an operating range and operating at a phase difference, said sonic drill comprising a push-pull piston and eccentrics, said method comprising: operating the push-pull piston at an initial push-pull force while the eccentrics are operated at a plurality of different operating frequencies within the operating range of the sonic drill and measuring the displacement at each operating frequency; determining an efficient operating frequency for the material being drilled and operating the eccentrics at said efficient operating frequency; determining the phase difference at which the sonic drill is operating; and if the phase difference is not substantially equal to minus ninety degrees, operating the push-pull piston at another push-pull force.

  9. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report Barry A. Mather National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sunil Shah Southern California Edison Benjamin L. Norris and John H. Dise Clean Power Research Li Yu, Dominic Paradis, and Farid Katiraei Quanta Technology Richard Seguin, David Costyk, Jeremy Woyak, Jaesung Jung, Kevin Russell, and Robert Broadwater Electrical Distribution Design, Inc. Technical Report NREL/TP-5D00-61269 June 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S.

  10. A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Technologies | Department of Energy A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control Technologies A Comparison of Two Gasoline and Two Diesel Cars with Varying Emission Control Technologies 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Ecotraffic Environmental Consultants 2002_deer_ahlvik.pdf (9.67 MB) More Documents & Publications Summary of Swedish Experiences on CNG and "Clean" Diesel Buses Diesel Particulate Filters: Market Introducution in Europe

  11. Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Kauai, Hawaii: Solar Resource Analysis and High-Penetration PV Potential Kauai, Hawaii: ... This study looks at the technical feasibility of generating power with PV arrays. PDF icon ...

  12. Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integratio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    penetrations of variable renewable electricity. China is actively contributing to this body of experience given the rapid growth in renewable electricity deployment there, while...

  13. New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ERGIS simulations show that annual variable-generation penetrations of 30% decrease coal, combined-cycle, and combustion turbine capacity factors by about 50%. Learn more about ...

  14. Final Report- High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Along with models and data, at least 70 supporting MATLAB functions have been developed and made available, with complete documentation. High Penetration Solar PV Deployment ...

  15. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Voltage Regulation (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaics through the Optimization of Sub-Transmission Voltage Regulation (SuNLaMP) ...

  16. Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Impacts of High Solar PV Electricity Penetration Jordan Macknick and Stuart Cohen National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Technical Report NRELTP-6A20-63011 September...

  17. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    requirement, the island of Oahu constructed, calibrated, and validated a high penetration renewable generator distribution feeder circuit on its electricity grid to understand the ...

  18. NREL: Wind Research - New Study Reveals Potential 30% Penetration...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Study Reveals Potential 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar for the Eastern Interconnection An illustrated map of the U.S. northeast and midwest showing transmission lines...

  19. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  20. Adsorption of polymer chains at penetrable interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerasimchuk, I. V.; Sommer, J.-U.; Gerasimchuk, V. S.

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the problem of adsorption (localization) of polymer chains in the system of two penetrable interfaces within the mean-field approximation. The saturation of the polymer system in the limit case of zero bulk concentration is studied. We find the exact solution of this mean-field polymer adsorption problem that opens the possibility to treat various localization problems for polymer chains in such environments using appropriate boundary conditions. The exact solution is controlled by a single scaling variable that describes the coupling between the interfaces due to the polymer chains. We obtain a nonmonotonic behavior of the amount of adsorbed polymers as a function of the distance between the interfaces. This leads to a high-energy and a low-energy phase for the double layer with respect to the amount of polymers localized. At the saturation point, we find the total energy of the system and determine the force acting between the interfaces to be strictly attractive and to monotonically decay to zero when the interface distance increases.

  1. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  2. Improved Modeling Tools Development for High Penetration Solar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washom, Byron

    2014-12-11

    One of the significant objectives of the High Penetration solar research is to help the DOE understand, anticipate, and minimize grid operation impacts as more solar resources are added to the electric power system. For Task 2.2, an effective, reliable approach to predicting solar energy availability for energy generation forecasts using the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) Sky Imager technology has been demonstrated. Granular cloud and ramp forecasts for the next 5 to 20 minutes over an area of 10 square miles were developed. Sky images taken every 30 seconds are processed to determine cloud locations and cloud motion vectors yielding future cloud shadow locations respective to distributed generation or utility solar power plants in the area. The performance of the method depends on cloud characteristics. On days with more advective cloud conditions, the developed method outperforms persistence forecasts by up to 30% (based on mean absolute error). On days with dynamic conditions, the method performs worse than persistence. Sky Imagers hold promise for ramp forecasting and ramp mitigation in conjunction with inverter controls and energy storage. The pre-commercial Sky Imager solar forecasting algorithm was documented with licensing information and was a Sunshot website highlight

  3. Technology Roadmaps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications » Technology Roadmaps Technology Roadmaps This page contains links to DOE's Technology Roadmaps, multi-year plans outlining solid-state lighting goals, research and development initiatives aimed at accelerating technology advances and market penetration of solid-state lighting, and recent achievements. The following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. 2016 Animal Responses to Light Meeting Report Provides a summary of the input and subsequent discussions during a

  4. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Mehos, M.

    2011-11-01

    At high penetration of solar generation there are a number of challenges to economically integrating this variable and uncertain resource. These include the limited coincidence between the solar resource and normal demand patterns and limited flexibility of conventional generators to accommodate variable generation resources. Of the large number of technologies that can be used to enable greater penetration of variable generators, concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) presents a number of advantages. The use of storage enables this technology to shift energy production to periods of high demand or reduced solar output. In addition, CSP can provide substantial grid flexibility by rapidly changing output in response to the highly variable net load created by high penetration of solar (and wind) generation. In this work we examine the degree to which CSP may be complementary to PV by performing a set of simulations in the U.S. Southwest to demonstrate the general potential of CSP with TES to enable greater use of solar generation, including additional PV.

  5. The Penetrant System Monitoring (PSM) panel: Its use and limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, S.J. [Sherwin Inc., South Gate, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In the last several years, the Penetrant System Monitoring (PSM) panel has been increasingly used for purposes for which it was never intended. Intended originally for use by penetrant system operators, the PSM panel is increasingly being used by material control departments and by process engineering departments. This paper`s purpose is to describe and give guidance concerning the proper use and maintenance of PSM panels. It recounts the evolution of penetrant system test panels, and compares how the different types of panels are made. It discusses the limitations of the PSM panel as used by the material control department, the process engineering department, and the production line.

  6. Maximum Photovoltaic Penetration Levels on Typical Distribution Feeders: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoke, A.; Butler, R.; Hambrick, J.; Kroposki, B.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents simulation results for a taxonomy of typical distribution feeders with various levels of photovoltaic (PV) penetration. For each of the 16 feeders simulated, the maximum PV penetration that did not result in steady-state voltage or current violation is presented for several PV location scenarios: clustered near the feeder source, clustered near the midpoint of the feeder, clustered near the end of the feeder, randomly located, and evenly distributed. In addition, the maximum level of PV is presented for single, large PV systems at each location. Maximum PV penetration was determined by requiring that feeder voltages stay within ANSI Range A and that feeder currents stay within the ranges determined by overcurrent protection devices. Simulations were run in GridLAB-D using hourly time steps over a year with randomized load profiles based on utility data and typical meteorological year weather data. For 86% of the cases simulated, maximum PV penetration was at least 30% of peak load.

  7. Transmission System Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achilles, S.; Schramm, S.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This study is an assessment of the potential impact of high levels of penetration of photovoltaic (PV) generation on transmission systems. The effort used stability simulations of a transmission system with different levels of PV generation and load.

  8. Design study of fiber-composite penetrator cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, R.W.; Groves, S.E.; Lyon, R.E.

    1993-10-22

    A design study was conducted to demonstrate the viability of carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composites as structural case materials for penetrating warheads. The objective was to conduct well-instrumented experimental studies of composite-body penetrators perforating mild steel plates and quantitatively model these plate penetrations using two- and three-dimensional finite element codes over a wide range of velocities and impact conditions in order to develop predictive capability for composite design and for use in tradeoff studies with existing case materials. Understanding of the failure of composite-body penetrators would be demonstrated by a rational design iteration which significantly improved performance. Initial studies utilized existing 1-degree tapered cylindrical carbon fiber/epoxy composite cases fabricated by wet-filament winding. These sharp-tipped, steel-nose, composite penetrators were strain-gaged, piggy-backed with 57 kilograms, and impacted into steel plates in a velocity-boosted droptower at impact velocities ranging from 3 to 18 meters per second. Load, time, and position data were recorded during the impact event as well as the axial and hoop strains in the composite case. Monolithic 4340 hardened steel penetrators with both sharp- and flat-tip 3-caliber ogive noses were also impacted into mild steel plates. Data from the composite-case and steel penetrators were used to calibrate a multiaxial, rate-dependent, flow and failure model for the mild steel plates in NIKE2D. The authors were then able to successfully predict survival and failure of the composite-case penetrators in normal-incidence droptower tests for different target thickness and velocity combinations.

  9. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - NREL Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Distribution Engineers Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers A new resource sponsored by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative helps distribution engineers understand the challenges of high-penetration PV integration. January 27, 2016 As solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly installed throughout the country at distribution-level utility scale, a new challenge is emerging: how to safely and effectively integrate greater amounts of variable solar

  10. NREL Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Systems Integration | NREL Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers A new resource sponsored by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative helps distribution engineers understand the challenges of high-penetration PV integration. January 27, 2016 As solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly installed throughout the country at distribution-level utility scale, a new challenge is emerging: how to safely and effectively integrate greater amounts of variable

  11. NREL Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grid Modernization | NREL Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers A new resource sponsored by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative helps distribution engineers understand the challenges of high-penetration PV integration. January 27, 2016 As solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly installed throughout the country at distribution-level utility scale, a new challenge is emerging: how to safely and effectively integrate greater amounts of variable solar

  12. PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaics

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    through the Optimization of Sub-Transmission Voltage Regulation (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy Enabling High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaics through the Optimization of Sub-Transmission Voltage Regulation (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Enabling High Penetration of Distributed Photovoltaics through the Optimization of Sub-Transmission Voltage Regulation (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Systems Integration Location: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland,

  13. Fiber optic penetrator for offshore oil well exploration and production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, J.C.; Warner, C.P.; Henkener, J.A.; Glauser, R.

    1986-07-01

    A fiber optic penetrator arrangement is described for an undersea wall structure of offshore oil well production apparatus, comprising: a. a generally cylindrical housing; b. a cofferdam associated with the undersea production apparatus and defining a generally cylindrical entrance port into which the penetrator is designed to be inserted and mounted; c. a sealing means for sealing the penetrator relative to the entrance port after insertion of the penetrator therein; d. an external bulkhead; e. a second bulkhead positioned internally of the external bulkead; f. a compression spring normally retaining the second bulkhead in a sealed position with the penetrator, the compressing spring being compressed between the second bulkhead and the external bulkhead; g. a breakaway connection affixed to the external bulkhead for coupling an optical fiber transmission cable to the external bulkhead, such that if the transmission cable is snagged or pulled, the external bulkhead will sever along with the breakaway connection so that the penetrator is not pulled from the cofferdam entrance port, the second bulkhead being held in position by ambient water pressure to become the primary bulkhead after the external bulkhead is severed.

  14. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-04

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  15. The effect of TDC temperature and density on the liquid-phase fuel penetration in a D.I. Diesel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espey, C.; Dec, J.E.

    1995-12-01

    A parametric study of the liquid-phase fuel penetration of evaporating Diesel fuel jets has been conducted in a directinjection Diesel engine using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were conducted in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the ``heavy-duty`` size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. The density and temperature at TDC were varied systematically by adjusting the intake temperature and pressure. At all operating conditions the measurements show that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum length. Then, the liquid-fuel penetration length remains fairly constant although fuel injection continues. At a TDC density of 16.6 kg/m{sup 3} and a temperature of about 1000 K the maximum penetration length is approximately 23 mm. However, it varies significantly as TDC conditions are changed, with the liquid-length being less at higher temperatures and at higher densities. The corresponding apparent heat release rate plots are presented and the results of the liquid-phase fuel penetration are discussed with respect to the ignition delay and premixed bum fraction.

  16. PENETRATION OF COAL SLAGS INTO HIGH-CHROMIA REFRACTORIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longanbach, Sara C.; Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.

    2009-10-05

    Slagging coal gasifiers are used for the production of electricity and synthetic gases, as well as chemicals. High temperatures in the reaction chamber, typically between 1250ºC and 1600ºC, high pressure, generally greater than 400 psi, and corrosive slag place severe demands on the refractory materials. Slag produced during the combustion of coal flows over the refractory surface and penetrates the porous material. Slag penetration is typically followed by spalling of a brick that significantly decreases the service life of gasifier refractories. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the penetration depth of slags into high-chromia refractories as a function of time and temperature for various refractory-slag combinations.

  17. Southern California Edison High Penetration Photovoltaic Project - Year 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-06-01

    This report discusses research efforts from the first year of a project analyzing the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) resources interconnected onto Southern California Edison's (SCE's) distribution system. SCE will be interconnecting a total of 500 MW of commercial scale PV within their service territory by 2015. This Year 1 report describes the need for investigating high-penetration PV scenarios on the SCE distribution system; discusses the necessary PV system modeling and distribution system simulation advances; describes the available distribution circuit data for the two distribution circuits identified in the study; and discusses the additional inverter functionality that could be implemented in order to specifically mitigate some of the undesirable distribution system impacts caused by high-penetration PV installations.

  18. Evaluating Future Standards and Codes with a Focus on High Penetration Photovoltaic (HPPV) System Deployment (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.

    2010-12-01

    Poster displaying solutions for evaluating future standards and codes for high penetration photovoltaic (HPPV) systems.

  19. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1: Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mai, T.; Wiser, R.; Sandor, D.; Brinkman, G.; Heath, G.; Denholm, P.; Hostick, D.J.; Darghouth, N.; Schlosser, A.; Strzepek, K.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  20. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 1. Exploration of High-Penetration Renewable Electricity Futures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S.; DeMeo, E.; Reilly, J. M.; Mai, T.; Arent, D.; Porro, G.; Meshek, M.; Sandor, D.

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  1. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. <em>Photo from SunPower, NREL 06430</em> The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. Photo from SunPower, NREL 06430 To complement energy efficiency targets in Hawai'i, the state developed requirements for generating 40% of its

  2. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Solar Energy in the United States | Department of Energy The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetration of Solar Energy in the United States The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetration of Solar Energy in the United States 1 of 4 2 of 4 3 of 4 4 of 4 Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation

  3. Multi-well sample plate cover penetration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2011-12-27

    An apparatus for penetrating a cover over a multi-well sample plate containing at least one individual sample well includes a cutting head, a cutter extending from the cutting head, and a robot. The cutting head is connected to the robot wherein the robot moves the cutting head and cutter so that the cutter penetrates the cover over the multi-well sample plate providing access to the individual sample well. When the cutting head is moved downward the foil is pierced by the cutter that splits, opens, and folds the foil inward toward the well. The well is then open for sample aspiration but has been protected from cross contamination.

  4. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) investigated the operational impacts of very high levels of variable generation penetration rates (up to 35% by energy) in the western United States. This work examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators. The cost impacts of maintaining hydro unit flexibility are assessed and compared for a number of different modes of system operation.

  5. NREL/SCE High Penetration PV Integration Project: FY13 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mather, B. A.; Shah, S.; Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.; Yu, L.; Paradis, D.; Katiraei, F.; Seguin, R.; Costyk, D.; Woyak, J.; Jung, J.; Russell, K.; Broadwater, R.

    2014-06-01

    In 2010, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Southern California Edison (SCE), Quanta Technology, Satcon Technology Corporation, Electrical Distribution Design (EDD), and Clean Power Research (CPR) teamed to analyze the impacts of high penetration levels of photovoltaic (PV) systems interconnected onto the SCE distribution system. This project was designed specifically to benefit from the experience that SCE and the project team would gain during the installation of 500 megawatts (MW) of utility-scale PV systems (with 1-5 MW typical ratings) starting in 2010 and completing in 2015 within SCE's service territory through a program approved by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC). This report provides the findings of the research completed under the project to date.

  6. Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2012-05-18

    We estimate the long-run economic value of variable renewable generation with increasing penetration using a unique investment and dispatch model that captures long-run investment decisions while also incorporating detailed operational constraints and hourly time resolution over a full year. High time resolution and the incorporation of operational constraints are important for estimating the economic value of variable generation, as is the use of a modeling framework that accommodates new investment decisions. The model is herein applied with a case study that is loosely based on California in 2030. Increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power (CSP) with and without thermal energy storage (TES) are added one at a time. The marginal economic value of these renewable energy sources is estimated and then decomposed into capacity value, energy value, day-ahead forecast error cost, and ancillary services. The marginal economic value, as defined here, is primarily based on the combination of avoided capital investment cost and avoided variable fuel and operations and maintenance costs from other power plants in the power system. Though the model only captures a subset of the benefits and costs of renewable energy, it nonetheless provides unique insights into how the value of that subset changes with technology and penetration level. Specifically, in this case study implementation of the model, the marginal economic value of all three solar options is found to exceed the value of a flat-block of power (as well as wind energy) by \\$20--30/MWh at low penetration levels, largely due to the high capacity value of solar at low penetration. Because the value of CSP per unit of energy is found to be high with or without thermal energy storage at low penetration, we find little apparent incremental value to thermal storage at low solar penetration in the present case study analysis. The marginal economic value of PV and CSP without thermal

  7. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  8. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  9. Slag Penetration into Refractory Lining of Slagging Coal Gasifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

    2008-10-25

    The impurities in coal are converted into molten slag typically containing SiO2, FeO, CaO, and Al2O3 when coal feedstock is burned in slagging gasifiers. The slag flows down the gasifier sidewalls, dissolves, and penetrates and reacts with the refractory lining that protects the stainless steel shell of the gasifier from elevated temperatures (1300–1600°C). Refractories composed primarily of Cr2O3 have been found most resistant to slag corrosion, but they continue to fail performance requirements because of low resistance to spalling. Post-mortem analysis of high-chromia refractory bricks collected from commercial gasifiers suggests that the spalling is affected by the depth of slag penetration that is in turn affected by the wettability and interconnected porosity of the refractory as well as the slag viscosity. Laboratory tests were conducted to measure the viscosity of slags (Wyoming Powder River Basin [PRB], Pocahontas #3, and Pittsburgh #8), their contact angle on refractories (chromia-alumina [Aurex 75SR] and high-chromia [Serv 95 and Aurex 95P]), and the apparent porosity of selected refractories. In addition, the depth of slag penetration as a function of time and temperature was determined for various refractory-slag combinations. The results of laboratory tests were used to develop a refractory material that has high resistance to penetration by molten slag and thus has a potential to have a substantially longer service life than the materials currently being used.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    David Howell Acting Director, Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE June 8, 2015 2  Transportation is responsible for 69% of U.S. petroleum usage  28% of GHG emissions  On-Road vehicles responsible for 85% of transportation petroleum usage Oil Dependency is Dominated by Vehicles  16.4M LDVs sold in 2014  240 million light-duty vehicles on the road in the U.S.  10-15 years for annual sales penetration  10-15

  11. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  12. Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Free Electron Laser by Varying the Electron Beam Radius Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficiency Enhancement in a Tapered Free Electron Laser by Varying the ...

  13. PNNL Expert Doug McMakin Discusses Millimeter Wave Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug McMakin

    2011-10-01

    Electrical Engineer Doug McMakin discusses Millimeter Wave Holographic technology, which uses non-harmful, ultrahigh-frequency radio waves to penetrate clothing to detect and identify concealed objects, as well as obtain accurate body measurements.

  14. PNNL Expert Doug McMakin Discusses Millimeter Wave Technology

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Doug McMakin

    2012-12-31

    Electrical Engineer Doug McMakin discusses Millimeter Wave Holographic technology, which uses non-harmful, ultrahigh-frequency radio waves to penetrate clothing to detect and identify concealed objects, as well as obtain accurate body measurements.

  15. Analysis of High-Penetration Levels of Photovoltaics into the Distribution Grid on Oahu, Hawaii: Detailed Analysis of HECO Feeder WF1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, E.; MacPherson, J.; Vasilic, S.; Nakafuji, D.; Aukai, T.

    2013-05-01

    Renewable generation is growing at a rapid rate due to the incentives available and the aggressive renewable portfolio standard targets implemented by state governments. Distributed generation in particular is seeing the fastest growth among renewable energy projects, and is directly related to the incentives. Hawaii has the highest electricity costs in the country due to the high percentage of oil burning steam generation, and therefore has some of the highest penetration of distributed PV in the nation. The High Penetration PV project on Oahu aims to understand the effects of high penetration PV on the distribution level, to identify penetration levels creating disturbances on the circuit, and to offer mitigating solutions based on model results. Power flow models are validated using data collected from solar resources and load monitors deployed throughout the circuit. Existing interconnection methods and standards are evaluated in these emerging high penetration scenarios. A key finding is a shift in the level of detail to be considered and moving away from steady-state peak time analysis towards dynamic and time varying simulations. Each level of normal interconnection study is evaluated and enhanced to a new level of detail, allowing full understanding of each issue.

  16. Technology Development and Field Trials of EGS Drilling Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technology Development and Field Trials of EGS Drilling Systems Technology Development and Field Trials of EGS Drilling Systems Project objective: Development of drilling systems based upon rock penetration technologies not commonly employed in the geothermal industry. high_bauer_technology_development.pdf (257.73 KB) More Documents & Publications Technology Development and Field Trials of EGS Drilling Systems Evaluation of Emerging Technology for Geothermal Drilling

  17. Phase constitution in the interfacial region of laser penetration brazed magnesium–steel joints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Yugang; Han, Duanfeng Xu, Xiangfang; Wu, Bintao

    2014-07-01

    The phase constitution in the interfacial region of laser penetration brazed magnesium–steel joints was investigated using electron microscopy. From the distribution of elements, the transition zone was mainly composed of elements Mg and Fe along with some Al and O. Furthermore, the transition layer consisted mainly of intermetallic compounds and metal oxides. The compounds were identified as Al-rich phases, such as Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}, Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 3}, FeAl and Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13}. More noteworthy was that the thickness of the transition layer was determined by Fe–Al compounds. The presence of FeAl and Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13} was a result of the complex processes that were associated with the interfacial reaction of solid steel and liquid Mg–Al alloy. - Highlights: • A technology of laser penetration brazed Mg alloy and steel has been developed. • The interface of Mg/Fe dissimilar joints was investigated using electron microscopy. • The transition layer consisted of intermetallic compounds and metal oxides. • Moreover, the thickness of transition layer was determined by Fe/Al compounds. • The presence of FeAl and Fe{sub 4}Al{sub 13} was associated with the interfacial reaction.

  18. Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator: CPEN user's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, R.

    1980-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to assist prospective users in the understanding and execution of Fleet-Car Market PENetration Simulator (CPEN). CPEN is an interactive FORTRAN program whose purpose is to produce estimates of fleet-market-penetration rates of alternative passenger cars that can be described in terms of specific physical and economic attributes. The data were derived from questionnaires distributed to fleet operators affiliated with National Association of Fleet Administrators (NAFA). Besides the NAFA data, CPEN uses 48 variables that are interactively inserted. Complete data-input descriptions are included in the manual along with algorithm and application flowcharts. Examples of complete successful simulator runs are included for alternative program paths. A listing of the computer program and a glossary for CPEN are included.

  19. Code System to Calculate Particle Penetration Through Aerosol Transport Lines.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-07-14

    Version 00 Distribution is restricted to US Government Agencies and Their Contractors Only. DEPOSITION1.03 is an interactive software program which was developed for the design and analysis of aerosol transport lines. Models are presented for calculating aerosol particle penetration through straight tubes of arbitrary orientation, inlets, and elbows. An expression to calculate effective depositional velocities of particles on tube walls is derived. The concept of maximum penetration is introduced, which is the maximum possible penetrationmore » through a sampling line connecting any two points in a three-dimensional space. A procedure to predict optimum tube diameter for an existing transport line is developed. Note that there is a discrepancy in this package which includes the DEPOSITION 1.03 executable and the DEPOSITION 2.0 report. RSICC was unable to obtain other executables or reports.« less

  20. High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308 High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers Rich Seguin, Jeremy Woyak, David Costyk, and Josh Hambrick Electrical Distribution Design Barry Mather National

  1. High Penetration PV: How High Can We Go?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2016-01-01

    Brochure highlighting NREL's partnership with SolarCity and Hawaiian Electric (HECO) to increase the penetration of solar photovoltaics on the electricity grid. To better understand the potential impact of transient overvoltages due to load rejection, NREL collaborated with SolarCity and HECO to run a series of tests measuring the magnitude and duration of load rejection overvoltage events and demonstrating the ability of advanced PV inverters to mitigate their impacts.

  2. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-49667 December 2010 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 *

  3. Dosimeter for measuring skin dose and more deeply penetrating radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Donald E.; Parker, DeRay; Boren, Paul R.

    1981-01-01

    A personnel dosimeter includes a plurality of compartments containing thermoluminescent dosimeter phosphors for registering radiation dose absorbed in the wearer's sensitive skin layer and for registering more deeply penetrating radiation. Two of the phosphor compartments communicate with thin windows of different thicknesses to obtain a ratio of shallowly penetrating radiation, e.g. beta. A third phosphor is disposed within a compartment communicating with a window of substantially greater thickness than the windows of the first two compartments for estimating the more deeply penetrating radiation dose. By selecting certain phosphors that are insensitive to neutrons and by loading the holder material with netruon-absorbing elements, energetic neutron dose can be estimated separately from other radiation dose. This invention also involves a method of injection molding of dosimeter holders with thin windows of consistent thickness at the corresponding compartments of different holders. This is achieved through use of a die insert having the thin window of precision thickness in place prior to the injection molding step.

  4. Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with Thermal Energy Storage ... DE-AC36-08GO28308 Enabling Greater Penetration of Solar Power via the Use of CSP with ...

  5. The role of cone penetration testing in expedited site characterization: A case history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenback, G.A.; Kjartanson, B.H.; Bevolo, A.; Wonder, D.; Older, K.

    1995-12-31

    Expedited site characterization (ESC) utilizes nonintrusive and minimally intrusive investigation techniques to efficiently and effectively characterize hazardous waste sites. Rapid data collection, interpretation and visualization technologies are used to update the conceptual site model on-site as the investigation proceeds. This paper describes the role that cone penetration testing played in the ESC demonstration at a former manufactured gas plant site in the midwestern US. Stratigraphic profiling information allowed development and assessment of the site geologic model as the investigation progressed and also allowed stratigraphic contouring of a lower confining unit on which the DNAPL coal tar residue tends to pool. A laser induced fluorescence sensor was very effective in delineating subsurface hydrocarbon contamination, including regions where it appears to have pooled on the lower confining unit. The availability of the data in real time allowed for effective integration into the ESC process.

  6. Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum This presentation provides information on the results of the second High Penetration Solar Forum that convened in February, including an overview of DOE's and CPUC's grid integration awards as well as future efforts. sunshot_webinar_20130515.pdf (4.29 MB) More Documents & Publications QER - Comment of Electric Power Research Institute 1 Final Report- High Penetration Solar

  7. Fact #875: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Dataset | Department of Energy 5: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 - Dataset Fact #875: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 fotw#875_web.xlsx (202.83 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 - Dataset Fact #936: August 1, 2016 California Had the Highest Concentration of

  8. Modeling and Analysis of High-Penetration PV in California | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Modeling and Analysis of High-Penetration PV in California Modeling and Analysis of High-Penetration PV in California NREL logo.jpg The NREL project team will utilize field verification to improve the ability to model and understand the impacts of high-penetration PV on electric utility systems and develop solutions to ease high-penetration PV deployments. The team will develop and verify advanced modeling and simulation methods for distribution system planning and operations; define

  9. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report This report summarizes 2010 data on fuel cells, including market penetration and industry trends. It also covers cost, price, and performance trends, along with policy and market drivers and the future outlook for fuel cells. 2010 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report (1.61 MB) More Documents & Publications 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market

  10. Results from the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the DOE-CPUC High Penetration Solar Forum DOE CPUC Forum  First held on March 1 st and 2 nd , 2011  Latest meeting February 13 th and 14 th , 2013  Kevin Lynn: DOE  Tina Eichner and Devonie McCamey: NREL  Molly Sterkel and Melicia Charles: CPUC  Ann Peterson: Itron  Smita Gupta: Itron  Format - Research needs from CA utilities - Presentation on DOE-CPUC research progress and findings - Discussion of remaining research gaps 2 Meeting Agenda 3 CSI RD&D Program  SB1

  11. Stress corrosion cracking of welded Alloy 600 penetration mockups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarver, J.M.; Pathania, R.S.; Stuckey, K.; Fyfitch, S.; Gelpi, A.; Foucault, M.; Hunt, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    The primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 in components other than steam generators is a problem of increasing concern for nuclear power plants. Of greatest concern at the present time is the PWSCC of Alloy 600 vessel head penetrations. The common elements of these components are threefold: (1) the Alloy 600 material has a susceptible microstructure, (2) the Alloy 600 material is either a thick-walled tube or a bar which has been machined into a thick-walled tube, and (3) the Alloy 600 material has been welded into a structure such that high residual welding stresses exist in the postwelded Alloy 600 material. The objectives of the present program were to evaluate the PWSCC behavior of various configurations of welded Alloy 600 penetrations, and possible remedial measures which would prevent or retard PWSCC in these components. Mockups were instrumented to permit instantaneous remote sensing of through-wall cracking and were autoclave tested along with control C-rings in a doped steam environment. Following the test exposures, the mockups were split and examined to characterize the cracking morphology and the material microstructure. A Weibull distribution was used to analyze the time-to-failure results, and the observed cracking locations were compared to residual stress levels predicted by an elastic-plastic finite element analysis of the mockups.

  12. Integrating High Penetrations of PV into Southern California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hasper-Tuttle, J.; Neal, R.; Katiraei, F.; Yazdani, A.; Aguero, J. R.; Hoff, T. E.; Norris, B. L.; Parkins, A.; Seguin, R.; Schauder, C.

    2011-01-01

    California regulators recently approved a plan proposed by Southern California Edison (SCE) to install 500 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy in its utility service territory over the next 5 years. The installations will include 250 MW of utility-owned solar and 250 MW of independently owned solar. SCE expects that the majority of these systems will be commercial-scale rooftop PV systems connected at various points in the distribution system. Each of the SCE rooftop PV systems will typically have a rating of 1-3 MW. To understand the impact of high-penetration PV on the distribution grid, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and SCE brought together a team of experts in resource assessment, distribution modeling, and planning to help analyze the impacts of adding high penetration of PV into the distribution system. Through modeling and simulation, laboratory testing, and field demonstrations, the team will address the issues identified in the analysis by fully examining the challenges, developing solutions, and transitioning those solutions to the field for large-scale deployment. This paper gives an update on the project and discusses technical results of integrating a large number of distributed PV systems into the grid.

  13. Neuroimaging in adult penetrating brain injury: a guide for radiographers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, Nikki; Donald, Cortny; Skora, Amanda; Reed, Warren

    2015-06-15

    Penetrating brain injuries (PBI) are a medical emergency, often resulting in complex damage and high mortality rates. Neuroimaging is essential to evaluate the location and extent of injuries, and to manage them accordingly. Currently, a myriad of imaging modalities are included in the diagnostic workup for adult PBI, including skull radiography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography, with each modality providing their own particular benefits. This literature review explores the current modalities available for investigating PBI and aims to assist in decision making for the appropriate use of diagnostic imaging when presented with an adult PBI. Based on the current literature, the authors have developed an imaging pathway for adult penetrating brain injury that functions as both a learning tool and reference guide for radiographers and other health professionals. Currently, CT is recommended as the imaging modality of choice for the initial assessment of PBI patients, while MRI is important in the sub-acute setting where it aids prognosis prediction and rehabilitation planning, Additional follow-up imaging, such as angiography, should be dependent upon clinical findings.

  14. Characterization of nuclear reactor containment penetrations. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shackelford, M.H.; Bump, T.R.; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report concludes a preliminary report prepared by ANL for Sandia, published as NUREG/CR-3855, in June 1984. The preliminary report, NUREG/CR-3855, presented the results of a survey of nuclear reactor containment penetrations, covering the number of plants surveyed at that time (22 total). Since that time, an additional 26 plants have been included in the survey. This final report serves two purposes: (1) to add the summary data sheets and penetration details for the additional plants now included in the survey; and (2) to confirm, revise, or add to analyses and discussions presented in the first report which, of course, were based solely on the earlier sample of 22 plants. This final report follows the outline and format of the preliminary survey report. In general, changes and additions to the preliminary report are implied, rather than stated as such to avoid repeated reference to that report. If no changes have been made in a section the title of the section of the previous report is simply repeated followed by ''No Changes''. Some repetition is used for continuity and clarity.

  15. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valentino, L.; Valenzuela, V.; Botterud, A.; Zhou, Z.; Conzelmann, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  16. Appendix M - GPRA06 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into green power markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from green power programs, which are not captured in the least-cost analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the Market Allocation (MARKAL) model. The term "green power" is used to define power generated from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and various forms of biomass. The Green Power market is an increasingly important element of the national renewable energy contribution, with changes in the regulatory and legislative environment and the recent dramatic changes in natural gas prices slowly altering the size of this opportunity.

  17. Campbell penetration depth in Fe-based superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prommapan, Plegchart

    2011-08-15

    A 'true' critical current density, j{sub c}, as opposite to commonly measured relaxed persistent (Bean) current, j{sub B}, was extracted from the Campbell penetration depth, {lambda}{sub c}(T,H) measured in single crystals of LiFeAs, and optimally electron-doped Ba(Fe{sub 0.954}Ni{sub 0.046}){sub 2}As{sub 2} (FeNi122). In LiFeAs, the effective pinning potential is nonparabolic, which follows from the magnetic field - dependent Labusch parameter {alpha}. At the equilibrium (upon field - cooling), {alpha}(H) is non-monotonic, but it is monotonic at a finite gradient of the vortex density. This behavior leads to a faster magnetic relaxation at the lower fields and provides a natural dynamic explanation for the fishtail (second peak) effect. We also find the evidence for strong pinning at the lower fields.The inferred field dependence of the pinning potential is consistent with the evolution from strong pinning, through collective pinning, and eventually to a disordered vortex lattice. The value of j{sub c}(2 K) {approx_equal} 1.22 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2} provide an upper estimate of the current carrying capability of LiFeAs. Overall, vortex behavior of almost isotropic, fully-gapped LiFeAs is very similar to highly anisotropic d-wave cuprate superconductors, the similarity that requires further studies in order to understand unconventional superconductivity in cuprates and pnictides. In addition to LiFeAs, we also report the magnetic penetration depth in BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} based superconductors including irradiation of FeNi122. In unirradiated FeNi122, the maximum critical current value is, j{sub c}(2K) {approx_equal} 3.3 x 10{sup 6} A/cm{sup 2}. The magnetic-dependent feature was observed near the transition temperature in FeTe{sub 0.53}Se{sub 0.47} and irradiated FeNi122. Because of this feature, further studies are required in order to properly calibrate the Campbell penetration depth. Finally, we detected the crossing between the magnetic penetration depth and

  18. NREL: Technology Transfer - Nonexclusive and Exclusive Licenses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sold utilizing the licensed technology. The fees and payments vary depending on the business model, market(s), and the number of patents licensed. Exclusive NREL grants an...

  19. Photovoltaic array with minimally penetrating rooftop support system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl J.S.

    2012-10-23

    A photovoltaic array including a plurality of photovoltaic assemblies and a plurality of mounting units. The mounting units each include an elongate rail and a plurality of leg assemblies. The rail is sized and configured to maintain a portion of at least two of the photovoltaic assemblies, with the leg assemblies extending from the rail in a spaced-apart fashion and terminating in a foot for placement against a rooftop structure for minimally penetration installation. Further, at least one of the leg assemblies can include a retractable leg. When the photovoltaic array is installed to a rooftop structure including a membrane intermittently secured to a rooftop deck, the retractable leg accommodates upward billowing of the membrane under windy conditions.

  20. Error field penetration and locking to the backward propagating wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finn, John M.; Cole, Andrew J.; Brennan, Dylan P.

    2015-12-30

    In this letter we investigate error field penetration, or locking, behavior in plasmas having stable tearing modes with finite real frequencies wr in the plasma frame. In particular, we address the fact that locking can drive a significant equilibrium flow. We show that this occurs at a velocity slightly above v = wr/k, corresponding to the interaction with a backward propagating tearing mode in the plasma frame. Results are discussed for a few typical tearing mode regimes, including a new derivation showing that the existence of real frequencies occurs for viscoresistive tearing modes, in an analysis including the effects of pressure gradient, curvature and parallel dynamics. The general result of locking to a finite velocity flow is applicable to a wide range of tearing mode regimes, indeed any regime where real frequencies occur.

  1. Reinventing cell penetrating peptides using glycosylated methionine sulfonium ion sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Mayle, Kristine M.; Kamei, Daniel T.; Wong, Gerard C.L.; Deming, Timothy J.

    2015-04-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are intriguing molecules that have received much attention, both in terms of mechanistic analysis and as transporters for intracellular therapeutic delivery. Most CPPs contain an abundance of cationic charged residues, typically arginine, where the amino acid compositions, rather than specific sequences, tend to determine their ability to enter cells. Hydrophobic residues are often added to cationic sequences to create efficient CPPs, but typically at the penalty of increased cytotoxicity. Here, we examined polypeptides containing glycosylated, cationic derivatives of methionine, where we found these hydrophilic polypeptides to be surprisingly effective as CPPs and to also possess low cytotoxicity. X-ray analysis of how these new polypeptides interact with lipid membranes revealed that the incorporation of sterically demanding hydrophilic cationic groups in polypeptides is an unprecedented new concept for design of potent CPPs.

  2. Error field penetration and locking to the backward propagating wave

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Finn, John M.; Cole, Andrew J.; Brennan, Dylan P.

    2015-12-30

    In this letter we investigate error field penetration, or locking, behavior in plasmas having stable tearing modes with finite real frequencies wr in the plasma frame. In particular, we address the fact that locking can drive a significant equilibrium flow. We show that this occurs at a velocity slightly above v = wr/k, corresponding to the interaction with a backward propagating tearing mode in the plasma frame. Results are discussed for a few typical tearing mode regimes, including a new derivation showing that the existence of real frequencies occurs for viscoresistive tearing modes, in an analysis including the effects ofmore » pressure gradient, curvature and parallel dynamics. The general result of locking to a finite velocity flow is applicable to a wide range of tearing mode regimes, indeed any regime where real frequencies occur.« less

  3. Reinventing cell penetrating peptides using glycosylated methionine sulfonium ion sequences

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kramer, Jessica R.; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Mayle, Kristine M.; Kamei, Daniel T.; Wong, Gerard C.L.; Deming, Timothy J.

    2015-04-15

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are intriguing molecules that have received much attention, both in terms of mechanistic analysis and as transporters for intracellular therapeutic delivery. Most CPPs contain an abundance of cationic charged residues, typically arginine, where the amino acid compositions, rather than specific sequences, tend to determine their ability to enter cells. Hydrophobic residues are often added to cationic sequences to create efficient CPPs, but typically at the penalty of increased cytotoxicity. Here, we examined polypeptides containing glycosylated, cationic derivatives of methionine, where we found these hydrophilic polypeptides to be surprisingly effective as CPPs and to also possess lowmore » cytotoxicity. X-ray analysis of how these new polypeptides interact with lipid membranes revealed that the incorporation of sterically demanding hydrophilic cationic groups in polypeptides is an unprecedented new concept for design of potent CPPs.« less

  4. Final Technical Report: Distributed Controls for High Penetrations of Renewables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, Raymond H.; Neely, Jason C.; Rashkin, Lee J.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Wilson, David G.

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this effort was to apply four potential control analysis/design approaches to the design of distributed grid control systems to address the impact of latency and communications uncertainty with high penetrations of photovoltaic (PV) generation. The four techniques considered were: optimal fixed structure control; Nyquist stability criterion; vector Lyapunov analysis; and Hamiltonian design methods. A reduced order model of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) developed for the Matlab Power Systems Toolbox (PST) was employed for the study, as well as representative smaller systems (e.g., a two-area, three-area, and four-area power system). Excellent results were obtained with the optimal fixed structure approach, and the methodology we developed was published in a journal article. This approach is promising because it offers a method for designing optimal control systems with the feedback signals available from Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) data as opposed to full state feedback or the design of an observer. The Nyquist approach inherently handles time delay and incorporates performance guarantees (e.g., gain and phase margin). We developed a technique that works for moderate sized systems, but the approach does not scale well to extremely large system because of computational complexity. The vector Lyapunov approach was applied to a two area model to demonstrate the utility for modeling communications uncertainty. Application to large power systems requires a method to automatically expand/contract the state space and partition the system so that communications uncertainty can be considered. The Hamiltonian Surface Shaping and Power Flow Control (HSSPFC) design methodology was selected to investigate grid systems for energy storage requirements to support high penetration of variable or stochastic generation (such as wind and PV) and loads. This method was applied to several small system models.

  5. Switching phase separation mode by varying the hydrophobicity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switching phase separation mode by varying the hydrophobicity of polymer additives in solution-processed semiconducting small-moleculepolymer blends Citation Details In-Document ...

  6. Constraining parity and charge-parity violating varying-alpha...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Constraining parity and charge-parity violating varying-alpha theory through laboratory experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Constraining parity and charge-parity ...

  7. Penetration equations (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE, Washington, DC (United States) Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; EARTH ...

  8. Impacts of High Penetration of PV with Energy Storage at Flagstaff Arizona

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Impacts of High Penetration of PV with Energy Storage at Flagstaff Arizona Impacts of High Penetration of PV with Energy Storage at Flagstaff Arizona aps-logo.gif --This project is inactive -- The project team, led by Arizona Public Service, will evaluate the impacts of high penetrations of distributed PV and energy storage on a dedicated feeder to identify the technical and operational modifications that could be deployed in future feeder designs. APPROACH Models

  9. TRANS4: a computer code calculation of solid fuel penetration of a concrete barrier. [LMFBR; GCFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, C. M.; Kumar, R.; Fink, J. K.

    1980-07-01

    The computer code, TRANS4, models the melting and penetration of a solid barrier by a solid disc of fuel following a core disruptive accident. This computer code has been used to model fuel debris penetration of basalt, limestone concrete, basaltic concrete, and magnetite concrete. Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the importance of various properties on the rate of penetration. Comparisons were made with results from the GROWS II code.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    To support DOE's goal to provide clean and secure energy, the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) invests in research and development that:

  11. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report.

  12. A methodology for understanding the impacts of large-scale penetration of micro-combined heat and power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tapia-Ahumada, K.; Pérez-Arriaga, I. J.; Moniz, Ernest J.

    2013-10-01

    Co-generation at small kW-e scale has been stimulated in recent years by governments and energy regulators as one way to increasing energy efficiency and reducing CO2emissions. If a widespread adoption should be realized, their effects from a system's point of view are crucial to understand the contributions of this technology. Based on a methodology that uses long-term capacity planning expansion, this paper explores some of the implications for an electric power system of having a large number of micro-CHPs. Results show that fuel cells-based micro-CHPs have the best and most consistent performance for different residential demands from the customer and system's perspectives. As the penetration increases at important levels, gas-based technologies - particularly combined cycle units - are displaced in capacity and production, which impacts the operation of the electric system during summer peak hours. Other results suggest that the tariff design impacts the economic efficiency of the system and the operation of micro-CHPs under a price-based strategy. Finally, policies aimed at micro-CHPs should consider the suitability of the technology (in size and heat-to-power ratio) to meet individual demands, the operational complexities of a large penetration, and the adequacy of the economic signals to incentivize an efficient and sustainable operation. Highlights: Capacity displacements and daily operation of an electric power system are explored; Benefits depend on energy mix, prices, and micro-CHP technology and control scheme; Benefits are observed mostly in winter when micro-CHP heat and power are fully used; Micro-CHPs mostly displace installed capacity from natural gas combined cycle units; and, Tariff design impacts economic efficiency of the system and operation of micro-CHPs.

  13. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Huckaby, E. David; Fincham, William

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  14. Synthetic Coal Slag Infiltration into Varying Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya K; Thomas, Hugh; Bennett, James P; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    The infiltrations of synthetic coal slag into 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2}, and 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} refractories with a temperature gradient induced along the penetration direction were compared to one another. The infiltrating slag was synthesized with a composition that is representative of an average of the ash contents from U S coal feedstock. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C in a CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Minimal penetration was observed in the 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material because interactions between the refractory and the slag produced a protective layer of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which impeded slag flow into the bulk of the refractory. After 5 h, the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited an average penetration of 12.7 mm whereas the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} sample showed 3.8 mm. Slag infiltrated into the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} refractory systems by dissolving the respective refractories' matrix materials, which consist of fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and an amorphous alumino-silicate phase. Due to enrichment in SiO{sub 2}, a network-former, infiltration into the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} system yielded a higher viscosity slag and hence, a shallower penetration depth. The results suggest that slag infiltration can be limited by interactions with the refractory through the formation of either a solid layer that physically impedes fluid flow or a more viscous slag that retards infiltration.

  15. Innovative Direct Push Technologies for Characterization of the 216-Z-9 Trench at DOE's Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratton, W.; Moser, K.; Holm, R. [Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC, Washington (United States); Morse, J.; Tortoso, A. [US Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office, Washington (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Because of the significant radiological and chemical hazards present at the 216-Z-9 Trench at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site, the only practical subsurface characterization methods are those that minimize or control airborne vapors and particles. This study evaluates and compares the performance of two Direct Push Technologies (Hydraulic Hammer Rig (HHR) and Cone Penetrometer Testing (CPT)) with traditional cable tool drilling in similar difficult geologic conditions. The performance was based on the depth of penetration, the ability to collect representative vadose zone soil samples, the penetration rate, and the relative cost. The HHR achieved deeper penetration depths and faster penetration rates than CPT techniques, while still maintaining the waste minimization benefits of direct push technologies. Although cable tool drilling achieved the deepest penetration, the safety and disposal concerns due to the soil cuttings that were generated made this drilling approach both slow and costly compared to the direct push techniques. (authors)

  16. Penetration of lower hybrid current drive waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, W.; Aix-Marseille University, 58, Bd Charles Livon, 13284 Marseille ; Goniche, M.; Peysson, Y.; Decker, J.; Ekedahl, A.; Litaudon, X.

    2013-11-15

    Lower hybrid (LH) ray propagation in toroidal plasma is shown to be controlled by combination of the azimuthal spectrum launched by the antenna, the poloidal variation of the magnetic field, and the scattering of the waves by the drift wave fluctuations. The width of the poloidal and radial radio frequency wave spectrum increases rapidly as the rays penetrate into higher density and scatter from the drift waves. The electron temperature gradient (ETG) spectrum is particularly effective in scattering the LH waves due to its comparable wavelengths and phase velocities. ETG turbulence is also driven by the radial gradient of the electron current profile giving rise to an anomalous viscosity spreading the LH driven plasma currents. The LH wave scattering is derived from a Fokker-Planck equation for the distribution of the ray trajectories with diffusivities derived from the drift wave fluctuations. The condition for chaotic diffusion for the rays is derived. The evolution of the poloidal and radial mode number spectrum of the lower hybrid waves are both on the antenna spectrum and the spectrum of the drift waves. Antennas launching higher poloidal mode number spectra drive off-axis current density profiles producing negative central shear [RS] plasmas with improved thermal confinement from ETG transport. Core plasma current drive requires antennas with low azimuthal mode spectra peaked at m = 0 azimuthal mode numbers.

  17. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, Jonathan; Khowailed, Gannate; Blackburn, Julia; Sikes, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary steps: (1

  18. NREL: Technology Deployment - Technology Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Acceleration NREL offers technology-specific assistance to federal and private industry to help address market barriers to sustainable energy technologies. Learn more ...

  19. Advancing Understanding of the Role of Belowground Processes in Terrestrial Carbon Sinks trhrough Ground-Penetrating Radar. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Day, Frank P.

    2015-02-06

    Coarse roots play a significant role in belowground carbon cycling and will likely play an increasingly crucial role in belowground carbon sequestration as atmospheric CO2 levels continue to rise, yet they are one of the most difficult ecosystem parameters to quantify. Despite promising results with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a nondestructive method of quantifying biomass of coarse roots, this application of GPR is in its infancy and neither the complete potential nor limitations of the technology have been fully evaluated. The primary goals and questions of this study fell into four groups: (1) GPR methods: Can GPR detect change in root biomass over time, differentiate live roots from dead roots, differentiate between coarse roots, fine roots bundled together, and a fine root mat, remain effective with varied soil moisture, and detect shadowed roots (roots hidden below larger roots); (2) CO2 enrichment study at Kennedy Space Center in Brevard County, Florida: Are there post-fire legacy effects of CO2 fertilization on plant carbon pools following the end of CO2application ? (3) Disney Wilderness Study: What is the overall coarse root biomass and potential for belowground carbon storage in a restored longleaf pine flatwoods system? Can GPR effectively quantify coarse roots in soils that are wetter than the previous sites and that have a high percentage of saw palmetto rhizomes present? (4) Can GPR accurately represent root architecture in a three-dimensional model? When the user is familiar with the equipment and software in a setting that minimizes unsuitable conditions, GPR is a relatively precise, non-destructive, useful tool for estimating coarse root biomass. However, there are a number of cautions and guidelines that should be followed to minimize inaccuracies or situations that are untenable for GPR use. GPR appears to be precise as it routinely predicts highly similar values for a given area across multiple

  20. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... an electromagnetic wave and tested our results against different laboratory experiments. ...

  1. Preliminary Notice of Violation, National Security Technologies, LLC -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    NEA-2011-03 | Department of Energy National Security Technologies, LLC - NEA-2011-03 Preliminary Notice of Violation, National Security Technologies, LLC - NEA-2011-03 August 11, 2011 Issued to National Security Technologies, LLC related to Deficiencies in Inspection and Installation of Penetration Fire Seals and Other Components at the Nevada National Security Site On August 11, 2011, the National Nuclear Security Administration issued a Preliminary Notice of Violation (NEA-2011-03) to

  2. Measurement of in-situ strength using projectile penetration: Tests of a new launching system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hearst, J.R.; Newmark, R.L.; Charest, J.A.; Lynch, C.S.

    1987-10-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a continuing need to measure rock strength in situ, both for simple prediction of cavity size, and as input to computational models. In a previous report we compared two methods for measuring formation strength in situ: projectile penetration and a cone penetrometer. We determined that the projectile method was more promising for application to our large-diameter (2-4-m) hole environment. A major practical problem has been the development of a launcher and an apparatus for measuring depth of penetration that would be suitable for use in large-diameter holes. We are developing a gas-gun launcher system that will be capable of measuring both depth of penetration and deceleration of a reusable projectile. The current version of the launcher is trailer-mounted for testing at our Nevada Test Site (NTS) in tunnels and outcrops, but its design is such that it can be readily adapted for emplacement hole use. We test the current launcher on 60-cm cubes of gypsum cement, mixed to provie a range of densities (1.64 to 2.0 g/cc) and strengths (3 to 17 MPa). We compared depth of penetration of a 84-g projectile from a ''Betsy'' seismic gun - traveling on the order of 500 m/s - with the depth of penetration of a 13-kg projectile from the gas gun - traveling on the order of 30 m/s. For projectiles with the same nose size and shape, impacting targets of approximately constant strength, penetration depth was proportional to projectile kinetic energy. The ratio of kinetic energy to penetration depth was approximately proportional to target strength. Tests in tuffs with a wide range of strengths at NTS gave a similar linear relationship between the ratio of kinetic energy to penetration and target strength, and also a linear relationship between deceleration and strength. It appears that penetration can indeed be used as a semiquantitative measure of strength.

  3. Fast penetration of megagauss fields into metallic conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2014-08-15

    Megagauss magnetic-field penetration into a conducting material is studied via a simplified but representative model, wherein the magnetic-diffusion equation is coupled with a thermal-energy balance. The specific scenario considered is that of a prescribed magnetic field rising (in proportion to an arbitrary power r of time) at the surface of a conducting half-space whose electric conductivity is assumed proportional to an arbitrary inverse power ? of temperature. We employ a systematic asymptotic scheme in which the case of a strong surface field corresponds to a singular asymptotic limit. In this limit, the highly magnetized and hot skin terminates at a distinct propagating wave-front. Employing the method of matched asymptotic expansions, we find self-similar solutions of the magnetized region which match a narrow boundary-layer region about the advancing wave front. The rapidly decaying magnetic-field profile in the latter region is also self similar; when scaled by the instantaneous propagation speed, its shape is time-invariant, depending only on the parameter ?. The analysis furnishes a simple asymptotic formula for the skin-depth (i.e., the wave-front position), which substantially generalizes existing approximations. It scales with the power ?r + 1?2 of time and the power ? of field strength, and is much larger than the field-independent skin depth predicted by an athermal model. The formula further involves a dimensionless O(1) pre-factor which depends on r and ?. It is determined by solving a nonlinear eigenvalue problem governing the magnetized region. Another main result of the analysis, apparently unprecedented, is an asymptotic formula for the magnitude of the current-density peak characterizing the wave-front region. Complementary to these systematic results, we provide a closed-form but ad hoc generalization of the theory approximately applicable to arbitrary monotonically rising surface fields. Our results are in excellent agreement with

  4. Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - Dataset | Department of Energy 6: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 - Dataset Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 fotw#876_web_revised.xlsx (207.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #936: August 1, 2016 California Had the Highest Concentration of Plug-in Vehicles Relative to Population in 2015 Fact #878: June 22, 2015

  5. Fact #878: June 22, 2015 Plug-in Vehicle Penetration in Selected Countries,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2014 - Dataset | Department of Energy 8: June 22, 2015 Plug-in Vehicle Penetration in Selected Countries, 2014 - Dataset Fact #878: June 22, 2015 Plug-in Vehicle Penetration in Selected Countries, 2014 - Dataset Excel file and dataset for Plug-in Vehicle Penetration in Selected Countries, 2014 fotw#878_web.xlsx (21.78 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #892: September 28, 2015 Over One-Million in Plug-in Vehicle Sales Worldwide - Dataset Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric

  6. Modeling and Analysis of High-Penetration PV in Florida | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Modeling and Analysis of High-Penetration PV in Florida Modeling and Analysis of High-Penetration PV in Florida caps-fsu-logo.jpg This project aims to leverage simulation-assisted research and development based on a wide variety of Florida feeders that already incorporate high levels of PV power. Working with utilities, the team at Florida State University's Center for Advanced Power Systems (FSU CAPS) will evaluate and model impacts of the effects of high-penetration PV on

  7. New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar New Study Reveals Multiple Pathways to 30% Penetration of Wind and Solar September 16, 2015 - 6:36pm Addthis A new study published by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) found that the U.S. Eastern Interconnection-one of the largest power systems in the world-can reliably support up to a 30% penetration of wind and solar power. Using high-performance

  8. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  9. Power System Planning: Emerging Practices Suitable for Evaluating the Impact of High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report explores the impact of high-penetration renewable generation on electric power system planning methodologies and outlines how these methodologies are evolving to enable effective integration of variable-output renewable generation sources.

  10. Field measurements of frost penetration into a landfill cover that uses a paper sludge barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K.; LaPlante, C.; Zimmie, T.F.; Quiroz, J.

    1999-07-01

    Frost penetration is a major environmental concern in landfill design. Freezing and thawing cycles may deteriorate the permeability of the liner or cap. In this study, the depth of frost penetration into a landfill cover that uses paper sludge as the impermeable barrier (the Hubbardston landfill in Massachusetts) was measured using a frost measurement system. A thermistor probe measured the temperature at various depths. Although temperature measurements are important, soil resistivity measurements are required to accurately predict the freezing level, since soil resistivity increases greatly upon freezing. A conductivity probe measured the half-bridge voltage between conductivity rings and a ground rod. Data were collected in data loggers. The data collected from 1992--1996 showed that the frost level did not penetrate the paper sludge capping layer. Heavy snow cover throughout the winters decreased the depth of frost penetration by insulating the landfill. The high water content in the sludge also contributed to the lack of freezing.

  11. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating unit patterns are examined for an aggregation of all hydro generators.

  12. Policies and Programs to Integrate High Penetrations of Variable Renewable Energy (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, J.

    2012-06-01

    The goals of this project are to highlight the diverse approaches for enabling high renewable energy penetration; synthesize lessons on effective policies and programs and present avenues for action to energy ministers and other stakeholders.

  13. Impact of High Wind Power Penetration on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B.-M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the impact of this large amount of wind penetration on hydroelectric unit operations. Changes in hydroelectric unit operating patterns are examined both for an aggregation of all hydro generators and for select individual plants.

  14. Use of phosphates to reduce slag penetration in Cr2O3-based refractories

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  15. Use of Phosphates to Reduce Slag Penetration in CR203-Based Refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorus oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  16. The Use Of Phosphates To Reduce Slag Penetration In Cr203-Based Refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  17. NREL: Solar Research - NREL Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Engineers Releases High-Penetration PV Handbook for Distribution Engineers A new resource sponsored by the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative helps distribution engineers understand the challenges of high-penetration PV integration. January 27, 2016 As solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are increasingly installed throughout the country at distribution-level utility scale, a new challenge is emerging: how to safely and effectively integrate greater amounts of variable solar

  18. Prediction of Weld Penetration in FCAW of HSLA steel using Artificial Neural Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asl, Y. Dadgar; Mostafa, N. B.; Panahizadeh, V. R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Seyedkashi, S. M. H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-17

    Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) is a semiautomatic or automatic arc welding process that requires a continuously-fed consumable tubular electrode containing a flux. The main FCAW process parameters affecting the depth of penetration are welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed. Shallow depth of penetration may contribute to failure of a welded structure since penetration determines the stress-carrying capacity of a welded joint. To avoid such occurrences; the welding process parameters influencing the weld penetration must be properly selected to obtain an acceptable weld penetration and hence a high quality joint. Artificial neural networks (ANN), also called neural networks (NN), are computational models used to express complex non-linear relationships between input and output data. In this paper, artificial neural network (ANN) method is used to predict the effects of welding current, arc voltage, nozzle-to-work distance, torch angle and welding speed on weld penetration depth in gas shielded FCAW of a grade of high strength low alloy steel. 32 experimental runs were carried out using the bead-on-plate welding technique. Weld penetrations were measured and on the basis of these 32 sets of experimental data, a feed-forward back-propagation neural network was created. 28 sets of the experiments were used as the training data and the remaining 4 sets were used for the testing phase of the network. The ANN has one hidden layer with eight neurons and is trained after 840 iterations. The comparison between the experimental results and ANN results showed that the trained network could predict the effects of the FCAW process parameters on weld penetration adequately.

  19. Energy Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Our Vision National User Facilities Research Areas In Focus Global Solutions Energy Technologies Area (ETA) Building Technology & Urban Systems Energy Analysis & Environmental...

  20. Terminal ballistics of a reduced-mass penetrator. Final report, January 1990--December 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silsby, G.F.

    1996-07-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to examine the performance of a reduced-mass concept penetrator impacting semi-infinite rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) at normal incidence. The reduced-mass penetrator used in this program is a solid tungsten alloy rod with eight holes drilled parallel to its axis, equally spaced on a circle, with axes parallel to the rod axis. Its performance was contrasted with baseline data for length-to- diameter ratios (L/D) 4 and 5 solid tungsten alloy penetrators. Striking velocity was nominally 1.6 km/s. A determined effort to reduce the scatter in the data by analysis of collateral data from the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and literature sources suggested only a rather weak influence of L/D on penetration even at L/Ds approaching 1 and provided a tentative relationship to remove the influence of target lateral edge effects. It tightened up the holed-out rod data enough to be able to conclude with a moderate degree of certainty that there was no improvement in penetration as suggested by a simplistic density law model. A companion work by Kimsey of ARL examines the performance of this novel penetrator concept computationally, using the Eulerian code CTH. His work explains the possible causes of reduced performance suggested by analysis by Zook and Frank of ARL, though with some relative improvement in performance at higher velocities.

  1. Advanced maintenance, inspection & repair technology for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinton, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Maintenance, inspection, and repair technology for nuclear power plants is outlined. The following topics are discussed: technology for reactor systems, reactor refueling bridge, fuel inspection system, fuel shuffling software, fuel reconstitution, CEA/RCCA/CRA inspection, vessel inspection capabilities, CRDM inspection and repair, reactor internals inspection and repair, stud tensioning system, stud/nut cleaning system, EDM machining technology, MI Cable systems, core exit T/C nozzle assemblies, technology for steam generators, genesis manipulator systems, ECT, UT penetrant inspections, steam generator repair and cleaning systems, technology for balance of plant, heat exchangers, piping and weld inspections, and turbogenerators.

  2. Means for ultrasonic testing when material properties vary

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for maintaining constant sensitivity in an ultrasonic testing device, despite varying attenuation due to the properties of the material being tested. The device includes a sensor transducer for transmitting and receiving a test signal and a monitor transducer positioned so as to receive ultrasonic energy transmitted through the material to be tested. The received signal of the monitor transducer is utilized in analyzing data obtained from the sensor transducer.

  3. Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Sugavanam, Krishnan; Hoenicke, Dirk

    2012-01-24

    Method and apparatus of prefetching streams of varying prefetch depth dynamically changes the depth of prefetching so that the number of multiple streams as well as the hit rate of a single stream are optimized. The method and apparatus in one aspect monitor a plurality of load requests from a processing unit for data in a prefetch buffer, determine an access pattern associated with the plurality of load requests and adjust a prefetch depth according to the access pattern.

  4. Vary_Case_Study_Structure_April_2014.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microscopic Nuclear Structure Theory - Case Study James P. Vary, Iowa State University NERSC Workshop April 29-30, 2014 FRIB HIRFL BRIF Overarching Problem Main hypothesis If the Standard Model is correct, we should be able to accurately describe all nuclear processes Long-term goal Use all fundamental interactions including yet-to-be-discovered interactions to construct a model for the evolution of the entire universe Requirements Major progress with basic theory, algorithms and supercomputer

  5. Simulation Based Method for Measuring Spatially Varying Properties of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutral Atoms and Molecules in Plasmas | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Simulation Based Method for Measuring Spatially Varying Properties of Neutral Atoms and Molecules in Plasmas This Invention is a method for extending the region of applicability of existing diagnostics techniques for characterizing neutral species in plasmas. This technique is designed to extend the range of validity of an absolute experimental determination of the characteristics of neutral species propagating into a

  6. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  7. Exploration Technologies - Technology Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greene, Amanda I.; Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur; Reinhardt, Tim; Solomon, Samantha; James, Mallory

    2011-06-01

    This assessment is a critical component of ongoing technology roadmapping efforts, and will be used to guide the Geothermal Technology Program's research and development.

  8. Exploration Technologies Technology Needs Assessment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Exploration Technologies Needs Assessment is a critical component of ongoing technology roadmapping efforts, and will be used to guide the program's research and development.

  9. High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies High Impact Technology Catalyst: Technology Deployment Strategies The Energy Department released the High Impact Technology Catalyst: ...

  10. NREL: Technology Transfer - Technology Partnership Agreements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ombuds. Printable Version Technology Transfer Home About Technology Transfer Technology Partnership Agreements Agreements for Commercializing Technology CRADAs Work for...

  11. NREL: Technology Transfer - Technologies Available for Licensing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ombuds. Printable Version Technology Transfer Home About Technology Transfer Technology Partnership Agreements Licensing Agreements Technologies Available for Licensing...

  12. Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education & Workforce Development Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology Education (GATE) Vehicle Technologies Office: Graduate Automotive Technology ...

  13. Bending of solitons in weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukherjee, Abhik Janaki, M. S. Kundu, Anjan

    2015-12-15

    The bending of solitons in two dimensional plane is presented in the presence of weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous ion density for the propagation of ion acoustic soliton in unmagnetized cold plasma with isothermal electrons. Using reductive perturbation technique, a modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is obtained with a chosen unperturbed ion density profile. The exact solution of the equation shows that the phase of the solitary wave gets modified by a function related to the unperturbed inhomogeneous ion density causing the soliton to bend in the two dimensional plane, while the amplitude of the soliton remains constant.

  14. Magnetoresistance of polycrystalline gadolinium with varying grain size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravorty, Manotosh Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we report a study of evolution of low field magnetoresistance (MR) of Gadolinium as the grain size in the sample is changed from few microns (∼4 μm) to the nanoscopic regime (∼35 nm). The low field MR has a clear effect on varying grain size. In large grain sample (few μm), the magnetic domains are controlled by local anisotropy field determined mainly by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The low field MR clearly reflects the temperature dependence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. For decreasing gain size, the contribution of spin disorder at the grain boundary increases and enhances the local anisotropy field.

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office - Materials Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Technologies Office Materials Technologies Ed Owens Jerry Gibbs Will Joost eere.energy.gov 2 | Vehicle Technologies Program Materials Technologies Materials Technologies $36.9 M Lightweight Materials $28.0 M Values are FY14 enacted Propulsion Materials $8.9 M Properties and Manufacturing Multi-Material Enabling Modeling & Computational Mat. Sci. Engine Materials, Cast Al & Fe High Temp Alloys Exhaust Sys. Materials, Low T Catalysts Lightweight Propulsion FY13 Enacted $27.5 M

  16. Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a ...

  17. Detecting Cellulase Penetration Into Corn Stover Cell Walls by Immuno-Electron Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donohoe, B. S.; Selig, M. J.; Viamajala, S.; Vinzant, T. B.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.

    2009-06-15

    In general, pretreatments are designed to enhance the accessibility of cellulose to enzymes, allowing for more efficient conversion. In this study, we have detected the penetration of major cellulases present in a commercial enzyme preparation (Spezyme CP) into corn stem cell walls following mild-, moderate- and high-severity dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments. The Trichoderma reesei enzymes, Cel7A (CBH I) and Cel7B (EG I), as well as the cell wall matrix components xylan and lignin were visualized within digested corn stover cell walls by immuno transmission electron microscopy (TEM) using enzyme- and polymer-specific antibodies. Low severity dilute-acid pretreatment (20 min at 100 C) enabled <1% of the thickness of secondary cell walls to be penetrated by enzyme, moderate severity pretreatment at (20 min at 120 C) allowed the enzymes to penetrate {approx}20% of the cell wall, and the high severity (20 min pretreatment at 150 C) allowed 100% penetration of even the thickest cell walls. These data allow direct visualization of the dramatic effect dilute-acid pretreatment has on altering the condensed ultrastructure of biomass cell walls. Loosening of plant cell wall structure due to pretreatment and the subsequently improved access by cellulases has been hypothesized by the biomass conversion community for over two decades, and for the first time, this study provides direct visual evidence to verify this hypothesis. Further, the high-resolution enzyme penetration studies presented here provide insight into the mechanisms of cell wall deconstruction by cellulolytic enzymes.

  18. Innovation in Nuclear Technology for the Least Product Price and Cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, Romney

    2003-09-01

    In energy markets, costs dominate for all new technology introductions (pressure valves, gas turbines, reactors) both now and far into the future. Technology improves, and costs are reduced as markets are penetrated with the trend following a learning/experience curve (MCE) based on classic economic forces. The curve followed is governed by development costs and market targets, and nuclear systems follow such a curve in order to compete with other technologies and projected future cost for alternate energy initiatives. Funding impacts directly on market penetration and on the ''learning rate.'' The CANDU/AECL development path (experience curve) is a chosen balance between evolution and revolution for a competitive advantage.

  19. Varying fine structure 'constant' and charged black holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekenstein, Jacob D.; Schiffer, Marcelo

    2009-12-15

    Speculation that the fine-structure constant {alpha} varies in spacetime has a long history. We derive, in 4-D general relativity and in isotropic coordinates, the solution for a charged spherical black hole according to the framework for dynamical {alpha} J. D. Bekenstein, Phys. Rev. D 25, 1527 (1982).. This solution coincides with a previously known one-parameter extension of the dilatonic black hole family. Among the notable properties of varying-{alpha} charged black holes are adherence to a 'no hair' principle, the absence of the inner (Cauchy) horizon of the Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, the nonexistence of precisely extremal black holes, and the appearance of naked singularities in an analytic extension of the relevant metric. The exteriors of almost extremal electrically (magnetically) charged black holes have simple structures which makes their influence on applied magnetic (electric) fields transparent. We rederive the thermodynamic functions of the modified black holes; the otherwise difficult calculation of the electric potential is done by a shortcut. We confirm that variability of {alpha} in the wake of expansion of the universe does not threaten the generalized second law.

  20. Geothermal Technology Development Program. Annual progress report, October 1983-September 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-08-01

    This report describes the status of ongoing Research and Development (R and D) within the Geothermal Technology Development Program. The work reported is sponsored by the Department of Energy/Geothermal Hydropower Technology Division (DOE/GHTD), with program management provided by Sandia National Laboratories. The program emphasizes research in rock penetration mechanics, fluid technology, borehole mechanics, diagnostics technology, and permeability enhancement. 102 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. Collaboration between varied organizations develops larger, more precise

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Information Systems » Collaboration Tools Collaboration Tools Collaboration is much more than just sharing information. It is a form of teamwork and a process of exchanging ideas that positively impacts progress. While it is relatively easy to collaborate with your peers in the office, effective collaboration is difficult to achieve within distributed teams without use of technology. In order to bridge the distance between project teams, Office of Project Management Oversight & Assessments

  2. Study on mixed convective flow penetration into subassembly from reactor hot plenum in FBRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, J.; Ohshima, H.; Kamide, H.; Ieda, Y.

    1995-09-01

    Fundamental experiments using water were carried out in order to reveal the phenomenon of mixed convective flow penetration into subassemblies from a reactor`s upper plenum of fast breeder reactors. This phenomenon appears under a certain natural circulation conditions during the operation of the direct reactor auxiliary cooling system for decay heat removal and might influence the natural circulation head which determines the core flow rate and therefore affects the core coolability. In the experiment, a simplified model which simulates an upper plenum and a subassembly was used and the ultrasonic velocity profile monitor as well as thermocouples were applied for the simultaneous measurement of velocity and temperature distributions in the subassembly. From the measured data, empirical equations related to the penetration flow onset condition and the penetration depth were obtained using relevant parameters which were derived from dimensional analysis.

  3. High-Penetration Photovoltaics Standards and Codes Workshop, Denver, Colorado, May 20, 2010: Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Kroposki, B.; Basso, T.; Lynn, K.; Herig, C.; Bower, W.

    2010-09-01

    Effectively interconnecting high-level penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems requires careful technical attention to ensuring compatibility with electric power systems. Standards, codes, and implementation have been cited as major impediments to widespread use of PV within electric power systems. On May 20, 2010, in Denver, Colorado, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), held a workshop to examine the key technical issues and barriers associated with high PV penetration levels with an emphasis on codes and standards. This workshop included building upon results of the High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid workshop held in Ontario California on February 24-25, 2009, and upon the stimulating presentations of the diverse stakeholder presentations.

  4. Available Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    application. Search Our Technologies submit Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Biotechnology Biotechnology Chemistry Chemistry Energy Energy High Performance Computing:...

  5. Licensing Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Licensing Technology Licensing Technology The primary function of Los Alamos Licensing Program is to move Los Alamos technology to the marketplace for the benefit of the U.S. economy. Our intellectual property may be licensed for commercial use, research applications, and U.S. government use. Contact thumbnail of Marcus Lucero Head of Licensing Marcus Lucero Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-6569 Email Although Los Alamos's primary mission is national security, our technologies

  6. Technology Opportunities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Intellectual Property » Technology Opportunities Technology Opportunities We deliver innovation through an integrated portfolio of R&D work across our key national security sponsoring agencies, enhanced by the ideas developed through our strategic internal investments. Contact Business Development Team Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation (505) 665-9090 Email Periodically, the Laboratory notifies the public of technologies and capabilities that may be of interest. These technologies may

  7. Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY - DRAFT 1 Advanced Composites Materials and their Manufacture 1 Technology Assessment 2 Contents 3 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ................................................................................................ 2 4 2. Technology Potential and Assessment .................................................................................................. 4 5 2.1 The Potential for Advanced Composites for Clean Energy Application Areas

  8. Fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.

    1990-10-01

    Simulation of the performance of electric lighting systems has been successfully handled using computers, since electric lighting systems have a constant luminous output with respect to intensity and spatial distribution, usually referred to as candlepower distribution, which can be measured and used conveniently. This paper describes an approach of treating fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution, so that the determination of their luminous performance becomes consistent with that of electric lighting systems. The transmitted distribution through fenestration systems due to radiation from the sun, sky and ground is determined from their bidirectional transmittance and the luminance distribution of the sources of radiation. The approach is demonstrated using the experimentally determined bidirectional transmittance of a diffusive sample under the uniform, overcast and clear sky luminance distributions. 6 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Epidemic spreading in time-varying community networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Guangming E-mail: ren-guang-ming@163.com; Faculty of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 ; Wang, Xingyuan E-mail: ren-guang-ming@163.com

    2014-06-15

    The spreading processes of many infectious diseases have comparable time scale as the network evolution. Here, we present a simple networks model with time-varying community structure, and investigate susceptible-infected-susceptible epidemic spreading processes in this model. By both theoretic analysis and numerical simulations, we show that the efficiency of epidemic spreading in this model depends intensively on the mobility rate q of the individuals among communities. We also find that there exists a mobility rate threshold q{sub c}. The epidemic will survive when q?>?q{sub c} and die when q?

  10. Optical waveguide device with an adiabatically-varying width

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watts; Michael R. , Nielson; Gregory N.

    2011-05-10

    Optical waveguide devices are disclosed which utilize an optical waveguide having a waveguide bend therein with a width that varies adiabatically between a minimum value and a maximum value of the width. One or more connecting members can be attached to the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width thereof to support the waveguide bend or to supply electrical power to an impurity-doped region located within the waveguide bend near the maximum value of the width. The impurity-doped region can form an electrical heater or a semiconductor junction which can be activated with a voltage to provide a variable optical path length in the optical waveguide. The optical waveguide devices can be used to form a tunable interferometer (e.g. a Mach-Zehnder interferometer) which can be used for optical modulation or switching. The optical waveguide devices can also be used to form an optical delay line.

  11. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  12. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  13. Slowly Varying Dilaton Cosmologies and Their Field Theory Duals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Awad, Adel; Das, Sumit R.; Ghosh, Archisman; Oh, Jae-Hyuk; Trivedi, Sandip P.; /Tata Inst. /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC

    2011-06-28

    We consider a deformation of the AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} solution of IIB supergravity obtained by taking the boundary value of the dilaton to be time dependent. The time dependence is taken to be slowly varying on the AdS scale thereby introducing a small parameter {epsilon}. The boundary dilaton has a profile which asymptotes to a constant in the far past and future and attains a minimum value at intermediate times. We construct the sugra solution to first non-trivial order in {epsilon}, and find that it is smooth, horizon free, and asymptotically AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} in the far future. When the intermediate values of the dilaton becomes small enough the curvature becomes of order the string scale and the sugra approximation breaks down. The resulting dynamics is analysed in the dual SU(N) gauge theory on S{sup 3} with a time dependent coupling constant which varies slowly. When N{epsilon} << 1, we find that a quantum adiabatic approximation is applicable, and use it to argue that at late times the geometry becomes smooth AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} again. When N{epsilon} >> 1, we formulate a classical adiabatic perturbation theory based on coherent states which arises in the large N limit. For large values of the tHooft coupling this reproduces the supergravity results. For small 'tHooft coupling the coherent state calculations become involved and we cannot reach a definite conclusion. We argue that the final state should have a dual description which is mostly smooth AdS5 space with the possible presence of a small black hole.

  14. Product Binding Varies Dramatically between Processive and Nonprocessive Cellulase Enzymes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bu, L.; Nimlos, M. R.; Shirts, M. R.; Stahlberg, J.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-07-13

    Cellulases hydrolyze {beta}-1,4 glycosidic linkages in cellulose, which are among the most prevalent and stable bonds in Nature. Cellulases comprise many glycoside hydrolase families and exist as processive or nonprocessive enzymes. Product inhibition negatively impacts cellulase action, but experimental measurements of product-binding constants vary significantly, and there is little consensus on the importance of this phenomenon. To provide molecular level insights into cellulase product inhibition, we examine the impact of product binding on processive and nonprocessive cellulases by calculating the binding free energy of cellobiose to the product sites of catalytic domains of processive and nonprocessive enzymes from glycoside hydrolase families 6 and 7. The results suggest that cellobiose binds to processive cellulases much more strongly than nonprocessive cellulases. We also predict that the presence of a cellodextrin bound in the reactant site of the catalytic domain, which is present during enzymatic catalysis, has no effect on product binding in nonprocessive cellulases, whereas it significantly increases product binding to processive cellulases. This difference in product binding correlates with hydrogen bonding between the substrate-side ligand and the cellobiose product in processive cellulase tunnels and the additional stabilization from the longer tunnel-forming loops. The hydrogen bonds between the substrate- and product-side ligands are disrupted by water in nonprocessive cellulase clefts, and the lack of long tunnel-forming loops results in lower affinity of the product ligand. These findings provide new insights into the large discrepancies reported for binding constants for cellulases and suggest that product inhibition will vary significantly based on the amount of productive binding for processive cellulases on cellulose.

  15. Spherical cavity-expansion forcing function in PRONTO 3D for application to penetration problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, T.L.; Tabbara, M.R.

    1997-05-01

    In certain penetration events the primary mode of deformation of the target can be approximated by known analytical expressions. In the context of an analysis code, this approximation eliminates the need for modeling the target as well as the need for a contact algorithm. This technique substantially reduces execution time. In this spirit, a forcing function which is derived from a spherical-cavity expansion analysis has been implemented in PRONTO 3D. This implementation is capable of computing the structural and component responses of a projectile due to three dimensional penetration events. Sample problems demonstrate good agreement with experimental and analytical results.

  16. Fact #875: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 5: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 Fact #875: June 1, 2015 Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are conventional hybrid vehicles that use a gasoline engine with a hybrid electric drive for superior efficiency; they do not plug-in. This type of hybrid vehicle was introduced to the U.S. market in 1999 with the Honda Insight and followed by the Toyota Prius in 2000. After about 15 years of

  17. Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy 6: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 Fact #876: June 8, 2015 Plug-in Electric Vehicle Penetration by State, 2014 Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) include battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The first mass marketed PEVs were introduced in 2010 with the Nissan Leaf, which is a BEV, and the Chevrolet Volt, which is a PHEV. After four years of sales, California had the most PEV registrations of any

  18. The National Energy Strategy - The role of geothermal technology development: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Each year the Geothermal Division of the US Department of Energy conducts an in-depth review of its entire geothermal R D program. The conference serves several purposes: a status report on current R D activities, an assessment of progress and problems, a review of management issues, and a technology transfer opportunity between DOE and the US geothermal industry. Topics in this year's conference included Hydrothermal Energy Conversion Technology, Hydrothermal Reservoir Technology, Hydrothermal Hard Rock Penetration Technology, Hot Dry Rock Technology, Geopressured-Geothermal Technology and Magma Energy Technology. Each individual paper has been cataloged separately.

  19. Method to Reduce Molten Salt Penetration into Bulk Vitrification Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagaasen, L.M.; Hrma, P.R.; Kim, D.S.; Schweiger, M.J.; Matyas, J.; Rodriguez, C.P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA (United States); Witwer, K.S. [AMEC Nuclear Holdings Ltd., GeoMelt Division, Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Bulk vitrification (BV) is a process that heats a feed material consisting of glass-forming solids and dried low-activity waste (LAW) in a disposable refractory-lined metal box using electrical power supplied through carbon electrodes. The feed is heated to the point that the LAW decomposes and combines with the solids to generate a vitreous waste form. However, the castable refractory block (CRB) portion of the refractory lining has sufficient porosity to allow the low-viscosity molten ionic salt (MIS), which contains technetium (Tc) in a soluble form, to penetrate the CRB. This limits the effectiveness of the final waste form. This paper describes tests conducted to develop a method aimed at reducing the quantities of soluble Tc in the CRB. Tests showed that MIS formed in significant quantities at temperatures above 300 deg. C, remained stable until roughly 550 deg. C where it began to thermally decompose, and was completely decomposed by 800 deg. C. The estimated volume fraction of MIS in the feed was greater than 40%, and the CRB material contained 11 to 15% open porosity, a combination allowing a large quantity of MIS to migrate through the feed and penetrate the open porosity of the CRB. If the MIS is decomposed at temperatures below 300 deg. C or can be contained in the feed until it fully decomposes by 800 deg. C, MIS migration into the CRB can be avoided. Laboratory and crucible-scale experiments showed that a variety of methods, individually or in combination, can decrease MIS penetration into the CRB. Modifying the CRB to block MIS penetration was not deemed practical as a method to prevent the large quantities of MIS penetration seen in the full-scale tests, but it may be useful to reduce the impacts of lower levels of MIS penetration. Modifying the BV feed materials to better contain the MIS proved to be more successful. A series of qualitative and quantitative crucible tests were developed that allowed screening of feed modifications that might be

  20. Technology '90

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories have a long history of excellence in performing research and development in a number of areas, including the basic sciences, applied-energy technology, and weapons-related technology. Although technology transfer has always been an element of DOE and laboratory activities, it has received increasing emphasis in recent years as US industrial competitiveness has eroded and efforts have increased to better utilize the research and development resources the laboratories provide. This document, Technology '90, is the latest in a series that is intended to communicate some of the many opportunities available for US industry and universities to work with the DOE and its laboratories in the vital activity of improving technology transfer to meet national needs. Technology '90 is divided into three sections: Overview, Technologies, and Laboratories. The Overview section describes the activities and accomplishments of the DOE research and development program offices. The Technologies section provides descriptions of new technologies developed at the DOE laboratories. The Laboratories section presents information on the missions, programs, and facilities of each laboratory, along with a name and telephone number of a technology transfer contact for additional information. Separate papers were prepared for appropriate sections of this report.

  1. Mobil lube dewaxing technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, C.L.; McGuiness, M.P.

    1995-09-01

    Currently, the lube refining industry is in a period of transition, with both hydroprocessing and catalytic dewaxing gathering momentum as replacements for solvent extraction and solvent dewaxing. In addition, lube product quality requirements have been increasing, both in the US and abroad. Mobil has developed a broad array of dewaxing catalytic technologies which can serve refiners throughout the stages of this transition. In the future, lube feedstocks which vary in source and wax content will become increasingly important, requiring an optimized system for highest performance. The Mobil Lube Dewaxing (MLDW) process is the work-horse of the catalytic dewaxing technologies, being a robust, low cost technology suitable for both solvent extracted and hydrocracked feeds. The Mobil Selective Dewaxing (MSDW) process has been recently introduced in response to the growth of hydroprocessing. MSDW requires either severely hydrotreated or hydrocracked feeds and provides improved lube yields and VI. For refiners with hydrocrackers and solvent dewaxing units, Mobil Wax Isomerization (MWI) technology can make higher VI base stocks to meet the growing demand for very high quality lube products. A review of these three technologies is presented in this paper.

  2. Modeling of Time Varying Slag Flow in Coal Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilli, Siva Prasad; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Williford, Ralph E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Korolev, Vladimir N.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2008-08-30

    There is considerable interest within government agencies and the energy industries across the globe to further advance the clean and economical conversion of coal into liquid fuels to reduce our dependency on imported oil. To date, advances in these areas have been largely based on experimental work. Although there are some detailed systems level performance models, little work has been done on numerical modeling of the component level processes. If accurate models are developed, then significant R&D time might be saved, new insights into the process might be gained, and some good predictions of process or performance can be made. One such area is the characterization of slag deposition and flow on the gasifier walls. Understanding slag rheology and slag-refractory interactions is critical to design and operation of gasifiers with extended refractory lifetimes and also to better control of operating parameters so that the overall gasifier performance with extended service life can be optimized. In the present work, the literature on slag flow modeling was reviewed and a model similar to Seggiani’s was developed to simulate the time varying slag accumulation and flow on the walls of a Prenflo coal gasifier. This model was further extended and modified to simulate a refractory wall gasifier including heat transfer through the refractory wall with flowing slag in contact with the refractory. The model was used to simulate temperature dependent slag flow using rheology data from our experimental slag testing program. These modeling results as well as experimental validation are presented.

  3. Observational constraints on holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Setare, M.R. E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn

    2010-03-01

    We use observational data from Type Ia Supernovae (SN), Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO), Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and observational Hubble data (OHD), and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, to constrain the cosmological scenario of holographic dark energy with varying gravitational constant. We consider both flat and non-flat background geometry, and we present the corresponding constraints and contour-plots of the model parameters. We conclude that the scenario is compatible with observations. In 1? we find ?{sub ?0} = 0.72{sup +0.03}{sub ?0.03}, ?{sub k0} = ?0.0013{sup +0.0130}{sub ?0.0040}, c = 0.80{sup +0.19}{sub ?0.14} and ?{sub G}?G'/G = ?0.0025{sup +0.0080}{sub ?0.0050}, while for the present value of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter we obtain w{sub 0} = ?1.04{sup +0.15}{sub ?0.20}.

  4. Device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R.; Clark, Mark L.; Rossignol, E. John

    1982-01-01

    A device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition comprises a chamber having an inlet at one end and outlet at the other. Between the inlet and outlet there are substantially planar pans or baffles positioned normal to the bulk flow of fluid between the inlet and the outlet. These pans are arranged in pairs. Each pan, except those of the pair most remote from the inlet, is spaced from the walls of the chamber to permit air to flow past it. The pans of each pair are also spaced from each other, in a direction parallel to their planes, leaving an empty space along the mid-plane of the chamber. This produces a circulation and mixing of fluid between the pairs of pans or baffles. A secondary stream of fluid is introduced between two pairs of baffles in the intermediate portion of the chamber, so that the composition of the fluid is different in the portion adjacent to the outlet and the portion adjacent to the inlet. In a specific embodiment, the device is an exposure chamber for experimental animals, and the pans or baffles are catch pans for excrement.

  5. Partially penetrating fractures: Pressure transient analysis of an infinite conductivity fracture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, F.; Cinco-Ley, H.; Horne, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    The effect of the partial penetration of an infinite conductivity fracture on the transient pressure behavior of a vertically fractured well is investigated. Analysis of results shows that the pressure behavior of a well intersected by a partially-penetrating infinite conductivity vertical fracture can be divided into three flow periods: 1) the early time flow period which is characterized by a formation linear flow as in the case of a fully-penetrating infinite-conductivity vertical fracture, 2) the infinite-acting flow period and 3) the pseudoradial flow period which develops after the effects of the vertical boundaries of the reservoir are felt in the pressure behavior of the well. A log-log graph of log(h /SUB f/ /h)p /SUB wD/ versus log t /SUB Dxf/ shows a slope of one half during the early time flow period of a well with an infinite-conductivity partially penetrating fracture. The time for the end of the early time flow period is directly related to the square of the dimensionless height of the fracture, h /SUB fD/, which is defined as the ratio between the height of the fracture and its half length.

  6. Modeling Slag Penetration and Refractory Degradation Using the Finite Element Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Kenneth I.; Williford, Ralph E.; Matyas, Josef; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Sundaram, S. K.; Korolev, Vladimir N.

    2008-09-01

    Refractory degradation due to slag penetration can significantly reduce the service life of gasifier refractory linings. This paper describes a modeling approach that was developed to predict refractory spalling as a function of operating temperature, coal feedstock and refractory type. The model simulates the coupled thermal, diffusion, and mechanical interactions of coal slag with refractory ceramics. The heat transfer and slag diffusion solutions are directly coupled through a temperature-dependent effective diffusivity for slag penetration. The effective diffusivity is defined from slag penetration tests conducted in our laboratories on specific coal slag and refractory combinations. Chemically-induced swelling of the refractory and the build-up of mechanical stresses are functions of the slag penetration. The model results are compared with analytical spalling models and validated by experimental data in order to develop an efficient refractory degradation model for implementation in a systems level gasifier model. The ultimate goal of our research is to provide a tool that will help optimize gasifier performance by balancing conversion efficiency with refractory life.

  7. Final Report- High Penetration Solar PV Deployment Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Florida State University’s Center for Advanced Power Systems and partners in the Sunshine State Solar Grid Initiative (SUNGRIN) have completed a five-year effort aimed at enabling effective integration of high penetration levels of grid-connected solar PV generation.

  8. Method of dispensing droplets to penetration-resistive mediums. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fowler, V.L.; Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.

    1982-06-10

    Uniform, monosized microspheroids are produced in a gelation medium characterized by a high resistance to surface penetration by reducing the effect of impact on entry of the droplets into the medium by contacting the droplet with a stream of medium and by introducing the resulting stream into a gelation column.

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures. Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, Gregory

    2015-09-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures Study (RE Futures)--an analysis of the costs and grid impacts of integrating large amounts of renewable electricity generation into the U.S. power system--examined renewable energy resources, technical issues regarding the integration of these resources into the grid, and the costs associated with high renewable penetration scenarios. These scenarios included up to 90% of annual generation from renewable sources, although most of the analysis was focused on 80% penetration scenarios. Hourly production cost modeling was performed to understand the operational impacts of high penetrations. One of the conclusions of RE Futures was that further work was necessary to understand whether the operation of the system was possible at sub-hourly time scales and during transient events. This study aimed to address part of this by modeling the operation of the power system at sub-hourly time scales using newer methodologies and updated data sets for transmission and generation infrastructure. The goal of this work was to perform a detailed, sub-hourly analysis of very high penetration scenarios for a single interconnection (the Western Interconnection). It focused on operational impacts, and it helps verify that the operational results from the capacity expansion models are useful. The primary conclusion of this study is that sub-hourly operation of the grid is possible with renewable generation levels between 80% and 90%.

  10. Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling Analysis Partnership: An Analysis of How Different Energy Models Addressed a Common High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario in 2025

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, N.; Jenkin, T.; Milford, J.; Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Evans, D.; Lieberman, E.; Goldstein, G.; Wright, E.; Jayaraman, K.; Venkatech, B.; Kleiman, G.; Namovicz, C.; Smith, B.; Palmer, K.; Wiser, R.; Wood, F.

    2009-09-30

    The Renewable Energy and Efficiency Modeling and Analysis Partnership (REMAP) sponsors ongoing workshops to discuss individual 'renewable' technologies, energy/economic modeling, and - to some extent - policy issues related to renewable energy. Since 2002, the group has organized seven workshops, each focusing on a different renewable technology (geothermal, solar, wind, etc.). These workshops originated and continue to be run under an informal partnership of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and the American Council on Renewable Energy (ACORE). EPA originally funded the activities, but support is now shared between EPA and EERE. REMAP has a wide range of participating analysts and models/modelers that come from government, the private sector, and academia. Modelers include staff from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), NREL, EPA, Resources for the Future (RFF), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), Regional Economic Models Inc. (REMI), ICF International, OnLocation Inc., and Boston University. The working group has more than 40 members, which also includes representatives from DOE, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), Massachusetts Renewable Energy Trust, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and ACORE. This report summarizes the activities and findings of the REMAP activity that started in late 2006 with a kickoff meeting, and concluded in mid-2008 with presentations of final results. As the project evolved, the group compared results across models and across technologies rather than just examining a specific technology or activity. The overall goal was to better understand how and why different energy models give similar and

  11. Technology Transfer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology transfer Technology Transfer Since 1974, the Federal Laboratory Consortium (FLC) Award for Excellence in Technology Transfer has recognized scientists and engineers at federal government and research centers for their "uncommon creativity and initiative in conveying innovations from their facilities to industry and local government." Scientists and engineers from more than 650 federal government laboratories and research centers compete for the 30 awards presented each year.

  12. Technology Partnering

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transfer and Related Technology Partnering Activities at the National Laboratories and Other Facilities Fiscal Years 2009-2013 Report to Congress May 2015 United States Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 Message from the Secretary The Report on Technology Transfer and Related Partnering Activities at the National Laboratories and Other Facilities for Fiscal Year 2009-2013 is prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Technology Transfer and Commercialization Act of 2000: It is

  13. Formulation and Characterization of Waste Glasses with Varying Processing Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, M. J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Lepry, William C.; Lang, Jesse B.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Vienna, John D.; Johnson, Fabienne; Marra, James C.; Peeler, David K.

    2011-10-17

    This report documents the preliminary results of glass formulation and characterization accomplished within the finished scope of the EM-31 technology development tasks for WP-4 and WP-5, including WP-4.1.2: Glass Formulation for Next Generation Melter, WP-5.1.2.3: Systematic Glass Studies, and WP-5.1.2.4: Glass Formulation for Specific Wastes. This report also presents the suggested studies for eventual restart of these tasks. The initial glass formulation efforts for the cold crucible induction melter (CCIM), operating at {approx}1200 C, with selected HLW (AZ-101) and LAW (AN-105) successfully developed glasses with significant increase of waste loading compared to that is likely to be achieved based on expected reference WTP formulations. Three glasses formulated for AZ-101HLW and one glass for AN-105 LAW were selected for the initial CCIM demonstration melter tests. Melter tests were not performed within the finished scope of the WP-4.1.2 task. Glass formulations for CCIM were expanded to cover additional HLWs that have high potential to successfully demonstrate the unique advantages of the CCIM technologies based on projected composition of Hanford wastes. However, only the preliminary scoping tests were completed with selected wastes within the finished scope. Advanced glass formulations for the reference WTP melter, operating at {approx}1200 C, were initiated with selected specific wastes to determine the estimated maximum waste loading. The incomplete results from these initial formulation efforts are summarized. For systematic glass studies, a test matrix of 32 high-aluminum glasses was completed based on a new method developed in this study.

  14. Fuels Technologies

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Displacement of petroleum n Approach n Example Project Accomplishments n Research Directions Fuels Technologies R&D Budget by Activities Major Activities FY 2007 ...

  15. NREL: Technology Transfer - Agreements for Commercializing Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    303-384-7353. Printable Version Technology Transfer Home About Technology Transfer Technology Partnership Agreements Agreements for Commercializing Technology CRADAs Work for...

  16. Huazhong Science Technology University Yongtai Science Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Huazhong Science Technology University Yongtai Science Technology Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Huazhong Science & Technology University Yongtai Science & Technology Co...

  17. A general correlation of MPPS penetration as a function of face velocity with the model 8140 using the certitest 8160

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lifshutz, N.; Pierce, M.

    1997-08-01

    The CertiTest 8160 is a Condensation Nucleus Counter (CNC) based filtration test stand which permits measurement of penetration as a function of particle size. The Model 8140 is also a CNC based filtration test stand which provides a single penetration measurement for a fixed particle distribution aerosol challenge. A study was carried out measuring DOP penetration on a broad range of flat filtration media at various face velocities to compare these two instruments. The tests done on the CertiTest 8160 incorporated a range of particle sizes which encompassed the most penetrating particle size (MPPS). In this paper we present a correlation between the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160 and the penetration values obtained on the Model 8140. We observed that at the lowest air face velocities of the study the Model 8140 tended to overpredict the MPPS penetration as measured by the CertiTest 8160. We also present a correlation of MPPS penetration with face velocity which may be of use for extrapolation purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  19. Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roll to Roll (R2R) Processing 1 Technology Assessment 2 3 Contents 4 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 5 1.1. Introduction to R2R Processing..................................................................................................... 2 6 1.2. R2R Processing Mechanisms ......................................................................................................... 3 7 2.

  20. An investigation of penetrant techniques for detection of machining-induced surface-breaking cracks on monolithic ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forster, G.A.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this effort was to evaluate penetrant methods for their ability to detect surface-breaking cracks in monolithic ceramic materials with an emphasis on detection of cracks generated by machining. There are two basic penetrant types, visible and fluorescent. The visible penetrant method is usually augmented by powder developers and cracks detected can be seen in visible light. Cracks detected by fluorescent penetrant are visible only under ultraviolet light used with or without a developer. The developer is basically a powder that wicks up penetrant from a crack to make it more observable. Although fluorescent penetrants were recommended in the literature survey conducted early in this effort, visible penetrants and two non-standard techniques, a capillary gaseous diffusion method under development at the institute of Chemical Physics in Moscow, and the {open_quotes}statiflux{close_quotes} method which involves use of electrically charged particles, were also investigated. SiAlON ring specimens (1 in. diameter, 3/4 in. wide) which had been subjected to different thermal-shock cycles were used for these tests. The capillary gaseous diffusion method is based on ammonia; the detector is a specially impregnated paper much like litmus paper. As expected, visible dye penetrants offered no detection sensitivity for tight, surface-breaking cracks in ceramics. Although the non-standard statiflux method showed promise on high-crack-density specimens, it was ineffective on limited-crack-density specimens. The fluorescent penetrant method was superior for surface-breaking crack detection, but successful application of this procedure depends greatly on the skill of the user. Two presently available high-sensitivity fluorescent penetrants were then evaluated for detection of microcracks on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and SiC from different suppliers. Although 50X optical magnification may be sufficient for many applications, 200X magnification provides excellent delectability.

  1. Technology Commercialization Showcase 2008 Vehicle Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Patrick B.

    2009-06-19

    Presentation illustrating various technology commercialization opportunities and unexploited investment gaps for the Vehicle Technologies Program.

  2. Simulation of interplanetary magnetic field B{sub y} penetration into the magnetotail

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiuling; Shen, Chao; Liu, Zhenxing

    2014-07-15

    Based on our global 3D magnetospheric MHD simulation model, we investigate the phenomena and physical mechanism of the B{sub y} component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) penetrating into the magnetotail. We find that the dayside reconnected magnetic field lines move to the magnetotail, get added to the lobe fields, and are dragged in the IMF direction. However, the B{sub y} component in the plasma sheet mainly originates from the tilt and relative slippage of the south and north lobes caused by plasma convection, which results in the original B{sub z} component in the plasma sheet rotating into a B{sub y} component. Our research also shows that the penetration effect of plasma sheet B{sub y} from the IMF B{sub y} during periods of northward IMF is larger than that during periods of southward IMF.

  3. Measuring fuel contamination using high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, S.P.; Bratton, W.L.; Akard, M.L.

    1995-10-01

    Decision processes during characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites are greatly retarded by the turnaround time and expense incurred through the use of conventional sampling and laboratory analyses. Furthermore, conventional soil and groundwater sampling procedures present many opportunities for loss of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by exposing sample media to the atmosphere during transfers between and among sampling devices and containers. While on-site analysis by conventional gas chromatography can reduce analytical turnaround time, time-consuming sample preparation procedures are still often required, and the potential for loss of VOC is not reduced. This report describes the development of a high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration testing system which can detect and measure subsurface fuel contamination in situ during the cone penetration process.

  4. Effective Ancillary Services Market Designs on High Wind Power Penetration Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Navid, N.; Smith, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power. Ancillary services markets have been developed in many of the restructured power system regions throughout the world. Ancillary services include the services that support the provision of energy to support power system reliability. The ancillary services markets are tied tightly to the design of the energy market and to the physics of the system and therefore careful consideration of power system economics and engineering must be considered in their design. This paper focuses on how the ancillary service market designs are implemented and how they may require changes on systems with greater penetrations of variable renewable energy suppliers, in particular wind power.

  5. Sidetracking technology for coiled-tubing drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leising, L.J.; Doremus, D.M.; Hearn, D.D.; Rike, E.A.; Paslay, P.R.

    1996-05-01

    Coiled-tubing (CT) drilling is a rapidly growing new technology that has been used for shallow new wells and re-entry applications. Through-tubing drilling has evolved as a major application for CT drilling. The remaining key enabling technology for viable through-tubing drilling is the ability to sidetrack in casing below the tubing tail. This paper describes the three technologies developed for sidetracking and presents a mathematical model of forces, penetration rates, and torques for window milling with the cement-sidetracking (CS) technique. Window milling has been a seat of the pants operation in the past. To the authors` knowledge, this is the first published work on the mechanics of window milling. The results from several yard tests and one field test are presented and show some of the problems associated with sidetracking.

  6. Tag: technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tags

    technology<...

  7. Technology Validation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To reduce solar technology risks, DOE and its partners evaluate the performance and reliability of novel photovoltaic (PV) hardware and systems through laboratory and field testing. The focus of...

  8. Verification of Sulfate Attack Penetration Rates for Saltstone Disposal Unit Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flach, G. P.

    2015-05-12

    Recent Special Analysis modeling of Saltstone Disposal Units consider sulfate attack on concrete and utilize degradation rates estimated from Cementitious Barriers Partnership software simulations. This study provides an independent verification of those simulation results using an alternative analysis method and an independent characterization data source. The sulfate penetration depths estimated herein are similar to the best-estimate values in SRNL-STI-2013-00118 Rev. 2 and well below the nominal values subsequently used to define Saltstone Special Analysis base cases.

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Renewable Electricity Futures: Operational Analysis of the Western Interconnection at Very High Renewable Penetrations Gregory Brinkman National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-64467 September 2015 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  10. Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Storage Requirements for Achieving 50% Solar Photovoltaic Energy Penetration in California Paul Denholm and Robert Margolis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-66595 August 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at