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Sample records for technique hyperspectral imaging

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region Exploration Technique Hyperspectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor AVIRIS Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes AVIRIS airborne hyperspectral...

  2. Hyperspectral Imaging At Salton Sea Area (Reath, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Area Exploration Technique Hyperspectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor SEBASS Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes SEBASS References K. A. Reath, M....

  3. Hyperspectral Imaging At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Field Area Exploration Technique Hyperspectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor AVIRIS Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Geology and Geophysics of...

  4. Hyperspectral Imaging At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dixie Valley Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Hyperspectral Imaging Activity Date 2003 - 2003 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis This Study was...

  5. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques For Locating Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Remote Sensing Techniques For Locating Geothermal Resources Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Poster: Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques For...

  6. LIFTERS-hyperspectral imaging at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, D.; Bennett, C.; Carter, M.

    1994-11-15

    LIFTIRS, the Livermore Imaging Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectrometer, recently developed at LLNL, is an instrument which enables extremely efficient collection and analysis of hyperspectral imaging data. LIFTIRS produces a spatial format of 128x128 pixels, with spectral resolution arbitrarily variable up to a maximum of 0.25 inverse centimeters. Time resolution and spectral resolution can be traded off for each other with great flexibility. We will discuss recent measurements made with this instrument, and present typical images and spectra.

  7. Hyperspectral Imaging At Fish Lake Valley Area (Littlefield ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fish Lake Valley Area (Littlefield & Calvin, 2010) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Hyperspectral Imaging At Fish Lake Valley Area...

  8. Hyperspectral Imaging At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Nash ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nash & D., 1997) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Hyperspectral Imaging At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Nash & D., 1997)...

  9. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for x-ray fluorescence tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grsoy, Do?a; Bier, Tekin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew G.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A penalized maximum-likelihood estimation is proposed to perform hyperspectral (spatio-spectral) image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography. The approach minimizes a Poisson-based negative log-likelihood of the observed photon counts, and uses a penalty term that has the effect of encouraging local continuity of model parameter estimates in both spatial and spectral dimensions simultaneously. The performance of the reconstruction method is demonstrated with experimental data acquired from a seed of arabidopsis thaliana collected at the 13-ID-E microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The resulting element distribution estimates with the proposed approach show significantly better reconstruction quality than the conventional analytical inversion approaches, and allows for a high data compression factor which can reduce data acquisition times remarkably. In particular, this technique provides the capability to tomographically reconstruct full energy dispersive spectra without compromising reconstruction artifacts that impact the interpretation of results.

  10. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for x-ray fluorescence tomography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grsoy, Do?a; Bier, Tekin; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Newville, Matthew G.; De Carlo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A penalized maximum-likelihood estimation is proposed to perform hyperspectral (spatio-spectral) image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography. The approach minimizes a Poisson-based negative log-likelihood of the observed photon counts, and uses a penalty term that has the effect of encouraging local continuity of model parameter estimates in both spatial and spectral dimensions simultaneously. The performance of the reconstruction method is demonstrated with experimental data acquired from a seed of arabidopsis thaliana collected at the 13-ID-E microprobe beamline at the Advanced Photon Source. The resulting element distribution estimates with the proposed approach show significantly better reconstruction quality than the conventional analytical inversionmoreapproaches, and allows for a high data compression factor which can reduce data acquisition times remarkably. In particular, this technique provides the capability to tomographically reconstruct full energy dispersive spectra without compromising reconstruction artifacts that impact the interpretation of results.less

  11. Hyperspectral imaging of microalgae using two-photon excitation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Melgaard, David Kennett; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Garcia, Omar Fidel; Luk, Ting Shan; Jones, Howland D. T.; Collins, Aaron M.

    2010-10-01

    A considerable amount research is being conducted on microalgae, since microalgae are becoming a promising source of renewable energy. Most of this research is centered on lipid production in microalgae because microalgae produce triacylglycerol which is ideal for biodiesel fuels. Although we are interested in research to increase lipid production in algae, we are also interested in research to sustain healthy algal cultures in large scale biomass production farms or facilities. The early detection of fluctuations in algal health, productivity, and invasive predators must be developed to ensure that algae are an efficient and cost-effective source of biofuel. Therefore we are developing technologies to monitor the health of algae using spectroscopic measurements in the field. To do this, we have proposed to spectroscopically monitor large algal cultivations using LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) remote sensing technology. Before we can deploy this type of technology, we must first characterize the spectral bio-signatures that are related to algal health. Recently, we have adapted our confocal hyperspectral imaging microscope at Sandia to have two-photon excitation capabilities using a chameleon tunable laser. We are using this microscope to understand the spectroscopic signatures necessary to characterize microalgae at the cellular level prior to using these signatures to classify the health of bulk samples, with the eventual goal of using of LIDAR to monitor large scale ponds and raceways. By imaging algal cultures using a tunable laser to excite at several different wavelengths we will be able to select the optimal excitation/emission wavelengths needed to characterize algal cultures. To analyze the hyperspectral images generated from this two-photon microscope, we are using Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR) algorithms to extract the spectral signatures and their associated relative intensities from the data. For this presentation, I will show our two

  12. Category:Hyperspectral Imaging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Categories: Geothermal Passive Sensors...

  13. Methods for gas detection using stationary hyperspectral imaging sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Henderson, John R. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2012-04-24

    According to one embodiment, a method comprises producing a first hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data cube of a location at a first time using data from a HSI sensor; producing a second HSI data cube of the same location at a second time using data from the HSI sensor; subtracting on a pixel-by-pixel basis the second HSI data cube from the first HSI data cube to produce a raw difference cube; calibrating the raw difference cube to produce a calibrated raw difference cube; selecting at least one desired spectral band based on a gas of interest; producing a detection image based on the at least one selected spectral band and the calibrated raw difference cube; examining the detection image to determine presence of the gas of interest; and outputting a result of the examination. Other methods, systems, and computer program products for detecting the presence of a gas are also described.

  14. 3D optical sectioning with a new hyperspectral confocal fluorescence imaging system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieman, Linda T.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davidson, George S.; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Bachand, George David; Jones, Howland D. T.

    2007-02-01

    A novel hyperspectral fluorescence microscope for high-resolution 3D optical sectioning of cells and other structures has been designed, constructed, and used to investigate a number of different problems. We have significantly extended new multivariate curve resolution (MCR) data analysis methods to deconvolve the hyperspectral image data and to rapidly extract quantitative 3D concentration distribution maps of all emitting species. The imaging system has many advantages over current confocal imaging systems including simultaneous monitoring of numerous highly overlapped fluorophores, immunity to autofluorescence or impurity fluorescence, enhanced sensitivity, and dramatically improved accuracy, reliability, and dynamic range. Efficient data compression in the spectral dimension has allowed personal computers to perform quantitative analysis of hyperspectral images of large size without loss of image quality. We have also developed and tested software to perform analysis of time resolved hyperspectral images using trilinear multivariate analysis methods. The new imaging system is an enabling technology for numerous applications including (1) 3D composition mapping analysis of multicomponent processes occurring during host-pathogen interactions, (2) monitoring microfluidic processes, (3) imaging of molecular motors and (4) understanding photosynthetic processes in wild type and mutant Synechocystis cyanobacteria.

  15. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-03-25

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace`s equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image. 16 figs.

  16. Image compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1997-01-01

    An image is compressed by identifying edge pixels of the image; creating a filled edge array of pixels each of the pixels in the filled edge array which corresponds to an edge pixel having a value equal to the value of a pixel of the image array selected in response to the edge pixel, and each of the pixels in the filled edge array which does not correspond to an edge pixel having a value which is a weighted average of the values of surrounding pixels in the filled edge array which do correspond to edge pixels; and subtracting the filled edge array from the image array to create a difference array. The edge file and the difference array are then separately compressed and transmitted or stored. The original image is later reconstructed by creating a preliminary array in response to the received edge file, and adding the preliminary array to the received difference array. Filling is accomplished by solving Laplace's equation using a multi-grid technique. Contour and difference file coding techniques also are described. The techniques can be used in a method for processing a plurality of images by selecting a respective compression approach for each image, compressing each of the images according to the compression approach selected, and transmitting each of the images as compressed, in correspondence with an indication of the approach selected for the image.

  17. Development of Research Infrastructure in Nevada for the Exploitation of Hyperspectral Image Data to Address Proliferation and Detection of Chemical and Biological Materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James V. Taranik

    2007-12-31

    This research was to exploit hyperspectral reflectance imaging technology for the detection and mapping variability (clutter) of the natural background against which gases in the atmosphere are imaged. The natural background consists of landscape surface cover composed of consolidated rocks, unconsolidated rock weathering products, soils, coatings on rock materials, vegetation, water, materials constructed by humans, and mixtures of the above. Human made gases in the atmosphere may indicate industrial processes important to detecting non-nuclear chemical and biological proliferation. Our research was to exploit the Visible and Near-Infrared (NIR) and the Short-wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum to determine the properties of solid materials on the earths surface that could influence the detection of gases in the Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR). We used some new experimental hyperspectral imaging technologies to collect data over the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Center (NPTEC) located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The SpecTIR HyperSpecTIR (HST) and Specim Dual hyperspectral sensors were used to understand the variability in the imaged background (clutter), that detected, measured, identified and mapped with operational commercial hyperspectral techniques. The HST sensors were determined to be more experimental than operational because of problems with radiometric and atmospheric data correction. However the SpecTIR Dual system, developed by Specim in Finland, eventually was found to provide cost-effective hyperspectral image data collection and it was possible to correct the Dual systems data for specific areas. Batch processing of long flightlines was still complex, and if comparison to laboratory spectra was desired, the Dual system data still had to be processed using the empirical line method. This research determined that 5-meter spatial resolution was adequate for mapping natural background variations. Furthermore, this

  18. Techniques in diagnostic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, G.H. ); Worthington, B.S. )

    1989-01-01

    This book provides aspirant radiologists worldwide with a modern international coverage of all imaging modalities, including plan x-ray, CT magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear medicine.

  19. Hyperspectral image reconstruction for X-ray fluorescence tomography...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Groups Imaging Data Science Related People Doga Gursoy Tekin Bicer Next article: Iterative reconstruction of magnetic induction using Lorentz transmission electron tomography...

  20. Hyperspectral Imaging At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    aeromagnetics), development of new seismic processing techniques, and the genesis of modern multi-dimensional fluid flow and structural modeling algorithms, just to name a few....

  1. Hyperspectral Imaging At Blue Mountain Geothermal Area (Calvin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    layered silicates, opal, calcite, zeolites, and iron oxides and hydroxides. The experimental technique may be able to sample drill cuttings and core more efficiently than...

  2. Hyperspectral microscope for in vivo imaging of microstructures and cells in tissues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos; Stavros G.

    2011-05-17

    An optical hyperspectral/multimodal imaging method and apparatus is utilized to provide high signal sensitivity for implementation of various optical imaging approaches. Such a system utilizes long working distance microscope objectives so as to enable off-axis illumination of predetermined tissue thereby allowing for excitation at any optical wavelength, simplifies design, reduces required optical elements, significantly reduces spectral noise from the optical elements and allows for fast image acquisition enabling high quality imaging in-vivo. Such a technology provides a means of detecting disease at the single cell level such as cancer, precancer, ischemic, traumatic or other type of injury, infection, or other diseases or conditions causing alterations in cells and tissue micro structures.

  3. Imaging based refractometer for hyperspectral refractive index detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baba, Justin S.; Boudreaux, Philip R.

    2015-11-24

    Refractometers for simultaneously measuring refractive index of a sample over a range of wavelengths of light include dispersive and focusing optical systems. An optical beam including the range of wavelengths is spectrally spread along a first axis and focused along a second axis so as to be incident to an interface between the sample and a prism at a range of angles of incidence including a critical angle for at least one wavelength. An imaging detector is situated to receive the spectrally spread and focused light from the interface and form an image corresponding to angle of incidence as a function of wavelength. One or more critical angles are identified and corresponding refractive indices are determined.

  4. Oblique Aerial & Ground Visible Band & Thermographic Imaging...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    definition has been provided for this term. Add a Definition Related Techniques Passive Sensors Aerial Photography FLIR Geodetic Survey Hyperspectral Imaging Long-Wave Infrared...

  5. Hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion microscopy and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Timlin, Jerilyn A; Aaron, Jesse S

    2014-04-01

    A hyperspectral stimulated emission depletion ("STED") microscope system for high-resolution imaging of samples labeled with multiple fluorophores (e.g., two to ten fluorophores). The hyperspectral STED microscope includes a light source, optical systems configured for generating an excitation light beam and a depletion light beam, optical systems configured for focusing the excitation and depletion light beams on a sample, and systems for collecting and processing data generated by interaction of the excitation and depletion light beams with the sample. Hyperspectral STED data may be analyzed using multivariate curve resolution analysis techniques to deconvolute emission from the multiple fluorophores. The hyperspectral STED microscope described herein can be used for multi-color, subdiffraction imaging of samples (e.g., materials and biological materials) and for analyzing a tissue by Forster Resonance Energy Transfer ("FRET").

  6. Geothermal Prospecting using Hyperspectral Imaging and Field Observations, Dixie Meadows, NV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy-Bowdoin, T; Silver, E; Martini, B; Pickles, W

    2004-04-26

    In an ongoing project to relate surface hydrothermal alteration to structurally controlled geothermal aquifers, we mapped a 16 km swath of the eastern front of the Stillwater Range using Hyperspectral fault and mineral mapping techniques. The Dixie Valley Fault system produces a large fractured aquifer heating Pleistocene aged groundwater to a temperature of 285 C at 5-6 km. Periodically over the last several thousand years, seismic events have pushed these heated fluids to the surface, leaving a rich history of hydrothermal alteration in the Stillwater Mountains. At Dixie Hot Springs, the potentiometric surface of the aquifer intersects the surface, and 75 C waters flow into the valley. We find a high concentration of alunite, kaolinite, and dickite on the exposed fault surface directly adjacent to a series of active fumaroles on the range front fault. This assemblage of minerals implies interaction with water in excess of 200 C. Field spectra support the location of the high temperature mineralization. Fault mapping using a Digital Elevation Model in combination with mineral lineation and field studies shows that complex fault interactions in this region are improving permeability in the region leading to unconfined fluid flow to the surface. Seismic studies conducted 10 km to the south of Dixie Meadows show that the range front fault dips 25-30 to the southeast (Abbott et al., 2001). At Dixie Meadows, the fault dips 35 to the southeast, demonstrating that this region is part of the low angle normal fault system that produced the Dixie Valley Earthquake in 1954 (M=6.8). We conclude that this unusually low angle faulting may have been accommodated by the presence of heated fluids, increasing pore pressure within the fault zone. We also find that younger synthetic faulting is occurring at more typical high angles. In an effort to present these findings visually, we created a cross-section, illustrating our interpretation of the subsurface structure and the

  7. New technique images nanoparticles in solution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technique images nanoparticles in solution Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window) Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window) Click to share on Pinterest (Opens in new window) A technique called SINGLE uses in situ transmission electron microscopy imaging of platinum nanocrystals freely rotating in a graphene liquid cell to determine the 3-D structures of individual colloidal nanoparticles. (Image: Berkeley Lab) More » Nanotubes that

  8. Electronic imaging system and technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolstad, J.O.

    1984-06-12

    A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

  9. Electronic imaging system and technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolstad, Jon O.

    1987-01-01

    A method and system for viewing objects obscurred by intense plasmas or flames (such as a welding arc) includes a pulsed light source to illuminate the object, the peak brightness of the light reflected from the object being greater than the brightness of the intense plasma or flame; an electronic image sensor for detecting a pulsed image of the illuminated object, the sensor being operated as a high-speed shutter; and electronic means for synchronizing the shutter operation with the pulsed light source.

  10. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  11. Analysis of hyper-spectral data derived from an imaging Fourier transform: A statistical perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, S.K.; Clark, G.A.; Fields, D.J.

    1996-01-10

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) using optical sensors are increasingly being used in various branches of science. Typically, a FTS generates a three-dimensional data cube with two spatial dimensions and one frequency/wavelength dimension. The number of frequency dimensions in such data cubes is generally very large, often in the hundreds, making data analytical procedures extremely complex. In the present report, the problem is viewed from a statistical perspective. A set of procedures based on the high degree of inter-channel correlation structure often present in such hyper-spectral data, has been identified and applied to an example data set of dimension 100 x 128 x 128 comprising 128 spectral bands. It is shown that in this case, the special eigen-structure of the correlation matrix has allowed the authors to extract just a few linear combinations of the channels (the significant principal vectors) that effectively contain almost all of the spectral information contained in the data set analyzed. This in turn, enables them to segment the objects in the given spatial frame using, in a parsimonious yet highly effective way, most of the information contained in the data set.

  12. Nonlinear Bayesian Algorithms for Gas Plume Detection and Estimation from Hyper-spectral Thermal Image Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Posse, Christian; Hylden, Jeff L.; Anderson, Kevin K.

    2007-06-13

    This paper presents a nonlinear Bayesian regression algorithm for the purpose of detecting and estimating gas plume content from hyper-spectral data. Remote sensing data, by its very nature, is collected under less controlled conditions than laboratory data. As a result, the physics-based model that is used to describe the relationship between the observed remotesensing spectra, and the terrestrial (or atmospheric) parameters that we desire to estimate, is typically littered with many unknown "nuisance" parameters (parameters that we are not interested in estimating, but also appear in the model). Bayesian methods are well-suited for this context as they automatically incorporate the uncertainties associated with all nuisance parameters into the error estimates of the parameters of interest. The nonlinear Bayesian regression methodology is illustrated on realistic simulated data from a three-layer model for longwave infrared (LWIR) measurements from a passive instrument. This shows that this approach should permit more accurate estimation as well as a more reasonable description of estimate uncertainty.

  13. Hyperspectral Microscopy of Explosives Particles Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-12-26

    Using infrared hyperspectral imaging, we demonstrate microscopy of small particles of the explosives compounds RDX, tetryl, and PETN with near diffraction-limited performance. The custom microscope apparatus includes an external cavity quantum cascade laser illuminator scanned over its tuning range of 9.13-10.53 m in four seconds, coupled with a microbolometer focal plane array to record infrared transmission images. We use the hyperspectral microscopy technique to study the infrared absorption spectra of individual explosives particles, and demonstrate sub-nanogram detection limits.

  14. Imaging of SCC with Acoustic Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED NDE Solutions Imaging SCC with Acoustic Techniques Marcel Remillieux, TJ Ulrich, Pierre-Yves Le Bas Slide 2 Operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the U.S. Department of Energy's NNSA UNCLASSIFIED Context * 2014 meeting at EPRI resulted in a 5 year plan to: - Provide point inspection on SCC  once an area of concern has been identified visually (e.g., camera), can we interrogate this

  15. Advanced Millimeter-Wave Security Portal Imaging Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-04-01

    Millimeter-wave imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This paper details a number of techniques developed over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, as well as high frequency high bandwidth techniques. Implementation of some of these methods will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems.

  16. Selective document image data compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1998-05-19

    A method of storing information from filled-in form-documents comprises extracting the unique user information in the foreground from the document form information in the background. The contrast of the pixels is enhanced by a gamma correction on an image array, and then the color value of each of pixel is enhanced. The color pixels lying on edges of an image are converted to black and an adjacent pixel is converted to white. The distance between black pixels and other pixels in the array is determined, and a filled-edge array of pixels is created. User information is then converted to a two-color format by creating a first two-color image of the scanned image by converting all pixels darker than a threshold color value to black. All the pixels that are lighter than the threshold color value to white. Then a second two-color image of the filled-edge file is generated by converting all pixels darker than a second threshold value to black and all pixels lighter than the second threshold color value to white. The first two-color image and the second two-color image are then combined and filtered to smooth the edges of the image. The image may be compressed with a unique Huffman coding table for that image. The image file is also decimated to create a decimated-image file which can later be interpolated back to produce a reconstructed image file using a bilinear interpolation kernel. 10 figs.

  17. Selective document image data compression technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1998-01-01

    A method of storing information from filled-in form-documents comprises extracting the unique user information in the foreground from the document form information in the background. The contrast of the pixels is enhanced by a gamma correction on an image array, and then the color value of each of pixel is enhanced. The color pixels lying on edges of an image are converted to black and an adjacent pixel is converted to white. The distance between black pixels and other pixels in the array is determined, and a filled-edge array of pixels is created. User information is then converted to a two-color format by creating a first two-color image of the scanned image by converting all pixels darker than a threshold color value to black. All the pixels that are lighter than the threshold color value to white. Then a second two-color image of the filled-edge file is generated by converting all pixels darker than a second threshold value to black and all pixels lighter than the second threshold color value to white. The first two-color image and the second two-color image are then combined and filtered to smooth the edges of the image. The image may be compressed with a unique Huffman coding table for that image. The image file is also decimated to create a decimated-image file which can later be interpolated back to produce a reconstructed image file using a bilinear interpolation kernel.--(235 words)

  18. New Imaging Technique Shows Nanoscale Workings of Rechargeable Batteries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Imaging Technique Shows Nanoscale Workings of Rechargeable Batteries There's a new tool in the push to engineer rechargeable batteries that last longer and charge more quickly. An X-ray microscopy technique recently developed at Advanced Light Source has given scientists the ability to image nanoscale changes inside lithium-ion battery particles as they charge and discharge. ← Previous Next →

  19. Technique for identifying, tracing, or tracking objects in image data

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Robert J.; Rothganger, Fredrick

    2012-08-28

    A technique for computer vision uses a polygon contour to trace an object. The technique includes rendering a polygon contour superimposed over a first frame of image data. The polygon contour is iteratively refined to more accurately trace the object within the first frame after each iteration. The refinement includes computing image energies along lengths of contour lines of the polygon contour and adjusting positions of the contour lines based at least in part on the image energies.

  20. Single-shot hyperspectral coherent Raman planar imaging in the range 0–4200 cm⁻¹

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bohlin, Alexis; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2014-10-20

    We propose a technique for ultrabroadband planar coherent Raman spectroscopy that enables wideband chemically selective mapping of molecular partition functions in the gas-phase within a single-laser-shot. A spectral region spanning 0–4200 cm⁻¹ is excited simultaneously, in principle allowing for coherent planar imaging of most all fundamental Raman-active modes. This unique instantaneous and spatially correlated assessment enables multiplexed studies of transient dynamical systems in a two-dimensional (2D) field. Here, we demonstrate single-laser-shot high temperature diagnostics of H₂, with spatially resolved 2D measurement of transitions of both the pure-rotational H₂ S-branch and the vibrational H₂ Q-branch, analyzing the temperature contour of amore » reacting fuel-species as it evolves at a flame-front.« less

  1. Development of neutron tomography and phase contrast imaging technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kashyap, Y. S.; Agrawal, Ashish; Sarkar, P. S.; Shukla, Mayank; Sinha, Amar

    2013-02-05

    This paper presents design and development of a state of art neutron imaging technique at CIRUS reactor with special reference for techniques adopted for tomography and phase contrast imaging applications. Different components of the beamline such as collimator, shielding, sample manipulator, digital imaging system were designed keeping in mind the requirements of data acquisition time and resolution. The collimator was designed in such a way that conventional and phase contrast imaging can be done using same collimator housing. We have done characterization of fuel pins, study of hydride blisters in pressure tubes hydrogen based cells, two phase flow visualization, and online study of locomotive parts etc. using neutron tomography and radiography technique. We have also done some studies using neutron phase contrast imaging technique on this beamline.

  2. New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in fusion experiments | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma in fusion experiments By John Greenwald December 9, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. A key issue for the

  3. New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in fusion experiments | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling the plasma in fusion experiments By John Greenwald December 9, 2013 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. Graphic representation of 2D images of fluctuating electron temperatures in a cross-section of a confined fusion plasma. A key issue for the

  4. Imaging Techniques for Relativistic Beams: Issues and Limitations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumpkin, Alex H.; Wendt, Manfred; /Fermilab

    2012-02-01

    Characterizations of transverse profiles for low-power beams in the accelerators of the proposed linear colliders (ILC and CLIC) using imaging techniques are being evaluated. Assessments of the issues and limitations for imaging relativistic beams with intercepting scintillator or optical transition radiation screens are presented based on low-energy tests at the Fermilab A0 photoinjector and are planned for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator at Fermilab. We have described several of the issues and limitations one encounters with the imaging of relativistic electron beams. We have reported our initial tests at the A0PI facility and our plans to extend these studies to the GeV scale at the ASTA facility. We also have plans to test these concepts with 23-GeV beams at the FACET facility at SLAC in the coming year. It appears the future remains bright for imaging techniques in ILC-relevant parameter space.

  5. Achieving molecular selectivity in imaging using multiphoton Raman spectroscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtom, Gary R. ); Thrall, Brian D. ); Chin, Beek Yoke ); Wiley, H Steven ); Colson, Steven D. )

    2000-12-01

    In the case of most imaging methods, contrast is generated either by physical properties of the sample (Differential Image Contrast, Phase Contrast), or by fluorescent labels that are localized to a particular protein or organelle. Standard Raman and infrared methods for obtaining images are based upon the intrinsic vibrational properties of molecules, and thus obviate the need for attached flurophores. Unfortunately, they have significant limitations for live-cell imaging. However, an active Raman method, called Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS), is well suited for microscopy, and provides a new means for imaging specific molecules. Vibrational imaging techniques, such as CARS, avoid problems associated with photobleaching and photo-induced toxicity often associated with the use of fluorescent labels with live cells. Because the laser configuration needed to implement CARS technology is similar to that used in other multiphoton microscopy methods, such as two -photon fluorescence and harmonic generation, it is possible to combine imaging modalities, thus generating simultaneous CARS and fluorescence images. A particularly powerful aspect of CARS microscopy is its ability to selectively image deuterated compounds, thus allowing the visualization of molecules, such as lipids, that are chemically indistinguishable from the native species.

  6. Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping in Support of Geothermal Exploration: Examples from Long Valley Caldera, CA and Dixie Valley, NV, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, B; Silver, E; Pickles, W; Cocks, P

    2004-03-25

    Growing interest and exploration dollars within the geothermal sector have paved the way for increasingly sophisticated suites of geophysical and geochemical tools and methodologies. The efforts to characterize and assess known geothermal fields and find new, previously unknown resources has been aided by the advent of higher spatial resolution airborne geophysics (e.g. aeromagnetics), development of new seismic processing techniques, and the genesis of modern multi-dimensional fluid flow and structural modeling algorithms, just to name a few. One of the newest techniques on the scene, is hyperspectral imaging. Really an optical analytical geochemical tool, hyperspectral imagers (or imaging spectrometers as they are also called), are generally flown at medium to high altitudes aboard mid-sized aircraft and much in the same way more familiar geophysics are flown. The hyperspectral data records a continuous spatial record of the earth's surface, as well as measuring a continuous spectral record of reflected sunlight or emitted thermal radiation. This high fidelity, uninterrupted spatial and spectral record allows for accurate material distribution mapping and quantitative identification at the pixel to sub-pixel level. In volcanic/geothermal regions, this capability translates to synoptic, high spatial resolution, large-area mineral maps generated at time scales conducive to both the faster pace of the exploration and drilling managers, as well as to the slower pace of geologists and other researchers trying to understand the geothermal system over the long run.

  7. Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping in Support of Geothermal Exploration: Examples from Long Valley Caldera, CA and Dixie Valley, NV, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pickles, W L; Martini, B A; Silver, E A; Cocks, P A

    2004-03-03

    Growing interest and exploration dollars within the geothermal sector have paved the way for increasingly sophisticated suites of geophysical and geochemical tools and methodologies. The efforts to characterize and assess known geothermal fields and find new, previously unknown resources has been aided by the advent of higher spatial resolution airborne geophysics (e.g. aeromagnetics), development of new seismic processing techniques, and the genesis of modern multi-dimensional fluid flow and structural modeling algorithms, just to name a few. One of the newest techniques on the scene, is hyperspectral imaging. Really an optical analytical geochemical tool, hyperspectral imagers (or imaging spectrometers as they are also called), are generally flown at medium to high altitudes aboard mid-sized aircraft and much in the same way more familiar geophysics are flown. The hyperspectral data records a continuous spatial record of the earth's surface, as well as measuring a continuous spectral record of reflected sunlight or emitted thermal radiation. This high fidelity, uninterrupted spatial and spectral record allows for accurate material distribution mapping and quantitative identification at the pixel to sub-pixel level. In volcanic/geothermal regions, this capability translates to synoptic, high spatial resolution, large-area mineral maps generated at time scales conducive to both the faster pace of the exploration and drilling managers, as well as to the slower pace of geologists and other researchers trying to understand the geothermal system over the long run.

  8. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  9. Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography Technique To Quantify Filler Distribution ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of Image And X-Ray Microtomography ...

  10. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  11. Hyperspectral Imaging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exchange on Openei. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Thirty-Seventh Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering; 2012...

  12. Faulted reservoirs characterization by an image processing technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Angeles, R.

    1994-12-31

    This paper has developed an image processing method for obtaining the discontinuous areal distribution of oil parameters (formation top, porosity, water saturation,...) of faulted heterogeneous oil reservoirs. For its application it requires the previous knowledge of a set of discrete values z(k,l) from well-logs and seismic profiles. Faulted structures were discretized into continuous structures or blocks bounded by faults. The theoretical fundamental assumption of the proposed method establishes that the natural distributions can be considered as the superposition of several elementary brownian distributions, represented by discrete values z(k,l), whose physical model is the diffusion differential equation and its solution associated. This is a technique that allows the representation of a composed brownian distribution as a linear combination of all elementary brownian functions. For illustrating the operational aspect of brownian analysis, two examples are studied. The results are presented as a digital images by means of an image processing software. This method can be applied in mapping, three dimensions interpolation and reserves calculation of faulted reservoirs.

  13. USE OF ADVANCED DATA PROCESSING TECHNIQUES IN THE IMAGING OF...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Optim's proprietary nonlinear velocity optimization technique and pre-stack Kirchhoff migration. The nonlinear optimization technique is used to obtain high resolution velocity...

  14. Thermal Imaging Technique for Measuring Mixing of Fluids - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid flow. Current methods rely on different physical principles such as: pressure measurement, particle tracking using images, heat removal from a wire and Doppler shift...

  15. Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing For Co2 Storage Monitoring...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote Sensing For Co2 Storage Monitoring Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Hyperspectral Geobotanical Remote...

  16. Mineralogic Interpretation Of Hymap Hyperspectral Data, Dixie...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mineralogic Interpretation Of Hymap Hyperspectral Data, Dixie Valley, Nevada, USA-Initial Results Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  17. Shortwave Hyperspectral Observations During MAGIC Final Campaign...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Shortwave Hyperspectral Observations During MAGIC Final Campaign Summary The Marine ARM GPCI1 Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign was initiated to improve our ...

  18. SU-E-I-74: Image-Matching Technique of Computed Tomography Images...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    between the two-dimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D) images of the same and different phantoms were evaluated in terms of the normalized cross-correlation value (NCC). ...

  19. Technique for Targeting Arteriovenous Malformations Using Frameless Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hristov, Dimitre; Liu, Lina; Adler, John R.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Moore, Teri; Sarmiento, Marily; Chang, Steve D.; Dodd, Robert; Marks, Michael; Do, Huy M.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To integrate three-dimensional (3D) digital rotation angiography (DRA) and two-dimensional (2D) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) imaging into a targeting methodology enabling comprehensive image-guided robotic radiosurgery of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Methods and Materials: DRA geometric integrity was evaluated by imaging a phantom with embedded markers. Dedicated DSA acquisition modes with preset C-arm positions were configured. The geometric reproducibility of the presets was determined, and its impact on localization accuracy was evaluated. An imaging protocol composed of anterior-posterior and lateral DSA series in combination with a DRA run without couch displacement between acquisitions was introduced. Software was developed for registration of DSA and DRA (2D-3D) images to correct for: (a) small misalignments of the C-arm with respect to the estimated geometry of the set positions and (b) potential patient motion between image series. Within the software, correlated navigation of registered DRA and DSA images was incorporated to localize AVMs within a 3D image coordinate space. Subsequent treatment planning and delivery followed a standard image-guided robotic radiosurgery process. Results: DRA spatial distortions were typically smaller than 0.3 mm throughout a 145-mm x 145-mm x 145-mm volume. With 2D-3D image registration, localization uncertainties resulting from the achievable reproducibility of the C-arm set positions could be reduced to about 0.2 mm. Overall system-related localization uncertainty within the DRA coordinate space was 0.4 mm. Image-guided frameless robotic radiosurgical treatments with this technique were initiated. Conclusions: The integration of DRA and DSA into the process of nidus localization increases the confidence with which radiosurgical ablation of AVMs can be performed when using only an image-guided technique. Such an approach can increase patient comfort, decrease time pressure on clinical and

  20. Multispectral Imaging At Rangely Oilfield Area (Pickles & Cover...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unknown Notes Airborne hyperspectral imaging applied to determine vegetation and CO2 leakage in the Rangely oilfield of northwest Colorado - results may be useful for...

  1. Use of image processing techniques for heat transfer measurements using thermochromic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crabtree, J.A.

    1994-06-01

    A Macintosh-based image processing code has been developed for use in making continuous temperature profile measurements using thermochromic liquid crystals. This software is the result of extensive modifications to the public domain software, NIH Image developed by the National Institutes of Health. These modifications primarily include routines to quantify the TLC color changes as temperature measurements while providing a simple user interface. Using these techniques, one can perform literally thousands of temperature measurements over a small area (307,200 temperature measurements in a 640*480 image), thus making continuous profile measurement possible. This technique was developed in support of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (a new nuclear fission research reactor being developed at Oak Ridge National Lab.) for use in experiments designed to study the impact of a flow blockage at the inlet to the reactor core.

  2. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron...

  3. Measurement of nonlinear index by a relay-imaged top-hat Z-scan technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shimada, T.; Kurnit, N.A.; Sheik-Bahae, M.

    1996-04-01

    Measurements of the nonlinear index of a number of optical materials of interest for the National Ignition Facility have been performed at 1,064 nm and 355 nm by a modified version of the ``top-hat`` technique and the results compared with the more standard gaussian-beam Z-scan technique. The top-hat technique has the advantages of higher sensitivity and smaller uncertainties introduced by beam-quality considerations. The authors have made what they feel to be an additional improvement by placing the defining aperture for the top hat at the front focal plane of the lens that focuses the beam into the sample and then reimaging the input aperture with a second lens onto a ccd camera. Reimaging eliminates diffraction fringes and provides a stationary image even for a wedged sample; recording the entire image permits minimization of spurious effects such as varying interference fringes.

  4. An imaging evaluation of the simultaneously integrated boost breast radiotherapy technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turley, Jessica; Claridge Mackonis, Elizabeth

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate in-field megavoltage (MV) imaging of simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) breast fields to determine its feasibility in treatment verification for the SIB breast radiotherapy technique, and to assess whether the current-imaging protocol and treatment margins are sufficient. For nine patients undergoing SIB breast radiotherapy, in-field MV images of the SIB fields were acquired on days that regular treatment verification imaging was performed. The in-field images were matched offline according to the scar wire on digitally reconstructed radiographs. The offline image correction results were then applied to a margin recipe formula to calculate safe margins that account for random and systematic uncertainties in the position of the boost volume when an offline correction protocol has been applied. After offline assessment of the acquired images, 96% were within the tolerance set in the current department-imaging protocol. Retrospectively performing the maximum position deviations on the Eclipse™ treatment planning system demonstrated that the clinical target volume (CTV) boost received a minimum dose difference of 0.4% and a maximum dose difference of 1.4% less than planned. Furthermore, applying our results to the Van Herk margin formula to ensure that 90% of patients receive 95% of the prescribed dose, the calculated CTV margins were comparable to the current departmental procedure used. Based on the in-field boost images acquired and the feasible application of these results to the margin formula the current CTV-planning target volume margins used are appropriate for the accurate treatment of the SIB boost volume without additional imaging.

  5. Uncooled thin film infrared imaging device with aerogel thermal isolation: Deposition and planarization techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sriram, C.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Bullington, J.A. [AMMPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have successfully integrated a thermally insulating silica aerogel thin film into a new uncooled monolithic thin film infrared (IR) imaging device. Compared to other technologies (bulk ceramic and microbridge), use of an aerogel layer provides superior thermal isolation of the pyroelectric imaging element from the relatively massive heat sinking integrated circuit. This results in significantly higher thermal and temporal resolutions. They have calculated noise equivalent temperature differences of 0.04--0.10 C from a variety of Pb{sub x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PZT) and Pb{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PLZT) pyroelectric imaging elements in monolithic structures. In addition, use of aerogels results in an easier, less expensive fabrication process and a more robust device. Fabrication of these monolithic devices entails sol-gel deposition of the aerogel, sputter deposition of the electrodes, and solution chemistry deposition of the pyroelectric imaging elements. Uniform pyroelectric response is achieved across the device by use of appropriate planarization techniques. These deposition and planarization techniques are described. Characterization of the individual layers and monolithic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Byer-Roundy techniques also is discussed.

  6. Passive and Active Neutron Matrix Correction for Heterogeneous Distributions Utilizing the Neutron Imaging Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villani, M.F.; Croft, St.; Alvarez, E.; Wilkins, C.G.; Stamp, D.; Fisher, J.; Ambrifi, A.; Simone, G.; Bourva, L.C.

    2008-07-01

    Classical Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting (PNCC) and Differential Die-Away (DDA) active neutron interrogation techniques [1, 2] are well suited for determining the gross matrix correction factors for homogenous mass distributions of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) within an interfering waste drum matrix. These measured passive and active matrix correction factors are crucial in quantifying the SNM mass, associated Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU), and Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) within the drum. When heterogeneous SNM mass distributions are encountered, the measured SNM mass, TMU and MDA biases introduced may be 100%, or greater, especially for dense hydrogenous matrices. The standard matrix correction factors can be adjusted if a coarse spatial image of the SNM mass, relative to the matrix, is available. The image can then be analyzed to determine the spatially-adjusted, matrix correction factors case by case. This image analysis approach was accomplished by modifying the standard Passive-Active Neutron (PAN) counter design [3] to accommodate a unique data acquisition architecture that supports a newly developed image acquisition and analysis application called the Neutron Imaging Technique (NIT). The NIT functionality supports both PNCC and DDA acquisition and analysis modes and exploits the symmetry between a stored set of factory acquired NIT images with those from the unknown PAN assay. The NIT result is then an adjustment to the classical correction factor reducing, if not removing, the SNM mass bias and revealing the true TMU and MDA values. In this paper we describe the NIT for the PAN design from the software and algorithmic perspectives and how this technique accommodates waste matrix drums that are difficult, from the classical standpoint, if not impossible, to extract meaningful SNM mass, TMU and MDA results. (authors)

  7. Measuring water velocity using DIDSON and image cross-correlation techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Mueller, Robert P.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2009-08-01

    To design or operate hydroelectric facilities for maximum power generation and minimum ecological impact, it is critical to understand the biological responses of fish to different flow structures. However, information is still lacking on the relationship between fish behavior and flow structures despite many years of research. Existing field characterization approaches conduct fish behavior studies and flow measurements separately and coupled later using statistical analysis. These types of studies, however, lack a way to determine the specific hydraulic conditions or the specific causes of the biological response. The Dual-Frequency Identification Sonar (DIDSON) has been in wide use for fish behavior studies since 1999. The DIDSON can detect acoustic targets at long ranges in dark or turbid dark water. PIV is a state-of-the-art, non-intrusive, whole-flow-field technique, providing instantaneous velocity vector measurements in a whole plane using image cross-correlating techniques. There has been considerable research in the development of image processing techniques associated with PIV. This existing body of knowledge is applicable and can be used to process the images taken by the DIDSON. This study was conducted in a water flume which is 9 m long, 1.2 m wide, and 1.2 m deep when filled with water. A lab jet flow was setup as the benchmark flow to calibrate DIDSON images. The jet nozzle was 6.35 cm in diameter and core jet velocity was 1.52 m/s. Different particles were used to seed the flow. The flow was characterized based on the results using Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV). A DIDSON was mounted about 5 meters away from the jet nozzle. Consecutive DIDSON images with known time delay were divided into small interrogation spots after background was subtracted. Across-correlation was then performed to estimate the velocity vector for each interrogation spot. The estimated average velocity in the core zone was comparable to that obtained using a LDV. This proof

  8. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-6-2014_Imaging Techniques Applied to Shales_20141202.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Techniques for Analyzing Shale Pores and Minerals 2 December 2014 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-6-2014 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  9. Direct imaging of neural currents using ultra-low field magnetic resonance techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Mosher, John C.; Espy, Michelle A.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.

    2009-08-11

    Using resonant interactions to directly and tomographically image neural activity in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques at ultra-low field (ULF), the present inventors have established an approach that is sensitive to magnetic field distributions local to the spin population in cortex at the Larmor frequency of the measurement field. Because the Larmor frequency can be readily manipulated (through varying B.sub.m), one can also envision using ULF-DNI to image the frequency distribution of the local fields in cortex. Such information, taken together with simultaneous acquisition of MEG and ULF-NMR signals, enables non-invasive exploration of the correlation between local fields induced by neural activity in cortex and more `distant` measures of brain activity such as MEG and EEG.

  10. Characterization of beam dynamics in the APS injector rings using time-resolved imaging techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B.X.; Lumpkin, A.H.; Borland, M.

    1997-06-01

    Images taken with streak cameras and gated intensified cameras with both time (longitudinal) and spatial (transverse) resolution reveal a wealth of information about circular accelerators. The authors illustrate a novel technique by a sequence of dual-sweep streak camera images taken at a high dispersion location in the booster synchrotron, where the horizontal coordinate is strongly correlated with the particle energy and the {open_quotes}top-view{close_quotes} of the beam gives a good approximation to the particle density distribution in the longitudinal phase space. A sequence of top-view images taken fight after injection clearly shows the beam dynamics in the phase space. We report another example from the positron accumulator ring for the characterization of its beam compression bunching with the 12th harmonic rf.

  11. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almansouri, Hani; Clayton, Dwight A; Kisner, Roger A; Polsky, Yarom; Bouman, Charlie; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well's health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  12. Development of Acoustic Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction Technique for Thick-Concrete Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almansouri, Hani; Clayton, Dwight A; Kisner, Roger A; Polsky, Yarom; Bouman, Charlie; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound signals have been used extensively for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). However, typical reconstruction techniques, such as the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT), are limited to quasi-homogenous thin media. New ultrasonic systems and reconstruction algorithms are in need for one-sided NDE of non-homogenous thick objects. An application example space is imaging of reinforced concrete structures for commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). These structures provide important foundation, support, shielding, and containment functions. Identification and management of aging and degradation of concrete structures is fundamental to the proposed long-term operation of NPPs. Another example is geothermal and oil/gas production wells. These multi-layered structures are composed of steel, cement, and several types of soil and rocks. Ultrasound systems with greater penetration range and image quality will allow for better monitoring of the well s health and prediction of high-pressure hydraulic fracturing of the rock. These application challenges need to be addressed with an integrated imaging approach, where the application, hardware, and reconstruction software are highly integrated and optimized. Therefore, we are developing an ultrasonic system with Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction (MBIR) as the image reconstruction backbone. As the first implementation of MBIR for ultrasonic signals, this paper document the first implementation of the algorithm and show reconstruction results for synthetically generated data.

  13. Particle Imaging Velocimetry Technique Development for Laboratory Measurement of Fracture Flow Inside a Pressure Vessel Using Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsky, Yarom; Bingham, Philip R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Carmichael, Justin R

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe recent progress made in developing neutron imaging based particle imaging velocimetry techniques for visualizing and quantifying flow structure through a high pressure flow cell with high temperature capability (up to 350 degrees C). This experimental capability has great potential for improving the understanding of flow through fractured systems in applications such as enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). For example, flow structure measurement can be used to develop and validate single phase flow models used for simulation, experimentally identify critical transition regions and their dependence on fracture features such as surface roughness, and study multiphase fluid behavior within fractured systems. The developed method involves the controlled injection of a high contrast fluid into a water flow stream to produce droplets that can be tracked using neutron radiography. A description of the experimental setup will be provided along with an overview of the algorithms used to automatically track droplets and relate them to the velocity gradient in the flow stream. Experimental results will be reported along with volume of fluids based simulation techniques used to model observed flow.

  14. Two-dimensional wave-number spectral analysis techniques for phase contrast imaging turbulence imaging data on large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.; Vyacheslavov, L.; Sanin, A.

    2015-09-15

    An analysis method for unfolding the spatially resolved wave-number spectrum and phase velocity from the 2D CO{sub 2} laser phase contrast imaging system on the large helical device is described. This is based on the magnetic shear technique which identifies propagation direction from 2D spatial Fourier analysis of images detected by a 6 × 8 detector array. Because the strongest modes have wave-number at the lower end of the instrumental k range, high resolution spectral techniques are necessary to clearly resolve the propagation direction and hence the spatial distribution of fluctuations along the probing laser beam. Multiple-spatial point cross-correlation averaging is applied before calculating the spatial power spectrum. Different methods are compared, and it is found that the maximum entropy method (MEM) gives best results. The possible generation of artifacts from the over-narrowing of spectra are investigated and found not to be a significant problem. The spatial resolution Δρ (normalized radius) around the peak wave-number, for conventional Fourier analysis, is ∼0.5, making physical interpretation difficult, while for MEM, Δρ ∼ 0.1.

  15. Validation of a deformable image registration technique for cone beam CT-based dose verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moteabbed, M. Sharp, G. C.; Wang, Y.; Trofimov, A.; Efstathiou, J. A.; Lu, H.-M.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: As radiation therapy evolves toward more adaptive techniques, image guidance plays an increasingly important role, not only in patient setup but also in monitoring the delivered dose and adapting the treatment to patient changes. This study aimed to validate a method for evaluation of delivered intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) dose based on multimodal deformable image registration (DIR) for prostate treatments. Methods: A pelvic phantom was scanned with CT and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Both images were digitally deformed using two realistic patient-based deformation fields. The original CT was then registered to the deformed CBCT resulting in a secondary deformed CT. The registration quality was assessed as the ability of the DIR method to recover the artificially induced deformations. The primary and secondary deformed CT images as well as vector fields were compared to evaluate the efficacy of the registration method and it’s suitability to be used for dose calculation. PLASTIMATCH, a free and open source software was used for deformable image registration. A B-spline algorithm with optimized parameters was used to achieve the best registration quality. Geometric image evaluation was performed through voxel-based Hounsfield unit (HU) and vector field comparison. For dosimetric evaluation, IMRT treatment plans were created and optimized on the original CT image and recomputed on the two warped images to be compared. The dose volume histograms were compared for the warped structures that were identical in both warped images. This procedure was repeated for the phantom with full, half full, and empty bladder. Results: The results indicated mean HU differences of up to 120 between registered and ground-truth deformed CT images. However, when the CBCT intensities were calibrated using a region of interest (ROI)-based calibration curve, these differences were reduced by up to 60%. Similarly, the mean differences in average vector field

  16. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Imaging Print The wavelengths of soft x-ray photons (1-15 nm) are very well matched to the creation of "nanoscopes" capable of probing the interior structure of biological cells and inorganic mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron radiation is absolutely essential for the creation of contrast mechanisms. Cell biology CAT scans are performed in

  17. Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

  18. Spatio-spectral image analysis using classical and neural algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, S.; Gisler, G.R.; Theiler, J.

    1996-12-31

    Remote imaging at high spatial resolution has a number of environmental, industrial, and military applications. Analysis of high-resolution multi-spectral images usually involves either spectral analysis of single pixels in a multi- or hyper-spectral image or spatial analysis of multi-pixels in a panchromatic or monochromatic image. Although insufficient for some pattern recognition applications individually, the combination of spatial and spectral analytical techniques may allow the identification of more complex signatures that might not otherwise be manifested in the individual spatial or spectral domains. We report on some preliminary investigation of unsupervised classification methodologies (using both ``classical`` and ``neural`` algorithms) to identify potentially revealing features in these images. We apply dimension-reduction preprocessing to the images, duster, and compare the clusterings obtained by different algorithms. Our classification results are analyzed both visually and with a suite of objective, quantitative measures.

  19. Developing new optical imaging techniques for single particle and molecule tracking in live cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Wei

    2010-12-15

    Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is a far-field as well as wide-field optical imaging technique. Since it is non-invasive and requires no sample staining, DIC microscopy is suitable for tracking the motion of target molecules in live cells without interfering their functions. In addition, high numerical aperture objectives and condensers can be used in DIC microscopy. The depth of focus of DIC is shallow, which gives DIC much better optical sectioning ability than those of phase contrast and dark field microscopies. In this work, DIC was utilized to study dynamic biological processes including endocytosis and intracellular transport in live cells. The suitability of DIC microscopy for single particle tracking in live cells was first demonstrated by using DIC to monitor the entire endocytosis process of one mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) into a live mammalian cell. By taking advantage of the optical sectioning ability of DIC, we recorded the depth profile of the MSN during the endocytosis process. The shape change around the nanoparticle due to the formation of a vesicle was also captured. DIC microscopy was further modified that the sample can be illuminated and imaged at two wavelengths simultaneously. By using the new technique, noble metal nanoparticles with different shapes and sizes were selectively imaged. Among all the examined metal nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles in rod shapes were found to be especially useful. Due to their anisotropic optical properties, gold nanorods showed as diffraction-limited spots with disproportionate bright and dark parts that are strongly dependent on their orientation in the 3D space. Gold nanorods were developed as orientation nanoprobes and were successfully used to report the self-rotation of gliding microtubules on kinesin coated substrates. Gold nanorods were further used to study the rotational motions of cargoes during the endocytosis and intracellular transport processes in live mammalian

  20. Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CA and Dixie Valley, NV, USA Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal...

  1. Integration of hyperspectral imagery and biosensors for biological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    facility classification Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integration of hyperspectral imagery and biosensors for biological and chemical facility classification Authors: ...

  2. Integration of hyperspectral imagery and biosensors for biological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    facility classification Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integration of hyperspectral imagery and biosensors for biological and chemical facility classification You ...

  3. Integration of Hyperspectral Imagery and Biosensors for Biological...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Facility Classification Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Integration of Hyperspectral Imagery and Biosensors for Biological and Chemical Facility Classification You ...

  4. Identification of a New Blind Geothermal System with Hyperspectral...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a New Blind Geothermal System with Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Shallow Temperature Measurements at Columbus Salt Marsh, Esmeralda County, Nevada Jump to: navigation, search...

  5. Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Hyperspectral aerosol optical depths from TCAP flights Citation Details ... DOE Contract Number: DE-AC02-98CH10886 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: ...

  6. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis. The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).

  7. A simulation technique for 3D MR-guided acoustic radiation force imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Allison; Bever, Josh de; Farrer, Alexis; Coats, Brittany; Parker, Dennis L.; Christensen, Douglas A.

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: In magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) therapies, the in situ characterization of the focal spot location and quality is critical. MR acoustic radiation force imaging (MR-ARFI) is a technique that measures the tissue displacement caused by the radiation force exerted by the ultrasound beam. This work presents a new technique to model the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model. Methods: When a steady-state point-source force acts internally in an infinite homogeneous medium, the displacement of the material in all directions is given by the Somigliana elastostatic tensor. The radiation force field, which is caused by absorption and reflection of the incident ultrasound intensity pattern, will be spatially distributed, and the tensor formulation takes the form of a convolution of a 3D Green’s function with the force field. The dynamic accumulation of MR phase during the ultrasound pulse can be theoretically accounted for through a time-of-arrival weighting of the Green’s function. This theoretical model was evaluated experimentally in gelatin phantoms of varied stiffness (125-, 175-, and 250-bloom). The acoustic and mechanical properties of the phantoms used as parameters of the model were measured using independent techniques. Displacements at focal depths of 30- and 45-mm in the phantoms were measured by a 3D spin echo MR-ARFI segmented-EPI sequence. Results: The simulated displacements agreed with the MR-ARFI measured displacements for all bloom values and focal depths with a normalized RMS difference of 0.055 (range 0.028–0.12). The displacement magnitude decreased and the displacement pattern broadened with increased bloom value for both focal depths, as predicted by the theory. Conclusions: A new technique that models the displacements caused by the radiation force of an ultrasound beam in a homogeneous tissue model theory has been rigorously validated through comparison

  8. Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging Print The wavelengths of soft x-ray photons (1-15 nm) are very well matched to the creation of "nanoscopes" capable of probing the interior structure of biological cells and inorganic mesoscopic systems.Topics addressed by soft x-ray imaging techniques include cell biology, nanomagnetism, environmental science, and polymers. The tunability of synchrotron radiation is absolutely essential for the creation of contrast mechanisms. Cell biology CAT scans are performed in the

  9. SU-E-I-74: Image-Matching Technique of Computed Tomography Images for Personal Identification: A Preliminary Study Using Anthropomorphic Chest Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunobu, Y; Shiotsuki, K; Morishita, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fingerprints, dental impressions, and DNA are used to identify unidentified bodies in forensic medicine. Cranial Computed tomography (CT) images and/or dental radiographs are also used for identification. Radiological identification is important, particularly in the absence of comparative fingerprints, dental impressions, and DNA samples. The development of an automated radiological identification system for unidentified bodies is desirable. We investigated the potential usefulness of bone structure for matching chest CT images. Methods: CT images of three anthropomorphic chest phantoms were obtained on different days in various settings. One of the phantoms was assumed to be an unidentified body. The bone image and the bone image with soft tissue (BST image) were extracted from the CT images. To examine the usefulness of the bone image and/or the BST image, the similarities between the two-dimensional (2D) or threedimensional (3D) images of the same and different phantoms were evaluated in terms of the normalized cross-correlation value (NCC). Results: For the 2D and 3D BST images, the NCCs obtained from the same phantom assumed to be an unidentified body (2D, 0.99; 3D, 0.93) were higher than those for the different phantoms (2D, 0.95 and 0.91; 3D, 0.89 and 0.80). The NCCs for the same phantom (2D, 0.95; 3D, 0.88) were greater compared to those of the different phantoms (2D, 0.61 and 0.25; 3D, 0.23 and 0.10) for the bone image. The difference in the NCCs between the same and different phantoms tended to be larger for the bone images than for the BST images. These findings suggest that the image-matching technique is more useful when utilizing the bone image than when utilizing the BST image to identify different people. Conclusion: This preliminary study indicated that evaluating the similarity of bone structure in 2D and 3D images is potentially useful for identifying of an unidentified body.

  10. Measurement and image processing evaluation of surface modifications of dental implants G4 pure titanium created by different techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulutsuz, A. G.; Demircioglu, P. Bogrekci, I.; Durakbasa, M. N.

    2015-03-30

    Foreign substances and organic tissue interaction placed into the jaw in order to eliminate tooth loss involves a highly complex process. Many biological reactions take place as well as the biomechanical forces that influence this formation. Osseointegration denotes to the direct structural and functional association between the living bone and the load-bearing artificial implant's surface. Taking into consideration of the requirements in the manufacturing processes of the implants, surface characterizations with high precise measurement techniques are investigated and thus long-term success of dental implant is emphasized on the importance of these processes in this study. In this research, the detailed surface characterization was performed to identify the dependence of the manufacturing techniques on the surface properties by using the image processing methods and using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) for morphological properties in 3D and Taylor Hobson stylus profilometer for roughness properties in 2D. Three implant surfaces fabricated by different manufacturing techniques were inspected, and a machined surface was included into the study as a reference specimen. The results indicated that different surface treatments were strongly influenced surface morphology. Thus 2D and 3D precise inspection techniques were highlighted on the importance for surface characterization. Different image analyses techniques such as Dark-light technique were used to verify the surface measurement results. The computational phase was performed using image processing toolbox in Matlab with precise evaluation of the roughness for the implant surfaces. The relationship between the number of black and white pixels and surface roughness is presented. FFT image processing and analyses results explicitly imply that the technique is useful in the determination of surface roughness. The results showed that the number of black pixels in the image increases with increase in surface

  11. Rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography imaging system using an interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Tang, Zhilie; Wu, Yongbo; Wang, Yi

    2015-04-15

    We designed, fabricated, and tested a rapid and noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) imaging system using a low-coherence interferometer with high-speed phase modulation technique. Such a rapid and noncontact probing system can greatly decrease the time of imaging. The proposed PAT imaging system is experimentally verified by capturing images of a simulated tissue sample and the blood vessels within the ear flap of a mouse (pinna) in vivo. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are evaluated at 45 and ∼15 μm, respectively. The imaging depth of the system is 1 mm in a special phantom. Our results show that the proposed system opens a promising way to realize noncontact, real-time PAT.

  12. Zero source insertion technique to account for undersampling in GPR imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, David H; Mast, Jeffrey E; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for detecting the presence of subsurface objects within a medium is provided. In some embodiments, the imaging and detection system operates in a multistatic mode to collect radar return signals generated by an array of transceiver antenna pairs that is positioned across the surface and that travels down the surface. The imaging and detection system pre-processes the return signal to suppress certain undesirable effects. The imaging and detection system then generates synthetic aperture radar images from real aperture radar images generated from the pre-processed return signal. The imaging and detection system then post-processes the synthetic aperture radar images to improve detection of subsurface objects. The imaging and detection system identifies peaks in the energy levels of the post-processed image frame, which indicates the presence of a subsurface object.

  13. Near infrared spectral imaging of explosives using a tunable laser source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klunder, G L; Margalith, E; Nguyen, L K

    2010-03-26

    Diffuse reflectance near infrared hyperspectral imaging is an important analytical tool for a wide variety of industries, including agriculture consumer products, chemical and pharmaceutical development and production. Using this technique as a method for the standoff detection of explosive particles is presented and discussed. The detection of the particles is based on the diffuse reflectance of light from the particle in the near infrared wavelength range where CH, NH, OH vibrational overtones and combination bands are prominent. The imaging system is a NIR focal plane array camera with a tunable OPO/laser system as the illumination source. The OPO is programmed to scan over a wide spectral range in the NIR and the camera is synchronized to record the light reflected from the target for each wavelength. The spectral resolution of this system is significantly higher than that of hyperspectral systems that incorporate filters or dispersive elements. The data acquisition is very fast and the entire hyperspectral cube can be collected in seconds. A comparison of data collected with the OPO system to data obtained with a broadband light source with LCTF filters is presented.

  14. An Evaluation of Image Based Techniques for Early Wildfire Detection and Fuel Mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabbert, Dustin W.

    2015-05-01

    Few events can cause the catastrophic impact to ecology, infrastructure, and human safety of a wildland fire along the wildland urban interface. The suppression of natural wildland fires over the past decade has caused a buildup of dry, dead surface fuels: a condition that, coupled with the right weather conditions, can cause large destructive wildfires that are capable of threatening both ancient tree stands and manmade infrastructure. Firefighters use fire danger models to determine staffing needs on high fire risk days; however models are only as effective as the spatial and temporal density of their observations. OKFIRE, an Oklahoma initiative created by a partnership between Oklahoma State University and the University of Oklahoma, has proven that fire danger assessments close to the fire – both geographically and temporally – can give firefighters a significant increase in their situational awareness while fighting a wildland fire. This paper investigates several possible solutions for a small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which could gather information useful for detecting ground fires and constructing fire danger maps. Multiple fire detection and fuel mapping programs utilize satellites, manned aircraft, and large UAS equipped with hyperspectral sensors to gather useful information. Their success provides convincing proof of the utility that could be gained from low-altitude UAS gathering information at the exact time and place firefighters and land managers are interested in. Close proximity, both geographically and operationally, to the end can reduce latency times below what could ever be possible with satellite observation. This paper expands on recent advances in computer vision, photogrammetry, and infrared and color imagery to develop a framework for a next-generation UAS which can assess fire danger and aid firefighters in real time as they observe, contain, or extinguish wildland fires. It also investigates the impact information gained by this

  15. A Comparison of Image Quality Evaluation Techniques for Transmission X-Ray Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolgert, Peter J; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    Beamline 6-2c at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) is capable of Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) at 30 nm resolution. Raw images from the microscope must undergo extensive image processing before publication. Since typical data sets normally contain thousands of images, it is necessary to automate the image processing workflow as much as possible, particularly for the aligning and averaging of similar images. Currently we align images using the 'phase correlation' algorithm, which calculates the relative offset of two images by multiplying them in the frequency domain. For images containing high frequency noise, this algorithm will align noise with noise, resulting in a blurry average. To remedy this we multiply the images by a Gaussian function in the frequency domain, so that the algorithm ignores the high frequency noise while properly aligning the features of interest (FOI). The shape of the Gaussian is manually tuned by the user until the resulting average image is sharpest. To automatically optimize this process, it is necessary for the computer to evaluate the quality of the average image by quantifying its sharpness. In our research we explored two image sharpness metrics, the variance method and the frequency threshold method. The variance method uses the variance of the image as an indicator of sharpness while the frequency threshold method sums up the power in a specific frequency band. These metrics were tested on a variety of test images, containing both real and artificial noise. To apply these sharpness metrics, we designed and built a MATLAB graphical user interface (GUI) called 'Blur Master.' We found that it is possible for blurry images to have a large variance if they contain high amounts of noise. On the other hand, we found the frequency method to be quite reliable, although it is necessary to manually choose suitable limits for the frequency band. Further research must be performed to design an algorithm which

  16. imageMCR

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-09-27

    imageMCR is a user friendly software package that consists of a variety inputs to preprocess and analyze the hyperspectral image data using multivariate algorithms such as Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR), Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Classical Least Squares (CLS) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). MCR provides a relative quantitative analysis of the hyperspectral image data without the need for standards, and it discovers all the emitting species (spectral pure components) present in an image, even thosemore » in which there is no a priori information. Once the spectral components are discovered, these spectral components can be used for future MCR analyses or used with CLS algorithms to quickly extract concentration image maps for each component within spectral image data sets.« less

  17. Weighted simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique for tomosynthesis imaging of objects with high-attenuation features

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levakhina, Y. M.; Mueller, J.; Buzug, T. M.; Duschka, R. L.; Vogt, F.; Barkhausen, J.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a nonlinear weighting scheme into the backprojection operation within the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART). It is designed for tomosynthesis imaging of objects with high-attenuation features in order to reduce limited angle artifacts. Methods: The algorithm estimates which projections potentially produce artifacts in a voxel. The contribution of those projections into the updating term is reduced. In order to identify those projections automatically, a four-dimensional backprojected space representation is used. Weighting coefficients are calculated based on a dissimilarity measure, evaluated in this space. For each combination of an angular view direction and a voxel position an individual weighting coefficient for the updating term is calculated. Results: The feasibility of the proposed approach is shown based on reconstructions of the following real three-dimensional tomosynthesis datasets: a mammography quality phantom, an apple with metal needles, a dried finger bone in water, and a human hand. Datasets have been acquired with a Siemens Mammomat Inspiration tomosynthesis device and reconstructed using SART with and without suggested weighting. Out-of-focus artifacts are described using line profiles and measured using standard deviation (STD) in the plane and below the plane which contains artifact-causing features. Artifacts distribution in axial direction is measured using an artifact spread function (ASF). The volumes reconstructed with the weighting scheme demonstrate the reduction of out-of-focus artifacts, lower STD (meaning reduction of artifacts), and narrower ASF compared to nonweighted SART reconstruction. It is achieved successfully for different kinds of structures: point-like structures such as phantom features, long structures such as metal needles, and fine structures such as trabecular bone structures. Conclusions: Results indicate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm to reduce typical

  18. Systems and methods for thermal imaging technique for measuring mixing of fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booten, Charles; Tomerlin, Jeff; Winkler, Jon

    2016-06-14

    Systems and methods for thermal imaging for measuring mixing of fluids are provided. In one embodiment, a method for measuring mixing of gaseous fluids using thermal imaging comprises: positioning a thermal test medium parallel to a direction gaseous fluid flow from an outlet vent of a momentum source, wherein when the source is operating, the fluid flows across a surface of the medium; obtaining an ambient temperature value from a baseline thermal image of the surface; obtaining at least one operational thermal image of the surface when the fluid is flowing from the outlet vent across the surface, wherein the fluid has a temperature different than the ambient temperature; and calculating at least one temperature-difference fraction associated with at least a first position on the surface based on a difference between temperature measurements obtained from the at least one operational thermal image and the ambient temperature value.

  19. Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis using a slot scanning technique: Fixed-focus reconstruction and the resulting image quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Koichi, E-mail: shibatak@suzuka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiological Technology, Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science 1001-1, Kishioka-cho, Suzuka 510-0293 (Japan); Notohara, Daisuke; Sakai, Takihito [R and D Department, Medical Systems Division, Shimadzu Corporation 1, Nishinokyo-Kuwabara-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8511 (Japan)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Parallel-scanning tomosynthesis (PS-TS) is a novel technique that fuses the slot scanning technique and the conventional tomosynthesis (TS) technique. This approach allows one to obtain long-view tomosynthesis images in addition to normally sized tomosynthesis images, even when using a system that has no linear tomographic scanning function. The reconstruction technique and an evaluation of the resulting image quality for PS-TS are described in this paper. Methods: The PS-TS image-reconstruction technique consists of several steps (1) the projection images are divided into strips, (2) the strips are stitched together to construct images corresponding to the reconstruction plane, (3) the stitched images are filtered, and (4) the filtered stitched images are back-projected. In the case of PS-TS using the fixed-focus reconstruction method (PS-TS-F), one set of stitched images is used for the reconstruction planes at all heights, thus avoiding the necessity of repeating steps (1)(3). A physical evaluation of the image quality of PS-TS-F compared with that of the conventional linear TS was performed using a R/F table (Sonialvision safire, Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan). The tomographic plane with the best theoretical spatial resolution (the in-focus plane, IFP) was set at a height of 100 mm from the table top by adjusting the reconstruction program. First, the spatial frequency response was evaluated at heights of ?100, ?50, 0, 50, 100, and 150 mm from the IFP using the edge of a 0.3-mm-thick copper plate. Second, the spatial resolution at each height was visually evaluated using an x-ray test pattern (Model No. 38, PTW Freiburg, Germany). Third, the slice sensitivity at each height was evaluated via the wire method using a 0.1-mm-diameter tungsten wire. Phantom studies using a knee phantom and a whole-body phantom were also performed. Results: The spatial frequency response of PS-TS-F yielded the best results at the IFP and degraded slightly as the distance

  20. Hyper-spectral scanner design and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.; Moses, J.; Smith, R.

    1996-06-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An earlier project produced rough designs for key components of a compact hyper-spectral sensor for environmental and ecological measurements. Such sensors could be deployed on unmanned vehicles, aircraft, or satellites for measurements important to agriculture, the environment, and ecologies. This represents an important advance in remote sensing. Motorola invited us to propose an add-on, proof-of-principle sensor for their Comet satellite, whose primary mission is to demonstrate a channel of the IRIDIUM satellite communications system. Our project converted the preliminary designs from the previous effort into final designs for the telescope, camera, computer and interfaces that constitute the hyper-spectral scanning sensor. The work concentrated on design, fabrication, preliminary integration, and testing of the electronic circuit boards for the computer, data compression board, and interface board for the camera-computer and computer-modulator (transmitter) interfaces.

  1. Hyperspectral Aerosol Optical Depths from TCAP Flights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinozuka, Yohei; Johnson, Roy R.; Flynn, Connor J.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; Dunagan, Stephen; Kluzek, Celine D.; Hubbe, John M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, Michal; Livingston, J. M.; Eck, T.; Wagener, Richard; Gregory, L.; Chand, Duli; Berg, Larry K.; Rogers, Ray; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, John; Hostetler, Chris A.; Burton, S. P.

    2013-11-13

    4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research), the worlds first hyperspectral airborne tracking sunphotometer, acquired aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 1 Hz during all July 2012 flights of the Two Column Aerosol Project (TCAP). Root-mean square differences from AERONET ground-based observations were 0.01 at wavelengths between 500-1020 nm, 0.02 at 380 and 1640 nm and 0.03 at 440 nm in four clear-sky fly-over events, and similar in ground side-by-side comparisons. Changes in the above-aircraft AOD across 3-km-deep spirals were typically consistent with integrals of coincident in situ (on DOE Gulfstream 1 with 4STAR) and lidar (on NASA B200) extinction measurements within 0.01, 0.03, 0.01, 0.02, 0.02, 0.02 at 355, 450, 532, 550, 700, 1064 nm, respectively, despite atmospheric variations and combined measurement uncertainties. Finer vertical differentials of the 4STAR measurements matched the in situ ambient extinction profile within 14% for one homogeneous column. For the AOD observed between 350-1660 nm, excluding strong water vapor and oxygen absorption bands, estimated uncertainties were ~0.01 and dominated by (then) unpredictable throughput changes, up to +/-0.8%, of the fiber optic rotary joint. The favorable intercomparisons herald 4STARs spatially-resolved high-frequency hyperspectral products as a reliable tool for climate studies and satellite validation.

  2. Investigation of Backscatter X-ray imaging techniques for Uranium Dioxide Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Timothy D; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Shedlock, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Radiography by Selective Detection (RSD), was investigated for its ability to determine the presence and types of defects in a UO{sub 2} fuel rod surrounded by zirconium cladding. Images created using a Monte Carlo model compared favorably with actual X-ray backscatter images from mock fuel rods. A fuel rod was modeled as a rectangular parallelepiped with zirconium cladding, and pencil beam X-ray sources of 160 kVp (79 keV avg) and 480 kVp (218 keV avg) were generated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code to attempt to image void and palladium (Pd) defects in the interior and on the surface of the fuel pellet. It was found that the 160 kVp spectrum was unable to detect the presence of interior defects, whereas the 480 kVp spectrum detected them with both the standard and the RSD backscatter methods, though the RSD method was very inefficient. It was also found that both energy spectra were able to detect void and Pd defects on the surface using both imaging methods. Additionally, two mock fuel rods were imaged using a backscatter X-ray imaging system, one consisting of hafnium pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding and the other consisting of steel pellets in a Zircalloy-4 cladding which was then encased in a steel cladding (a double encapsulation configuration employed in irradiation and experiments). It was found that the system was capable of detecting individual HfO{sub 2} pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding and may be capable of detecting individual steel pellets in the double-encapsulated sample. It is expected that the system would also be capable of detecting individual UO{sub 2} pellets in a Zircaloy-4 cladding, though no UO{sub 2} fuel rod was available for imaging.

  3. Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ca And Dixie Valley, Nv, Usa Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Book: Hyperspectral Mineral Mapping In Support Of Geothermal Exploration- Examples...

  4. Detecting brain tumor in computed tomography images using Markov random fields and fuzzy C-means clustering techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Saad; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Omar, Ahmad Fairuz; Mustafa, Iskandar Shahrim Bin; Abood, Loay Kadom

    2015-04-24

    Brain tumors, are an abnormal growth of tissues in the brain. They may arise in people of any age. They must be detected early, diagnosed accurately, monitored carefully, and treated effectively in order to optimize patient outcomes regarding both survival and quality of life. Manual segmentation of brain tumors from CT scan images is a challenging and time consuming task. Size and location accurate detection of brain tumor plays a vital role in the successful diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Brain tumor detection is considered a challenging mission in medical image processing. The aim of this paper is to introduce a scheme for tumor detection in CT scan images using two different techniques Hidden Markov Random Fields (HMRF) and Fuzzy C-means (FCM). The proposed method has been developed in this research in order to construct hybrid method between (HMRF) and threshold. These methods have been applied on 4 different patient data sets. The result of comparison among these methods shows that the proposed method gives good results for brain tissue detection, and is more robust and effective compared with (FCM) techniques.

  5. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE (UAV) HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING FOR DRYLAND VEGETATION MONITORING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nancy F. Glenn; Jessica J. Mitchell; Matthew O. Anderson; Ryan C. Hruska

    2012-06-01

    UAV-based hyperspectral remote sensing capabilities developed by the Idaho National Lab and Idaho State University, Boise Center Aerospace Lab, were recently tested via demonstration flights that explored the influence of altitude on geometric error, image mosaicking, and dryland vegetation classification. The test flights successfully acquired usable flightline data capable of supporting classifiable composite images. Unsupervised classification results support vegetation management objectives that rely on mapping shrub cover and distribution patterns. Overall, supervised classifications performed poorly despite spectral separability in the image-derived endmember pixels. Future mapping efforts that leverage ground reference data, ultra-high spatial resolution photos and time series analysis should be able to effectively distinguish native grasses such as Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda), from invasives such as burr buttercup (Ranunculus testiculatus) and cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum).

  6. SEM technique for imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Geohegan, David B. [Knoxville, TN; Guillorn, Michael [Brooktondale, NY

    2009-02-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for SEM imaging and measuring electronic transport in nanocomposites based on electric field induced contrast. A method includes mounting a sample onto a sample holder, the sample including a sample material; wire bonding leads from the sample holder onto the sample; placing the sample holder in a vacuum chamber of a scanning electron microscope; connecting leads from the sample holder to a power source located outside the vacuum chamber; controlling secondary electron emission from the sample by applying a predetermined voltage to the sample through the leads; and generating an image of the secondary electron emission from the sample. An apparatus includes a sample holder for a scanning electron microscope having an electrical interconnect and leads on top of the sample holder electrically connected to the electrical interconnect; a power source and a controller connected to the electrical interconnect for applying voltage to the sample holder to control the secondary electron emission from a sample mounted on the sample holder; and a computer coupled to a secondary electron detector to generate images of the secondary electron emission from the sample.

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  8. New Imaging Technique Sees Elements that Are "Invisible" to Common

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ideas Spring from the SunShot Incubator New Ideas Spring from the SunShot Incubator February 21, 2012 - 1:36pm Addthis The SunShot Incubator program invested $17.5 million in seven companies in its first round of funding -- and those companies have gone on to attract more than $1.6 billion of private financing as they develop and manufacture innovative solar technologies. | Image source: U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission public filings. The SunShot Incubator program invested $17.5 million

  9. Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry. Final report, September 1988--November 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

  10. Coincident Aerosol and H2O Retrievals versus HSI Imager Field...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... June 14-16, 2011, 33rd Review of Atmospheric Transmission Models Meeting Advance Program. ... Abstract: "Active Volcano Monitoring using a Space-based Hyperspectral Imager." Cipar,JJ, ...

  11. Radiometric and geometric analysis of hyperspectral imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hruska, Ryan; Mitchell, Jessica; Anderson, Matthew; Glenn, Nancy F.

    2012-09-17

    During the summer of 2010, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral in-flight calibration and characterization experiment of the Resonon PIKA II imaging spectrometer was conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) UAV Research Park. The purpose of the experiment was to validate the radiometric calibration of the spectrometer and determine the georegistration accuracy achievable from the on-board global positioning system (GPS) and inertial navigation sensors (INS) under operational conditions. In order for low-cost hyperspectral systems to compete with larger systems flown on manned aircraft, they must be able to collect data suitable for quantitative scientific analysis.more » The results of the in-flight calibration experiment indicate an absolute average agreement of 96.3%, 93.7% and 85.7% for calibration tarps of 56%, 24%, and 2.5% reflectivity, respectively. The achieved planimetric accuracy was 4.6 meters (based on RMSE).« less

  12. Application of the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique for mouse dosimetry in micro-CT imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrigneaud, Jean-Marc; Courteau, Alan; Oudot, Alexandra; Collin, Bertrand; Ranouil, Julien; Morgand, Loïc; Raguin, Olivier; Walker, Paul; Brunotte, François

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Micro-CT is considered to be a powerful tool to investigate various models of disease on anesthetized animals. In longitudinal studies, the radiation dose delivered by the micro-CT to the same animal is a major concern as it could potentially induce spurious effects in experimental results. Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) are a relatively new kind of detector used in radiation dosimetry for medical applications. The aim of this work was to assess the dose delivered by the CT component of a micro-SPECT (single-photon emission computed tomography)/CT camera during a typical whole-body mouse study, using commercially available OSLDs based on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C crystals.Methods: CTDI (computed tomography dose index) was measured in micro-CT with a properly calibrated pencil ionization chamber using a rat-like phantom (60 mm in diameter) and a mouse-like phantom (30 mm in diameter). OSLDs were checked for reproducibility and linearity in the range of doses delivered by the micro-CT. Dose measurements obtained with OSLDs were compared to those of the ionization chamber to correct for the radiation quality dependence of OSLDs in the low-kV range. Doses to tissue were then investigated in phantoms and cadavers. A 30 mm diameter phantom, specifically designed to insert OSLDs, was used to assess radiation dose over a typical whole-body mouse imaging study. Eighteen healthy female BALB/c mice weighing 27.1 ± 0.8 g (1 SD) were euthanized for small animal measurements. OLSDs were placed externally or implanted internally in nine different locations by an experienced animal technician. Five commonly used micro-CT protocols were investigated.Results: CTDI measurements were between 78.0 ± 2.1 and 110.7 ± 3.0 mGy for the rat-like phantom and between 169.3 ± 4.6 and 203.6 ± 5.5 mGy for the mouse-like phantom. On average, the displayed CTDI at the operator console was underestimated by 1.19 for the rat-like phantom and 2.36 for the mouse

  13. Novel Imaging Techniques, Integrated with Mineralogical, Geochemical and Microbiological Characterization to Determine the Biogeochemical Controls....

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lloyd, Jonathan R.

    2005-06-01

    Tc(VII) will be reduced and precipitated in FRC sediments under anaerobic conditions in batch experiments (progressive microcosms). The complementary microcosm experiments using low pH/nigh nitrate sediments from 3 (near FW 009) are imminent, with the sediment cores already shipped to Manchester. HYPOTHESIS 2. Tc(VII) reduction and precipitation can be visualized in discrete biogeochemical zones in sediment columns using 99mTc and a gamma-camera. Preliminary experiments testing the use of 99mTc as a radiotracer to address hypotheses 2 and 3 have suggested that the 99mTc associates with Fe(II)-bearing sediments in microcosms and stratified columns containing FRC sediments. Initial proof of concept microcosms containing Fe(II)-bearing, microbially-reduced FRC sediments were spiked with 99mTc and imaged using a gamma-camera. In comparison with oxic controls, 99mTc was significantly partitioned in the solid phase in Fe(III)-reducing sediments in batch experiments. Column experiments using FRC background area soil with stratified biogeochemical zones after stimulation of anaerobic processes through nutrient supplementation, suggested that 99mTc transport was retarded through areas of Fe(III) reduction. HYPOTHESIS 3. Sediment-bound reduced 99mTc can be solubilized by perturbations including oxidation coupled to biological nitrate reduction, and mobilization visualized in real-time using a gamma-camera. Significant progress has been made focusing on the impact of nitrate on the biogeochemical behavior of technetium. Additions of 100 mM nitrate to FRC sediment microcosms, which could potentially compete for electrons during metal reduction, inhibited the reduction of both Fe(III) and Tc(VII) completely. Experiments have also addressed the impact of high nitrate concentrations on Fe(II) and Tc(IV) in pre-reduced sediments, showing no significant resolubilization of Tc with the addition of 25 mM nitrate. A parallel set of experiments addressing the impact of aerobic

  14. Three dimensional imaging and analysis of a single nano-device at the ultimate scale using correlative microscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grenier, A.; Barnes, J. P.; Serra, R.; Audoit, G.; Cooper, D.; Duguay, S.; Rolland, N.; Blavette, D.; Vurpillot, F.; Morin, P.; Gouraud, P.

    2015-05-25

    The analysis of a same sample using nanometre or atomic-scale techniques is fundamental to fully understand device properties. This is especially true for the dopant distribution within last generation nano-transistors such as MOSFET or FINFETs. In this work, the spatial distribution of boron in a nano-transistor at the atomic scale has been investigated using a correlative approach combining electron and atom probe tomography. The distortions present in the reconstructed volume using atom probe tomography have been discussed by simulations of surface atoms using a cylindrical symmetry taking into account the evaporation fields. Electron tomography combined with correction of atomic density was used so that to correct image distortions observed in atom probe tomography reconstructions. These corrected atom probe tomography reconstructions then enable a detailed boron doping analysis of the device.

  15. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  16. Statistics for the Relative Detectability of Chemicals in Weak Gaseous Plumes in LWIR Hyperspectral Imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metoyer, Candace N.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Tardiff, Mark F.; Chilton, Lawrence

    2008-10-30

    The detection and identification of weak gaseous plumes using thermal imaging data is complicated by many factors. These include variability due to atmosphere, ground and plume temperature, and background clutter. This paper presents an analysis of one formulation of the physics-based model that describes the at-sensor observed radiance. The motivating question for the analyses performed in this paper is as follows. Given a set of backgrounds, is there a way to predict the background over which the probability of detecting a given chemical will be the highest? Two statistics were developed to address this question. These statistics incorporate data from the long-wave infrared band to predict the background over which chemical detectability will be the highest. These statistics can be computed prior to data collection. As a preliminary exploration into the predictive ability of these statistics, analyses were performed on synthetic hyperspectral images. Each image contained one chemical (either carbon tetrachloride or ammonia) spread across six distinct background types. The statistics were used to generate predictions for the background ranks. Then, the predicted ranks were compared to the empirical ranks obtained from the analyses of the synthetic images. For the simplified images under consideration, the predicted and empirical ranks showed a promising amount of agreement. One statistic accurately predicted the best and worst background for detection in all of the images. Future work may include explorations of more complicated plume ingredients, background types, and noise structures.

  17. MIST Final Report: Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lind, Michael A.; Medvick, Patricia A.; Foley, Michael G.; Foote, Harlan P.; Heasler, Patrick G.; Thompson, Sandra E.; Nuffer, Lisa L.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Renholds, Andrea S.

    2008-03-15

    The Multi-sensor Imaging Science and Technology (MIST) program was undertaken to advance exploitation tools for Long Wavelength Infra Red (LWIR) hyper-spectral imaging (HSI) analysis as applied to the discovery and quantification of nuclear proliferation signatures. The program focused on mitigating LWIR image background clutter to ease the analyst burden and enable a) faster more accurate analysis of large volumes of high clutter data, b) greater detection sensitivity of nuclear proliferation signatures (primarily released gasses) , and c) quantify confidence estimates of the signature materials detected. To this end the program investigated fundamental limits and logical modifications of the more traditional statistical discovery and analysis tools applied to hyperspectral imaging and other disciplines, developed and tested new software incorporating advanced mathematical tools and physics based analysis, and demonstrated the strength and weaknesses of the new codes on relevant hyperspectral data sets from various campaigns. This final report describes the content of the program and the outlines the significant results.

  18. Determination of hydrogen diffusion coefficients in F82H by hydrogen depth profiling with a tritium imaging plate technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higaki, M.; Otsuka, T.; Hashizume, K.; Tokunaga, K.; Ezato, K.; Suzuki, S.; Enoeda, M.; Akiba, M.

    2015-03-15

    Hydrogen diffusion coefficients in a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel (F82H) and an oxide dispersion strengthened F82H (ODS-F82H) have been determined from depth profiles of plasma-loaded hydrogen with a tritium imaging plate technique (TIPT) in the temperature range from 298 K to 523 K. Data on hydrogen diffusion coefficients, D, in F82H, are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =1.1*10{sup -7}exp(-16[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT). The present data indicate almost no trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion due to an excess entry of energetic hydrogen by the plasma loading, which results in saturation of the trapping sites at the surface and even in the bulk. In the case of ODS-F82H, data of hydrogen diffusion coefficients are summarized as D [m{sup 2}*s{sup -1}] =2.2*10{sup -7}exp(-30[kJ mol{sup -1}]/RT) indicating a remarkable trapping effect on hydrogen diffusion caused by tiny oxide particles (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the bulk of F82H. Such oxide particles introduced in the bulk may play an effective role not only on enhancement of mechanical strength but also on suppression of hydrogen penetration by plasma loading.

  19. Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-11-25

    AXSIA performs automated factor analysis of hyperspectral images. In such images, a complete spectrum is collected an each point in a 1-, 2- or 3- dimensional spatial array. One of the remaining obstacles to adopting these techniques for routine use is the difficulty of reducing the vast quantities of raw spectral data to meaningful information. Multivariate factor analysis techniques have proven effective for extracting the essential information from high dimensional data sets into a limtedmore » number of factors that describe the spectral characteristics and spatial distributions of the pure components comprising the sample. AXSIA provides tools to estimate different types of factor models including Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), PCA with factor rotation, and Alternating Least Squares-based Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR-ALS). As part of the analysis process, AXSIA can automatically estimate the number of pure components that comprise the data and can scale the data to account for Poisson noise. The data analysis methods are fundamentally based on eigenanalysis of the data crossproduct matrix coupled with orthogonal eigenvector rotation and constrained alternating least squares refinement. A novel method for automatically determining the number of significant components, which is based on the eigenvalues of the crossproduct matrix, has also been devised and implemented. The data can be compressed spectrally via PCA and spatially through wavelet transforms, and algorithms have been developed that perform factor analysis in the transform domain while retaining full spatial and spectral resolution in the final result. These latter innovations enable the analysis of larger-than core-memory spectrum-images. AXSIA was designed to perform automated chemical phase analysis of spectrum-images acquired by a variety of chemical imaging techniques. Successful applications include Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, X

  20. Image

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  1. Research Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Techniques Research Techniques Print Coming Soon

  2. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Ozone-Induced Injury in the Nasal Airways of Monkeys Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Morphometric Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, Stephen A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Trease, Lynn L.; Wagner, James G.; Garcia, Guilherme M.; Ballinger, Carol A.; Kimbell, Julia; Plopper, Charles G.; Corley, Rick A.; Postlewait, Ed; Harkema, Jack R.

    2007-03-01

    ABSTRACT Age-related changes in gross and microscopic structure of the nasal cavity can alter local tissue susceptibility as well as the dose of inhaled toxicant delivered to susceptible sites. This article describes a novel method for the use of magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional airway modeling, and morphometric techniques to characterize the distribution and magnitude of ozone-induced nasal injury in infant monkeys. Using this method, we are able to generate age-specific, 3-dimensional, epithelial maps of the nasal airways of infant Rhesus macaques. The principal nasal lesions observed in this primate model of ozone-induced nasal toxicology were neutrophilic rhinitis, along with necrosis and exfoliation of the epithelium lining the anterior maxilloturbinate. These lesions, induced by acute or cyclic (episodic) exposures, were examined by light microscopy, quantified by morphometric techniques, and mapped on 3-dimensional models of the nasal airways. Here, we describe the histopathologic, imaging, and computational biology methods developed to efficiently characterize, localize, quantify, and map these nasal lesions. By combining these techniques, the location and severity of the nasal epithelial injury were correlated with epithelial type, nasal airway geometry, and local biochemical and molecular changes on an individual animal basis. These correlations are critical for accurate predictive modeling of exposure-dose-response relationships in the nasal airways, and subsequent extrapolation of nasal findings in animals to humans for developing risk assessment.

  3. Hyperspectral microscopy using an external cavity quantum cascade laser and its applications for explosives detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2012-04-01

    A hyperspectral infrared microscope using external cavity quantum cascade laser illumination and a microbolometer focal plane array is used to characterize nanogram-scale particles of the explosives RDX, tetryl, and PETN at fast acquisition rates.

  4. Electrical Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal: Resistivity influenced by temperature Dictionary.png Electrical Techniques: Electrical techniques aim to image the...

  5. TH-C-17A-07: Visualizing and Quantifying Radiation Therapy in Real-Time Using a Novel Beam Imaging Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, C; Naczynski, D; Xing, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Radiation therapy uses invisible high energy X-rays to treat an invisible tumor. Proper positioning of the treatment beam relative to the patient's anatomy during dose delivery is critically important to the success of treatment. We develop and characterize a novel radiation therapy beam visualization technique for real-time monitoring of patient treatment. Methods: Custom made flexible scintillator sheets were fabricated from gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS) particles that had been doped with terbium within a silicone elastomer matrix. Sheets of several thicknesses ranging from 0.3 to 1mm were prepared and tested. Sheets were exposed to megavoltage X-ray and electron beams from a Varian linac and the resulting optical signal was collected by multiple CMOS cameras placed in the treatment room. Real-time images were collected for different beam energies and dose rates. Signal intensity and SNR were calculated by processing the acquired images. Results: All signals were detectable in the presence of full room lighting and at an integration time of 45ms. Average signal intensity and SNR increased with both sheet thickness and dose rate and decreased with beam energy and incident light. For a given sheet thickness and beam energy the correlation between dose rate and signal intensity was highly linear. Increased sheet thickness or dose rate results in a linear increase in the detected signal. All results are consistent with analytical approximations. Conclusion: The technique offers a means of accurately visualizing a radiation therapy beam shape and fluence in real time. The effects of salient parameters have been characterized and will enable further optimization of the technique as it is implemented into the clinical workflow. The project described was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health through UL1 TR001085.

  6. Development of radiohalogenated muscarinic ligands for the in vivo imaging of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McPherson, D.W.; Luo, H.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1994-06-01

    Alterations in the density of acetylcholinergic muscarinic receptors (m-AChR) have been observed in various dementias. This has spurred interest in the development of radiohalogenated ligands which can be used for the non-invasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by nuclear medicine techniques. We have developed a new ligand 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl ({alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP,12) which demonstrates high affinity for the muscarinic receptor. When labeled with radioiodine it has been shown to be selective and specific for m-ACHR. Initial studies on the separation and in vivo evaluation of the various isomers of IQNP have shown that the stereochemistry of the chiral centers and the configuration around the double bond play an important role in m-AChR subtype specificity. In vivo evaluation of these stereoisomers demonstrate that E-(R,R)-IQNP has a high affinity for the M{sub 1} muscarinic subtype while Z-(R,R)-IQNP demonstrate a high affinity for M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} receptor subtypes. These data demonstrate IQNP (12) has potential for use in the non-evasive in vivo detection of m-AChR by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A brominated analogue, ``BrQNP,`` in which the iodine has been replaced by a bromine atom, has also been prepared and was shown to block the in vivo uptake of IQNP in the brain and heart and therefore has potential for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies of m-AChR.

  7. Information-Efficient Spectral Imaging Sensor With Tdi

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rienstra, Jeffrey L.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Sweatt, William C.

    2004-01-13

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging employing variable gain time delay and integrate arrays. A telescope focuses an image of a scene onto at least one TDI array that is covered by a multispectral filter that passes separate bandwidths of light onto the rows in the TDI array. The variable gain feature of the TDI array allows individual rows of pixels to be attenuated individually. The attenuations are functions of the magnitudes of the positive and negative components of a spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. This system provides for a very efficient determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  8. Technical Note: Phantom study to evaluate the dose and image quality effects of a computed tomography organ-based tube current modulation technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandhi, Diksha; Schmidt, Taly Gilat; Crotty, Dominic J.; Stevens, Grant M.

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: This technical note quantifies the dose and image quality performance of a clinically available organ-dose-based tube current modulation (ODM) technique, using experimental and simulation phantom studies. The investigated ODM implementation reduces the tube current for the anterior source positions, without increasing current for posterior positions, although such an approach was also evaluated for comparison. Methods: Axial CT scans at 120 kV were performed on head and chest phantoms on an ODM-equipped scanner (Optima CT660, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, England). Dosimeters quantified dose to breast, lung, heart, spine, eye lens, and brain regions for ODM and 3D-modulation (SmartmA) settings. Monte Carlo simulations, validated with experimental data, were performed on 28 voxelized head phantoms and 10 chest phantoms to quantify organ dose and noise standard deviation. The dose and noise effects of increasing the posterior tube current were also investigated. Results: ODM reduced the dose for all experimental dosimeters with respect to SmartmA, with average dose reductions across dosimeters of 31% (breast), 21% (lung), 24% (heart), 6% (spine), 19% (eye lens), and 11% (brain), with similar results for the simulation validation study. In the phantom library study, the average dose reduction across all phantoms was 34% (breast), 20% (lung), 8% (spine), 20% (eye lens), and 8% (brain). ODM increased the noise standard deviation in reconstructed images by 6%–20%, with generally greater noise increases in anterior regions. Increasing the posterior tube current provided similar dose reduction as ODM for breast and eye lens, increased dose to the spine, with noise effects ranging from 2% noise reduction to 16% noise increase. At noise equal to SmartmA, ODM increased the estimated effective dose by 4% and 8% for chest and head scans, respectively. Increasing the posterior tube current further increased the effective dose by 15% (chest) and 18% (head

  9. Comparison of 17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    17 Ice Nucleation Measurement Techniques for Immersion Freezing For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research...

  10. Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Male, E.J.; Pickles, W.L.; Silver, E.A.; Hoffmann, G.D.; Lewicki, J.; Apple, M.; Repasky, K.; Burton, E.A.

    2009-11-01

    Hyperspectral plant signatures can be used as a short-term, as well as long-term (100-yr timescale) monitoring technique to verify that CO2 sequestration fields have not been compromised. An influx of CO2 gas into the soil can stress vegetation, which causes changes in the visible to nearinfrared reflectance spectral signature of the vegetation. For 29 days, beginning on July 9th, 2008, pure carbon dioxide gas was released through a 100-meter long horizontal injection well, at a flow rate of 300 kg/day. Spectral signatures were recorded almost daily from an unmown patch of plants over the injection with a ''FieldSpec Pro'' spectrometer by Analytical Spectral Devices, Inc. Measurements were taken both inside and outside of the CO2 leak zone to normalize observations for other environmental factors affecting the plants.

  11. Information-efficient spectral imaging sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C.; Gentry, Stephen M.; Boye, Clinton A.; Grotbeck, Carter L.; Stallard, Brian R.; Descour, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    A programmable optical filter for use in multispectral and hyperspectral imaging. The filter splits the light collected by an optical telescope into two channels for each of the pixels in a row in a scanned image, one channel to handle the positive elements of a spectral basis filter and one for the negative elements of the spectral basis filter. Each channel for each pixel disperses its light into n spectral bins, with the light in each bin being attenuated in accordance with the value of the associated positive or negative element of the spectral basis vector. The spectral basis vector is constructed so that its positive elements emphasize the presence of a target and its negative elements emphasize the presence of the constituents of the background of the imaged scene. The attenuated light in the channels is re-imaged onto separate detectors for each pixel and then the signals from the detectors are combined to give an indication of the presence or not of the target in each pixel of the scanned scene. This system provides for a very efficient optical determination of the presence of the target, as opposed to the very data intensive data manipulations that are required in conventional hyperspectral imaging systems.

  12. Accurate reservoir evaluation from borehole imaging techniques and thin bed log analysis: Case studies in shaly sands and complex lithologies in Lower Eocene Sands, Block III, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coll, C.; Rondon, L.

    1996-08-01

    Computer-aided signal processing in combination with different types of quantitative log evaluation techniques is very useful for predicting reservoir quality in complex lithologies and will help to increase the confidence level to complete and produce a reservoir. The Lower Eocene Sands in Block III are one of the largest reservoirs in Block III and it has produced light oil since 1960. Analysis of Borehole Images shows the reservoir heterogeneity by the presence of massive sands with very few shale laminations and thinnly bedded sands with a lot of laminations. The effect of these shales is a low resistivity that has been interpreted in most of the cases as water bearing sands. A reduction of the porosity due to diagenetic processes has produced a high-resistivity behaviour. The presence of bed boundaries and shales is detected by the microconductivity curves of the Borehole Imaging Tools allowing the estimation of the percentage of shale on these sands. Interactive computer-aided analysis and various image processing techniques are used to aid in log interpretation for estimating formation properties. Integration between these results, core information and production data was used for evaluating producibility of the reservoirs and to predict reservoir quality. A new estimation of the net pay thickness using this new technique is presented with the consequent improvement on the expectation of additional recovery. This methodology was successfully applied in a case by case study showing consistency in the area.

  13. Change detection for hyperspectral sensing in a transformed low-dimensional space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foy, Bernard R; Theiler, James

    2010-01-01

    We present an approach to the problem of change in hyperspectral imagery that operates in a two-dimensional space. The coordinates in the space are related to Mahalanobis distances for the combined ('stacked') data and the individual hyperspectral scenes. Although it is only two-dimensional, this space is rich enough to include several well-known change detection algorithms, including the hyperbolic anomalous change detector, based on Gaussian scene clutter, and the EC-uncorrelated detector based on heavy-tailed (elliptically contoured) clutter. Because this space is only two-dimensional, adaptive machine learning methods can produce new change detectors without being stymied by the curse of dimensionality. We investigate, in particular, the utility of the support vector machine for learning boundaries in this 2-D space, and compare the performance of the resulting nonlinearly adaptjve detector to change detectors that have themselves shown good performance.

  14. SU-E-J-39: Comparison of PTV Margins Determined by In-Room Stereoscopic Image Guidance and by On-Board Cone Beam Computed Tomography Technique for Brain Radiotherapy Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, T; Paul, S; Munshi, A; Sarkar, B; Krishnankutty, S; Sathya, J; George, S; Jassal, K; Roy, S; Mohanti, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Stereoscopic in room kV image guidance is a faster tool in daily monitoring of patient positioning. Our centre, for the first time in the world, has integrated such a solution from BrainLAB (ExacTrac) with Elekta's volumetric cone beam computed tomography (XVI). Using van Herk's formula, we compared the planning target volume (PTV) margins calculated by both these systems for patients treated with brain radiotherapy. Methods: For a total of 24 patients who received partial or whole brain radiotherapy, verification images were acquired for 524 treatment sessions by XVI and for 334 sessions by ExacTrac out of the total 547 sessions. Systematic and random errors were calculated in cranio-caudal, lateral and antero-posterior directions for both techniques. PTV margins were then determined using van Herk formula. Results: In the cranio-caudal direction, systematic error, random error and the calculated PTV margin were found to be 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.41 cm with XVI and 0.14 cm, 0.13 cm and 0.44 cm with ExacTrac. The corresponding values in lateral direction were 0.13 cm 0.1 cm and 0.4 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.12 cm and 0.42 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The same parameters for antero-posterior were for 0.1 cm, 0.11 cm and 0.34 cm with XVI and 0.13 cm, 0.16 cm and 0.43 cm with ExacTrac imaging. The margins estimated with the two imaging modalities were comparable within ± 1 mm limit. Conclusion: Verification of setup errors in the major axes by two independent imaging systems showed the results are comparable and within ± 1 mm. This implies that planar imaging based ExacTrac can yield equal accuracy in setup error determination as the time consuming volumetric imaging which is considered as the gold standard. Accordingly PTV margins estimated by this faster imaging technique can be confidently used in clinical setup.

  15. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging...

  16. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in...

  17. Improvement of lateral resolution of spectral domain optical coherence tomography images in out-of-focus regions with holographic data processing techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moiseev, A A; Gelikonov, G V; Terpelov, D A; Shilyagin, P A; Gelikonov, V M

    2014-08-31

    An analogy between spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) data and broadband digital holography data is considered. Based on this analogy, a method for processing SD OCT data, which makes it possible to construct images with a lateral resolution in the whole investigated volume equal to the resolution in the in-focus region, is developed. Several issues concerning practical application of the proposed method are discussed. (laser biophotonics)

  18. VEGETATION COVER ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES IN UTAH AND ARIZONA USING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Serrato, M.; Jungho, I.; Jensen, J.; Jensen, R.; Gladden, J.; Waugh, J.

    2012-01-17

    Remote sensing technology can provide a cost-effective tool for monitoring hazardous waste sites. This study investigated the usability of HyMap airborne hyperspectral remote sensing data (126 bands at 2.3 x 2.3 m spatial resolution) to characterize the vegetation at U.S. Department of Energy uranium processing sites near Monticello, Utah and Monument Valley, Arizona. Grass and shrub species were mixed on an engineered disposal cell cover at the Monticello site while shrub species were dominant in the phytoremediation plantings at the Monument Valley site. The specific objectives of this study were to: (1) estimate leaf-area-index (LAI) of the vegetation using three different methods (i.e., vegetation indices, red-edge positioning (REP), and machine learning regression trees), and (2) map the vegetation cover using machine learning decision trees based on either the scaled reflectance data or mixture tuned matched filtering (MTMF)-derived metrics and vegetation indices. Regression trees resulted in the best calibration performance of LAI estimation (R{sup 2} > 0.80). The use of REPs failed to accurately predict LAI (R{sup 2} < 0.2). The use of the MTMF-derived metrics (matched filter scores and infeasibility) and a range of vegetation indices in decision trees improved the vegetation mapping when compared to the decision tree classification using just the scaled reflectance. Results suggest that hyperspectral imagery are useful for characterizing biophysical characteristics (LAI) and vegetation cover on capped hazardous waste sites. However, it is believed that the vegetation mapping would benefit from the use of 1 higher spatial resolution hyperspectral data due to the small size of many of the vegetation patches (< 1m) found on the sites.

  19. Vegetation Cover Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites in Utah and Arizona Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Remote Sens. 2012, 4, 327-353; doi:10.3390/rs4020327 Remote Sensing ISSN 2072-4292 www.mdpi.com/journal/remotesensing Article Vegetation Cover Analysis of Hazardous Waste Sites in Utah and Arizona Using Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Jungho Im 1, *, John R. Jensen 2 , Ryan R. Jensen 3 , John Gladden 4 , Jody Waugh 5 and Mike Serrato 4 1 Department of Environmental Resources Engineering, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA 2

  20. SU-E-J-100: The Combination of Deformable Image Registration and Regions-Of-Interest Mapping Technique to Accomplish Accurate Dose Calculation On Cone Beam Computed Tomography for Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, B-T; Lu, J-Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: We introduce a new method combined with the deformable image registration (DIR) and regions-of-interest mapping (ROIM) technique to accurately calculate dose on daily CBCT for esophageal cancer. Methods: Patients suffered from esophageal cancer were enrolled in the study. Prescription was set to 66 Gy/30 F and 54 Gy/30 F to the primary tumor (PTV66) and subclinical disease (PTV54) . Planning CT (pCT) were segmented into 8 substructures in terms of their differences in physical density, such as gross target volume (GTV), venae cava superior (SVC), aorta, heart, spinal cord, lung, muscle and bones. The pCT and its substructures were transferred to the MIM software to readout their mean HU values. Afterwards, a deformable planning CT to daily KV-CBCT image registration method was then utilized to acquire a new structure set on CBCT. The newly generated structures on CBCT were then transferred back to the treatment planning system (TPS) and its HU information were overridden manually with mean HU values obtained from pCT. Finally, the treatment plan was projected onto the CBCT images with the same beam arrangements and monitor units (MUs) to accomplish dose calculation. Planning target volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) from both of the pCT and CBCT were compared to evaluate the dose calculation accuracy. Results: It was found that the dose distribution in the CBCT showed little differences compared to the pCT, regardless of whether PTV or OARs were concerned. Specifically, dose variation in GTV, PTV54, PTV66, SVC, lung and heart were within 0.1%. The maximum dose variation was presented in the spinal cord, which was up to 2.7% dose difference. Conclusion: The proposed method combined with DIR and ROIM technique to accurately calculate dose distribution on CBCT for esophageal cancer is feasible.

  1. Chemical Imaging Analysis of Environmental Particles Using the Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy Technique: Microanalysis Insights into Atmospheric Chemistry of Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Grassian, Vicki H.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-01-21

    Airborne fly ash from coal combustion may represent a source of bioavailable iron (Fe) in the open ocean. However, few studies have been made focusing on Fe speciation and distribution in coal fly ash. In this study, chemical imaging of fly ash has been performed using a dual-beam FIB/SEM (focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope) system for a better understanding of how simulated atmospheric processing modify the morphology, chemical compositions and element distributions of individual particles. A novel approach has been applied for cross-sectioning of fly ash specimen with a FIB in order to explore element distribution within the interior of individual particles. Our results indicate that simulated atmospheric processing causes disintegration of aluminosilicate glass, a dominant material in fly ash particles. Aluminosilicate-phase Fe in the inner core of fly ash particles is more easily mobilized compared with oxide-phase Fe present as surface aggregates on fly ash spheres. Fe release behavior depends strongly on Fe speciation in aerosol particles. The approach for preparation of cross-sectioned specimen described here opens new opportunities for particle microanalysis, particular with respect to inorganic refractive materials like fly ash and mineral dust.

  2. Novel imaging techniques, integrated with mineralogical, geochemical and microbiological characterizations to determine the biogeochemical controls on technetium mobility in FRC sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jonathan R. Lloyd

    2009-02-03

    The objective of this research program was to take a highly multidisciplinary approach to define the biogeochemical factors that control technetium (Tc) mobility in FRC sediments. The aim was to use batch and column studies to probe the biogeochemical conditions that control the mobility of Tc at the FRC. Background sediment samples from Area 2 (pH 6.5, low nitrate, low {sup 99}Tc) and Area 3 (pH 3.5, high nitrate, relatively high {sup 99}Tc) of the FRC were selected (http://www.esd.ornl.gov/nabirfrc). For the batch experiments, sediments were mixed with simulated groundwater, modeled on chemical constituents of FRC waters and supplemented with {sup 99}Tc(VII), both with and without added electron donor (acetate). The solubility of the Tc was monitored, alongside other biogeochemical markers (nitrate, nitrite, Fe(II), sulfate, acetate, pH, Eh) as the 'microcosms' aged. At key points, the microbial communities were also profiled using both cultivation-dependent and molecular techniques, and results correlated with the geochemical conditions in the sediments. The mineral phases present in the sediments were also characterized, and the solid phase associations of the Tc determined using sequential extraction and synchrotron techniques. In addition to the batch sediment experiments, where discrete microbial communities with the potential to reduce and precipitate {sup 99}Tc will be separated in time, we also developed column experiments where biogeochemical processes were spatially separated. Experiments were conducted both with and without amendments proposed to stimulate radionuclide immobilization (e.g. the addition of acetate as an electron donor for metal reduction), and were also planned with and without competing anions at high concentration (e.g. nitrate, with columns containing Area 3 sediments). When the columns had stabilized, as determined by chemical analysis of the effluents, we used a spike of the short-lived gamma emitter {sup 99m}Tc (50-200 MBq; half

  3. Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Materialscientist, Wikipedia) (click image to enlarge) Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable alternative to platinum By Angela Hardin * October 26, 2015...

  4. Contactless Electroluminescence Imaging for Cell and ModuleCharacteri...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electroluminescence (EL) images, which are useful to detect many types of defects such as ... Here, a contactless EL imaging technique is proposed, which provides an EL image without ...

  5. Multispectral Imaging At Yellowstone Region (Hellman & Ramsey...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Region Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor ASTER Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes ASTER References Melanie J. Hellman,...

  6. Imaging and sensing based on muon tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L; Saunders, Alexander; Sossong, Michael James; Schultz, Larry Joe; Green, J. Andrew; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Hengartner, Nicolas W; Smith, Richard A; Colthart, James M; Klugh, David C; Scoggins, Gary E; Vineyard, David C

    2012-10-16

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons for imaging applications. Subtraction techniques are described to enhance the processing of the muon tomography data.

  7. Electrochemical Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-07-20

    Sensitive and selective detection techniques are of crucial importance for capillary electrophoresis (CE), microfluidic chips, and other microfluidic systems. Electrochemical detectors have attracted considerable interest for microfluidic systems with features that include high sensitivity, inherent miniaturization of both the detection and control instrumentation, low cost and power demands, and high compatibility with microfabrication technology. The commonly used electrochemical detectors can be classified into three general modes: conductimetry, potentiometry, and amperometry.

  8. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism,...

  9. Multispectral Imaging At Salton Sea Area (Reath, Et Al., 2010...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Sea Area Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor ASTER Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes ASTER References K. A. Reath,...

  10. Multispectral Imaging At Buffalo Valley Hot Springs Area (Littlefield...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Area Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Spectral Imaging Sensor ASTER Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes ASTER airborne remote sensing....

  11. Book Review: Reiner Salzer and Heinz W. Siesler (Eds.): Infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging, 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, David Steven

    2015-05-10

    This second edition of "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging" propels practitioners in that wide-ranging field, as well as other readers, to the current state of the art in a well-produced and full-color, completely revised and updated, volume. This new edition chronicles the expanded application of vibrational spectroscopic imaging from yesterday's time-consuming point-by-point buildup of a hyperspectral image cube, through the improvements afforded by the addition of focal plane arrays and line scan imaging, to methods applicable beyond the diffraction limit, instructs the reader on the improved instrumentation and image and data analysis methods, and expounds on their application to fundamental biomedical knowledge, food and agricultural surveys, materials science, process and quality control, and many others.

  12. Book Review: Reiner Salzer and Heinz W. Siesler (Eds.): Infrared and Raman spectroscopic imaging, 2nd ed.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Moore, David Steven

    2015-05-10

    This second edition of "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Imaging" propels practitioners in that wide-ranging field, as well as other readers, to the current state of the art in a well-produced and full-color, completely revised and updated, volume. This new edition chronicles the expanded application of vibrational spectroscopic imaging from yesterday's time-consuming point-by-point buildup of a hyperspectral image cube, through the improvements afforded by the addition of focal plane arrays and line scan imaging, to methods applicable beyond the diffraction limit, instructs the reader on the improved instrumentation and image and data analysis methods, and expounds on their application to fundamentalmore » biomedical knowledge, food and agricultural surveys, materials science, process and quality control, and many others.« less

  13. Efficient Graffiti Image Retrieval

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chunlei; Wong, Pak C.; Ribarsky, William; Fan, Jianping

    2012-07-05

    Research of graffiti character recognition and retrieval, as a branch of traditional optical character recognition (OCR), has started to gain attention in recent years. We have investigated the special challenge of the graffiti image retrieval problem and propose a series of novel techniques to overcome the challenges. The proposed bounding box framework locates the character components in the graffiti images to construct meaningful character strings and conduct image-wise and semantic-wise retrieval on the strings rather than the entire image. Using real world data provided by the law enforcement community to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we show that the proposed framework outperforms the traditional image retrieval framework with better retrieval results and improved computational efficiency.

  14. Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image Gallery News & Publications ESnet News Publications and Presentations Galleries Image Gallery Video Gallery ESnet Awards and Honors Contact Us Media Jon Bashor, ...

  15. Image compression/decompression based on mathematical transform, reduction/expansion, and image sharpening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, C.Y.; Petrich, L.I.

    1997-12-30

    An image represented in a first image array of pixels is first decimated in two dimensions before being compressed by a predefined compression algorithm such as JPEG. Another possible predefined compression algorithm can involve a wavelet technique. The compressed, reduced image is then transmitted over the limited bandwidth transmission medium, and the transmitted image is decompressed using an algorithm which is an inverse of the predefined compression algorithm (such as reverse JPEG). The decompressed, reduced image is then interpolated back to its original array size. Edges (contours) in the image are then sharpened to enhance the perceptual quality of the reconstructed image. Specific sharpening techniques are described. 22 figs.

  16. Image compression/decompression based on mathematical transform, reduction/expansion, and image sharpening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi-Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    1997-01-01

    An image represented in a first image array of pixels is first decimated in two dimensions before being compressed by a predefined compression algorithm such as JPEG. Another possible predefined compression algorithm can involve a wavelet technique. The compressed, reduced image is then transmitted over the limited bandwidth transmission medium, and the transmitted image is decompressed using an algorithm which is an inverse of the predefined compression algorithm (such as reverse JPEG). The decompressed, reduced image is then interpolated back to its original array size. Edges (contours) in the image are then sharpened to enhance the perceptual quality of the reconstructed image. Specific sharpening techniques are described.

  17. Imaging vector fields using Line Integral Convolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, B.; Leedom, L.C.

    1993-03-01

    Imaging vector fields has applications in science, art, image processing and special effects. An effective new approach is to use linear and curvilinear filtering techniques to locally blur textures along a vector field. This approach builds on several previous texture generation and filtering techniques. It is, however, unique because it is local, one-dimensional and independent of any predefined geometry or texture. The technique is general and capable of imaging arbitrary two- and three-dimensional vector fields. The local one-dimensional nature of the algorithm lends itself to highly parallel and efficient implementations. Furthermore, the curvilinear filter is capable of rendering detail on very intricate vector fields. Combining this technique with other rendering and image processing techniques -- like periodic motion filtering -- results in richly informative and striking images. The technique can also produce novel special effects.

  18. Radiochemical technique for intensification of underexposed autoradiographs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owunwanne, A.

    1984-04-01

    A radiochemical technique has been used to recover images of underexposed and developed autoradiographs. The underexposed image was radioactivated in a solution of (/sup 35/S)thiourea, air-dried, and reexposed to Kodak NMC film which was developed and processed in a Kodak X-Omat processor. Features which were not discernible in the underexposed autoradiographs were well distinguished in the intensified autoradiograph.

  19. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  20. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  1. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  2. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  3. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Wednesday, 28 March 2012 00:00 Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the

  4. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging for the

  5. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging for the

  6. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  7. Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures Print Magnetism is useful for many devices and techniques, from electric motors and computer hard drives to magnetic resonance imaging used in medicine. By studying the basics of magnetism, scientists aim to better understand the fundamental physical principles that govern magnetic systems, perhaps leading to important new technologies. The high brightness and coherence of the ALS's soft x-rays have enabled scientists to apply lensless x-ray imaging

  8. Fluorescent microthermographic imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, D.L.

    1993-09-01

    In the early days of microelectronics, design rules and feature sizes were large enough that sub-micron spatial resolution was not needed. Infrared or IR thermal techniques were available that calculated the object`s temperature from infrared emission. There is a fundamental spatial resolution limitation dependent on the wavelengths of light being used in the image formation process. As the integrated circuit feature sizes began to shrink toward the one micron level, the limitations imposed on IR thermal systems became more pronounced. Something else was needed to overcome this limitation. Liquid crystals have been used with great success, but they lack the temperature measurement capabilities of other techniques. The fluorescent microthermographic imaging technique (FMI) was developed to meet this need. This technique offers better than 0.01{degrees}C temperature resolution and is diffraction limited to 0.3 {mu}m spatial resolution. While the temperature resolution is comparable to that available on IR systems, the spatial resolution is much better. The FMI technique provides better spatial resolution by using a temperature dependent fluorescent film that emits light at 612 nm instead of the 1.5 {mu}m to 12 {mu}m range used by IR techniques. This tutorial starts with a review of blackbody radiation physics, the process by which all heated objects emit radiation to their surroundings, in order to understand the sources of information that are available to characterize an object`s surface temperature. The processes used in infrared thermal imaging are then detailed to point out the limitations of the technique but also to contrast it with the FMI process. The FMI technique is then described in detail, starting with the fluorescent film physics and ending with a series of examples of past applications of FMI.

  9. Multispectral Imaging At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Pal &...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    effort of remote sensing specialists and industry sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. They are using Hyperspectral data for mineralogy mapping of outcrops. Dixie valley...

  10. Technique for ship/wake detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roskovensky, John K.

    2012-05-01

    An automated ship detection technique includes accessing data associated with an image of a portion of Earth. The data includes reflectance values. A first portion of pixels within the image are masked with a cloud and land mask based on spectral flatness of the reflectance values associated with the pixels. A given pixel selected from the first portion of pixels is unmasked when a threshold number of localized pixels surrounding the given pixel are not masked by the cloud and land mask. A spatial variability image is generated based on spatial derivatives of the reflectance values of the pixels which remain unmasked by the cloud and land mask. The spatial variability image is thresholded to identify one or more regions within the image as possible ship detection regions.

  11. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  12. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applied ScienceTechniques Print The ALS is an excellent incubator of new scientific techniques and instrumentation. Many of the technical advances that make the ALS a world-class...

  13. Image alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowell, Larry Jonathan

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed is a method and device for aligning at least two digital images. An embodiment may use frequency-domain transforms of small tiles created from each image to identify substantially similar, "distinguishing" features within each of the images, and then align the images together based on the location of the distinguishing features. To accomplish this, an embodiment may create equal sized tile sub-images for each image. A "key" for each tile may be created by performing a frequency-domain transform calculation on each tile. A information-distance difference between each possible pair of tiles on each image may be calculated to identify distinguishing features. From analysis of the information-distance differences of the pairs of tiles, a subset of tiles with high discrimination metrics in relation to other tiles may be located for each image. The subset of distinguishing tiles for each image may then be compared to locate tiles with substantially similar keys and/or information-distance metrics to other tiles of other images. Once similar tiles are located for each image, the images may be aligned in relation to the identified similar tiles.

  14. Single-Well And Cross-Well Seismic Imaging | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Single-Well And Cross-Well Seismic Imaging Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Single-Well And Cross-Well Seismic Imaging Details...

  15. Advanced Millimeter-Wave Imaging Enhances Security Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-01-12

    Millimeter-wave imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This paper details a number of techniques developed over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, as well as high frequency high bandwidth techniques. Implementation of some of these methods will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems.

  16. Advanced Imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design » Design for Efficiency » Advanced House Framing Advanced House Framing Two-story home using advanced framing techniques. Two-story home using advanced framing techniques. Advanced house framing, sometimes called optimum value engineering (OVE), refers to framing techniques designed to reduce the amount of lumber used and waste generated in the construction of a wood-framed house. These techniques boost energy efficiency by replacing lumber with insulation material while maintaining the

  17. Excited state reaction dynamics of Ti(a{sup 5}F{sub J}) + O{sub 2} → TiO(A{sup 3}Φ, B{sup 3}Π, C{sup 3}Δ) + O studied by a crossed-beam velocity map imaging technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honma, Kenji Tanaka, Yuhki

    2015-04-21

    Oxidation reactions of the gas-phase titanium atom in its excited state with oxygen molecule, Ti(a{sup 5}F{sub J}) + O{sub 2} → TiO(A{sup 3}Φ, B{sup 3}Π, C{sup 3}Δ) + O, were studied by a crossed-beam velocity map imaging technique at 14.3 kJ/mol of collision energy. Metastable excited Ti, Ti(a{sup 5}F{sub J}), was generated by an optical pumping method and the reaction products were detected by single photon-ionization followed by a time-of-flight mass analysis and a two dimensional detection. Three wavelengths were selected to ionize electronically excited TiO{sup ∗}, TiO(A{sup 3}Φ, B{sup 3}Π, C{sup 3}Δ). Time sliced images were measured, and angular and speed distributions of TiO{sup ∗} were determined. In all three ionization wavelengths, the angular distributions showed a forward-backward symmetry with low intensity at the sideway direction. The speed distributions were represented by the distributions based on the statistical energy partition into products. These results suggested that the reaction of Ti(a{sup 5}F{sub J}) to form TiO(B) and TiO(C) proceeds via a long-lived intermediate and confirmed that the mechanism proposed by the previous chemiluminescence study.

  18. Applied Science/Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Spectroscopic Technique Reveals the Dynamics of Operating Battery Electrodes ... The ALS X-Ray Streak Camera: Bringing the Ultrafast and Ultrasmall into Focus Laser ...

  19. Microbial Cell Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Allison, David P

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is finding increasing application in a variety of fields including microbiology. Until the emergence of AFM, techniques for ivnestigating processes in single microbes were limited. From a biologist's perspective, the fact that AFM can be used to generate high-resolution images in buffers or media is its most appealing feature as live-cell imaging can be pursued. Imaging living cells by AFM allows dynamic biological events to be studied, at the nanoscale, in real time. Few areas of biological research have as much to gain as microbiology from the application of AFM. Whereas the scale of microbes places them near the limit of resolution for light microscopy. AFM is well suited for the study of structures on the order of a micron or less. Although electron microscopy techniques have been the standard for high-resolution imaging of microbes, AFM is quickly gaining favor for several reasons. First, fixatives that impair biological activity are not required. Second, AFM is capable of detecting forces in the pN range, and precise control of the force applied to the cantilever can be maintained. This combination facilitates the evaluation of physical characteristics of microbes. Third, rather than yielding the composite, statistical average of cell populations, as is the case with many biochemical assays, the behavior of single cells can be monitored. Despite the potential of AFM in microbiology, there are several limitations that must be considered. For example, the time required to record an image allows for the study of gross events such as cell division or membrane degradation from an antibiotic but precludes the evaluation of biological reactions and events that happen in just fractions of a second. Additionally, the AFM is a topographical tool and is restricted to imaging surfaces. Therefore, it cannot be used to look inside cells as with opticla and transmission electron microscopes. other practical considerations are the limitation on

  20. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosal, Sayan Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-05

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  1. Ground Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Electromagnetic Techniques Information...

  2. Uncorrelated versus independent elliptically-contoured distributions for anomalous change detection in hyperspectral imagery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theiler, James P; Scovel, James C

    2008-01-01

    The detection of actual changes in a pair of images is confounded by the inadvertent but pervasive differences that inevitably arise whenever two pictures are taken of the same scene, but at different times and under different conditions. These differences include effects due to illumination, calibration, misregistration, etc. If the actual changes are assumed to be rare, then one can 'learn' what the pervasive differences are, and can identify the deviations from this pattern as the anomalous changes. A recently proposed framework for anomalous change detection recasts the problem as one of binary classification between pixel pairs in the data and pixel pairs that are independently chosen from the two images. When an elliptically-contoured (EC) distribution is assumed for the data, then analytical expressions can be derived for the measure of anomalousness of change. However, these expression are only available for a limited class of EC distributions. By replacing independent pixel pairs with uncorrelated pixel pairs, an approximate solution can be found for a much broader class of EC distributions. The performance of this approximation is investigated analytically and empirically, and includes experiments comparing the detection of real changes in real data.

  3. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  4. Optically detected magnetic resonance imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blank, Aharon; Shapiro, Guy; Fischer, Ran; London, Paz; Gershoni, David

    2015-01-19

    Optically detected magnetic resonance provides ultrasensitive means to detect and image a small number of electron and nuclear spins, down to the single spin level with nanoscale resolution. Despite the significant recent progress in this field, it has never been combined with the power of pulsed magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Here, we demonstrate how these two methodologies can be integrated using short pulsed magnetic field gradients to spatially encode the sample. This result in what we denote as an 'optically detected magnetic resonance imaging' technique. It offers the advantage that the image is acquired in parallel from all parts of the sample, with well-defined three-dimensional point-spread function, and without any loss of spectroscopic information. In addition, this approach may be used in the future for parallel but yet spatially selective efficient addressing and manipulation of the spins in the sample. Such capabilities are of fundamental importance in the field of quantum spin-based devices and sensors.

  5. Electromagnetic Sounding Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock...

  6. Electromagnetic Profiling Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Electrical Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Ground Electromagnetic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock...

  7. X-ray imaging reveals secrets in battery materials | Argonne...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-ray imaging reveals secrets in battery materials June 22, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint Imaging and data analysis techniques offer new approach to probing material properties In a new...

  8. Ames Lab 101: Real-Time 3D Imaging

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Song Zhang explains his real-time 3-D imaging technology. The technique can be used to create high-resolution, real-time, precise, 3-D images for use in healthcare, security, and entertainment applications.

  9. Career Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Career Images Career Images Explore a dimensional career at Los Alamos Lab: Take a look at who is working here and what they are doing to have a fulfilling career and balanced work/life. Diversity and Inclusion» Career Options» Our Workplace» Employee, Retiree Resources» Career Stories» Career Images» Career Videos» Click thumbnails to enlarge. Photos arranged by most recent first, horizontal formats before vertical. See Flickr for more sizes and details. Advanced wireless sensing systems

  10. Dental diagnostics using optical coherence techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nathel, H.; Colston, B.; Armitage, G.

    1994-11-15

    Optical radiation can be used for diagnostic purposes in oral medicine. However, due to the turbid, amorphous, and inhomogeneous nature of dental tissue conventional techniques used to transilluminate materials are not well suited to dental tissues. Optical coherence techniques either in the time- of frequency-domain offer the capabilities of discriminating scattered from unscattered light, thus allowing for imaging through turbid tissue. Currently, using optical time-domain reflectometry we are able to discriminate specular from diffuse reflections occurring at tissue boundaries. We have determined the specular reflectivity of enamel and dentin to be approximately 6.6 x 10{sup -5} and 1.3 x 10{sup -6}, respectively. Implications to periodontal imaging will be discussed.

  11. Fast Company: Satellite imaging startup takes step forward

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 6, 2015 Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup ... covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive The ...

  12. Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fast Company covers "Just Your Typical New Mexico Image Recognition Startup Spun Off From A ... covers new technique that may make solar panel production less expensive The ...

  13. Lensless Imaging of Atomic Surface Structures via Ptychography...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CDI) is a lensless technique, which has been in rapid progress recently...

  14. Accurate Identification, Imaging and Monitoring of Fluid-Saturated...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    so that the imaging procedure can be adapted to each case depending on the geology, data quality, frequency content, etc. This technique will find applications in the...

  15. Mass Spectrometry imaging of plant metabolites | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We are developing and applying mass spectrometry imaging technique to understand plant metabolic biology down to cellular and eventually subcellular level high-spatial...

  16. Multispectral Imaging (Monaster And Coolbaugh, 2007) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Unspecified Exploration Technique Multispectral Imaging Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown References Francis C. Monastero, Mark F. Coolbaugh (2007) Advances...

  17. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  18. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  19. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  20. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  1. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Wednesday, 28 May 2014 00:00 Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks

  2. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  3. New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New ALS Technique Gives Nanoscale Views of Complex Systems Print Studying and identifying molecules at the mesoscale has always been challenging-even the best microscopes and spectrometers have difficulty simultaneously identifying and spatially resolving this realm of matter, which ranges from about 10 to 1000 nanometers in size. But ALS researchers recently developed a broadband imaging technique that looks inside the mesoscale realm with unprecedented sensitivity and range. The new technique,

  4. New characterization techniques for LSST sensors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nomerotski, A.

    2015-06-18

    Fully depleted, thick CCDs with extended infra-red response have become the sensor of choice for modern sky surveys. The charge transport effects in the silicon and associated astrometric distortions could make mapping between the sky coordinates and sensor coordinates non-trivial, and limit the ultimate precision achievable with these sensors. Two new characterization techniques for the CCDs, which both could probe these issues, are discussed: x-ray flat fielding and imaging of pinhole arrays.

  5. A Radiographic Technique With Heavy Ion Microbeams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muscio, J.; Somacal, H.; Burlon, A. A.; Debray, M. E.; Valda, A. A.; Kreiner, A. J.; Kesque, J. M.; Minsky, D. M.

    2007-02-12

    In this work, we introduce a new technique to perform densitometric and multielemental analysis of samples at the same time using a simple detector with heavy ion micro-beams. It consists in the simultaneous analysis of X-rays induced in the sample and in a secondary target arranged behind the specimen. The X-rays originated in the secondary target are attenuated when crossing the specimen producing a radiographic image with a monochromatic source.

  6. GX-Means: A model-based divide and merge algorithm for geospatial image clustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vatsavai, Raju; Symons, Christopher T; Chandola, Varun; Jun, Goo

    2011-01-01

    One of the practical issues in clustering is the specification of the appropriate number of clusters, which is not obvious when analyzing geospatial datasets, partly because they are huge (both in size and spatial extent) and high dimensional. In this paper we present a computationally efficient model-based split and merge clustering algorithm that incrementally finds model parameters and the number of clusters. Additionally, we attempt to provide insights into this problem and other data mining challenges that are encountered when clustering geospatial data. The basic algorithm we present is similar to the G-means and X-means algorithms; however, our proposed approach avoids certain limitations of these well-known clustering algorithms that are pertinent when dealing with geospatial data. We compare the performance of our approach with the G-means and X-means algorithms. Experimental evaluation on simulated data and on multispectral and hyperspectral remotely sensed image data demonstrates the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  7. New imaging technique provides improved insight into controlling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Read the abstract: http:iopscience.iop.org0741-3335559095006 Contact Info PPPL Office of Communications Email: PPPLOOC@pppl.gov Phone: 609-243-2755 Download Select and View ...

  8. CNEEC - Synchrotron Techniques Tutorial by Profs. Pianetta and Toney

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Techniques

  9. Reaction product imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, D.W.

    1993-12-01

    Over the past few years the author has investigated the photochemistry of small molecules using the photofragment imaging technique. Bond energies, spectroscopy of radicals, dissociation dynamics and branching ratios are examples of information obtained by this technique. Along with extending the technique to the study of bimolecular reactions, efforts to make the technique as quantitative as possible have been the focus of the research effort. To this end, the author has measured the bond energy of the C-H bond in acetylene, branching ratios in the dissociation of HI, the energetics of CH{sub 3}Br, CD{sub 3}Br, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}Br and C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OBr dissociation, and the alignment of the CD{sub 3} fragment from CD{sub 3}I photolysis. In an effort to extend the technique to bimolecular reactions the author has studied the reaction of H with HI and the isotopic exchange reaction between H and D{sub 2}.

  10. Imaging Heterogeneous Ion Transfer: Lithium Ion Quantification...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quantitative micro- and nano- probes were used for the in situ imaging of alkaline ion ... Implementation of technique onto a 120 nm nano-Hg electrode shows promising for battery ...

  11. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W.

    2015-04-16

    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  12. What is the center of the image?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willson, R.G.; Shafer, S.A.

    1994-11-01

    To model the way that cameras project the three-dimensional world into a two-dimensional image we need to know the camera`s image center. First-order models of lens behavior, such as the pinhole-camera model and the thin-lens model, suggest that the image center is a single, fixed, and intrinsic parameter of the lens. On closer inspection, however, we find that there are many possible definitions for image center. Most image centers do not have the same coordinates and, moreover, move as lens parameters are changed. We present a taxonomy that includes 15 techniques for measuring image center. Several techniques are applied to a precision automated zoom lens, and experimental results are shown.

  13. The attribute measurement technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macarthur, Duncan W; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  14. Imaging sciences workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Candy, J.V.

    1994-11-15

    This workshop on the Imaging Sciences sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory contains short abstracts/articles submitted by speakers. The topic areas covered include the following: Astronomical Imaging; biomedical imaging; vision/image display; imaging hardware; imaging software; Acoustic/oceanic imaging; microwave/acoustic imaging; computed tomography; physical imaging; imaging algorithms. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  16. Weld braze technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kanne, Jr., William R.; Kelker, Jr., John W.; Alexander, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    High-strength metal joints are formed by a combined weld-braze technique. A hollow cylindrical metal member is forced into an undersized counterbore in another metal member with a suitable braze metal disposed along the bottom of the counterbore. Force and current applied to the members in an evacuated chamber results in the concurrent formation of the weld along the sides of the counterbore and a braze along the bottom of the counterbore in one continuous operation.

  17. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S.

    2014-02-04

    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  18. Multimodality Plant Imaging of Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeJesus, Onofre T.

    2015-03-12

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique used to diagnose disease and monitor therapy. PET imaging has had tremendous impact in healthcare delivery resulting in improved outcomes and reduced costs. The discovery and development of PET is one of the achievements of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) support of the peaceful uses of the atom. This project is a logical extension of the use of the PET technique to live plant imaging to advance DOE’s biological and environmental initiatives.

  19. Electromagnetic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Physical Properties See Electrical Techniques Electromagnetic techniques utilize EM induction processes to measure one or more electric or magnetic field components resulting...

  20. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, Glen A.

    1999-01-01

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas.

  1. Imaging bolometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wurden, G.A.

    1999-01-19

    Radiation-hard, steady-state imaging bolometer is disclosed. A bolometer employing infrared (IR) imaging of a segmented-matrix absorber of plasma radiation in a cooled-pinhole camera geometry is described. The bolometer design parameters are determined by modeling the temperature of the foils from which the absorbing matrix is fabricated by using a two-dimensional time-dependent solution of the heat conduction equation. The resulting design will give a steady-state bolometry capability, with approximately 100 Hz time resolution, while simultaneously providing hundreds of channels of spatial information. No wiring harnesses will be required, as the temperature-rise data will be measured via an IR camera. The resulting spatial data may be used to tomographically investigate the profile of plasmas. 2 figs.

  2. Imaging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, I.R.

    1981-08-18

    In an imaging apparatus using nuclear magnetic resonance, first and second gradient field pulses are applied, the second being of opposite sense to the first. It is preferable to match these so that they entirely cancel. However it is shown to be sufficient if they are as close as possible to the same magnitude and a further 'glitch' pulse is used to reduce the total gradient field over the pulse sequence substantially to zero.

  3. Applied ALARA techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waggoner, L.O.

    1998-02-05

    The presentation focuses on some of the time-proven and new technologies being used to accomplish radiological work. These techniques can be applied at nuclear facilities to reduce radiation doses and protect the environment. The last reactor plants and processing facilities were shutdown and Hanford was given a new mission to put the facilities in a safe condition, decontaminate, and prepare them for decommissioning. The skills that were necessary to operate these facilities were different than the skills needed today to clean up Hanford. Workers were not familiar with many of the tools, equipment, and materials needed to accomplish:the new mission, which includes clean up of contaminated areas in and around all the facilities, recovery of reactor fuel from spent fuel pools, and the removal of millions of gallons of highly radioactive waste from 177 underground tanks. In addition, this work has to be done with a reduced number of workers and a smaller budget. At Hanford, facilities contain a myriad of radioactive isotopes that are 2048 located inside plant systems, underground tanks, and the soil. As cleanup work at Hanford began, it became obvious early that in order to get workers to apply ALARA and use hew tools and equipment to accomplish the radiological work it was necessary to plan the work in advance and get radiological control and/or ALARA committee personnel involved early in the planning process. Emphasis was placed on applying,ALARA techniques to reduce dose, limit contamination spread and minimize the amount of radioactive waste generated. Progress on the cleanup has,b6en steady and Hanford workers have learned to use different types of engineered controls and ALARA techniques to perform radiological work. The purpose of this presentation is to share the lessons learned on how Hanford is accomplishing radiological work.

  4. Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Thermal Solar Thermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar Mirror Characterization with Fringe Reflection Techniques SOFAST: Sandia Optical Fringe Analysis Slope Tool Sandia National Laboratories Contact SNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Market Sheet (834 KB) SOFAST Imaging SOFAST Imaging Technology Marketing SummaryThis technology is an automated system in which the reflection of a mirror,

  5. Nuclear Imaging | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Jefferson Lab's Radiation Detector and Imaging Group Members of Jefferson Lab's Radiation Detector & Medical Imaging Group design and build unique imaging devices based on...

  6. Manhattan Project: Places Images

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PLACES IMAGES Resources > Photo Gallery Scroll down to see each of these images individually. The images are: 1. Remains of a Shinto Shrine, Nagasaki, October 1945 (courtesy the ...

  7. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  8. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that

  9. NEUTRON IMAGING, RADIOGRAPHY AND TOMOGRAPHY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SMITH,G.C.

    2002-03-01

    Neutrons are an invaluable probe in a wide range of scientific, medical and commercial endeavors. Many of these applications require the recording of an image of the neutron signal, either in one-dimension or in two-dimensions. We summarize the reactions of neutrons with the most important elements that are used for their detection. A description is then given of the major techniques used in neutron imaging, with emphasis on the detection media and position readout principle. Important characteristics such as position resolution, linearity, counting rate capability and sensitivity to gamma-background are discussed. Finally, the application of a subset of these instruments in radiology and tomography is described.

  10. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  11. Lensless imaging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 Lensless Imaging of Magnetic Nanostructures by X-ray Spectro-Holography J. Lüning, W. F. Schlotter and J. Stöhr (SSRL) The unprecedented properties of X-ray free electron lasers (X-FELs) under development world wide will open the door for entirely new classes of experiments. The ultra-short time structure of the ultra-bright x-ray pulses will revolutionize the field of femtosecond x-ray science, since it will become possible to obtain sufficient information about a system from probing it

  12. Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image Gallery The Trinity Test of 1945 was the first full-scale, real-world test of a nuclear weapon; with the new Trinity supercomputer our goal is to do this virtually, in 3D. Click thumbnails to enlarge. Photos arranged by most recent first, horizontal formats before vertical. See Flickr for more sizes and details. Groves and Oppenheimer, 9-11-45 (799398) Groves and Oppenheimer, 9-11-45 (799398) Trinity (C761, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Photo by Jack Aeby) Trinity (C761, Los Alamos

  13. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, P.H.

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  14. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    make SSR surveying considerably more efficient and less expensive, particularly when geophone intervals of 25 cm or less are required. The most recent research analyzed the difference in seismic response of the geophones with variable geophone spike length and geophones attached to various steel media. Experiments investigated the azimuthal dependence of the quality of data relative to the orientation of the rigidly attached geophones. Other experiments designed to test the hypothesis that the data are being amplified in much the same way that an organ pipe amplifies sound have so far proved inconclusive. Taken together, the positive results show that SSR imaging within a few meters of the earth's surface is possible if the geology is suitable, that SSR imaging can complement GPR imaging, and that SSR imaging could be made significantly more cost effective, at least in areas where the topography and the geology are favorable. Increased knowledge of the Earth's shallow subsurface through non-intrusive techniques is of potential benefit to management of DOE facilities. Among the most significant problems facing hydrologists today is the delineation of preferential permeability paths in sufficient detail to make a quantitative analysis possible. Aquifer systems dominated by fracture flow have a reputation of being particularly difficult to characterize and model. At chemically contaminated sites, including U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities and others at Department of Defense (DOD) installations worldwide, establishing the spatial extent of the contamination, along with the fate of the contaminants and their transport-flow directions, is essential to the development of effective cleanup strategies. Detailed characterization of the shallow subsurface is important not only in environmental, groundwater, and geotechnical engineering applications, but also in neotectonics, mining geology, and the analysis of petroleum reservoir analogs. Near-surface seismology is in

  15. Speckle imaging algorithms for planetary imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johansson, E.

    1994-11-15

    I will discuss the speckle imaging algorithms used to process images of the impact sites of the collision of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter. The algorithms use a phase retrieval process based on the average bispectrum of the speckle image data. High resolution images are produced by estimating the Fourier magnitude and Fourier phase of the image separately, then combining them and inverse transforming to achieve the final result. I will show raw speckle image data and high-resolution image reconstructions from our recent experiment at Lick Observatory.

  16. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: Z Pulsed Power Facility: Image Gallery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Image Gallery .

  18. Active Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  19. Borehole Seismic Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technique: Downhole Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities StratigraphicStructural: Structural geology-...

  20. Beam imaging diagnostics for heavy ion beam fusion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Prost, L.; Ghiorso, W.

    2003-05-01

    We are developing techniques for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in the HIF-VNL in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions. The beams in current experiments range in energy from 50 keV to 2 MeV, with beam current densities from <10 to 200 mA/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of 4 to 20 {micro}s. The beam energy will range up to 10 MeV in near-future beam experiments. The imaging techniques, based on kapton films and optical scintillators, complement and, in some cases, may replace mechanical slit scanners. The kapton film images represent a time-integrated image on the film exposed to the beam. The optical scintillator utilizes glass and ceramic scintillator material imaged by a fast, image-intensified CCD-based camera. We will discuss the techniques, results, and plans for implementation of the diagnostics on the beam experiments.

  1. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  2. Imaging system for cardiac planar imaging using a dedicated dual-head gamma camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Umeno, Marc M.

    2011-09-13

    A cardiac imaging system employing dual gamma imaging heads co-registered with one another to provide two dynamic simultaneous views of the heart sector of a patient torso. A first gamma imaging head is positioned in a first orientation with respect to the heart sector and a second gamma imaging head is positioned in a second orientation with respect to the heart sector. An adjustment arrangement is capable of adjusting the distance between the separate imaging heads and the angle between the heads. With the angle between the imaging heads set to 180 degrees and operating in a range of 140-159 keV and at a rate of up to 500kHz, the imaging heads are co-registered to produce simultaneous dynamic recording of two stereotactic views of the heart. The use of co-registered imaging heads maximizes the uniformity of detection sensitivity of blood flow in and around the heart over the whole heart volume and minimizes radiation absorption effects. A normalization/image fusion technique is implemented pixel-by-corresponding pixel to increase signal for any cardiac region viewed in two images obtained from the two opposed detector heads for the same time bin. The imaging system is capable of producing enhanced first pass studies, bloodpool studies including planar, gated and non-gated EKG studies, planar EKG perfusion studies, and planar hot spot imaging.

  3. Autofluorescence detection and imaging of bladder cancer realized through a cystoscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Demos, Stavros G.; deVere White, Ralph W.

    2007-08-14

    Near infrared imaging using elastic light scattering and tissue autofluorescence and utilizing interior examination techniques and equipment are explored for medical applications. The approach involves imaging using cross-polarized elastic light scattering and/or tissue autofluorescence in the Near Infra-Red (NIR) coupled with image processing and inter-image operations to differentiate human tissue components.

  4. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2005-05-31

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  5. Split image optical display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    2007-05-29

    A video image is displayed from an optical panel by splitting the image into a plurality of image components, and then projecting the image components through corresponding portions of the panel to collectively form the image. Depth of the display is correspondingly reduced.

  6. Ultrasonic Imaging of Subsurface Objects Using Photorefractive Dynamic Holography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

    2001-07-01

    The INEEL has developed a photorefractive ultrasonic imaging technology that records both phase and amplitude of ultrasonic waves on the surface of solids. Phase locked dynamic holography provides full field images of these waves scattered from subsurface defects in solids, and these data are compared with theoretical predictions. Laser light reflected by a vibrating surface is imaged into a photorefractive material where it is mixed in a heterodyne technique with a reference wave. This demodulates the data and provides an image of the ultrasonic waves in either 2 wave or 4 wave mixing mode. These data images are recorded at video frame rates and show phase locked traveling or resonant acoustic waves. This technique can be used over a broad range of ultrasonic frequencies. Acoustic frequencies from 2 kHz to 10 MHz have been imaged, and a point measuring (non-imaging) version of the system has measured picometer amplitudes at 1 GHz.

  7. ImageJ

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ImageJFiji can display, edit, analyze, process, save and print 8-bit, 16-bit and 32-bit images. It can read many image formats including TIFF, GIF, JPEG, BMP, DICOM, FITS and ...

  8. Method for large and rapid terahertz imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Gwyn P.; Neil, George R.

    2013-01-29

    A method of large-scale active THz imaging using a combination of a compact high power THz source (>1 watt), an optional optical system, and a camera for the detection of reflected or transmitted THz radiation, without the need for the burdensome power source or detector cooling systems required by similar prior art such devices. With such a system, one is able to image, for example, a whole person in seconds or less, whereas at present, using low power sources and scanning techniques, it takes several minutes or even hours to image even a 1 cm.times.1 cm area of skin.

  9. Automated Image Data Exploitation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, C; Poland, D; Sengupta, S K; Futterman, J H

    2004-01-26

    The automated production of maps of human settlement from recent satellite images is essential to detailed studies of urbanization, population movement, and the like. Commercial satellite imagery is becoming available with sufficient spectral and spatial resolution to apply computer vision techniques previously considered only for laboratory (high resolution, low noise) images. In this project, we extracted the boundaries of human settlements from IKONOS 4-band and panchromatic images using spectral segmentation together with a form of generalized second-order statistics and detection of edges and corners.

  10. Imaging Fukushima Daiichi reactors with muons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miyadera, Haruo; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Greene, Steve J.; Milner, Edward C.; Morris, Christopher L.; Lukic, Zarija; Masuda, Koji; Perry, John O.

    2013-05-15

    A study of imaging the Fukushima Daiichi reactors with cosmic-ray muons to assess the damage to the reactors is presented. Muon scattering imaging has high sensitivity for detecting uranium fuel and debris even through thick concrete walls and a reactor pressure vessel. Technical demonstrations using a reactor mockup, detector radiation test at Fukushima Daiichi, and simulation studies have been carried out. These studies establish feasibility for the reactor imaging. A few months of measurement will reveal the spatial distribution of the reactor fuel. The muon scattering technique would be the best and probably the only way for Fukushima Daiichi to make this determination in the near future.