National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for technique cuttings analysis

  1. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1977) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique...

  2. Cuttings Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    And Deep Electrical Sounding Cuttings Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Smith & Suemnicht, 1991) Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area 1985 1988 Oxygen Isotope...

  3. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1980) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Cuttings Analysis Activity Date 1980 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis...

  4. Cuttings Analysis At Geysers Area (Lambert & Epstein, 1992) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Lambert & Epstein, 1992) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Geysers Area (Lambert & Epstein, 1992)...

  5. CAMX - A High Performance Cutting Technique for Underwater Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bach, Fr.-W.; Versemann, R.; Bienia, H.; Kremer, G.

    2003-02-27

    During the past years a new cutting technology, the CAMX-process-family (Contact-Arc-Metal-X [X is for Cutting, Grinding and Drilling]) was developed at the Institute of Materials Science in Hanover. These are electro-thermal underwater separation processes for metallic structures. The CAMX technology covers the Contact-Arc-Metal- Cutting (CAMC) with a sword-like cutting electrode, the Contact-Arc-Metal-Grinding (CAMG) with a rotating electrode and the Contact-Arc-Metal-Drilling (CAMD) with a wrap mechanism to fix and carry the workpiece. There are no limitations of CAMC concerning the capability of cutting complicated structures of workpieces. Undercuts and cavities in the workpiece do not affect the CAMC. The CAMG is a separation process for straight cuts with a very high cutting speed. The CAMD is a technology to drill holes or pocket holes of any geometry. With the integrated wrap mechanism it is possible to fix and carry workpieces, which are not to handle with conventional mechanisms.

  6. Cuttings Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area (1976) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Raft River Geothermal Area (1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Raft River Geothermal Area (1976)...

  7. Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Silver Peak Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  8. Cuttings Analysis At Alum Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Alum Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Alum Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  9. Cuttings Analysis At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  10. Cuttings Analysis At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Fort Bliss Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  11. Cuttings Analysis At Maui Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maui Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Maui Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  12. Cuttings Analysis At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Flint Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  13. Cuttings Analysis At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At The Needles Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  14. Cuttings Analysis At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Mccoy Geothermal Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  15. Cuttings Analysis At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Colrado Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity Details...

  16. Cuttings Analysis At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Glass Buttes Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  17. Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Black Warrior Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

  18. Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At Desert Peak Area (Laney, 2005) Exploration...

  19. Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyss, Gregory D.

    2000-01-01

    Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

  20. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  1. Cuttings Analysis At Hot Springs Ranch Area (Szybinski, 2006...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    description of the cuttings was prepared. Afterwards, the samples were packed in small cotton bags, transported to the warehouse located at the Nevada Geothermal office in...

  2. Cuttings Analysis At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At New River Area (DOE GTP) Exploration Activity...

  3. Cuttings Analysis At U.S. South Region (Smith & Dees, 1982) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    U.S. South Region (Smith & Dees, 1982) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Cuttings Analysis At U.S. South Region (Smith & Dees,...

  4. Cuttings Analysis At Fenton Hill HDR Geothermal Area (Laughlin...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    I), cuttings collected at 1.5- or 3-m intervals, and random samples from a "junk basket" run behind the drill bit provided material for characterizing the basement rocks....

  5. Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Uncertainty Analysis Technique for OMEGA Dante Measurements You are...

  6. Techniques for Automated Performance Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marcus, Ryan C.

    2014-09-02

    The performance of a particular HPC code depends on a multitude of variables, including compiler selection, optimization flags, OpenMP pool size, file system load, memory usage, MPI configuration, etc. As a result of this complexity, current predictive models have limited applicability, especially at scale. We present a formulation of scientific codes, nodes, and clusters that reduces complex performance analysis to well-known mathematical techniques. Building accurate predictive models and enhancing our understanding of scientific codes at scale is an important step towards exascale computing.

  7. Analysis of laser remote fusion cutting based on a mathematical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matti, R. S.; Ilar, T.; Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2013-12-21

    Laser remote fusion cutting is analyzed by the aid of a semi-analytical mathematical model of the processing front. By local calculation of the energy balance between the absorbed laser beam and the heat losses, the three-dimensional vaporization front can be calculated. Based on an empirical model for the melt flow field, from a mass balance, the melt film and the melting front can be derived, however only in a simplified manner and for quasi-steady state conditions. Front waviness and multiple reflections are not modelled. The model enables to compare the similarities, differences, and limits between laser remote fusion cutting, laser remote ablation cutting, and even laser keyhole welding. In contrast to the upper part of the vaporization front, the major part only slightly varies with respect to heat flux, laser power density, absorptivity, and angle of front inclination. Statistical analysis shows that for high cutting speed, the domains of high laser power density contribute much more to the formation of the front than for low speed. The semi-analytical modelling approach offers flexibility to simplify part of the process physics while, for example, sophisticated modelling of the complex focused fibre-guided laser beam is taken into account to enable deeper analysis of the beam interaction. Mechanisms like recast layer generation, absorptivity at a wavy processing front, and melt film formation are studied too.

  8. EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    For more information on the usability techniques associated with the templates, see EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook, which is a collection of best practices for creating and running different kinds of user-centered design projects.

  9. EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    see EERE's Usability and Analysis Techniques Guidebook, which is a collection of best practices for creating and running different kinds of user-centered design projects. ...

  10. Ion beam analysis techniques in interdisciplinary applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Respaldiza, Miguel A.; Ager, Francisco J.

    1999-11-16

    The ion beam analysis techniques emerge in the last years as one of the main applications of electrostatic accelerators. A short summary of the most used IBA techniques will be given as well as some examples of applications in interdisciplinary sciences.

  11. Mitigating cutting-induced plasticity in the contour method, Part 2: Numerical analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Muránsky, O.; Hamelin, C. J.; Hosseinzadeh, F.; Prime, M. B.

    2016-02-10

    Cutting-induced plasticity can have a significant effect on the measurement accuracy of the contour method. The present study examines the benefit of a double-embedded cutting configuration that relies on self-restraint of the specimen, relative to conventional edge-crack cutting configurations. A series of finite element analyses are used to simulate the planar sectioning performed during double-embedded and conventional edge-crack contour cutting configurations. The results of numerical analyses are first compared to measured results to validate the cutting simulations. The simulations are then used to compare the efficacy of different cutting configurations by predicting the deviation of the residual stress profile frommore » an original (pre-cutting) reference stress field, and the extent of cutting-induced plasticity. Comparisons reveal that while the double-embedded cutting configuration produces the most accurate residual stress measurements, the highest levels of plastic flow are generated in this process. As a result, this cutting-induced plastic deformation is, however, largely confined to small ligaments formed as a consequence of the sample sectioning process, and as such it does not significantly affect the back-calculated residual stress field.« less

  12. Advanced Techniques for Root Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-09-19

    Five items make up this package, or can be used individually. The Chronological Safety Management Template utilizes a linear adaptation of the Integrated Safety Management System laid out in the form of a template that greatly enhances the ability of the analyst to perform the first step of any investigation which is to gather all pertinent facts and identify causal factors. The Problem Analysis Tree is a simple three (3) level problem analysis tree whichmore » is easier for organizations outside of WSRC to use. Another part is the Systemic Root Cause Tree. One of the most basic and unique features of Expanded Root Cause Analysis is the Systemic Root Cause portion of the Expanded Root Cause Pyramid. The Systemic Root Causes are even more basic than the Programmatic Root Causes and represent Root Causes that cut across multiple (if not all) programs in an organization. the Systemic Root Cause portion contains 51 causes embedded at the bottom level of a three level Systemic Root Cause Tree that is divided into logical, organizationally based categorie to assist the analyst. The Computer Aided Root Cause Analysis that allows the analyst at each level of the Pyramid to a) obtain a brief description of the cause that is being considered, b) record a decision that the item is applicable, c) proceed to the next level of the Pyramid to see only those items at the next level of the tree that are relevant to the particular cause that has been chosen, and d) at the end of the process automatically print out a summary report of the incident, the causal factors as they relate to the safety management system, the probable causes, apparent causes, Programmatic Root Causes and Systemic Root Causes for each causal factor and the associated corrective action.« less

  13. Analysis of slot cutting methods for the Yucca Mountain heated block test using a compliant-joint model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, E.P.; Costin, L.S.

    1991-12-31

    Pretest analysis of a heated block test, proposed for the Exploratory Studies Facility at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was conducted in this investigation. Specifically, the study focuses on the evaluation of the various designs to drill holes and cut slots for the block. The thermal/mechanical analysis was based on the finite element method and a compliant-joint rock-mass constitutive model. Based on the calculated results, relative merits of the various test designs are discussed.

  14. Cutting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  15. Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports by Diane Johnson he purpose of this DOE Standard is to...

  16. Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2011-03-15

    A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

  17. Category:Lab Analysis Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    5 total. F Fluid Lab Analysis L Lab Analysis Techniques R Rock Lab Analysis X X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  18. Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Analysis techniques for background rejection at the Majorana Demonstrator The MAJORANA Collaboration is constructing the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an ultra-low background, ...

  19. Gene expression analysis of precision-cut human liver slices indicates stable expression of ADME-Tox related genes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elferink, M.G.L., E-mail: m.g.l.elferink@rug.nl [Department of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, Groningen Research Institute for Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Olinga, P. [Department of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, Groningen Research Institute for Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands); van Leeuwen, E.M.; Bauerschmidt, S.; Polman, J. [Molecular Design and Informatics, MSD, Oss (Netherlands); Schoonen, W.G. [Toxicology and Drug Disposition, MSD, Oss (Netherlands); Heisterkamp, S.H. [Biostatistics and Research Decision Sciences MSD, Oss (Netherlands); Bioinformatics Centre, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Groothuis, G.M.M. [Department of Pharmacokinetics, Toxicology and Targeting, Groningen Research Institute for Pharmacy, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    In the process of drug development it is of high importance to test the safety of new drugs with predictive value for human toxicity. A promising approach of toxicity testing is based on shifts in gene expression profiling of the liver. Toxicity screening based on animal liver cells cannot be directly extrapolated to humans due to species differences. The aim of this study was to evaluate precision-cut human liver slices as in vitro method for the prediction of human specific toxicity by toxicogenomics. The liver slices contain all cell types of the liver in their natural architecture. This is important since drug-induced toxicity often is a multi-cellular process. Previously we showed that toxicogenomic analysis of rat liver slices is highly predictive for rat in vivo toxicity. In this study we investigated the levels of gene expression during incubation up to 24 h with Affymetrix microarray technology. The analysis was focused on a broad spectrum of genes related to stress and toxicity, and on genes encoding for phase-I, -II and -III metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Observed changes in gene expression were associated with cytoskeleton remodeling, extracellular matrix and cell adhesion, but for the ADME-Tox related genes only minor changes were observed. PCA analysis showed that changes in gene expression were not associated with age, sex or source of the human livers. Slices treated with acetaminophen showed patterns of gene expression related to its toxicity. These results indicate that precision-cut human liver slices are relatively stable during 24 h of incubation and represent a valuable model for human in vitro hepatotoxicity testing despite the human inter-individual variability.

  20. Soil Analysis using the semi-parametric NAA technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.

    2007-10-26

    The semi-parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique, using Au as a flux monitor, was applied to measure element concentrations of Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mn and Na for soil characterization. The results were compared with those using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique and they found to be compatible. The viability, advantages, and limitations of using these two analytic methodologies are discussed.

  1. Injection Locking Techniques for Spectrum Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gathma, Timothy D.; Buckwalter, James F.

    2011-04-19

    Wideband spectrum analysis supports future communication systems that reconfigure and adapt to the capacity of the spectral environment. While test equipment manufacturers offer wideband spectrum analyzers with excellent sensitivity and resolution, these spectrum analyzers typically cannot offer acceptable size, weight, and power (SWAP). CMOS integrated circuits offer the potential to fully integrate spectrum analysis capability with analog front-end circuitry and digital signal processing on a single chip. Unfortunately, CMOS lacks high-Q passives and wideband resonator tunability that is necessary for heterodyne implementations of spectrum analyzers. As an alternative to the heterodyne receiver architectures, two nonlinear methods for performing wideband, low-power spectrum analysis are presented. The first method involves injecting the spectrum of interest into an array of injection-locked oscillators. The second method employs the closed loop dynamics of both injection locking and phase locking to independently estimate the injected frequency and power.

  2. Automated fluid analysis apparatus and techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szecsody, James E.

    2004-03-16

    An automated device that couples a pair of differently sized sample loops with a syringe pump and a source of degassed water. A fluid sample is mounted at an inlet port and delivered to the sample loops. A selected sample from the sample loops is diluted in the syringe pump with the degassed water and fed to a flow through detector for analysis. The sample inlet is also directly connected to the syringe pump to selectively perform analysis without dilution. The device is airtight and used to detect oxygen-sensitive species, such as dithionite in groundwater following a remedial injection to treat soil contamination.

  3. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering); Perez, J.S. . Facultad de Informatica)

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal's frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal's frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  4. Wavelet transform techniques and signal analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K. |; Perez, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    Traditionally, the most widely used signal analysis tool is the Fourier transform which, by producing power spectral densities (PSDs), allows time dependent signals to be studied in the frequency domain. However, the Fourier transform is global -- it extends over the entire time domain -- which makes it ill-suited to study nonstationary signals which exhibit local temporal changes in the signal`s frequency content. To analyze nonstationary signals, the family of transforms commonly designated as short-time Fourier transforms (STFTs), capable of identifying temporally localized changes in the signal`s frequency content, were developed by employing window functions to isolate temporal regions of the signal. For example, the Gabor STFT uses a Gaussian window. However, the applicability of STFTs is limited by various inadequacies. The Wavelet transform (NW), recently developed by Grossman and Morlet and explored in depth by Daubechies (2) and Mallat, remedies the inadequacies of STFTs. Like the Fourier transform, the WT can be implemented as a discrete transform (DWT) or as a continuous (integral) transform (CWT). This paper briefly illustrates some of the potential applications of the wavelet transform algorithms to signal analysis.

  5. A technique for human error analysis (ATHEANA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, S.E.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; Wreathall, J.; Parry, G.W.

    1996-05-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has become an important tool in the nuclear power industry, both for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the operating utilities. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is a critical element of PRA; however, limitations in the analysis of human actions in PRAs have long been recognized as a constraint when using PRA. A multidisciplinary HRA framework has been developed with the objective of providing a structured approach for analyzing operating experience and understanding nuclear plant safety, human error, and the underlying factors that affect them. The concepts of the framework have matured into a rudimentary working HRA method. A trial application of the method has demonstrated that it is possible to identify potentially significant human failure events from actual operating experience which are not generally included in current PRAs, as well as to identify associated performance shaping factors and plant conditions that have an observable impact on the frequency of core damage. A general process was developed, albeit in preliminary form, that addresses the iterative steps of defining human failure events and estimating their probabilities using search schemes. Additionally, a knowledge- base was developed which describes the links between performance shaping factors and resulting unsafe actions.

  6. Tools and techniques for failure analysis and qualification of MEMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    Many of the tools and techniques used to evaluate and characterize ICs can be applied to MEMS technology. In this paper we discuss various tools and techniques used to provide structural, chemical, and electrical analysis and how these data aid in qualifying MEMS technologies.

  7. Surface Analysis Techniques on Ceramic Materials | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Analysis Techniques on Ceramic Materials Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) ...

  8. Nondestructive analysis of oil shales with PGNAA technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maly, J.; Bozorgmanesh, H.

    1984-02-01

    The feasibility of nondestructive analysis of oil shales using the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique was studied. The PGNAA technique, developed originally for continuous analysis of coal on the belt, was applied to the analysis of eight oil-shale samples, containing between 9 and 60 gallons of oil per ton and 0.8% to 3.4% hydrogen. The PGNAA technique was modified using four neutron moderation conditions: non-moderated neutrons; non-moderated and partially moderated neutrons reflected from a water box behind the source; neutrons moderated in a water box behind and in front of the source; and neutrons strongly moderated in a polyethylene block placed in front of the source and with reflected neutrons from a water box behind the source. The studied oil shales were measured in their aluminum or wooden (masonite) boxes. The obtained Ge-Li spectra were processed by LSI-11/23 computer, using the modified programs previously developed by SAI for continuous coal analysis. The results of such processing (the peak areas for several gamma lines) were corrected and plotted against the weight percent of each analyzed element (from the chemical analysis). Response curves developed for H, C, N, S, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ti, Ca, Fe and K show generally good linear proportions of peak area to the weight percent of the element. For hydrogen determination, NMD conditions had to be used where the response curve was not linear, but followed a curve whose slope rose with hydrogen concentration. This effect is caused by improving neutron self-moderation in sample boxes of rich oil shales, as compared to poor self-moderation of neutrons in very lean oil shales. The moisture in oil shales was measured by microwave absorption technique in small masonite boxes. This method was calibrated four times using oil-shale samples mixed gradually with larger and larger amounts of water.

  9. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  10. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  11. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  12. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  13. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  14. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  15. Node Augmentation Technique in Bayesian Network Evidence Analysis and Marshaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keselman, Dmitry; Tompkins, George H; Leishman, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Given a Bayesian network, sensitivity analysis is an important activity. This paper begins by describing a network augmentation technique which can simplifY the analysis. Next, we present two techniques which allow the user to determination the probability distribution of a hypothesis node under conditions of uncertain evidence; i.e. the state of an evidence node or nodes is described by a user specified probability distribution. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of three criteria for ranking evidence nodes based on their influence on a hypothesis node. All of these techniques have been used in conjunction with a commercial software package. A Bayesian network based on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G is a graphical representation of a system of random variables that satisfies the following Markov property: any node (random variable) is independent of its non-descendants given the state of all its parents (Neapolitan, 2004). For simplicities sake, we consider only discrete variables with a finite number of states, though most of the conclusions may be generalized.

  16. Device for cutting protrusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  17. PVUSA instrumentation and data analysis techniques for photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmiller, J.; Hutchinson, P.; Townsend, T.; Whitaker, C.

    1995-10-01

    The Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) project tests two types of PV systems at the main test site in Davis, California: new module technologies fielded as 20-kW Emerging Module Technology (EMT) arrays and more mature technologies fielded as 70- to 500-kW turnkey Utility-Scale (US) systems. PVUSA members have also installed systems in their service areas. Designed appropriately, data acquisition systems (DASs) can be a convenient and reliable means of assessing system performance, value, and health. Improperly designed, they can be complicated, difficult to use and maintain, and provide data of questionable validity. This report documents PVUSA PV system instrumentation and data analysis techniques and lessons learned. The report is intended to assist utility engineers, PV system designers, and project managers in establishing an objective, then, through a logical series of topics, facilitate selection and design of a DAS to meet the objective. Report sections include Performance Reporting Objectives (including operational versus research DAS), Recommended Measurements, Measurement Techniques, Calibration Issues, and Data Processing and Analysis Techniques. Conclusions and recommendations based on the several years of operation and performance monitoring are offered. This report is one in a series of 1994--1995 PVUSA reports documenting PVUSA lessons learned at the demonstration sites in Davis and Kerman, California. Other topical reports address: five-year assessment of EMTs; validation of the Kerman 500-kW grid support PV plant benefits; construction and safety experience in installing and operating PV systems; balance-of-system design and costs; procurement, acceptance, and rating practices for PV power plants; experience with power conditioning units and power quality.

  18. Evaluation of energy system analysis techniques for identifying underground facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; Portante, E.C.

    1996-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine the feasibility and potential usefulness of applying energy system analysis techniques to help detect and characterize underground facilities that could be used for clandestine activities. Four off-the-shelf energy system modeling tools were considered: (1) ENPEP (Energy and Power Evaluation Program) - a total energy system supply/demand model, (2) ICARUS (Investigation of Costs and Reliability in Utility Systems) - an electric utility system dispatching (or production cost and reliability) model, (3) SMN (Spot Market Network) - an aggregate electric power transmission network model, and (4) PECO/LF (Philadelphia Electric Company/Load Flow) - a detailed electricity load flow model. For the purposes of most of this work, underground facilities were assumed to consume about 500 kW to 3 MW of electricity. For some of the work, facilities as large as 10-20 MW were considered. The analysis of each model was conducted in three stages: data evaluation, base-case analysis, and comparative case analysis. For ENPEP and ICARUS, open source data from Pakistan were used for the evaluations. For SMN and PECO/LF, the country data were not readily available, so data for the state of Arizona were used to test the general concept.

  19. Macro-System Model: A Federated Object Model for Cross-Cutting Analysis of Hydrogen Production, Delivery, Consumption and Associated Emissions; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Goldsby, M. E.; Sa, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier for light-duty vehicles involves concomitant technological development of infrastructure elements, such as production, delivery, and consumption, all associated with certain emission levels. To analyze these at a system level, the suite of corresponding models developed by the United States Department of Energy and involving several national laboratories is combined in one macro-system model (MSM). The macro-system model is being developed as a cross-cutting analysis tool that combines a set of hydrogen technology analysis models. Within the MSM, a federated simulation framework is used for consistent data transfer between the component models. The framework is built to suit cross-model as well as cross-platform data exchange and involves features of 'over-the-net' computation.

  20. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  1. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  2. Tools and techniques for failure analysis and qualification of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Sandia National Laboratories Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: ... Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; MICROELECTRONICS; MEASURING INSTRUMENTS; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; ...

  3. Multivariate analysis of remote LIBS spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Samuel M; Barefield, James E; Wiens, Roger C; Sklute, Elizabeth; Dyare, Melinda D

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative analysis with LIBS traditionally employs calibration curves that are complicated by the chemical matrix effects. These chemical matrix effects influence the LIBS plasma and the ratio of elemental composition to elemental emission line intensity. Consequently, LIBS calibration typically requires a priori knowledge of the unknown, in order for a series of calibration standards similar to the unknown to be employed. In this paper, three new Multivariate Analysis (MV A) techniques are employed to analyze the LIBS spectra of 18 disparate igneous and highly-metamorphosed rock samples. Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to generate a calibration model from which unknown samples can be analyzed. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) are employed to generate a model and predict the rock type of the samples. These MV A techniques appear to exploit the matrix effects associated with the chemistries of these 18 samples.

  4. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tench, Robert J.; Siekhaus, Wigbert J.; Balooch, Mehdi; Balhorn, Rodney L.; Allen, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumentation and techniques to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution, to cut-off identified parts of such objects, to move around and manipulate such cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM, such that plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges thereon. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring hardness of materials.

  5. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  6. Laser cutting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  7. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cremers, D.A.; Archuleta, F.L.; Dilworth, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed.

  8. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  9. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  10. VLBI FOR GRAVITY PROBE B. IV. A NEW ASTROMETRIC ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE AND A COMPARISON WITH RESULTS FROM OTHER TECHNIQUES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebach, D. E.; Ratner, M. I.; Shapiro, I. I.; Bartel, N.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Lederman, J. I.; Ransom, R. R.; Campbell, R. M.; Gordon, D.

    2012-07-01

    When very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations are used to determine the position or motion of a radio source relative to reference sources nearby on the sky, the astrometric information is usually obtained via (1) phase-referenced maps or (2) parametric model fits to measured fringe phases or multiband delays. In this paper, we describe a 'merged' analysis technique which combines some of the most important advantages of these other two approaches. In particular, our merged technique combines the superior model-correction capabilities of parametric model fits with the ability of phase-referenced maps to yield astrometric measurements of sources that are too weak to be used in parametric model fits. We compare the results from this merged technique with the results from phase-referenced maps and from parametric model fits in the analysis of astrometric VLBI observations of the radio-bright star IM Pegasi (HR 8703) and the radio source B2252+172 nearby on the sky. In these studies we use central-core components of radio sources 3C 454.3 and B2250+194 as our positional references. We obtain astrometric results for IM Peg with our merged technique even when the source is too weak to be used in parametric model fits, and we find that our merged technique yields astrometric results superior to the phase-referenced mapping technique. We used our merged technique to estimate the proper motion and other astrometric parameters of IM Peg in support of the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B mission.

  11. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment`s final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results.

  12. Cutting assembly. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treuhaft, M.B.; Oser, M.S.

    1981-06-25

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  13. Infrared Spectroscopy of Explosives Residues: Measurement Techniques and Spectral Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.

    2015-03-11

    Infrared laser spectroscopy of explosives is a promising technique for standoff and non-contact detection applications. However, the interpretation of spectra obtained in typical standoff measurement configurations presents numerous challenges. Understanding the variability in observed spectra from explosives residues and particles is crucial for design and implementation of detection algorithms with high detection confidence and low false alarm probability. We discuss a series of infrared spectroscopic techniques applied toward measuring and interpreting the reflectance spectra obtained from explosives particles and residues. These techniques utilize the high spectral radiance, broad tuning range, rapid wavelength tuning, high scan reproducibility, and low noise of an external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) system developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The ECQCL source permits measurements in configurations which would be either impractical or overly time-consuming with broadband, incoherent infrared sources, and enables a combination of rapid measurement speed and high detection sensitivity. The spectroscopic methods employed include standoff hyperspectral reflectance imaging, quantitative measurements of diffuse reflectance spectra, reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, microscopic imaging and spectroscopy, and nano-scale imaging and spectroscopy. Measurements of explosives particles and residues reveal important factors affecting observed reflectance spectra, including measurement geometry, substrate on which the explosives are deposited, and morphological effects such as particle shape, size, orientation, and crystal structure.

  14. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  15. Electron beam cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mochel, M.E.; Humphreys, C.J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions. 2 figs.

  16. Electron beam cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mochel, Margaret E.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    1985-04-02

    A method for the cutting of holes 20 Angstroms in diameter, or lines 20 Angstroms wide in a material having positive ionic conduction by the use of a focused electron probe is described. The holes and lines are stable under ambient conditions.

  17. Improved analysis techniques for cylindrical and spherical double probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beal, Brian; Brown, Daniel; Bromaghim, Daron; Johnson, Lee; Blakely, Joseph

    2012-07-15

    A versatile double Langmuir probe technique has been developed by incorporating analytical fits to Laframboise's numerical results for ion current collection by biased electrodes of various sizes relative to the local electron Debye length. Application of these fits to the double probe circuit has produced a set of coupled equations that express the potential of each electrode relative to the plasma potential as well as the resulting probe current as a function of applied probe voltage. These equations can be readily solved via standard numerical techniques in order to determine electron temperature and plasma density from probe current and voltage measurements. Because this method self-consistently accounts for the effects of sheath expansion, it can be readily applied to plasmas with a wide range of densities and low ion temperature (T{sub i}/T{sub e} Much-Less-Than 1) without requiring probe dimensions to be asymptotically large or small with respect to the electron Debye length. The presented approach has been successfully applied to experimental measurements obtained in the plume of a low-power Hall thruster, which produced a quasineutral, flowing xenon plasma during operation at 200 W on xenon. The measured plasma densities and electron temperatures were in the range of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12}-1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} m{sup -3} and 0.5-5.0 eV, respectively. The estimated measurement uncertainty is +6%/-34% in density and +/-30% in electron temperature.

  18. Geospatial Products and Techniques at the Center for Transportation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Peterson, Bruce E

    2008-01-01

    This paper highlights geospatial science-related innovations and developments conducted by the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. CTA researchers have been developing integrated inter-modal transportation solutions through innovative and cost-effective research and development for many years. Specifically, this paper profiles CTA-developed Geographic Information System (GIS) products that are publicly available. Examples of these GIS-related products include: the CTA Transportation Networks; GeoFreight system; and the web-based Multi-Modal Routing Analysis System. In addition, an application on assessment of railroad Hazmat routing alternatives is also discussed.

  19. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  20. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  1. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramos, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

  2. Laser cutting nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramos, T.J.

    1982-09-30

    A laser cutting nozzle for use with a laser cutting apparatus directing a focused beam to a spot on a work piece. The nozzle has a cylindrical body with a conical tip which together have a conically shaped hollow interior with the apex at a small aperture through the tip. The conical hollow interior is shaped to match the profile of the laser beam, at full beamwidth, which passes through the nozzle to the work piece. A plurality of gas inlet holes extend through the body to the hollow interior and are oriented to produce a swirling flow of gas coaxially through the nozzle and out the aperture, aligned with the laser beam, to the work piece.

  3. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blair, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  4. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Crystal Redden; Aimee Washington

    2003-07-30

    This Quarter has been divided between running experiments and the installation of the drill-pipe rotation system. In addition, valves and piping were relocated, and three viewports were installed. Detailed design work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. Design of the first prototype version of a Foam Generator has been finalized, and fabrication is underway. This will be used to determine the relationship between surface roughness and ''slip'' of foams at solid boundaries. Additional cups and rotors are being machined with different surface roughness. Some experiments on cuttings transport with aerated fluids have been conducted at EPET. Theoretical modeling of cuttings transport with aerated fluids is proceeding. The development of theoretical models to predict frictional pressure losses of flowing foam is in progress. The new board design for instrumentation to measure cuttings concentration is now functioning with an acceptable noise level. The ultrasonic sensors are stable up to 190 F. Static tests with sand in an annulus indicate that the system is able to distinguish between different sand concentrations. Viscometer tests with foam, generated by the Dynamic Test Facility (DTF), are continuing.

  5. Methods for magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Majors, Paul D.

    2011-11-22

    Methods of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object are disclosed that include placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. In particular embodiments the method includes pulsing the radio frequency to provide at least two of a spatially selective read pulse, a spatially selective phase pulse, and a spatially selective storage pulse. Further disclosed methods provide pulse sequences that provide extended imaging capabilities, such as chemical shift imaging or multiple-voxel data acquisition.

  6. Imaging, cutting, and collecting instrument and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tench, R.J.; Siekhaus, W.J.; Balooch, M.; Balhorn, R.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1995-10-31

    Instrumentation and techniques are described to image small objects, such as but not limited to individual human chromosomes, with nanometer resolution. This instrument and method are also used to cut-off identified parts of objects, to move around and manipulate the cut-off parts on the substrate on which they are being imaged to predetermined locations on the substrate, and to remove the cut-off parts from the substrate. This is accomplished using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and by modification of the conventional cantilever stylus assembly of an AFM. The plural cantilevers are used with either sharp-tips or knife-edges. In addition, the invention can be utilized for measuring the hardness of materials. 10 figs.

  7. The contour method cutting assumption: error minimization and correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prime, Michael B; Kastengren, Alan L

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed contour method can measure 2-D, cross-sectional residual-stress map. A part is cut in two using a precise and low-stress cutting technique such as electric discharge machining. The contours of the new surfaces created by the cut, which will not be flat if residual stresses are relaxed by the cutting, are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stresses. The precise nature of the assumption about the cut is presented theoretically and is evaluated experimentally. Simply assuming a flat cut is overly restrictive and misleading. The critical assumption is that the width of the cut, when measured in the original, undeformed configuration of the body is constant. Stresses at the cut tip during cutting cause the material to deform, which causes errors. The effect of such cutting errors on the measured stresses is presented. The important parameters are quantified. Experimental procedures for minimizing these errors are presented. An iterative finite element procedure to correct for the errors is also presented. The correction procedure is demonstrated on experimental data from a steel beam that was plastically bent to put in a known profile of residual stresses.

  8. Towards Effective Clustering Techniques for the Analysis of Electric Power Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hogan, Emilie A.; Cotilla Sanchez, Jose E.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Wang, Shaobu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Hines, Paul; Huang, Zhenyu

    2013-11-30

    Clustering is an important data analysis technique with numerous applications in the analysis of electric power grids. Standard clustering techniques are oblivious to the rich structural and dynamic information available for power grids. Therefore, by exploiting the inherent topological and electrical structure in the power grid data, we propose new methods for clustering with applications to model reduction, locational marginal pricing, phasor measurement unit (PMU or synchrophasor) placement, and power system protection. We focus our attention on model reduction for analysis based on time-series information from synchrophasor measurement devices, and spectral techniques for clustering. By comparing different clustering techniques on two instances of realistic power grids we show that the solutions are related and therefore one could leverage that relationship for a computational advantage. Thus, by contrasting different clustering techniques we make a case for exploiting structure inherent in the data with implications for several domains including power systems.

  9. CUTTING AND WEDGING JACKET REMOVER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freedman, M.; Raynor, S.

    1959-04-01

    A tool is presented for stripping cladded jackets from fissionable fuel elements. The tool is a tube which fits closely around the jacket and which has two cutting edges at opposite sides of one end. These cutting edges are adjusted to penetrate only the jacket so that by moving the edges downward the jacket is cut into two pieces.

  10. Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-12-12

    he purpose of this DOE Standard is to establish guidance for the preparation and review of hazard categorization and accident analyses techniques as required in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  11. Photochemical cutting of fabrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus for the cutting of garment patterns from one or more layers of fabric. A laser capable of producing laser light at an ultraviolet wavelength is utilized to shine light through a pattern, such as a holographic phase filter, and through a lens onto the one or more layers of fabric. The ultraviolet laser light causes rapid photochemical decomposition of the one or more layers of fabric, but only along the pattern. The balance of the fabric of the one or more layers of fabric is undamaged.

  12. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Matthew W.

    2013-03-14

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  13. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, John A.

    1983-01-01

    A mining assembly includes a primary rotary cutter mounted on one end of a support shaft and four secondary rotary cutters carried on the same support shaft and positioned behind the primary cutters for cutting corners in the hole cut by the latter.

  14. Evaluation of syngas production unit cost of bio-gasification facility using regression analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Yangyang; Parajuli, Prem B.

    2011-08-10

    Evaluation of economic feasibility of a bio-gasification facility needs understanding of its unit cost under different production capacities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the unit cost of syngas production at capacities from 60 through 1800Nm 3/h using an economic model with three regression analysis techniques (simple regression, reciprocal regression, and log-log regression). The preliminary result of this study showed that reciprocal regression analysis technique had the best fit curve between per unit cost and production capacity, with sum of error squares (SES) lower than 0.001 and coefficient of determination of (R 2) 0.996. The regression analysis techniques determined the minimum unit cost of syngas production for micro-scale bio-gasification facilities of $0.052/Nm 3, under the capacity of 2,880 Nm 3/h. The results of this study suggest that to reduce cost, facilities should run at a high production capacity. In addition, the contribution of this technique could be the new categorical criterion to evaluate micro-scale bio-gasification facility from the perspective of economic analysis.

  15. MULTI-SCALE MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF SDSS DR5 SURVEY USING THE METRIC SPACE TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Yongfeng; Batuski, David J.; Khalil, Andre

    2009-12-20

    Following the novel development and adaptation of the Metric Space Technique (MST), a multi-scale morphological analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 5 (DR5) was performed. The technique was adapted to perform a space-scale morphological analysis by filtering the galaxy point distributions with a smoothing Gaussian function, thus giving quantitative structural information on all size scales between 5 and 250 Mpc. The analysis was performed on a dozen slices of a volume of space containing many newly measured galaxies from the SDSS DR5 survey. Using the MST, observational data were compared to galaxy samples taken from N-body simulations with current best estimates of cosmological parameters and from random catalogs. By using the maximal ranking method among MST output functions, we also develop a way to quantify the overall similarity of the observed samples with the simulated samples.

  16. A Second Look at Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis as a Spent Fuel NDA Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W .Sterbentz; David L. Chichester

    2011-07-01

    Many different nondestructive analysis techniques are currently being investigated as a part of the United States Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) seeking methods to quantify plutonium in spent fuel. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) is one of these techniques. Having first been explored in the mid-1970s for the analysis of individual spent-fuel pins a second look, using advanced simulation and modeling methods, is now underway to investigate the suitability of the NRTA technique for assaying complete spent nuclear fuel assemblies. The technique is similar to neutron time-of-flight methods used for cross-section determinations but operates over only the narrow 0.1-20 eV range where strong, distinguishable resonances exist for both the plutonium (239, 240, 241,242Pu) and uranium (235,236,238U) isotopes of interest in spent fuel. Additionally, in this energy range resonances exists for six important fission products (99Tc, 103Rh, 131Xe, 133Cs, 145Nd, and 152Sm) which provide additional information to support spent fuel plutonium assay determinations. Initial modeling shows excellent agreement with previously published experimental data for measurements of individual spent-fuel pins where plutonium assays were demonstrated to have a precision of 2-4%. Within the simulation and modeling analyses of this project scoping studies have explored fourteen different aspects of the technique including the neutron source, drift tube configurations, and gross neutron transmission as well as the impacts of fuel burn up, cooling time, and fission-product interferences. These results show that NRTA may be a very capable experimental technique for spent-fuel assay measurements. The results suggest sufficient transmission strength and signal differentiability is possible for assays through up to 8 pins. For an 8-pin assay (looking at an assembly diagonally), 64% of the pins in a typical 17 ? 17 array of a pressurized water reactor fuel

  17. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Justin Coleman, P.E. October 25th, 2011

  18. Rapid Automated Dissolution and Analysis Techniques for Radionuclides in Recycle Process Streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudowe, Ralf; Roman, Audrey; Dailey, Ashlee; Go, Elaine

    2013-07-18

    The analysis of process samples for radionuclide content is an important part of current procedures for material balance and accountancy in the different process streams of a recycling plant. The destructive sample analysis techniques currently available necessitate a significant amount of time. It is therefore desirable to develop new sample analysis procedures that allow for a quick turnaround time and increased sample throughput with a minimum of deviation between samples. In particular, new capabilities for rapid sample dissolution and radiochemical separation are required. Most of the radioanalytical techniques currently employed for sample analysis are based on manual laboratory procedures. Such procedures are time- and labor-intensive, and not well suited for situations in which a rapid sample analysis is required and/or large number of samples need to be analyzed. To address this issue we are currently investigating radiochemical separation methods based on extraction chromatography that have been specifically optimized for the analysis of process stream samples. The influence of potential interferences present in the process samples as well as mass loading, flow rate and resin performance is being studied. In addition, the potential to automate these procedures utilizing a robotic platform is evaluated. Initial studies have been carried out using the commercially available DGA resin. This resin shows an affinity for Am, Pu, U, and Th and is also exhibiting signs of a possible synergistic effects in the presence of iron.

  19. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  20. Slag capture and removal during laser cutting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Clyde O.

    1984-05-08

    Molten metal removed from a workpiece in a laser cutting operation is blown away from the cutting point by a gas jet and collected on an electromagnet.

  1. Shroud for a submerged jet cutting nozzle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schwab, Thomas L.

    1978-01-01

    A shroud for a submerged jet cutting nozzle is described which separates the jet from surrounding fluid environment and enhances the cutting effect.

  2. Non destructive multi elemental analysis using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis techniques: Preliminary results for concrete sample

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahing, Lahasen Normanshah; Yahya, Redzuan; Yahya, Roslan; Hassan, Hearie

    2014-09-03

    In this study, principle of prompt gamma neutron activation analysis has been used as a technique to determine the elements in the sample. The system consists of collimated isotopic neutron source, Cf-252 with HPGe detector and Multichannel Analysis (MCA). Concrete with size of 10×10×10 cm{sup 3} and 15×15×15 cm{sup 3} were analysed as sample. When neutrons enter and interact with elements in the concrete, the neutron capture reaction will occur and produce characteristic prompt gamma ray of the elements. The preliminary result of this study demonstrate the major element in the concrete was determined such as Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe and H as well as others element, such as Cl by analysis the gamma ray lines respectively. The results obtained were compared with NAA and XRF techniques as a part of reference and validation. The potential and the capability of neutron induced prompt gamma as tool for multi elemental analysis qualitatively to identify the elements present in the concrete sample discussed.

  3. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James R.; Reich, Morris

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine 14 are provided for cutting a workpiece 12 such as concrete. A gun barrel 16 is provided for repetitively loading projectiles 22 therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank 28. A thermal storage tank 32,32A is disposed between the propellant storage tank 28 and the gun barrel 16 for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel 16 for repetitively firing projectiles 22 therefrom toward the workpiece 12. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles 22 is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece 12 by fracturing thereof.

  4. Hypervelocity cutting machine and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.R.; Reich, M.

    1996-11-12

    A method and machine are provided for cutting a workpiece such as concrete. A gun barrel is provided for repetitively loading projectiles therein and is supplied with a pressurized propellant from a storage tank. A thermal storage tank is disposed between the propellant storage tank and the gun barrel for repetitively receiving and heating propellant charges which are released in the gun barrel for repetitively firing projectiles therefrom toward the workpiece. In a preferred embodiment, hypervelocity of the projectiles is obtained for cutting the concrete workpiece by fracturing thereof. 10 figs.

  5. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, P.A.; Lee, A.P.; Northrup, M.A.; Benett, W.J.

    1999-07-27

    Devices are disclosed for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways (1) intravascularly, (2) extravascularly, (3) by vessel puncture, and (4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting. 6 figs.

  6. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  7. Multivariate calibration techniques applied to NIRA (near infrared reflectance analysis) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, C.L.

    1991-02-01

    Multivariate calibration techniques can reduce the time required for routine testing and can provide new methods of analysis. Multivariate calibration is commonly used with near infrared reflectance analysis (NIRA) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two feasibility studies were performed to determine the capability of NIRA, using multivariate calibration techniques, to perform analyses on the types of samples that are routinely analyzed at this laboratory. The first study performed included a variety of samples and indicated that NIRA would be well-suited to perform analyses on selected materials properties such as water content and hydroxyl number on polyol samples, epoxy content on epoxy resins, water content of desiccants, and the amine values of various amine cure agents. A second study was performed to assess the capability of NIRA to perform quantitative analysis of hydroxyl numbers and water contents of hydroxyl-containing materials. Hydroxyl number and water content were selected for determination because these tests are frequently run on polyol materials and the hydroxyl number determination is time consuming. This study pointed out the necessity of obtaining calibration standards identical to the samples being analyzed for each type of polyol or other material being analyzed. Multivariate calibration techniques are frequently used with FTIR data to determine the composition of a large variety of complex mixtures. A literature search indicated many applications of multivariate calibration to FTIR data. Areas identified where quantitation by FTIR would provide a new capability are quantitation of components in epoxy and silicone resins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in oils, and additives to polymers. 19 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Automated internal pipe cutting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Godlewski, William J.; Haffke, Gary S.; Purvis, Dale; Bashar, Ronald W.; Jones, Stewart D.; Moretti, Jr., Henry; Pimentel, James

    2003-01-21

    The invention is a remotely controlled internal pipe cutting device primarily used for cutting pipes where the outside of the pipe is inaccessible at the line where the cut is to be made. The device includes an axial ram within a rotational cylinder which is enclosed in a housing. The housing is adapted for attachment to an open end of the pipe and for supporting the ram and cylinder in cantilever fashion within the pipe. A radially movable cutter, preferably a plasma arc torch, is attached to the distal end of the ram. A drive mechanism, containing motors and mechanical hardware for operating the ram and cylinder, is attached to the proximal end of the housing. The ram and cylinder provide for moving the cutter axially and circumferentially, and a cable assembly attached to a remote motor provide for the movement of the cutter radially, within the pipe. The control system can be adjusted and operated remotely to control the position and movement of the cutter to obtain the desired cut. The control system can also provide automatic standoff control for a plasma arc torch.

  9. Petrophysical corner - calculating water cut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elphick, R.Y. )

    1990-02-01

    The problem of determining the amount of water cut that can be expected from a well is discussed in conjunction with a program for making this calculation. The program was written for Amiga, Apple Macintosh, and MS DOS personal computers and source code for the program is provided.

  10. Fluorescence measurements for evaluating the application of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichardt, Thomas A.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Jones, Howland D. T.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Schmitt, Randal L.

    2010-09-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of cuvette-contained laser dye mixtures are made for evaluation of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments. Nine mixtures of Coumarin 500 and Rhodamine 610 are analyzed, as well as the pure dyes. For each sample, the cuvette is positioned on a two-axis translation stage to allow the interrogation at different spatial locations, allowing the examination of both primary (absorption of the laser light) and secondary (absorption of the fluorescence) inner filter effects. In addition to these expected inner filter effects, we find evidence that a portion of the absorbed fluorescence is re-emitted. A total of 688 spectra are acquired for the evaluation of multivariate analysis approaches to account for nonlinear effects.

  11. Integrated State Estimation and Contingency Analysis Software Implementation using High Performance Computing Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yousu; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-31

    Power system simulation tools are traditionally developed in sequential mode and codes are optimized for single core computing only. However, the increasing complexity in the power grid models requires more intensive computation. The traditional simulation tools will soon not be able to meet the grid operation requirements. Therefore, power system simulation tools need to evolve accordingly to provide faster and better results for grid operations. This paper presents an integrated state estimation and contingency analysis software implementation using high performance computing techniques. The software is able to solve large size state estimation problems within one second and achieve a near-linear speedup of 9,800 with 10,000 cores for contingency analysis application. The performance evaluation is presented to show its effectiveness.

  12. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in the soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.

  13. Advanced grazing-incidence techniques for modern soft-matter materials analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hexemer, Alexander; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The complex nano-morphology of modern soft-matter materials is successfully probed with advanced grazing-incidence techniques. Based on grazing-incidence small- and wide-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (GISAXS, GIWAXS, GISANS and GIWANS), new possibilities arise which are discussed with selected examples. Due to instrumental progress, highly interesting possibilities for local structure analysis in this material class arise from the use of micro- and nanometer-sized X-ray beams in micro- or nanofocused GISAXS and GIWAXS experiments. The feasibility of very short data acquisition times down to milliseconds creates exciting possibilities forin situandin operandoGISAXS and GIWAXS studies. Tuning the energy of GISAXS and GIWAXS in themore » soft X-ray regime and in time-of flight GISANS allows the tailoring of contrast conditions and thereby the probing of more complex morphologies. In addition, recent progress in software packages, useful for data analysis for advanced grazing-incidence techniques, is discussed.« less

  14. Further Evaluation of the Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) Technique for Assaying Plutonium in Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2011-09-01

    This is an end-of-year report (Fiscal Year (FY) 2011) for the second year of effort on a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The second-year goals for this project included: (1) assessing the neutron source strength needed for the NRTA technique, (2) estimating count times, (3) assessing the effect of temperature on the transmitted signal, (4) estimating plutonium content in a spent fuel assembly, (5) providing a preliminary assessment of the neutron detectors, and (6) documenting this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes work performed over a nine month period from January-September 2011 and is to be considered a follow-on or add-on report to our previous published summary report from December 2010 (INL/EXT-10-20620).

  15. X-Z-Theta cutting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.

    1993-01-12

    A method for machining a workpiece. The method includes the use of a rotary cutting tool mounted on the end of a movable arm. The arm is adapted to move in a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the cutting tool. The cutting tool has cutting teeth to cut chips of material off of the workpiece in a predetermined size and shape to facilitate better removal of the chips from the workpiece. The teeth can be of different type and length to permit the tool to both rough cut and finish cut the workpiece during machining. The total depth of cut is divided by the number of tool teeth, so that the longest tool always performs the finishing cut.

  16. Grid and basis adaptive polynomial chaos techniques for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perk, Zoltn Gilli, Luca Lathouwers, Danny Kloosterman, Jan Leen

    2014-03-01

    The demand for accurate and computationally affordable sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is constantly on the rise and has become especially pressing in the nuclear field with the shift to Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty methodologies in the licensing of nuclear installations. Besides traditional, already well developed methods such as first order perturbation theory or Monte Carlo sampling Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) has been given a growing emphasis in recent years due to its simple application and good performance. This paper presents new developments of the research done at TU Delft on such Polynomial Chaos (PC) techniques. Our work is focused on the Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (NISP) approach and adaptive methods for building the PCE of responses of interest. Recent efforts resulted in a new adaptive sparse grid algorithm designed for estimating the PC coefficients. The algorithm is based on Gerstner's procedure for calculating multi-dimensional integrals but proves to be computationally significantly cheaper, while at the same it retains a similar accuracy as the original method. More importantly the issue of basis adaptivity has been investigated and two techniques have been implemented for constructing the sparse PCE of quantities of interest. Not using the traditional full PC basis set leads to further reduction in computational time since the high order grids necessary for accurately estimating the near zero expansion coefficients of polynomial basis vectors not needed in the PCE can be excluded from the calculation. Moreover the sparse PC representation of the response is easier to handle when used for sensitivity analysis or uncertainty propagation due to the smaller number of basis vectors. The developed grid and basis adaptive methods have been implemented in Matlab as the Fully Adaptive Non-Intrusive Spectral Projection (FANISP) algorithm and were tested on four analytical problems. These show consistent good performance both in

  17. Key research issues in the pulsed fast-neutron analysis technique for cargo inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Micklich, B.J.; Fink, C.L.; Yule, T.J.

    1994-07-01

    Non-invasive inspection systems based on the use of fast neutrons are being studied for the inspection of large cargo containers. A key advantage of fast neutrons is their sensitivity to low-Z elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which are the primary constituents of explosives and narcotics. The high energy allows penetration of relatively large containers. The pulsed fast-neutron analysis (PFNA) technique is currently the baseline system. A workshop on the PFNA technique involving industrial, government, and university participants was held at Argonne National Lab. in January 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to review the status of research on the key technical issues involved in PFNA, and to develop a list of those areas where additional modeling and/or experimentation were needed. The workshop also focused on development of a near-term experimental assessment program using existing prototypes and on development of a long-term test program at the Tacoma Testbed, where a PFNA prototype will be installed in 1995. A summary of conclusions reached at this workshop is presented. Results from analytic and Monte Carlo modeling of simplified PFNA systems are also presented.

  18. Project Milestone. Analysis of Range Extension Techniques for Battery Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2013-07-01

    This report documents completion of the July 2013 milestone as part of NREL’s Vehicle Technologies Annual Operating Plan with the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective was to perform analysis on range extension techniques for battery electric vehicles (BEVs). This work represents a significant advancement over previous thru-life BEV analyses using NREL’s Battery Ownership Model, FastSim,* and DRIVE.* Herein, the ability of different charging infrastructure to increase achievable travel of BEVs in response to real-world, year-long travel histories is assessed. Effects of battery and cabin thermal response to local climate, battery degradation, and vehicle auxiliary loads are captured. The results reveal the conditions under which different public infrastructure options are most effective, and encourage continued study of fast charging and electric roadway scenarios.

  19. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K.; Googin, John M.; Napier, Jr., Bradley

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  20. Digital Instrumentation and Control Failure Events Derivation and Analysis by Frame-Based Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hui-Wen Huang; Chunkuan Shih [National Tsing Hua University, 101, Section 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30013 (China); Swu Yih [DML International, 18F-1 295, Section 2 Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Yen-Chang Tzeng; Ming-Huei Chen [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, No. 1000, Wunhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    A frame-based technique, including physical frame, logical frame, and cognitive frame, was adopted to perform digital I and C failure events derivation and analysis for generic ABWR. The physical frame was structured with a modified PCTran-ABWR plant simulation code, which was extended and enhanced on the feedwater system, recirculation system, and steam line system. The logical model is structured with MATLAB, which was incorporated into PCTran-ABWR to improve the pressure control system, feedwater control system, recirculation control system, and automated power regulation control system. As a result, the software failure of these digital control systems can be properly simulated and analyzed. The cognitive frame was simulated by the operator awareness status in the scenarios. Moreover, via an internal characteristics tuning technique, the modified PCTran-ABWR can precisely reflect the characteristics of the power-core flow. Hence, in addition to the transient plots, the analysis results can then be demonstrated on the power-core flow map. A number of postulated I and C system software failure events were derived to achieve the dynamic analyses. The basis for event derivation includes the published classification for software anomalies, the digital I and C design data for ABWR, chapter 15 accident analysis of generic SAR, and the reported NPP I and C software failure events. The case study of this research includes (1) the software CMF analysis for the major digital control systems; and (2) postulated ABWR digital I and C software failure events derivation from the actual happening of non-ABWR digital I and C software failure events, which were reported to LER of USNRC or IRS of IAEA. These events were analyzed by PCTran-ABWR. Conflicts among plant status, computer status, and human cognitive status are successfully identified. The operator might not easily recognize the abnormal condition, because the computer status seems to progress normally. However, a well

  1. Langmuir probe measurements in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized non-equilibrium cutting arc: Analysis of the electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.; Instituto de Fsica del Plasma , Departamento de Fsica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires

    2013-12-15

    This work describes the application of Langmuir probe diagnostics to the measurement of the electron temperature in a time-fluctuating-highly ionized, non-equilibrium cutting arc. The electron retarding part of the time-averaged current-voltage characteristic of the probe was analysed, assuming that the standard exponential expression describing the electron current to the probe in collision-free plasmas can be applied under the investigated conditions. A procedure is described which allows the determination of the errors introduced in time-averaged probe data due to small-amplitude plasma fluctuations. It was found that the experimental points can be gathered into two well defined groups allowing defining two quite different averaged electron temperature values. In the low-current region the averaged characteristic was not significantly disturbed by the fluctuations and can reliably be used to obtain the actual value of the averaged electron temperature. In particular, an averaged electron temperature of 0.98 0.07 eV (= 11400 800 K) was found for the central core of the arc (30 A) at 3.5 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. This average included not only a time-average over the time fluctuations but also a spatial-average along the probe collecting length. The fitting of the high-current region of the characteristic using such electron temperature value together with the corrections given by the fluctuation analysis showed a relevant departure of local thermal equilibrium in the arc core.

  2. Finite element analyses of tool stresses in metal cutting processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kistler, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we analytically predict and examine stresses in tool tips used in high speed orthogonal machining operations. Specifically, one analysis was compared to an existing experimental measurement of stresses in a sapphire tool tip cutting 1020 steel at slow speeds. In addition, two analyses were done of a carbide tool tip in a machining process at higher cutting speeds, in order to compare to experimental results produced as part of this study. The metal being cut was simulated using a Sandia developed damage plasticity material model, which allowed the cutting to occur analytically without prespecifying the line of cutting/failure. The latter analyses incorporated temperature effects on the tool tip. Calculated tool forces and peak stresses matched experimental data to within 20%. Stress contours generally agreed between analysis and experiment. This work could be extended to investigate/predict failures in the tool tip, which would be of great interest to machining shops in understanding how to optimize cost/retooling time.

  3. Evaluate fundamental approaches to longwall dust control: Subprogram B, Practical aspects of deep cutting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludlow, J.; Ruggieri, S.

    1990-05-01

    Deep/slow cutting is one of the few changes that a longwall operator can make that will simultaneously reduce respirable dust, increase production and decrease power consumption. Though extensively employed in other countries, the technique has not seen widespread use in the United States. The objective of this research effort was to promote the use of deep/slow cutting by examination of the real and perceived constraints to its application. This report discusses the theoretical and experimental background of cutting with high pick penetration, the benefits to be obtained in terms of reduced dust make and specific energy consumption and the practical imparts of deeper cutting in terms of shearer performance and coal loading. Included in the report are literature references, results of surveys of equipment manufacturers and US longwall operations, results of laboratory and underground testing of deep/slow cutting and specific conclusions and recommendations for use of the technique. 9 figs. 1 tab.

  4. Fundamental underwater cutting method experiment as a dismantling tool for a commercial atomic reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamasaki, M.; Murao, Y.; Tateiwa, F.

    1982-10-01

    A new underwater cutting technique applying underwater dismantling to commercial atomic reactor vessels has been developed. This technique involves gas cutting the mild steel underwater after removing the stainless steel cladding by arc gouging. The arc gouging is achieved by blowing out metal--which is melted by an arc between a mild steel electrode wire and the stainless steel--by jetting water from a rear water nozzle. The fuel gas employed for preheating for the gas cutting was a mixed gas of propane and 30% methylacetylene. The test piece used was made of 300-mm-thick mild steel with 8-mm-thick stainless steel cladding. The fundamental cutting experiment was carried out successfully under a cutting speed condition of 15 cm/min at a water depth of 20 cm. This apparatus is easy to handle, compact, and cheap.

  5. Exploratory Nuclear Reactor Safety Analysis and Visualization via Integrated Topological and Geometric Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Maljovec; Bei Wang; Valerio Pascucci; Peer-Timo Bremer; Diego Mandelli; Michael Pernice; Robert Nourgaliev

    2013-10-01

    A recent trend in the nuclear power engineering field is the implementation of heavily computational and time consuming algorithms and codes for both design and safety analysis. In particular, the new generation of system analysis codes aim to embrace several phenomena such as thermo-hydraulic, structural behavior, and system dynamics, as well as uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analyses. The use of dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodologies allows a systematic approach to uncertainty quantification. Dynamic methodologies in PRA account for possible coupling between triggered or stochastic events through explicit consideration of the time element in system evolution, often through the use of dynamic system models (simulators). They are usually needed when the system has more than one failure mode, control loops, and/or hardware/process/software/human interaction. Dynamic methodologies are also capable of modeling the consequences of epistemic and aleatory uncertainties. The Monte-Carlo (MC) and the Dynamic Event Tree (DET) approaches belong to this new class of dynamic PRA methodologies. The major challenges in using MC and DET methodologies (as well as other dynamic methodologies) are the heavier computational and memory requirements compared to the classical ET analysis. This is due to the fact that each branch generated can contain time evolutions of a large number of variables (about 50,000 data channels are typically present in RELAP) and a large number of scenarios can be generated from a single initiating event (possibly on the order of hundreds or even thousands). Such large amounts of information are usually very difficult to organize in order to identify the main trends in scenario evolutions and the main risk contributors for each initiating event. This report aims to improve Dynamic PRA methodologies by tackling the two challenges mentioned above using: 1) adaptive sampling techniques to reduce computational cost of the analysis

  6. Free-piston cutting machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ciccarelli, Gaby; Subudhi, Manomohan; Hall, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    A cutting machine includes a gun barrel for receiving a projectile. A compression tube is disposed in flow communication with the barrel and includes a piston therein. A reservoir is disposed in flow communication with the tube and receives a first gas under pressure. A second gas fills the compression tube on a front face of the piston. And, the pressurized first gas is discharged into the tube on a back face of the piston to accelerate the piston through the tube for compressing the second gas, and in turn launching the projectile through the barrel to impact a workpiece.

  7. Comparative analysis of nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques for breast MRI segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Jacobs, Michael A.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: Visualization of anatomical structures using radiological imaging methods is an important tool in medicine to differentiate normal from pathological tissue and can generate large amounts of data for a radiologist to read. Integrating these large data sets is difficult and time-consuming. A new approach uses both supervised and unsupervised advanced machine learning techniques to visualize and segment radiological data. This study describes the application of a novel hybrid scheme, based on combining wavelet transform and nonlinear dimensionality reduction (NLDR) methods, to breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data using three well-established NLDR techniques, namely, ISOMAP, local linear embedding (LLE), and diffusion maps (DfM), to perform a comparative performance analysis. Methods: Twenty-five breast lesion subjects were scanned using a 3T scanner. MRI sequences used were T1-weighted, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging. The hybrid scheme consisted of two steps: preprocessing and postprocessing of the data. The preprocessing step was applied for B{sub 1} inhomogeneity correction, image registration, and wavelet-based image compression to match and denoise the data. In the postprocessing step, MRI parameters were considered data dimensions and the NLDR-based hybrid approach was applied to integrate the MRI parameters into a single image, termed the embedded image. This was achieved by mapping all pixel intensities from the higher dimension to a lower dimensional (embedded) space. For validation, the authors compared the hybrid NLDR with linear methods of principal component analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) using synthetic data. For the clinical application, the authors used breast MRI data, comparison was performed using the postcontrast DCE MRI image and evaluating the congruence of the segmented lesions. Results: The NLDR-based hybrid approach was able to define and segment

  8. Cuttings Analysis At International Geothermal Area, Philippines...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philippines. References Patrick Laney (2005) Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004 Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  9. Cuttings Analysis At International Geothermal Area, Indonesia...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philippines. References Patrick Laney (2005) Federal Geothermal Research Program Update - Fiscal Year 2004 Additional References Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  10. "Trace Analysis of Speciality and Electronic Gases," Chapter 4, "Emerging Infrared Laser Absorption Spectroscopic Techniques for Gas Analysis"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascola, R.; McWhorter, S.; Tittel, F.; Lewicki, R.

    2013-07-01

    This chapter covers Laser Absorption Spectroscopic Techniques and Applications of Semiconductor LAS Based Trace Gas Sensor Systems.

  11. Proposed EPA Rules Will Cut Carbon Pollution While Maintaining Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Proposed EPA Rules Will Cut Carbon Pollution While Maintaining Reliability Proposed EPA Rules Will Cut Carbon Pollution While Maintaining Reliability June 3, 2014 - 4:20pm Addthis Photo via iStock by Getty Images. Photo via iStock by Getty Images. Melanie A. Kenderdine Melanie A. Kenderdine Director of the Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis Learn More Watch a video that explains how EPA's Clean Power Plan works. See the projected public health benefits of the

  12. On the Applications of IBA Techniques to Biological Samples Analysis: PIXE and RBS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falcon-Gonzalez, J. M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Sosa, M.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Morilla Garcia, Y.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-11

    The analytical techniques based on ion beams or IBA techniques give quantitative information on elemental concentration in samples of a wide variety of nature. In this work, we focus on PIXE technique, analyzing thick target biological specimens (TTPIXE), using 3 MeV protons produced by an electrostatic accelerator. A nuclear microprobe was used performing PIXE and RBS simultaneously, in order to solve the uncertainties produced in the absolute PIXE quantifying. The advantages of using both techniques and a nuclear microprobe are discussed. Quantitative results are shown to illustrate the multielemental resolution of the PIXE technique; for this, a blood standard was used.

  13. Sandia National Laboratories Algae Raceway Testing Facility Ribbon Cutting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Sandia National Laboratories will be hosting a ribbon cutting on Feb. 4, 2016 at its Livermore Valley Open Campus to commemorate the opening of a new algae raceway testing facility. The new facility will allow researchers to better understand algal cultivation techniques, and is funded in part by the Bioenergy Technologies Office. Advanced Algal Systems Program Manager Alison Goss Eng and Technology Manager Daniel Fishman will be in attendance.

  14. The effects of size reduction techniques on TCLP analysis of solidified mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thiel, R.D.; McLaurin, A.W.; Kochen, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) generates and stores mixed wastes that are subject to regulation under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR). Low level mixed wastes at RFP are destined for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and thus must meet stringent NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC), including free liquids, dispersible solids, and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requirements. TCLP requires size reduction of the waste form to less than 0.95 centimeters. This can be accomplished by cutting, crushing, or grinding. These classic size reduction methods have the effect of exposing more surface area of the waste. Stabilization technologies under investigation at RFP include polymer encapsulation by co-extruding the waste with low density polyethylene and microwave melting. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of different size reduction methods on TCLP results for polyethylene-encapsulated and microwave melted surrogate waste.

  15. Research Techniques

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Techniques Research Techniques Print Coming Soon

  16. Cutting sound enhancement system for mining machines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leigh, Michael C.; Kwitowski, August J.

    1992-01-01

    A cutting sound enhancement system (10) for transmitting an audible signal from the cutting head (101) of a piece of mine machinery (100) to an operator at a remote station (200), wherein, the operator using a headphone unit (14) can monitor the difference in sounds being made solely by the cutting head (101) to determine the location of the roof, floor, and walls of a coal seam (50).

  17. Advanced cryogenics for cutting tools. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lazarus, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to determine if cryogenic treatment improved the life and cost effectiveness of perishable cutting tools over other treatments or coatings. Test results showed that in five of seven of the perishable cutting tools tested there was no improvement in tool life. The other two tools showed a small gain in tool life, but not as much as when switching manufacturers of the cutting tool. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: (1) titanium nitride coatings are more effective than cryogenic treatment in increasing the life of perishable cutting tools made from all cutting tool materials, (2) cryogenic treatment may increase tool life if the cutting tool is improperly heat treated during its origination, and (3) cryogenic treatment was only effective on those tools made from less sophisticated high speed tool steels. As a part of a recent detailed investigation, four cutting tool manufacturers and two cutting tool laboratories were queried and none could supply any data to substantiate cryogenic treatment of perishable cutting tools.

  18. Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Report-Out Webinar February 9, 2012 Adam ... Cost Largest cost contributor to biofuels production Impact of Harvesting...

  19. Cutting Wasteful Spending While Protecting Our Priorities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Congress must work together on a budget that cuts wasteful spending while supporting jobs, the economy, and middle-class families.

  20. Savannah River Site Museum Ribbon Cutting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A ribbon cutting ceremony marked the opening of the new SRS Museum, on October 27, 2014, at the former Dibble Library in Aiken, South Carolina.

  1. Technical Cross-Cutting Issues for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's Spent Fuel Nondestructive Assay Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Blanc, P.; Burr, T.; Evans, L. G.; Favalli, A.; Fensin, M. L.; Freeman, C. R.; Galloway, J.; Gerhart, J.; Rajasingam, A.; Rauch, E.; Sandoval, N. P.; Trellue, H.; Ulrich, T. J.; Conlin, J. L.; Croft, S.; Hendricks, John; Henzl, V.; Henzlova, D.; Eigenbrodt, J. M.; Koehler, W. E.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, T. H.; Lafleur, A. M.; Schear, M. A.; Humphrey, M. A.; Smith, Leon E.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Campbell, Luke W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Gesh, Christopher J.; Shaver, Mark W.; Misner, Alex C.; Amber, S. D.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Quiter, B.; Solodov, Alexander; Charlton, W.; Stafford, A.; Romano, C.; Cheatham, J.; Ehinger, Michael; Thompson, S. J.; Chichester, David; Sterbentz, James; Hu, Jianwei; Hunt, A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Richard, J. G.

    2012-03-01

    Ever since there has been spent fuel (SF), researchers have made nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of that fuel to learn about its content. In general these measurements have focused on the simplest signatures (passive photon and total neutron emission) and the analysis has often focused on diversion detection and on determining properties such as burnup (BU) and cooling time (CT). Because of shortcomings in current analysis methods, inspectorates and policy makers are interested in improving the state-of-the-art in SF NDA. For this reason the U.S. Department of Energy, through the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), targeted the determination of elemental Pu mass in SF as a technical goal. As part of this research effort, 14 nondestructive assay techniques were studied . This wide range of techniques was selected to allow flexibility for the various needs of the safeguards inspectorates and to prepare for the likely integration of one or more techniques having complementary features. In the course of researching this broad range of NDA techniques, several cross-cutting issues were. This paper will describe some common issues and insights. In particular we will describe the following: (1) the role of neutron absorbers with emphasis on how these absorbers vary in SF as a function of initial enrichment, BU and CT; (2) the need to partition the measured signal among different isotopic sources; and (3) the importance of the “first generation” concept which indicates the spatial location from which the signal originates as well as the isotopic origins.

  2. Corner-cutting mining assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.A.

    1981-07-01

    This invention resulted from a contract with the United States Department of Energy and relates to a mining tool. More particularly, the invention relates to an assembly capable of drilling a hole having a square cross-sectional shape with radiused corners. In mining operations in which conventional auger-type drills are used to form a series of parallel, cylindrical holes in a coal seam, a large amount of coal remains in place in the seam because the shape of the holes leaves thick webs between the holes. A higher percentage of coal can be mined from a seam by a means capable of drilling holes having a substantially square cross section. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved mining apparatus by means of which the amount of coal recovered from a seam deposit can be increased. Another object of the invention is to provide a drilling assembly which cuts corners in a hole having a circular cross section. These objects and other advantages are attained by a preferred embodiment of the invention.

  3. Cutting tool form compensation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkman, W.E.; Babelay, E.F. Jr.; Klages, E.J.

    1993-10-19

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed. 9 figures.

  4. Cutting tool form compensaton system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barkman, William E.; Babelay, Jr., Edwin F.; Klages, Edward J.

    1993-01-01

    A compensation system for a computer-controlled machining apparatus having a controller and including a cutting tool and a workpiece holder which are movable relative to one another along a preprogrammed path during a machining operation utilizes a camera and a vision computer for gathering information at a preselected stage of a machining operation relating to the actual shape and size of the cutting edge of the cutting tool and for altering the preprogrammed path in accordance with detected variations between the actual size and shape of the cutting edge and an assumed size and shape of the cutting edge. The camera obtains an image of the cutting tool against a background so that the cutting tool and background possess contrasting light intensities, and the vision computer utilizes the contrasting light intensities of the image to locate points therein which correspond to points along the actual cutting edge. Following a series of computations involving the determining of a tool center from the points identified along the tool edge, the results of the computations are fed to the controller where the preprogrammed path is altered as aforedescribed.

  5. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  6. NETL-RUA Scans for Improved Enhanced Oil Recovery Technique ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    cutting-edge improvements to enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques. Results from these studies could be used to help increase domestic oil supplies from EOR while helping to ...

  7. Advanced NMR-based techniques for pore structure analysis of coal. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.M.; Hua, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    During the 3 year term of the project, new methods have been developed for characterizing the pore structure of porous materials such as coals, carbons, and amorphous silica gels. In general, these techniques revolve around; (1) combining multiple techniques such as small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and adsorption of contrast-matched adsorbates or {sup 129}Xe NMR and thermoporometry (the change in freezing point with pore size), (2) combining adsorption isotherms over several pressure ranges to obtain a more complete description of pore filling, or (3) applying NMR ({sup 129}Xe, {sup 14}N{sub 2}, {sup 15}N{sub 2}) techniques with well-defined porous solids with pores in the large micropore size range (>1 nm).

  8. Nonlinear Raman Techniques in Femtosecond Time Resolved Spectroscopy for the Analysis and Control of Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Materny, Arnulf; Konradi, Jakow; Namboodiri, Vinu; Namboodiri, Mahesh; Scaria, Abraham

    2008-11-14

    The use of four-wave mixing techniques in femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy has considerable advantages. Due to the many degrees of freedom offered e.g. by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), the dynamics even of complex systems can be analyzed in detail. Using pulse shaping techniques in combination with a self-learning loop approach, molecular mode excitation can be controlled very efficiently in a multi-photon excitation process. Results obtained from the optimal control of CARS on {beta}-carotene are discussed.

  9. EVIDENCE FOR SOLAR TETHER-CUTTING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION FROM CORONAL FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, Na; Lee, Jeongwoo; Wang, Haimin; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Moore, Ronald L.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering solar eruptive events, but direct observation of this rapid process has been a challenge. In this Letter, using a nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) extrapolation technique, we present a visualization of field line connectivity changes resulting from tether-cutting reconnection over about 30 minutes during the 2011 February 13 M6.6 flare in NOAA AR 11158. Evidence for the tether-cutting reconnection was first collected through multiwavelength observations and then by analysis of the field lines traced from positions of four conspicuous flare 1700 Å footpoints observed at the event onset. Right before the flare, the four footpoints are located very close to the regions of local maxima of the magnetic twist index. In particular, the field lines from the inner two footpoints form two strongly twisted flux bundles (up to ∼1.2 turns), which shear past each other and reach out close to the outer two footpoints, respectively. Immediately after the flare, the twist index of regions around the footpoints diminishes greatly and the above field lines become low-lying and less twisted (≲0.6 turns), overarched by loops linking the two flare ribbons formed later. About 10% of the flux (∼3 × 10{sup 19} Mx) from the inner footpoints undergoes a footpoint exchange. This portion of flux originates from the edge regions of the inner footpoints that are brightened first. These rapid changes of magnetic field connectivity inferred from the NLFFF extrapolation are consistent with the tether-cutting magnetic reconnection model.

  10. Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA): A Nondestructive Assay Technique for the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative’s Plutonium Assay Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. W. Sterbentz; D. L. Chichester

    2010-12-01

    This is an end-of-year report for a project funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241). The goal of this project is to investigate the feasibility of using Neutron Resonance Transmission Analysis (NRTA) to assay plutonium in commercial light-water-reactor spent fuel. This project is part of a larger research effort within the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to evaluate methods for assaying plutonium in spent fuel, the Plutonium Assay Challenge. The first-year goals for this project were modest and included: 1) developing a zero-order MCNP model for the NRTA technique, simulating data results presented in the literature, 2) completing a preliminary set of studies investigating important design and performance characteristics for the NRTA measurement technique, and 3) documentation of this work in an end of the year report (this report). Research teams at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and at several universities are also working to investigate plutonium assay methods for spent-fuel safeguards. While the NRTA technique is well proven in the scientific literature for assaying individual spent fuel pins, it is a newcomer to the current NGSI efforts studying Pu assay method techniques having just started in March 2010; several analytical techniques have been under investigation within this program for two to three years or more. This report summarizes a nine month period of work.

  11. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gettemy, D.J.

    1992-11-17

    A method is described for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation. 1 figure.

  12. Laser cutting with chemical reaction assist

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gettemy, Donald J.

    1992-01-01

    A method for cutting with a laser beam where an oxygen-hydrocarbon reaction is used to provide auxiliary energy to a metal workpiece to supplement the energy supplied by the laser. Oxygen is supplied to the laser focus point on the workpiece by a nozzle through which the laser beam also passes. A liquid hydrocarbon is supplied by coating the workpiece along the cutting path with the hydrocarbon prior to laser irradiation or by spraying a stream of hydrocarbon through a nozzle aimed at a point on the cutting path which is just ahead of the focus point during irradiation.

  13. FTA Basic Event & Cut Set Ranking.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-05-04

    Version 00 IMPORTANCE computes various measures of probabilistic importance of basic events and minimal cut sets to a fault tree or reliability network diagram. The minimal cut sets, the failure rates and the fault duration times (i.e., the repair times) of all basic events contained in the minimal cut sets are supplied as input data. The failure and repair distributions are assumed to be exponential. IMPORTANCE, a quantitative evaluation code, then determines the probability ofmore » the top event and computes the importance of minimal cut sets and basic events by a numerical ranking. Two measures are computed. The first describes system behavior at one point in time; the second describes sequences of failures that cause the system to fail in time. All measures are computed assuming statistical independence of basic events. In addition, system unavailability and expected number of system failures are computed by the code.« less

  14. Baltimore Vet Cuts Energy Bills With Solar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Baltimore resident and disabled veteran Paul Bennett shares his experience utilizing state and federal grants and tax credits to install solar panels on his historic row home and cut energy costs.

  15. STRUCTURAL ANNOTATION OF EM IMAGES BY GRAPH CUT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Hang; Auer, Manfred; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-05-08

    Biological images have the potential to reveal complex signatures that may not be amenable to morphological modeling in terms of shape, location, texture, and color. An effective analytical method is to characterize the composition of a specimen based on user-defined patterns of texture and contrast formation. However, such a simple requirement demands an improved model for stability and robustness. Here, an interactive computational model is introduced for learning patterns of interest by example. The learned patterns bound an active contour model in which the traditional gradient descent optimization is replaced by the more efficient optimization of the graph cut methods. First, the energy function is defined according to the curve evolution. Next, a graph is constructed with weighted edges on the energy function and is optimized with the graph cut algorithm. As a result, the method combines the advantages of the level set method and graph cut algorithm, i.e.,"topological" invariance and computational efficiency. The technique is extended to the multi-phase segmentation problem; the method is validated on synthetic images and then applied to specimens imaged by transmission electron microscopy(TEM).

  16. COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH: Parallel Analysis Tools and New Visualization Techniques for Ultra-Large Climate Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    middleton, Don; Haley, Mary

    2014-12-10

    ParVis was a project funded under LAB 10-05: “Earth System Modeling: Advanced Scientific Visualization of Ultra-Large Climate Data Sets”. Argonne was the lead lab with partners at PNNL, SNL, NCAR and UC-Davis. This report covers progress from January 1st, 2013 through Dec 1st, 2014. Two previous reports covered the period from Summer, 2010, through September 2011 and October 2011 through December 2012, respectively. While the project was originally planned to end on April 30, 2013, personnel and priority changes allowed many of the institutions to continue work through FY14 using existing funds. A primary focus of ParVis was introducing parallelism to climate model analysis to greatly reduce the time-to-visualization for ultra-large climate data sets. Work in the first two years was conducted on two tracks with different time horizons: one track to provide immediate help to climate scientists already struggling to apply their analysis to existing large data sets and another focused on building a new data-parallel library and tool for climate analysis and visualization that will give the field a platform for performing analysis and visualization on ultra-large datasets for the foreseeable future. In the final 2 years of the project, we focused mostly on the new data-parallel library and associated tools for climate analysis and visualization.

  17. Structural Analysis for Gold Mineralization Using Remote Sensing and Geochemical Techniques in a GIS Environment: Island of Lesvos, Hellas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rokos, D. Argialas, D. Mavrantza, R. St Seymour, K.; Vamvoukakis, C.; Kouli, M.; Lamera, S.; Paraskevas, H.; Karfakis, I.; Denes, G

    2000-12-15

    Exploration for epithermal Au has been active lately in the Aegean Sea of the eastern Mediterranean Basin, both in the islands of the Quaternary arc and in those of the back-arc region. The purpose of this study was the structural mapping and analysis for a preliminary investigation of possible epithermal gold mineralization, using remotely sensed data and techniques, structural and field data, and geochemical information, for a specific area on the Island of Lesvos. Therefore, Landsat-TM and SPOT-Pan satellite images and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the study area were processed digitally using spatial filtering techniques for the enhancement and recognition of the geologically significant lineaments, as well as algebraic operations with band ratios and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), for the identification of alteration zones. Statistical rose diagrams and a SCHMIDT projection Stereo Net were generated from the lineament maps and the collected field data (dip and strike measurements of faults, joints, and veins), respectively. The derived lineament map and the band ratio images were manipulated in a GIS environment, in order to study the relation of the tectonic pattern to both the alteration zoning and the geomorphology of the volcanic field of the study area. Target areas of high interest for possible mineralization also were specified using geochemical techniques, such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, trace-element, and fluid-inclusion analysis. Finally, preliminary conclusions were derived about possible mineralization, the type (high or low sulfidation), and the extent of mineralization, by combining the structural information with geochemical information.

  18. New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use New Refrigeration Technology Could Substantially Cut Energy Use April 1, 2016 - 11:40pm Addthis New Energy ...

  19. Noise testing of gearboxes and transmissions using low cost digital analysis and control techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Middleton, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The combination of low cost personal computer, powerful array processor and intelligent data interface make it possible to carry out multichannel noise and vibration analysis at high speed during acceleration of gearbox on a test rig. Order analysis is used to compare noise signatures with preset targets for up to 20 orders of input shaft rotation. Targets are derived by the computer from practical test results. The computer also controls the test sequence and provides for varying the sequence according to the gearbox to be tested. Design considerations for a Quality Audit system are discussed and practical test results presented.

  20. Note: A novel technique for analysis of aqueous solutions by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rusak, D. A.; Bell, Z. T.; Anthony, T. P.

    2015-11-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates typically consist of gold or silver nanoparticles deposited on a non-conductive substrate. In Raman spectroscopy, the nanoparticles produce an enhancement of the electromagnetic field which, in turn, leads to greater electronic excitation of molecules in the local environment. Here, we show that these same surfaces can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio obtained in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of aqueous solutions. In this case, the SERS substrates not only lower breakdown thresholds and lead to more efficient plasma initiation but also provide an appropriately wettable surface for the deposition of the liquid. We refer to this technique as surface-enhanced laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

  1. CRISS-CROSS MAPPING OF BD+30 3639: A NEW KINEMATIC ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffen, Wolfgang; Koning, Nico E-mail: nkoning@iras.ucalgary.ca

    2011-03-15

    We introduce a new method to analyze kinematic proper motion data. The method is called 'criss-cross' mapping. It emphasizes regions where proper motion vector extensions cross or converge. From a superposition of lines through the vectors a map is generated which helps to interpret the kinematic data. The new mapping technique is applied to the young planetary nebula BD+30 3639. The data are more than 200 internal proper motion measurements from Li et al. From the criss-cross mapping of BD+30 3639, we conclude that the kinematic center is approximately 0.5 arcsec off-set to the southeast from the central star. The mapping also shows evidence for a non-homologous expansion of the nebula that is consistent with a disturbance due to the bipolar molecular bullets.

  2. Two-dimensional wave-number spectral analysis techniques for phase contrast imaging turbulence imaging data on large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael, C. A.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.; Vyacheslavov, L.; Sanin, A.

    2015-09-15

    An analysis method for unfolding the spatially resolved wave-number spectrum and phase velocity from the 2D CO{sub 2} laser phase contrast imaging system on the large helical device is described. This is based on the magnetic shear technique which identifies propagation direction from 2D spatial Fourier analysis of images detected by a 6 × 8 detector array. Because the strongest modes have wave-number at the lower end of the instrumental k range, high resolution spectral techniques are necessary to clearly resolve the propagation direction and hence the spatial distribution of fluctuations along the probing laser beam. Multiple-spatial point cross-correlation averaging is applied before calculating the spatial power spectrum. Different methods are compared, and it is found that the maximum entropy method (MEM) gives best results. The possible generation of artifacts from the over-narrowing of spectra are investigated and found not to be a significant problem. The spatial resolution Δρ (normalized radius) around the peak wave-number, for conventional Fourier analysis, is ∼0.5, making physical interpretation difficult, while for MEM, Δρ ∼ 0.1.

  3. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; Hendry, Gilbert; Dechev, Damian

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed formore » the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.« less

  4. Static analysis techniques for semiautomatic synthesis of message passing software skeletons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sottile, Matthew; Dagit, Jason; Zhang, Deli; Hendry, Gilbert; Dechev, Damian

    2015-06-29

    The design of high-performance computing architectures demands performance analysis of large-scale parallel applications to derive various parameters concerning hardware design and software development. The process of performance analysis and benchmarking an application can be done in several ways with varying degrees of fidelity. One of the most cost-effective ways is to do a coarse-grained study of large-scale parallel applications through the use of program skeletons. The concept of a “program skeleton” that we discuss in this article is an abstracted program that is derived from a larger program where source code that is determined to be irrelevant is removed for the purposes of the skeleton. In this work, we develop a semiautomatic approach for extracting program skeletons based on compiler program analysis. Finally, we demonstrate correctness of our skeleton extraction process by comparing details from communication traces, as well as show the performance speedup of using skeletons by running simulations in the SST/macro simulator.

  5. Economic feasibility analysis of water-harvesting techniques for mined-land reclamation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieves, L.A.; Marti, M.H.

    1981-07-01

    A water harvesting, agricultural production system, field tested as a means of reclaiming strip-mined land is described. Though the technical feasibility of the system is becoming increasingly apparent, economic feasibility and legal issues may determine its potential application. The purpose of this study is to explore the economic feasibility of the system and to provide information for use in assessing whether further investigation of water harvesting reclamation techniques is warranted. The economic feasibility of the PNL reclamation system hinges on whether its net benefits exceed those of conventional reclamation. This preliminary feasibility study assesses the net private benefits of each system using data for the Peabody Coal Company's Kayenta mine on the Black Mesa in Arizona. To compare the alternative reclamation systems, the present value of direct net benefits (income minus production and reclamation costs) is calculated for grazing (conventional reclamation) or for cropping (PNL reclamation). Three of the PNL system slope treatments have lower estimated total costs than conventional reclamation. The difference is $3895/acre for compacted slope, $3025/acre for salt-compacted slope and $2310/acre for crop-on-slope. These differences constitute a substantial cost advantage for the system on the basis of the present value of land reclamation and maintenance costs. The system also has advantages based on the estimated value of agricultural production capacity. Even the lowest yield levels considered for alfalfa, corn, and pinto beans had higher net present values than grazing.

  6. Advanced techniques for the analysis of crisis stability, deterrence, and latency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The principal results of studies on crisis stability, deterrence, and latency are presented in their order of development. They capture the main features of stability analysis; relate first strike, crisis, and arms control stability as seen from US and Russian perspective; and address whether different metrics, uncertain damage preferences, or the deployment of defenses can be destabilizing. The report explores differences between unilateral and proportional force reductions in the region of deep reductions where concern shifts from stability to latency.

  7. Three dimensional imaging and analysis of a single nano-device at the ultimate scale using correlative microscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grenier, A.; Barnes, J. P.; Serra, R.; Audoit, G.; Cooper, D.; Duguay, S.; Rolland, N.; Blavette, D.; Vurpillot, F.; Morin, P.; Gouraud, P.

    2015-05-25

    The analysis of a same sample using nanometre or atomic-scale techniques is fundamental to fully understand device properties. This is especially true for the dopant distribution within last generation nano-transistors such as MOSFET or FINFETs. In this work, the spatial distribution of boron in a nano-transistor at the atomic scale has been investigated using a correlative approach combining electron and atom probe tomography. The distortions present in the reconstructed volume using atom probe tomography have been discussed by simulations of surface atoms using a cylindrical symmetry taking into account the evaporation fields. Electron tomography combined with correction of atomic density was used so that to correct image distortions observed in atom probe tomography reconstructions. These corrected atom probe tomography reconstructions then enable a detailed boron doping analysis of the device.

  8. Three region analysis of a bounded plasma using particle in cell and fluid techniques. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    A detailed collisionless sheath theory and a three-region collisional model of a bounded plasma are presented, and the suitability of the collisional model for analysis of ignited mode thermionic converters is investigated. The sheath theory extends previous analyses to regimes in which the sheath potential and electron temperatures are comparable in magnitude. In all operating regimes typical of a ignited mode thermionic converter, the predicted sheaths extend several mean-free paths. The apparent collisionality of the sheaths prompted development of a collisional, three-region model of the converter plasma. By interfacing Particle-in-Cell regions (for the sheaths) and fluid regions (for the bulk of the plasma), a time-dependent, wall-to-wall model of the plasma in the inter-electrode space is created. The components of the model are tested and validated against analytic solutions and against one another, then applied to the analysis of an ignited mode thermionic converter. Under ignited mode operating conditions, the electron velocity distribution at the plasma/sheath boundary is found to be inconsistent with that assumed in the model development, and the calculation diverges. The observed distribution is analyzed and a new basis set of distribution functions is suggested that should permit application of the hybrid model to ignited mode thermionic converters.

  9. New analysis techniques for estimating impacts of federal appliance efficiency standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, James E.

    2003-06-24

    Impacts of U.S. appliance and equipment standards have been described previously. Since 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has updated standards for clothes washers, water heaters, and residential central air conditioners and heat pumps. A revised estimate of the aggregate impacts of all the residential appliance standards in the United States shows that existing standards will reduce residential primary energy consumption and associated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions by 89 percent in 2020 compared to the levels expected without any standards. Studies of possible new standards are underway for residential furnaces and boilers, as well as a number of products in the commercial (tertiary) sector, such as distribution transformers and unitary air conditioners. The analysis of standards has evolved in response to critiques and in an attempt to develop more precise estimates of costs and benefits of these regulations. The newer analysis elements include: (1) valuing energy savings by using marginal (rather than average) energy prices specific to an end-use; (2) simulating the impacts of energy efficiency increases over a sample population of consumers to quantify the proportion of households having net benefits or net costs over the life of the appliance; and (3) calculating marginal markups in distribution channels to derive the incremental change in retail prices associated with increased manufacturing costs for improving energy efficiency.

  10. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Louise G; Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William S; Peerani, Paolo

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  11. Primary Energy Efficiency Analysis of Different Separate Sensible and Latent Cooling Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Separate Sensible and Latent cooling (SSLC) has been discussed in open literature as means to improve air conditioning system efficiency. The main benefit of SSLC is that it enables heat source optimization for the different forms of loads, sensible vs. latent, and as such maximizes the cycle efficiency. In this paper I use a thermodynamic analysis tool in order to analyse the performance of various SSLC technologies including: multi-evaporators two stage compression system, vapour compression system with heat activated desiccant dehumidification, and integrated vapour compression with desiccant dehumidification. A primary coefficient of performance is defined and used to judge the performance of the different SSLC technologies at the design conditions. Results showed the trade-off in performance for different sensible heat factor and regeneration temperatures.

  12. Variability of biomass chemical composition and rapid analysis using FT-NIR techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ye, Philip [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    A quick method for analyzing the chemical composition of renewable energy biomass feedstock was developed by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analysis. The study presents the broad-based model hypothesis that a single FT-NIR predictive model can be developed to analyze multiple types of biomass feedstock. The two most important biomass feedstocks corn stover and switchgrass were evaluated for the variability in their concentrations of the following components: glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash. A hypothesis test was developed based upon these two species. Both cross-validation and independent validation results showed that the broad-based model developed is promising for future chemical prediction of both biomass species; in addition, the results also showed the method's prediction potential for wheat straw.

  13. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2004-12-28

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  14. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-11-25

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the biological object in a main magnetic field and in a radio frequency field, the main magnetic field having a static field direction; rotating the biological object at a rotational frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. According to another embodiment, the radio frequency is pulsed to provide a sequence capable of producing a spectrum that is substantially free of spinning sideband peaks.

  15. Method for high resolution magnetic resonance analysis using magic angle technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wind, Robert A.; Hu, Jian Zhi

    2003-12-30

    A method of performing a magnetic resonance analysis of a biological object that includes placing the object in a main magnetic field (that has a static field direction) and in a radio frequency field; rotating the object at a frequency of less than about 100 Hz around an axis positioned at an angle of about 54.degree.44' relative to the main magnetic static field direction; pulsing the radio frequency to provide a sequence that includes a phase-corrected magic angle turning pulse segment; and collecting data generated by the pulsed radio frequency. The object may be reoriented about the magic angle axis between three predetermined positions that are related to each other by 120.degree.. The main magnetic field may be rotated mechanically or electronically. Methods for magnetic resonance imaging of the object are also described.

  16. New time-line technique for station blackout core-melt analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stutzke, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Florida Power Corporation (FPC) has developed a new method for analyzing station blackout (SBO) core-melt accidents. This method, created during the recent probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of Crystal River Unit 3 (CR-3), originated from the need to analyze the interactions among the two-train emergency feedwater (EFW) system, station batteries, and diesel generators (DGs) following a loss of off-site power (LOSP) event. SBO core-melt sequences for CR-3 are unique since the time core-melt commences depends on which DG fails last. The purpose of this paper is to outline the new method of analysis of SBO core-melt accidents at CR-3. The significance of SBO core-melt accidents to total plant risk, along with the efficacy of various methods to reduce SBO risk, are also discussed.

  17. Fault Tree Cut Set System Performance.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2000-02-21

    Version 00 SIGPI computes the probabilistic performance of complex systems by combining cut set or other binary product data with probability information on each basic event. SIGPI is designed to work with either coherent systems, where the system fails when certain combinations of components fail, or noncoherent systems, where at least one cut set occurs only if at least one component of the system is operating properly. The program can handle conditionally independent components, dependentmore » components, or a combination of component types and has been used to evaluate responses to environmental threats and seismic events. The three data types that can be input are cut set data in disjoint normal form, basic component probabilities for independent basic components, and mean and covariance data for statistically dependent basic components.« less

  18. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-15

    Decommissioning of commercial nuclear power plants presents technological challenges. One major challenge is the removal of large components mainly consisting of the reactor vessel, steam generators and pressurizer. In order to remove and package these large components nozzles must be cut from the reactor vessel to precise tolerances. In some cases steam generators must be segmented for size and weight reduction. One innovative technology that has been used successfully at several commercial nuclear plant decommissioning is diamond wire sawing. Diamond wire sawing is performed by rotating a cable with diamond segments attached using a flywheel approximately 24 inches in diameter driven remotely by a hydraulic pump. Tension is provided using a gear rack drive which also takes up the slack in the wire. The wire is guided through the use of pulleys keeps the wire in a precise location. The diamond wire consists of 1/4 inch aircraft cable with diamond beads strung over the cable separated by springs and brass crimps. Standard wire contains 40 diamond beads per meter and can be made to any length. Cooling the wire and controlling the spread of contamination presents significant challenges. Under normal circumstances the wire is cooled and the cutting kerf cleaned by using water. In some cases of reactor nozzle cuts the use of water is prohibited because it cannot be controlled. This challenge was solved by using liquid Carbon Dioxide as the cooling agent. The liquid CO{sub 2} is passed through a special nozzle which atomizes the liquid into snowflakes which is introduced under pressure to the wire. The snowflakes attach to the wire keeping it cool and to the metal shavings. As the CO{sub 2} and metal shavings are released from the wire due to its fast rotation, the snowflakes evaporate leaving only the fine metal shavings as waste. Secondary waste produced is simply the small volume of fine metal shavings removed from the cut surface. Diamond wire sawing using CO{sub 2

  19. Cutting Biofuel Production Costs | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Energy Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips Cut Gas Costs This Holiday Traveling Season with Three Easy Tips November 26, 2013 - 9:23am Addthis Turning off your engine while waiting in the parking lot is a great way to save money on gas. | Photo courtesy of Kristy Keel-Blackmon, NREL/21196. Turning off your engine while waiting in the parking lot is a great way to save money on gas. | Photo courtesy of Kristy Keel-Blackmon, NREL/21196. Jason

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Emissions Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Mowers Help National Park Cut Emissions on Delicious Rank Alternative

  1. Scaling Analysis Techniques to Establish Experimental Infrastructure for Component, Subsystem, and Integrated System Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabharwall, Piyush; O'Brien, James E.; McKellar, Michael G.; Housley, Gregory K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid energy system research has the potential to expand the application for nuclear reactor technology beyond electricity. The purpose of this research is to reduce both technical and economic risks associated with energy systems of the future. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) mitigate the variability of renewable energy sources, provide opportunities to produce revenue from different product streams, and avoid capital inefficiencies by matching electrical output to demand by using excess generation capacity for other purposes when it is available. An essential step in the commercialization and deployment of this advanced technology is scaled testing to demonstrate integrated dynamic performance of advanced systems and components when risks cannot be mitigated adequately by analysis or simulation. Further testing in a prototypical environment is needed for validation and higher confidence. This research supports the development of advanced nuclear reactor technology and NHES, and their adaptation to commercial industrial applications that will potentially advance U.S. energy security, economy, and reliability and further reduce carbon emissions. Experimental infrastructure development for testing and feasibility studies of coupled systems can similarly support other projects having similar developmental needs and can generate data required for validation of models in thermal energy storage and transport, energy, and conversion process development. Experiments performed in the Systems Integration Laboratory will acquire performance data, identify scalability issues, and quantify technology gaps and needs for various hybrid or other energy systems. This report discusses detailed scaling (component and integrated system) and heat transfer figures of merit that will establish the experimental infrastructure for component, subsystem, and integrated system testing to advance the technology readiness of components and systems to the level required for commercial

  2. Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F.; Poore III, Willis P.; Muhlheim, Michael David

    2014-07-30

    An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.

  3. CRAD, Welding, Cutting and Brazing Assessment Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This assessment is to verify hot work requirements associated with welding, cutting, burning, brazing, grinding and other spark- or flame-producing operations have been implemented. Verify that the requirements implemented are appropriate for preventing loss of life and property from fire, and personal injury from contact with or exposure to molten metals, vapors, radiant energy, injurious rays and sparks.

  4. Characterization of electrically-active defects in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with laser-based failure analysis techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, Mary A.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon; Edward I. Cole, Jr.

    2016-01-12

    In this study, laser-based failure analysis techniques demonstrate the ability to quickly and non-intrusively screen deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes(LEDs) for electrically-active defects. In particular, two laser-based techniques, light-induced voltage alteration and thermally-induced voltage alteration, generate applied voltage maps (AVMs) that provide information on electrically-active defect behavior including turn-on bias, density, and spatial location. Here, multiple commercial LEDs were examined and found to have dark defect signals in the AVM indicating a site of reduced resistance or leakage through the diode. The existence of the dark defect signals in the AVM correlates strongly with an increased forward-bias leakage current. This increasedmore » leakage is not present in devices without AVM signals. Transmission electron microscopyanalysis of a dark defect signal site revealed a dislocation cluster through the pn junction. The cluster included an open core dislocation. Even though LEDs with few dark AVM defect signals did not correlate strongly with power loss, direct association between increased open core dislocation densities and reduced LED device performance has been presented elsewhere [M. W. Moseley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 095301 (2015)].« less

  5. An evaluation of alternative reactor vessel cutting technologies for the experimental boiling water reactor at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boing, L.E.; Henley, D.R. ); Manion, W.J.; Gordon, J.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Metal cutting techniques that can be used to segment the reactor pressure vessel of the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have been evaluated by Nuclear Energy Services. Twelve cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required task, their performance characteristics, environmental and radiological impacts, and cost and schedule considerations. Specific recommendations regarding which technology should ultimately be used by ANL are included. The selection of a cutting method was the responsibility of the decommissioning staff at ANL, who included a relative weighting of the parameters described in this document in their evaluation process. 73 refs., 26 figs., 69 tabs.

  6. Classical and quantum chaos in a circular billiard with a straight cut

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ree, S.; Reichl, L.E. [Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Center for Studies in Statistical Mechanics and Complex Systems, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1999-08-01

    We study classical and quantum dynamics of a particle in a circular billiard with a straight cut. Classically, this system can be integrable, nonintegrable with {ital soft chaos}, or nonintegrable with {ital hard chaos} as we vary the size of the cut. We plot Poincar{acute e} surfaces of section to study chaos. Quantum mechanically, we look at Husimi plots, and also use the quantum web, the technique primarily used in spin systems so far, to try to see differences in quantum manifestations of soft and hard chaos. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Natural resource validation: A primer on concepts and techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulibarri, C.A.; Wellman, K.F.

    1997-07-01

    Natural resource valuation has always had a fundamental role in the practice of cost-benefit analysis of health, safety, and environmental issues. The authors provide an objective overview of resource valuation techniques and describe their potential role in environmental restoration/waste management (ER/WM) activities at federal facilities. This handbook considers five general classes of valuation techniques: (1) market-based techniques, which rely on historical information on market prices and transactions to determine resource values; (2) nonmarket techniques that rely on indirect estimates of resource values; (3) nonmarket techniques that are based on direct estimates of resource values; (4) cross-cutting valuation techniques, which combine elements of one or more of these methods; and (5) ecological valuation techniques used in the emerging field of ecological economics. The various valuation techniques under consideration are described by highlighting their applicability in environmental management and regulation. The handbook also addresses key unresolved issues in the application of valuation techniques generally, including discounting future values, incorporating environmental equity concerns, and concerns over the uncertainties in the measurement of natural resource values and environmental risk.

  8. Breakthrough Furnace Can Cut Solar Industry Costs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Furnace can Cut Solar Industry Costs A game-changing Optical Cavity Furnace (OCF)-developed by the National Renew- able Energy Laboratory (NREL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy-uses optics to heat and purify solar cells at unmatched precision, while also boosting the cells' efficiency. As solar cells move through a manufacturer's production line, they must be oxidized, annealed, purified, diffused, etched, and layered. Heat is an

  9. Asymmetrically cut crystals for synchrotron radiation monochromators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. ); Cerrina, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Asymmetrically cut crystals are interesting for use in synchrotron radiation monochromators because of their good energy resolution characteristics and their focusing properties. Ray tracing codes, such as SHADOW, are very efficient in the design and development of new optical devices. In order to determine the convenience of using asymmetrically cut crystals for x-ray monochromators, SHADOW has been extended to include these kinds of crystals. The physical approach to ray tracing asymmetrically cut crystals is based on the coexistence of two periodic structures. One of these is the bulk periodic structure of the Bragg planes. Such a structure determines the existence of a rocking curve near the Bragg condition, and is implemented in SHADOW following the Darwin--Prins formalism of the dynamical theory of diffraction. The second periodic structure is a one-dimensional grating on the crystal surface, formed by the truncation of the lattice planes with the surface. This grating is responsible for the focusing properties of these crystals and plays an essential role in determining the trajectory of the rays. The combination of an asymmetric crystal and a nonplanar surface can be easily achieved by bending (Johann case) to provide improved properties. More complex cases such as the ground-bent crystals (i.e., Johansson geometry) can be considered as a particular case of asymmetrical crystals in which the angle between the Bragg planes and the surface change along the crystal surface. All these cases have been implemented in SHADOW.

  10. Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air Cutting NOx from Diesel Engines with Membrane-Generated Nitrogen-Enriched Air 2005 Diesel Engine ...

  11. Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape Rooftop Solar Challenge to Cut Solar's Red Tape December 1, 2011 - 4:35pm Addthis Ginny Simmons Ginny Simmons Former Managing Editor ...

  12. Savannah River Site Cuts Ribbon for New Salt Waste Processing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Savannah River Site Cuts Ribbon for New Salt Waste Processing Facility Savannah River Site Cuts Ribbon for New Salt Waste Processing Facility June 30, 2016 - 12:55pm Addthis DOE ...

  13. Vital area analysis using sets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stack, D.W.; Francis, K.A.

    1980-05-01

    This report describes the use of the Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) for vital area analysis. Several concepts are introduced which enable the analyst to construct more efficient SETS user programs to perform vital area analysis. The advantages of performing the transformation of variables without first determining the minimal cut sets of the fault tree are discussed. A ''bottom-up'' approach to solving a fault tree is presented. The techniques described for vital area analysis are also suitable and efficient for many kinds of common cause analysis.

  14. SU-E-T-374: Sensitivity of ArcCHECK to Tomotherapy Delivery Errors: Dependence On Analysis Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, A; Chu, J; Turian, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: ArcCHECK (Sun Nuclear) is a cylindrical diode array detector allowing three-dimensional sampling of dose, particularly useful in treatment delivery QA of helical tomotherapy. Gamma passing rate is a common method of analyzing results from diode arrays, but is less intuitive in 3D with complex measured dose distributions. This study explores the sensitivity of gamma passing rate to choice of analysis technique in the context of its ability to detect errors introduced into the treatment delivery. Methods: Nine treatment plans were altered to introduce errors in: couch speed, gantry/sonogram synchronization, and leaf open time. Each plan was then delivered to ArcCHECK in each of the following arrangements: offset, when the high dose area of the plan is delivered to the side of the phantom so that some diode measurements will be on the order of the prescription dose, and centered, when the high dose is in the center of the phantom where an ion chamber measurement may be acquired, but the diode measurements are in the mid to low-dose region at the periphery of the plan. Gamma analysis was performed at 3%/3mm tolerance and both global and local gamma criteria. The threshold of detectability for each error type was calculated as the magnitude at which the gamma passing rate drops below 90%. Results: Global gamma criteria reduced the sensitivity in the offset arrangement (from 2.3% to 4.5%, 8 to 21, and 3ms to 8ms for couch-speed decrease, gantry-error, and leaf-opening increase, respectively). The centered arrangement detected changes at 3.3%, 5, and 4ms with smaller variation. Conclusion: Each arrangement has advantages; offsetting allows more sampling of the higher dose region, while centering allows an ion chamber measurement and potentially better use of tools such as 3DVH, at the cost of positioning more of the diodes in the sometimes noisy mid-dose region.

  15. Diagnostics and Control of Natural Gas-Fired furnaces via Flame Image Analysis using Machine Vision & Artificial Intelligence Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahla Keyvan

    2005-12-01

    A new approach for the detection of real-time properties of flames is used in this project to develop improved diagnostics and controls for natural gas fired furnaces. The system utilizes video images along with advanced image analysis and artificial intelligence techniques to provide virtual sensors in a stand-alone expert shell environment. One of the sensors is a flame sensor encompassing a flame detector and a flame analyzer to provide combustion status. The flame detector can identify any burner that has not fired in a multi-burner furnace. Another sensor is a 3-D temperature profiler. One important aspect of combustion control is product quality. The 3-D temperature profiler of this on-line system is intended to provide a tool for a better temperature control in a furnace to improve product quality. In summary, this on-line diagnostic and control system offers great potential for improving furnace thermal efficiency, lowering NOx and carbon monoxide emissions, and improving product quality. The system is applicable in natural gas-fired furnaces in the glass industry and reheating furnaces used in steel and forging industries.

  16. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2011-08-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  17. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Montague, Stephen

    2003-09-09

    A cutting blade is disclosed fabricated of micromachined silicon. The cutting blade utilizes a monocrystalline silicon substrate having a {211} crystalline orientation to form one or more cutting edges that are defined by the intersection of {211} crystalline planes of silicon with {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This results in a cutting blade which has a shallow cutting-edge angle .theta. of 19.5.degree.. The micromachined cutting blade can be formed using an anisotropic wet etching process which substantially terminates etching upon reaching the {111} crystalline planes of silicon. This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in tension and optionally coated for increased wear resistance and biocompatibility, has multiple applications including eye surgery (LASIK procedure).

  18. Tool for cutting insulation from electrical cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harless, Charles E.; Taylor, Ward G.

    1978-01-01

    This invention is an efficient hand tool for precisely slitting the sheath of insulation on an electrical cable--e.g., a cable two inches in diameter--in a manner facilitating subsequent peeling or stripping of the insulation. The tool includes a rigid frame which is slidably fitted on an end section of the cable. The frame carries a rigidly affixed handle and an opposed, elongated blade-and-handle assembly. The blade-and-handle assembly is pivotally supported by a bracket which is slidably mounted on the frame for movement toward and away from the cable, thus providing an adjustment for the depth of cut. The blade-and-handle assembly is mountable to the bracket in two pivotable positions. With the assembly mounted in the first position, the tool is turned about the cable to slit the insulation circumferentially. With the assembly mounted in the second position, the tool is drawn along the cable to slit the insulation axially. When cut both circumferentially and axially, the insulation can easily be peeled from the cable.

  19. Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technology to Market » Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 2 Four projects are working to accelerate the development of revolutionary products or processes for the photovoltaic (PV) industry through the High Impact Supply Chain R&D for PV Technologies/Systems program, which represents the second round of PV Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies funding. These projects

  20. Ribbon cutting marks chemistry laboratory upgrades at Northern New Mexico

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    College Ribbon cutting marks chemistry laboratory upgrades at Northern New Mexico College Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Ribbon cutting marks chemistry laboratory upgrades at Northern New Mexico College Los Alamos National Security, LLC provides support November 1, 2013 Ribbon cutting at Northern New Mexico College As others look on, Northern New Mexico College

  1. Lab Enhances Scientific Data Sharing with Cutting-Edge Connection |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson Lab Enhances Scientific Data Sharing with Cutting-Edge Connection Lab Enhances Scientific Data Sharing with Cutting-Edge Connections September 21, 2006 Cutting-Edge Andy Kowalski holds a 10 Gigabit fiber-optic cable. Newport News, Va. - Scientists who conduct research at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility can now access and share research data faster than ever before, thanks to an upgraded Internet connection that provides data

  2. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  3. Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Infrastructure Review | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Infrastructure Review Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Infrastructure Review The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) hosted a cross-cutting review on June 10, 2016, to evaluate FCTO's activities related to hydrogen station infrastructure, discuss the critical technical barriers to expanding hydrogen infrastructure and the strategies to overcome them, and gather feedback to better inform strategies to address research, development,

  4. Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Technology to Market » Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 Photovoltaic Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies Round 1 On June 11, 2009, DOE announced the first round of Photovoltaic (PV) Supply Chain and Cross-Cutting Technologies awardees. The funded projects target manufacturing and product cost reduction with the potential to have a near-term impact on a substantial segment of the PV industry. General Electric Global Research

  5. Degradation of dome cutting minerals in Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reynolds, Jacob G.; Huber, Heinz J.; Cooke, Gary A.

    2013-01-11

    At the Hanford Tank Farms, recent changes in retrieval technology require cutting new risers in several single-shell tanks. The Hanford Tank Farm Operator is using water jet technology with abrasive silicate minerals such as garnet or olivine to cut through the concrete and rebar dome. The abrasiveness of these minerals, which become part of the high-level waste stream, may enhance the erosion of waste processing equipment. However, garnet and olivine are not thermodynamically stable in Hanford waste, slowly degrading over time. How likely these materials are to dissolve completely in the waste before the waste is processed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant can be evaluated using theoretical analysis for olivine and collected direct experimental evidence for garnet. Based on an extensive literature study, a large number of primary silicates decompose into sodalite and cancrinite when exposed to Hanford waste. Given sufficient time, the sodalite also degrades into cancrinite. Even though cancrinite has not been directly added to any Hanford tanks during process times, it is the most common silicate observed in current Hanford waste. By analogy, olivine and garnet are expected to ultimately also decompose into cancrinite. Garnet used in a concrete cutting demonstration was immersed in a simulated supernate representing the estimated composition of the liquid retrieving waste from Hanford tank 241-C-107 at both ambient and elevated temperatures. This simulant was amended with extra NaOH to determine if adding caustic would help enhance the degradation rate of garnet. The results showed that the garnet degradation rate was highest at the highest NaOH concentration and temperature. At the end of 12 weeks, however, the garnet grains were mostly intact, even when immersed in 2 molar NaOH at 80 deg C. Cancrinite was identified as the degradation product on the surface of the garnet grains. In the case of olivine, the rate of degradation in the high-pH regimes

  6. NNSA's Cutting Edge Science and Research on Display at Annual...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    NNSA's Cutting Edge Science and Research on Display at Annual AAAS Meeting February 17, ... newly elected fellows at the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ...

  7. SF 2001-WLD;CONTRACTOR WELDING, CUTTING AND BRAZING

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    01-WLD (11-2012) Supersedes (4-2010) Issue CONTRACTOR WELDING, CUTTING, BRAZING P ART 1: CO NT R ACT O R' S E X PO S UR E AS S E S SM ENT Identify what welding, cutting and/or brazing you are doing: (Check box or fill-in type below) Welding Thermal Cutting Brazing (No cadmium filler BAg-1 or BAg- 2; Silver not to exceed 45%) MIG Oxy-acetylene Oxy-acetylene TIG Stick Plasma arc Other Identify the base metal you are welding, cutting or brazing: (Check box or fill-in below) Carbon steel Galvanized

  8. PPPL researchers present cutting edge results at APS Plasma Physics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PPPL researchers present cutting edge results at APS Plasma Physics Conference November ... Gallery: Fast-camera image showing plasma during magnetic reconnection. Fast-camera image ...

  9. Twin Groves Wind Energy Facility Cut-in Speeds

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Currently, only operational mitigation (stopping turbine blades from spinning) during ... Most studies found at least a 50% reduction in bat fatalities when turbine cut-in speed ...

  10. Overview of FCTO Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FCTO Cross-Cutting Hydrogen Station Activities - Overview ... Meeting June 6 - 10, 2016 Fuel Cell Technologies Office | 2 7... Performance * Station Cost * Station Financing * ...

  11. Session #1: Cutting Edge Methodologies--Beyond Current DFT

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Session 1: Cutting Edge Methodologies (beyond Current DFT) Moderator: Shengbai Zhang (RPI REL) Topics to be addressed: Benchmarking state-of-the-art approaches, accurate energy ...

  12. Apparatus and method for cutting soft materials, especially meat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane S.; Jones, James F.; Kuehl, Michael A.; Shaw, Dick L.; Scalia, Barbara J.

    2005-10-18

    An apparatus and method for cutting soft materials such as meat. Two or more spirally mounted helical blades are situated between two supports, and the supports are mounted to a shank. The shank is rotated to impart rotary action to the spiral shear blades, and the entire device may be used to perform various cutting operations. The distal or bottom one of the supports may also be a cutting blade, and a number of versions of bottom cutting blades are useable in the practice of the invention.

  13. Breakthrough Cutting Technology Promises to Reduce Solar Costs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Silicon Genesis advancing the field of solar energy by developing a process that will virtually eliminate all waste when cutting materials needed to implement solar technology.

  14. Relationship between alveolar bone measured by /sup 125/I absorptiometry with analysis of standardized radiographs: 2. Bjorn technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortman, L.F.; McHenry, K.; Hausmann, E.

    1982-05-01

    The Bjorn technique is widely used in periodontal studies as a standardized measure of alveolar bone. Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using /sup 125/I absorptiometry to measure bone mass. The purpose of this study was to compare /sup 125/I absorptiometry with the Bjorn technique in detecting small sequential losses of alveolary bone. Four periodontal-like defects of incrementally increasing size were produced in alveolar bone in the posterior segment of the maxilla of a human skull. An attempt was made to sequentially reduce the amount of bone in 10% increments until no bone remained, a through and through defect. The bone remaining at each step was measured using /sup 125/I absorptiometry. At each site the /sup 125/I absorptiometry measurements were made at the same location by fixing the photon source to a prefabricated precision-made occlusal splint. This site was just beneath the crest and midway between the borders of two adjacent teeth. Bone loss was also determined by the Bjorn technique. Standardized intraoral films were taken using a custom-fitted acrylic clutch, and bone measurements were made from the root apex to coronal height of the lamina dura. A comparison of the data indicates that: (1) in early bone loss, less than 30%, the Bjorn technique underestimates the amount of loss, and (2) in advanced bone loss, more than 60% the Bjorn technique overestimates it.

  15. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  16. Spray Combustion Cross-Cut Engine Research | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace005_pickett_2011_o.pdf (2.06 MB) More Documents & Publications Low-Temperature Diesel Combustion Cross-Cut Research Spray Combustion Cross-Cut Engine Research Progress of the Engine Combustion Network

  17. Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels NREL report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on crosscutting technologies for advanced biofuels. ctab_webinar_crosscutting.pdf (1.34 MB) More Documents & Publications Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading

  18. Method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parsells, Robert; Gettelfinger, Geoff; Perry, Erik; Rule, Keith

    2005-04-19

    A method and apparatus for diamond wire cutting of metal structures, such as nuclear reactor vessels, is provided. A diamond wire saw having a plurality of diamond beads with beveled or chamfered edges is provided for sawing into the walls of the metal structure. The diamond wire is guided by a plurality of support structures allowing for a multitude of different cuts. The diamond wire is cleaned and cooled by CO.sub.2 during the cutting process to prevent breakage of the wire and provide efficient cutting. Concrete can be provided within the metal structure to enhance cutting efficiency and reduce airborne contaminants. The invention can be remotely controlled to reduce exposure of workers to radioactivity and other hazards.

  19. Cuttings Analysis At Imperial Valley Geothermal Area (1976) ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and overlying cap rock. References Pratt, H. R.; Simonson, E. R. (1 January 1976) Geotechnical studies of geothermal reservoirs Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  20. Cuttings Analysis At Marysville Mountain Geothermal Area (1976...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and overlying cap rock. References Pratt, H. R.; Simonson, E. R. (1 January 1976) Geotechnical studies of geothermal reservoirs Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  1. Cuttings Analysis At Jemez Mountain Geothermal Area (1976) |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and overlying cap rock. References Pratt, H. R.; Simonson, E. R. (1 January 1976) Geotechnical studies of geothermal reservoirs Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  2. Cuttings Analysis At Geysers Geothermal Area (1976) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and overlying cap rock. References Pratt, H. R.; Simonson, E. R. (1 January 1976) Geotechnical studies of geothermal reservoirs Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  3. Cuttings Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Geothermal Area (1976...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and overlying cap rock. References Pratt, H. R.; Simonson, E. R. (1 January 1976) Geotechnical studies of geothermal reservoirs Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  4. Cuttings Analysis At Bacca Ranch Geothermal Area (1976) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and overlying cap rock. References Pratt, H. R.; Simonson, E. R. (1 January 1976) Geotechnical studies of geothermal reservoirs Additional References Retrieved from "http:...

  5. Cuttings Analysis At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Pribnow...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    instruments and measurement procedures are given in Sass et al. (1971a,b)." References Daniel F. C. Pribnow, Claudia Schutze, Suzanne J. Hurter, Christina Flechsig, John H. Sass...

  6. Cuttings Analysis At Roosevelt Hot Springs Area (Christensen...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown References Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano, Joseph N. Moore (1983) Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System, Roosevelt Hot...

  7. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2005) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    on the East Flank is dominated by diorite and granodiorite. References Kovac, K.M.; Moore, J.N.; Lutz, S.J. (1 January 2005) GEOLOGIC FRAMEWORK OF THE EAST FLANK, COSO...

  8. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2006) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    encountered at approximately 1438-1457 m and 3459.5-3505.2 m. References Kovac, K.M.; Moore, J.N.; Rose, P.E.; McCulloch, J. (1 January 2006) Geology of Injection Well 46A-19RD...

  9. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (1985-1987) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Analyze an indicator of high permeability zones within a geothermal field Notes Petrographic and geochemical analyses of...

  10. Cuttings Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2003) | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and the extent of large-scale faulting. References Rose, P.; Barton, C.; McCulloch, J.; Moore, J.N.; Kovac, K.; Sheridan, J.; Spielman, P.; Berard, B. (1 January 2003) The...

  11. Uncertainty in soil-structure interaction analysis of a nuclear power plant due to different analytical techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, J.C.; Chun, R.C.; Goudreau, G.L.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Johnson, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the dynamic response analysis of the Zion reactor containment building using three different soil-structure interaction (SSI) analytical procedures which are: the substructure method, CLASSI; the equivalent linear finite element approach, ALUSH; and the nonlinear finite element procedure, DYNA3D. Uncertainties in analyzing a soil-structure system due to SSI analysis procedures were investigated. Responses at selected locations in the structure were compared through peak accelerations and response spectra.

  12. SU-E-T-621: Analysis of Robustness of Proton Pencil Beam Scanning Technique for Delivery of Craniospinal Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, H; Kirk, M; Zhai, H; Ding, X; Liu, H; Hill-Kayser, C; Lustig, R; Tochner, Z; McDonough, J; Both, S

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the robustness and safety of craniospinal irradiation (CSI) planned with a proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) technique which overcomes the complexity of the planning associated with feathering match lines. Methods: Six CSI patients were planned with gradient-dose matching using PBS technique. Uniform dose coverage to the entire target volumes was achieved with averaged junction lengths of 6.90.3 cm. Robustness of the plans was evaluated by shifting the isocenter of each treatment field by 3 mm in longitudinal direction and compared with the original non-shifted plan with metrics of conformity number (CN) and homogeneity index (HI). An anthropomorphic phantom study using film measurements was also carried out on a plan with 5 cm junction length. Results: For a given junction length, the dose errors were directly proportional to the setup errors. Setup errors of 3 mm from each field caused on average 3.5% lower CN and 2.1% higher HI. Minimal D95% to PTV and D98% to CTV were reduced by 2.2%1.5% and 2.8%1.7% respectively. A drop of maximal 6.8%5.5% on the minimal dose to the cribriform plate was also observed. When the junction length was 5cm or longer, these 3mm setup errors from each field resulted in up to 12% dose errors. Consistent results were reached between film measurements and planned dose profiles in the junction area. Due to near-zero exit doses beyond the target volume, sparing of anterior organs such as heart, liver, lung and kidney were observed. Conclusions: Longitudinal setup errors directly reduce the dosimetric accuracy of the CSI treatment with matched proton fields. The reported technique creates a slow dose gradient in the junction area, which makes the treatment more robust and safe to longitudinal setup errors compared to conventional feathering methods.

  13. International Committee on Traffic Conflict Techniques (ICTCT) calibration study at Malmo: a quantitative analysis of video recordings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van der Horst, A.R.A.

    1984-12-01

    To investigate a number of Traffic Conflict Techniques, three intersections at Malmo (Sweden) were studied by observer teams of eight countries while simultaneous video recordings were made. This set was analyzed quantitatively from video in order to get an objective description in terms of speed, deceleration, minimum distance, time-to-collision (TTC), and post-encroachment time (PET). The minimum TTC appeared to be the most important variable in explaining a common severity scale, but not the only one. Conflict type contributes substantially to the prediction of severity. Comparisons were made between calculated and estimated measures, like TTC for Sweden and Finland and PET for Canada.

  14. Analysis, optimization, and implementation of a hybrid DS/FFH spread-spectrum technique for smart grid communications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Ma, Xiao; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Teja; Smith, Stephen F.; Djouadi, Seddik M.

    2015-03-12

    In recent years, there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control, and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct sequence modulation with fast frequency hopping, denoted hybrid DS/FFH, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time. In this paper, error-probability analyses are performed for a hybrid DS/FFH system over standard Gaussian and fading-type channels, progressively including the effects from wide- and partial-band jamming, multi-user interference, and varying degrees of Rayleigh and Rician fading. In addition, an optimization approach is formulated that minimizes the bit-error performance of a hybrid DS/FFH communication system and solves for the resulting system design parameters. The optimization objective function is non-convex and can be solved by applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. We also present our efforts toward exploring the design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid DS/FFH radio transceiver using a single FPGA. Numerical and experimental results are presented under widely varying design parameters to demonstrate the adaptability of the waveform for varied harsh smart grid RF signal environments.

  15. Soro West: A non-seismically defined, fault cut-off prospect in the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, W.F. ); Swift, C.M. Jr. )

    1996-01-01

    Soro West is a fault cut-off prospect located in the frontal portion of the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt. Prospective Toro and Imburu sandstones are interpreted to be in the hanging wall of the Soro Thrust. Truncation against the thrust, both updip and through lateral ramps, provides the trapping mechanism. The Soro West Prospect was defined using geological, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical data. The definition and location of the trap is a primary risk and work was focused on this aspect. Surface geological data (lithology, strikes, and dips) topography and synthetic aperture radar imagery were incorporated into the evaluation. Statistical curvature analysis techniques helped define the shape of the structure and the locations of the lateral ramps. Strontium isotope analyses of Darai Limestone surface samples refined erosional levels using a locally-derived reference curve. Severe karst precludes the acquisition of coherent surface seismic data, so the primary geophysical tool used was magnetotellurics (MT). A detailed, pre-survey feasibility study defined expected responses from alternative structural models. The MT data demonstrated that the limestone at surface is underlain by thick conductive clastics and not another Darai Limestone sheet. The data also constrained the range of fault cut-off positions significantly. Multiple, three-dimensionally consistent, restorable alternative structural models were created using results from all analyses. These led to a positive assessment of the prospect and an exploratory test is to be drilled in 1996.

  16. Soro West: A non-seismically defined, fault cut-off prospect in the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, W.F.; Swift, C.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Soro West is a fault cut-off prospect located in the frontal portion of the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt. Prospective Toro and Imburu sandstones are interpreted to be in the hanging wall of the Soro Thrust. Truncation against the thrust, both updip and through lateral ramps, provides the trapping mechanism. The Soro West Prospect was defined using geological, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical data. The definition and location of the trap is a primary risk and work was focused on this aspect. Surface geological data (lithology, strikes, and dips) topography and synthetic aperture radar imagery were incorporated into the evaluation. Statistical curvature analysis techniques helped define the shape of the structure and the locations of the lateral ramps. Strontium isotope analyses of Darai Limestone surface samples refined erosional levels using a locally-derived reference curve. Severe karst precludes the acquisition of coherent surface seismic data, so the primary geophysical tool used was magnetotellurics (MT). A detailed, pre-survey feasibility study defined expected responses from alternative structural models. The MT data demonstrated that the limestone at surface is underlain by thick conductive clastics and not another Darai Limestone sheet. The data also constrained the range of fault cut-off positions significantly. Multiple, three-dimensionally consistent, restorable alternative structural models were created using results from all analyses. These led to a positive assessment of the prospect and an exploratory test is to be drilled in 1996.

  17. Analysis of the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as applied to a lithium-Ion porous electrode.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dees, D. W.; Kawauchi, S.; Abraham, D. P.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2009-04-01

    Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) experiments were conducted to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient of LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}, used as the active material in a lithium-ion battery porous composite positive electrode. An electrochemical model, based on concentrated solution porous electrode theory, was developed to analyze the GITT experimental results and compare to the original GITT analytical theory. The GITT experimental studies on the oxide active material were conducted between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs. lithium, with the maximum lithium diffusion coefficient value being 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at 3.85 V. The lithium diffusion coefficient values obtained from this study agree favorably with the values obtained from an earlier electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study.

  18. Analysis, optimization, and implementation of a hybrid DS/FFH spread-spectrum technique for smart grid communications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Ma, Xiao; Killough, Stephen M.; Kuruganti, Teja; Smith, Stephen F.; Djouadi, Seddik M.

    2015-03-12

    In recent years, there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control, and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct sequence modulation with fast frequency hopping, denoted hybrid DS/FFH, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time. Inmore » this paper, error-probability analyses are performed for a hybrid DS/FFH system over standard Gaussian and fading-type channels, progressively including the effects from wide- and partial-band jamming, multi-user interference, and varying degrees of Rayleigh and Rician fading. In addition, an optimization approach is formulated that minimizes the bit-error performance of a hybrid DS/FFH communication system and solves for the resulting system design parameters. The optimization objective function is non-convex and can be solved by applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. We also present our efforts toward exploring the design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid DS/FFH radio transceiver using a single FPGA. Numerical and experimental results are presented under widely varying design parameters to demonstrate the adaptability of the waveform for varied harsh smart grid RF signal environments.« less

  19. Analysis, Optimization, and Implementation of a Hybrid DS/FFH Spread-Spectrum Technique for Smart Grid Communications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olama, Mohammed M; Ma, Xiao; Killough, Stephen M; Kuruganti, Teja; Smith, Stephen Fulton; Djouadi, Seddik M

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been great interest in using hybrid spread-spectrum (HSS) techniques for commercial applications, particularly in the Smart Grid, in addition to their inherent uses in military communications. This is because HSS can accommodate high data rates with high link integrity, even in the presence of significant multipath effects and interfering signals. A highly useful form of this transmission technique for many types of command, control, and sensing applications is the specific code-related combination of standard direct sequence modulation with fast frequency hopping, denoted hybrid DS/FFH, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time. In this paper, error-probability analyses are performed for a hybrid DS/FFH system over standard Gaussian and fading-type channels, progressively including the effects from wide- and partial-band jamming, multi-user interference, and varying degrees of Rayleigh and Rician fading. In addition, an optimization approach is formulated that minimizes the bit-error performance of a hybrid DS/FFH communication system and solves for the resulting system design parameters. The optimization objective function is non-convex and can be solved by applying the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. We also present our efforts toward exploring the design, implementation, and evaluation of a hybrid DS/FFH radio transceiver using a single field-programmable gate array (FPGA). Numerical and experimental results are presented under widely varying design parameters to demonstrate the adaptability of the waveform for varied harsh smart grid RF signal environments.

  20. THE INTEGRAL HIGH-ENERGY CUT-OFF DISTRIBUTION OF TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malizia, A.; Molina, M.; Bassani, L.; Stephen, J. B.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; Bird, A. J.

    2014-02-20

    In this Letter we present the primary continuum parameters, the photon index Γ, and the high-energy cut-off E {sub c} of 41 type-1 Seyfert galaxies extracted from the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) complete sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We performed broadband (0.3-100 keV) spectral analysis by simultaneously fitting the soft and hard X-ray spectra obtained by XMM and INTEGRAL/IBIS-Swift/BAT, respectively, in order to investigate the general properties of these parameters, in particular their distribution and mean values. We find a mean photon index of 1.73 with a standard deviation of 0.17 and a mean high-energy cut-off of 128 keV with a standard deviation of 46 keV for the whole sample. This is the first time that the cut-off energy is constrained in such a large number of AGNs. We have 26 measurements of the cut-off, which corresponds to 63% of the entire sample, distributed between 50 and 200 keV. There are a further 11 lower limits mostly below 300 keV. Using the main parameters of the primary continuum, we have been able to obtain the actual physical parameters of the Comptonizing region, i.e., the plasma temperature kT {sub e} from 20 to 100 keV and the optical depth τ < 4. Finally, with the high signal-to-noise ratio spectra starting to come from NuSTAR it will soon be possible to better constrain the cut-off values in many AGNs, allowing the determination of more physical models and thus better understand the continuum emission and geometry of the region surrounding black holes.

  1. Device and technique for in-process sampling and analysis of molten metals and other liquids presenting harsh sampling conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Joseph L.; Watson, Lloyd D.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for continuously analyzing liquids by creating a supersonic spray which is shaped and sized prior to delivery of the spray to a analysis apparatus. The gas and liquid are mixed in a converging-diverging nozzle where the liquid is sheared into small particles which are of a size and uniformly to form a spray which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. The spray is shaped by a concentric supplemental flow of gas.

  2. Device and technique for in-process sampling and analysis of molten metals and other liquids presenting harsh sampling conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method for continuously analyzing liquids by creating a supersonic spray which is shaped and sized prior to delivery of the spray to a analysis apparatus. The gas and liquid is sheared into small particles which are of a size and uniformity to form a spray which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. The spray is shaped by a concentric supplemental flow of gas. 5 figs.

  3. Application of water jet assisted drag bit and pick cutter for the cutting of coal measure rocks. Final technical report. [Tests of combination in different rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ropchan, D.; Wang, F.D.; Wolgamott, J.

    1980-04-01

    A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of high pressure water jets on the cutting forces of drag bit cutters in sedimentary rocks. A hard and soft sandstone, shale and limestone were tested with commercially obtainable conical and plow type drag bits on the EMI linear cutting machine. About 1200 cuts were made at different bit penetration, jet orientation, and water pressure to determine the reduction of cutting forces on the bit from the use of the water jet. Both independent and interactive cutting was used. The greatest reduction in cutting forces were with both of the sandstones; the drag forces were reduced about 30 percent and the normal forces about 60 percent at 5000 psi water pressure with the nozzle behind the bit. The method was less effective in the shale, except at 10,000 psi water pressure the reduction in drag force was about 55 percent. Of the rocks tested, the limestone was least affected by the water jet. The cutting forces for the plow bit showed continuous change with wear so a machined conical bit was used for most of the testing. Tests with the plow bit did show a large reduction in cutting forces by using the water jet with worn bits. An economic analysis of equipping a drag bit tunnel boring machine indicated that the water jet system could reduce costs per foot in sandstone by up to 40 percent.

  4. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore »crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  5. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  6. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore » crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  7. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-08-15

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  8. Micromachined cutting blade formed from {211}-oriented silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This allows multiple blades to be batch fabricated on a common substrate and separated for packaging and use. The micromachined cutting blade, which can be mounted to a handle in ...

  9. New Design Tool Can Help Cut building Energy Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design Tool Can Help Cut Building Energy Use By Up to 50 Percent Energy Efficient ... and efficiency design strategies in a matter of minutes on an office personal computer. ...

  10. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.