National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for techniques micro-earthquake teleseismic-seismic

  1. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  2. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Walker-Lane Transitional Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Walker-Lane Transition Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity...

  3. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At New River Area (DOE GTP) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At New...

  4. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Kilauea Summit Area (Chouet...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Kilauea Summit Area (Chouet & Aki, 1981) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic...

  5. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Yellowstone Region (Chatterjee...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Yellowstone Region (Chatterjee, Et Al., 1985) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  6. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP)...

  7. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal Area (Roberts, Et Al., 1991) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration...

  8. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Lassen Volcanic National Park...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Lassen Volcanic National Park Area (Janik & Mclaren, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  9. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Nw Basin & Range Region (Biasi...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Nw Basin & Range Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  10. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Northern Basin & Range Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  11. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Biasi, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  12. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Map geothermal...

  13. Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Thomas, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity...

  14. Micro-Earthquake At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique Micro-Earthquake Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Update to Warpinski, et al., 2002 References N. R. Warpinski, A. R. Sattler, R. Fortuna, D....

  15. Micro-Earthquake At Snake River Plain Geothermal Region (1976...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Snake River Plain Geothermal Region (1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Snake River...

  16. Micro-Earthquake At Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Northwest Basin and Range Geothermal Region (1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At...

  17. Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Erten & Rial, 1999) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Erten & Rial, 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Erten &...

  18. Micro-Earthquake At Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area (2011)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    At Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area (2011) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Brady Hot Springs Geothermal Area...

  19. Micro-Earthquake At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Katz & J.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Katz & J., 1984) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area...

  20. Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (1979) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  1. Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (2011) Exploration Activity Details Location Raft River...

  2. Micro-Earthquake At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Stroujkova...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Micro-Earthquake At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Stroujkova & Malin, 2001) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity:...

  3. Micro-Earthquake At Marysville Mt Area (Blackwell) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    observed in the geothermal areas in the Salton Sea between 1-10 Hz (in units of power density). Because of this very low background noise the micro-earthquake survey was possible...

  4. Category:Micro-Earthquake | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Geothermal Passive Seismic Techniques...

  5. Micro-Earthquake At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At New River Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  6. Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  7. Analysis of Injection-Induced Micro-Earthquakes in a Geothermal Steam Reservoir, The Geysers Geothermal Field, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Rutqvist, J.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2008-05-15

    In this study we analyze relative contributions to the cause and mechanism of injection-induced micro-earthquakes (MEQs) at The Geysers geothermal field, California. We estimated the potential for inducing seismicity by coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical analysis of the geothermal steam production and cold water injection to calculate changes in stress (in time and space) and investigated if those changes could induce a rock mechanical failure and associated MEQs. An important aspect of the analysis is the concept of a rock mass that is critically stressed for shear failure. This means that shear stress in the region is near the rock-mass frictional strength, and therefore very small perturbations of the stress field can trigger an MEQ. Our analysis shows that the most important cause for injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers is cooling and associated thermal-elastic shrinkage of the rock around the injected fluid that changes the stress state in such a way that mechanical failure and seismicity can be induced. Specifically, the cooling shrinkage results in unloading and associated loss of shear strength in critically shear-stressed fractures, which are then reactivated. Thus, our analysis shows that cooling-induced shear slip along fractures is the dominant mechanism of injection-induced MEQs at The Geysers.

  8. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (2005...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    over a longer period of time Notes The permanent 18-station network of three-component digital seismometers at the seismically active Coso geothermal area, California, provides...

  9. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and slip across the South Moat fault (SMF) in late 1997. We extend the spherical VE shell model of Newman et al. (Newman, A.V., Dixon, T.H., Ofoegbu, G., Dixon, J.E., 2001....

  10. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Northern Basin & Range Region...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown References Glenn Biasi, Leiph Preston, Ileana Tibuleac (2009) Body Wave Tomography For Regional Scale Assessment Of Geothermal Indicators In The Western...

  11. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Central Nevada Seismic Zone...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown References Glenn Biasi, Leiph Preston, Ileana Tibuleac (2009) Body Wave Tomography For Regional Scale Assessment Of Geothermal Indicators In The Western...

  12. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Nw Basin & Range Region (Biasi...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown References Glenn Biasi, Leiph Preston, Ileana Tibuleac (2009) Body Wave Tomography For Regional Scale Assessment Of Geothermal Indicators In The Western...

  13. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and 3703 picks from the 1994 survey). References Lee K. Steck, Clifford H. Thurber, Michael C. Fehler, William J. Lutter, Peter M. Roberts, W. Scott Baldridge, Darrik G....

  14. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and 3703 picks from the 1994 survey). References Lee K. Steck, Clifford H. Thurber, Michael C. Fehler, William J. Lutter, Peter M. Roberts, W. Scott Baldridge, Darrik G....

  15. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    source material to write exploration activity summary. References Takeshi Nishimura, Michael Fehler, W. Scott Baldridge, Peter Roberts, Lee Steck (1997) Heterogeneous...

  16. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Basis Full text unavailable. Notes Full text unavailable. References Takeshi Nishimura, Michael Fehler, W. Scott Baldridge, Peter Roberts, Lee Steck (1997) Heterogeneous...

  17. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (2011...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Date 2011 - 2012 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Map hydraulic structure within the field from seismic data Notes 2011: 16 years of seismicity were...

  18. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (2004...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for the optimal solution which best predicts observed travel times. In each case the models predict a nearly vertical scatterer southwest of stations S4 and Y4, each southeast...

  19. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Hawthorne Area (Lazaro, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GPO has contracted the University of Nevada Reno Great Basin for Center for Geothermal Research to conduct additional field exploration at HAD. The tasks required by the Navy...

  20. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Clear Lake Area (Skokan, 1993...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    4 illustrates seismicity from January of 1969 to June of 1977 (Rapolla and Keller, 1984). During this span, most of the seismicity occurred in the region of the Geysers...

  1. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1975...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    array of 26 three-component stations near the center of the anomaly. References Young, C.Y.; Ward, R.W. (1 May 1980) Three-dimensional Q (super -1) model of the Coso Hot...

  2. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Yellowstone Region (Husen,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Stephan Husen, Robert B. Smith, Gregory P. Waite (2004) Evidence For Gas And Magmatic Sources Beneath The Yellowstone...

  3. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring (Foulger, 1982) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes General review of passive seismic methods applied to geothermal exploration. References G. Foulger (1982) Geothermal...

  4. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1996...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    network. The results show irregular strengthening with time of the wave-speed ratio V pV s at shallow depths. The period from 1996 through 2006 was studied, and the results...

  5. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1983...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Basis To study anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust Notes V s and V p wave amplitudes were measured from vertical component seismograms of...

  6. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1988...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    VpVs variation Notes A tomographic inversion for the 3D variations of the VpV s, the ratio of compressional to shear velocity, was performed. Iterative back...

  7. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (2006...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Basis To assess the benefits of surface seismic surveys Notes Different migration procedures were applied to image a synthetic reservoir model and seismic data. After...

  8. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1980...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it is elongate in approximately the N-S direction. References Reasenberg, P.; Ellisworth, W.; Walter, A. (10 May 1980) Teleseismic evidence for a low-velocity body under the Coso...

  9. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Kilauea Southwest Rift And...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of high b-value anomalies withmagma reservoirs is confirmed. References M. Wyss, F. Klein, K. Nagamine, S. Wiemer (2001) Anomalously High B-Values In The South Flank Of Kilauea...

  10. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Geysers Area (Zucca, Et Al...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Monitoring Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References J. J. Zucca, L. J. Hutchings, P. W. Kasameyer (1994) Seismic Velocity And Attenuation...

  11. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1998...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for an earthquake of comparable magnitude at the Coso region. References Bhattacharyya, J.; Gross, S.; Lees, J.; Hastings, M. (1 June 1999) Recent earthquake sequences at Coso:...

  12. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Abstract does not describe study in explicit detail, need to obtain actual source material to write exploration activity summary. References Peter M. Roberts, Keiiti Aki,...

  13. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    H. Ibser, Jennifer Lewicki, B. Mack. Kennedy, Michael Swyer (2013) Egs Exploration Methodology Project Using the Dixie Valley Geothermal System, Nevada, Status Update Ileana M....

  14. Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Valles Caldera - Redondo Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - 1987 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes The authors have described the experimental details, data analysis and forward modeling for scattered-wave amplitude data...

  15. Micro-Earthquake | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as well as fluid expansioncompression. Measurement of microseismicity can aid in the management of reinjection during the production of the geothermal field. Levels of...

  16. Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    potential as part of the coordinated exploration program for geothermal sources on the Big Island of Hawaii. Notes A two week micro-seismic study in the Puna district was...

  17. Micro-Earthquake At Raft River Geothermal Area (1982) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zandt, G.; Mcpherson, L.; Schaff, S.; Olsen, S. (1 May 1982) Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho Additional References...

  18. Micro-Earthquake At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Zandt...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Zandt, G.; Mcpherson, L.; Schaff, S.; Olsen, S. (1 May 1982) Seismic baseline and induction studies- Roosevelt Hot Springs, Utah and Raft River, Idaho Additional References...

  19. Micro-Earthquake At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Nichols...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    seismic sensor, a data acquisition system that records information onto flash drives, a solar panel and battery, and a fence to keep cows out. References Scott Nichols, David...

  20. Micro-Earthquake At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Ward...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area. References S. H. Ward, W. T. Parry, W. P. Nash, W. R. Sill, K. L. Cook, R. B. Smith, D. S. Chapman, F. H. Brown, J. A. Whelan, J. R. Bowman (1978) A Summary of the...

  1. Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Gardner...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of faults as well as produce an accurate velocity model of the region. References Murray C. Gardner, James R. McNitt, Christopher W. Klein, James B. Koenig, Dean Nakano (1995)...

  2. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at The Geysers and Coso Geothermal Reservoirs by Shear-wave Splitting, Rial, Elkibbi, Yang and Pereyra. The raw data for the project consists of seismographic recordings of...

  3. Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at The Geysers and Coso Geothermal Reservoirs by Shear-wave Splitting, Rial, Elkibbi, Yang and Pereyra. The raw data for the project consists of seismographic recordings of...

  4. Micro-Earthquake At North Brawley Geothermal Area (Hauksson,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    data is available to be used for a more localized studies. References E. Hauksson, W. Yang, P. M. Shearer (2012) Waveform Relocated Earthquake Catalog for Southern California...

  5. Micro-Earthquake At New York Canyon Geothermal Area (2011) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock, D.; Peterson, J.; Jarpe, S. (1 January 2011) DOE REAL-TIME SEISMIC MONITORING AT ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM SITES Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  6. Micro-Earthquake At Desert Peak Geothermal Area (2011) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock, D.; Peterson, J.; Jarpe, S. (1 January 2011) DOE REAL-TIME SEISMIC MONITORING AT ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM SITES Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  7. Micro-Earthquake At Newberry Caldera Geothermal Area (2011) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock, D.; Peterson, J.; Jarpe, S. (1 January 2011) DOE REAL-TIME SEISMIC MONITORING AT ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM SITES Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  8. Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Rock, D.; Peterson, J.; Jarpe, S. (1 January 2011) DOE REAL-TIME SEISMIC MONITORING AT ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM SITES Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  9. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1974) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    as many as 100 or more distinct local events; more than two thousand events with S-P times of less than three seconds were detected; observed low value for Poisson's ratio which...

  10. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1987) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    variations in the Coso region, California, derived from local earthquake travel times Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMicro-Ear...

  11. Micro-Earthquake At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Faulder...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Exploration Basis Faulder 1991 Conceptual Geological Model compilation and literature review of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area. Notes P-wave passive seismic...

  12. Micro-Earthquake (Majer, 2003) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Notes The goal of this work is to evaluate the most promising methods and approaches that may be used for improved geothermal exploration and reservoir...

  13. Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (Kenedi...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    identify fault and fracture orientations, and locate zones of high and low velocities. Based on earthquake sizes, locations, and depths the evidence from this study suggests...

  14. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2000) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 km. It was calculate that there are 375 good quality mini-array beamed receiver functions for teleseismic events. References Gilbert, H.J.; Wilson, C.K. ; Jones, C.H.;...

  15. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2007) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    area Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R. (1 January 2010) IMPROVED METHODS FOR MAPPING PERMEABILITY AND HEAT SOURCES IN GEOTHERMAL AREAS USING MICROEARTHQUAKE DATA Additional...

  16. Micro-Earthquake At Waunita Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Lange...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    assess the extent of active fault failure and the potential importance of fracture permeability in the subsurface surrounding the hot springs. Notes The first documented...

  17. Micro-Earthquake At Chena Geothermal Area (Holdmann, Et Al.,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activity Date 2006 - 2007 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Microseismic- Exploration program undertaken by the DOE-funded Geothermal Resource...

  18. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2011) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis To analyze temporal velocity variations Notes Microseismic data recorded between 1996 and 2008 was used to determine the temporally...

  19. Micro-Earthquake At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    running orthogonal to each other which are presumably related to the fault system. The microseismic survey resulted in the detection of a number of shallow microseisms that...

  20. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1996) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at 0.5 to 1.2 km in depth below Devil's Kitchen, Nicol Prospects, and Coso Hot Springs. A vertical, low Q ( 36 in contrast with surrounding rock of 80) region is interpreted as...

  1. Micro-Earthquake At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Foulger...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    shear and extensional faulting with a volume-compensating process, such as rapid flow of water, steam, or CO2 into opening tensile cracks. Source orientations of earthquakes in...

  2. Research Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Techniques Research Techniques Print Coming Soon

  3. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1993-1994) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the injection wells. References Feng, Q.; Lees, J.M. (15 April 1998) Microseismicity, stress, and fracture in the Coso geothermal field, California Additional References Retrieved...

  4. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (2002-2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reservoir crack characterization: the Coso geothermal field Rial, J.A.; Elkibbi, M.; Yang, M. (1 January 2005) Shear-wave splitting as a tool for the characterization of...

  5. Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at 655 m depth in PC-1. Nine surface seismic stations were also operated during the MHF Test to aid in environmental monitoring. Fehler et al. (1987) developed a three point...

  6. Micro-Earthquake At Geysers Area (Malin, Et Al., 2004) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Peter E. Malin, Eylon Shalev, Min Lou, Silas M. Simiyu, Anastasia Stroujkova, Windy McCausland (2004) A Comprehensive Study Of Fracture Patterns And Densities In The...

  7. Micro-Earthquake At Coso Geothermal Area (1992-1997) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    processed. From the delay time of split shear waves, it was estimated that the crack density in the most active geothermal reservoir area (above 3 km depth) ranges between 0.030...

  8. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  9. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied ScienceTechniques Print The ALS is an excellent incubator of new scientific techniques and instrumentation. Many of the technical advances that make the ALS a world-class...

  10. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes ... The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Laser ...

  11. Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Electromagnetic Techniques Information...

  12. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  13. Electromagnetic Sounding Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock...

  14. Electromagnetic Profiling Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock...

  15. CNEEC - Synchrotron Techniques Tutorial by Profs. Pianetta and Toney

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Techniques

  16. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  17. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  18. Weld braze technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanne, Jr., William R.; Kelker, Jr., John W.; Alexander, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation.

  19. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  20. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  1. Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Physical Properties See Electrical Techniques Electromagnetic techniques utilize EM induction processes to measure one or more electric or magnetic field components resulting...

  2. Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal: Resistivity influenced by temperature Dictionary.png Electrical Techniques: Electrical techniques aim to image the...

  3. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  4. Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  5. Borehole Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Downhole Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  6. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  7. Diagnostic techniques used in AVLIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heestand, G.M.; Beeler, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    This is the second part of a general overview talk on the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. In this presentation the authors will discuss the diagnostic techniques used to measure key parameters in their atomic vapor including densities, temperature, velocities charge exchange rates and background ionization levels. Although these techniques have been extensively applied to their uranium program they do have applicability to other systems. Relevant data demonstrating these techniques will be shown.

  8. Gravity Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in density, such as at fault contacts. 2 Gravity techniques are also applied towards reservoir monitoring for subsidence and mass gain or loss within a geothermal reservoir...

  9. Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in-situ within the well, downhole techniques are capable of accurately constraining these reservoir parameters relative to depth.2 Gaining an understanding of these reservoir...

  10. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  11. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  12. techniques | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and discussion of smart grid technologies, tools, and techniques. The Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is authorized by the Energy Independence and Security Act of...

  13. Form:ExplorationTechnique | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Technique below. If the technique already exists, you will be able to edit its information. AddEdit Technique Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  14. Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Formation Testing Techniques Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0)...

  15. Twistor inspired techniques in QCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duhr, C.

    2008-08-29

    I present a short review of the new twistor inspired techniques in perturbative QCD, which are the result of Witten's conjecture of a duality between twistors and string theory. I give an introduction to the main two tree-level techniques, the BCFW recursion and the CSW formalism, and show how the idea of using on-shell QCD amplitudes evaluated for complex momenta can lead to efficient techniques to perform analytic computations. Finally, I briefly discuss how these ideas can be applied to loop calculations if they are combined to the generalized unitarity approach.

  16. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The airtightness of a building can be determined by using several methods. Learn how the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique provides information about air leakage and energy loss.

  17. Techniques for multiboson interferometry (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Techniques for multiboson interferometry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Techniques for multiboson interferometry Authors: Gangadharan, Dhevan Publication Date: ...

  18. Category:Magnetotelluric Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magnetotelluric Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Magnetotelluric Techniques page? For detailed...

  19. Authentication techniques for smart cards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1994-02-01

    Smart card systems are most cost efficient when implemented as a distributed system, which is a system without central host interaction or a local database of card numbers for verifying transaction approval. A distributed system, as such, presents special card and user authentication problems. Fortunately, smart cards offer processing capabilities that provide solutions to authentication problems, provided the system is designed with proper data integrity measures. Smart card systems maintain data integrity through a security design that controls data sources and limits data changes. A good security design is usually a result of a system analysis that provides a thorough understanding of the application needs. Once designers understand the application, they may specify authentication techniques that mitigate the risk of system compromise or failure. Current authentication techniques include cryptography, passwords, challenge/response protocols, and biometrics. The security design includes these techniques to help prevent counterfeit cards, unauthorized use, or information compromise. This paper discusses card authentication and user identity techniques that enhance security for microprocessor card systems. It also describes the analysis process used for determining proper authentication techniques for a system.

  20. Multi-scale Shock Technique

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-08-01

    The code to be released is a new addition to the LAMMPS molecular dynamics code. LAMMPS is developed and maintained by Sandia, is publicly available, and is used widely by both natioanl laboratories and academics. The new addition to be released enables LAMMPS to perform molecular dynamics simulations of shock waves using the Multi-scale Shock Simulation Technique (MSST) which we have developed and has been previously published. This technique enables molecular dynamics simulations of shockmore » waves in materials for orders of magnitude longer timescales than the direct, commonly employed approach.« less

  1. New Techniques for Particle Acclerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1990-06-01

    A review is presented of the new techniques which have been proposed for use in particle accelerators. Attention is focused upon those areas where significant progress has been made in the last two years--in particular, upon two-beam accelerators, wakefield accelerators, and plasma focusers.

  2. Data mining and visualization techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Chung; Whitney, Paul; Thomas, Jim

    2004-03-23

    Disclosed are association rule identification and visualization methods, systems, and apparatus. An association rule in data mining is an implication of the form X.fwdarw.Y where X is a set of antecedent items and Y is the consequent item. A unique visualization technique that provides multiple antecedent, consequent, confidence, and support information is disclosed to facilitate better presentation of large quantities of complex association rules.

  3. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements You are...

  4. Techniques for multiboson interferometry (Journal Article) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Techniques for multiboson interferometry Title: Techniques for multiboson interferometry Authors: Gangadharan, Dhevan Publication Date: 2015-07-08 OSTI Identifier: 1198623 Grant...

  5. Category:Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Downhole Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Downhole Techniques page? For detailed information on Downhole...

  6. Category:Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Seismic Techniques page? For detailed information on Seismic...

  7. Category:Geophysical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geophysical Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Geophysical Techniques page? For detailed information on...

  8. Category:Drilling Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drilling Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Drilling Techniques page? For detailed information on Drilling...

  9. Category:Magnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Magnetic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Magnetic Techniques page? For detailed information on Magnetic...

  10. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques For Locating Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Remote Sensing Techniques For Locating Geothermal Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Poster: Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques For...

  11. Category:Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resistivity Survey E Electrical Techniques Electromagnetic Techniques R Radiometrics S Self Potential T Telluric Survey Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  12. Category:Geochemical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Technique Subcategories This category has only the following subcategory. G + Geochemical Data Analysis (2 categories) 4 pages Pages in category "Geochemical...

  13. Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Innovative Exploration ...

  14. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcus, Ryan C.

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  15. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hisham Kamal Sayed

    2011-05-31

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  16. Repositioning of Covered Stents: The Grip Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, John Martin; Guo Xiaofeng; Midia, Mehran

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: Retrieval and repositioning of a stent deployed beyond its intended target region may be a difficult technical challenge. Materials and Methods: A balloon-mounted snare technique, a variant of the coaxial loop snare technique, is described. Results: The technique is described for the repositioning of a covered transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt stent and a covered biliary stent. Conclusion: The balloon-mounted snare technique is a useful technique for retrieval of migrated stents.

  17. Subranging technique using superconducting technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gupta, Deepnarayan

    2003-01-01

    Subranging techniques using "digital SQUIDs" are used to design systems with large dynamic range, high resolution and large bandwidth. Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) embodying the invention include a first SQUID based "coarse" resolution circuit and a second SQUID based "fine" resolution circuit to convert an analog input signal into "coarse" and "fine" digital signals for subsequent processing. In one embodiment, an ADC includes circuitry for supplying an analog input signal to an input coil having at least a first inductive section and a second inductive section. A first superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) is coupled to the first inductive section and a second SQUID is coupled to the second inductive section. The first SQUID is designed to produce "coarse" (large amplitude, low resolution) output signals and the second SQUID is designed to produce "fine" (low amplitude, high resolution) output signals in response to the analog input signals.

  18. EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For more information on the usability techniques associated with the templates, see EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook, which is a collection of best practices for creating and running different kinds of user-centered design projects.

  19. NREL: Measurements and Characterization - Capacitance Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photoluminescence Spectroscopy Minority-Carrier Lifetime Spectroscopy Fourier-Transform Infrared & Raman Spectroscopy Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Capacitance Techniques Scanning ...

  20. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM's design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  1. Survey of data compression techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gryder, R.; Hake, K.

    1991-09-01

    PM-AIM must provide to customers in a timely fashion information about Army acquisitions. This paper discusses ways that PM-AIM can reduce the volume of data that must be transmitted between sites. Although this paper primarily discusses techniques of data compression, it also briefly discusses other options for meeting the PM-AIM requirements. The options available to PM-AIM, in addition to hardware and software data compression, include less-frequent updates, distribution of partial updates, distributed data base design, and intelligent network design. Any option that enhances the performance of the PM-AIM network is worthy of consideration. The recommendations of this paper apply to the PM-AIM project in three phases: the current phase, the target phase, and the objective phase. Each recommendation will be identified as (1) appropriate for the current phase, (2) considered for implementation during the target phase, or (3) a feature that should be part of the objective phase of PM-AIM`s design. The current phase includes only those measures that can be taken with the installed leased lines. The target phase includes those measures that can be taken in transferring the traffic from the leased lines to the DSNET environment with minimal changes in the current design. The objective phase includes all the things that should be done as a matter of course. The objective phase for PM-AIM appears to be a distributed data base with data for each site stored locally and all sites having access to all data.

  2. Argonne National Laboratory Scientists Invent Breakthrough Technique...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Bahns and Argonne scientist Liaohai Chen had been investigating carbon in soil using a laser-based technique called Raman spectroscopy. They added gold nanoparticles to their ...

  3. Accelerated Technique for Carbon Mesoporous Materials - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Accelerated Technique for Carbon Mesoporous Materials Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology...

  4. Airborne electromagnetic surveys as a reconnaissance technique...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    it was thought that a shallow exploration technique would not be effective. Extensive audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) work by the USGS in KGRA's showed that many geothermal systems...

  5. Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Load Control Techniques for Wind Turbines Scott J. Johnson and C. P. "Case" van Dam Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering University of California One ...

  6. Transportation Techniques LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques LLC Place: Denver, CO, Colorado Zip: 80205 Sector: Vehicles Product: Colorado-USA-based company that uses patented series hybrid technology to design and develop hybrid...

  7. Category:Data Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 pages G Geographic Information System 1 pages Geothermal Literature Review 1 pages Pages in category "Data Techniques" The following 4 pages are in...

  8. EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    see EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook, which is a collection of best practices for creating and running different kinds of user-centered design projects. ...

  9. Tomographic inversion techniques incorporating physical constraints...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    In the case of low signal levels or partial spatial coverage of the plasma cross-section, standard inversion techniques utilizing matrix inversion and linear-regularization often ...

  10. Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Materialscientist, Wikipedia) (click image to enlarge) Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable alternative to platinum By Angela Hardin * October 26, 2015...

  11. Comparison of 17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques for Immersion Freezing For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  12. Footprinting Technique Gives ALS Users New Insights

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    left: Research Scientist Sayan Gupta, Beamline 5.3.1 Scientist Rich Celestre, and BCSB Head Corie Ralston. XFP, a powerful technique for the study of macromolecular structures...

  13. Category:Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    3 subcategories, out of 3 total. A Airborne Electromagnetic Survey 1 pages G + Ground Electromagnetic Techniques (2 categories) 3 pages S Self Potential...

  14. Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale Debugging...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... years of CoPS research, significant work remains. While STAT provides scalable debugging assistance for incorrect application runs, we could apply its techniques to assertions ...

  15. Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico ... geothermal exploration project in New Mexico since Fenton Hill at nearby Valles caldera. ...

  16. Eddy current technique for predicting burst pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petri, Mark C.; Kupperman, David S.; Morman, James A.; Reifman, Jaques; Wei, Thomas Y. C.

    2003-01-01

    A signal processing technique which correlates eddy current inspection data from a tube having a critical tubing defect with a range of predicted burst pressures for the tube is provided. The method can directly correlate the raw eddy current inspection data representing the critical tubing defect with the range of burst pressures using a regression technique, preferably an artificial neural network. Alternatively, the technique deconvolves the raw eddy current inspection data into a set of undistorted signals, each of which represents a separate defect of the tube. The undistorted defect signal which represents the critical tubing defect is related to a range of burst pressures utilizing a regression technique.

  17. Opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique for highperformance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Jae-Sung [Purdue University; Ravindranath, Sandeep [Purdue University; Kumar, Aloke [ORNL; Irudayaraj, Joseph [Purdue University; Wereley, Steven T. [Purdue University

    2012-01-01

    This communication first demonstrates bio-compatibility of a recently developed opto-electrokinetic manipulation technique, using microorganisms. Aggregation, patterning, translation, trapping and size-based separation of microorganisms performed with the technique firmly establishes its usefulness for development of a high-performance on-chip bioassay system.

  18. Waterflood surveillance techniques; A reservoir management approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thakur, G.C. )

    1991-10-01

    The reservoir management aspects of waterflooding span the time before the start of waterflood to the time when the secondary recovery either is uneconomic or is changed to an enhanced recovery. This paper reviews waterflood techniques and reports on surveillance techniques in the management of waterflooding of oil wells.

  19. Ion beam analysis techniques in interdisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-11-16

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  20. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects A technique for ...

  1. PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infiltration Measurement Technique PFT Air Infiltration Measurement Technique The Brookhaven National Laboratory developed the PFT (PerFluorocarbon tracer gas) technique to...

  2. Superhydrophobic Materials Technology-PVC Bonding Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Scott R.; Efird, Marty

    2013-05-03

    The purpose of the technology maturation project was to develop an enhanced application technique for applying diatomaceous earth with pinned polysiloxane oil to PVC pipes and materials. The oil infiltration technique is applied as a spray of diluted oil in a solvent onto the superhydrophobic diatomaceous earth substrate. This makes the surface take on the following characteristics: wet-cleanable; anti-biofouling; waterproof; and anti-corrosion. The project involved obtaining input and supplies from VeloxFlow and the development of successful techniques that would quickly result in a commercial license agreement with VeloxFlow and other companies that use PVC materials in a variety of other fields of use.

  3. Category:Field Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sampling Field Techniques H Hand-held X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) P Portable X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleCategory:FieldTechniq...

  4. A Survey of Techniques for Approximate Computing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2016-03-18

    Approximate computing trades off computation quality with the effort expended and as rising performance demands confront with plateauing resource budgets, approximate computing has become, not merely attractive, but even imperative. Here, we present a survey of techniques for approximate computing (AC). We discuss strategies for finding approximable program portions and monitoring output quality, techniques for using AC in different processing units (e.g., CPU, GPU and FPGA), processor components, memory technologies etc., and programming frameworks for AC. Moreover, we classify these techniques based on several key characteristics to emphasize their similarities and differences. Finally, the aim of this paper is tomore » provide insights to researchers into working of AC techniques and inspire more efforts in this area to make AC the mainstream computing approach in future systems.« less

  5. Techniques for preventing accidental damage to pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lothon, A.; Akel, S.

    1996-12-31

    Following a survey of all of the techniques capable of preventing third-party damage to its gas transmission pipelines, Gaz de France has selected two of them, Electromagnetic Detection and Positioning by Satellite. The first technique is based on detection of the magnetic field existing around transmission pipes excited by a driving current. A receiver is mounted on the excavation equipment to detect the magnetic field, thereby preventing any risk of hitting the pipe. The second technique consists in locating excavators by satellite. Each excavator needs to be equipped with a GPS beacon to know its position. Using the map of the transmission network stored in data-base form, i.e., digitized, the system calculates the position of the excavator relative to the pipes buried in its vicinity so as to avoid any accidental contact. The main features, advantages and drawbacks of the two techniques are presented in this paper.

  6. Internal Benchmarking Outreach and Data Collection Techniques

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance Program (TAP) presentation at a TAP webinar held on April 11, 2013 and dealing with internal benchmarking outreach and data collection techniques.

  7. Data Capture Technique for High Speed Signaling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, Wayne Melvin; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul William; Gara, Alan Gene; Jackson, Rory; Kopcsay, Gerard Vincent; Nathanson, Ben Jesse; Vranas, Paylos Michael; Takken, Todd E.

    2008-08-26

    A data capture technique for high speed signaling to allow for optimal sampling of an asynchronous data stream. This technique allows for extremely high data rates and does not require that a clock be sent with the data as is done in source synchronous systems. The present invention also provides a hardware mechanism for automatically adjusting transmission delays for optimal two-bit simultaneous bi-directional (SiBiDi) signaling.

  8. Microcrystallization techniques for serial femtosecond crystallography

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus as a model system Microcrystallization techniques for serial femtosecond crystallography using Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus as a model system Authors: Kupitz, C., Grotjohann, I., Conrad, C.E., Roy-Chowdhury, S., Fromme, R., and Fromme, P. Title: Microcrystallization techniques for serial femtosecond crystallography using Photosystem II from Thermosynechococcus elongatus as a model system Source: Phil. Trans. R. Soc.

  9. Techniques for Bs Mixing at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salamanna, Giuseppe; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2005-12-01

    The techniques used to perform a measurement of the mixing frequency of the B{sub s} meson ({Delta}M{sub s}) with the CDF detector at the TeVatron collider are described. Particular stress is put on CDF techniques for flavor tagging, which is possibly the major issue for mixing measurements at a hadron collider. Also CDF performances on lifetime and final state reconstruction are described. The final result of the amplitude scanning presented at 2005 Winter Conferences is reported.

  10. New technique images nanoparticles in solution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technique images nanoparticles in solution Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) A technique called SINGLE uses in situ transmission electron microscopy imaging of platinum nanocrystals freely rotating in a graphene liquid cell to determine the 3-D structures of individual colloidal nanoparticles. (Image: Berkeley Lab) More » Nanotubes that

  11. Lidar techniques for search and rescue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four techniques for using LIDAR in Search and Rescue Operations will be discussed. The topic will include laser retroreflection, laser-induced fluorescence in the visible, laser-induced fluorescence during daylight hours, and laser-induced fluorescence in the uv. These techniques use high-repetition rate lasers at a variety of frequencies to induce either fluorescence in dye markers or retroreflection from plastic corner cubes on life preservers and other emergency markers.

  12. Method for automatically evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2003-09-30

    A method for automatically evaluating a manufacturing technique comprises the steps of: receiving from a user manufacturing process step parameters characterizing a manufacturing process; accepting from the user a selection for an analysis of a particular lean manufacturing technique; automatically compiling process step data for each process step in the manufacturing process; automatically calculating process metrics from a summation of the compiled process step data for each process step; and, presenting the automatically calculated process metrics to the user. A method for evaluating a transition from a batch manufacturing technique to a lean manufacturing technique can comprise the steps of: collecting manufacturing process step characterization parameters; selecting a lean manufacturing technique for analysis; communicating the selected lean manufacturing technique and the manufacturing process step characterization parameters to an automatic manufacturing technique evaluation engine having a mathematical model for generating manufacturing technique evaluation data; and, using the lean manufacturing technique evaluation data to determine whether to transition from an existing manufacturing technique to the selected lean manufacturing technique.

  13. Coscheduling Technique for Symmetric Multiprocessor Clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, A B; Jette, M A

    2000-09-18

    Coscheduling is essential for obtaining good performance in a time-shared symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) cluster environment. However, the most common technique, gang scheduling, has limitations such as poor scalability and vulnerability to faults mainly due to explicit synchronization between its components. A decentralized approach called dynamic coscheduling (DCS) has been shown to be effective for network of workstations (NOW), but this technique is not suitable for the workloads on a very large SMP-cluster with thousands of processors. Furthermore, its implementation can be prohibitively expensive for such a large-scale machine. IN this paper, they propose a novel coscheduling technique based on the DCS approach which can achieve coscheduling on very large SMP-clusters in a scalable, efficient, and cost-effective way. In the proposed technique, each local scheduler achieves coscheduling based upon message traffic between the components of parallel jobs. Message trapping is carried out at the user-level, eliminating the need for unsupported hardware or device-level programming. A sending process attaches its status to outgoing messages so local schedulers on remote nodes can make more intelligent scheduling decisions. Once scheduled, processes are guaranteed some minimum period of time to execute. This provides an opportunity to synchronize the parallel job's components across all nodes and achieve good program performance. The results from a performance study reveal that the proposed technique is a promising approach that can reduce response time significantly over uncoordinated time-sharing and batch scheduling.

  14. Review of air flow measurement techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McWilliams, Jennifer

    2002-12-01

    Airflow measurement techniques are necessary to determine the most basic of indoor air quality questions: ''Is there enough fresh air to provide a healthy environment for the occupants of the building?'' This paper outlines airflow measurement techniques, but it does not make recommendations for techniques that should be used. The airflows that will be discussed are those within a room or zone, those between rooms or zones, such as through doorways (open or closed) or passive vents, those between the building and outdoors, and those through mechanical air distribution systems. Techniques that are highlighted include particle streak velocimetry, hot wire anemometry, fan pressurization (measuring flow at a given pressure), tracer gas, acoustic methods for leak size determination, the Delta Q test to determine duct leakage flows, and flow hood measurements. Because tracer gas techniques are widely used to measure airflow, this topic is broken down into sections as follows: decay, pulse injection, constant injection, constant concentration, passive sampling, and single and multiple gas measurements for multiple zones.

  15. Micro-fabrication Techniques for Target Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miles, R; Hamilton, J; Crawford, J; Ratti, S; Trevino, J; Graff, T; Stockton, C; Harvey, C

    2008-06-10

    Micro-fabrication techniques, derived from the semi-conductor industry, can be used to make a variety of useful mechanical components for targets. A selection of these components including supporting cooling arms for prototype cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets, stepped and graded density targets for materials dynamics experiments are described. Micro-fabrication enables cost-effective, simultaneous fabrication of multiple high-precision components with complex geometries. Micro-fabrication techniques such as thin-film deposition, photo-lithographic patterning and etch processes normally used in the semi-conductor manufacture industry, can be exploited to make useful mechanical target components. Micro-fabrication processes have in recent years been used to create a number of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) components such as pressure sensors, accelerometers, ink jet printer heads, microfluidics platforms and the like. These techniques consist primarily of deposition of thin films of material, photo-lithographic patterning and etching processes performed sequentially to produce three dimensional structures using essentially planar processes. While the planar technology can be limiting in terms of the possible geometries of the final product, advantages of using these techniques include the ability to make multiple complex structures simultaneously and cost-effectively. Target components fabricated using these techniques include the supporting cooling arms for cryogenic prototype fusion ignition targets, stepped targets for equation-of-state experiments, and graded density reservoirs for material strength experiments.

  16. Cache Energy Optimization Techniques For Modern Processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Modern multicore processors are employing large last-level caches, for example Intel's E7-8800 processor uses 24MB L3 cache. Further, with each CMOS technology generation, leakage energy has been dramatically increasing and hence, leakage energy is expected to become a major source of energy dissipation, especially in last-level caches (LLCs). The conventional schemes of cache energy saving either aim at saving dynamic energy or are based on properties specific to first-level caches, and thus these schemes have limited utility for last-level caches. Further, several other techniques require offline profiling or per-application tuning and hence are not suitable for product systems. In this book, we present novel cache leakage energy saving schemes for single-core and multicore systems; desktop, QoS, real-time and server systems. Also, we present cache energy saving techniques for caches designed with both conventional SRAM devices and emerging non-volatile devices such as STT-RAM (spin-torque transfer RAM). We present software-controlled, hardware-assisted techniques which use dynamic cache reconfiguration to configure the cache to the most energy efficient configuration while keeping the performance loss bounded. To profile and test a large number of potential configurations, we utilize low-overhead, micro-architecture components, which can be easily integrated into modern processor chips. We adopt a system-wide approach to save energy to ensure that cache reconfiguration does not increase energy consumption of other components of the processor. We have compared our techniques with state-of-the-art techniques and have found that our techniques outperform them in terms of energy efficiency and other relevant metrics. The techniques presented in this book have important applications in improving energy-efficiency of higher-end embedded, desktop, QoS, real-time, server processors and multitasking systems. This book is intended to be a valuable guide for both newcomers

  17. Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

    1999-01-01

    Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

  18. Metrology Techniques for the Assembly of NCSX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Priniski, T. Dodson, M. Duco, S. Raftopoulos, R. Ellis, and A. Brooks

    2009-09-24

    In support of the National Compact Stellerator Experiment (NCSX), stellerator assembly activities continued this past year at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in partnership with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The construction program saw the completion of the first two Half Field-Period Assemblies (HPA), each consisting of three modular coils. The full machine includes six such sub-assemblies. A single HPA consists of three of the NCSX modular coils wound and assembled at PPPL. These geometrically-complex threedimensional coils were wound using computer-aided metrology and CAD models to tolerances within +/- 0.5mm. The assembly of these coils required similar accuracy on a larger scale with the added complexity of more individual parts and fewer degrees of freedom for correction. Several new potential positioning issues developed for which measurement and control techniques were developed. To accomplish this, CAD coordinate-based computer metrology equipment and software similar to the solutions employed for winding the modular coils was used. Given the size of the assemblies, the primary tools were both interferometeraided and Absolute Distance Measurement (ADM)-only based laser trackers. In addition, portable Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) arms and some novel indirect measurement techniques were employed. This paper will detail both the use of CAD coordinate-based metrology technology and the techniques developed and employed for dimensional control of NSCX subassemblies. The results achieved and possible improvements to techniques will be discussed.

  19. A TOMOGRAPHIC TECHNIQUE FOR MAGNETIZED BEAM MATCHING.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MONTAG,C.ET AL.

    2004-07-05

    To maintain low electron beam temperatures in the proposed RHIC electron cooler, careful matching of the magnetized beam from the source to the cooler solenoid is mandatory. We propose a tomographic technique to diagnose matching conditions. First simulation results will be presented.

  20. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  1. Optimizing spare parts inventories using RAM techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purser, F.E.; Farmer, F.G. )

    1990-01-01

    The perfect spare parts inventory is one which always has the component required to prevent a facility outage. Ideally, such an inventory would contain exactly enough of each component to maintain the facility in operating condition until replacements for the spare parts arrive. Real spare parts inventories have typically been specified using a combination of engineering judgement and manufacturer's recommendations, as modified by budgetary constraints. The development of reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) techniques provides additional tools through which spare parts inventories can more effectively be used to improve the safety and availability of a facility. This paper presents an analysis performed at the INEL using the techniques resident in a Reliability-Centered-Maintenance (RCM) program to prioritize components based on contribution to risk and to availability. The fill rate model or the confidence level approach could then be performed for those critical components resulting in an optimum stock level for the facility.

  2. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2015-04-24

    The economical viability of nuclear waste cleanup e orts could, in some cases, be put at risk due to the difficulties faced in handling unknown and complex feedstocks. Plasma filtering, which operates on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical techniques for the processing of such wastes. In this context, the economic feasibility of plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment before ultimate disposal is analyzed. Results indicate similar costs for chemical and plasma solid-waste pretreatment per unit mass of waste, but suggest significant savings potential as a result of a superior waste mass minimization. This performance improvement is observed overmore » a large range of waste chemical compositions, representative of legacy waste's heterogeneity. Although smaller, additional savings arise from the absence of a secondary liquid waste stream, as typically produced by chemical techniques.« less

  3. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathel, H.; Colston, B.; Armitage, G.

    1994-11-15

    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  4. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2015-04-24

    The economical viability of nuclear waste cleanup e orts could, in some cases, be put at risk due to the difficulties faced in handling unknown and complex feedstocks. Plasma filtering, which operates on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical techniques for the processing of such wastes. In this context, the economic feasibility of plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment before ultimate disposal is analyzed. Results indicate similar costs for chemical and plasma solid-waste pretreatment per unit mass of waste, but suggest significant savings potential as a result of a superior waste mass minimization. This performance improvement is observed over a large range of waste chemical compositions, representative of legacy waste's heterogeneity. Although smaller, additional savings arise from the absence of a secondary liquid waste stream, as typically produced by chemical techniques.

  5. Techniques and guidelines for streamlining NEPA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickerman, J.A.; Tolbert, V.R.; Richmond, A.A.; Salk, M.S. )

    1993-01-01

    Five ideas for streamlining both the NEPA process and documents are explored for preparers of NEPA documents. Techniques and guidelines that implement these ideas will be provided as effective worksheets, pithy guidelines, flowcharts, and examples. The five streamlining ideas and the techniques or guidelines to achieve them are: (1) emphasize early planning through concise definition of project scope, purpose, need, and proposed action; determine need for compliance with applicable environmental requirements. (2) develop effective worksheets that include purpose, need, and proposed action; issue analysis; alternatives; environmental consequences; and NEPA checklist. (3) use information services/databases to integrate information services and identify existing databases. (4) maximize use of tables and graphs for analysis of alternatives; assumptions used (bounding analyses); environmental consequences. (5) create inviting documents with clear, concise writing; summarize in text; supporting data in appendices; and inviting visual layouts.

  6. New characterization techniques for LSST sensors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nomerotski, A.

    2015-06-18

    Fully depleted, thick CCDs with extended infra-red response have become the sensor of choice for modern sky surveys. The charge transport effects in the silicon and associated astrometric distortions could make mapping between the sky coordinates and sensor coordinates non-trivial, and limit the ultimate precision achievable with these sensors. Two new characterization techniques for the CCDs, which both could probe these issues, are discussed: x-ray flat fielding and imaging of pinhole arrays.

  7. Radiochemical technique for intensification of underexposed autoradiographs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owunwanne, A.

    1984-04-01

    A radiochemical technique has been used to recover images of underexposed and developed autoradiographs. The underexposed image was radioactivated in a solution of (/sup 35/S)thiourea, air-dried, and reexposed to Kodak NMC film which was developed and processed in a Kodak X-Omat processor. Features which were not discernible in the underexposed autoradiographs were well distinguished in the intensified autoradiograph.

  8. Algorithmic Techniques for Massive Data Sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses Charikar

    2006-04-03

    This report describes the progress made during the Early Career Principal Investigator (ECPI) project on Algorithmic Techniques for Large Data Sets. Research was carried out in the areas of dimension reduction, clustering and finding structure in data, aggregating information from different sources and designing efficient methods for similarity search for high dimensional data. A total of nine different research results were obtained and published in leading conferences and journals.

  9. Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall; David R. , Fox; Joe

    2007-04-03

    A downhole drilling system is disclosed in one aspect of the present invention as including a drill string and a transmission line integrated into the drill string. Multiple network nodes are installed at selected intervals along the drill string and are adapted to communicate with one another through the transmission line. In order to efficiently allocate the available bandwidth, the network nodes are configured to use any of numerous burst modulation techniques to transmit data.

  10. A Radiographic Technique With Heavy Ion Microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muscio, J.; Somacal, H.; Burlon, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Valda, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.; Kesque, J. M.; Minsky, D. M.

    2007-02-12

    In this work, we introduce a new technique to perform densitometric and multielemental analysis of samples at the same time using a simple detector with heavy ion micro-beams. It consists in the simultaneous analysis of X-rays induced in the sample and in a secondary target arranged behind the specimen. The X-rays originated in the secondary target are attenuated when crossing the specimen producing a radiographic image with a monochromatic source.

  11. A technique for synthesizing metal tritide standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bach, H. T.; Allen, T. H.; Hill, D. D.; Martinez, P. T.; Schwarz, R. B.; Paglieri, S. N.; Wermer, J. R.

    2008-07-15

    Before surplus plutonium pits can be decommissioned and converted into metal oxides to be used as reactor fuels, residual tritium must be reduced to an acceptable level. We have developed two analytical methods involving melting and acid dissolution, combined with liquid scintillation counting as a quantitative and sensitive technique for measuring residual tritium in Pu metal. The detection limit, linearity, and reproducibility of these analytical methods must be validated with a series of metal tritide standards. Since there are no commercially available metal tritide standards, we have developed a technique for their synthesis. The synthesis of these low-level metal tritide standards is accomplished by charging cerium powder with a known amount of tritium to form a master cerium tritide alloy and then by aliquoting from this master alloy and diluting with pure cerium powder to form a series of standards with different tritium concentrations. The major difficulty in synthesizing these standards is that the samples contain extremely low levels of tritium, which span over three decades of concentrations. The synthesis technique and initial data obtained for cerium hydride samples will be presented. (authors)

  12. Innovative production technique for PEFC electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevers, D.; Guelzow, E.; Helmbold, A.; Mueller, B.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cells are high efficient and low polluting energy conversation devices. Using hydrogen as a fuel gas they are applicable to solve environmental problems e.g. CO{sub 2} impact on the climate. Thus international research efforts have been increased in recent years. Low temperature fuel cells e.g. the PEFC are specially applicable for future transportation and stationary energy supply systems. Application and economics success of his technology is obstructed by the high investment costs with respect to conventional energy conversion devices. The intent of our activities is the improvement of electrodes and membrane-electrode-assemblies as used in PEFC. Commercial and technical aspects of electrode manufacturing have been considered in early stages of the development of the production procedure. Two different techniques are developed at DLR. The first is a rolling procedure as used for production for batteries and alkaline fuel cells which has been modified and adapted to the specific demand of PEFC electrodes. The second technique is a new printing process to produce ultra thin layers of catalyst directly on the electrolyte. In this paper we will show the first results of the first electrode technique which have been tested in fuel cells and a short description of the second very new method.

  13. Balanced pressure techniques applied to geothermal drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dareing, D.W.

    1981-08-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate balanced pressure drilling techniques for use in combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling. Drilling techniques evaluated are: aerated drilling mud, parasite tubing, concentric drill pipe, jet sub, and low density fluids. Based on the present state of the art of balanced pressure drilling techniques, drilling with aerated water has the best overall balance of performance, risk, availability, and cost. Aerated water with a 19:1 free air/water ratio reduce maximum pressure unbalance between wellbore and formation pressures from 1000 psi to 50 psi. This pressure unbalance is within acceptable operating limits; however, air pockets could form and cause pressure surges in the mud system due to high percent of air. Low density fluids used with parasite tubing has the greatest potential for combating lost circulation in geothermal drilling, when performance only is considered. The top portion of the hole would be aerated through the parasite tube at a 10:1 free air/mud ratio and the low density mud could be designed so that its pressure gradient exactly matches the formation pore pressure gradient. The main problem with this system at present is the high cost of ceramic beads needed to produce low density muds.

  14. Advanced InSAR Techniques for Geothermal Exploration and Production...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    how these techniques are being used for different stages of geothermal exploration and management. In both cases, multiple advanced InSAR techniques were used to quantify...

  15. "PBS NEWSHOUR" covers new technique that may make solar panel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive "PBS NEWSHOUR" covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive Scientists have ...

  16. Moore Foundation Funds ALS Researchers for Promising New Technique...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moore Foundation Funds ALS Researchers for Promising New Technique for Studying Materials Moore Foundation Funds ALS Researchers for Promising New Technique for Studying Materials...

  17. Jiaozuo Coal Group Hejing Technique Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jiaozuo Coal Group Hejing Technique Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Jiaozuo Coal Group Hejing Technique Co Ltd Place: Jiaozuo, Henan Province, China Zip: 454002 Product: A...

  18. Sub-Cell Resolution Techniques for Multi-Material Electromagnetics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sub-Cell Resolution Techniques for Multi-Material Electromagnetics in Two and Three Dimensions. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sub-Cell Resolution Techniques for ...

  19. High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation) High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D (presentation)...

  20. High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop Summary of the...

  1. "PBS NEWSHOUR" covers new technique that may make solar panel...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "PBS NEWSHOUR" covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive "PBS NEWSHOUR" covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive ...

  2. USE OF ADVANCED DATA PROCESSING TECHNIQUES IN THE IMAGING OF...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Optim's proprietary nonlinear velocity optimization technique and pre-stack Kirchhoff migration. The nonlinear optimization technique is used to obtain high resolution velocity...

  3. Program Evaluation and Review Technique Operational Review Meeting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Evaluation and Review Technique Operational Review Meeting 2016 Program Evaluation and Review Technique Operational Review Meeting 2016 February 23, 2016 9:00AM PST to...

  4. Novel water-removal technique boosts performance of carbon nanomateria...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technique boosts performance of carbon nanomaterials Novel water-removal technique boosts ... amount of added water that collects between the oxygen-functionalized nanosheets. ...

  5. Property:ExplorationParentTechnique | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    orationParentTechnique Property Type Page Description parent technique for organization tree Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProperty:ExplorationParentTechni...

  6. Category:Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Active Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Active Seismic Techniques page? For detailed information...

  7. Category:Passive Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Passive Seismic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Passive Seismic Techniques page? For detailed...

  8. Category:Formation Testing Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Formation Testing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Formation Testing Techniques page? For detailed...

  9. Category:Open-Hole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Open-Hole Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Open-Hole Techniques page? For detailed information on...

  10. Category:Electromagnetic Profiling Techniques | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electromagnetic Profiling Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Electromagnetic Profiling Techniques page? For...

  11. Category:Data and Modeling Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data and Modeling Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Data and Modeling Techniques page? For detailed...

  12. Category:Remote Sensing Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Remote Sensing Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Remote Sensing Techniques page? For detailed information...

  13. Category:Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Ground Electromagnetic Techniques page? For...

  14. " A Heterodyne Laser-induced Fluorescence Technique to Determine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Heterodyne Laser-induced Fluorescence Technique to Determine Simultaneously the Bulk ... molecule velocity distribution using a heterodyne laser induced fluorescence technique. ...

  15. Geothermal Exploration Techniques a Case Study. Final Report...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques a Case Study. Final Report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geothermal Exploration Techniques a Case Study. Final Report...

  16. Fission Product Separation/Extraction Techniques (Book) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Book: Fission Product SeparationExtraction Techniques Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fission Product SeparationExtraction Techniques No abstract prepared. Authors: ...

  17. Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, Elliott D.; /SLAC

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite experiments and

  18. Technique for fast and efficient hierarchical clustering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stork, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    A fast and efficient technique for hierarchical clustering of samples in a dataset includes compressing the dataset to reduce a number of variables within each of the samples of the dataset. A nearest neighbor matrix is generated to identify nearest neighbor pairs between the samples based on differences between the variables of the samples. The samples are arranged into a hierarchy that groups the samples based on the nearest neighbor matrix. The hierarchy is rendered to a display to graphically illustrate similarities or differences between the samples.

  19. Ambient temperature modelling with soft computing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertini, Ilaria; Ceravolo, Francesco; Citterio, Marco; Di Pietra, Biagio; Margiotta, Francesca; Pizzuti, Stefano; Puglisi, Giovanni; De Felice, Matteo

    2010-07-15

    This paper proposes a hybrid approach based on soft computing techniques in order to estimate monthly and daily ambient temperature. Indeed, we combine the back-propagation (BP) algorithm and the simple Genetic Algorithm (GA) in order to effectively train artificial neural networks (ANN) in such a way that the BP algorithm initialises a few individuals of the GA's population. Experiments concerned monthly temperature estimation of unknown places and daily temperature estimation for thermal load computation. Results have shown remarkable improvements in accuracy compared to traditional methods. (author)

  20. Imaging of SCC with Acoustic Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED NDE Solutions Imaging SCC with Acoustic Techniques Marcel Remillieux, TJ Ulrich, Pierre-Yves Le Bas Slide 2 Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED Context * 2014 meeting at EPRI resulted in a 5 year plan to: - Provide point inspection on SCC  once an area of concern has been identified visually (e.g., camera), can we interrogate this

  1. Benchmarking Outreach and Data Collection Techniques for External Portfolios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation contains information on Benchmarking Outreach and Data Collection Techniques for External Portfolios.

  2. Transient data acquisition techniques under EDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telford, S.

    1985-06-01

    This paper is the first of a series which describes the Enrichment Diagnostic System (EDS) developed for the MARS project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although EDS was developed for use on AVLIS, the functional requirements, overall design, and specific techniques are applicable to any experimental data acquisition system involving large quantities of transient data. In particular this paper will discuss the techniques and equipment used to do the data acquisition. Included are what types of hardware are used and how that hardware (CAMAC, digital oscilloscopes) is interfaced to the HP computers. In this discussion the author will address the problems encountered and the solutions used, as well as the performance of the instrument/computer interfaces. The second topic the author will discuss is how the acquired data is associated to graphics and analysis portions of EDS through efficient real time data bases. This discussion will include how the acquired data is folded into the overall structure of EDS providing the user immediate access to raw and analyzed data. By example you will see how easily a new diagnostic can be added to the EDS structure without modifying the other parts of the system. 8 figs.

  3. Emerging Techniques for Field Device Security

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwartz, Moses; Bechtel Corp.; Mulder, John; Chavez, Adrian R.; Allan, Benjamin A.

    2014-11-01

    Critical infrastructure, such as electrical power plants and oil refineries, rely on embedded devices to control essential processes. State of the art security is unable to detect attacks on these devices at the hardware or firmware level. We provide an overview of the hardware used in industrial control system field devices, look at how these devices have been attacked, and discuss techniques and new technologies that may be used to secure them. We follow three themes: (1) Inspectability, the capability for an external arbiter to monitor the internal state of a device. (2) Trustworthiness, the degree to which a systemmore » will continue to function correctly despite disruption, error, or attack. (3) Diversity, the use of adaptive systems and complexity to make attacks more difficult by reducing the feasible attack surface.« less

  4. Technique for ship/wake detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2012-05-01

    An automated ship detection technique includes accessing data associated with an image of a portion of Earth. The data includes reflectance values. A first portion of pixels within the image are masked with a cloud and land mask based on spectral flatness of the reflectance values associated with the pixels. A given pixel selected from the first portion of pixels is unmasked when a threshold number of localized pixels surrounding the given pixel are not masked by the cloud and land mask. A spatial variability image is generated based on spatial derivatives of the reflectance values of the pixels which remain unmasked by the cloud and land mask. The spatial variability image is thresholded to identify one or more regions within the image as possible ship detection regions.

  5. Techniques for Intravascular Foreign Body Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodhouse, Joe B.; Uberoi, Raman

    2013-08-01

    As endovascular therapies increase in frequency, the incidence of lost or embolized foreign bodies is increasing. The presence of an intravascular foreign body (IFB) is well recognized to have the potential to cause serious complications. IFB can embolize and impact critical sites such as the heart, with subsequent significant morbidity or mortality. Intravascular foreign bodies most commonly result from embolized central line fragments, but they can originate from many sources, both iatrogenic and noniatrogenic. The percutaneous approach in removing an IFB is widely perceived as the best way to retrieve endovascular foreign bodies. This minimally invasive approach has a high success rate with a low associated morbidity, and it avoids the complications related to open surgical approaches. We examined the characteristics, causes, and incidence of endovascular embolizations and reviewed the various described techniques that have been used to facilitate subsequent explantation of such materials.

  6. Techniques for determining physical zones of influence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamann, Hendrik F; Lopez-Marrero, Vanessa

    2013-11-26

    Techniques for analyzing flow of a quantity in a given domain are provided. In one aspect, a method for modeling regions in a domain affected by a flow of a quantity is provided which includes the following steps. A physical representation of the domain is provided. A grid that contains a plurality of grid-points in the domain is created. Sources are identified in the domain. Given a vector field that defines a direction of flow of the quantity within the domain, a boundary value problem is defined for each of one or more of the sources identified in the domain. Each of the boundary value problems is solved numerically to obtain a solution for the boundary value problems at each of the grid-points. The boundary problem solutions are post-processed to model the regions affected by the flow of the quantity on the physical representation of the domain.

  7. Delayed gamma technique for fissile material assay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozin, Vladimir; Tobin, Stephen; Vujie, Jasmina; Hunt, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Research sponsored by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative are investigating several non-destructive assay techniques for the quantification of fissile plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies. AppHcation of the delayed gamma signatures is investigated in this context. The objective of the research is to assess whether the delayed gamma assay instrument can provide sufficient sensitivity, isotope specificity and accuracy as required in nuclear material safeguards. This effort includes theoretical and experimental components for the optimal combination of interrogation parameters. A new modeling algorithm offering a high level of detail was developed specifically for this purpose and was validated in series of benchmark experiments. Preliminary modeling of the delayed gamma response from spent fuel assemblies was accomplished offering a future direction for the design process.

  8. Emerging Techniques for Field Device Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Moses; Mulder, John; Chavez, Adrian R.; Allan, Benjamin A.

    2014-11-01

    Critical infrastructure, such as electrical power plants and oil refineries, rely on embedded devices to control essential processes. State of the art security is unable to detect attacks on these devices at the hardware or firmware level. We provide an overview of the hardware used in industrial control system field devices, look at how these devices have been attacked, and discuss techniques and new technologies that may be used to secure them. We follow three themes: (1) Inspectability, the capability for an external arbiter to monitor the internal state of a device. (2) Trustworthiness, the degree to which a system will continue to function correctly despite disruption, error, or attack. (3) Diversity, the use of adaptive systems and complexity to make attacks more difficult by reducing the feasible attack surface.

  9. Viscosity Meaurement Technique for Metal Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban, Heng; Kennedy, Rory

    2015-02-09

    Metallic fuels have exceptional transient behavior, excellent thermal conductivity, and a more straightforward reprocessing path, which does not separate out pure plutonium from the process stream. Fabrication of fuel containing minor actinides and rare earth (RE) elements for irradiation tests, for instance, U-20Pu-3Am-2Np-1.0RE-15Zr samples at the Idaho National Laboratory, is generally done by melt casting in an inert atmosphere. For the design of a casting system and further scale up development, computational modeling of the casting process is needed to provide information on melt flow and solidification for process optimization. Therefore, there is a need for melt viscosity data, the most important melt property that controls the melt flow. The goal of the project was to develop a measurement technique that uses fully sealed melt sample with no Americium vapor loss to determine the viscosity of metallic melts and at temperatures relevant to the casting process. The specific objectives of the project were to: develop mathematical models to establish the principle of the measurement method, design and build a viscosity measurement prototype system based on the established principle, and calibrate the system and quantify the uncertainty range. The result of the project indicates that the oscillation cup technique is applicable for melt viscosity measurement. Detailed mathematical models of innovative sample ampoule designs were developed to not only determine melt viscosity, but also melt density under certain designs. Measurement uncertainties were analyzed and quantified. The result of this project can be used as the initial step toward the eventual goal of establishing a viscosity measurement system for radioactive melts.

  10. Technique for etching monolayer and multilayer materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bouet, Nathalie C. D.; Conley, Raymond P.; Divan, Ralu; Macrander, Albert

    2015-10-06

    A process is disclosed for sectioning by etching of monolayers and multilayers using an RIE technique with fluorine-based chemistry. In one embodiment, the process uses Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) alone or in combination with Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) using fluorine-based chemistry alone and using sufficient power to provide high ion energy to increase the etching rate and to obtain deeper anisotropic etching. In a second embodiment, a process is provided for sectioning of WSi.sub.2/Si multilayers using RIE in combination with ICP using a combination of fluorine-based and chlorine-based chemistries and using RF power and ICP power. According to the second embodiment, a high level of vertical anisotropy is achieved by a ratio of three gases; namely, CHF.sub.3, Cl.sub.2, and O.sub.2 with RF and ICP. Additionally, in conjunction with the second embodiment, a passivation layer can be formed on the surface of the multilayer which aids in anisotropic profile generation.

  11. Optical techniques for determining dynamic material properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paisley, D.L.; Stahl, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    Miniature plates are laser-launched with a 10-Joule Nd:YAG for one-dimensional (1-D) impacts on to target materials much like gas gun experiments and explosive plane wave plate launch. By making the experiments small, flyer plates (3 mm diameter x 50 micron thick) and targets (10 mm diameter x 200 micron thick), 1-D impact experiments can be performed in a standard laser-optical laboratory with minimum confinement and collateral damage. The laser-launched plates do not require the traditional sabot on gas guns nor the explosives needed for explosive planewave lenses, and as a result are much more amenable to a wide variety of materials and applications. Because of the small size very high pressure gradients can be generated with relative ease. The high pressure gradients result in very high strains and strain rates that are not easily generated by other experimental methods. The small size and short shock duration (1 - 20 ns) are ideal for dynamically measuring bond strengths of micron-thick coatings. Experimental techniques, equipment, and dynamic material results are reported.

  12. Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Axline, Jr., Robert M.; Sloan, George R.; Spalding, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder's echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR.

  13. Radar transponder apparatus and signal processing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Axline, R.M. Jr.; Sloan, G.R.; Spalding, R.E.

    1996-01-23

    An active, phase-coded, time-grating transponder and a synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and signal processor means, in combination, allow the recognition and location of the transponder (tag) in the SAR image and allow communication of information messages from the transponder to the SAR. The SAR is an illuminating radar having special processing modifications in an image-formation processor to receive an echo from a remote transponder, after the transponder receives and retransmits the SAR illuminations, and to enhance the transponder`s echo relative to surrounding ground clutter by recognizing special transponder modulations from phase-shifted from the transponder retransmissions. The remote radio-frequency tag also transmits information to the SAR through a single antenna that also serves to receive the SAR illuminations. Unique tag-modulation and SAR signal processing techniques, in combination, allow the detection and precise geographical location of the tag through the reduction of interfering signals from ground clutter, and allow communication of environmental and status information from said tag to be communicated to said SAR. 4 figs.

  14. NDI using mm-wave resonant techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martens, J.S.; Sachtjen, S.; Sorensen, N.R.

    1995-08-01

    Millimeter wave resonant measurements are commonly used for surface and near-surface materials characterization including the detection of cracks and defects, analysis of semiconducting and dielectric materials, and analysis of metallic electrical properties beneath coatings. Recent work has also shown the approach to be useful in evaluating corrosion products and the detection of incipient corrosion and corrosion cracking. In the analysis area, complex permittivity data of the corrosion products can be extracted, usually with accuracy of a few percent or better, to aid in identification of the product and possibly of mechanisms. In the detection area, corrosion-related cracks of order 100{mu}m or less near the surface have been detected and corrosion products have been detected beneath a variety of paints. Surface preparation requirements are minimal, particularly compared to some optical techniques, giving increased hope of field applicability. A number of examples of NDI on aircraft related materials and structures will be presented along with an assessment of detection and accuracy limits.

  15. Monitoring DNAPL pumping using integrated geophysical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, R.L.; Daily, W.D.; Kyle, K.R.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1996-11-01

    The removal of DNAPL during pumping has been monitored using integrated in situ geophysical techniques. At Hill Air Force Base in Utah, a free-product DNAPL plume (consisting predominantly of TCE) is pooled in water-wet soil on a thick clay aquitard. Groundwater pumping at Operable Unit 2 (OU 2) began in 1994; to date, nearly 30,000 gallons of DNAPL have been recovered from the site. From September, 1994 through September, 1995, changes in the basin during DNAPL pumping were monitored using an integrated geophysical system. Fiber optic sensors and neutron logs verify the presence of DNAPL in the vicinity of three boreholes which form a cross section from the perimeter of the basin to its center. Cross borehole electrical resistance tomography (ERT) images the changes in formation electrical properties due to the removal of DNAPL, extending the understanding of DNAPL removal between the boreholes. During pumping, electrical resistivities decreased; we suggest that these decreases are directly caused by the reduction in DNAPL. During ground water pumping, water with relatively low resistivity replaces some of the DNAPL pockets as the highly insulating DNAPL is removed. The results suggest that, as DNAPL is pumped from a nearby well, product slowly drains along the top of an aquitard and into the pump well, where it collects.

  16. Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meiron, Yohai; Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-09-10

    We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ∼0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.

  17. Application of nondestructive assay techniques in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Butler, G.; Collins, M.

    1997-11-01

    As Kazakstan has transitioned from being part of the Soviet Union to a nonweapons state (Treaty of Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons [NPT] signatory) under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspections, significant changes have been required. Some of these changes have occurred in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting at the four nuclear facility sites in the Republic of Kazakstan. Specifically, the Republic of Kazakstan has changed from relying primarily on a subset of physical protection methods to a graded safeguards approach using a balance of material control, material accounting, and physical protection. Once more intensive material control and accounting procedures and systems are in place, a necessary step is to supply the accounting systems with measured values of high quality. This need can be met with destructive and nondestructive methods. Material control systems can also use qualitative nondestructive assay information as input. This paper will discuss the nondestructive assay techniques and systems the US Department of Energy (DOE) is providing to Kazakstan under both DOE programs and the Cooperative Threat Reduction Act as part of the nuclear material control and accounting upgrades at four facilities in Kazakstan. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Materials characterisation with the associated particle technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perot, Bertrand; Carasco, Cedric; Deyglun, Clement; Eleon, Cyrille; Mariani, Alain; Ma, Jean-Luc

    2012-07-01

    Since the last past years, the Nuclear Measurement Laboratory of CEA Cadarache, France, together with Partners from European and National projects, has been studying the application of fast neutron interrogation with the Associated Particle Technique for material identification in different areas of homeland and maritime security, and for the characterisation of the materials constituting radioactive waste. Fast 14 MeV neutrons are produced from the H-3(H-2,n)alpha fusion reaction in a sealed tube neutron generator embedding an alpha detector. The alpha particle is used to tag neutron direction and emission time, thus allowing the electronic selection of neutron-induced gamma spectra in the voxels of interest. Gamma rays emitted by tagged neutron interactions on the present nuclei (C, O, N, Fe, Al, Si, Cl, etc.) are recorded with spectroscopic detectors and analysed to determine elemental proportions, thus allowing material identification. Investigations have been conducted for the detection of explosives, illicit drugs and contraband materials in cargo containers, for the inspection of objects lying on the sea floor suspected to contain explosives like mines, bombs, torpedoes, etc., for the recognition of an improvised chemical device, and for material identification in radioactive waste packages. Recently the detection of special nuclear materials is being investigated using time correlation analysis between induced fission particles, instead of gamma-ray spectroscopy. The paper presents an overview of these studies and last results. (authors)

  19. NDA safeguards techniques for LMFBR assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persiani, P.J.; Gundy, M.L.

    1982-08-01

    The significant safeguards concerns for liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), and for the LMFBR fuel handling systems are the accountability, surveillance, and identification of fuel and blanket assemblies. The introduction of fuel assemblies with a high content of Pu into the receiving and shipping areas of the LMFBR fuel cycle does allow a more direct near-real-time assay profile of the disposition of Pu. Isotope correlations and neutron assay methods have been investigated and implemented for determining plutonium and burnup in fresh and spent LMFBR fuel assemblies. The methods are based on active and passive neutron coincidence counting (NCC) techniques. Preliminary studies on neutron yield rates from the spontaneous fission of plutonium and curium isotopes have indicated that the NCC system is a most effective measure in the verification of nuclear material flow in assembly form for the entire reactor fuel handling cycle, i.e., from the fresh- to the spent-fuel stage. A consequence of the high plutonium concentration level throughout the fuel irradiation period in an LMFBR, is that the spontaneous fission neutron yield from the 242-curium and 244-curium does not dominate the spontaneous fission neutron yield from the plutonium isotopes in the spent fuel stage.

  20. Using an Innovative Technique to Retrieve Oil in Lawrence County...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Using an Innovative Technique to Retrieve Oil in Lawrence County, Illinois Using an Innovative Technique to Retrieve Oil in Lawrence County, Illinois April 25, 2012 - 5:07pm ...

  1. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a newer technique called infrared scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (IR s-SNOM) and an older tried-and-true technique called Fourier transform infrared...

  2. High-Throughput/Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D High-ThroughputCombinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D On June 26, 2007 the Hydrogen ...

  3. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion ...

  4. Midcontinent well operators learn advantages of coiled-tubing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle, D.

    1995-07-01

    From well cleanup to velocity strings to squeeze jobs, more Midcontinent operators are adding coiled-tubing methods to their oilfield techniques. The advantages of these techniques are discussed.

  5. A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid media ...

  6. Benchmarking Outreach and Data Collection Techniques for External Portfolios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains the transcript for the Benchmarking Outreach and Data Collection Techniques webinar, held on April 25, 2013.

  7. Tools and techniques for failure analysis and qualification of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: ... Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; MICROELECTRONICS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; ...

  8. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  9. LOCO with Constraints and Improved Fitting Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Portmann, Greg; /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-06-18

    } reduction, i.e., small {chi}{sup 2} reduction with large changes of {Delta}K. Under effects of random noise, the fitting solution tends to crawl toward these patterns and ends up with unrealistically large {Delta}K. Such a solution is not very useful in optics correction because after the solution is dialed in, the quadrupoles will not respond as predicted by the lattice model due to magnet hysteresis. We will show that adding constraints to the fitting parameters is an effective way to combat this problem of LOCO. In fact, it improves optics calibration precision even for machines that don't show severe degeneracy behavior. LOCO fitting is essentially to solve a nonlinear least square problem with an iterative approach. The linear least square technique is applied in each iteration to move the solution toward the minimum. This approach is commonly referred to as the Gauss-Newton method. By using singular value decomposition (SVD) to invert the Jacobian matrix, this method has generally been very successful for LOCO. However, this method is based on a linear expansion of the residual vector over the fitting parameters which is valid only when the starting solution is sufficiently close to the real minimum. The fitting algorithm can have difficulties to converge when the initial guess is too far off. For example, it's possible for the {chi}{sup 2} merit function to increase after an iteration instead of decrease. This situation can be improved by using more robust nonlinear least square fitting algorithms, such as the Levenberg-Marquardt method. We will discuss the degeneracy problem in section 2 and then show how the constrained fitting can help in section 3. The application of Levenberg-Marquadt method to LOCO is shown in section 4. A summary is given in section 5.

  10. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  11. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  12. Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials Asbestos has been used in numerous applications at DOE sites including sprayed-on fireproofing, asphalt and vinyl floor tile, and asbestos-cement (transite) siding. Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing Materials (290.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Chemical

  13. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  14. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  15. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  16. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  17. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Wednesday, 28 May 2014 00:00 Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks

  18. NETL-RUA Scans for Improved Enhanced Oil Recovery Technique ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cutting-edge improvements to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Results from these studies could be used to help increase domestic oil supplies from EOR while helping to ...

  19. Development and Standardization of Techniques for Bio-oil Characteriza...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Standardization of Techniques for Bio-oil Characterization Jack Ferrell, NREL; ... quantitative analytical methods for bio-oil characterization - Standard methods do not ...

  20. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite ... growth of highly efficient and reproducible solar cells from large-area ... clean global energy solutions for the ...

  1. Techniques and Technologies for Field Detection of Asbestos Containing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Five technologies were selected for bench scale evaluation: Laser-Raman Spectroscopy Thiazol Yellow Dye-Fluorescence Technique Diffuse Reflectance Near-Infrared ...

  2. Advanced Millimeter-Wave Security Portal Imaging Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-04-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This paper details a number of techniques developed over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, as well as high frequency high bandwidth techniques. Implementation of some of these methods will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems.

  3. EERE Success Story-Promising Inspection Technique for Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using this technique at ORNL could help improve its research into lightweight materials, as aluminum and magnesium alloys require more stringent welding conditions and are more ...

  4. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WATERS Nuclear Test Site Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site Under the ...

  5. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our detection techniques when applied to step downup, diurnal changes and congestion effects. less Authors: Cottrell, R.Les ;...

  6. Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging Techniques for Self-Powered Nuclear...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging Techniques for Self-Powered Nuclear Reactor Wireless Sensor Networks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pyroelectric Energy ...

  7. THERMOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES P. J. Nigrey O S T I

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    THERMOANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES P. J. Nigrey O S T I Sandia National Laboratories, ... ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a ...

  8. Machine Learning Techniques Applied to Sensor Data Correction...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Given this reliance on sensors, ensuring that sensor data are valid is a crucial problem. Solutions being researched are machine learning techniques, namely: artificial neural ...

  9. Category:Electromagnetic Sounding Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    subcategories, out of 3 total. M + Magnetotelluric Techniques (4 categories) 1 pages T Telluric Survey 1 pages Time-Domain Electromagnetics 1 pages Pages in...

  10. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print ... have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. ...

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  12. Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports by Diane Johnson he purpose of this DOE Standard is to...

  13. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, ...

  14. Innovative Technique Accelerates Waste Disposal at Idaho Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – An innovative treatment and disposal technique is enabling the Idaho site to accelerate shipments of legacy nuclear waste for permanent disposal.

  15. Hybrid opto-electric techniques for molecular diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haque, Aeraj Ul [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL)

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid optoelectric techniques reflect a new paradigm in microfluidics. In essence, these are microfluidic techniques that employ a synergistic combination of optical and electrical forces to enable noninvasive manipulation of fluids and/or particle-type entities at the micro/nano-scale [1]. Synergy between optical and electrical forces bestows these techniques with several unique features that are promising to bring new opportunities in molecular diagnostics. Within the scope of molecular diagnostics, several aspects of optoelectric techniques promise to play a relevant role. These include, but are not limited to, sample preparation, sorting, purification, amplification and detection.

  16. Magnetotelluric Techniques At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques At Mt Princeton Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Held & Henderson, 2012) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Magnetotelluric...

  17. Well Log Techniques At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Techniques At Newberry Caldera Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details Location Newberry...

  18. Well Log Techniques At Coso Geothermal Area (1985) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Well Log Techniques At Coso Geothermal Area (1985) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal...

  19. NNSA implements nondestructive gas sampling technique for nuclear...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    implements ... NNSA implements nondestructive gas sampling technique for nuclear weapon components Posted: June 12, 2012 - 1:34pm The National Nuclear Security Administration...

  20. A novel technique for the production of cool colored concrete...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the production of cool colored concrete tile and asphalt shingle roofing products Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A novel technique for the production of cool ...

  1. New Metallization Technique Suitable for 6-MW Pilot Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metallization Technique Suitable for 6-MW Pilot Production of Efficient Multicrystalline Solar Cells Using Upgraded Metallurgical Silicon: Final Technical Progress Report, December ...

  2. Lagrange multiplier technique Kanarska, Y; Lomov, I; Antoun,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multiplier technique Kanarska, Y; Lomov, I; Antoun, T 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUMM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS Abstract not provided Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory...

  3. Chemical logging- a geothermal technique | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    technique Abstract Chemical logging studies conducted at the Department of Energy's Raft River Geothermal Test Site in south central Idaho resulted in the development of a...

  4. The three dimensional X-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, D. Juul; Poulsen, H.F.

    2012-10-15

    This introductory tutorial describes the so called 3 dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) technique, which allows bulk non-destructive structural characterizations of crystalline materials. The motivations and history behind the development of this technique are described and its potentials are sketched. Examples of the use of the technique are given and future trends and developments are suggested. The primary aim of the paper is to give 3DXRD novices an easy introduction to the technique and to describe a way from a dream to reality and new results.

  5. Flow Solution-Liquid-Solid Technique: Novel Approach for Synthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Synthesis of Semiconductor Heterostructured Nanowires Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow Solution-Liquid-Solid Technique: Novel Approach for Synthesis of ...

  6. Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Residual Stresses in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Measure Residual Stresses in Engineering Ceramics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Residual Stresses in Engineering Ceramics. ...

  7. Development and Practical Applications of Indentation Based Techniques...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Engineering Ceramics. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development and Practical Applications of Indentation Based Techniques to Measure Stresses in Engineering ...

  8. Natural resource validation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. The authors provide an objective overview of resource valuation techniques and describe their potential role in environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities at federal facilities. This handbook considers five general classes of valuation techniques: (1) market-based techniques, which rely on historical information on market prices and transactions to determine resource values; (2) nonmarket techniques that rely on indirect estimates of resource values; (3) nonmarket techniques that are based on direct estimates of resource values; (4) cross-cutting valuation techniques, which combine elements of one or more of these methods; and (5) ecological valuation techniques used in the emerging field of ecological economics. The various valuation techniques under consideration are described by highlighting their applicability in environmental management and regulation. The handbook also addresses key unresolved issues in the application of valuation techniques generally, including discounting future values, incorporating environmental equity concerns, and concerns over the uncertainties in the measurement of natural resource values and environmental risk.

  9. X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lider, V. V.

    2011-03-15

    The development of the X-ray divergent-beam (Kossel) technique over the last 50 years is traced. The fundamentals of this technique and ways to implement it experimentally are considered, and its potential for studying the real structure of crystals is analyzed in detail.

  10. Soil Analysis using the semi-parametric NAA technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.

    2007-10-26

    The semi-parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique, using Au as a flux monitor, was applied to measure element concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn and Na for soil characterization. The results were compared with those using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique and they found to be compatible. The viability, advantages, and limitations of using these two analytic methodologies are discussed.

  11. Tools and techniques for failure analysis and qualification of MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    Many of the tools and techniques used to evaluate and characterize ICs can be applied to MEMS technology. In this paper we discuss various tools and techniques used to provide structural, chemical, and electrical analysis and how these data aid in qualifying MEMS technologies.

  12. Hydrocarbon radical thermochemistry: Gas-phase ion chemistry techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ervin, Kent M.

    2014-03-21

    Final Scientific/Technical Report for the project "Hydrocarbon Radical Thermochemistry: Gas-Phase Ion Chemistry Techniques." The objective of this project is to exploit gas-phase ion chemistry techniques for determination of thermochemical values for neutral hydrocarbon radicals of importance in combustion kinetics.

  13. New Imaging Technique Shows Nanoscale Workings of Rechargeable Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Imaging Technique Shows Nanoscale Workings of Rechargeable Batteries There's a new tool in the push to engineer rechargeable batteries that last longer and charge more quickly. An X-ray microscopy technique recently developed at Advanced Light Source has given scientists the ability to image nanoscale changes inside lithium-ion battery particles as they charge and discharge. ← Previous Next →

  14. A Survey of Architectural Techniques For Improving Cache Power Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2013-01-01

    Modern processors are using increasingly larger sized on-chip caches. Also, with each CMOS technology generation, there has been a significant increase in their leakage energy consumption. For this reason, cache power management has become a crucial research issue in modern processor design. To address this challenge and also meet the goals of sustainable computing, researchers have proposed several techniques for improving energy efficiency of cache architectures. This paper surveys recent architectural techniques for improving cache power efficiency and also presents a classification of these techniques based on their characteristics. For providing an application perspective, this paper also reviews several real-world processor chips that employ cache energy saving techniques. The aim of this survey is to enable engineers and researchers to get insights into the techniques for improving cache power efficiency and motivate them to invent novel solutions for enabling low-power operation of caches.

  15. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremers, D.A.; Archuleta, F.L.; Dilworth, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed.

  16. Lightweight and Statistical Techniques for Petascale PetaScale Debugging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Barton

    2014-06-30

    This project investigated novel techniques for debugging scientific applications on petascale architectures. In particular, we developed lightweight tools that narrow the problem space when bugs are encountered. We also developed techniques that either limit the number of tasks and the code regions to which a developer must apply a traditional debugger or that apply statistical techniques to provide direct suggestions of the location and type of error. We extend previous work on the Stack Trace Analysis Tool (STAT), that has already demonstrated scalability to over one hundred thousand MPI tasks. We also extended statistical techniques developed to isolate programming errors in widely used sequential or threaded applications in the Cooperative Bug Isolation (CBI) project to large scale parallel applications. Overall, our research substantially improved productivity on petascale platforms through a tool set for debugging that complements existing commercial tools. Previously, Office Of Science application developers relied either on primitive manual debugging techniques based on printf or they use tools, such as TotalView, that do not scale beyond a few thousand processors. However, bugs often arise at scale and substantial effort and computation cycles are wasted in either reproducing the problem in a smaller run that can be analyzed with the traditional tools or in repeated runs at scale that use the primitive techniques. New techniques that work at scale and automate the process of identifying the root cause of errors were needed. These techniques significantly reduced the time spent debugging petascale applications, thus leading to a greater overall amount of time for application scientists to pursue the scientific objectives for which the systems are purchased. We developed a new paradigm for debugging at scale: techniques that reduced the debugging scenario to a scale suitable for traditional debuggers, e.g., by narrowing the search for the root-cause analysis

  17. Mapping Diffuse Seismicity Using Empirical Matched Field Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C; Harris, D B

    2011-01-21

    The objective of this project is to detect and locate more microearthquakes using the empirical matched field processing (MFP) method than can be detected using only conventional earthquake detection techniques. We propose that empirical MFP can complement existing catalogs and techniques. We test our method on continuous seismic data collected at the Salton Sea Geothermal Field during November 2009 and January 2010. In the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) earthquake catalog, 619 events were identified in our study area during this time frame and our MFP technique identified 1094 events. Therefore, we believe that the empirical MFP method combined with conventional methods significantly improves the network detection ability in an efficient matter.

  18. Nondestructive Technique Survey for Assessing Integrity of Composite Firing Vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, A.

    2000-08-01

    The repeated use and limited lifetime of a composite tiring vessel compel a need to survey techniques for monitoring the structural integrity of the vessel in order to determine when it should be retired. Various nondestructive techniques were researched and evaluated based on their applicability to the vessel. The methods were visual inspection, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, surface mounted strain gauges, thermal inspection, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing, radiography, eddy current testing, and embedded fiber optic sensors. It was determined that embedded fiber optic sensor is the most promising technique due to their ability to be embedded within layers of composites and their immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  19. Category:Lab Analysis Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 total. F Fluid Lab Analysis L Lab Analysis Techniques R Rock Lab Analysis X X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  20. EERE QC Workshop: Overview of Quality Control Techniques

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of quality control techniques by Michael Ulsh, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, at the EERE QC Workshop held December 9-10, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  1. Bureau of Land Management - Techniques for Documenting a No Action...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Bureau of Land Management - Techniques for Documenting a No Action Alternative in an EA Abstract This page...

  2. Surface Analysis Techniques on Ceramic Materials | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Analysis Techniques on Ceramic Materials Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) ...

  3. Development of neutron tomography and phase contrast imaging technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Y. S.; Agrawal, Ashish; Sarkar, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar

    2013-02-05

    This paper presents design and development of a state of art neutron imaging technique at CIRUS reactor with special reference for techniques adopted for tomography and phase contrast imaging applications. Different components of the beamline such as collimator, shielding, sample manipulator, digital imaging system were designed keeping in mind the requirements of data acquisition time and resolution. The collimator was designed in such a way that conventional and phase contrast imaging can be done using same collimator housing. We have done characterization of fuel pins, study of hydride blisters in pressure tubes hydrogen based cells, two phase flow visualization, and online study of locomotive parts etc. using neutron tomography and radiography technique. We have also done some studies using neutron phase contrast imaging technique on this beamline.

  4. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Lasers emit a large number of photons needed for the technique, but because they operate in a narrow wavelength band, they can only probe a narrow range of molecular vibrations. In ...

  5. Advisory Group On The Application Of Nuclear Techniques To Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Group On The Application Of Nuclear Techniques To Geothermal Studies-Meeting In Pisa 8-12 Sep 1975 Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  6. Deep patch technique for landslide repair. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helwany, B.M.

    1994-10-01

    The report describes the laboratory testing of the `USFS deep patch` technique and a CTI modification of this technique for repairing landslides with geosynthetic reinforcement. The technique involves replacing sections of roadway lost due to landslides on top of a geosynthetically-reinforced embankment. The CTI modification involves replacing the reinforced slope with a geosynthetically-reinforced retaining wall with a truncated base. Both techniques rely on the cantilevering ability of the reinforced mass to limit the load on the foundation with a high slide potential. The tests with road base showed that (1) both the USFS and CTI repair reduced effectively the adverse effects of local landsliding on the highway pavement by preventing crack propagation; (2) the USFS repair increased the stability of the repaired slope, which was in progressive failure, by reducing the stresses exerted on it; and (3) the CTI repair produced substantially greater stresses on its foundation due to the truncated base of the reinforced mass.

  7. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  8. Technique for identifying, tracing, or tracking objects in image data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert J.; Rothganger, Fredrick

    2012-08-28

    A technique for computer vision uses a polygon contour to trace an object. The technique includes rendering a polygon contour superimposed over a first frame of image data. The polygon contour is iteratively refined to more accurately trace the object within the first frame after each iteration. The refinement includes computing image energies along lengths of contour lines of the polygon contour and adjusting positions of the contour lines based at least in part on the image energies.

  9. A comparison of adjoint and data-centric verification techniques.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wildey, Timothy Michael; Cyr, Eric Christopher; Shadid, John Nicolas; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Smith, Thomas Michael

    2013-03-01

    This document summarizes the results from a level 3 milestone study within the CASL VUQ effort. We compare the adjoint-based a posteriori error estimation approach with a recent variant of a data-centric verification technique. We provide a brief overview of each technique and then we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. We use Drekar::CFD to produce numerical results for steady-state Navier Stokes and SARANS approximations. 3

  10. ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based Spectroscopy ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based Spectroscopy Print Tuesday, 29 January 2013 16:28 Gratings - optical elements used to separate light in spectroscopy applications - have been in use since the early 19th century. Developments in the late 19th century led to the manufacture of gratings by highly precise ruling with a diamond onto a metallic surface. Many gratings

  11. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Thursday, 24 April 2014 09:46 Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant energy density if their graphite anodes were replaced with lithium metal anodes. But there's a major concern with substituting lithium-when the battery cycles, microscopic fibers of the lithium anodes ("dendrites")

  12. TECHNIQUES FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE CAPSULE END

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CAP WELDS. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect TECHNIQUES FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE CAPSULE END CAP WELDS. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: TECHNIQUES FOR NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE CAPSULE END CAP WELDS. Authors: Crowe, J. C. Publication Date: 1971-10-31 OSTI Identifier: 4050085 Report Number(s): BNWL-SA--3758 Resource Type: Technical Report Resource Relation: Other Information: UNCL. Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-71 Research Org:

  13. New techniques said to be backed by results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    One of the benefits to have come from activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspection teams in Iraq, according to Director General Hans Blix, is a vast amount of experience with new techniques, which may be of great value in efforts to strengthen the capability of the safeguards system. In particular, techniques of environmental monitoring could help to detect undeclared material and installations.

  14. EERE Success Story-Promising Inspection Technique for Vehicle Welding

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Offers Efficient Alternative | Department of Energy Promising Inspection Technique for Vehicle Welding Offers Efficient Alternative EERE Success Story-Promising Inspection Technique for Vehicle Welding Offers Efficient Alternative April 22, 2015 - 2:06pm Addthis ORNL researcher Jian Chen works with the prototype weld inspection system licensed by Tennessee-based APLAIR Manufacturing Systems. ORNL researcher Jian Chen works with the prototype weld inspection system licensed by Tennessee-based

  15. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Wednesday, 29 January 2014 00:00 Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray

  16. ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Spectroscopy ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based Spectroscopy ALS Scientists Patent Technique To Dramatically Advance Grating-Based Spectroscopy Print Gratings - optical elements used to separate light in spectroscopy applications - have been in use since the early 19th century. Developments in the late 19th century led to the manufacture of gratings by highly precise ruling with a diamond onto a metallic surface. Many gratings are still produced today using

  17. Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pueblo, New Mexico | Department of Energy Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Innovative Exploration Techniques for Geothermal Assessment at Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project Summary: Locate and drill two exploration wells that will be used to define the nature and extent of the geothermal resources on Jemez Pueblo in the Indian Springs area. validation_kaufman_jemez_pueblo.pdf (769.64 KB) More Documents &

  18. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B.

    1994-05-01

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  19. Geophysical Characterization of a Geothermal System Neal Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Colwell, Et Al., 2012) Micro-Earthquake At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (Nichols & Cole, 2010) Paleomagnetic Measurements At Neal Hot Springs Geothermal Area (London, 2011)...

  20. Seismic Studies of a Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Experiment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities Activities (1) Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009) Areas (1) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Regions (0) Retrieved from "http:...

  1. Determining Planes Along Which Earthquakes Occur- Method of Applicatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities Activities (1) Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009) Areas (1) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Regions (0) Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Massive Hydraulic Fracture of Fenton Hill HDR Well EE-3 | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Activities Activities (1) Micro-Earthquake At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Brown, 2009) Areas (1) Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area Regions (0) Retrieved from "http:...

  3. Exploration In A Blind Geothermal Area Near Marysville, Montana...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ground magnetics, resistivity, seismic ground noise, micro-earthquake studies, and infra-red photography. The heat flow data have outlined a geothermal anomaly with heat flow...

  4. Property:ExpActivityDate | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    started or year of activity. Subproperties This property has the following 1 subproperty: M Micro-Earthquake At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area (FURUMOTO, 1976) Pages using the...

  5. Snake River Plain Geothermal Region | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP) Micro-Earthquake At Snake River Plain Geothermal Region (1976) Reflection Survey At Snake River Plain Region (DOE GTP)...

  6. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  7. Blower-door techniques for measuring interzonal leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hult, Erin L.; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The standard blower door test methods, such as ASTM E779, describe how to use a single blower door to determine the total leakage of a single-zone structure such as a detached single-family home. There are no standard test methods for measuring interzonal leakage in a two-zone or multi-zone building envelope such as might be encountered in with an attached garage or in a multifamily building. Some practitioners have been using techniques that involve making multiple measurements with a single blower door as well as combined measurements using multiple blower doors. Even for just two zones there are dozens of combinations of one-door and two-door test protocols that could conceivably be used to determine the interzonal air tightness. We examined many of these two-zone configurations using both simulation and measured data to estimate the accuracy and precision of each technique for realistic measurement scenarios. We also considered the impact of taking measurements at a single pressure versus over multiple pressures. We compared the various techniques and evaluated them for specific uses. Some techniques work better in one leakage regime; some are more sensitive to wind and other noise; some are more suited to determining only a subset of the leakage values. This paper makes recommendations on which techniques to use or not use for various cases and provides data that could be used to develop future test methods.

  8. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. IV. A NEW ASTROMETRIC ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE AND A COMPARISON WITH RESULTS FROM OTHER TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lederman, J. I.; Ransom, R. R.; Campbell, R. M.; Gordon, D.

    2012-07-01

    When very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations are used to determine the position or motion of a radio source relative to reference sources nearby on the sky, the astrometric information is usually obtained via (1) phase-referenced maps or (2) parametric model fits to measured fringe phases or multiband delays. In this paper, we describe a 'merged' analysis technique which combines some of the most important advantages of these other two approaches. In particular, our merged technique combines the superior model-correction capabilities of parametric model fits with the ability of phase-referenced maps to yield astrometric measurements of sources that are too weak to be used in parametric model fits. We compare the results from this merged technique with the results from phase-referenced maps and from parametric model fits in the analysis of astrometric VLBI observations of the radio-bright star IM Pegasi (HR 8703) and the radio source B2252+172 nearby on the sky. In these studies we use central-core components of radio sources 3C 454.3 and B2250+194 as our positional references. We obtain astrometric results for IM Peg with our merged technique even when the source is too weak to be used in parametric model fits, and we find that our merged technique yields astrometric results superior to the phase-referenced mapping technique. We used our merged technique to estimate the proper motion and other astrometric parameters of IM Peg in support of the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B mission.

  9. A Survey of Architectural Techniques for Near-Threshold Computing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2015-12-28

    Energy efficiency has now become the primary obstacle in scaling the performance of all classes of computing systems. In low-voltage computing and specifically, near-threshold voltage computing (NTC), which involves operating the transistor very close to and yet above its threshold voltage, holds the promise of providing many-fold improvement in energy efficiency. However, use of NTC also presents several challenges such as increased parametric variation, failure rate and performance loss etc. Our paper surveys several re- cent techniques which aim to offset these challenges for fully leveraging the potential of NTC. By classifying these techniques along several dimensions, we also highlightmore » their similarities and differences. Ultimately, we hope that this paper will provide insights into state-of-art NTC techniques to researchers and system-designers and inspire further research in this field.« less

  10. SSRL Beam Lines by Technique | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam Lines by Technique Beam Lines by Number | SPEAR3 Parameters Supported Technique(s) Beam Line X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Biological x-ray absorption spectroscopy 2-2, 4-3, 7-3, 9-3, 14-3 Materials / catalysis / chemistry x-ray absorption spectroscopy 2-2, 4-1, 4-3, 11-2, 14-3 MEIS x-ray absorption spectroscopy 2-2, 4-1, 4-3, 11-2, 14-3 X-ray absorption spectroscopy imaging 2-2, 2-3, 6-2a, 10-2a,14-3 Single crystal x-ray absorption spectroscopy 9-3 Grazing incidence x-ray absorption

  11. Characterization of patinas by means of microscopic techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vazquez-Calvo, C.

    2007-11-15

    Many stone-made historic buildings have a yellowish layer called 'patina' on their external surface. In some cases, it is due to the natural ageing of the stone caused by chemical-physical reactions between the surface of the stone and the environment, and in other cases it is the result of biological activity. The origin of these patinas can be also be due to ancient protective treatments. The use of organic additives, such as protein-based compounds, in lime or gypsum-based patinas is a traditional technique, which has been used in past centuries for the conservation and protection of stone materials. The thinness of the patinas ensures that microscopic techniques are irreplaceable for their analysis. Optical Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy together with an Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer, and Electron Microprobe are the microscopic techniques used for the characterization of these coverings, providing very useful information on their composition, texture and structure.

  12. New techniques in 3D scalar and vector field visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Becker, B.

    1993-05-05

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) we have recently developed several techniques for volume visualization of scalar and vector fields, all of which use back-to-front compositing. The first renders volume density clouds by compositing polyhedral volume cells or their faces. The second is a ``splatting`` scheme which composites textures used to reconstruct the scalar or vector fields. One version calculates the necessary texture values in software, and another takes advantage of hardware texture mapping. The next technique renders contour surface polygons using semi-transparent textures, which adjust appropriately when the surfaces deform in a flow, or change topology. The final one renders the ``flow volume`` of smoke or dye tracer swept out by a fluid flowing through a small generating polygon. All of these techniques are applied to a climate model data set, to visualize cloud density and wind velocity.

  13. Retrospective dosimetry using EPR and TL techniques: a status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haskell, E.H.

    1996-12-31

    Methods of retrospective dosimetry, including luminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), rely on measurement of accident dose absorbed by naturally occurring materials - ceramics in the case of both thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and organic materials and bio- minerals in the case of EPR. Each of these methods relies on measurement of radiation defects resulting from accidental exposure. Since defects also result from natural sources of radiation over the lifetime of a sample, analysis is usually restricted to materials for which the natural dose may be determined and subtracted from the measured cumulative dose. Luminescence dating techniques rely heavily on an accurate assessment of cumulative dose from natural radiation sources, and dating research has provided us with the bulk of our knowledge in this area. Virtually all of the work on natural dose determination can be directly applied to retrospective techniques. With EPR techniques the cumulative dose from diagnostic x- rays is also of importance.

  14. Combining local search and backtracking techniques for constraint satisfaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Hantao

    1996-12-31

    Backtracking techniques are well-known traditional methods for solving many constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs) including the satisfiability (SAT) problem in the propositional logic. In recent years, it has been reported that local search techniques are very effective in solving some large-scale instances of the SAT problem. In this research, we combine the backtracking and local search techniques into a single method for solving SAT and CSPs. When setting a parameter of the method to either of its two extreme values, we obtain the ordinary backtracking procedure or the local search procedure. For some problems, if the parameter takes values in the middle of the two extremes, the new method is much more effective than either backtracking or local search. We tested the method with classical problems like the n-Queens and random SAT instances, as well as some difficult problems from finite mathematics. In particular, using the new method, we solved four open problems in design theory.

  15. Centrifuge Techniques and Apparatus for Transport Experiments in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl D. Mattson; Carl D. Paler; Robert W. Smith; Markus Flury

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes experimental approaches and apparatus that we have developed to study solute and colloid transport in porous media using Idaho National Laboratory's 2-m radius centrifuge. The ex-perimental techniques include water flux scaling with applied acceleration at the top of the column and sub-atmospheric pressure control at the column base, automation of data collection, and remote experimental con-trol over the internet. These apparatus include a constant displacement piston pump, a custom designed liquid fraction collector based on switching valve technology, and modified moisture monitoring equipment. Suc-cessful development of these experimental techniques and equipment is illustrated through application to transport of a conservative tracer through unsaturated sand column, with centrifugal acceleration up to 40 gs. Development of such experimental equipment that can withstand high accelerations enhances the centrifuge technique to conduct highly controlled unsaturated solute/colloid transport experiments and allows in-flight liquid sample collection of the effluent.

  16. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-10-10

    Low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures provide solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one aspect the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another aspect, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe and Cu, or alloys thereof.

  17. Structures And Fabrication Techniques For Solid State Electrochemical Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-12-27

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  18. Study of the Open Loop and Closed Loop Oscillator Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imel, George R.; Baker, Benjamin; Riley, Tony; Langbehn, Adam; Aryal, Harishchandra; Benzerga, M. Lamine

    2015-04-11

    This report presents the progress and completion of a five-year study undertaken at Idaho State University of the measurement of very small worth reactivity samples comparing open and closed loop oscillator techniques.The study conclusively demonstrated the equivalency of the two techniques with regard to uncertainties in reactivity values, i.e., limited by reactor noise. As those results are thoroughly documented in recent publications, in this report we will concentrate on the support work that was necessary. For example, we describe in some detail the construction and calibration of a pilot rod for the closed loop system. We discuss the campaign to measure the required reactor parameters necessary for inverse-kinetics. Finally, we briefly discuss the transfer of the open loop technique to other reactor systems.

  19. Planarization techniques for MEMS: enabling new structures and enhancing manufacturability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Planarization techniques such as chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) have emerged as enabling technologies for the manufacturing of multi- level metal interconnects used in high-density Integrated Circuits (IC). An overview of general planarization techniques for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and, in particular, the extension of CMP from sub-micron IC manufacturing to the fabrication of complex surface-micromachined MEMS will be presented. Planarization technique alleviates processing problems associated with fabrication of multi-level polysilicon structures, eliminates design constraints linked with non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. The CMP process and present examples of the use of CMP in fabricating MEMS devices such as microengines, pressure sensors, and proof masses for accelerometers along with its use for monolithically integrating MEMS devices with microelectronics are presented.

  20. Power Management Techniques for Data Centers: A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh

    2014-07-01

    With growing use of internet and exponential growth in amount of data to be stored and processed (known as ``big data''), the size of data centers has greatly increased. This, however, has resulted in significant increase in the power consumption of the data centers. For this reason, managing power consumption of data centers has become essential. In this paper, we highlight the need of achieving energy efficiency in data centers and survey several recent architectural techniques designed for power management of data centers. We also present a classification of these techniques based on their characteristics. This paper aims to provide insights into the techniques for improving energy efficiency of data centers and encourage the designers to invent novel solutions for managing the large power dissipation of data centers.

  1. Nondestructive Evaluation of Thick Concrete Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clayton, Dwight A; Barker, Alan M; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Albright, Austin P; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years [1]. Since many important safety structures in an NPP are constructed of concrete, inspection techniques must be developed and tested to evaluate the internal condition. In-service containment structures generally do not allow for the destructive measures necessary to validate the accuracy of these inspection techniques. This creates a need for comparative testing of the various nondestructive evaluation (NDE) measurement techniques on concrete specimens with known material properties, voids, internal microstructure flaws, and reinforcement locations.

  2. Structures and fabrication techniques for solid state electrochemical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visco, Steven J.; Jacobson, Craig P.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2003-08-12

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for co-firing of device substrate (often an electrode) with an electrolyte or membrane layer to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  3. Ferrocement: a technique for passive solar earth sheltered structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Impson, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    A system of construction is discussed which allows for the least cost with the most return yet noted in any of the current publications. This system utilizes commonly available and relatively inexpensive materials. The use of unskilled labor is possible, thereby expanding one's labor pool. This system also allows more design freedom than do any of the other construction techniques now widely practiced. This system of construction is ferrocement, a technique which has been in use intermittently since 1847. A method of insulating Earth Shelters is also discussed, as well as air flow characteristics of domes.

  4. Basic devices and techniques for supervisory control and telemetery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knox, R.M.

    1984-04-01

    The microprocessor is creating extraordinary changes in the basic devices used for supervisory control and telemetry systems. Devices which incorporate microprocessors are providing new capabilities to monitor, to control, and to transmit data. These new capabilities provide the opportunity to utilize new techniques in achieving more efficient operation and control of gas transmission and distribution systems. This paper describes several devices being installed at Transcocontinental Gas Pipe Line Corporation and their impact on the planned techniques to be used to collect gas flow data and to implement supervisory control.

  5. Statistical techniques for the characterization of partially observed epidemics.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safta, Cosmin; Ray, Jaideep; Crary, David; Cheng, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Techniques appear promising to construct and integrate automated detect-and-characterize technique for epidemics - Working off biosurveillance data, and provides information on the particular/ongoing outbreak. Potential use - in crisis management and planning, resource allocation - Parameter estimation capability ideal for providing the input parameters into an agent-based model, Index Cases, Time of Infection, infection rate. Non-communicable diseases are easier than communicable ones - Small anthrax can be characterized well with 7-10 days of data, post-detection; plague takes longer, Large attacks are very easy.

  6. Hexahedral finite element mesh coarsening using pillowing technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staten, Matthew L.; Woodbury, Adam C.; Benzley, Steven E.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2012-06-05

    A techniques for coarsening a hexahedral mesh is described. The technique includes identifying a coarsening region within a hexahedral mesh to be coarsened. A boundary sheet of hexahedral elements is inserted into the hexahedral mesh around the coarsening region. A column of hexahedral elements is identified within the boundary sheet. The column of hexahedral elements is collapsed to create an extraction sheet of hexahedral elements contained within the coarsening region. Then, the extraction sheet of hexahedral elements is extracted to coarsen the hexahedral mesh.

  7. Techniques in teaching statistics : linking research production and research use.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Moyano, I .; Smith, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of closing the 'research-practice gap,' the authors extend evidence-based principles to statistics instruction in social science graduate education. The authors employ a Delphi method to survey experienced statistics instructors to identify teaching techniques to overcome the challenges inherent in teaching statistics to students enrolled in practitioner-oriented master's degree programs. Among the teaching techniques identi?ed as essential are using real-life examples, requiring data collection exercises, and emphasizing interpretation rather than results. Building on existing research, preliminary interviews, and the ?ndings from the study, the authors develop a model describing antecedents to the strength of the link between research and practice.

  8. Determining Plutonium Mass in Spent Fuel with Nondestructive Assay Techniques -- Preliminary Modeling Results Emphasizing Integration among Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, S. J.; Fensin, M. L.; Ludewigt, B. A.; Menlove, H. O.; Quiter, B. J.; Sandoval, N. P.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Thompson, S. J.

    2009-08-03

    There are a variety of motivations for quantifying Pu in spent (used) fuel assemblies by means of nondestructive assay (NDA) including the following: strengthen the capabilities of the International Atomic Energy Agencies to safeguards nuclear facilities, quantifying shipper/receiver difference, determining the input accountability value at reprocessing facilities and providing quantitative input to burnup credit determination for repositories. For the purpose of determining the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies, twelve NDA techniques were identified that provide information about the composition of an assembly. A key point motivating the present research path is the realization that none of these techniques, in isolation, is capable of both (1) quantifying the elemental Pu mass of an assembly and (2) detecting the diversion of a significant number of pins. As such, the focus of this work is determining how to best integrate 2 or 3 techniques into a system that can quantify elemental Pu and to assess how well this system can detect material diversion. Furthermore, it is important economically to down-select among the various techniques before advancing to the experimental phase. In order to achieve this dual goal of integration and down-selection, a Monte Carlo library of PWR assemblies was created and is described in another paper at Global 2009 (Fensin et al.). The research presented here emphasizes integration among techniques. An overview of a five year research plan starting in 2009 is given. Preliminary modeling results for the Monte Carlo assembly library are presented for 3 NDA techniques: Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, and Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence. As part of the focus on integration, the concept of"Pu isotopic correlation" is discussed and the role of cooling time determination.

  9. Sandia software guidelines: Volume 5, Tools, techniques, and methodologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    This volume is one in a series of Sandia Software Guidelines intended for use in producing quality software within Sandia National Laboratories. This volume describes software tools and methodologies available to Sandia personnel for the development of software, and outlines techniques that have proven useful within the Laboratories and elsewhere. References and evaluations by Sandia personnel are included. 6 figs.

  10. Surgical implantation techniques for electronic tags in fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Glenn N.; Cooke, Steven J.; Brown, Richard S.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Intracoelomic implantation of transmitters into fish requires making a surgical incision, incision closure, and other surgery related techniques; however, the tools and techniques used in the surgical process vary widely. We review the available literature and focus on tools and techniques used for conducting surgery on juvenile salmonids because of the large amount of research that is conducted on them. The use of sterilized surgical instruments properly selected for a given size of fish will minimize tissue damage and infection rates, and speed the wound healing of fish implanted with transmitters. For the implantation of transmitters into small fish, the optimal surgical methods include making an incision on the ventral midline along the linea alba (for studies under 1 month), protecting the viscera (by lifting the skin with forceps while creating the incision), and using absorbable monofilament suture with a small-swaged-on swaged-on tapered or reverse-cutting needle. Standardizing the implantation techniques to be used in a study involving particular species and age classes of fish will improve survival and transmitter retention while allowing for comparisons to be made among studies and across multiple years. This review should be useful for researchers working on juvenile salmonids and other sizes and species of fish.

  11. Mine demonstration of longwall dust control techniques: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pothini, B.R.

    1988-07-01

    This report represents the results of in-mine demonstration of three dust control techniques for controlling respirable dust levels on shearer-longwall faces. The techniques were: water infusion, foam spray and reverse shearer drum rotation. The mines in which tests were conducted were in Upper Freeport seam and Pocahontas No. 3 seam. Both gravimetric samplers and GCA RAM-1 real time dust monitors were used for dust surveys. Dust control technology was reviewed, pertinent techniques were selected, equipment was procured and demonstrated as part of the program. The results indicated that water infusion can be readily implemented, foam spray holds promise, but requires more work to be done, and reverse drum rotations effective in select conditions. The tests showed that reversing cutting drum rotation has brought several positive results: (1) lower dust levels; (2) lower methane liberations; (3) improved productivity and (4) less fines. Although the improvements were only in the 10% range, the costs except for the initial change of cutting drums are nil. Therefore this technique should further be tested in soft seams with thick binder rock and also in hard blocky seams. Such investigations may lead to universal application of reverse drum rotation in the industry for beneficial reductions in respirable dust levels at insignificant costs. 13 refs., 34 figs.

  12. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies USA Inc.

    2001-12-17

    The goals of this DOE sponsored project are to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to test these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  13. Laser sources and techniques for spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, A.H.

    1993-12-01

    This program focuses on the development of novel laser and spectroscopic techniques in the IR, UV, and VUV regions for studying combustion related molecular dynamics at the microscopic level. Laser spectroscopic techniques have proven to be extremely powerful in the investigation of molecular processes which require very high sensitivity and selectivity. The authors approach is to use quantum electronic and non-linear optical techniques to extend the spectral coverage and to enhance the optical power of ultrahigh resolution laser sources so as to obtain and analyze photoionization, fluorescence, and photoelectron spectra of jet-cooled free radicals and of reaction products resulting from unimolecular and bimolecular dissociations. New spectroscopic techniques are developed with these sources for the detection of optically thin and often short-lived species. Recent activities center on regenerative amplification of high resolution solid-state lasers, development of tunable high power mid-IR lasers and short-pulse UV/VUV tunable lasers, and development of a multipurpose high-order suppressor crossed molecular beam apparatus for use with synchrotron radiation sources. This program also provides scientific and technical support within the Chemical Sciences Division to the development of LBL`s Combustion Dynamics Initiative.

  14. Development of Improved Oil Field Waste Injection Disposal Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terralog Technologies

    2002-11-25

    The goals of this project have was to: (1) assemble and analyze a comprehensive database of past waste injection operations; (2) develop improved diagnostic techniques for monitoring fracture growth and formation changes; (3) develop operating guidelines to optimize daily operations and ultimate storage capacity of the target formation; and (4) to apply these improved models and guidelines in the field.

  15. Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis C. Kunerth

    2014-09-01

    This report fulfills the M4 milestone, M4FT-14IN0805023, Results of NDE Technique Evaluation of Clad Hydrides, under Work Package Number FT-14IN080502. During service, zirconium alloy fuel cladding will degrade via corrosion/oxidation. Hydrogen, a byproduct of the oxidation process, will be absorbed into the cladding and eventually form hydrides due to low hydrogen solubility limits. The hydride phase is detrimental to the mechanical properties of the cladding and therefore it is important to be able to detect and characterize the presence of this constituent within the cladding. Presently, hydrides are evaluated using destructive examination. If nondestructive evaluation techniques can be used to detect and characterize the hydrides, the potential exists to significantly increase test sample coverage while reducing evaluation time and cost. To demonstrate the viability this approach, an initial evaluation of eddy current and ultrasonic techniques were performed to demonstrate the basic ability to these techniques to detect hydrides or their effects on the microstructure. Conventional continuous wave eddy current techniques were applied to zirconium based cladding test samples thermally processed with hydrogen gas to promote the absorption of hydrogen and subsequent formation of hydrides. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that eddy current inspection approaches have the potential to detect both the physical damage induced by hydrides, e.g. blisters and cracking, as well as the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates on the electrical properties of the zirconium alloy. Similarly, measurements of ultrasonic wave velocities indicate changes in the elastic properties resulting from the combined effects of absorbed hydrogen and hydride precipitates as well as changes in geometry in regions of severe degradation. However, for both approaches, the signal responses intended to make the desired measurement incorporate a number of contributing

  16. The use of microdosimetric techniques in radiation protection measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.; Hsu, H.H.; Casson, W.H.; Vasilik, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    A major objective of radiation protection is to determine the dose equivalent for routine radiation protection applications. As microdosimetry has developed over approximately three decades, its most important application has been in measuring radiation quality, especially in radiation fields of unknown or inadequately known energy spectra. In these radiation fields, determination of dose equivalent is not straightforward; however, the use of microdosimetric principles and techniques could solve this problem. In this paper, the authors discuss the measurement of lineal energy, a microscopic analog to linear energy transfer, and demonstrate the development and implementation of the variance-covariance method, a novel method in experimental microdosimetry. This method permits the determination of dose mean lineal energy, an essential parameter of radiation quality, in a radiation field of unknown spectrum, time-varying dose rate, and high dose rate. Real-time monitoring of changes in radiation quality can also be achieved by using microdosimetric techniques.

  17. On the selection of dimension reduction techniques for scientific applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Y J; Kamath, C

    2012-02-17

    Many dimension reduction methods have been proposed to discover the intrinsic, lower dimensional structure of a high-dimensional dataset. However, determining critical features in datasets that consist of a large number of features is still a challenge. In this paper, through a series of carefully designed experiments on real-world datasets, we investigate the performance of different dimension reduction techniques, ranging from feature subset selection to methods that transform the features into a lower dimensional space. We also discuss methods that calculate the intrinsic dimensionality of a dataset in order to understand the reduced dimension. Using several evaluation strategies, we show how these different methods can provide useful insights into the data. These comparisons enable us to provide guidance to a user on the selection of a technique for their dataset.

  18. Imaging Techniques for Relativistic Beams: Issues and Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumpkin, Alex H.; Wendt, Manfred; /Fermilab

    2012-02-01

    Characterizations of transverse profiles for low-power beams in the accelerators of the proposed linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) using imaging techniques are being evaluated. Assessments of the issues and limitations for imaging relativistic beams with intercepting scintillator or optical transition radiation screens are presented based on low-energy tests at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector and are planned for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We have described several of the issues and limitations one encounters with the imaging of relativistic electron beams. We have reported our initial tests at the A0PI facility and our plans to extend these studies to the GeV scale at the ASTA facility. We also have plans to test these concepts with 23-GeV beams at the FACET facility at SLAC in the coming year. It appears the future remains bright for imaging techniques in ILC-relevant parameter space.

  19. NREL, Verizon to Explore Energy-Saving Technologies, Techniques - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL NREL, Verizon to Explore Energy-Saving Technologies, Techniques July 27, 2011 The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Verizon signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) today that could lead to the development of new innovative ways to reduce energy use in the information and communications technology (ICT) industry. Through this first-of-its-kind agreement between an ICT company and a DOE national laboratory, NREL's work with

  20. NREL Technique Leads to Improved Perovskite Solar Cells - News Releases |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL NREL Technique Leads to Improved Perovskite Solar Cells August 1, 2016 Photo shows a man looking at a handful of solar cells made of perovskite. NREL researcher Mengjin Yang examines hybrid perovskite solar cells in his lab. (Photo by Dennis Schroeder / NREL) Scientists at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in collaboration with researchers at Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), devised a method to improve perovskite solar cells, making them more

  1. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for battery

  2. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  3. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  4. Manufacturing techniques studies of ceramics by neutron and ?-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.; Souza, M. I. S.; Almeida, G. L.

    2014-11-11

    In this study, the aim was to evaluate capabilities and constraints of radiographic imagery using thermal neutrons and gamma-rays as tools to identify the type of technique employed in ceramics manufacturing especially that used in prehistoric Brazilian pottery from Acre state. For this purpose, radiographic images of test objects made with clay of this region using both techniques - palette and rollers - have been acquired with a system comprised of a source of gamma-rays or thermal neutrons and a corresponding X-ray or neutron-sensitive Imaging Plate as detector. For the neutrongraphy samples were exposed to a thermal neutron flux of order of 10{sup 5}n.cm{sup ?2}.s{sup ?1} for 3 minutes at main port of Argonauta research reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - IEN/CNEN. The radiographic images using ?-rays from {sup 165}Dy (95 keV) and {sup 198}Au (412 keV) both produced at this reactor, have been acquired under an exposure time of a couple of hours. After acquisition, images have undergone a treatment to improve their quality through enhancement of their contrast, a procedure involving corrections of the beam divergence, sample shape and averaging of the attenuation map profile. Preliminary results show that difference between manufacturing techniques is better identified by radiography using low energy ?-rays from {sup 165}Dy rather than neutrongraphy or ?-rays from {sup 198}Au. Nevertheless, disregarding the kind of employed radiation, it should be stressed that feasibility to apply the technique is tightly tied to homogeneity of the clay itself and tempers due to their different attenuation.

  5. Novel nuclear magnetic resonance techniques for studying biological molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laws, David D.

    2000-06-01

    Over the fifty-five year history of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), considerable progress has been made in the development of techniques for studying the structure, function, and dynamics of biological molecules. The majority of this research has involved the development of multi-dimensional NMR experiments for studying molecules in solution, although in recent years a number of groups have begun to explore NMR methods for studying biological systems in the solid-state. Despite this new effort, a need still exists for the development of techniques that improve sensitivity, maximize information, and take advantage of all the NMR interactions available in biological molecules. In this dissertation, a variety of novel NMR techniques for studying biomolecules are discussed. A method for determining backbone ({phi}/{psi}) dihedral angles by comparing experimentally determined {sup 13}C{sub a}, chemical-shift anisotropies with theoretical calculations is presented, along with a brief description of the theory behind chemical-shift computation in proteins and peptides. The utility of the Spin-Polarization Induced Nuclear Overhauser Effect (SPINOE) to selectively enhance NMR signals in solution is examined in a variety of systems, as are methods for extracting structural information from cross-relaxation rates that can be measured in SPINOE experiments. Techniques for the production of supercritical and liquid laser-polarized xenon are discussed, as well as the prospects for using optically pumped xenon as a polarizing solvent. In addition, a detailed study of the structure of PrP 89-143 is presented. PrP 89-143 is a 54 residue fragment of the prion proteins which, upon mutation and aggregation, can induce prion diseases in transgenic mice. Whereas the structure of the wild-type PrP 89-143 is a generally unstructured mixture of {alpha}-helical and {beta}-sheet conformers in the solid state, the aggregates formed from the PrP 89-143 mutants appear to be mostly {beta}-sheet.

  6. Techniques for Growth of Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Techniques for Growth of Lattice-Matched Semiconductor Layers For the fabrication of multi-junction solar cells, light emitting diodes, and high speed transistors National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document

  7. SCUBA TECHNIQUES USED IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE NUCLEAR

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SCUBA TECHNIQUES USED IN RISK ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE NUCLEAR LEAKAGE AROUND AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA Stephen Jewett, Max Hoberg, Heloise Chenelot, Shawn Harper Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7220 Joanna Burger Division of Life Sciences, Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), 604 Allison Road, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8082

  8. Real-Time SCADA Cyber Protection Using Compression Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyle G. Roybal; Gordon H Rueff

    2013-11-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) has a critical mission to secure the energy infrastructure from cyber attack. Through DOE-OE’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems (CEDS) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a method to detect malicious traffic on Supervisory, Control, and Data Acquisition (SCADA) network using a data compression technique. SCADA network traffic is often repetitive with only minor differences between packets. Research performed at the INL showed that SCADA network traffic has traits desirable for using compression analysis to identify abnormal network traffic. An open source implementation of a Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless data compression algorithm was used to compress and analyze surrogate SCADA traffic. Infected SCADA traffic was found to have statistically significant differences in compression when compared against normal SCADA traffic at the packet level. The initial analyses and results are clearly able to identify malicious network traffic from normal traffic at the packet level with a very high confidence level across multiple ports and traffic streams. Statistical differentiation between infected and normal traffic level was possible using a modified data compression technique at the 99% probability level for all data analyzed. However, the conditions tested were rather limited in scope and need to be expanded into more realistic simulations of hacking events using techniques and approaches that are better representative of a real-world attack on a SCADA system. Nonetheless, the use of compression techniques to identify malicious traffic on SCADA networks in real time appears to have significant merit for infrastructure protection.

  9. Microseismic techniques for avoiding induced seismicity during fluid injection

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Matzel, Eric; White, Joshua; Templeton, Dennise; Pyle, Moira; Morency, Christina; Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a fundamentally better approach to geological site characterization and early hazard detection. We combine innovative techniques for analyzing microseismic data with a physics-based inversion model to forecast microseismic cloud evolution. The key challenge is that faults at risk of slipping are often too small to detect during the site characterization phase. Our objective is to devise fast-running methodologies that will allow field operators to respond quickly to changing subsurface conditions.

  10. Multiple-energy Techniques in Industrial Computerized Tomography

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Schneberk, D.; Martz, H.; Azevedo, S.

    1990-08-01

    Considerable effort is being applied to develop multiple-energy industrial CT techniques for materials characterization. Multiple-energy CT can provide reliable estimates of effective Z (Z{sub eff}), weight fraction, and rigorous calculations of absolute density, all at the spatial resolution of the scanner. Currently, a wide variety of techniques exist for CT scanners, but each has certain problems and limitations. Ultimately, the best multi-energy CT technique would combine the qualities of accuracy, reliability, and wide range of application, and would require the smallest number of additional measurements. We have developed techniques for calculating material properties of industrial objects that differ somewhat from currently used methods. In this paper, we present our methods for calculating Z{sub eff}, weight fraction, and density. We begin with the simplest case -- methods for multiple-energy CT using isotopic sources -- and proceed to multiple-energy work with x-ray machine sources. The methods discussed here are illustrated on CT scans of PBX-9502 high explosives, a lexan-aluminum phantom, and a cylinder of glass beads used in a preliminary study to determine if CT can resolve three phases: air, water, and a high-Z oil. In the CT project at LLNL, we have constructed several CT scanners of varying scanning geometries using {gamma}- and x-ray sources. In our research, we employed two of these scanners: pencil-beam CAT for CT data using isotopic sources and video-CAT equipped with an IRT micro-focal x-ray machine source.

  11. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  12. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  13. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  14. New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrodes New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes Print Developing high-performance batteries relies on material breakthroughs. During the past few years, various in situ characterization tools have been developed and have become indispensable in studying and the eventual optimization of battery materials. However, soft x-ray spectroscopy, one of the most sensitive probes of electronic states, has been mainly limited to ex situ experiments for

  15. New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in fusion experiments | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma in fusion experiments By John Greenwald December 9, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. A key issue for the

  16. New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in fusion experiments | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma in fusion experiments By John Greenwald December 9, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. A key issue for the

  17. Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques SOFAST: Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Tool Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (834 KB) SOFAST Imaging SOFAST Imaging Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology is an automated system in which the reflection of a mirror,

  18. Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sorbents - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Regenerable Sorbent Technique for Capturing CO2 Using Immobilized Amine Sorbents The BIAS (Basic Immobilized Amine Sorbent) Process National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This technology allows for optimal CO2 removal capacity for a given absorption and regeneration reactor

  19. Improved LWR Cladding Performance by EPD Surface Modification Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corradini, Michael; Sridharan, Kumar

    2012-11-26

    This project will utilize the electro-phoretic deposition technique (EPD) in conjunction with nanofluids to deposit oxide coatings on prototypic zirconium alloy cladding surfaces. After demonstrating that this surface modification is reproducible and robust, the team will subject the modified surface to boiling and corrosion tests to characterize the improved nucleate boiling behavior and superior corrosion performance. The scope of work consists of the following three tasks: The first task will employ the EPD surface modification technique to coat the surface of a prototypic set of zirconium alloy cladding tube materials (e.g. Zircaloy and advanced alloys such as M5) with a micron-thick layer of zirconium oxide nanoparticles. The team will characterize the modified surface for uniformity using optical microscopy and scanning-electron microscopy, and for robustness using standard hardness measurements. After zirconium alloy cladding samples have been prepared and characterized using the EPD technique, the team will begin a set of boiling experiments to measure the heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) limit for each prepared sample and its control sample. This work will provide a relative comparison of the heat transfer performance for each alloy and the surface modification technique employed. As the boiling heat transfer experiments begin, the team will also begin corrosion tests for these zirconium alloy samples using a water corrosion test loop that can mimic light water reactor (LWR) operational environments. They will perform extended corrosion tests on the surface-modified zirconium alloy samples and control samples to examine the robustness of the modified surface, as well as the effect on surface oxidation

  20. Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maly, J.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1984-02-01

    The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water.

  1. ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Novel View of Lithium Battery Dendrite Growth Print Lithium-ion batteries, popular in today's electronic devices and electric vehicles, could gain significant energy density if their graphite anodes were replaced with lithium metal anodes. But there's a major concern with substituting lithium-when the battery cycles, microscopic fibers of the lithium anodes ("dendrites") form on the surface of the lithium electrode and spread across the electrolyte until they reach

  2. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  3. Node Augmentation Technique in Bayesian Network Evidence Analysis and Marshaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keselman, Dmitry; Tompkins, George H; Leishman, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Given a Bayesian network, sensitivity analysis is an important activity. This paper begins by describing a network augmentation technique which can simplifY the analysis. Next, we present two techniques which allow the user to determination the probability distribution of a hypothesis node under conditions of uncertain evidence; i.e. the state of an evidence node or nodes is described by a user specified probability distribution. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of three criteria for ranking evidence nodes based on their influence on a hypothesis node. All of these techniques have been used in conjunction with a commercial software package. A Bayesian network based on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G is a graphical representation of a system of random variables that satisfies the following Markov property: any node (random variable) is independent of its non-descendants given the state of all its parents (Neapolitan, 2004). For simplicities sake, we consider only discrete variables with a finite number of states, though most of the conclusions may be generalized.

  4. Unit vent airflow measurements using a tracer gas technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D.G.; Lagus, P.L.; Fleming, K.M.

    1997-08-01

    An alternative method for assessing flowrates that does not depend on point measurements of air flow velocity is the constant tracer injection technique. In this method one injects a tracer gas at a constant rate into a duct and measures the resulting concentration downstream of the injection point. A simple equation derived from the conservation of mass allows calculation of the flowrate at the point of injection. Flowrate data obtained using both a pitot tube and a flow measuring station were compared with tracer gas flowrate measurements in the unit vent duct at the Callaway Nuclear Station during late 1995 and early 1996. These data are presented and discussed with an eye toward obtaining precise flowrate data for release rate calculations. The advantages and disadvantages of the technique are also described. In those test situations for which many flowrate combinations are required, or in large area ducts, a tracer flowrate determination requires fewer man-hours than does a conventional traverse-based technique and does not require knowledge of the duct area. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Geophysical Techniques for Monitoring CO2 Movement During Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erika Gasperikova; G. Michael Hoversten

    2005-11-15

    The relative merits of the seismic, gravity, and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical techniques are examined as monitoring tools for geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This work does not represent an exhaustive study, but rather demonstrates the capabilities of a number of geophysical techniques for two synthetic modeling scenarios. The first scenario represents combined CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and sequestration in a producing oil field, the Schrader Bluff field on the north slope of Alaska, USA. EOR/sequestration projects in general and Schrader Bluff in particular represent relatively thin injection intervals with multiple fluid components (oil, hydrocarbon gas, brine, and CO{sub 2}). This model represents the most difficult end member of a complex spectrum of possible sequestration scenarios. The time-lapse performance of seismic, gravity, and EM techniques are considered for the Schrader Bluff model. The second scenario is a gas field that in general resembles conditions of Rio Vista reservoir in the Sacramento Basin of California. Surface gravity, and seismic measurements are considered for this model.

  6. Computer assisted audit techniques for UNIX (UNIX-CAATS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, W.T.

    1991-12-31

    Federal and DOE regulations impose specific requirements for internal controls of computer systems. These controls include adequate separation of duties and sufficient controls for access of system and data. The DOE Inspector General`s Office has the responsibility to examine internal controls, as well as efficient use of computer system resources. As a result, DOE supported NIST development of computer assisted audit techniques to examine BSD UNIX computers (UNIX-CAATS). These systems were selected due to the increasing number of UNIX workstations in use within DOE. This paper describes the design and development of these techniques, as well as the results of testing at NIST and the first audit at a DOE site. UNIX-CAATS consists of tools which examine security of passwords, file systems, and network access. In addition, a tool was developed to examine efficiency of disk utilization. Test results at NIST indicated inadequate password management, as well as weak network resource controls. File system security was considered adequate. Audit results at a DOE site indicated weak password management and inefficient disk utilization. During the audit, we also found improvements to UNIX-CAATS were needed when applied to large systems. NIST plans to enhance the techniques developed for DOE/IG in future work. This future work would leverage currently available tools, along with needed enhancements. These enhancements would enable DOE/IG to audit large systems, such as supercomputers.

  7. Computer assisted audit techniques for UNIX (UNIX-CAATS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, W.T.

    1991-01-01

    Federal and DOE regulations impose specific requirements for internal controls of computer systems. These controls include adequate separation of duties and sufficient controls for access of system and data. The DOE Inspector General's Office has the responsibility to examine internal controls, as well as efficient use of computer system resources. As a result, DOE supported NIST development of computer assisted audit techniques to examine BSD UNIX computers (UNIX-CAATS). These systems were selected due to the increasing number of UNIX workstations in use within DOE. This paper describes the design and development of these techniques, as well as the results of testing at NIST and the first audit at a DOE site. UNIX-CAATS consists of tools which examine security of passwords, file systems, and network access. In addition, a tool was developed to examine efficiency of disk utilization. Test results at NIST indicated inadequate password management, as well as weak network resource controls. File system security was considered adequate. Audit results at a DOE site indicated weak password management and inefficient disk utilization. During the audit, we also found improvements to UNIX-CAATS were needed when applied to large systems. NIST plans to enhance the techniques developed for DOE/IG in future work. This future work would leverage currently available tools, along with needed enhancements. These enhancements would enable DOE/IG to audit large systems, such as supercomputers.

  8. New experimental techniques with the split Hopkinson pressure bar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frantz, C.E.; Follansbee, P.S.; Wright, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The split Hopkinson pressure bar or Kolsky bar has provided for many years a technique for performing compression tests at strain rates approaching 10/sup 4/ s/sup -1/. At these strain rates, the small dimensions possible in a compression test specimen give an advantage over a dynamic tensile test by allowing the stress within the specimen to equilibrate within the shortest possible time. The maximum strain rates possible with this technique are limited by stress wave propagation in the elastic pressure bars as well as in the deforming specimen. This subject is reviewed in this paper, and it is emphasized that a slowly rising excitation is preferred to one that rises steeply. Experimental techniques for pulse shaping and a numerical procedure for correcting the raw data for wave dispersion in the pressure bars are presented. For tests at elevated temperature a bar mover apparatus has been developed which effectively brings the cold pressure bars into contact with the specimen, which is heated with a specially designed furnace, shortly before the pressure wave arrives. This procedure has been used successfully in tests at temperatures as high as 1000/sup 0/C.

  9. Advanced techniques for characterization of ion beam modified materials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Yanwen; Debelle, Aurélien; Boulle, Alexandre; Kluth, Patrick; Tuomisto, Filip

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms of damage formation in materials irradiated with energetic ions is essential for the field of ion-beam materials modification and engineering. Utilizing incident ions, electrons, photons, and positrons, various analysis techniques, including Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), electron RBS, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering, and positron annihilation spectroscopy, are routinely used or gaining increasing attention in characterizing ion beam modified materials. The distinctive information, recent developments, and some perspectives in these techniques are reviewed in this paper. Applications of these techniques are discussed to demonstrate their unique ability for studying ion-solid interactions and the corresponding radiationmore » effects in modified depths ranging from a few nm to a few tens of μm, and to provide information on electronic and atomic structure of the materials, defect configuration and concentration, as well as phase stability, amorphization and recrystallization processes. Finally, such knowledge contributes to our fundamental understanding over a wide range of extreme conditions essential for enhancing material performance and also for design and synthesis of new materials to address a broad variety of future energy applications.« less

  10. Statistical optimisation techniques in fatigue signal editing problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nopiah, Z. M.; Osman, M. H.; Baharin, N.; Abdullah, S.

    2015-02-03

    Success in fatigue signal editing is determined by the level of length reduction without compromising statistical constraints. A great reduction rate can be achieved by removing small amplitude cycles from the recorded signal. The long recorded signal sometimes renders the cycle-to-cycle editing process daunting. This has encouraged researchers to focus on the segment-based approach. This paper discusses joint application of the Running Damage Extraction (RDE) technique and single constrained Genetic Algorithm (GA) in fatigue signal editing optimisation.. In the first section, the RDE technique is used to restructure and summarise the fatigue strain. This technique combines the overlapping window and fatigue strain-life models. It is designed to identify and isolate the fatigue events that exist in the variable amplitude strain data into different segments whereby the retention of statistical parameters and the vibration energy are considered. In the second section, the fatigue data editing problem is formulated as a constrained single optimisation problem that can be solved using GA method. The GA produces the shortest edited fatigue signal by selecting appropriate segments from a pool of labelling segments. Challenges arise due to constraints on the segment selection by deviation level over three signal properties, namely cumulative fatigue damage, root mean square and kurtosis values. Experimental results over several case studies show that the idea of solving fatigue signal editing within a framework of optimisation is effective and automatic, and that the GA is robust for constrained segment selection.

  11. Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and Productivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and ...

  12. Conceptual Ideas for New Nondestructive UF6 Cylinder Assay Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Karen A.

    2012-05-02

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of uranium cylinders play an important role in helping the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguard uranium enrichment plants. Traditionally, these measurements have consisted of a scale or load cell to determine the mass of UF{sub 6} in the cylinder combined with a gamma-ray measurement of the 186 keV peak from {sup 235}U to determine enrichment. More recently, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed systems that exploit the passive neutron signal from UF{sub 6} to determine uranium mass and/or enrichment. These include the Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS), the Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM), and the Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA). The purpose of this report is to provide the IAEA with new ideas on technologies that may or may not be under active development but could be useful for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay. To begin, we have included two feasibility studies of active interrogation techniques. There is a long history of active interrogation in the field of nuclear safeguards, especially for uranium assay. Both of the active techniques provide a direct measure of {sup 235}U content. The first is an active neutron method based on the existing PNEM design that uses a correlated {sup 252}Cf interrogation source. This technique shows great promise for UF{sub 6} cylinder assay and is based on advanced technology that could be implemented in the field in the near term. The second active technique is nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF). In the NRF technique, a bremsstrahlung photon beam could be used to illuminate the cylinder, and high-resolution gamma-ray detectors would detect the characteristic de-excitation photons. The results of the feasibility study show that under certain measurement geometries, NRF is impractical for UF6 cylinder assay, but the 'grazing transmission' and 'secant transmission' geometries have more potential

  13. Digital I and C system upgrade integration technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, H. W.; Shih, C.; Wang, J. R.; Huang, K. C.

    2012-07-01

    This work developed an integration technique for digital I and C system upgrade, the utility can replace the I and C systems step by step systematically by this method. Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin-Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo-Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) Procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (I) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR- 1011710 (2005) 'Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems' which was published by the Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SVandV), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. A

  14. Soft X-ray techniques to study mesoscale magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kortright, Jeffrey B.

    2003-06-26

    Heterogeneity in magnetization (M) is ubiquitous in modern systems. Even in nominally homogeneous materials, domains or pinning centers typically mediate magnetization reversal. Fundamental lengths determining M structure include the domain wall width and the exchange stiffness length, typically in the 4-400 nm range. Chemical heterogeneity (phase separation, polycrystalline microstructure, lithographic or other patterning, etc.) with length scales from nanometers to microns is often introduced to influence magnetic properties. With 1-2 nm wavelengths {lambda}, soft x-rays in principle can resolve structure down to {lambda}/2, and are well suited to study these mesoscopic length scales [1, 2]. This article highlights recent advances in resonant soft x-ray methods to resolve lateral magnetic structure [3], and discusses some of their relative merits and limitations. Only techniques detecting x-ray photons (rather than photo-electrons) are considered [4], since they are compatible with strong applied fields to probe relatively deeply into samples. The magneto-optical (MO) effects discovered by Faraday and Kerr were observed in the x-ray range over a century later, first at ''hard'' wavelengths in diffraction experiments probing interatomic magnetic structure [5]. In the soft x-ray range, magnetic linear [6] and circular [7] dichroism spectroscopies first developed that average over lateral magnetic structure. These large resonant MO effects enable different approaches to study magnetic structure or heterogeneity that can be categorized as microscopy or scattering [1]. Direct images of magnetic structure result from photo-emission electron microscopes [4, 8] and zone-plate microscopes [9, 10]. Scattering techniques extended into the soft x-ray include familiar specular reflection that laterally averages over structure but can provide depth-resolved information, and diffuse scattering and diffraction that provide direct information about lateral magnetic structure

  15. Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smedley-Stevenson, R. P.

    2013-07-01

    Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

  16. PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques for photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmiller, J.; Hutchinson, P.; Townsend, T.; Whitaker, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of PV systems at the main test site in Davis, California: new module technologies fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays and more mature technologies fielded as 70- to 500-kW turnkey Utility-Scale (US) systems. PVUSA members have also installed systems in their service areas. Designed appropriately, data acquisition systems (DASs) can be a convenient and reliable means of assessing system performance, value, and health. Improperly designed, they can be complicated, difficult to use and maintain, and provide data of questionable validity. This report documents PVUSA PV system instrumentation and data analysis techniques and lessons learned. The report is intended to assist utility engineers, PV system designers, and project managers in establishing an objective, then, through a logical series of topics, facilitate selection and design of a DAS to meet the objective. Report sections include Performance Reporting Objectives (including operational versus research DAS), Recommended Measurements, Measurement Techniques, Calibration Issues, and Data Processing and Analysis Techniques. Conclusions and recommendations based on the several years of operation and performance monitoring are offered. This report is one in a series of 1994--1995 PVUSA reports documenting PVUSA lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California. Other topical reports address: five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid support PV plant benefits; construction and safety experience in installing and operating PV systems; balance-of-system design and costs; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  17. The use of probability techniques in value-based planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rau, N.S. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

    1994-11-01

    Present techniques used in value-based planning do not properly represent neither the durations of capacity outage nor the effects of outage on post-interruption demand. Generation outage models do not relate the expected quantum of shortages to particular durations of outage. A model is proposed to compute this expectation by using the generator outage statistics in its entirety. The application of this model to the IEEE test system gave different results, depending on which outage cost data were used. Consequently, there is a need for a uniform procedure to report outage costs. A bottom-up procedure based on end use is proposed as a possibility.

  18. Graphene-based terahertz photodetector by noise thermometry technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Ming-Jye; Wang, Ji-Wun; Wang, Chun-Lun; Chiang, Yen-Yu; Chang, Hsian-Hong

    2014-01-20

    We report the characteristics of graphene-based terahertz (THz) photodetector based on noise thermometry technique by measuring its noise power at frequency from 4 to 6 GHz. Hot electron system in graphene microbridge is generated after THz photon pumping and creates extra noise power. The equivalent noise temperature and electron temperature increase rapidly in low THz pumping regime and saturate gradually in high THz power regime which is attributed to a faster energy relaxation process involved by stronger electron-phonon interaction. Based on this detector, a conversion efficiency around 0.15 from THz power to noise power in 46?GHz span has been achieved.

  19. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKechnie, Timothy N.; Antony, Leo V. M.; O'Dell, Scott; Power, Chris; Tabor, Terry

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  20. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  1. Engine control techniques to account for fuel effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Shankar; Frazier, Timothy R.; Stanton, Donald W.; Xu, Yi; Bunting, Bruce G.; Wolf, Leslie R.

    2014-08-26

    A technique for engine control to account for fuel effects including providing an internal combustion engine and a controller to regulate operation thereof, the engine being operable to combust a fuel to produce an exhaust gas; establishing a plurality of fuel property inputs; establishing a plurality of engine performance inputs; generating engine control information as a function of the fuel property inputs and the engine performance inputs; and accessing the engine control information with the controller to regulate at least one engine operating parameter.

  2. Simplified multizone blower door techniques for multifamily buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This research focused on the applicability of (a) two-blower-door and (b) single-blower-door multi-zone pressurization techniques for estimating the air leakage characteristics of New York State multi-family apartment buildings. The research also investigated the magnitude of external leakage area in multi-family buildings and used computer simulations to estimate the effect of decreasing external and internal leakage areas on air infiltration rates. This research investigates whether two blower doors can be used to determine the ELA of the exterior envelope and the ELA of partitions. Two multi-zone versions of the single-blower-door pressurization method are also examined.

  3. Neutron capture strategy and technique developments for GNEP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The initial three years of neutron capture measurements have been very successful in providing data for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative/Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (AFCI/GNEP) program. Now that the most straightforward measurements have been completed, additional technical challenges face future measurements. In particular, techniques are needed to perform measurements that exhibit at least one of three major problems -- large fission:capture ratios, large capture:capture ratios, and high intrinsic activity samples. This paper will set forward a plan for attacking these technical challenges and moving forward with future measurements.

  4. Lidar techniques for chemical and aerosol air pollution studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    At the Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL), lidar methods are being applied in several areas of air pollution research. Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems for measuring ozone, ethylene, and other pollutants have been recently developed. The ozone instrument profiles ozone concentration in the boundary layer and lower troposphere to study sources, sinks, and transport of ozone. A goal is to combine DIAL and Doppler lidar techniques for measurement of the vertical fluxes of ozone and other pollutants. Doppler lidars have been also used at WPL to study visibility reduction caused by aerosol pollutants at the Grand Canyon, and to investigate dispersion of hazardous emissions near the Rocky Flats nuclear plant.

  5. Accelerator-mode-based technique for studying quantum chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Arcy, M.B.; Godun, R.M.; Cassettari, D. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Summy, G.S. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-3072 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a method for selecting small regions of phase space for kicked rotor quantum chaos experiments with cold atoms. Our technique uses quantum accelerator modes to selectively accelerate atomic wave packets with localized spatial and momentum distributions. The potential used to create the accelerator mode and subsequently realize the kicked rotor system is formed by a set of off-resonant standing-wave light pulses. We also propose a method for testing whether a selected region of phase space exhibits chaotic or regular behavior using a Ramsey type separated field experiment.

  6. High Througput Combinatorial Techniques in Hydrogen Storage Materials R&D Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Summary of the June 2007 high-throughput combinatorial techniques in hyrogen storage materials workshop

  7. Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL): A Novel Technique for Radiological Source Localization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Erin A.; Robinson, Sean M.; Anderson, Kevin K.; McCall, Jonathon D.; Prinke, Amanda M.; Webster, Jennifer B.; Seifert, Carolyn E.

    2015-06-01

    Adaptively Reevaluated Bayesian Localization (ARBL): A Novel Technique for Radiological Source Localization

  8. Improved analysis techniques for cylindrical and spherical double probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beal, Brian; Brown, Daniel; Bromaghim, Daron; Johnson, Lee; Blakely, Joseph

    2012-07-15

    A versatile double Langmuir probe technique has been developed by incorporating analytical fits to Laframboise's numerical results for ion current collection by biased electrodes of various sizes relative to the local electron Debye length. Application of these fits to the double probe circuit has produced a set of coupled equations that express the potential of each electrode relative to the plasma potential as well as the resulting probe current as a function of applied probe voltage. These equations can be readily solved via standard numerical techniques in order to determine electron temperature and plasma density from probe current and voltage measurements. Because this method self-consistently accounts for the effects of sheath expansion, it can be readily applied to plasmas with a wide range of densities and low ion temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e} Much-Less-Than 1) without requiring probe dimensions to be asymptotically large or small with respect to the electron Debye length. The presented approach has been successfully applied to experimental measurements obtained in the plume of a low-power Hall thruster, which produced a quasineutral, flowing xenon plasma during operation at 200 W on xenon. The measured plasma densities and electron temperatures were in the range of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and 0.5-5.0 eV, respectively. The estimated measurement uncertainty is +6%/-34% in density and +/-30% in electron temperature.

  9. A versatile technique to minimize electrical losses in distribution feeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyaruzi, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    This dissertation presents a method of minimizing electrical losses in radial distribution feeders by the use of shunt capacitors. The engineering benefits of reducing peak electrical power and energy losses are compared to the costs associated with the current engineering practice of buying, installing and servicing capacitor banks in the distribution feeders. The present analysis defines this cost-benefit problem and the formulation of the problem of nonuniform feeders with different wire gauges at various feeder sections. Standard utility capacitor bank sizes are used to give a more realistic model. An original computer solution methodology based on techniques developed for this study determines: (i) Whether it is economical to install compensating capacitor banks on a particular radial distribution feeder or not. (ii) The locations at which capacitor banks should be installed. (iii) The types and sizes of capacitor banks to be installed. (iv) The time setting of switched capacitor banks. The techniques have been applied to a typical radial distribution feeder in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The results and the engineering implications of this work are discussed and recommendations for the engineering community made.

  10. Case studies from Oman for coiled tubing deployed completion techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, R.W.; Conrad, B.

    1996-09-01

    Although the use of ultra-large coiled tubing to complete wells is relatively new, it is gaining widespread industry application. This paper will detail the equipment necessary to perform an operation of this type and will present information from several case studies in Oman in which an operator has successfully deployed completion equipment on 3-1/2-inch-OD coiled tubing. In addition to a discussion of the equipment required to perform the necessary operations, the trial parameters that were established by this operator will be given. The information presented has been selected to allow an initial evaluation to be made of coiled tubing completions in general and will help to determine whether this method can prove to be less expensive than traditional rig-based completions. The topics presented have been chosen to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of the techniques and preparation needed to execute a coiled tubing completion. The summary of experiences will conclude that this innovative completion technique can be a viable method for completing wells. Although long-term advantages regarding production and well maintenance cannot yet be determined, the operator`s experiences to date have confirmed his initial belief that use of coiled tubing in ultra-large continuous-pipe applications can be cost effective.

  11. A survey of CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-04

    As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and applicationmore » level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). Furthermore, we believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.« less

  12. Vadose Zone Characterization Techniques Developed by EMSP Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillen, Donna P.

    2003-02-24

    This paper discusses research contributions made by Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) research in the area of geophysical characterization of the subsurface. The goal of these EMSP research projects is to develop combined high-resolution measurement and interpretation packages that provide accurate, timely information needed to characterize the vadose zone. Various types of geophysical imaging techniques can be used to characterize the shallow subsurface. Since individual geophysical characterization tools all have specific limitations, many different techniques are being explored to provide more widespread applicability over a range of hydrogeologic settings. A combination of laboratory, field, theoretical, and computational studies are necessary to develop our understanding of how contaminants move through the vadose zone. This entails field tests with field-hardened systems, packaging and calibration of instrumentation, data processing and analysis algorithms, forward and inverse modeling, and so forth. DOE sites are seeking to team with EMSP researchers to leverage the basic science research investment and apply these advances to address subsurface contamination issues that plague many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites.

  13. INTERIM REPORT ON CONCRETE DEGRADATION MECHANISMS AND ONLINE MONITORING TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Agarwal, Vivek; Neal, Kyle; Kosson, David; Adams, Douglas

    2014-09-01

    The existing fleets of nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, though most these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. The online monitoring of concrete structure conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory will develop and demonstrate concrete structures health monitoring capabilities. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code margins of safety. Therefore, the structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University proposes to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses available techniques and ongoing challenges in each of the four elements of the proposed framework with emphasis on degradation mechanisms and online monitoring techniques.

  14. A survey of CPU-GPU heterogeneous computing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-04

    As both CPU and GPU become employed in a wide range of applications, it has been acknowledged that both of these processing units (PUs) have their unique features and strengths and hence, CPU-GPU collaboration is inevitable to achieve high-performance computing. This has motivated significant amount of research on heterogeneous computing techniques, along with the design of CPU-GPU fused chips and petascale heterogeneous supercomputers. In this paper, we survey heterogeneous computing techniques (HCTs) such as workload-partitioning which enable utilizing both CPU and GPU to improve performance and/or energy efficiency. We review heterogeneous computing approaches at runtime, algorithm, programming, compiler and application level. Further, we review both discrete and fused CPU-GPU systems; and discuss benchmark suites designed for evaluating heterogeneous computing systems (HCSs). Furthermore, we believe that this paper will provide insights into working and scope of applications of HCTs to researchers and motivate them to further harness the computational powers of CPUs and GPUs to achieve the goal of exascale performance.

  15. Application of simulation techniques for internal corrosion prediction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palacios T, C.A.; Hernandez, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Characterization of corrosion in the oil and gas industry is becoming of increasing importance for safety reasons as well as for the preservation of production facilities; to prevent down time and damage to the environment. This article presents the methodology used by this company to characterize the corrosion behavior of the whole production facility, taking into consideration the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic conditions of the produced fluids (flow velocities, flow pattern, liquid holdup, pressure, temperature, etc.) as they flow from the reservoir through the surface installations (flowlines, gas/oil gathering and transmission lines, gas processing plants, artificial lift systems, etc.). The methodology uses Petroleum Engineering and Two-Phase modeling techniques to: (1) optimize the entire production system to obtain the most efficient objective flow rate taking into consideration the corrosive/erosive nature of the produced fluid and (2) characterize the corrosive nature of the produced fluid as it flows through the above mentioned installations. The modeling techniques were performed using commercially available simulators and CO{sub 2} corrosion rates were determined using well known published correlations. For H{sub 2}S corrosion, NACE MR0175 criteria is applied. The application of this methodology has allowed corrosion control strategies, protection and monitoring criteria, inhibitor optimization and increased the effectiveness of already existing corrosion control systems.

  16. Surge recovery techniques for the Tevatron cold compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.; /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, made by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/s of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/s and operating speeds between 40 and 95 krpm. Since initial commissioning in 1993, Tevatron transient conditions such as quench recovery have led to multiple-location machine trips as a result of the cold compressors entering the surge regime. Historically, compressors operating at lower inlet pressures and higher speeds have been especially susceptible to these machine trips and it was not uncommon to have multiple compressor trips during large multiple-house quenches. In order to cope with these events and limit accelerator down time, surge recovery techniques have been implemented in an attempt to prevent the compressors from tripping once the machine entered this surge regime. This paper discusses the different methods of surge recovery that have been employed. Data from tests performed at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab as well as actual Tevatron operational data were utilized. In order to aid in the determination of the surge region, a full mapping study was undertaken to characterize the entire pressure field of the cold compressor. These techniques were then implemented and tested at several locations in the Tevatron with some success.

  17. A Comparison of Techniques for Detecting Abnormal Change in Blogs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuta, Dr. Richard Keith; ShipmanIII, Dr. Frank Major; Bogen, Paul Logasa

    2012-01-01

    Distributed collections are made of metadata entries that contain references to artifacts not controlled by the collection curators. These collections often have limited forms of change; for digital distributed collections, primarily creation and deletion of additional resources. However, there exists a class of digital collection that undergoes additional kinds of change. These collections consist of resources that are distributed across the Internet and brought together via hyperlinking. Resources in these collections can be expected to change as time goes on. Part of the difficulty in maintaining these collections is determining if a changed page is still a valid member of the collection. Others have tried to address this by defining a maximum allowed threshold of change, however, these methods treat change as a potential problem and treat web content as static despite its intrinsic dynamicism. Instead we acknowledge change on the web as a normal part of a web document and determine the difference between what a maintainer expects a page to do and what it actually does. In this work we evaluate options for extractors and analyzers from a suite of techniques against a human-generated ground-truth set of blog changes. The results of this work show a statistically significant improvement over traditional threshold techniques for our collection.

  18. Risk Management Techniques and Practice Workshop Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quinn, T; Zosel, M

    2008-12-02

    At the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) hosted a two-day Risk Management Techniques and Practice (RMTAP) workshop held September 18-19 at the Hotel Nikko in San Francisco. The purpose of the workshop, which was sponsored by the SC/Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) program and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)/Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program, was to assess current and emerging techniques, practices, and lessons learned for effectively identifying, understanding, managing, and mitigating the risks associated with acquiring leading-edge computing systems at high-performance computing centers (HPCCs). Representatives from fifteen high-performance computing (HPC) organizations, four HPC vendor partners, and three government agencies attended the workshop. The overall workshop findings were: (1) Standard risk management techniques and tools are in the aggregate applicable to projects at HPCCs and are commonly employed by the HPC community; (2) HPC projects have characteristics that necessitate a tailoring of the standard risk management practices; (3) All HPCC acquisition projects can benefit by employing risk management, but the specific choice of risk management processes and tools is less important to the success of the project; (4) The special relationship between the HPCCs and HPC vendors must be reflected in the risk management strategy; (5) Best practices findings include developing a prioritized risk register with special attention to the top risks, establishing a practice of regular meetings and status updates with the platform partner, supporting regular and open reviews that engage the interests and expertise of a wide range of staff and stakeholders, and documenting and sharing the acquisition/build/deployment experience; and (6) Top risk categories include system scaling issues, request for proposal/contract and acceptance testing, and

  19. High Rate Laser Pitting Technique for Solar Cell Texturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans J. Herfurth; Henrikki Pantsar

    2013-01-10

    High rate laser pitting technique for solar cell texturing Efficiency of crystalline silicon solar cells can be improved by creating a texture on the surface to increase optical absorption. Different techniques have been developed for texturing, with the current state-of-the-art (SOA) being wet chemical etching. The process has poor optical performance, produces surfaces that are difficult to passivate or contact and is relatively expensive due to the use of hazardous chemicals. This project shall develop an alternative process for texturing mc-Si using laser micromachining. It will have the following features compared to the current SOA texturing process: -Superior optical surfaces for reduced front-surface reflection and enhanced optical absorption in thin mc-Si substrates -Improved surface passivation -More easily integrated into advanced back-contact cell concepts -Reduced use of hazardous chemicals and waste treatment -Similar or lower cost The process is based on laser pitting. The objective is to develop and demonstrate a high rate laser pitting process which will exceed the rate of former laser texturing processes by a factor of ten. The laser and scanning technologies will be demonstrated on a laboratory scale, but will use inherently technologies that can easily be scaled to production rates. The drastic increase in process velocity is required for the process to be implemented as an in-line process in PV manufacturing. The project includes laser process development, development of advanced optical systems for beam manipulation and cell reflectivity and efficiency testing. An improvement of over 0.5% absolute in efficiency is anticipated after laser-based texturing. The surface textures will be characterized optically, and solar cells will be fabricated with the new laser texturing to ensure that the new process is compatible with high-efficiency cell processing. The result will be demonstration of a prototype process that is suitable for scale-up to a

  20. Transport properties of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by the hot-wire technique investigated by the photomixing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, S.; Tang, Y.; Liebe, J.; Braunstein, R.; Crandall, R.S.; Nelson, B.P.; Mahan, A.H.

    1997-07-01

    The transport properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with a hydrogen content ranging from 12{percent} to less than 1{percent}, which were produced by the hot-wire technique, varying the deposition substrate temperature, 290{degree}C{lt}T{sub S}{lt}400{degree}C, were systematically studied by the photoconductive frequency mixing technique. With an increase of the deposition substrate temperature, and consequent decrease of hydrogen content, the photoconductivity, {sigma}{sub pc}, and the drift mobility, {mu}{sub d}, are found to decrease, while the width of the conduction band tail, {epsilon}, increases. Continuous degradations of photoconductivity, drift mobility, and photomixing lifetime, {tau}, were found during light soaking experiments. In addition, it was found that the drift mobility increases and the photomixing lifetime decreases with an increase of the applied electric field, while the photoconductivity is essentially independent of the electric field within the range of 1000{endash}10000Vcm{sup {minus}1}. Furthermore, the electric field dependence of the drift mobility in the annealed state is always larger than in the light-soaked state. The results for the electric field dependence are explained using the model of long-range potential fluctuations, whose range can be determined by employing an analysis previously developed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Evaluation of the uranium double spike technique for environmental monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemberger, P.H.; Rokop, D.J.; Efurd, D.W.; Roensch, F.R.; Smith, D.H.; Turner, M.L.; Barshick, C.M.; Bayne, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Use of a uranium double spike in analysis of environmental samples showed that a {sup 235}U enrichment of 1% ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00732) can be distinguished from natural ({sup 235}U/{sup 238}U = 0.00725). Experiments performed jointly at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used a carefully calibrated double spike of {sup 233}U and {sup 236}U to obtain much better precision than is possible using conventional analytical techniques. A variety of different sampling media (vegetation and swipes) showed that, provided sufficient care is exercised in choice of sample type, relative standard deviations of less than {+-} 0.5% can be routinely obtained. This ability, unavailable without use of the double spike, has enormous potential significance in the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities.

  2. Synthesis of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles by detonation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Guilei, E-mail: sunguilei@126.com [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Xiaojie, E-mail: dalian03@vip.sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Qiquan [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China)] [Department of Safety Engineering, China Institute of Industrial Relations, Beijing 100037 (China); Yan, Honghao [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Structural Analysis for Industrial Equipment, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were synthesized by detonating a mixture of ferrocene, naphthalene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in an explosion vessel under low vacuum conditions (8.1 kPa). The RDX functioned as an energy source for the decomposition of ferrocene and naphthalene. The carbon-coated iron nanoparticles were formed as soot-like deposits on the inner surface of the reactor, which were characterized by XRD, TEM, HRTEM, Raman spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. And a portion of the detonation soot was treated with hydrochloric acid. The product was carbon-coated nanoparticles in perfect core-shell structures with graphitic shells and bcc-Fe cores. The detonation technique offers an energy-saving route to the synthesis of carbon-coated nanomaterials.

  3. Metal catalyst technique for texturing silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruby, Douglas S.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    2001-01-01

    Textured silicon solar cells and techniques for their manufacture utilizing metal sources to catalyze formation of randomly distributed surface features such as nanoscale pyramidal and columnar structures. These structures include dimensions smaller than the wavelength of incident light, thereby resulting in a highly effective anti-reflective surface. According to the invention, metal sources present in a reactive ion etching chamber permit impurities (e.g. metal particles) to be introduced into a reactive ion etch plasma resulting in deposition of micro-masks on the surface of a substrate to be etched. Separate embodiments are disclosed including one in which the metal source includes one or more metal-coated substrates strategically positioned relative to the surface to be textured, and another in which the walls of the reaction chamber are pre-conditioned with a thin coating of metal catalyst material.

  4. Novel polarization-sensitive micropulse lidar measurement technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flynn, Connor J.; Mendoza, Albert; Zheng, Yunhui; Mathur, Savyasachee

    2007-03-19

    Polarization-sensitive detection of elastic backscatter is useful for detection of cloud phase and depolarizing aerosols. The U.S. DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program has deployed micropulse lidar (MPL) for over a decade, but without polarized detection. Adding an actively-controlled liquid crystal retarder provides the capability to identify depolarizing particles by alternately transmitting linearly and circularly polarized light. This represents a departure from established techniques which transmit exclusively linear polarization or exclusively circular polarization. Mueller matrix calculations yield simple relationships between the well-known linear depolarization ratio δlinear, the circular depolarization ratio δcirc, and the hybrid MPL depolarization ratio δMPL. This research was supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy as part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program.

  5. Assurance and assessment techniques for nuclear weapon related software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackledge, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has the qualification evaluation responsibility for the design of certain components intended for use in nuclear weapons. Specific techniques in assurance and assessment have been developed to provide the quality evidence that the software has been properly qualified for use. Qualification Evaluation is a process for assessing the suitability of either a process used to develop or manufacture the product, or the product itself. The qualification process uses a team approach to evaluating a product or process, chaired by a Quality Assurance professional, with other members representing the design organization, the systems organization, and the production agency. Suitable for use implies that adequate and appropriate definition and documentation has been produced and formally released, adequate verification and validation activities have taken place to ensure proper operation, and the software product meets all requirements, explicitly or otherwise.

  6. Assurance and assessment techniques for nuclear weapon related software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackledge, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories has the qualification evaluation responsibility for the design of certain components intended for use in nuclear weapons. Specific techniques in assurance and assessment have been developed to provide the quality evidence that the software has been properly qualified for use. Qualification Evaluation is a process for assessing the suitability of either a process used to develop or manufacture the product, or the product itself The qualification process uses a team approach to evaluating a product or process, chaired by a Quality Assurance professional, with other members representing the design organization, the systems organization, and the production agency. Suitable for use implies that adequate and appropriate definition and documentation has been produced and formally released, adequate verification and validation activities have taken place to ensure proper operation, and the software product meets all requirements, explicitly or otherwise.

  7. Assurance and assessment techniques for nuclear weapon related software

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blackledge, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has the qualification evaluation responsibility for the design of certain components intended for use in nuclear weapons. Specific techniques in assurance and assessment have been developed to provide the quality evidence that the software has been properly qualified for use. Qualification Evaluation is a process for assessing the suitability of either a process used to develop or manufacture the product, or the product itself. The qualification process uses a team approach to evaluating a product or process, chaired by a Quality Assurance professional, with other members representing the design organization, the systems organization, and the production agency. Suitable for use implies that adequate and appropriate definition and documentation has been produced and formally released, adequate verification and validation activities have taken place to ensure proper operation, and the software product meets all requirements, explicitly or otherwise.

  8. Technique to eliminate helium induced weld cracking in stainless steels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin-An Wang; Chin, B.A.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments have shown that Type 316 stainless steel is susceptible to heat-affected-zone (HAZ) cracking upon cooling when welded using the gas tungsten arc (GTA) process under lateral constraint. The cracking has been hypothesized to be caused by stress-assisted helium bubble growth and rupture at grain boundaries. This study utilized an experimental welding setup which enabled different compressive stresses to be applied to the plates during welding. Autogenous GTA welds were produced in Type 316 stainless steel doped with 256 appm helium. The application of a compressive stress, 55 Mpa, during welding suppressed the previously observed catastrophic cracking. Detailed examinations conducted after welding showed a dramatic change in helium bubble morphology. Grain boundary bubble growth along directions parallel to the weld was suppressed. Results suggest that stress-modified welding techniques may be used to suppress or eliminate helium-induced cracking during joining of irradiated materials.

  9. Adaptive array technique for differential-phase reflectometry in QUEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Idei, H. Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Nagata, K.; Mishra, K.; Itado, T.; Akimoto, R.; Yamamoto, M. K.

    2014-11-15

    A Phased Array Antenna (PAA) was considered as launching and receiving antennae in reflectometry to attain good directivity in its applied microwave range. A well-focused beam was obtained in a launching antenna application, and differential-phase evolution was properly measured by using a metal reflector plate in the proof-of-principle experiment at low power test facilities. Differential-phase evolution was also evaluated by using the PAA in the Q-shu University Experiment with Steady State Spherical Tokamak (QUEST). A beam-forming technique was applied in receiving phased-array antenna measurements. In the QUEST device that should be considered as a large oversized cavity, standing wave effect was significantly observed with perturbed phase evolution. A new approach using derivative of measured field on propagating wavenumber was proposed to eliminate the standing wave effect.

  10. FY-87 packing fabrication techniques (commercial waste form) results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werry, E.V.; Gates, T.E.; Cabbage, K.S.; Eklund, J.D.

    1988-04-01

    This report covers the investigation of fabrication techniques associated with the development of suitable materials and methods to provide a prefabricated packing for waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP). The principal functions of the packing are to minimize container corrosion during the 300 to 1000 years following repository closure and provide long-term control of the release of radionuclides from the waste package. The investigative work, discussed in this report, was specifically conceived to develop the design criteria for production of full-scale prototypical packing rings. The investigative work included the preparation of procedures, the preparation of fabrication materials, physical properties, and the determination of the engineering properties. The principal activities were the preparation of the materials and the determination of the physical properties. 21 refs., 20 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Peelle's pertinent puzzle using the Monte Carlo technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawano, Toshihiko; Talou, Patrick; Burr, Thomas; Pan, Feng

    2009-01-01

    We try to understand the long-standing problem of the Peelle's Pertinent Puzzle (PPP) using the Monte Carlo technique. We allow the probability density functions to be any kind of form to assume the impact of distribution, and obtain the least-squares solution directly from numerical simulations. We found that the standard least squares method gives the correct answer if a weighting function is properly provided. Results from numerical simulations show that the correct answer of PPP is 1.1 {+-} 0.25 if the common error is multiplicative. The thought-provoking answer of 0.88 is also correct, if the common error is additive, and if the error is proportional to the measured values. The least squares method correctly gives us the most probable case, where the additive component has a negative value. Finally, the standard method fails for PPP due to a distorted (non Gaussian) joint distribution.

  12. In-situ characterization technique for screening contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaselskis, E.J.; Anderson, M.S.; D`Silva, A.P.; Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.

    1995-07-01

    An innovative field sampling system for screening contaminated soils has been developed using laser ablation coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (LA-ICP-AES) technology. This sampling approach provides in-situ real-time analysis of trace inorganic elements and is conducted through a mobile testing facility that consists of an instrumentation vehicle called the Mobile Demonstration Laboratory for Environmental Screening Technologies (MDLEST) and an attached trailer called the Robotic Sampling Accessory (RSA). The RSA provides automated sampling capabilities through an attached three-degree-of-freedom robot that is equipped with a surface-sampling probe. The MDLEST-RSA was successfully tested at a Department of Energy (DOE) site in Fernald, Ohio, during the fall of 1992. This paper provides a description of the analysis technique, the MDLEST and RSA, and results of the field demonstration. In addition, benefits, limitations, and future plans are also discussed.

  13. Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) Panel Meeting Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Holbrook

    2007-07-01

    Phenomena Identification and Ranking Technique (PIRT) is a systematic way of gathering information from experts on a specific subject and ranking the importance of the information. NRC, in collaboration with DOE and the working group, conducted the PIRT exercises to identify safety-relevant phenomena for NGNP, and to assess and rank the importance and knowledge base for each phenomenon. The overall objective was to provide NRC with an expert assessment of the safety-relevant NGNP phenomena, and an overall assessment of R and D needs for NGNP licensing. The PIRT process was applied to five major topical areas relevant to NGNP safety and licensing: (1) thermofluids and accident analysis (including neutronics), (2) fission product transport, (3) high temperature materials, (4) graphite, and (5) process heat for hydrogen cogeneration.

  14. Guidelines and techniques for improving the NEPA process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salk, M.S.; Tolbert, V.R.; Dickerman, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    The Council on Environmental Quality`s (CEQ`s) principal aims in implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) are (1) to reduce paperwork, (2) to avoid delay, and most importantly (3) to produce better decisions that protect, restore, and enhance the environment. This paper presents four strategies for improving the NEPA process along with tools that can be used to implement each strategy. The tools include guidelines for project management and problem definition, tips for acquiring existing information and identifying issues of public concern, worksheets on how to identify and analyze potential impacts on resources, ideas for enhancing NEPA documents, and a NEPA process checklist. The tools can be used at various stages of the NEPA process and provide a toolbox of guidelines and techniques to improve implementation of the NEPA process by focusing the pertinent information for decisionmakers and stakeholders.

  15. Hermetic fiber optic-to-metal connection technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, Daniel P.

    1992-09-01

    A glass-to-glass hermetic sealing technique is disclosed which can be used to splice lengths of glass fibers together. A solid glass preform is inserted into the cavity of a metal component which is then heated to melt the glass. An end of an optical fiber is then advanced into the molten glass and the entire structure cooled to solidify the glass in sealing engagement with the optical fiber end and the metal cavity. The surface of the re-solidified glass may be machined for mating engagement with another component to make a spliced fiber optic connection. The resultant structure has a helium leak rate of less than 1.times.10.sup.-8 cm.sup.3 /sec.

  16. Perimeter safeguards techniques for uranium-enrichment plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehlau, P.E.; Chamber, W.H.

    1981-09-01

    In 1972, a working group of the International Atomic Energy Agency identified a goal to develop and evaluate perimeter safeguards for uranium isotope enrichment plants. As part of the United State's response to that goal, Los Alamos Detection and Verification personnel studied gamma-ray and neutron emissions from uranium hexafluoride. They developed instruments that use the emissions to verify uranium enrichment and to monitor perimeter personnel and shipping portals. Unattended perimeter monitors and hand-held verification instruments were evaluated in field measurements and, when possible, were loaned to enrichment facilities for trials. None of the seven package monitoring techniques that were investigated proved entirely satisfactory for an unattended monitor. They either revealed proprietary information about centrifuge design or were subject to interference by shielding materials that could be present in a package. Further evaluation in a centrifuge facility may help in developing an acceptable attended package monitor. 34 figures, 9 tables.

  17. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-12

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  18. Microcurrent therapeutic technique for treatment of radiation toxicity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lennox, Arlene; Funder, Sandra

    2000-01-01

    The present technique provides a method of remediating the toxicities associated with radiation therapy. A conductive gel is applied to the affected bodily area. A sinusoidally pulsed biphasic DC current is then applied to the affected bodily area using at least one electrode. The electrode is manipulated using active tactile manipulation by for a predetermined time and the frequency of the sinusoidally pulsed biphasic DC current is decreased during the course of the treatment. The method also includes applying a spiked pulsed biphasic DC current to the affected bodily area using at least one electrode. This electrode is also manipulated using active tactile manipulation by for a predetermined time and the frequency of the spiked pulsed biphasic DC current is also decreased during the course of the treatment.

  19. Intermediate hearth repair technique at Thyssen Stahl AG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kowalski, W.; Bachhofen, H.J.; Ruether, P.; Ballewski, T.

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays various techniques for the fastest possible intermediate repair and/or emplacement of refractory materials above the tuyere level allow a significant extension of furnace campaign life. The latter are hence now exclusively determined by the service life of the hearth. The improvement of hearth monitoring and the estimation of residual brick strength of the refractory lining on the basis of temperature measurements in the hearth enable the location of individual zones of premature wear. These measurement methods, which were developed by Thyssen Stahl AG, aid the decision to undertake selective repair of the hearth. Three areas of repair are differentiated: taphole zone; hearth wall, localized; and hearth wall, extensive. This hearth repair method is described in this report using the example of hearth refurbishing blast furnace 8, Hamborn.

  20. Innovative environmental investigation techniques for iron and steel facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hullinger, J.P.; Skubak, J.; Hawthorne, D.S.; Swales, A.C.

    1997-02-01

    Closed or curtailed iron and steelmaking facilities represent a substantial resource to US industry as the US steel industry rationalizes and retools to meet the demands of the world marketplace. Recently, many states have begun to enact legislation aimed at encouraging reuse of such facilities. Therefore, interest in evaluating them as to environmental status is increasing. A number of relatively new investigative techniques are available that can allow an environmental site assessment or other environmental investigation to proceed more quickly and/or at less cost. This article discussed the following methods: Direct-use technology for sampling groundwater, subsurface soil and soil gas; immunoassay field screening for organic contaminants; and close-support (field mobilized) analytical laboratory. Different approaches for sequencing investigative and remediation efforts are also discussed, building upon the observational method for site investigation and clean up.

  1. COAL AND CHAR STUDIES BY ADVANCED EMR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Linn Belford; Robert B. Clarkson; Mark J. Nilges; Boris M. Odintsov; Alex I. Smirnov

    2001-04-30

    Advanced electronic magnetic resonance (EMR) as well as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods have been used to examine properties of coals, chars, and molecular species related to constituents of coal. During the span of this grant, progress was made on construction and applications to coals and chars of two high frequency EMR systems particularly appropriate for such studies--48 GHz and 95 GHz electron magnetic resonance spectrometer, on new low-frequency dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) experiments to examine the interaction between water and the surfaces of suspended char particulates in slurries, and on a variety of proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to measure characteristics of the water directly in contact with the surfaces and pore spaces of carbonaceous particulates.

  2. Laser shockwave technique for characterization of nuclear fuel plate interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perton, M.; Levesque, D.; Monchalin, J.-P.; Lord, M.; Smith, J. A.; Rabin, B. H.

    2013-01-25

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  3. Laser Shockwave Technique For Characterization Of Nuclear Fuel Plate Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Barry H. Rabin; Mathieu Perton; Daniel Lévesque; Jean-Pierre Monchalin; Martin Lord

    2012-07-01

    The US National Nuclear Security Agency is tasked with minimizing the worldwide use of high-enriched uranium. One aspect of that effort is the conversion of research reactors to monolithic fuel plates of low-enriched uranium. The manufacturing process includes hot isostatic press bonding of an aluminum cladding to the fuel foil. The Laser Shockwave Technique (LST) is here evaluated for characterizing the interface strength of fuel plates using depleted Uranium/Mo foils. LST is a non-contact method that uses lasers for the generation and detection of large amplitude acoustic waves and is therefore well adapted to the quality assurance of this process. Preliminary results show a clear signature of well-bonded and debonded interfaces and the method is able to classify/rank the bond strength of fuel plates prepared under different HIP conditions.

  4. Two-frequency lidar technique for mesospheric Na temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    She, C.Y.; Latifi, H.; Yu, J.R.; Alvarez, R.J. II ); Bills, R.E.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors describe a new two-frequency lidar for measuring Na temperature profiles that uses a stabilized cw single-mode dye laser oscillator (rms frequency jitter < 1 MHz) followed by a pulsed-dye power amplifier (140 MHz FWHM linewidth) which is pumped by an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser. The laser oscillator is tuned to the two operating frequencies by observing the Doppler-free structure of the Na D{sub 2} fluorescence spectrum in a vapor cells. The lidar technique and the initial observations of the temperature profile between 82 and 102 km at Ft. Collins, CO (40.6{degree}N,105{degree}W) are described. Absolute temperature accuracies at the Na layer peak of better than {plus minus}3 K with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an integration period of approximately 5 min were achieved.

  5. On combining Laplacian and optimization-based mesh smoothing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freitag, L.A.

    1997-07-01

    Local mesh smoothing algorithms have been shown to be effective in repairing distorted elements in automatically generated meshes. The simplest such algorithm is Laplacian smoothing, which moves grid points to the geometric center of incident vertices. Unfortunately, this method operates heuristically and can create invalid meshes or elements of worse quality than those contained in the original mesh. In contrast, optimization-based methods are designed to maximize some measure of mesh quality and are very effective at eliminating extremal angles in the mesh. These improvements come at a higher computational cost, however. In this article the author proposes three smoothing techniques that combine a smart variant of Laplacian smoothing with an optimization-based approach. Several numerical experiments are performed that compare the mesh quality and computational cost for each of the methods in two and three dimensions. The author finds that the combined approaches are very cost effective and yield high-quality meshes.

  6. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  7. Advanced Process Monitoring Techniques for Safeguarding Reprocessing Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orton, Christopher R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.; Peper, Shane M.

    2010-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-grade nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies, including both the Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor and a spectroscopy-based monitoring system, to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The MIP Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major cold flowsheet chemicals using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. This paper will provide an overview of our methods and report our on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  8. The innovative application of surface geophysical techniques for remedial investigations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, W.R.; Smith, S.; Gilmore, P.; Cox, S.

    1993-03-01

    When researchers are investigating potential subsurface contamination at hazardous waste landfills, the surface geophysical techniques they may use are often limited. Many geophysical surveys are concerned with areas next to and not directly within the landfill units. The highly variable properties of the materials within the landfill may result in geophysical data that are either difficult or impossible to interpret. Therefore, contamination at these sites may not be detected until substantial lateral migration away from the unit has occurred. In addition, because of the poor resolution of some techniques, the landfill as a whole must be considered as a source, where discrete disposal areas within landfill units may be the actual point sources of contaminants. In theory, if specific sources within the landfill are identified and isolated, then reduced time, effort, and expenditures will be required for remediation activities. In the summer of 1989, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) investigated a small potentially hazardous waste landfill to determine if contaminant hot spots could be identified within the landfill and to determine if significant vertical and lateral migration of contaminants was occurring away from these locations. Based on the present hydrogeologic conditions, researchers anticipated that subsurface flow would be primarily vertical, with the zone of saturation at a depth greater than 150 meters. This necessitated that the survey be performed, for the most part, directly on the capped portion of the landfill. Focused geophysical surveys conducted off the landfill would not have provided useful information concerning conditions directly beneath the landfill. This paper discusses the planning, application, and analysis of four combined sensing methods: two methods of electromagnetic induction [low induction (Em) and time domain (TEM)], ground penetrating radar (GPR), and soil gas.

  9. Novel microsystem applications with new techniques in LTCC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Okandan, Murat; Rohde, Steven Barney; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Walker, Charles A.

    2005-04-01

    Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) enables development and testing of critical elements on microsystem boards as well as nonmicroelectronic meso-scale applications. We describe silicon-based microelectromechanical systems packaging and LTCC meso-scale applications. Microfluidic interposers permit rapid testing of varied silicon designs. The application of LTCC to micro-high-performance liquid chromatography (?-HPLC) demonstrates performance advantages at very high pressures. At intermediate pressures, a ceramic thermal cell lyser has lysed bacteria spores without damaging the proteins. The stability and sensitivity of LTCC/chemiresistor smart channels are comparable to the performance of silicon-based chemiresistors. A variant of the use of sacrificial volume materials has created channels, suspended thick films, cavities, and techniques for pressure and flow sensing. We report on inductors, diaphragms, cantilevers, antennae, switch structures, and thermal sensors suspended in air. The development of 'functional-as-released' moving parts has resulted in wheels, impellers, tethered plates, and related new LTCC mechanical roles for actuation and sensing. High-temperature metal-to-LTCC joining has been developed with metal thin films for the strong, hermetic interfaces necessary for pins, leads, and tubes.

  10. Development of structural health monitoring techniques using dynamics testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, G.H. III

    1996-03-01

    Today`s society depends upon many structures (such as aircraft, bridges, wind turbines, offshore platforms, buildings, and nuclear weapons) which are nearing the end of their design lifetime. Since these structures cannot be economically replaced, techniques for structural health monitoring must be developed and implemented. Modal and structural dynamics measurements hold promise for the global non-destructive inspection of a variety of structures since surface measurements of a vibrating structure can provide information about the health of the internal members without costly (or impossible) dismantling of the structure. In order to develop structural health monitoring for application to operational structures, developments in four areas have been undertaken within this project: operational evaluation, diagnostic measurements, information condensation, and damage identification. The developments in each of these four aspects of structural health monitoring have been exercised on a broad range of experimental data. This experimental data has been extracted from structures from several application areas which include aging aircraft, wind energy, aging bridges, offshore structures, structural supports, and mechanical parts. As a result of these advances, Sandia National Laboratories is in a position to perform further advanced development, operational implementation, and technical consulting for a broad class of the nation`s aging infrastructure problems.

  11. A sensing technique for controlled intervention in protective systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanathanan, C.K.; Warinner, D.K.; Tessier, J.H.

    1980-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of the safety instrumentation for a class of intensive heat-transfer systems that must be protected against severe loss of cooling while preventing premature intervention for momentary loss of cooling. A safety experiment conducted in a test nuclear reactor to simulate abnormal conditions in a prototypic Liquid-Metal-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor core subassembly is used to illustrate the surveillance technique. The protective action arising from a decision based on loss-of-cooling severity is referred to as controlled intervention. The decision-making process is based on real-time interpretation of measured signals by hard-wire analog methods: the test reactor's plant-protection system requires a simple and reliable sensing device. The output of a moving-time-average filter (whose input is the coolant-flow-rate measurement signal) is found to be capable of discriminating between insignificant and significant flow disruption and it is therefore used to trigger the decision logic to scram the reactor automatically.

  12. Cleaning techniques for applied-B ion diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Menge, P.R.; Hanson, D.L.

    1995-09-01

    Measurements and theoretical considerations indicate that the lithium-fluoride (LiF) lithium ion source operates by electron-assisted field-desorption, and provides a pure lithium beam for 10--20 ns. Evidence on both the SABRE (1 TW) and PBFA-II (20 TW) accelerators indicates that the lithium beam is replaced by a beam of protons, and carbon resulting from electron thermal desorption of hydrocarbon surface and bulk contamination with subsequent avalanche ionization. Appearance of contaminant ions in the beam is accompanied by rapid impedance collapse, possibly resulting from loss of magnetic insulation in the rapidly expanding and ionizing, neutral layer. Electrode surface and source substrate cleaning techniques are being developed on the SABRE accelerator to reduce beam contamination, plasma formation, and impedance collapse. We have increased lithium current density a factor of 3 and lithium energy a factor of 5 through a combination of in-situ surface and substrate coatings, impermeable substrate coatings, and field profile modifications.

  13. Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtom, Gary R. ); Thrall, Brian D. ); Chin, Beek Yoke ); Wiley, H Steven ); Colson, Steven D. )

    2000-12-01

    In the case of most imaging methods, contrast is generated either by physical properties of the sample (Differential Image Contrast, Phase Contrast), or by fluorescent labels that are localized to a particular protein or organelle. Standard Raman and infrared methods for obtaining images are based upon the intrinsic vibrational properties of molecules, and thus obviate the need for attached flurophores. Unfortunately, they have significant limitations for live-cell imaging. However, an active Raman method, called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), is well suited for microscopy, and provides a new means for imaging specific molecules. Vibrational imaging techniques, such as CARS, avoid problems associated with photobleaching and photo-induced toxicity often associated with the use of fluorescent labels with live cells. Because the laser configuration needed to implement CARS technology is similar to that used in other multiphoton microscopy methods, such as two -photon fluorescence and harmonic generation, it is possible to combine imaging modalities, thus generating simultaneous CARS and fluorescence images. A particularly powerful aspect of CARS microscopy is its ability to selectively image deuterated compounds, thus allowing the visualization of molecules, such as lipids, that are chemically indistinguishable from the native species.

  14. Faulted reservoirs characterization by an image processing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Angeles, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper has developed an image processing method for obtaining the discontinuous areal distribution of oil parameters (formation top, porosity, water saturation,...) of faulted heterogeneous oil reservoirs. For its application it requires the previous knowledge of a set of discrete values z(k,l) from well-logs and seismic profiles. Faulted structures were discretized into continuous structures or blocks bounded by faults. The theoretical fundamental assumption of the proposed method establishes that the natural distributions can be considered as the superposition of several elementary brownian distributions, represented by discrete values z(k,l), whose physical model is the diffusion differential equation and its solution associated. This is a technique that allows the representation of a composed brownian distribution as a linear combination of all elementary brownian functions. For illustrating the operational aspect of brownian analysis, two examples are studied. The results are presented as a digital images by means of an image processing software. This method can be applied in mapping, three dimensions interpolation and reserves calculation of faulted reservoirs.

  15. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the Modulated Scatterer Technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve themore » MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. Our paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).« less

  16. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the modulated scatterer technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve the MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. This paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).

  17. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the Modulated Scatterer Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve the MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. Our paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).

  18. Application of electrically invisible antennas to the modulated scatterer technique

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crocker, Dylan A.; Donnell, Kristen M.

    2015-09-16

    The modulated scatterer technique (MST) has shown promise for applications in microwave imaging, electric field mapping, and materials characterization. Traditionally, MST scatterers are dipoles centrally loaded with an element capable of modulation (e.g., a p-i-n diode). By modulating the load element, signals scattered from the MST scatterer are also modulated. However, due to the small size of such scatterers, it can be difficult to reliably detect the modulated signal. Increasing the modulation depth (MD; a parameter related to how well the scatterer modulates the scattered signal) may improve the detectability of the scattered signal. In an effort to improve themore » MD, the concept of electrically invisible antennas is applied to the design of MST scatterers. This paper presents simulations and measurements of MST scatterers that have been designed to be electrically invisible during the reverse bias state of the modulated element (a p-i-n diode in this case), while producing detectable scattering during the forward bias state (i.e., operate in an electrically visible state). Furthermore, the results using the new design show significant improvement to the MD of the scattered signal as compared with a traditional MST scatterer (i.e., dipole centrally loaded with a p-i-n diode).« less

  19. Improved parallel solution techniques for the integral transport matrix method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zerr, Robert J; Azmy, Yousry Y

    2010-11-23

    Alternative solution strategies to the parallel block Jacobi (PBJ) method for the solution of the global problem with the integral transport matrix method operators have been designed and tested. The most straightforward improvement to the Jacobi iterative method is the Gauss-Seidel alternative. The parallel red-black Gauss-Seidel (PGS) algorithm can improve on the number of iterations and reduce work per iteration by applying an alternating red-black color-set to the subdomains and assigning multiple sub-domains per processor. A parallel GMRES(m) method was implemented as an alternative to stationary iterations. Computational results show that the PGS method can improve on the PBJ method execution by up to {approx}50% when eight sub-domains per processor are used. However, compared to traditional source iterations with diffusion synthetic acceleration, it is still approximately an order of magnitude slower. The best-performing case are opticaUy thick because sub-domains decouple, yielding faster convergence. Further tests revealed that 64 sub-domains per processor was the best performing level of sub-domain division. An acceleration technique that improves the convergence rate would greatly improve the ITMM. The GMRES(m) method with a diagonal block preconditioner consumes approximately the same time as the PBJ solver but could be improved by an as yet undeveloped, more efficient preconditioner.

  20. Development of advanced strain diagnostic techniques for reactor environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Holschuh, Thomas Vernon,; Miller, Timothy J.; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Urrea, David Anthony,; Parma, Edward J.,

    2013-02-01

    The following research is operated as a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) initiative at Sandia National Laboratories. The long-term goals of the program include sophisticated diagnostics of advanced fuels testing for nuclear reactors for the Department of Energy (DOE) Gen IV program, with the future capability to provide real-time measurement of strain in fuel rod cladding during operation in situ at any research or power reactor in the United States. By quantifying the stress and strain in fuel rods, it is possible to significantly improve fuel rod design, and consequently, to improve the performance and lifetime of the cladding. During the past year of this program, two sets of experiments were performed: small-scale tests to ensure reliability of the gages, and reactor pulse experiments involving the most viable samples in the Annulated Core Research Reactor (ACRR), located onsite at Sandia. Strain measurement techniques that can provide useful data in the extreme environment of a nuclear reactor core are needed to characterize nuclear fuel rods. This report documents the progression of solutions to this issue that were explored for feasibility in FY12 at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

  1. Asteroid diversion considerations and comparisons of diversion techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Owen, J. Michael; Miller, Paul; Rovny, Jared; Wasem, Joe; Howley, Kirsten; Herbold, Eric B.

    2015-05-19

    The threat of asteroid impacts on Earth poses a low-probability but high consequence risk, with possible outcomes ranging from regional to global catastrophe. However, unique amongst such global threats we have the capability of averting such disasters. Diversion approaches by either kinetic impactor or nuclear energy deposition are the two most practical technologies for mitigating hazardous near Earth asteroids. One of the greatest challenges in understanding our options is the uncertain response of asteroids to such impulsive techniques, due both to our lack of knowledge of the composition and structure of these objects as well as their highly varied nature.more » Predicting whether we will simply divert or break up a given object is a crucial: the weak self-gravity and inferred weak structure of typical asteroids present the strong possibility the body will fragment for modest impulses. Predictive modeling of failure and fragmentation is one important tool for such studies. In this paper we apply advances in modeling failure and fracture using Adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ASPH) to understand mega-cratering on asteroids as a validation exercise, and show examples of diverting the near Earth asteroid Bennu using both a kinetic impactor and ablative blow-off due to nuclear energy deposition.« less

  2. Electro-osmotic infusion for joule heating soil remediation techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Electro-osmotic infusion of ground water or chemically tailored electrolyte is used to enhance, maintain, or recondition electrical conductivity for the joule heating remediation technique. Induced flows can be used to infuse electrolyte with enhanced ionic conductivity into the vicinity of the electrodes, maintain the local saturation of near-electrode regions and resaturate a partially dried out zone with groundwater. Electro-osmotic infusion can also tailor the conductivity throughout the target layer by infusing chemically modified and/or heated electrolyte to improve conductivity contrast of the interior. Periodic polarity reversals will prevent large pH changes at the electrodes. Electro-osmotic infusion can be used to condition the electrical conductivity of the soil, particularly low permeability soil, before and during the heating operation. Electro-osmotic infusion is carried out by locating one or more electrodes adjacent the heating electrodes and applying a dc potential between two or more electrodes. Depending on the polarities of the electrodes, the induced flow will be toward the heating electrodes or away from the heating electrodes. In addition, electrodes carrying a dc potential may be located throughout the target area to tailor the conductivity of the target area.

  3. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L.

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  4. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  5. Asteroid diversion considerations and comparisons of diversion techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, J. Michael; Miller, Paul; Rovny, Jared; Wasem, Joe; Howley, Kirsten; Herbold, Eric B.

    2015-05-19

    The threat of asteroid impacts on Earth poses a low-probability but high consequence risk, with possible outcomes ranging from regional to global catastrophe. However, unique amongst such global threats we have the capability of averting such disasters. Diversion approaches by either kinetic impactor or nuclear energy deposition are the two most practical technologies for mitigating hazardous near Earth asteroids. One of the greatest challenges in understanding our options is the uncertain response of asteroids to such impulsive techniques, due both to our lack of knowledge of the composition and structure of these objects as well as their highly varied nature. Predicting whether we will simply divert or break up a given object is a crucial: the weak self-gravity and inferred weak structure of typical asteroids present the strong possibility the body will fragment for modest impulses. Predictive modeling of failure and fragmentation is one important tool for such studies. In this paper we apply advances in modeling failure and fracture using Adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ASPH) to understand mega-cratering on asteroids as a validation exercise, and show examples of diverting the near Earth asteroid Bennu using both a kinetic impactor and ablative blow-off due to nuclear energy deposition.

  6. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  7. High resolution evaluation techniques in thinly laminated shaly sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coll, C.; Chacartegui, F.; Suarez, O.; Alvarez, G. ); Monsegui, G.; Lambertini, R.; Haines, P. )

    1993-02-01

    Significant hydrocarbon production may occur from thin layers which were previously considered non-economic. Improved processing methods for detecting and evaluating thin beds have shown these reservoirs to be attractive prospects. Such thinly bedded laminated shale-sand sequences exist within some of the producing formations in Venezuela. These shale sand packages may contain significant bypassed or undeveloped reserves. A new technique using deconvolution of the deep resistivity through the microresistivity curves (Microlog) identifies potential thinly bedded reservoirs. This methodology appears to be the most reliable permeability indicator of the prospective intervals within the Misoa Formation at Ceuta Field in Maracaibo Lake. The prospective intervals within this field have been calibrated with cores and with sedimentological information. This calibration shows only two lithofacies contained hydrocarbons previously not evaluated as oil saturated by traditional methods. These facies exhibited low values for deep resistivity curves which indicated high levels of water saturation. Deep resistivity deconvolution processing has been successfully applied to solve this problem in the Ceuta field. The resulting resistivity curve exhibits a vertical resolution of better than 1 ft., while retaining the essential advantages of deep resistivity curve. Laminated sand analyses were carried out and prove to be very useful in the integration of petrophysical and sedimentological data for detection of prospective intervals.

  8. An optimal merging technique for high-resolution precipitation products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houser, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Precipitation products are currently available from various sources at higher spatial and temporal resolution than any time in the past. Each of the precipitation products has its strengths and weaknesses in availability, accuracy, resolution, retrieval techniques and quality control. By merging the precipitation data obtained from multiple sources, one can improve its information content by minimizing these issues. However, precipitation data merging poses challenges of scale-mismatch, and accurate error and bias assessment. In this paper we present Optimal Merging of Precipitation (OMP), a new method to merge precipitation data from multiple sources that are of different spatial and temporal resolutions and accuracies. This method is a combination of scale conversion and merging weight optimization, involving performance-tracing based on Bayesian statistics and trend-analysis, which yields merging weights for each precipitation data source. The weights are optimized at multiple scales to facilitate multiscale merging and better precipitation downscaling. Precipitation data used in the experiment include products from the 12-km resolution North American Land Data Assimilation (NLDAS) system, the 8-km resolution CMORPH and the 4-km resolution National Stage-IV QPE. The test cases demonstrate that the OMP method is capable of identifying a better data source and allocating a higher priority for them in the merging procedure, dynamically over the region and time period. This method is also effective in filtering out poor quality data introduced into the merging process.

  9. ULTRA-COMPACT ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGIES FOR APPLICATION IN NUCLEAR TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Carazo, V; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Guse, S; Harris, J R; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Krogh, M; Nelson, S; Paul, A C; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Schmidt, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sitaraman, S; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2009-06-11

    We report on compact accelerator technology development for potential use as a pulsed neutron source quantitative post verifier. The technology is derived from our on-going compact accelerator technology development program for radiography under the US Department of Energy and for a clinic sized compact proton therapy systems under an industry sponsored Cooperative Research and Development Agreement. The accelerator technique relies on the synchronous discharge of a prompt pulse generating stacked transmission line structure with the beam transit. The goal of this technology is to achieve {approx}10 MV/m gradients for 10s of nanoseconds pulses and to {approx}100 MV/m gradients for {approx}1 ns systems. As a post verifier for supplementing existing x-ray equipment, this system can remain in a charged, stand-by state with little or no energy consumption. We detail the progress of our overall component development effort with the multilayer dielectric wall insulators (i.e., the accelerator wall), compact power supply technology, kHz repetition-rate surface flashover ion sources, and the prompt pulse generation system consisting of wide-bandgap switches and high performance dielectric materials.

  10. Technique development for polarized pipe-to-soil potential measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabkowski, J.

    1989-12-01

    Research project PR-200-513 was undertaken with the overall objective to develop practical techniques for determining the polarized pipe-to-soil potential of a buried pipeline. The importance of this project rests with the fact that pipe-to-soil potential measurements are the most commonly used means of assessing the level of cathodic protection on buried gas transmission pipelines. In the recent past years there has been a considerable amount of effort devoted to developing methods and instruments to correct measured pipe-to-soil potentials for IR drops that may occur from currents (from the cathodic protection system or stray sources) in the soil to obtain the polarized potential. However, many of the methods or instruments available are either time-consuming, cumbersome to use in the field, applicable to only certain types of cathodic protection systems and under particular circumstances, subject to influences from stray current sources or not fully developed as of yet. Thus, there is a need to develop a practical method of determining the polarized pipe potential free of IR drop errors. Hence, the objectives of the research program conducted were: (1) to test and evaluate comparatively existing polarized potential measurement approaches, and (2) to develop new approaches to determining the polarized potential.

  11. Ghost fringe removal techniques using Lissajous data presentation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Erskine, David J.; Eggert, J. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Hicks, D. G.

    2016-03-14

    A VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector) is a Dopplervelocity interferometer which is an important optical diagnostic in shockwave experiments at the national laboratories, used to measureequation of state(EOS) of materials under extreme conditions. Unwanted reflection of laser light from target windows can produce an additional component to the VISAR fringe record that can distort and obscure the true velocity signal. When accurately removing this so-called ghost artifact component is essential for achieving high accuracy EOSmeasurements, especially when the true light signal is only weakly reflected from the shock front. Independent of the choice of algorithm for processing themore » raw data into a complex fringe signal, we have found it beneficial to plot this signal as a Lissajous and seek the proper center of this path, even under time varying intensity which can shift the perceived center. Moreover, the ghost contribution is then solved by a simple translation in the complex plane that recenters the Lissajous path. For continuous velocity histories, we find that plotting the fringe magnitude vs nonfringing intensity and optimizing linearity is an invaluable tool for determining accurate ghost offsets. For discontinuous velocity histories, we have developed graphically inspired methods which relate the results of two VISARs having different velocity per fringe proportionalities or assumptions of constant fringe magnitude to find the ghost offset. The technique can also remove window reflection artifacts in generic interferometers, such as in the metrology of surfaces.« less

  12. DataFoundry: Warehousing techniques for dynamic environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Critchlow, T.; Fidelis, K.; Ganesh, M.; Musick, R.; Slezak, T., LLNL

    1998-01-29

    Data warehouses and data marts have been successfully applied to a multitude of commercial business applications as tools for integrating and providing access to data located across an enterprise. Although the need for this capability is as vital in the scientific world as in the business domain, working warehouses in our community are scarce. A primary technical reason for this is that our understanding of the concepts being explored in an evolving scientific domain change constantly, leading to rapid changes in the data representation. When any database providing information to a warehouse changes its format, the warehouse must be updated to reflect these changes, or it will not function properly. The cost of maintaining a warehouse using traditional techniques in this environment is prohibitive. This paper describes ideas for dramatically reducing the amount of work that must be done to keep a warehouse up to date in a dynamic, scientific environment. The ideas are being applied in a prototype warehouse called DataFoundry. DataFoundry, currently in use by structural biologists at LLNL, will eventually support scientists at the Department of Energy`s Joint Genome Institute.

  13. A Novel Visualization Technique for Electric Power Grid Analytics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Pak C.; Schneider, Kevin P.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Foote, Harlan P.; Chin, George; Guttromson, Ross T.; Thomas, James J.

    2009-05-01

    The application of information visualization holds tremendous promise for the electric power industry, and yet its potential has not been sufficiently exploited by the visualization community. Prior work on visualizing electric power systems has been limited to depicting raw or processed information on top of a geographic layout. Little effort has been devoted to maximize the analytical strengths naturally gained by the visualization itself. This paper introduces a visualization system prototype, known as GreenGrid, that explores the planning and monitoring of the North American Electricity Infrastructure. For the purposes of visualization, the power infrastructure can be described as a network of nodes and links. The nodes represent the electrical buses where generators and loads are connected, while the links represent the transmission lines that interconnect the buses. This paper focuses mainly on a customized technique within GreenGrid that is designed to visually identify abnormal characteristics of the electricity infrastructure. In particular, we examine an extreme event that occurred within the Western United States power grid on August 10, 1996. We compare our study results with the conclusion of the post-disturbance analysis and find that many of the disturbance characteristics can be readily identified with the proper form of visualization. The paper includes a lessons learned discussion to evaluate the visualization application.

  14. TECHNIQUES FOR THE STUDY OF THE ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA, M.; RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30

    The electronic structure of a solid is affected by size and altered from the continuous electronic levels forming a band, characteristic of bulk or microsized solids, to discrete-like or quantized levels. This is drastically observed when the particle size goes down to the nano-meter range and is the origin of the so-called ''quantum confinement'' terminology referring to this phenomenon. From a solid state point of view, electronic states of confined materials can be considered as being a superposition of bulk-like states with a concomitant increase of the oscillator strength. The valence/conduction band-width and position observables of a solid oxide are functions of the crystal potential and this, in turn, is perturbed by effect of the size in two ways; a short-range effect induced by the presence of ions with a different coordination number and bond distance, and a large-range one, induced by changes in the Madelung potential of the oxide. Theoretical analyses for oxides show a redistribution of charge when going from large periodic structures to small clusters which is roughly considered small for ionic solids and significantly important for covalent ones. Chapter 1 of this book describes the most recent theoretical frameworks employed to deal with these physical phenomena while here we will describe their influence in physico-chemical observables obtained by spectroscopical techniques.

  15. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print A new technique ... particular stand out for the study of chemistry at the interface where layers of two ...

  16. SSRL School 2007 on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in MES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    May 15-17, 2007 SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in Materials and Environmental Sciences Group photo taken at the SSRL School on Hard X-ray Scattering Techniques in...

  17. New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development New ALS Technique Guides IBM in Next-Generation Semiconductor Development Print Wednesday, 21 January 2015 09:37 A new measurement technique developed at the ALS is helping guide the semiconductor industry in next-generation nanopatterning techniques. Directed self assembly (DSA) of block copolymers is an extremely promising strategy for high-volume, cost-effective semiconductor manufacturing at the nanoscale. Materials

  18. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with high-ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS). The result is a technique that enables

  19. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with high-ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS). The result is a technique that enables

  20. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with high-ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS). The result is a technique that enables

  1. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with high-ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS). The result is a technique that enables

  2. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with high-ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS). The result is a technique that enables

  3. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with high-ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS). The result is a technique that enables

  4. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with high-ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS). The result is a technique that enables

  5. New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces New Technique Gives a Deeper Look into the Chemistry of Interfaces Print Monday, 23 February 2015 10:48 A new technique developed at the ALS offers sub-nanometer depth resolution of every chemical element to be found at heterogeneous interfaces, such as those in batteries and fuel cells. The technique, Standing-Wave Ambient-Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (SWAPPS), combines standing-wave photoelectron spectroscopy (SWPS) with

  6. Evaluation of the spline reconstruction technique for PET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kastis, George A. Kyriakopoulou, Dimitra; Gaitanis, Anastasios; Fernndez, Yolanda; Hutton, Brian F.; Fokas, Athanasios S.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: The spline reconstruction technique (SRT), based on the analytic formula for the inverse Radon transform, has been presented earlier in the literature. In this study, the authors present an improved formulation and numerical implementation of this algorithm and evaluate it in comparison to filtered backprojection (FBP). Methods: The SRT is based on the numerical evaluation of the Hilbert transform of the sinogram via an approximation in terms of custom made cubic splines. By restricting reconstruction only within object pixels and by utilizing certain mathematical symmetries, the authors achieve a reconstruction time comparable to that of FBP. The authors have implemented SRT in STIR and have evaluated this technique using simulated data from a clinical positron emission tomography (PET) system, as well as real data obtained from clinical and preclinical PET scanners. For the simulation studies, the authors have simulated sinograms of a point-source and three digital phantoms. Using these sinograms, the authors have created realizations of Poisson noise at five noise levels. In addition to visual comparisons of the reconstructed images, the authors have determined contrast and bias for different regions of the phantoms as a function of noise level. For the real-data studies, sinograms of an{sup 18}F-FDG injected mouse, a NEMA NU 4-2008 image quality phantom, and a Derenzo phantom have been acquired from a commercial PET system. The authors have determined: (a) coefficient of variations (COV) and contrast from the NEMA phantom, (b) contrast for the various sections of the Derenzo phantom, and (c) line profiles for the Derenzo phantom. Furthermore, the authors have acquired sinograms from a whole-body PET scan of an {sup 18}F-FDG injected cancer patient, using the GE Discovery ST PET/CT system. SRT and FBP reconstructions of the thorax have been visually evaluated. Results: The results indicate an improvement in FWHM and FWTM in both simulated and real

  7. Techniques to Access Databases and Integrate Data for Hydrologic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, Gene; Tenney, Nathan D.; Pelton, Mitchell A.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.; Droppo, James G.; Meyer, Philip D.; Dorow, Kevin E.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2009-06-17

    This document addresses techniques to access and integrate data for defining site-specific conditions and behaviors associated with ground-water and surface-water radionuclide transport applicable to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission reviews. Environmental models typically require input data from multiple internal and external sources that may include, but are not limited to, stream and rainfall gage data, meteorological data, hydrogeological data, habitat data, and biological data. These data may be retrieved from a variety of organizations (e.g., federal, state, and regional) and source types (e.g., HTTP, FTP, and databases). Available data sources relevant to hydrologic analyses for reactor licensing are identified and reviewed. The data sources described can be useful to define model inputs and parameters, including site features (e.g., watershed boundaries, stream locations, reservoirs, site topography), site properties (e.g., surface conditions, subsurface hydraulic properties, water quality), and site boundary conditions, input forcings, and extreme events (e.g., stream discharge, lake levels, precipitation, recharge, flood and drought characteristics). Available software tools for accessing established databases, retrieving the data, and integrating it with models were identified and reviewed. The emphasis in this review was on existing software products with minimal required modifications to enable their use with the FRAMES modeling framework. The ability of four of these tools to access and retrieve the identified data sources was reviewed. These four software tools were the Hydrologic Data Acquisition and Processing System (HDAPS), Integrated Water Resources Modeling System (IWRMS) External Data Harvester, Data for Environmental Modeling Environmental Data Download Tool (D4EM EDDT), and the FRAMES Internet Database Tools. The IWRMS External Data Harvester and the D4EM EDDT were identified as the most promising tools based on their ability to access and

  8. Weldability and joining techniques for advanced fossil energy system alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Liu, W.; Yang, D.; Zhou, G.; Morrison, M.

    1998-05-01

    The efforts represent the concerns for the basic understanding of the weldability and fabricability of the advanced high temperature alloys so necessary to affect increases in the efficiency of the next generation Fossil Energy Power Plants. The effort was divided into three tasks with the first effort dealing with the welding and fabrication behavior of 310HCbN (HR3C), the second task details the studies aimed at understanding the weldability of a newly developed 310TaN high temperature stainless (a modification of 310 stainless) and Task 3 addressed the cladding of austenitic tubing with Iron-Aluminide using the GTAW process. Task 1 consisted of microstructural studies on 310HCbN and the development of a Tube Weldability test which has applications to production welding techniques as well as laboratory weldability assessments. In addition, the evaluation of ex-service 310HCbN which showed fireside erosion and cracking at the attachment weld locations was conducted. Task 2 addressed the behavior of the newly developed 310 TaN modification of standard 310 stainless steel and showed that the weldability was excellent and that the sensitization potential was minimal for normal welding and fabrication conditions. The microstructural evolution during elevated temperature testing was characterized and the second phase particles evolved upon aging were identified. Task 3 details the investigation undertaken to clad 310HCbN tubing with Iron Aluminide and developed welding conditions necessary to provide a crack free cladding. The work showed that both a preheat and a post-heat was necessary for crack free deposits and the effect of a third element on the cracking potential was defined together with the effect of the aluminum level for optimum weldability.

  9. Industrial mixing techniques for Hanford double-shell tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daymo, E.A.

    1997-09-01

    Jet mixer pumps are currently the baseline technology for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. Improvements to the baseline jet mixer pump technology are sought because jet mixer pumps have moving parts that may fail or require maintenance. Moreover, jet mixers are relatively expensive, they heat the waste, and, in some cases, may not mobilize enough of the sludge. This report documents a thorough literature search for commercially available applicable mixing technologies that could be used for double-shell tank sludge mobilization and mixing. Textbooks, research articles, conference proceedings, mixing experts, and the Thomas Register were consulted to identify applicable technologies. While there are many commercial methods that could be used to mobilize sludge or mix the contents of a one-million gallon tank, few will work given the geometrical constraints (e.g., the mixer must fit through a 1.07-m-diameter riser) or the tank waste properties (e.g., the sludge has such a high yield stress that it generally does not flow under its own weight). Pulsed fluid jets and submersible Flygt mixers have already been identified at Hanford and Savannah River Sites for double-shell tank mixing applications. While these mixing technologies may not be applicable for double-shell tanks that have a thick sludge layer at the bottom (since too many of these mixers would need to be installed to mobilize most of the sludge), they may have applications in tanks that do not have a settled solids layer. Retrieval projects at Hanford and other U.S. Department of Energy sites are currently evaluating the effectiveness of these mixing techniques for tank waste applications. The literature search did not reveal any previously unknown technologies that should be considered for sludge mobilization and mixing in one-million gallon double-shell tanks.

  10. Female Pelvic Vein Embolization: Indications, Techniques, and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Anthony James

    2015-08-15

    Until recently, the main indication for pelvic vein embolization (PVE) in women was to treat pelvic venous congestion syndrome (PVC) but increasingly, patients with refluxing pelvic veins associated with leg varicosities are also being treated. A more unusual reason for PVE is to treat pelvic venous malformations, although such lesions may be treated with sclerotherapy alone. Embolotherapy for treating PVC has been performed for many years with several published studies included in this review, whilst an emerging indication for PVE is to treat lower limb varicosities associated with pelvic vein reflux. Neither group, however, has been subjected to an adequate randomized, controlled trial. Consequently, some of the information presented in this review should be considered anecdotal (level III evidence) at this stage, and a satisfactory ‘proof’ of clinical efficacy remains deficient until higher-level evidence is presented. Furthermore, a wide range of techniques not accepted by all are used, and some standardization will be required based on future mandatory prospective studies. Large studies have also clearly shown an unacceptably high recurrence rate of leg varicose veins following venous surgery. Furthermore, minimally or non-invasive imaging is now revealing that there is a refluxing pelvic venous source in a significant percentage of women with de novo leg varicose veins, and many more with recurrent varicosities. Considering that just over half the world’s population is female and a significant number of women not only have pelvic venous reflux, but also have associated leg varicosities, minimally invasive treatment of pelvic venous incompetence will become a common procedure.

  11. Methods, techniques, and tools for analyzing cumulative effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southerland, M.T.

    1995-12-01

    One of the perceived impediments to successful cumulative effects analysis is the lack of readily available methods for addressing the wider boundaries, extended time frames, and more complex interactions involved. Many of the methods commonly used in environmental impact assessment can adequately address cumulative effects if used in combination. Other methods, specifically adapted to analyzing cumulative effects have also been developed. Performing cumulative effects analysis requires (1) an appropriate conceptual framework be developed and (2) the full range of impacts be determined and evaluated. Methods for both phases of cumulative effects analysis are needed, or special purpose methods that incorporate several methods and directly address cumulative effects can be used. The primary methods for developing a cumulative effects conceptual model are often those used in scoping, and are generally qualitative. Foremost among these methods are information gathering techniques. More specific methods are often needed for identifying resources (e.g., checklist), setting boundaries (e.g., mapping), identifying past, present, and future actions (e.g., checklists and trends analysis), and identifying cause and effect pathways (e.g., networks). The primary methods for evaluating impacts include modeling resource response and interactions, determining resource-specific impacts, determining cumulative impacts, determining significance of impacts, and, if appropriate, determining overall cumulative impact. Special purpose methods for performing cumulative effects analysis can be used when conditions warrant and information is available. Such methods include carrying capacity analysis, ecosystem analysis, the synoptic landscape approach, economic impact assessment, and social impact assessment. Two important tools with applications to the analysis of cumulative effects are geographic information systems and remote sensing.

  12. Apparent thermal conductivity measurements by an unguarded technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    An unguarded longitudinal heat-flow apparatus for measuring the apparent thermal conductivity (lambda/sub a) of insulations was tested with mean specimen temperatures from 300 to 330/sup 0/K on samples up to 0.91 m wide, 1.52 m long, and 0.15 m thick. Heat flow is provided by a horizontal electrically heated Nichrome screen sandwiched between test samples that are bounded by temperature controlled copper plates and 9 cm of mineral fiber insulation. A determinate error analysis shows lambda/sub a/ measurement uncertainty to be less than +- 1.7% for insulating materials as thin as 3 cm. Three-dimensional thermal modeling indicates negligible error in lambda/sub a/ due to edge loss for insulations up to 7.62 cm thick when the temperature difference across the sample is measured at the sceen center. System repeatability and reproducibility were determined to be +- 0.2%. Differences of lambda/sub a/ results from the screen tester and results from the National Bureau of Standards were 0.1% for a 10-kg/m/sup 3/ Calibration Transfer Standard and 0.9% for 127-kg/m/sup 3/ fibrous glass board (SRM 1450b). Measurements on fiberglass and rock wool batt insulations showed the dependence of lambda/sub a/ on density, temperature, temperature difference, plate emittance, and heat flow direction. Results obtained for lambda/sub a/ as a function of density at 24/sup 0/C differed by less than 2% from values obtained with a guarded hot plate. These results demonstrate that this simple technique has the accuracy and sensitivity needed for useful lambda/sub a/ measurements on thermal insulating materials.

  13. On the Applications of IBA Techniques to Biological Samples Analysis: PIXE and RBS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falcon-Gonzalez, J. M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Morilla Garcia, Y.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-11

    The analytical techniques based on ion beams or IBA techniques give quantitative information on elemental concentration in samples of a wide variety of nature. In this work, we focus on PIXE technique, analyzing thick target biological specimens (TTPIXE), using 3 MeV protons produced by an electrostatic accelerator. A nuclear microprobe was used performing PIXE and RBS simultaneously, in order to solve the uncertainties produced in the absolute PIXE quantifying. The advantages of using both techniques and a nuclear microprobe are discussed. Quantitative results are shown to illustrate the multielemental resolution of the PIXE technique; for this, a blood standard was used.

  14. Energy Reductions Using Next-Generation Remanufacturing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sordelet, Daniel; Racek, Ondrej

    2012-02-24

    supported the Industrial Technologies Program's initiative titled 'Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge.' To contribute to this Grand Challenge, we. pursued an innovative processing approach for the next generation of thermal spray coatings to capture substantial energy savings and green house gas emission reductions through the remanufacturing of steel and aluminum-based components. The primary goal was to develop a new thermal spray coating process that yields significantly enhanced bond strength. To reach the goal of higher coating bond strength, a laser was coupled with a traditional twin-wire arc (TWA) spray gun to treat the component surface (i.e., heat or partially melt) during deposition. Both ferrous and aluminum-based substrates and coating alloys were examined to determine what materials are more suitable for the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coating technique. Coating adhesion was measured by static tensile and dynamic fatigue techniques, and the results helped to guide the identification of appropriate remanufacturing opportunities that will now be viable due to the increased bond strength of the laser-assisted twin-wire arc coatings. The feasibility of the laser-assisted TWA (LATWA) process was successfully demonstrated in this current effort. Critical processing parameters were identified, and when these were properly controlled, a strong, diffusion bond was developed between the substrate and the deposited coating. Consequently, bond strengths were nearly doubled over those typically obtained using conventional grit-blast TWA coatings. Note, however, that successful LATWA processing was limited to ferrous substrates coated with steel coatings (e.g., 1020 and 1080 steel). With Al-based substrates, it was not possible to avoid melting a thin layer of the substrate during spraying, and this layer re-solidified to form a band of intermetallic phases at the substrate/coating interface, which significantly diminished the coating adhesion. The capability to

  15. A Survey of Techniques for Modeling and Improving Reliability of Computing Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-04-24

    Recent trends of aggressive technology scaling have greatly exacerbated the occurrences and impact of faults in computing systems. This has made `reliability' a first-order design constraint. To address the challenges of reliability, several techniques have been proposed. In this study, we provide a survey of architectural techniques for improving resilience of computing systems. We especially focus on techniques proposed for microarchitectural components, such as processor registers, functional units, cache and main memory etc. In addition, we discuss techniques proposed for non-volatile memory, GPUs and 3D-stacked processors. To underscore the similarities and differences of the techniques, we classify them based onmore » their key characteristics. We also review the metrics proposed to quantify vulnerability of processor structures. Finally, we believe that this survey will help researchers, system-architects and processor designers in gaining insights into the techniques for improving reliability of computing systems.« less

  16. A Survey of Techniques for Modeling and Improving Reliability of Computing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Sparsh; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-04-24

    Recent trends of aggressive technology scaling have greatly exacerbated the occurrences and impact of faults in computing systems. This has made `reliability' a first-order design constraint. To address the challenges of reliability, several techniques have been proposed. In this study, we provide a survey of architectural techniques for improving resilience of computing systems. We especially focus on techniques proposed for microarchitectural components, such as processor registers, functional units, cache and main memory etc. In addition, we discuss techniques proposed for non-volatile memory, GPUs and 3D-stacked processors. To underscore the similarities and differences of the techniques, we classify them based on their key characteristics. We also review the metrics proposed to quantify vulnerability of processor structures. Finally, we believe that this survey will help researchers, system-architects and processor designers in gaining insights into the techniques for improving reliability of computing systems.

  17. Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Productivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems | Department of Energy use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and Productivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and Productivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems Novel use of 4D Monitoring Techniques to Improve Reservoir Longevity and Productivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  18. Comparison of preparation techniques for nuclear materials for transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel; Madden, James W.; Miller, Brandon D; Cole, James I; Gan, Jian

    2015-04-01

    Preparation of highly radioactive and irradiated nuclear fuels and materials for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is conjoined with a set of unique challenges, including but not limited to personnel radiation exposure and contamination. The paper evaluates three specimen preparation techniques for preparation of irradiated materials and determines which technique yields to the most reliable characterization of radiation damage microstructure. Various specimen preparation artifacts associated with each technique are considered and ways of minimizing these artifacts are addressed.

  19. Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.

  20. Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar cells Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Los Alamos develops new technique for growing high-efficiency perovskite solar cells Researchers reveal a new solution-based hot-casting technique that allows growth of highly efficient and reproducible solar cells from large-area perovskite crystals. March 1, 2015