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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

ASU at TREC 2006 Genomics Track Luis Tari, Graciela ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Luis Tari, Graciela Gonzalez, Robert Leaman, Shawn Nikkila, Ryan Wendt, Chitta Baral Department of Computer Science and Engineering ...

2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

2

A Stable Massive Charged Particle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the possibility of the existence of a stable massive charged particle by a minimal extension of the standard model particle content. Absolute stability in the case of singly charged particle is not possible if the usual doublet Higgs exists, unless a discrete symmetry is imposed.But a doubly charged particle is absolutely stable.

G. Rajasekaran

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

3

Photon and Charged Particle Data Center  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photon and Charged Particle Data Center. Summary: The Photon and Charged Particle Data Center has long been an ...

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

4

Charged particle accelerator grating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

Palmer, R.B.

1985-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

5

Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

Allman, Steve L. (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Chung-Hsuan (Knoxville, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

7

Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

9

Slow Wave Structures for Charged Particle Applications  

of light in free space. This slower wave speed is important for acceleration of charged particles. The special shape of the cross-

10

Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

11

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations and widespread use of batteries, the mechanism behind charging and discharging particles remains largely a mystery, partly because it is difficult to visualize the motion of lithium ions for a significant number of battery particles at nanoscale resolution.

12

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations and widespread use of batteries, the mechanism behind charging and discharging particles remains largely a mystery, partly because it is difficult to visualize the motion of lithium ions for a significant number of battery particles at nanoscale resolution.

13

Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged--particle cross section data. Included in this paper is a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and a source list of nuclear data bibliographies, complications, and cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in the tables. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments.

Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Medium energy charged particle data for evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Medium energy charged particles incident on targets can cause a variety of nuclear reactions. Charged particle transport calculations require access to a large body of cross-section data which results in interest in an evaluated charge particle data library. Developing an evaluated data library can involve several steps. An index to the literature on measurements and theory is useful to locate information relevant to data evaluation. A computerized compilation of measurements facilitates the intercomparison of different experiments and the determination of how well data are known. Nuclear models, based on theory or phenonological evidence, are compared with experiment and where validated, are used to fill in regions where experimental data are not available. Finally, the selected data is placed into computer readable formats for use in transport calculations. 16 refs.

Pearlstein, S.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Charged fundamental particles in Wesson's IMT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the Weyl-Dirac version of Wesson's Induced Matter Theory, spherically symmetric entities filled with an electrically charged substance are obtained in the empty 4D space-time, the brane. The substance, characterized by mass and charge density as well by pressure, is induced by the 5D bulk. The entity is separated from the surrounding vacuum by a boundary surface, where the metric satisfy the Schwarzschild conditions. Outside one has the Reissner-Nordstroem metric with M=Q. These entities may be regarded as classical (non-quantum) fundamental particles serving as constituents of quarks and leptons.

Mark Israelit

2007-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

16

The electric charge and magnetic moment of neutral fundamental particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The article focuses on the issue of the two definitions of charge, mainly the gauge charge and the effective charge of fundamental particles. Most textbooks on classical electromagnetism and quantum field theory only works with the gauge charges while the concept of the induced charge remains unattended. In this article it has been shown that for intrinsically charged particles both of the charges remain the same but there can be situations where an electrically neutral particle picks up some electrical charge from its plasma surrounding. The physical origin and the scope of application of the induced charge concept has been briefly discussed in the article.

Kaushik Bhattacharya

2009-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

17

Charged-Particle Impact Ionization of Atoms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed a hybrid method to treat charged-particle impact ionization of complex atoms and ions. The essential idea is to describe the interaction between a fast projectile and the target perturbatively, up to second order, while the initial bound state and the ejected-electron--residual-ion interaction can be handled via a convergent R-matrix with pseudo-states (close-coupling) expansion. Example results for ionization of the heavy noble gases (Ne-Xe) by positron and electron impact are presented. The general scheme for a distorted-wave treatment of ionization by heavy-particle impact is described.

Bartschat, Klaus; Guan Xiaoxu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, IA 50311 (United States)

2008-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

18

Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

Coello, E. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; Favela, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; Curiel, Q. [Instituto de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; Chavez, E [Instituto de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; Huerta, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico; Varela, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Ocoyoacac, Mexico; Shapira, Dan [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles. 3 figs.

Post, R.F.

1988-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

20

Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams  

SciTech Connect

A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

Jason, Andrew J. (Los Alamos, NM); Blind, Barbara (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Bipolar charging of dust particles under ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

The photoemission charging of dust particles under ultraviolet radiation from a xenon lamp has been investigated. The velocities of yttrium dust particles with a work function of 3.3 eV and their charges have been determined experimentally; the latter are about 400-500 and about 100 elementary charges per micron of radius for the positively and negatively charged fractions, respectively. The dust particle charging and the dust cloud evolution in a photoemission cell after exposure to an ultraviolet radiation source under the applied voltage have been simulated numerically. The photoemission charging of dust particles has been calculated on the basis of nonlocal and local charging models. Only unipolar particle charging is shown to take place in a system of polydisperse dust particles with the same photoemission efficiency. It has been established that bipolar charging is possible in the case of monodisperse particles with different quantum efficiencies. Polydispersity in this case facilitates the appearance of oppositely charged particles in a photoemission plasma.

Filippov, A. V., E-mail: fav@triniti.ru; Babichev, V. N. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, State Research Center of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Fortov, V. E.; Gavrikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Pal', A. F. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, State Research Center of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Petrov, O. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Starostin, A. N.; Sarkarov, N. E. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research, State Research Center of the Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

22

Determination of time zero from a charged particle detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method, system and computer program is used to determine a linear track having a good fit to a most likely or expected path of charged particle passing through a charged particle detector having a plurality of drift cells. Hit signals from the charged particle detector are associated with a particular charged particle track. An initial estimate of time zero is made from these hit signals and linear tracks are then fit to drift radii for each particular time-zero estimate. The linear track having the best fit is then searched and selected and errors in fit and tracking parameters computed. The use of large and expensive fast detectors needed to time zero in the charged particle detectors can be avoided by adopting this method and system.

Green, Jesse Andrew (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

The Particle Adventure | What holds it together? | Color charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Standard Model > What holds it together? > Color charge The Standard Model > What holds it together? > Color charge Color charge Quarks and gluons are color-charged particles. Just as electrically-charged particles interact by exchanging photons in electromagnetic interactions, color-charged particles exchange gluons in strong interactions. When two quarks are close to one another, they exchange gluons and create a very strong color force field that binds the quarks together. The force field gets stronger as the quarks get further apart. Quarks constantly change their color charges as they exchange gluons with other quarks. How does color charge work? There are three color charges and three corresponding anticolor (complementary color) charges. Each quark has one of the three color charges and each antiquark has one of the three anticolor charges. Just as a mix of red, green, and blue light yields white light, in a baryon a combination of "red," "green," and "blue" color charges is color neutral, and in an antibaryon "antired," "antigreen," and "antiblue" is also color neutral. Mesons are color neutral because they carry combinations such as "red" and "antired."

24

Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids  

Using molecular dynamics simulations, the researchers found that particles are trapped in liquid environments when appropriate AC/DC electric fields ...

25

Boundary effects of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations on charged particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations with the boundary on charged particles is investigated. They may be observed via an electron interference experiment near the conducting plate, where boundary effects of vacuum fluctuations are found significant on coherence reduction of the electrons. The dynamics of the charge under the influence of quantized electromagnetic fields with a conducting plate is also studied. The corresponding stochastic equation of motion is derived in the semiclassical approximation, and the behavior of the charge's velocity fluctuations is discussed.

Tai-Hung Wu; Jen-Tsung Hsiang; Da-Shin Lee

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

26

Boundary effects of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations on charged particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations with the boundary on charged particles is investigated. They may be observed via an electron interference experiment near the conducting plate, where boundary effects of vacuum fluctuations are found significant on coherence reduction of the electrons. The dynamics of the charge under the influence of quantized electromagnetic fields with a conducting plate is also studied. The corresponding stochastic equation of motion is derived in the semiclassical approximation, and the behavior of the charge's velocity fluctuations is discussed.

Wu, Tai-Hung; Lee, Da-Shin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

28

Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

29

Why does group theory fail to describe charge structure of particles ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is pointed out that the group theory cannot describe the charge structure of particles. Set theory is necessary to describe the charge structure of particles but the set of charges form group.

Amjad Hussain Shah Gilani

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Cerenkov radiation by charged particles in an external gravitational field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charged particles in the geodesic trajectory of an external gravitational field do not emit electromagnetic radiation. This is expected from the application of the equivalence principle. We show here that charged particles propagating in an external gravitational field with non-zero components of the Ricci tensor can emit radiation by the \\v{C}erenkov process. The external gravitational field acts like an effective refractive index for light. Since the Ricci tensor cannot be eliminated by a change of coordinates, there is no violation of the equivalence principle in this process.

Anshu Gupta; Subhendra Mohanty; Manoj K. Samal

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

31

Radiation from a charged particle flying through a dielectric ball  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The radiation from a relativistic charged particle uniformly moving through the centre of a dielectric ball is investigated. Analytical expressions for spectral and spectral-angular distributions of the radiated energy are derived and numerical results for the spectrum of radiation are given. It is shown, that the spectral distribution of Cherenkov radiation generated by the relativistic particle inside a dielectric ball at specified frequencies is strongly influenced by the ballvacuum boundary.

Arzumanyan, Svetlana R

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Stochastic fluctuations of dust particle charge in RF discharges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In addition to RF oscillations, intrinsic stochastic fluctuations due to the discreteness of electrons and ions could be important to the charging of a dust particle in RF discharges. These fluctuations are studied in the present work for three cases [M. Bacharis et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 19, 025002 (2010)] relevant to RF discharges employing a recently proposed model [B. Shotorban, Phys. Rev. E 83, 066403 (2011)] valid for stochastic charging at nonstationary states. The cases are concerned with a time varying electron number density relevant to sheaths, a time varying electric field relevant to the bulk plasma, and a time-dependent bi-Maxwellian distribution of electrons in a low pressure discharge. Two dust particles with different sizes are individually studied in each case. The radius of one is ten times larger than the radius of the other. In all of the cases, for the larger dust particle, the root-mean-squre of charge stochastic fluctuations is about an order of magnitude smaller than the amplitude of RF charge oscillations, while for the smaller dust particle, they are comparable in magnitude.

Shotorban, B. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

33

Brownian dynamics of charged particles in a constant magnetic field  

SciTech Connect

Numerical algorithms are proposed for simulating the Brownian dynamics of charged particles in an external magnetic field, taking into account the Brownian motion of charged particles, damping effect, and the effect of magnetic field self-consistently. Performance of these algorithms is tested in terms of their accuracy and long-time stability by using a three-dimensional Brownian oscillator model with constant magnetic field. Step-by-step recipes for implementing these algorithms are given in detail. It is expected that these algorithms can be directly used to study particle dynamics in various dispersed systems in the presence of a magnetic field, including polymer solutions, colloidal suspensions, and, particularly, complex (dusty) plasmas. The proposed algorithms can also be used as thermostat in the usual molecular dynamics simulation in the presence of magnetic field.

Hou, L. J.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts Universitaet, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Miskovic, Z. L. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shukla, P. K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

34

Channeling problem for charged particles produced by confining environment  

SciTech Connect

Channeling problem produced by confining environment that leads to resonance scattering of charged particles via quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum is examined. Nonmonotonic dependence of physical parameters on collision energy and/or confining environment due to resonance transmission and total reflection effects is confirmed that can increase the rate of recombination processes. The reduction of the model for two identical charged ions to a boundary problem is considered together with the asymptotic behavior of the solution in the vicinity of pair-collision point and the results of R-matrix calculations. Tentative estimations of the enhancement factor and the total reflection effect are discussed.

Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Derbov, V. L. [Saratov State University (Russian Federation); Krassovitskiy, P. M. [Institute of Nuclear Physics (Kazakhstan); Vinitsky, S. I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

RESONANCE BROADENING AND HEATING OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE  

SciTech Connect

The heating, acceleration, and pitch-angle scattering of charged particles by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are important in a wide range of astrophysical environments, including the solar wind, accreting black holes, and galaxy clusters. We simulate the interaction of high-gyrofrequency test particles with fully dynamical simulations of subsonic MHD turbulence, focusing on the parameter regime with {beta} {approx} 1, where {beta} is the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure. We use the simulation results to calibrate analytical expressions for test particle velocity-space diffusion coefficients and provide simple fits that can be used in other work. The test particle velocity diffusion in our simulations is due to a combination of two processes: interactions between particles and magnetic compressions in the turbulence (as in linear transit-time damping; TTD) and what we refer to as Fermi Type-B (FTB) interactions, in which charged particles moving on field lines may be thought of as beads sliding along moving wires. We show that test particle heating rates are consistent with a TTD resonance that is broadened according to a decorrelation prescription that is Gaussian in time (but inconsistent with Lorentzian broadening due to an exponential decorrelation function, a prescription widely used in the literature). TTD dominates the heating for v{sub s} >> v{sub A} (e.g., electrons), where v{sub s} is the thermal speed of species s and v{sub A} is the Alfven speed, while FTB dominates for v{sub s} << v{sub A} (e.g., minor ions). Proton heating rates for {beta} {approx} 1 are comparable to the turbulent cascade rate. Finally, we show that velocity diffusion of collisionless, large gyrofrequency particles due to large-scale MHD turbulence does not produce a power-law distribution function.

Lynn, Jacob W. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Parrish, Ian J.; Quataert, Eliot [Astronomy Department and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chandran, Benjamin D. G., E-mail: jacob.lynn@berkeley.edu [Space Science Center and Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

Moran, M.J.

1998-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

37

Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility.

Moran, Michael J. (Pleasanton, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Peak polarity overturn for charged particles in laser ablation process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The charged particles emitted during laser ablation off a brass target are detected using a metal probe in air. A special phenomenon is found in the recorded signals: following a giant electromagnetic peak observed immediately after the emission of the pulsed laser, a minor peak occurs whose polarity merely depends on the distance between the probe and the laser focal spot on the target. Under the condition of our experiment, the overturn point is 1.47 mm, i.e., the minor peak remains negative when the probe distance is less than 1.47 mm; it becomes positive while the probe is set at a distance beyond 1.47 mm. A hypothesis is proposed to explain the overturn that takes the flight behavior of the charged particles both in plasma and propagating shock wave into consideration.

Zhang, P.; Ji, Y. J.; Lai, X. M.; Bian, B. M.; Li, Z. H. [Department of Information Physics and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Physics of Neutralization of Intense Charged Particle Beam Pulses by a Background Plasma  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2002). J.D. Lawson, “Physics of Charged Particles Beams”, (B. Kusse, J. Moschella, Physics of Fluids 30 , 245 (1987).Davidson and H. Qin, “ Physics of Intense Charged Particle

Kaganovich, I.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

An Airborne Precipitation Cloud Particle Charge Measurement Device and Analysis System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system is described for measurement and analysis of precipitation particle charge from an aircraft in the highly variable and harsh environment of a convective cloud. A compromise, practical instrument design enables particle charge and sign to ...

C. P. R. Saunders; R. L. Pitter; B. A. Gardiner; J. Hallett

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Laser-driven deflection arrangements and methods involving charged particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Systems, methods, devices and apparatus are implemented for producing controllable charged particle beams. In one implementation, an apparatus provides a deflection force to a charged particle beam. A source produces an electromagnetic wave. A structure, that is substantially transparent to the electromagnetic wave, includes a physical structure having a repeating pattern with a period L and a tilted angle .alpha., relative to a direction of travel of the charged particle beam, the pattern affects the force of the electromagnetic wave upon the charged particle beam. A direction device introduces the electromagnetic wave to the structure to provide a phase-synchronous deflection force to the charged particle beam.

Plettner, Tomas (San Ramon, CA); Byer, Robert L. (Stanford, CA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ratchet transport for a chain of interacting charged particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study analytically and numerically the overdamped, deterministic dynamics of a chain of {\\it charged}, interacting particles driven by a longitudinal alternating electric field and additionally interacting with a smooth ratchet potential. We derive the equations of motion, analyze the general properties of their solutions and find the drift criterion for chain motion. For ratchet potentials of the form of a double-sine and a phase-modulated sine it is demonstrated that both, a so-called integer and fractional transport of the chain can occur. Explicit results for the directed chain transport for these two classes of ratchet potentials are presented.

S. I. Denisov; E. S. Denisova; P. Hänggi

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles  

SciTech Connect

We report on a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs), based on 5.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. We search for events in which one or more particles are reconstructed as muons but have speed and ionization energy loss (dE/dx) inconsistent with muons produced in beam collisions. CMLLPs are predicted in several theories of physics beyond the standard model. We exclude pair-produced long-lived gaugino-like charginos below 267 GeV and Higgsino-like charginos below 217 GeV at 95% C.L., as well as long-lived scalar top quarks with mass below 285 GeV.

Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alimena J.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Alves G. A.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan K. M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; De K.; de Jong S. J.; De la Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; Heredia-De La Cruz I.; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Kvita J.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; et al.

2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

44

A Search for Charged Massive Stable Particles at D0  

SciTech Connect

A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The signature is two particles reconstructed as muons, but with speed and invariant mass inconsistent with beam-produced muons. No excess of events is observed and limits are set on the production cross-section for pair-produced stable stau sleptons based on 390 pb{sup -1} of data. Limits vary from 0.06 pb to 0.62 pb, depending on the stau mass, and are the strictest Tevatron limits to date. Mass limits are also set for stable charginos. The limits are 140 GeV/c{sup 2} for a higgsino-like chargino and 174 GeV/c{sup 2} for a gaugino-like chargino. These are currently the best limits to date for stable charginos.

Eads, Michael T.; /Northern Illinois U.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact  

SciTech Connect

The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs.

Lam, N.Q.

1989-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Diagnostic resonant cavity for a charged particle accelerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a diagnostic resonant cavity for determining characteristics of a charged particle beam, such as an electron beam, produced in a charged particle accelerator. The cavity is based on resonant quadrupole-mode and higher order cavities. Enhanced shunt impedance in such cavities is obtained by the incorporation of a set of four or more electrically conductive rods extending inwardly from either one or both of the end walls of the cavity, so as to form capacitive gaps near the outer radius of the beam tube. For typical diagnostic cavity applications, a five-fold increase in shunt impedance can be obtained. In alternative embodiments the cavity may include either four or more opposing pairs of rods which extend coaxially toward one another from the opposite end walls of the cavity and are spaced from one another to form capacitative gaps; or the cavity may include a single set of individual rods that extend from one end wall to a point adjacent the opposing end wall.

Barov, Nikolai (San Diego, CA)

2007-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

47

Integral charged particle nuclear date bibliography. Editon 1, Supplement 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This bibliography is divided into three sections, ''References'', ''Target Index'', and ''Residual Index.'' The ''References'' section contains all references satisfying the following criteria: excitation functions, thick targets, or product yield leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state; the atomic mass and charge of the incident particle must be greater than or equal to 1; the atomic mass of the target must be greater than or equal to 1; and the atomic masses of the outgoing and residual nuclei must be greater than or equal to 1 with the exception of processes which do not lead to a definite residual nucleus and of gamma-ray production cross sections. The ''Target Index'' section contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite target nucleus and reaction. These reference lines contain the Journal name, followed by the volume and page number. The ''Residual Index'' section also contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite residual nucleus and a definite target-reaction.

Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Brief paper: Controlling the motion of charged particles in a vacuum electromagnetic field from the boundary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider the problem of driving two non-relativistic charged particles in a bounded vacuum electromagnetic field to the same location by applying electromagnetic forces through the boundary of the domain. The dynamics of the particles is modeled by ... Keywords: Boundary feedback, Charged particle, Maxwell-Lorentz system, Nuclear fusion, Perturbed energy

Luis R. Suazo; Weijiu Liu

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

ENERGETIC CHARGED PARTICLES ASSOCIATED WITH STRONG INTERPLANETARY SHOCKS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze observations of energetic charged particles associated with many strong interplanetary shocks seen by Advanced Composition Explorer. We focus primarily on 47-187 keV suprathermal protons and restrict our analysis to strong interplanetary shocks (Alfven Mach number >3 and the shock density compression >2.5). Eighteen shocks meeting this criterion from 1998 to 2003 were analyzed. All 18 had enhancements of the 47-65 keV proton intensity above the intensity seen one day before the shock. In 17 events, the particle intensity either rose to a quasi-plateau or peaked within 10 minutes of the shock. Most had intensities at the shock exceeding 100 times more than that seen the day before the shock arrived. The time-intensity profiles of the energetic proton events in many cases reveal a rise before the shock passage reaching a quasi-plateau or local peak at the shock, followed by a gradual decline. This suggests that the shock itself is the source of energetic particles. Energy spectra behind the shock were fit to an assumed power law over the interval from 46 to 187 keV, and the resulting spectral index was compared to the plasma density jump across each shock. Most events agree with the prediction of diffusive shock acceleration theory to within the observational uncertainties. We also analyzed a few selected events to determine the particle spatial diffusion coefficients and acceleration timescales. We find that the time to accelerate protons to {approx}50 keV is of the order of an hour.

Giacalone, Joe [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

50

Energy Loss of a Heavy Particle near 3D Charged Rotating Hairy Black Hole  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we consider charged rotating black hole in 3 dimensions with an scalar charge and discuss about energy loss of heavy particle moving near the black hole horizon. We also study quasi-normal modes and find dispersion relations. We find that the effect of scalar charge and electric charge is increasing energy loss.

Jalil Naji

2014-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

51

Quantitative Assessment of Range Fluctuations in Charged Particle Lung Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Water equivalent path length (WEL) variations due to respiration can change the range of a charged particle beam and result in beam overshoot to critical organs or beam undershoot to tumor. We have studied range fluctuations by analyzing four-dimensional computed tomography data and quantitatively assessing potential beam overshoot. Methods and Materials: The maximal intensity volume is calculated by combining the gross tumor volume contours at each respiratory phase in the four-dimensional computed tomography study. The first target volume calculates the maximal intensity volume for the entire respiratory cycle (internal target volume [ITV]-radiotherapy [RT]), and the second target volume is the maximal intensity volume corresponding to gated RT (gated-RT, {approx}30% phase window around exhalation). A compensator at each respiratory phase is calculated. Two 'composite' compensators for ITV-RT and gated-RT are then designed by selecting the minimal compensator depth at the respective respiratory phase. These compensators are then applied to the four-dimensional computed tomography data to estimate beam penetration. Analysis metrics include range fluctuation and overshoot volume, both as a function of gantry angle. We compared WEL fluctuations observed in treating the ITV-RT versus gated-RT in 11 lung patients. Results: The WEL fluctuations were <21.8 mm-WEL and 9.5 mm-WEL for ITV-RT and gated-RT, respectively for all patients. Gated-RT reduced the beam overshoot volume by approximately a factor of four compared with ITV-RT. Such range fluctuations can affect the efficacy of treatment and result in an excessive dose to a distal critical organ. Conclusion: Time varying range fluctuation analysis provides information useful for determining appropriate patient-specific treatment parameters in charged particle RT. This analysis can also be useful for optimizing planning and delivery.

Mori, Shinichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: shinshin@nirs.go.jp; Wolfgang, John; Lu, H.-M.; Schneider, Robert; Choi, Noah C.; Chen, George T.Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Dynamics of Charged-particle Between the DC Voltage Biased Plane-Parallel Conductors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The analytic description to an oscillating charged-particle between the DC voltage biased plane-parallel conductors is presented. Contrary to the traditional belief in which the oscillatory behavior of the charged-particle in a uniform DC field is attributed to the reversal in the sign of the particle's charge polarity as it rebounds between the two electrodes, the analytic description of the phenomenon presented in this work reveals that such requirement is not necessary for the charged-particle oscillation. Since the system involves a spatially oscillating charged-particle, it represents a natural prototype for illuminating electric dipole radiation. By varying the DC bias voltage across the plane-parallel electrodes, the frequency of radiated electromagnetic waves can be adjusted. The device based on charged-particle oscillation is predicted to generate the coherent electromagnetic waves in the microwave to the X-ray regions of the spectrum, which includes the technologically important terahertz, the infra...

Cho, Sung Nae

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases and plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The key difference between equilibrium (thermal) and non-equilibrium (low temperature - a.k.a. cold) plasmas is in the degree in which the shape of the cross sections influences the electron energy distribution function (EEDF). In this paper we will discuss the issue of kinetic phenomena from two different angles. The first will be how to take advantage of the strong influence and use low current data to obtain the cross sections. This is also known as the swarm technique and the product of a ''swarm analysis'' is a set of cross sections giving good number, momentum and energy balances of electrons or other charged particles. At the same time understanding the EEDF is based on the cross section data. Nevertheless sometimes the knowledge of the cross sections and even the behaviour of individual particles are insufficient to explain collective behaviour of the ensemble. The resulting ''kinetic'' effects may be used to favour certain properties of non-equilibrium plasmas and even may be used as the basis of some new plasma applications.

Petrovic, Zoran Lj.; Dujko, Sasa; Sasic, Olivera; Stojanovic, Vladimir; Malovic, Gordana [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia); Faculty of Traffic Engineering, University of Belgrade Belgrade (Serbia); Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, POB 68 11080 Zemun (Serbia)

2012-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

54

A Non-Invasive Energy/Angle Diagnostic for Charged Particle Beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic for charged particle beams based on Compton scattering is presented. The particular case of an electron beam is treated in detail relativistically.

Christensen, C. R.

2012-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

55

Charged Particle Capture Reaction Measurements Related to P-Nuclei: The Present Status and Outlook  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A short overview and the present status of charged particle capture reaction measurements by activation method related to p-process are given here.

Oezkan, Nalan [Kocaeli University, Department of Physics, TR-41380 Umuttepe, Kocaeli (Turkey)

2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

56

Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Kinetic theory of magnetized dusty plasmas with dust particles charged by collisional processes and by photoionization  

SciTech Connect

In this work, we detail the derivation of a plasma kinetic theory leading to the components of the dielectric tensor for a magnetized dusty plasma with variable charge on the dust particles, considering that the dust component of the plasma contains spherical dust particles with different sizes, which are charged both by inelastic collisions of electrons and ions and by photoionization.

Galvao, R. A.; Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Charging of coal powder particles in dense phase pneumatic conveying system at low pressure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A non-contact measurement method, namely an electrostatic probe, for particle charging characteristics determination is introduced in the paper. Using the probe, the charging trends of the pulverized bituminous coal in a dense phase pneumatic conveying system at low pressure were investigated for gas superficial velocities in a range of 6-10 m/s and particle concentrations in a range of 128-230 kg/m{sup 3}. The observations indicated that increasing the coal particles concentration leads to an increase in charge level of the pulverized coal particles and then a decrease, and a peak of the charge level is experienced in the range of 150-160 kg/m{sup 3}. The charges carried by the coal particles increase with the increase of gas superficial velocity in the pipeline, and then reach saturation values.

Xu, C.L.; Tang, G.H.; Wang, S.M. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

59

Rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions and particle acceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we construct rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions for infinitesimal black hole charge and rotation parameters. Then we consider this black hole as particle accelerator and calculate the center-of-mass energy of two colliding test particles near the rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions. As we expected, the center-of-mass energy has infinite value.

Sadeghi, J; Farahani, H

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions and particle acceleration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we construct rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions for infinitesimal black hole charge and rotation parameters. Then we consider this black hole as particle accelerator and calculate the center-of-mass energy of two colliding test particles near the rotating charged hairy black hole in (2+1) dimensions. As we expected, the center-of-mass energy has infinite value.

J. Sadeghi; B. Pourhassan; H. Farahani

2013-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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61

Comparison of heavy charged particles and x-rays for axial tomograpic scanning  

SciTech Connect

Heavy charged particles are applicable to the problem of 3- dimensional reconstruction of electron density distributions of biological samples. The transverse uncertainty in the path of a heavy charged particle due to multiple scattering can be reduced by measuring the entrance and exit positions and angles of the particle. Patient doses for He ions and 80 keV x rays are compared under conditions suitable for imaging the human head. (auth)

Huesman, R.H.; Rosenfeld, A.H.; Solmitz, F.T.

1975-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

On charged particle equilibrium violation in external photon fields  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In a recent paper by Bouchard et al.[Med. Phys. 36(10), 4654-4663 (2009)], a theoretical model of quality correction factors for idealistic so-called plan-class specific reference (PCSR) fields was proposed. The reasoning was founded on the definition of PCSR fields made earlier by Alfonso et al.[Med. Phys. 35(11), 5179-5186 (2008)], requiring the beam to achieve charged particle equilibrium (CPE), in a time-averaged sense, in the reference medium. The relation obtained by Bouchard et al. was derived using Fano's theorem (1954) which states that if CPE is established in a given medium, the dose is independent of point-to-point density variations. A potential misconception on the achievability of the condition required by Fano (1954) might be responsible for false practical conclusions, both in the definition of PCSR fields as well as the theoretical model of quality correction factor. Methods: In this paper, the practical achievability of CPE in external beams is treated in detail. The fact that this condition is not achievable in single or composite deliveries is illustrated by an intuitive method and is also formally demonstrated. Conclusions: Fano's theorem is not applicable in external beam radiation dosimetry without (virtually) removing attenuation effects, and therefore, the relation conditionally defined by Bouchard et al. (2009) cannot be valid in practice. A definition of PCSR fields in the recent formalism for nonstandard beams proposed by Alfonso et al. (2008) should be modified, revising the criterion of CPE condition. The authors propose reconsidering the terminology used to describe standard and nonstandard beams. The authors argue that quality correction factors of intensity modulated radiation therapy PCSR fields (i.e., k{sub Q{sub p{sub c{sub s{sub r,Q}{sup f{sub p}{sub c}{sub s}{sub r},f{sub r}{sub e}{sub f}}}}}}) could be unity under ideal conditions, but it is concluded that further investigation is necessary to confirm that hypothesis.

Bouchard, Hugo; Seuntjens, Jan; Palmans, Hugo [Centre hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal (CHUM), 1560 Sherbrooke est, Montreal, Quebec H2L 4M1 (Canada); Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Team, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

63

Diffusion Dynamics of Charged Dust Particles in Capacitively Coupled RF Discharge System  

SciTech Connect

Dusty plasma is loosely defined as electron-ion plasma with additional charged components of micron-sized dust particles. In this study, we developed a particle diagnostic technique based on light scattering and particle tracking velocimetry to investigate the dynamics of micron-sized titanium oxide particles in Argon gas capacitively coupled rf-discharge. The particle trajectories are constructed from sequence of image frames and treated as sample paths of charged Brownian motion. At specific sets of plasma parameters, disordered liquid-like dust particle configuration are observed. Mean-square-displacement of the particle trajectories are determined to characterize the transport dynamics. We showed that the dust particles in disordered liquid phase exhibit anomalous diffusion with different scaling exponents for short and large time scales, indicating the presence of slow and fast modes which can be related to caging effect and dispersive transport, respectively.

Chew, W. X.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Tan, K. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

64

Charging and de-charging of dust particles in bulk region of a radio frequency discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect

An analysis to investigate the effect of the dust particle size and density on the floating potential of the dust particles of uniform radius and other plasma parameters in the bulk region plasma of a RF-discharge in collisionless/collisional regime has been presented herein. For this purpose, the average charge theory based on charge balance on dust and number balance of plasma constituents has been utilized; a derivation for the accretion rate of electrons corresponding to a drifting Maxwellian energy distribution in the presence of an oscillatory RF field has been given and the resulting expression has been used to determine the floating potential of the dust grains. Further, the de-charging of the dust grains after switching off the RF field has also been discussed.

Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

A Dissipative-Particle-Dynamics Model for Simulating Dynamics of Charged Colloid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mesoscopic colloid model is developed in which a spherical colloid is represented by many interacting sites on its surface. The hydrodynamic interactions with thermal fluctuations are taken accounts in full using Dissipative Particle Dynamics, and the electrostatic interactions are simulated using Particle-Particle-Particle Mesh method. This new model is applied to investigate the electrophoretic mobility of a charged colloid under an external electric field, and the influence of salt concentration and colloid charge are systematically studied. The simulation results show good agreement with predictions from the electrokinetic theory.

Jiajia Zhou; Friederike Schmid

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

66

Development, characterization, and application of a charged particle microbeam for radiobiological research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this work is to develop a charged-particle microbeam for use in radiobiological research at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (LABA). The purpose of this device is to precisely explore the ...

Folkert, Michael R. (Michael Ryan), 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Study of high transverse momentum charged particle suppression in heavy ion collisions at LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The charged particle spectrum at large transverse momentum (PT), dominated by hadrons originating from parton fragmentation, is an important observable for studying the properties of the hot, dense medium produced in ...

Yoon, Andre Sungho

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Maximizing Ion Current by Space Charge Neutralization using Negative Ions and Dust Particles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ion current extracted from an ion source (ion thruster) can be increased above the Child-Langmuir limit if the ion space charge is neutralized. Similarly, the limiting kinetic energy density of the plasma flow in a Hall thruster might be exceeded if additional mechanisms of space charge neutralization are introduced. Space charge neutralization with high-mass negative ions or negatively charged dust particles seems, in principle, promising for the development of a high current or high energy density source of positive light ions. Several space charge neutralization schemes that employ heavy negatively charged particles are considered. It is shown that the proposed neutralization schemes can lead, at best, only to a moderate but nonetheless possibly important increase of the ion current in the ion thruster and the thrust density in the Hall thruster.

A. Smirnov; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

2005-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

69

System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

70

A Balloon-Borne Instrument for Measuring the Charge and Size of Precipitation Particles inside Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new balloon-borne instrument created by the authors and referred to as the q-d instrument that measures the charge q and size d of precipitation particles is discussed. The instrument measures charge with an induction cylinder size with an ...

Monte G. Bateman; W. David Rust; Thomas C. Marshall

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

The self-energy of a charged particle in the presence of a topological defect distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we study a charged particle in the presence of both a continuous distribution of disclinations and a continuous distribution of edge dislocations in the framework of the geometrical theory of defects. We obtain the self-energy for a single charge both in the internal and external regions of either distribution. For both distributions the result outside the defect distribution is the self-energy that a single charge experiments in the presence of a single defect.

A. M. de M. Carvalho; Fernando Moraes; Claudio Furtado

2004-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

72

Charged-particle tracking for neutron-deuteron breakup  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particle tracking software has been developed to measure the energy of protons scattered in the breakup process d(n, np)n. The nd breakup experiment is performed at the Weapons Neutron Research facilities at Los Alamos ...

Boddy, Kimberly K

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

An imaging co-axial tube electrodynamic trap for manipulation of charged particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tubular particle trapping device was designed and fabricated using two co-axial electrically conductive tubes with diameters of 5 mm and 7 mm, respectively. The device was integrated with an imaging camera and optical fiber bundle for real time monitoring of trapped particle motion. Charged microparticles of 3 to 50 m diameter can be suspended in air at ambient pressure using the device utilizing a quadrupole potential with an alternating voltage of amplitude 300 V to 750 V and frequency of 30 Hz to 140 Hz. Controlled trapping of a single particle or multiple particles can be achieved by tuning the voltage amplitude. The particle remained trapped when the entire assembly was translated or rotated. The device can be used as a manipulator for charged particle transport and repositioning.

Jiang, Ms. Linan [University of Arizona; Whitten, William B [ORNL; Pau, Dr. Stanley [University of Arizona/Bell Labs

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Binding energy and fission of the heavy charged massive particle - nucleus bound state  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a possibility of capture of a heavy charged massive particle $\\chi^-$ by the nucleus leading to appearance of a bound state. A simple analytic formula allowing to calculate binding energies of the $N\\chi^-$ bound state for different nuclei is derived. If the binding energy is sufficiently large the particle $\\chi^-$ is stable inside the nucleus. The probabilities of the nuclear fissions for such states are calculated. It is shown that the bound states are more stable to a possible fission in comparison to the bare nucleus. This makes an observation of this hypothetical charged massive particle and the superheavy nuclei more probable.

V. V. Flambaum; G. McManus; S. G. Porsev

2010-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

75

Nature of the beam-density effect on energy loss by nonrelativistic charged-particle beams  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors present a new formulation of the beam-density effect on energy loss by charged particles passing through matter, which exhibits an increased loss with a beam-shape dependence. This arises from a long-range dipolelike term contained in the two-particle vicinage function for cooperative energy loss by a pair of nonrelativistic particles. A new analytic expression for the vicinage function, which exhibits the long-range term, is also presented.

Rule, D.W.; Crawford, O.H.

1984-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

76

Light charged particle emission from hot $^{32}$S$^{*}$ formed in $^{20}$Ne + $^{12}$C reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inclusive energy distributions for light charged particles ($p, d, t$ and $\\alpha$) have been measured in the $^{20}$Ne (158, 170, 180, 200 MeV) + $^{12}$C reactions in the angular range 10$^{o}$ -- 50$^{o}$. Exclusive light charged particle energy distribution measurements were also done for the same system at 158 MeV bombarding energy by in-plane light charged particle -- fragment coincidence. Pre-equilibrium components have been separated out from proton energy spectra using moving source model considering two sources. The data have been compared with the predictions of the statistical model code CASCADE. It has been observed that significant deformation effects were needed to be introduced in the compound nucleus in order to explain the shape of the evaporated $d, t$ energy spectra. For protons, evaporated energy spectra were rather insensitive to nuclear deformation, though angular distributions could not be explained without deformation. Decay sequence of the hot $^{32}$S nucleus has been investigated through exclusive light charged particle measurements using the $^{20}$Ne (158 MeV) + $^{12}$C reaction. Information on the sequential decay chain has been extracted through comparison of the experimental data with the predictions of the statistical model. It is observed from the present analysis that exclusive light charged particle data may be used as a powerful tool to probe the decay sequence of hot light compound systems.

Aparajita Dey; S. Bhattacharya; C. Bhattacharya; K. Banerjee; T. K. Rana; S. Kundu; S. R. Banerjee; S. Mukhopadhyay; D. Gupta; R. Saha

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

78

Simulation of heavy charged particle tracks using focused laser beams  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory system utilizing a Q-switched Nd-doped YAG laser is used to simulate the ionization track produced as energetic heavy ions traverse a semiconductor device (resulting in single-event upset effects). Details of the optical design for producing the precisely focused spot and the requirements for fast pulses are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the use of this laboratory simulation are discussed. Laser tests on PIN diodes, p-n junctions, bipolar memories, and power MOSFETs are described and compared to high energy particle tests results.

Richter, A.K.; Arimura, I.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A New Videosonde with a Particle Charge Measurement Device for In Situ Observation of Precipitation Particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new videosonde designed for microphysical soundings inside thunderclouds is described. This sensor makes use of a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera and can provide the phase (liquid or ice), the shape, the size, and the electric charge of each ...

M. P. Boussaton; S. Coquillat; S. Chauzy; F. Gangneron

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Electric potential profile of a spherical soft particle with a charged core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electrostatic potential profile of a spherical soft particle is derived by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equations on a spherical system both numerically and analytically. The soft particle is assumed to consist of an ion-permeable charged outer layer and a non-permeable charged core with constant charged density. The contribution of the core to the potential profile is calculated for different charges and dielectric constants. Our results show that the charged core heavily influences the local potential within the soft particle. In contrast, the potential distribution outside the particle in the salt solution is found to be weakly dependent on the core features. These findings are consistent with previous experiments showing the minor impact of the core of the MS2 virus on its overall electrical properties. Our studies also indicate that while a change in temperature from 290 K to 310 K only slightly varies the potential, the ionic strength in the range of 1-600 mM has a significant effect on the potential profile. Our studies would provide good understanding for experimental research in the field of biophysics and nanomedicine.

Anh D. Phan; Dustin A. Tracy; T. L. Hoai Nguyen; N. A. Viet; The-Long Phan; Thanh H. Nguyen

2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

DRIFT COEFFICIENTS OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN TURBULENT MAGNETIC FIELDS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using test-particle simulations, the off-diagonal elements of the diffusion tensor are evaluated numerically. The comparison of the so-obtained time-dependent drift coefficients with analytical approximations shows that, for weak turbulence strengths or for slab turbulence geometry, the weak scattering result provides an excellent agreement with the numerical results. For two- or three-dimensional turbulence geometry, however, neither the classical scattering result nor alternative analytical approaches provide an accurate description of the numerically obtained values. Furthermore, the influence is discussed of a non-constant energy range in the turbulence spectrum and of non-static turbulence, for which the time dependence is modeled using magnetohydrodynamic plasma waves.

Tautz, R. C. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Shalchi, A., E-mail: rct@tp4.rub.de, E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

82

Charged-particle spectroscopy for diagnosing shock R and strength in NIF implosions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charged-particle spectroscopy for diagnosing shock R and strength in NIF implosions A. B. Zylstra shock R and strength in NIF implosionsa) A. B. Zylstra,1,b) J. A. Frenje,1 F. H. Séguin,1 M. J to the National Ignition Facility (NIF) as a National Ignition Campaign diagnostic. The WRF measures the spectrum

83

Electrokinetic and hydrodynamic properties of charged-particles systems: From small electrolyte ions to large colloids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic processes in dispersions of charged spherical particles are of importance both in fundamental science, and in technical and bio-medical applications. There exists a large variety of charged-particles systems, ranging from nanometer-sized electrolyte ions to micron-sized charge-stabilized colloids. We review recent advances in theoretical methods for the calculation of linear transport coefficients in concentrated particulate systems, with the focus on hydrodynamic interactions and electrokinetic effects. Considered transport properties are the dispersion viscosity, self- and collective diffusion coefficients, sedimentation coefficients, and electrophoretic mobilities and conductivities of ionic particle species in an external electric field. Advances by our group are also discussed, including a novel mode-coupling-theory method for conduction-diffusion and viscoelastic properties of strong electrolyte solutions. Furthermore, results are presented for dispersions of solvent-permeable particles, and particles with non-zero hydrodynamic surface slip. The concentration-dependent swelling of ionic microgels is discussed, as well as a far-reaching dynamic scaling behavior relating colloidal long- to short-time dynamics.

G. Nägele; M. Heinen; A. J. Banchio; C. Contreras-Aburto

2013-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

84

Thermodynamic Bounds on Nonlinear Electrostatic Perturbations in Intense Charged Particle Beams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper places a lowest upper bound on the field energy in electrostatic perturbations in single-species charged particle beams with initial temperature anisotropy (TllT? thermodynamic bound on the field perturbation energy of the instabilities is obtained from the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equations for an arbitrary initial distribution function, including the effects of intense self-fields, finite geometry and nonlinear processes. This paper also includes analytical estimates of the nonlinear bounds for space-charge-dominated and emittance-dominated anisotropic bi-Maxwellian distributions.

Nikolas C. Logan and Ronald C. Davidson

2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

85

Asymptotic scattering wave function for three charged particles and astrophysical capture processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The asymptotic behavior of the wave functions of three charged particles has been investigated. There are two different types of three-body scattering wave functions. The first type of scattering wave function evolves from the incident three-body wave of three charged particles in the continuum. The second type of scattering wave function evolves from the initial two-body incident wave. In this work the asymptotic three-body incident wave has been derived in the asymptotic regions where two particles are close to each other and far away from the third particle. This wave function satisfies the Schrodinger equation up to terms O(1/3pa), where pa is the distance between the center of mass of two particles and the third particle. The derived asymptotic three-body incident wave transforms smoothly into RedmondÂ?s asymptotic incident wave in the asymptotic region where all three particles are well separated. For the scattering wave function of the second type the asymptotic threebody scattered wave has been derived in all the asymptotic regions. In the asymptotic region where all three particles well separated, the derived asymptotic scattered wave coincides with the Peterkop asymptotic wave. In the asymptotic regions where two particles are close to each other and far away from the third one, this is a new expression which is free of the logarithmically diverging phase factors that appeared in the Peterkop approach. The derived asymptotic scattered wave resolves a long-standing phase-amplitude ambiguity. Based on these results the expressions for the exact prior and post breakup amplitudes have been obtained. The post breakup amplitude for charged particles has not been known and has been derived for the first time directly from the prior form. It turns out that the post form of the breakup amplitude is given by a surface integral in the six dimensional hyperspace, rather than a volume integral, with the transition operator expressed in terms of the interaction potentials. We also show how to derive a generalized distorted-wave-Born approximation amplitude (DWBA) from the exact prior form of the breakup amplitude. It is impossible to derive the DWBA amplitude from the post form. The three-body Coulomb incident wave is used to calculate the reaction rates of 7Be(ep, e)8B and 7Be(pp, p)8B nonradiative triple collisions in stellar environments.

Pirlepesov, Fakhriddin

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

New and improved apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged-particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Charged particle beam monitoring means are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam in an experimental device. The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam, while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof for incidence in an experimental chamber, and providing a signal (I/sub m/) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Caibration means are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I/sub f/) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

Varma, M.N.; Baum, J.W.

1981-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

87

Exploration of jet energy loss via direct $?$-charged particle azimuthal correlation measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The multiplicities of charged particles azimuthally associated with direct photons and $\\pi^{0}$ have been measured for Au+Au, p+p, and d+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV in the STAR experiment. Charged particles with transverse momentum 0.5 $direct photons and $\\pi^{0}$ of high transverse momentum 8 $direct $\\gamma$ in central Au+Au relative to p+p and d+Au are similar and constant with direct photon fractional energy $z_{T}$ ($z_{T}=p_{T}^{h^{\\pm}}/p_{T}^{\\gamma}$). The measured suppressions of the associated yields with direct $\\gamma$ are comparable to those with $\\pi^{0}$. The data are compared to theoretical predictions.

A. M. Hamed

2009-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

88

Thermodynamic Bounds on Nonlinear Electrostatic Perturbations in Intense Charged Particle Beams  

SciTech Connect

This paper places a lowest upper bound on the field energy in electrostatic perturbations in single-species charged particle beams with initial temperature anisotropy (TllT? < 1). The result applies to all electrostatic perturbations driven by the natural anisotropies that develop in accelerated particle beams, including Harris-type electrostatic instabilities, known to limit the luminosity and minimum spot size attainable in experiments. The thermodynamic bound on the field perturbation energy of the instabilities is obtained from the nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson equations for an arbitrary initial distribution function, including the effects of intense self-fields, finite geometry and nonlinear processes. This paper also includes analytical estimates of the nonlinear bounds for space-charge-dominated and emittance-dominated anisotropic bi-Maxwellian distributions.

Nikolas C. Logan and Ronald C. Davidson

2012-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

89

Directed flow of Identified Charged Particles from the RHIC Beam Energy Scan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the STAR measurements of directed flow, v1, for {\\pi}{\\pm}, K{\\pm}, protons and antiprotons, as well as for all detected charged particles in Au + Au collisions at {\\surd}sNN = 7.7, 11.5 and 39 GeV as a function of transverse momentum, rapidity and centrality. Results are compared to the predictions from transport models.

Yadav Pandit; for the STAR Collaboration

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

90

Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

Pollock, G.G.

1997-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

91

Charged particle directed flow in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN} = 2.76 TeV measured with ALICE at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charged particle directed flow at midrapidity, |eta|Directed flow is reported as a function of collision centrality, charged particle transverse momentum, and pseudo-rapidity. Results are compared to measurements at RHIC and recent model calculations for LHC energies.

Ilya Selyuzhenkov; for the ALICE Collaboration

2011-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

92

CHARGE-EXCHANGE LIMITS ON LOW-ENERGY {alpha}-PARTICLE FLUXES IN SOLAR FLARES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on a search for flare emission via charge-exchange radiation in the wings of the Ly{alpha} line of He II at 304 A, as originally suggested for hydrogen by Orrall and Zirker. Via this mechanism a primary {alpha} particle that penetrates into the neutral chromosphere can pick up an atomic electron and emit in the He II bound-bound spectrum before it stops. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory gives us our first chance to search for this effect systematically. The Orrall-Zirker mechanism has great importance for flare physics because of the essential roles that particle acceleration plays; this mechanism is one of the few proposed that would allow remote sensing of primary accelerated particles below a few MeV nucleon{sup -1}. We study 10 events in total, including the {gamma}-ray events SOL2010-06-12 (M2.0) and SOL2011-02-24 (M3.5) (the latter a limb flare), seven X-class flares, and one prominent M-class event that produced solar energetic particles. The absence of charge-exchange line wings may point to a need for more complete theoretical work. Some of the events do have broadband signatures, which could correspond to continua from other origins, but these do not have the spectral signatures expected from the Orrall-Zirker mechanism.

Hudson, H. S. [SSL, UC Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fletcher, L.; MacKinnon, A. L. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Woods, T. N., E-mail: hhudson@ssl.berkeley.edu [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, 1234 Innovation Dr., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

2012-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

93

The Observation of Up-going Charged Particles Produced by High Energy Muons in Underground Detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study of the production of up-going charged particles in inelastic interactions of down-going underground muons is reported, using data obtained from the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory. In a sample of 12.2 10^6 single muons, corresponding to a detector livetime of 1.55 y, 243 events are observed having an up-going particle associated with a down-going muon. These events are analysed to determine the range and emission angle distributions of the up-going particle, corrected for detection and reconstruction efficiency. Measurements of the muon neutrino flux by underground detectors are often based on the observation of through-going and stopping muons produced in $\

The MACRO Collaboration; M. Ambrosio et al

1998-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Radiation reaction and renormalization for a photon-like charged particle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A renormalization scheme which relies on energy-momentum and angular momentum balance equations is applied to the derivation of effective equation of motion for a massless point-like charge. Unlike the massive case, the rates of radiated energy-momentum and angular momentum tend to infinity whenever the source is accelerated. The external electromagnetic fields which do not change the velocity of the particle admit only its presence within the interaction area. The effective equation of motion is the equation on eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor. The massless charges move along base line determined by the eigenvectors when the effective equation of motion possesses uniform solutions. It is interesting that the same solution arises in Rylov's model of magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating neutron star (pulsar).

Yurij Yaremko

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

95

Generalized Pearson distributions for charged particles interacting with an electric and/or a magnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The linear Boltzmann equation for elastic and/or inelastic scattering is applied to derive the distribution function of a spatially homogeneous system of charged particles spreading in a host medium of two-level atoms and subjected to external electric and/or magnetic fields. We construct a Fokker-Planck approximation to the kinetic equations and derive the most general class of distributions for the given problem by discussing in detail some physically meaningful cases. The equivalence with the transport theory of electrons in a phonon background is also discussed.

A. Rossani; A. M. Scarfone

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

96

SELF-CONSISTENT LANGEVIN SIMULATION OF COULOMB COLLISIONS IN CHARGED-PARTICLE BEAMS  

SciTech Connect

In many plasma physics and charged-particle beam dynamics problems, Coulomb collisions are modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. In order to incorporate these collisions, we present a three-dimensional parallel Langevin simulation method using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach implemented on high-performance parallel computers. We perform, for the first time, a fully self-consistent simulation, in which the friction and diffusion coefficients are computed from first principles. We employ a two-dimensional domain decomposition approach within a message passing programming paradigm along with dynamic load balancing. Object oriented programming is used to encapsulate details of the communication syntax as well as to enhance reusability and extensibility. Performance tests on the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E-900 have demonstrated good scalability. Work is in progress to apply our technique to intrabeam scattering in accelerators.

J. QIANG; R. RYNE; S. HABIB

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Measuring Lifetimes of Long-Lived Charged Massive Particles Stopped in LHC Detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Long-lived charged massive particles (CHAMPs) appear in various particle physics models beyond the standard model. In this Letter, we discuss the prospects for studying the stopping and decaying events of such long-lived CHAMPs at the LHC detectors, and show that the lifetime measurement (and the study of decay products) is possible with the LHC detectors for a wide range of the lifetime O(0.1)-O(10{sup 10}) sec, by using periods of no pp collision. Even a short lifetime of order 1 sec can be measured by (i) identifying the stopping event with the on-line event filter, (ii) immediately making a beam-dump signal which stops the pp collision of the LHC, and at the same time (iii) changing the trigger menu to optimize it for the detection of a CHAMP decay in the calorimeter. Other possibilities are also discussed.

Asai, Shoji; Shirai, Satoshi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hamaguchi, Koichi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8568 (Japan)

2009-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

98

Method and apparatus for directing ions and other charged particles generated at near atmospheric pressures into a region under vacuum  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for focusing dispersed charged particles. More specifically, a series of elements within a region maintained at a pressure between 10.sup.-1 millibar and 1 bar, each having successively larger apertures forming an ion funnel, wherein RF voltages are applied to the elements so that the RF voltage on any element has phase, amplitude and frequency necessary to define a confinement zone for charged particles of appropriate charge and mass in the interior of the ion funnel, wherein the confinement zone has an acceptance region and an emmitance region and where the acceptance region area is larger than the emmitance region area.

Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA); Shaffer, Scott A. (Seattle, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Numerical study of an electrostatic plasma sheath containing two species of charged dust particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multi-fluid model is used to study the dynamics of a dusty plasma sheath consists of electrons, ions, and two species of charged dust particles, i.e., nano-size and micron-size particles. It is found that, when the sheath is dominated by the nano-size dust grains, spatially periodic fluctuations are developed in the profiles of the sheath potential, and the number density and velocity of the plasma and dust particles. Due to inertial effects, the fluctuations in the parameters of the micron-size grains are much lower than those of the other parameters. The competition between the electric and ion drag forces plays the primary role in development of the fluctuations. The spatial period of the fluctuations is approximately a few Debye lengths and their amplitude depends on the plasma and dust parameters. The fluctuations are reduced by the increase in the radius, mass density, and Mach number of the nano-size particles, as well as the density and Mach number of the ions. But, they are enhanced by the increase in the plasma number density and the electron temperature. The sheath thickness demonstrates a non-monotonic behavior against variation of the nanoparticle parameters, i.e., it first decreases quickly, shows a minimum, and then increases. However, the sheath width always decreases with the plasma number density and ion Mach number, while grows linearly with the electron temperature.

Foroutan, G. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sahand University of Technology, 51335-1996 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Akhoundi, A. [Nanostructure Material Research Center, Sahand University of Technology, 51335-1996 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Energy exchange between a laser beam and charged particles using inverse transition radiation and method for its use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for exchanging energy between relativistic charged particles and laser radiation using inverse diffraction radiation or inverse transition radiation. The beam of laser light is directed onto a particle beam by means of two optical elements which have apertures or foils through which the particle beam passes. The two apertures or foils are spaced by a predetermined distance of separation and the angle of interaction between the laser beam and the particle beam is set at a specific angle. The separation and angle are a function of the wavelength of the laser light and the relativistic energy of the particle beam. In a diffraction embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the diffraction effect due to the apertures in the optical elements. In a transition embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the transition effect due to pieces of foil placed in the particle beam path.

Kimura, Wayne D. (Bellevue, WA); Romea, Richard D. (Seattle, WA); Steinhauer, Loren C. (Bothell, WA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-power-density-laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems. 25 figs.

Lasche, G.P.

1987-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

102

Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression  

SciTech Connect

A high-power-density laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems.

Lasche, George P. (Arlington, VA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

A Multimedia Tutorial for Charged-Particle Beam Dynamics. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In September 1995 WhistleSoft, Inc., began developing a computer-based multimedia tutorial for charged-particle beam dynamics under Phase II of a Small Business Innovative Research grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. In Phase I of this project (see its Final Report) we had developed several prototype multimedia modules using an authoring system on NeXTStep computers. Such a platform was never our intended target, and when we began Phase II we decided to make the change immediately to develop our tutorial modules for the Windows and Macintosh microcomputer market. This Report details our progress and accomplishments. It also gives a flavor of the look and feel of the presently available and upcoming modules.

Silbar, Richard R.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

104

Monte Carlo Electromagnetic Cross Section Production Method for Low Energy Charged Particle Transport Through Single Molecules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present state of modeling radio-induced effects at the cellular level neglects to account for the microscopic inhomogeneity of the nucleus from the non-aqueous contents by approximating the entire cellular nucleus as a homogenous medium of water. Charged particle track-structure calculations utilizing this principle of superposition are thereby neglecting to account for approximately 30% of the molecular variation within the nucleus. To truly understand what happens when biological matter is irradiated, charged particle track-structure calculations need detailed knowledge of the secondary electron cascade, resulting from interactions with not only the primary biological component – water – but also the non-aqueous contents, down to very low energies. This paper presents developments for a novel approach, which to our knowledge has never been done before, to reducing the homogenous water approximation. The purpose of our work is to develop of a completely self-consistent computational method for predicting molecule-specific ionization, excitation, and scattering cross sections in the very low energy regime that can be applied in a condensed history Monte Carlo track-structure code. The present methodology begins with the calculation of a solution to the many-body Schrödinger equation and proceeds to use Monte Carlo methods to calculate the perturbations in the internal electron field to determine the aforementioned processes. Results are computed for molecular water in the form of linear energy loss, secondary electron energies, and ionization-to-excitation ratios and compared against the low energy predictions of the GEANT4-DNA physics package of the Geant4 simulation toolkit.

Madsen, Jonathan R

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Production of {sup 64}Cu and other radionuclides using a charged-particle accelerator  

SciTech Connect

Radionuclides are produced according to the present invention at commercially significant yields and at specific activities which are suitable for use in radiodiagnostic agents such as PET imaging agents and radiotherapeutic agents and/or compositions. In the method and system of the present invention, a solid target having an isotopically enriched target layer electroplated on an inert substrate is positioned in a specially designed target holder and irradiated with a charged-particle beam. The beam is preferably generated using an accelerator such as a biomedical cyclotron at energies ranging from about 5 MeV to about 25 MeV. The target is preferably directly irradiated, without an intervening attenuating foil, and with the charged particle beam impinging an area which substantially matches the target area. The irradiated target is remotely and automatically transferred from the target holder, preferably without transferring any target holder subassemblies, to a conveyance system which is preferably a pneumatic or hydraulic conveyance system, and then further transferred to an automated separation system. The system is effective for processing a single target or a plurality of targets. After separation, the unreacted target material can be recycled for preparation of other targets. In a preferred application of the invention, a biomedical cyclotron has been used to produce over 500 mCi of {sup 64}Cu having a specific activity of over 300 mCi/{mu}g Cu according to the reaction {sup 64}Ni(p,n){sup 64}Cu. These results indicate that accelerator-produced {sup 64}Cu is suitable for radiopharmaceutical diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

Welch, M.J.; McCarthy, D.W.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

106

Microscopic mechanism of charged-particle radioactivity and generalization of the Geiger-Nuttall law  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear relation for charged-particle emissions is presented starting from the microscopic mechanism of the radioactive decay. It relates the logarithms of the decay half-lives with two variables, called {chi}{sup '} and {rho}{sup '}, which depend upon the Q values of the outgoing clusters as well as the masses and charges of the nuclei involved in the decay. This relation explains well all known cluster decays. It is found to be a generalization of the Geiger-Nuttall law in {alpha} radioactivity, and therefore we call it the universal decay law. Predictions of the most likely emissions of various clusters are presented by applying the law over the whole nuclear chart. It is seen that the decays of heavier clusters with nonequal proton and neutron numbers are mostly located in the trans-lead region. The emissions of clusters with equal protons and neutrons, like {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O, are possible in some neutron-deficient nuclei with Z{>=}54.

Qi, C. [School of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Xu, F. R. [School of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Physics, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liotta, R. J.; Wyss, R. [KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Alba Nova University Center, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Zhang, M. Y.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Hu, D. [School of Physics, and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

On a theory of two-beam mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in electrodynamic structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work is devoted to the theoretical studies of two-beam mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in electronic structures. The first section continues the outline of results of theoretical studies commenced in the intermediate report and considers the two-beam scheme of acceleration in the plasma waveguide. According to this scheme the strong current relativistic electron beam (REB) excites the intensive plasma waves accelerating the electrons of the second beam. The driving beam is assumed to be density-modulated. The preliminary modulation of the driving REB is shown to enhance substantially the acceleration efficiency of relativistic electrons of the driven beam. The second section deals with the two-beam acceleration in the vacuum corrugated waveguide. According to this scheme the excitation of electromagnetic waves and acceleration of driven beam electrons by them is accomplished under different Cherenkov resonances between the particles of beams and the corrugated waveguide field. The electromagnetic field in the periodic structure is known to be the superposition of spatial harmonics. With the small depth of the periodic nonuniformity the amplitudes of these harmonics decrease fast with their number increasing. Therefore, if the driving beam is in the Cherenkov resonance with the first spatial harmonic and the driven beam is in resonance with the zero space harmonic then the force accelerating the driven beam would be considerably bigger than the force decelerating the driving beam electrons.

Ostrovsky, A.O. [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology, Kharkov (Ukraine)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Transverse collective flow and midrapidity emission of isotopically identified light charged particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transverse flow and relative midrapidity yield of isotopically identified light charged particles (LCPs) has been examined for the 35 MeV/nucleon {sup 70}Zn+{sup 70}Zn, {sup 64}Zn+{sup 64}Zn, and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 64}Ni systems. A large enhancement of the midrapidity yield of the LCPs was observed relative to the yield near the projectile rapidity. In particular, this enhancement was increased for the more neutron-rich LCPs demonstrating a preference for the production of neutron-rich fragments in the midrapidity region. Additionally, the transverse flow of the LCPs was extracted, which provides insight into the average movement of the particles in the midrapidity region. Isotopic and isobaric effects were observed in the transverse flow of the fragments. In both cases, the transverse flow was shown to decrease with an increasing neutron content in the fragments. A clear inverse relationship between the transverse flow and the relative midrapidity yield is shown. The increased relative midrapidity emission produces a decreased transverse flow. The stochastic mean-field model was used for comparison to the experimental data. The results showed that the model was able to reproduce the general isotopic and isobaric trends for the midrapidity emission and transverse flow. The sensitivity of these observables to the density dependence of the symmetry energy was explored. The results indicate that the transverse flow and midrapidity emission of the LCPs are sensitive to the denisty dependence of the symmetry energy.

Kohley, Z.; May, L. W.; Wuenschel, S.; Soisson, S. N.; Stein, B. C.; Yennello, S. J. [Chemistry Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Colonna, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Di Toro, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Catania (Italy); Zielinska-Pfabe, M. [Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts (United States); Hagel, K.; Tripathi, R.; Shetty, D. V.; Galanopoulos, S.; Smith, W. B. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Bonasera, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Souliotis, G. A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens GR-15771 (Greece); Mehlman, M. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

109

Modified theory of secondary electron emission from spherical particles and its effect on dust charging in complex plasma  

SciTech Connect

The authors have modified Chow's theory of secondary electron emission (SEE) to take account of the fact that the path length of a primary electron in a spherical particle varies between zero to the diameter or x{sub m} the penetration depth depending on the distance of the path from the centre of the particle. Further by including this modified expression for SEE efficiency, the charging kinetics of spherical grains in a Maxwellian plasma has been developed; it is based on charge balance over dust particles and number balance of electrons and ionic species. It is seen that this effect is more pronounced for smaller particles and higher plasma temperatures. Desirable experimental work has also been discussed.

Misra, Shikha [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Department of Education Building, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

A METHOD OF EFFECTIVELY WIDENING THE BRAGG PEAK IN DEPTH IN THE PATH OF CHARGED HEAVY PARTICLES IN TISSUE  

SciTech Connect

A device is described for the filtration of charged energetic heavy particles resulting in the production of adjacent or separated Bragg peaks within the range of the particles in tissue. Two or more layers of intense ionization at different depths separated by layers of less ionlzation in tissue can be produced. A cylinder of uniform ionization which cuts off sharply in depth in tissue can also be produced. (auth)

Jansen, C.R.; Baker, C.; Calvo, W.; Rai, K.R.; Lippincott, S.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Quantum hydrodynamics approach to the formation of waves in polarized two-dimensional systems of charged and neutral particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we explicate a method of quantum hydrodynamics (QHD) for the study of the quantum evolution of a system of polarized particles. Although we focused primarily on the two-dimensional (2D) physical systems, the method is valid for three-dimensional (3D) and one-dimensional (1D) systems too. The presented method is based upon the Schroedinger equation. Fundamental QHD equations for charged and neutral particles were derived from the many-particle microscopic Schroedinger equation. The fact that particles possess the electric dipole moment (EDM) was taken into account. The explicated QHD approach was used to study dispersion characteristics of various physical systems. We analyzed dispersion of waves in a two-dimensional ion and hole gas placed into an external electric field, which is orthogonal to the gas plane. Elementary excitations in a system of neutral polarized particles were studied for 1D, 2D, and 3D cases. The polarization dynamics in systems of both neutral and charged particles is shown to cause formation of a new type of waves as well as changes in the dispersion characteristics of already known waves. We also analyzed wave dispersion in 2D exciton systems, in 2D electron-ion plasma, and in 2D electron-hole plasma. Generation of waves in 3D-system neutral particles with EDM by means of the beam of electrons and neutral polarized particles is investigated.

Andreev, P. A.; Kuzmenkov, L. S.; Trukhanova, M. I. [Department of General Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dpartment of Theoretical Physics, Physics Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 8, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

As we reported in the Technical Progress Report No. 7, there are surges of electric current in the charging loop during triboelectrification of all particles. A high speed data acquisition and analysis system was developed to monitor and record the current pattern. There is no known report on such charge-discharge surges in the literature. The mechanism for it is yet to be understood. The on-line computerized electric current measurement also leads to an observation of charging effects as a function of particle feeding rate. It is shown that feed rate greatly alters particle charge. Such an effect is mostly overlooked by researchers and it could have a important role in process design where the feed rate would be maximized. The initial results for coal and mineral particles demonstrated that the average charge was lower when the feed rate was increased. Further investigation is scheduled to identify potential controlling factors, eg, the solid volume fraction and particle number density could be important process factors. The study of charging velocity and particle size was continued. It was found that particle charge was linearly dependent on the charging velocity for all samples investigated. However, the slope of this linear dependence varied for particles having different diameters. In addition, the charge-velocity relationships were dependent on feeding rates. Hence, the data discussed below include these interrelationships.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

SEARCH FOR CHARGED PARTICLES WITH REST MASS BETWEEN THAT OF THE ELECTRON AND MU-MESON  

SciTech Connect

An attempt was made to produce charged particles with rest mass between that of the electron and mu meson (hereafter called submuons) by electromagnetic pair pronduction from C nuclei. The incident photon beam was obtained by bombarding a thick C block with an 800-Mev electron beam. The same block served as the target for the production process. Only one member of the produced pair was to be observed. The momentum of the secondary particles (300 Mev/c) was determined by a zero-dispersion, doublefocusing magnetic spectrometer. The particles traversing the spectrometer were detected by a 6-courter telescope, in which the counters were separated by various thicknesses of lead. The signals from the counters were put in coincidence in a 6-channel fast-resolution coincidence circuit. The telescope was sensitive to submuons with rest masses between 175 and 10 electron masses. The expected counting rates were calculated using the Bethe-Heitler and Pauli-Weisskopf formulas for spin 1/2 and spin 0 submuons, respectively. An integration over the variables of the unobserved member of the pair, and thus over the momentum transfer to the C nucleus was performed. The nucleus was treated by a sum rale calculation to take into account both the finite nuclear size and the elastic and inelastic contributions to the cross section. The resulting cross sections were multiplied by the total photon spectrum and the results integrated over the available photon energy. The total photon spectrum included both the real photon spectrum from electron bremsstrshlung in the C target and the virtual photon spectrum associated with the electrons themselves. The expected courting rates varied from 70 to 12,500 counts per l0t7 incident electrons for spin 1/2 submuons with rest masses between 175 and 25 electron masses and half lives in the microsecond region or longer. The similar rates for spin 0 submuons were 10 to 2870 counts. Since only 4.10 plus or minus 2.05 counts per 10/sup 17/ incident electrons were observed, it seems highly unlikely thai particles with rest mass between that of the electron and mu-meson exist. (M.P.G.)

Coward, D.H.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Third harmonic flow of charged particles in Au + Au collisions at ?s[subscript NN]=200 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report measurements of the third harmonic coefficient of the azimuthal anisotropy, v[subscript 3], known as triangular flow. The analysis is for charged particles in Au+Au collisions at ?s[subscript NN]=200 GeV, based ...

Betancourt, M. J.

115

Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography. Literature scanned from April 1, 1984-March 31, 1985. First edition, Supplement 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The literature cited cover data on collisions in which the incident particle energy has a minimum energy of less than 100 MeV in the laboratory system, the data including excitation functions, or thick target or product yields leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state. Such quantities are included as fission yields, isomeric ratios, and excitation functions for specific particle groups where such data readily yield information on the excitation functions or thick target yields for the ground or metastable state. Selected compilations, evaluations, and reviews of charged-particle nuclear data are also listed. The bibliography is indexed by target and by residuals. (LEW)

Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Two-slit diffraction with highly charged particles: Niels Bohr's consistency argument that the electromagnetic field must be quantized  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze Niels Bohr's proposed two-slit interference experiment with highly charged particles that argues that the consistency of elementary quantum mechanics requires that the electromagnetic field must be quantized. In the experiment a particle's path through the slits is determined by measuring the Coulomb field that it produces at large distances; under these conditions the interference pattern must be suppressed. The key is that as the particle's trajectory is bent in diffraction by the slits it must radiate and the radiation must carry away phase information. Thus the radiation field must be a quantized dynamical degree of freedom. On the other hand, if one similarly tries to determine the path of a massive particle through an inferometer by measuring the Newtonian gravitational potential the particle produces, the interference pattern would have to be finer than the Planck length and thus undiscernable. Unlike for the electromagnetic field, Bohr's argument does not imply that the gravitational field must be quantized.

Gordon Baym; Tomoki Ozawa

2009-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

117

Two-slit diffraction with highly charged particles: Niels Bohr's consistency argument that the electromagnetic field must be quantized  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze Niels Bohr's proposed two-slit interference experiment with highly charged particles that argues that the consistency of elementary quantum mechanics requires that the electromagnetic field must be quantized. In the experiment a particle's path through the slits is determined by measuring the Coulomb field that it produces at large distances; under these conditions the interference pattern must be suppressed. The key is that as the particle's trajectory is bent in diffraction by the slits it must radiate and the radiation must carry away phase information. Thus the radiation field must be a quantized dynamical degree of freedom. On the other hand, if one similarly tries to determine the path of a massive particle through an inferometer by measuring the Newtonian gravitational potential the particle produces, the interference pattern would have to be finer than the Planck length and thus undiscernable. Unlike for the electromagnetic field, Bohr's argument does not imply that the gravitational field ...

Baym, Gordon; 10.1073/pnas.0813239106

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Search for Long-Lived Massive Charged Particles in 1.96 TeV $\\bar{p}p}$ Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We performed a signature-based search for long-lived charged massive particles (CHAMPs) produced in 1.0 $\\rm{fb}^{-1}$ of $\\bar{p}p$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV, collected with the CDF II detector using a high transverse-momentum ($p_T$) muon trigger. The search used time-of-flight to isolate slowly moving, high-$p_T$ particles. One event passed our selection cuts with an expected background of $1.9 \\pm 0.2$ events. We set an upper bound on the production cross section, and, interpreting this result within the context of a stable scalar top quark model, set a lower limit on the particle mass of 249 GeV/$c^2$ at 95% C.L.

CDF Collaboration; T. Aaltonen

2009-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

119

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge A quantum number carried by a particle. Determines whether the particle can participate in an interaction process. A particle with electric charge has electrical...

120

Quantum effects in electron emission from and accretion on negatively charged spherical particles in a complex plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have investigated the electron emissions (thermionic, electric field, photoelectric, and light induced field) from and electron accretion on a charged particle in a complex plasma, on the basis of a three region electrical potential model in and around a charged spherical particle in a complex plasma, characterized by Debye shielding. A continuous variation of the transmission coefficient across the surface of a particle (corresponding to emission and accretion) with the radial electron energy {epsilon}{sub r} has been obtained. It is seen that the numerical values of the emission and accretion transmission coefficients [D({epsilon}{sub r})] are almost the same. This is the necessary and sufficient condition for the validity of Saha's equation for thermal equilibrium of a system of dust and electrons. This is in contrast to the earlier condition, which limited the range of validity of Saha's equation to the range of the applicability of Born approximation. It is seen that D({epsilon}{sub r}) increases with increasing {epsilon}{sub r}, increasing negative electric potential on the surface, decreasing radius, and deceasing Debye length. The electron currents, corresponding to thermionic, electric field, photoelectric and light induced field emission increase with increasing surface potential; this fact may have significant repercussions in complex plasma kinetics. Since numerically D({epsilon}{sub r}) is significantly different from unity in the range of {epsilon}{sub r} of interest, it is necessary to take into account the D({epsilon}{sub r})-{epsilon}{sub r} dependence in complex plasma theory.

Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India); Sodha, M. S.; Misra, Shikha [DST Project, Department of Education Building, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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121

Why does set theory necessary to describe charge structure of particles ?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is pointed out that the set theory gave the exact symmetry while the group theory did not. The triplicity of quarks and leptons is also pointed out. The reason of seven families of particles and in each family eight number of particles is elaborated.

Amjad Hussain Shah Gilani

2005-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

122

An iterative procedure to obtain inverse response functions for thick-target correction of measured charged-particle spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new method for correcting charged-particle spectra for thick target effects is described. Starting with a trial function, inverse response functions are found by an iterative procedure. The variances corresponding to the measured spectrum are treated similiarly and in parallel. Oscillations of the solution are avoided by rebinning the data to finer bins during a correction iteration and back to the original or wider binning after each iteration. This thick-target correction method has been used for data obtained with the MEDLEY facility at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden, and is here presented in detail and demonstrated for two test cases.

S. Pomp; U. Tippawan

2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

123

Qualifying a CMOS Instrumentation Chain for Charged Particles Detection in the Space Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

@irap.omp.eu ABSTRACT For the solar system exploration and the distant universe study, the in-situ particle energy functionality loss. INTRODUCTION Solar system exploration and distant universe study are mainly based on in situ

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

124

APPARATUS FOR TRAPPING ENERGETIC CHARGED PARTICLES AND CONFINING THE RESULTING PLASMA  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a plasma-confining device and a particle injector therefor, the device utilizing a generally toroidal configuration with magnetic fields specifically tailored to the associated injector. The device minimizes the effects of particle end losses and particle drift to the walls with a relatively simple configuration. More particularly, the magnetic field configuration is created by a continuous array of circular, mirror field coils, disposed side-by- side, in particularly spaced relation, to form an endless, toroidal loop. The resulting magnetic field created therein has the appearance of a bumpy'' torus, from which is derived the name Bumpy Torus.'' One of the aforementioned coils is split transverse to its axis, and injection of particles is accomplished along a plane between the halves of such modified coil. The guiding center of the particles follows a constant magnetic field in the plane for a particular distance within the torus, to move therefrom onto a precessional surface which does not intersect the point of injection. (AEC)

Gibson, G.; Jordan, W.C.; Lauer, E.J.

1963-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

System Size, Energy and Centrality Dependence of Pseudorapidity Distributions of Charged Particles in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first measurements of the pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles in Cu+Cu collisions as a function of collision centrality and energy, \\sqrtsnn = 22.4, 62.4 and 200 GeV, over a wide range of pseudorapidity, using the PHOBOS detector. Making a global comparison of Cu+Cu and Au+Au results, we find that the total number of produced charged particles and the rough shape (height and width) of the pseudorapidity distributions are determined by the number of nucleon participants. More detailed studies reveal that a more precise matching of the shape of the Cu+Cu and Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions over the full range of pseudorapidity occurs for the same Npart/2A value rather than the same Npart value. In other words, it is the collision geometry rather than just the number of nucleon participants that drives the detailed shape of the pseudorapidity distribution and its centrality dependence at RHIC energies.

B. Alver; B. B. Back; M. D. Baker; M. Ballintijn; D. S. Barton; R. R. Betts; R. Bindel; W. Busza; Z. Chai; V. Chetluru; E. García; T. Gburek; K. Gulbrandsen; J. Hamblen; I. Harnarine; C. Henderson; D. J. Hofman; R. S. Hollis; R. Ho?y?ski; B. Holzman; A. Iordanova; J. L. Kane; P. Kulinich; C. M. Kuo; W. Li; W. T. Lin; C. Loizides; S. Manly; A. C. Mignerey; R. Nouicer; A. Olszewski; R. Pak; C. Reed; E. Richardson; C. Roland; G. Roland; J. Sagerer; I. Sedykh; C. E. Smith; M. A. Stankiewicz; P. Steinberg; G. S. F. Stephans; A. Sukhanov; A. Szostak; M. B. Tonjes; A. Trzupek; G. J. van Nieuwenhuizen; S. S. Vaurynovich; R. Verdier; G. I. Veres; P. Walters; E. Wenger; D. Willhelm; F. L. H. Wolfs; B. Wosiek; K. Wo?niak; S. Wyngaardt; B. Wys?ouch

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

126

Observation of the Askaryan Effect: Coherent Microwave Cherenkov Emission from Charge Asymmetry in High Energy Particle Cascades  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first direct experimental evidence for the charge excess in high energy particle showers predicted nearly 40 years ago by Askaryan. We directed bremsstrahlung photons from picosecond pulses of 28.5 GeV electrons at the SLAC Final Focus Test Beam facility into a 3.5 ton silica sand target, producing electromagnetic showers several meters long. A series of antennas spanning 0.3 to 6 GHz were used to detect strong, sub-nanosecond radio frequency pulses produced whenever a shower was present. The measured electric field strengths are consistent with a completely coherent radiation process. The pulses show 100% linear polarization, consistent with the expectations of Cherenkov radiation. The field strength versus depth closely follows the expected particle number density profile of the cascade, consistent with emission from excess charge distributed along the shower. These measurements therefore provide strong support for experiments designed to detect high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos via coherent radio emission from their cascades.

David Saltzberg; Peter Gorham; Dieter Walz; Clive Field; Richard Iverson; Allen Odian; George Resch; Paul Schoessow; Dawn Williams

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Search for fractionally charged particles in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilations  

SciTech Connect

We have searched for the production of free Q = +-1/3e, Q = +-2/3e and Q = +-4/3e particles produced in e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV in 77 pb/sup -1/ of data collected by the time projection chamber at PEP. No evidence has been found for the production of these particles. Upper limits are established on the inclusive cross section for the production of Q = +-1/3e, Q = +-2/3e, and Q = +-4/3e particles in the mass range 1.0 to 13 GeV/c/sup 2/, improving upon previously established limits. 58 references.

Huth, J.E.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Searches for long-lived charged particles in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 and 8 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Results of searches for heavy stable charged particles produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 and 8 TeV are presented corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns and 18.8 inverse femtobarns, respectively. Data collected with the CMS detector are used to study the momentum, energy deposition, and time-of-flight of signal candidates. Leptons with an electric charge between e/3 and 8e, as well as bound states that can undergo charge exchange with the detector material, are studied. Analysis results are presented for various combinations of signatures in the inner tracker only, inner tracker and muon detector, and muon detector only. Detector signatures utilized are long time-of-flight to the outer muon system and anomalously high (or low) energy deposition in the inner tracker. The data are consistent with the expected background, and upper limits are set on the production cross section of long-lived gluinos, scalar top quarks, and scalar tau leptons, as well as pair produced long-lived leptons. Corresponding lower mass limits, ranging up to 1322 GeV for gluinos, are the most stringent to date.

CMS Collaboration

2013-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

129

Measurement of underlying event characteristics using charged particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 900 GeV$ and 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of charged particle distributions, sensitive to the underlying event, have been performed with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are based on data collected using a minimum-bias trigger to select proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The "underlying event" is defined as those aspects of a hadronic interaction attributed not to the hard scattering process, but rather to the accompanying interactions of the rest of the proton. Three regions are defined in azimuthal angle with respect to the highest-pt charged particle in the event, such that the region transverse to the dominant momentum-flow is most sensitive to the underlying event. In each of these regions, distributions of the charged particle multiplicity, pt density, and average pt are measured. The data show a higher underlying event activity than that predicted by Monte Carlo models tuned to pre-LHC data.

The ATLAS Collaboration

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

130

Charged-particle multiplicities in e sup + e sup minus annihilations at radical s =50--61. 4 GeV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the charged-particle multiplicity distributions for {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} annihilation at center-of-mass energies from 50 to 61.4 GeV. The results are based on a data sample corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 30 pb{sup {minus}1} obtained with the AMY detector at the KEK storage ring TRISTAN. The charged-particle multiplicity distributions deviate significantly from the modified Poisson and pair Poisson distributions, but follow Koba-Nielsen-Olesen scaling and are well reproduced by the LUND parton-shower model.

Zheng, H.W.; Perez, P.; Auchincloss, P.; Blanis, D.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Eno, S.; Fry, C.A.; Harada, H.; Ho, Y.H.; Kim, Y.K.; Kumita, T.; Mori, T.; Olsen, S.L.; Shaw, N.M.; Sill, A.; Thorndike, E.H.; Ueno, K.; Imlay, R.; Kirk, P.; Lim, J.; McNeil, R.R.; Metcalf, W.; Myung, S.S.; Cheng, C.P.; Gu, P.; Li, J.; Li, Y.K.; Ye, M.H.; Zhu, Y.C.; Abashian, A.; Gotow, K.; Hu, K.P.; Low, E.H.; Mattson, M.E.; Piilonen, L.; Sterner, K.L.; Lusin, S.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wang, A.T.M.; Wilson, S.; Frautschi, M.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Trahern, C.G.; Breedon, R.E.; Kim, G.N.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.L.; Maeshima, K.; Malchow, R.L.; Smith, J.R.; Stuart, D.; Abe, K.; Fujii, Y.; Higashi, Y.; Kim, S.K.; Kurihara, Y.; Maki, A.; Nozaki, T.; Omori, T.; Sagawa, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sugimoto, Y.; Takaiwa, Y.; Terada, S.; Walker, R.; Kajino, F.; Perticone, D.; Poling, R.; Thomas, T.; Ishi, Y.; Miyano, K.; Miyata, H.; Sasaki, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Bacala, A.; Liu, J.; Park, I.H.; Sannes, F.; Schnetzer, S.; Stone, R.; Vinson, J.; Koba; The AMY Collaboration

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a laser or particle-beam-driven fusion reactor system which takes maximum advantage of both the very short pulsed nature of the energy release of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the very small volumes within which the thermonuclear burn takes place. The pulsed nature of ICF permits dynamic direct energy conversion schemes such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation and magnetic flux compression; the small volumes permit very compact blanket geometries. By fully exploiting these characteristics of ICF, it is possible to design a fusion reactor with exceptionally high power density, high net electric efficiency, and low neutron-induced radioactivity. The invention includes a compact blanket design and method and apparatus for obtaining energy utilizing the compact blanket.

Lasche, G.P.

1983-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

132

Detection of charged particles and X-rays by scintillator layers coupled to amorphous silicon photodiode arrays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n diodes with transparent metallic contacts are shown to be suitable for detecting charged particles, electrons, and X-rays. When coupled to a suitable scintillator using CsI(Tl) as the scintillator we show a capability to detect minimum ionizing particles with S/N {approximately}20. We demonstrate such an arrangement by operating a p-i-n diode in photovoltaic mode (reverse bias). Moreover, we show that a p-i-n diode can also work as a photoconductor under forward bias and produces a gain yield of 3-8 higher light sensitivity for shaping times of 1 {mu}s. n-i-n devices have similar optical gain as the p-i-n photoconductor for short integrating times ( radiation exposure dose can be reduced significantly. The scintillator CsI layers we made have higher spatial resolution than the Kodak commercial scintillator screens due to their internal columnar structure which can collimate the scintillation light. Evaporated CsI layers are shown to be more resistant to radiation damage than the crystalline bulk CsI(Tl).

Jing, T.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Lee, H.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Goodman, C.A.; Wildermuth, D. [Air Techniques, Inc. Hicksville, NY (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Detection of charged particles and X-rays by scintillator layers coupled to amorphous silicon photodiode arrays  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) p-i-n diodes with transparent metallic contacts are shown to be suitable for detecting charged particles, electrons, and X-rays. When coupled to a suitable scintillator using CsI(Tl) as the scintillator we show a capability to detect minimum ionizing particles with S/N {approximately}20. We demonstrate such an arrangement by operating a p-i-n diode in photovoltaic mode (reverse bias). Moreover, we show that a p-i-n diode can also work as a photoconductor under forward bias and produces a gain yield of 3-8 higher light sensitivity for shaping times of 1 {mu}s. n-i-n devices have similar optical gain as the p-i-n photoconductor for short integrating times ( < 10{mu}s). However, n-i-n devices exhibit much higher gain for a long term integration (10ms) than the p-i-n ones. High sensitivity photosensors are very desirable for X-ray medical imaging because radiation exposure dose can be reduced significantly. The scintillator CsI layers we made have higher spatial resolution than the Kodak commercial scintillator screens due to their internal columnar structure which can collimate the scintillation light. Evaporated CsI layers are shown to be more resistant to radiation damage than the crystalline bulk CsI(Tl).

Jing, T.; Drewery, J.; Hong, W.S.; Lee, H.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Goodman, C.A.; Wildermuth, D. [Air Techniques, Inc. Hicksville, NY (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Aggregation in Charged Nano Suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to control aggregation phenomena in suspensions of nanoparticles, one often charges the particles electrically, e.g. by triboelectric charging. Stabilization of suspensions against aggregation of particles is an important issue, which may be realized by monopolar charging, where particles repel each other. Contrarily, bipolar charging may be used in coating processes, where smaller particles of one material coat larger particles of another material. When the two particle fractions are charged oppositely, aggregation between equally charged particles is hindered whereas aggregation between oppositely charged particles is preferred, thereby improving the coating process. We study various aspects of these two situations by theoretical investigations and computer simulations.

J. H. Werth; S. M. Dammer; H. A. Knudsen; H. Hinrichsen; D. E. Wolf

2005-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

135

SIMPLIFIED CHARGED PARTICLE BEAM TRANSPORT MODELING USING COMMONLY AVAILABLE COMMERCIAL SOFTWARE  

SciTech Connect

Particle beam modeling in accelerators has been the focus of considerable effort since the 1950s. Many generations of tools have resulted from this process, each leveraging both prior experience and increases in computer power. However, continuing innovation in accelerator technology results in systems that are not well described by existing tools, so the software development process is on-going. We discuss a novel response to this situation, which was encountered when Jefferson Lab began operation of its energy-recovering linacs. These machines were not readily described with legacy soft-ware; therefore a model was built using Microsoft Excel. This interactive simulation can query data from the accelerator, use it to compute machine parameters, analyze difference orbit data, and evaluate beam properties. It can also derive new accelerator tunings and rapidly evaluate the impact of changes in machine configuration. As it is spreadsheet-based, it can be easily user-modified in response to changing requirements. Examples for the JLab IR Upgrade FEL are presented.

D. Douglas; K. Beard; J. Eldred; P. Evtushenko; A. Jenkins; W. Moore; L. Osborne; D. Sexton; C. Tennant

2007-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

136

Directed and elliptic flow of charged particles in Cu + Cu collisions at ?[superscript s][subscript NN]=22.4 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports results for directed flow v[subscript 1] and elliptic flow v[subscript 2] of charged particles in Cu + Cu collisions at ?[superscript s][subscript NN]=22.4 GeV at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The ...

Balewski, Jan T.

137

Cosmological evolution of the cosmological plasma with interpartial scalar interaction. III. Model with the attraction of the like scalar charged particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On the basis of the relativistic kinetic theory the mathematical model of cosmological plasmas with an attraction of the like charged scalar particles is formulated. It is shown, that cosmological the model, based on a classical scalar field with an attraction, is unsatisfactory, that leads to necessity of attraction of phantom models of a scalar field for systems with an attraction.

Yu. G. Ignat'ev

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

138

Effects of Image Charges on the Scavenging of Aerosol Particles by Cloud Droplets and on Droplet Charging and Possible Ice Nucleation Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous calculations of the rate at which falling droplets in clouds collide with aerosols have led to the conclusion that except in thunderclouds any electrical charges on the aerosols or droplets have little effect on the collision rate. ...

B. A. Tinsley; R. P. Rohrbaugh; M. Hei; K. V. Beard

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Simulation and Analysis of Human Phantoms Exposed to Heavy Charged Particle Irradiations Using the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport System (PHITS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthropomorphic phantoms are commonly used for testing radiation fields without the need to expose human subjects. One of the most widely known is RANDO phantom. This phantom is used primarily for medical X-ray applications, but a similar design known as "MATROSHKA" is now being used for space research and exposed to heavy ion irradiations from the Galactic environment. Since the radiation field in the phantom should respond in a similar manner to how it would act in human tissues and organs under an irradiation, the tissue substitute chosen for soft tissue and the level of complexity of the entire phantom are crucial issues. The phantoms, and the materials used to create them, were developed mainly for photon irradiations and have not been heavily tested under the conditions of heavy ion exposures found in the space environment or external radiotherapy. The Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS) was used to test the phantoms and their materials for their potential as human surrogates for heavy ion irradiation. Stopping powers and depth-dose distributions of heavy charged particles (HCPs) important to space research and medical applications were first used in the simulations to test the suitability of current soft tissue substitutes. A detailed computational anthropomorphic phantom was then developed where tissue substitutes and ICRU-44 tissue could be interchanged to verify the validation of the soft tissue substitutes and and determine the required level of complexity of the entire phantom needed to achieve a specified precision as a replacement of the human body. The materials tested were common soft tissue substitutes in use and the materials which had a potential for the soft tissue substitute. Ceric sulfate dosimeter solution was closest to ICRU-44 tissue; however, it was not appropriate as the phantom material because it was a solution. A150 plastic, ED4C (fhw), Nylon (Du Pont Elvamide 8062), RM/SR4, Temex, and RW-2 were within 1% of the mean normalized difference of mass stopping powers (or stopping powers for RW-2) when compared to the ICRU-44 tissue, and their depth-dose distributions were close; therefore, they were the most suitable among the remaining solid materials. Overall, the soft tissue substitutes which were within 1% of ICRU-44 tissue in terms of stopping power produced reasonable results with respect to organ dose in the developed phantom. RM/SR4 is the best anthropomorphic phantom soft tissue substitute because it has similar interaction properties and identical density with ICRU-44 tissue and it is a rigid solid polymer giving practical advantages in manufacture of real phantoms.

Lee, Dongyoul

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

New multigroup Monte Carlo scattering algorithm suitable for neutral- and charged-particle Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck calculations  

SciTech Connect

Morel (1981) has developed multigroup Legendre cross sections suitable for input to standard discrete ordinates transport codes for performing charged-particle Fokker-Planck calculations in one-dimensional slab and spherical geometries. Since the Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MORSE, uses the same multigroup cross section data that discrete ordinates codes use, it was natural to consider whether Fokker-Planck calculations could be performed with MORSE. In order to extend the unique three-dimensional forward or adjoint capability of MORSE to Fokker-Planck calculations, the MORSE code was modified to correctly treat the delta-function scattering of the energy operator, and a new set of physically acceptable cross sections was derived to model the angular operator. Morel (1979) has also developed multigroup Legendre cross sections suitable for input to standard discrete ordinates codes for performing electron Boltzmann calculations. These electron cross sections may be treated in MORSE with the same methods developed to treat the Fokker-Planck cross sections. The large magnitude of the elastic scattering cross section, however, severely increases the computation or run time. It is well-known that approximate elastic cross sections are easily obtained by applying the extended transport (or delta function) correction to the Legendre coefficients of the exact cross section. An exact method for performing the extended transport cross section correction produces cross sections which are physically acceptable. Sample calculations using electron cross sections have demonstrated this new technique to be very effective in decreasing the large magnitude of the cross sections.

Sloan, D.P.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

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141

Particle separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

Moosmuller, Hans (Reno, NV); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Reno, NV); Arnott, W. Patrick (Reno, NV)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

142

Core-ion temperature measurement of the ADITYA tokamak using passive charge exchange neutral particle energy analyzer  

SciTech Connect

Core-ion temperature measurements have been carried out by the energy analysis of passive charge exchange (CX) neutrals escaping out of the ADITYA tokamak plasma (minor radius, a= 25 cm and major radius, R= 75 cm) using a 45 Degree-Sign parallel plate electrostatic energy analyzer. The neutral particle analyzer (NPA) uses a gas cell configuration for re-ionizing the CX-neutrals and channel electron multipliers (CEMs) as detectors. Energy calibration of the NPA has been carried out using ion-source and {Delta}E/E of high-energy channel has been found to be {approx}10%. Low signal to noise ratio (SNR) due to VUV reflections on the CEMs was identified during the operation of the NPA with ADITYA plasma discharges. This problem was rectified by upgrading the system by incorporating the additional components and arrangements to suppress VUV radiations and improve its VUV rejection capabilities. The noise rejection capability of the NPA was experimentally confirmed using a standard UV-source and also during the plasma discharges to get an adequate SNR (>30) at the energy channels. Core-ion temperature T{sub i}(0) during flattop of the plasma current has been measured to be up to 150 eV during ohmically heated plasma discharges which is nearly 40% of the average core-electron temperature (typically T{sub e}(0) {approx} 400 eV). The present paper describes the principle of tokamak ion temperature measurement, NPA's design, development, and calibration along with the modifications carried out for minimizing the interference of plasma radiations in the CX-spectrum. Performance of the NPA during plasma discharges and experimental results on the measurement of ion-temperature have also been reported here.

Pandya, Santosh P.; Ajay, Kumar; Mishra, Priyanka; Dhingra, Rajani D.; Govindarajan, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428, Gujarat (India)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

143

Tunable resonant sensing means to sense a particular frequency in a high energy charged particle beam and generate a frequency-domain signal in response  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A frequency domain sensing system is disclosed for sensing the position of a high energy beam of charged particles traveling within a housing which comprises a plurality of sensing means positioned in the wall of the housing radially around the axis of the beam. Each of the sensing means further comprising a first electrode means of predetermined shape received in a bore in the housing to define a fixed capacitance and inductance means attached to the electrode to provide an inductance for the sensing means which will provide an LC circuit which will resonate at a predetermined frequency known to exist in the beam of charged particles. The sensing means are further provided with tuning means to vary the amount of said inductance to tune the sensing means to the predetermined frequency prior to transmission of the signal to signal detection circuitry.

Nakamura, Michiyuki; Nolan, M.L.

1986-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

144

Measurement of Inclusive Monmentum Spectra and Multiplicity Distributions of Charged Particles at $sqrt{s}sim 2-5$ GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inclusive momentum spectra and multiplicity distributions of charged particles measured with BESII detector at center of mass energies of 2.2,2.6,3.0,3.2,4.6 and 4.8 GeV are presented. Values of the second binomial moment, $R_2$, obtained from the multiplicity distributions are reported. These results are compared with both experimental data from high energy $e^+e^-$, $ep$ and $pbar{p}$ experiments and QCD calculations.

Bai, J Z; Bian, J G; Cai, X; Chang, J F; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Jie Chen; Chen, J C; Chen, Y B; Chi, S P; Chu, Y P; Cui, X Z; Dai, Y S; Dong, L Y; Du, Z Z; Dunwoodie, W M; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fu, H Y; Fu, L P; Gao, C S; Gao, Y N; Gong, M Y; Gu, S D; Guo, Y N; Guo, Y Q; Guo, Z J; Han, S W; Harris, F A; He, J; He, K L; He, M; He, X; Heng, Y K; Hong, T; Hu, H M; Hu, T; Huang, G S; Huang, X P; Izen, J M; Ji, X B; Jiang, C H; Jiang, X S; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jin, Y; Jones, B D; Ke, Z J; Kong, D; Lai, Y F; Li, G; Li, H H; Li, J; Li, J C; Li, Q J; Li, R Y; Li, W; Li, W G; Li, X Q; Liu, C F; Liu, F; Liu, H M; Liu, J P; Liu, R G; Liu, T R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Z X; Lou, X C; Lu, G R; Lu, F; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Z J; Luo, X L; Ma, E C; Ma, F C; Ma, J M; Malchow, R; Mao, Z P; Meng, X C; Mo, X H; Nie, J; Nie, Z D; Olsen, S L; Paluselli, D; Peng, H P; Qi, N D; Qian, C D; Qiu, J F; Rong, G; Shen, D L; Shen, H; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, F; Sun, H S; Sun, S S; Sun, Y Z; Tang, X; Tian, D; Toki, W; Tong, G L; Varner, G S; Wang, J; Wang, J Z; Wang, L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Meng Wang; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, W F; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Y; Wang, Z; Zheng Wang; Wang, Z Y; Wei, C L; Wu, N; Xia, X M; Xie, X X; Xu, G F; Xu, Y; Xue, S T; Yan, M L; Yan, W B; Yang, C Y; Yang, G A; Yang, H X; Ye, M H; Ye, S W; Ye, Y X; Ying, J; Yu, C S; Yu, G W; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, J M; Yuan, Y; Yue, Q; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang Bing Yun; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J W; Zhang, L; Zhang, L S; Zhang, Q J; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y Y; Yiyun Zhang; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Jiawei Zhao; Zhao, J W; Zhao, P P; Zhao, W R; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zheng, J P; Zheng, L S; Zheng, Z P; Zhong, X C; Zhou, B Q; Zhou, G M; Zhou, L; Zhu, K J; Zhu, Q M; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, B A; Zou, B S

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Comment on 'Geometric phase of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field'[Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The geometric analysis of the gyromotion for charged particles in a time-dependent magnetic field by Liu and Qin [Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] is reformulated in terms of the spatial angles that represent the instantaneous orientation of the magnetic field. This new formulation, which includes the equation of motion for the pitch angle, clarifies the decomposition of the gyroangle-averaged equation of motion for the gyrophase into its dynamic and geometric contributions.

Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Guillebon, Loiec de [Centre de Physique Theorique Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS (UMR 7332), 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

146

Measurement of underlying event characteristics using charged particles in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=900 GeV and 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of charged particle distributions, sensitive to the underlying event, have been performed with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are based on data collected using a minimum-bias trigger to select proton-proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The 'underlying event' is defined as those aspects of a hadronic interaction attributed not to the hard scattering process, but rather to the accompanying interactions of the rest of the proton. Three regions are defined in azimuthal angle with respect to the highest transverse momentum charged particle in the event, such that the region transverse to the dominant momentum-flow is most sensitive to the underlying event. In each of these regions, distributions of the charged particle multiplicity, transverse momentum density, and average p{sub T} are measured. The data show generally higher underlying event activity than that predicted by Monte Carlo models tuned to pre-LHC data.

Aad, G.; Ahles, F.; Beckingham, M.; Bernhard, R.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bitenc, U.; Bruneliere, R.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Christov, A.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dietrich, J.; Eckert, S.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Flechl, M.; Glatzer, J.; Hartert, J.; Heldmann, M.; Herten, G.; Horner, S. [Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Fakultaet fuer Mathematik und Physik, Hermann-Herder Strasse 3, D - 79104 Freiburg i.Br. (Germany)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge Conservation The observation that electric charge is conserved in any process of transformation of one group of particles into another...

148

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electron The least massive electrically-charged particle, hence absolutely stable. It is the most common lepton, with electric charge -1...

149

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Smaller Granular Particles Deposition on a Larger One Due to Velocity Sequence Dependent Electrical Charge Distribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Deposition of smaller granular particles on a larger nucleus particle has been simulated in two-dimension using molecular dynamics method. Variation of sequences of velocity of deposited particles is conducted and reported in this work. The sequences obey a normal distribution function of velocity with the same parameters. It has been observed that for velocity in range of 0 to 0.02 the densest deposited site (15-17 % number of grains) is located at about angle {\\pi}/4 where location of injection point is {\\pi}/4. And the less dense is about {\\pi}/4 + {\\pi}/2. Different sequences give similar result.

Euis Sustini; Siti Nurul Khotimah; Ferry Iskandar; Sparisoma Viridi

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

150

Low-Energy Charge-Density Excitations in MgB2: Striking Interplay Between Single-Particle and Collective Behavior for Large Momenta  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A sharp feature in the charge-density excitation spectra of single-crystal MgB{sub 2}, displaying a remarkable cosinelike, periodic energy dispersion with momentum transfer (q) along the c* axis, has been observed for the first time by high-resolution nonresonant inelastic x-ray scattering (NIXS). Time-dependent density-functional theory calculations show that the physics underlying the NIXS data is strong coupling between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom, mediated by large crystal local-field effects. As a result, the small-q collective mode residing in the single-particle excitation gap of the B {pi} bands reappears periodically in higher Brillouin zones. The NIXS data thus embody a novel signature of the layered electronic structure of MgB{sub 2}.

Cai,Y.; Chow, P.; Restrepo, O.; Takano, Y.; Kito, H.; Ishii, H.; Chen, C.; Liang, K.; Chen, C.; et al.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Charge Replacement in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems Qing Xie, Yanzhi Wang, and Massoud Pedram Younghyun Kim, Donghwa Shin, and Naehyuck Chang  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system comprised of banks of bat- tery and supercapacitor elements with a high-power pulsed mili- tary

Pedram, Massoud

152

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chamber The outer layers of a particle detector capable of registering tracks of charged particles. Except for the chargeless neutrinos, only muons reach this layer from the...

153

Analysis of the baryon-, proton-, and charged particle kurtosis in heavy ion collisions within a relativistic transport approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the potential of recent lattice QCD predictions on net baryon number, net charge and net proton fluctuations (in terms of an effective kurtosis) to investigate the properties of hot and dense matter created in relativistic heavy ion reactions. Lattice QCD suggests a value for the baryon number fluctuation between 0 and 1, depending whether the system is in the hadron gas phase or in the quark gluon phase. The present analysis is performed on simulated events taking into account realistic fluctuations due to stopping, resonance decays, etc. while conserving electric and baryon charge exactly on an event-by-event basis. The investigations are performed within the UrQMD framework for Pb+Pb reactions in the energy range from E_lab = 20A to 158A GeV. We find that the effective kurtosis of net proton fluctuations (being experimentally more feasible than net baryon fluctuations) around midrapidity are compatible with 0 +/- 1. However, the baryon number effective kurtosis is found to be negative in the who...

Schuster, Tim; Mitrovski, Michael; Stock, Reinhard; Bleicher, Marcus

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Volume 35A, number4 PHYSICS LETTERS l4June 1971 ULTRA-INTENSE LASER RADIATION AS A POSSIBLE ENERGY BOOSTER FOR RELATIVISTIC CHARGED PARTICLE *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new effect of large energy absorption is predicted for a relativistic charged particle interacting ‘parallel ’ with an ultra—intense laser beam. For 10 example, V/cm in a a distance 10MeV electron of 1.3 mm. can absorb energy of 40MeV from a laser beam of A = 1.06!1 and ~ 3 x10 In the production of coherent y-ray radiation with ~=e2~2/mw2. For Wrmin = IT, Emax2E. from a laser beam being backscattered (‘anti- Let K=Emax/mc2, then the final total particle parallel ’ scattering) by a high energy electron energy is given by Emax=(l ÷K)E 0. To achieve beam [e.g., 1,2], it demonstrates the unusual this condition, the minimum value of ~ required role of an electron beam as a frequency multi- is plier for laser radiation. In this communication 1/2 (w~=r) = (mcw/e)(yK). a new effect of opposite sense is described in the mm (3) case of ‘parallel ’ scattering. Namely, when a rela- For a Nd-glass laser, w = 1.8x 5Eo. 1015 Under rad/sec this(x = tivistic laser beam charged moving particle almost is together interacting in the withsame a 1.06 condition, ii). When ( max)e K=2, Emax = 1 MeV and (~min)e ‘ 3 X direction, an abnormally large amount of energy 10’°volt/cm for an electron and (Emax)p’~2GeV can be transferred from the radiation to the par- and (d min)p 5.5 x 1013 volt/cm for a proton. tide, as if the radiation behaves as an energy For experimental verification of this effect amplifier for the particle with an electron beam, some other effects must Since (np 0)11 =n, ~0.(A-A0) = 0 and nJ30 = be taken into consideration. in the case of ‘parallel ’ scattering, the i) Beam divergence. After scattering, the energy absorbed by the particle is simply as [2] particle is deflected by the radiation with a trans-— f15 I verse momentum Pm. Since Porn = 0, the angle of ~11 — L~0,11 / ~‘oJ ‘ ‘ / deflection is given by ~ “Pm/Pn • With Pm = where (6o)~=(1 _p~)-1and E e 2(A-A 2/2mc2,-(e/c)j A-Aol = ±(2rne)1/2andPn = energy absorbed if the particle was initially 0) at [2], we have rest. For a relativistic particle E 2, ~ —±2mc2~5E (4 1 and ~~°~ii —2y~.Therefore, 0>>rnc eq. (1) becomes

Yau Wa Chan

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

I - Matter, antimatter and geometry II - The twin universe model : a solution to the problem of negative energy particles III - The twin universe model plus electric charges and matter-antimatter symmetry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We introduce a new dynamical group whose coadjoint action on its momentum space takes account of matter-antimatter symmetry on pure geometrical grounds. According to this description the energy and the spin are unchanged under matter-antimatter symmetry. We recall that the antichron components of the Poincar\\'{e} group, ruling relativistic motions of a mass-point particle, generate negative energy particles. The model with two twin universes, inspired by Sakharov's one, solves the stability issue. Positive and negative energy particles motions hold in two distinct folds. The model is extended to charged particles. As a result, the matter-antimatter duality holds in both universes.

Frederic Henry-Couannier; Gilles D'Agostini; Jean-Pierre Petit

2005-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

156

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JPG 37, 075021 (2010) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Heavy Charged Lepton Searches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://pdg.lbl.gov) Heavy Charged Lepton Searches Charged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITS Sequential Charged Heavy Lepton (L±) MASS LIMITSSequential Charged Heavy Lepton (L±) MASS LIMITSSequential Charged Heavy Lepton (L±) MASS LIMITSSequential

157

Citation: J. Beringer et al. (Particle Data Group), PR D86, 010001 (2012) (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Heavy Charged Lepton Searches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

://pdg.lbl.gov) Heavy Charged Lepton Searches Charged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITS Sequential Charged Heavy Lepton (L±) MASS LIMITSSequential Charged Heavy Lepton (L±) MASS LIMITSSequential Charged Heavy Lepton (L±) MASS LIMITSSequential

158

Study of interfacial charge-transfer complex on TiO{sub 2} particles in aqueous suspension by second-harmonic generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) is a wide band-gap semiconductor having two common crystal forms: rutile and anatase. Due to its high physical and chemical stability, it is extensively studied as a photocatalyst for photolysis of water, and for oxidative photomineralization of organic pollutants in wastewater, aimed at harvesting solar energy. The authors report the first direct observation of an interfacial charge-transfer complex using second-harmonic spectroscopy. The second-harmonic spectrum of catechol adsorbed on 0.4 micron-sized TiO{sub 2} (anatase) colloidal particles in aqueous suspension reveals a charge-transfer band centered at 2.72 eV (456 nm). In addition, the adsorption isotherm of catechol on the colloidal TiO{sub 2} suspension was obtained and gave an excellent fit to the Langmuir adsorption model. From this, the authors infer the free energy of the adsorption to be {Delta}G{degree} = {minus}6.8 kcal/mol.

Liu, Y.; Dadap, J.I.; Zimdars, D.; Eisenthal, K.B. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Effects of T-odd asymmetry of the emission of light charged particles and photons during fission of heavy nuclei by polarized neutrons  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The new physical effects of T-odd asymmetry of the emission of light charged particles (LCPs) during the ternary fission of some heavy nuclei by cold polarized neutrons have been experimentally studied. The coefficients of triple scalar and vector correlation of the pulses of light particles and fission fragments (TRI effect) and the fivefold correlation of the same vectors (ROT effect) have been measured. These effects are believed to be caused by the rotation of polarized fissioning system around its polarization direction. The treatment of the experimental data for LCPs in the framework of this hypothesis leads to a good agreement between the calculation results and experimental data. The calculated value of the angle of rotation of the fission axis in the ternary fission of the polarized fissioning {sup 236}U* compound nucleus was used to process the results of measuring the ROT effect for {gamma} photons from binary-fission fragments of the same nucleus. A satisfactory description of these experimental data is obtained which serves a convincing confirmation of the rotation hypothesis.

Gagarskii, A. M.; Guseva, I. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Goennenwein, F. [Technische Universitat (Germany); Kopach, Yu. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Mutterer, M. [Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen (Germany); Kuz'mina, T. E. [Khlopin Radium Institute (Russian Federation); Petrov, G. A., E-mail: gpetrov@pnpi.spb.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Tyurin, G. [Khlopin Radium Institute (Russian Federation); Nesvizhevsky, V. [Institut Laue-Langevin (France)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Studies of charged particle distributions in an electrostatic confinement system. Progress report, 1 November 1971--31 January 1976  

SciTech Connect

Microwave cavity techniques were used to measure electron density in a spherical, inertial-electrostatic confinement device using six ion guns. The density was roughly proportional to ion current (1 to 17 mA) and decreased somewhat with increasing ion energy (10 to 37 keV). With D$sub 2$ pressure decrease from 10 to 3 mTorr, n/sub e/ decreased faster than linearly and below approximately 3 mTorr decreased linearly with pressure down to the lowest pressure of 0.4 mTorr. At 1 mTorr and 10 mA, measurements (with poor spatial resolution) were consistent with 10$sup 10$ total electrons and a central n/sub e/ of 10$sup 9$ electrons/cm$sup 3$. Neutron flux (at 50 keV) was about one sixth that of Hirsch (J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4522 (1967)). Six- vs. three-gun operation showed a small enhancement of both n/sub e/ and neutron flux that may indicate some particle trapping.

Gardner, A.L.

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Angular correlations between charged particles from proton-proton collisions at sqrt{s} = 900 GeV and sqrt{s} = 7 TeV measured with ATLAS detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This note describes a study of angular correlations between charged particles steaming from proton-proton collisions. An observable delta phi is defined as the angle in the transverse plane between the particle with the highest transverse momentum and any other particle in the collision. The shape of the distribution of this variable has a very small systematic uncertainty and is different for sqrt{s} = 900 GeV and 7 TeV. It is compared between data and different MC generators/tunes.

The ATLAS collaboration

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Antihydrogen $(\\bar{\\rm{H}})$ and muonic antihydrogen $(\\bar{\\rm{H}}_{\\mu})$ formation in low energy three-charge-particle collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A few-body formalism is applied for computation of two different three-charge-particle systems. The first system is a collision of a slow antiproton, $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$, with a positronium atom: Ps$=(e^+e^-)$ $-$ a bound state of an electron and a positron. The second problem is a collision of $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$ with a muonic muonium atom, i.e. true muonium $-$ a bound state of two muons one positive and one negative: Ps$_{\\mu}=(\\mu^+\\mu^-)$. The total cross section of the following two reactions: $\\bar{\\rm p}+(e^+e^-) \\rightarrow \\bar{\\rm{H}} + e^-$ and $\\bar{\\rm p}+(\\mu^+\\mu^-) \\rightarrow \\bar{\\rm{H}}_{\\mu} + \\mu^-$, where $\\bar{\\rm{H}}=(\\bar{\\rm p}e^+)$ is antihydrogen and $\\bar{\\rm{H}}_{\\mu}=(\\bar{\\rm p}\\mu^+)$ is a muonic antihydrogen atom, i.e. a bound state of $\\bar{\\rm{p}}$ and $\\mu^+$, are computed in the framework of a set of coupled two-component Faddeev-Hahn-type (FH-type) equations. Unlike the original Faddeev approach the FH-type equations are formulated in terms of only two but relevant components: $\\...

Sultanov, Renat A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

W+, W- Boson A carrier particle of the weak interactions. It is involved in all electric-charge-changing weak processes...

164

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conservation When a quantity is always the same before and after a particle reaction, it is said to be conserved. Such quantities include electric charge, energy, and momentum...

165

Electrically charged compact stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We review here the classical argument used to justify the electrical neutrality of stars and show that if the pressure and density of the matter and gravitational field inside the star are large, then a charge and a strong electric field can be present. For a neutron star with high pressure (~ 10^{33} to 10^{35} dynes /cm^2) and strong gravitational field (~ 10^{14} cm/s^2), these conditions are satisfied. The hydrostatic equation which arises from general relativity, is modified considerably to meet the requirements of the inclusion of the charge. In order to see any appreciable effect on the phenomenology of the neutron stars, the charge and the electrical fields have to be huge (~ 10^{21} Volts/cm). These stars are not however stable from the viewpoint that each charged particle is unbound to the uncharged particles, and thus the system collapses one step further to a charged black hole

Subharthi Ray; Manuel Malheiro; Jose' P. S. Lemos; Vilson T. Zanchin

2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

166

Elementary Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Elementary Particles Elementary Particles Elementary Particles Detectors Accelerators Visit World Labs For Children - for younger people Electric Forces & Fields For Children The Electric Force For Children Electric Force Fields For Children Charges and Fields For Children Vibrating Charges and Electromagnetic Waves Electrons For Older People The Discovery of the Electron Traveling Waves For Older People Waves and Wave-Like Motion For Children Catch the Wave For Children Vibrating Charges and Electromagnetic Waves For Children Electromagnetic Waves Standing Waves For Older People Physics 128 Lecture Standing Waves For Older People Resonance in Strings and Springs For Older People Standing Wave - 1st Harmonic For Older People Standing Wave - 2nd Harmonic Atom For Older People Bohr Atom

167

The Particle Adventure | How do we interpret our data? | Measuring...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators and particle detectors - How do we interpret our data? - Measuring charge and momentum One important function of the detector is to measure a particle's charge and...

168

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Antiparticle For most particle types (and every fermion type) there is another particle type that has exactly the same mass but the opposite value of all other charges (quantum...

169

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators and particle detectors - How do we experiment with tiny particles? - Fixed target experiments In a fixed-target experiment, a charged particle such as an electron or a...

170

Primitive Virtual Negative Charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

Kim, Kiyoung

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Primitive Virtual Negative Charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

Kiyoung Kim

2008-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

172

Charged Metallic Clusters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Usually in Nuclear Physics the minimum of the liquid drop model (LDM) energy occurs at a mass asymmetry which is different from the minimum of shell correction. Charged metallic clusters are ideal emitters of singly ionized trimers because both LDM and shell correction are reaching a minimum for the same mass asymmetry corresponding to the emission of a charged particle with two delocalized electrons. Maximum dissociation energy (Q-value) is obtained for metallic clusters with high surface tension and low Wigner-Seitz radius (transition metals). The Q-values for spheroidal shapes are much larger than for hemispheroids.

Poenaru, D. N.; Gherghescu, R. A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Solov'yov, A. V.; Greiner, W. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

2009-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

173

Nuclear & Particle Physics Directorate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Draft Agenda Brookhaven Nuclear and Particle Physics Program Advisory Committee Meeting 6-8 June 2011 Reference Documents PAC Recommendations, 21-22 June 2010 Charge to PAC for...

174

Excess charges in semiconductor nanocrystallites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors explore in this report the effects of excess electrons on the edge of the absorption spectrum of small semiconductor particles. The presence of these charges leads to strong bleaching of the absorption at the exciton region and to slight enhancement of the absorption on both sides of the bleaching. They show that the effect is independent of the origin of the charge; it occurs whether the charge is injected into the particle or only attached to its surface, and it appears even when the charge is deeply localized within the band gap. They conclude that the effect arises from the electric field associated with the charge and not from its presence in the band.

Laungdilok, C.; Lawless, D.; Cook, A.R.; Meisel, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Citation: K. Nakamura et al. (Particle Data Group), JP G 37, 075021 (2010) and 2011 partial update for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Heavy Charged Lepton Searches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the 2012 edition (URL: http://pdg.lbl.gov) Heavy Charged Lepton Searches Charged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITSCharged Heavy Lepton MASS LIMITS Sequential Charged Heavy Lepton (L±) MASS LIMITSSequential Charged Heavy Lepton (L±) MASS LIMITSSequential

176

Improvements to the on-line mass separator, RAMA, and the beta-delayed charged-particle emission of proton-rich sd shell nuclei  

SciTech Connect

To overcome the extreme difficulties encountered in the experimental decay studies of proton drip line nuclei, several techniques have been utilized, including a helium-jet transport system, particle identification detectors and mass separation. Improvements to the ion source/extraction region of the He-jet coupled on-line Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer (RAMA) and its target/ion source coupling resulted in significant increases in RAMA efficiencies and its mass resolution, as well as reductions in the overall transit time. At the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL, the decays of {sup 31}Cl, {sup 27}P and {sup 28}P, with half-lives of 150 msec, 260 msec and 270.3 msec, respectively, were examined using a he-jet and low-energy gas {Delta}E-gas {Delta}E-silicon E detector telescopes. Total beta-delayed proton branches of 0.3% and 0.07% in {sup 31}Cl and {sub 27}P, respectively, were estimated. Several proton peaks that had been previously assigned to the decay of {sup 31}Cl were shown to be from the decay of {sup 25}Si. In {sup 27}P, two proton groups at 459 {+-} 14 keV and 610 {+-} 11 keV, with intensities of 7 {+-} 3% and 92 {+-} 4% relative to the main (100%) group were discovered. The Gamow-Teller component of the preceding beta-decay of each observed proton transition was compared to results from shell model calculations. Finally, a new proton transition was identified, following the {beta}-decay of {sup 28}P, at 1,444 {+-} 12 keV with a 1.7 {+-} 0.5% relative intensity to the 100% group. Using similar low-energy detector telescopes and the mass separator TISOL at TRIUMF, the 109 msec and 173 msec activities, {sup 17}Ne and {sup 33}Ar, were studied. A new proton group with energy 729 {+-} 15 keV was observed following the beta-decay of {sup 17}Ne. Several discrepancies between earlier works as to the energies, intensities and assignments of several proton transitions from {sup 17}Ne and {sup 33}Ar were resolved.

Ognibene, T.J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Charged fermion tunnelling from electrically and magnetically charged rotating black hole in de Sitter space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal radiation of electrically charged fermions from rotating black hole with electric and magnetic charges in de Sitter space is considered. The tunnelling probabilities for outgoing and incoming particles are obtained and the Hawking temperature is calculated. The relation for the classical action for the particles in the black hole's background is also found.

M. M. Stetsko

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

178

Energy Spectrum and Chemical Composition of Cosmic Rays between 0.3 and 10 PeV determined from the Cherenkov-Light and Charged-Particle distributions in Air Showers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Measurements of the lateral distribution of Cherenkov photons with the wide-angle atmospheric Cherenkov light detector array AIROBICC and of the charged particle lateral distribution with the scintillator matrix of the HEGRA air-shower detector complex in air showers are reported. With the atmospheric shower-front sampling technique these detectors measure the electromagnetic component of an extensive air shower via the lateral density distribution of the shower particles and of the Cherenkov photons. The data are compared with events generated with the CORSIKA program package with the QGSJET hadronic-event generator. Consistency checks performed with primary energy-reconstruction methods based on different shower observables indicate satisfactory agreement between these extensive air shower simulations and the experimental data. The energy spectrum features a so called ``knee'' at an energy of E_knee = 3.98 (+4.66) (-0.83) (stat) +- 0.53 (syst) PeV. Power law fits to the differential energy spectrum yield indices of -2.72 (+0.02)(-0.03) (stat) +- 0.07 (syst) below, and -3.22 (+0.47) (-0.59) (stat) +- 0.08 (syst)} above the knee. The best-fit elongation rate for the whole energy range is determined to 78.3 +- 1.0 (stat) +- 6.2 (syst) g/cm^2. At the highest energies it seems to decrease slightly.The best-fit fraction of light nuclei decreases from 37 (+28) (-21) % (combined statistical and systematic) to 8 (+32) (-8) % (combined statistical and systematic) in the energy range discussed here. A detailed study of the systematic errors reveals that a non-changing composition cannot be excluded.

F. Arqueros; The HEGRA Collaboration

1999-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

179

Motion of extended charges in classical electrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The Lorentz--Dirac theory of radiation reaction on the motion of point charges is beset by the well known problems of runaway solutions and preacceleration. We examine the classical theory of extended charged particles and obtain a differential-difference type equation of motion. Analysis of this equation reveals that the theory is internally consistent (i.e., no runaways or acausality) whenever the size of the particle exceeds the classical radius (defined as the radius for which the electrostatic self-energy equals the mass of the particle). A specific example is presented which explicitly shows the different character of the extended and point charge solutions. (AIP)

Levine, H.; Moniz, E.J.; Sharp, D.H.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

First proton--proton collisions at the LHC as observed with the ALICE detector: measurement of the charged particle pseudorapidity density at sqrt(s) = 900 GeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On 23rd November 2009, during the early commissioning of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), two counter-rotating proton bunches were circulated for the first time concurrently in the machine, at the LHC injection energy of 450 GeV per beam. Although the proton intensity was very low, with only one pilot bunch per beam, and no systematic attempt was made to optimize the collision optics, all LHC experiments reported a number of collision candidates. In the ALICE experiment, the collision region was centred very well in both the longitudinal and transverse directions and 284 events were recorded in coincidence with the two passing proton bunches. The events were immediately reconstructed and analyzed both online and offline. We have used these events to measure the pseudorapidity density of charged primary particles in the central region. In the range |eta| < 0.5, we obtain dNch/deta = 3.10 +- 0.13 (stat.) +- 0.22 (syst.) for all inelastic interactions, and dNch/deta = 3.51 +- 0.15 (stat.) +- 0.25 (syst.) for non-single diffractive interactions. These results are consistent with previous measurements in proton--antiproton interactions at the same centre-of-mass energy at the CERN SppS collider. They also illustrate the excellent functioning and rapid progress of the LHC accelerator, and of both the hardware and software of the ALICE experiment, in this early start-up phase.

The ALICE Collaboration; K. Aamodt; N. Abel; U. Abeysekara; A. Abrahantes Quintana; A. Acero; D. Adamova; M. M. Aggarwal; G. Aglieri Rinella; A. G. Agocs; S. Aguilar Salazar; Z. Ahammed; A. Ahmad; N. Ahmad; S. U. Ahn; R. Akimoto; A. Akindinov; D. Aleksandrov; B. Alessandro; R. Alfaro Molina; A. Alici; E. Almaraz Avina; J. Alme; T. Alt; V. Altini; S. Altinpinar; C. Andrei; A. Andronic; G. Anelli; V. Angelov; C. Anson; T. Anticic; F. Antinori; S. Antinori; K. Antipin; D. Antonczyk; P. Antonioli; A. Anzo; L. Aphecetche; H. Appelshauser; S. Arcelli; R. Arceo; A. Arend; N. Armesto; R. Arnaldi; T. Aronsson; I. C. Arsene; A. Asryan; A. Augustinus; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; J. Aysto; M. D. Azmi; S. Bablok; M. Bach; A. Badala; Y. W. Baek; S. Bagnasco; R. Bailhache; R. Bala; A. Baldisseri; A. Baldit; J. Ban; R. Barbera; G. G. Barnafoldi; L. Barnby; V. Barret; J. Bartke; F. Barile; M. Basile; V. Basmanov; N. Bastid; B. Bathen; G. Batigne; B. Batyunya; C. Baumann; I. G. Bearden; B. Becker; I. Belikov; R. Bellwied; E. Belmont-Moreno; A. Belogianni; L. Benhabib; S. Beole; I. Berceanu; A. Bercuci; E. Berdermann; Y. Berdnikov; L. Betev; A. Bhasin; A. K. Bhati; L. Bianchi; N. Bianchi; C. Bianchin; J. Bielcik; J. Bielcikova; A. Bilandzic; L. Bimbot; E. Biolcati; A. Blanc; F. Blanco; F. Blanco; D. Blau; C. Blume; M. Boccioli; N. Bock; A. Bogdanov; H. Boggild; M. Bogolyubsky; J. Bohm; L. Boldizsar; M. Bombara; C. Bombonati; M. Bondila; H. Borel; V. Borshchov; C. Bortolin; S. Bose; L. Bosisio; F. Bossu; M. Botje; S. Bottger; G. Bourdaud; B. Boyer; M. Braun; P. Braun-Munzinger; L. Bravina; M. Bregant; T. Breitner; G. Bruckner; R. Brun; E. Bruna; G. E. Bruno; D. Budnikov; H. Buesching; K. Bugaev; P. Buncic; O. Busch; Z. Buthelezi; D. Caffarri; X. Cai; H. Caines; E. Camacho; P. Camerini; M. Campbell; V. Canoa Roman; G. P. Capitani; G. Cara Romeo; F. Carena; W. Carena; F. Carminati; A. Casanova Diaz; M. Caselle; J. Castillo Castellanos; J. F. Castillo Hernandez; V. Catanescu; E. Cattaruzza; C. Cavicchioli; P. Cerello; V. Chambert; B. Chang; S. Chapeland; A. Charpy; J. L. Charvet; S. Chattopadhyay; S. Chattopadhyay; M. Cherney; C. Cheshkov; B. Cheynis; E. Chiavassa; V. Chibante Barroso; D. D. Chinellato; P. Chochula; K. Choi; M. Chojnacki; P. Christakoglou; C. H. Christensen; P. Christiansen; T. Chujo; F. Chuman; C. Cicalo; L. Cifarelli; F. Cindolo; J. Cleymans; O. Cobanoglu; J. -P. Coffin; S. Coli; A. Colla; G. Conesa Balbastre; Z. Conesa del Valle; E. S. Conner; P. Constantin; G. Contin; J. G. Contreras; Y. Corrales Morales; T. M. Cormier; P. Cortese; I. Cortes Maldonado; M. R. Cosentino; F. Costa; M. E. Cotallo; E. Crescio; P. Crochet; E. Cuautle; L. Cunqueiro; J. Cussonneau; A. Dainese; H. H. Dalsgaard; A. Danu; I. Das; S. Das; A. Dash; S. Dash; G. O. V. de Barros; A. De Caro; G. de Cataldo; J. de Cuveland; A. De Falco; M. de Gaspari; J. de Groot; D. De Gruttola; A. P. de Haas; N. De Marco; R. de Rooij; S. De Pasquale; G. de Vaux; H. Delagrange; G. Dellacasa; A. Deloff; V. Demanov; E. Denes; A. Deppman; G. D~RErasmo; D. Derkach; A. Devaux; D. Di Bari; C. Di Giglio; S. Di Liberto; A. Di Mauro; P. Di Nezza; M. Dialinas; L. Diaz; R. Diaz; T. Dietel; H. Ding; R. Divia; O. Djuvsland; G. do Amaral Valdiviesso; V. Dobretsov; A. Dobrin; T. Dobrowolski; B. Donigus; I. Dominguez; D. M. M. Don; O. Dordic; A. K. Dubey; J. Dubuisson; L. Ducroux; P. Dupieux; A. K. Dutta Majumdar; M. R. Dutta Majumdar; D. Elia; D. Emschermann; A. Enokizono; B. Espagnon; M. Estienne; D. Evans; S. Evrard; G. Eyyubova; C. W. Fabjan; D. Fabris; J. Faivre; D. Falchieri; A. Fantoni; M. Fasel; R. Fearick; A. Fedunov; D. Fehlker; V. Fekete; D. Felea; B. Fenton-Olsen; G. Feofilov; A. Fernandez Tellez; E. G. Ferreiro; A. Ferretti; R. Ferretti; M. A. S. Figueredo; S. Filchagin; R. Fini; F. M. Fionda; E. M. Fiore; M. Floris; Z. Fodor; S. Foertsch; P. Foka; S. Fokin; F. Formenti; E. Fragiacomo; M. Fragkiadakis; U. Frankenfeld; A. Frolov; U. Fuchs; F. Furano; C. Furget; M. Fusco Girard; J. J. Gaardhoje; S. Gadrat; M. Gagliardi; A. Gago; M. Gallio; P. Ganoti; M. S. Ganti; C. Garabatos; C. Garc; J. Gebelein; R. Gemme; M. Germain; A. Gheata; M. Gheata; B. Ghidini; P. Ghosh; G. Giraudo; P. Giubellino; E. Gladysz-Dziadus; R. Glasow; P. Glassel; A. Glenn; R. Gomez; H. Gonzalez Santos; L. H. Gonzalez-Trueba; P. Gonzalez-Zamora; S. Gorbunov; Y. Gorbunov; S. Gotovac; H. Gottschlag; V. Grabski; R. Grajcarek; A. Grelli; A. Grigoras; C. Grigoras; V. Grigoriev; A. Grigoryan; B. Grinyov; N. Grion; P. Gros; J. F. Grosse-Oetringhaus; J. -Y. Grossiord; R. Grosso; C. Guarnaccia; F. Guber; R. Guernane; B. Guerzoni; K. Gulbrandsen; H. Gulkanyan; T. Gunji; A. Gupta; R. Gupta; H. -A. Gustafsson; H. Gutbrod; O. Haaland; C. Hadjidakis; M. Haiduc; H. Hamagaki; G. Hamar; J. Hamblen; B. H. Han; J. W. Harris; M. Hartig; A. Harutyunyan

2009-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Directed flow of charged particles at mid-rapidity relative to the spectator plane in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN}=2.76 TeV  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The directed flow of charged particles at mid-rapidity is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at sqrt{s_NN}=2.76 TeV relative to the collision plane defined by the spectator nucleons. Both, the rapidity odd (v_1^odd) and even (v_1^even) directed flow components are reported. The v_1^odd component has a negative slope as a function of pseudorapidity similar to that observed at the highest RHIC energy, but with about a three times smaller magnitude. The v^even component is found to be non-zero and independent of pseudorapidity. Both components show little dependence on the collision centrality and change sign at transverse momenta around 1.2-1.7 GeV/c for midcentral collisions. The shape of v_1^even as a function of transverse momentum and a vanishing transverse momentum shift along the spectator deflection for v_1^even are consistent with dipole-like initial density fluctuations in the overlap zone of the nuclei.

ALICE Collaboration

2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

182

Some Particle Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle Properties Particle Properties An Article Written Originally for Midlevel Teachers Back A particle, increasing its speed because of some force acting on it, gains energy of motion. An electron (negatively charged) gains one electron volt (eV) of energy in accelerating through a vacuum from the negative end to the positive end of a one-volt battery. The one eV of energy is given up to other particles as the electron crashes into the positive end. A proton (positively charged) traveling from positive to negative pole through the vacuum would also gain one eV of energy and give it up in its collision with particles in the negative end. This proton collision is similar to the proton beam collision with a target at Fermilab, but at Fermilab the proton energy is much greater.

183

HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.

1959-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

184

Blasting charge and method  

SciTech Connect

This is a process for setting off a blasting charge employing nitrate explosions in a thick aqueous slurry. There is formed in the bore a blasting charge consisting, in part, of a thick aqueous slurry of dispersed ammonium nitrate particles as the predominant explosive material with or without a lesser amount of sodium, calcium, or other nitrate in like dispersion. In addition, one or more localized or undispersed solid bodies of booster explosive are included in the body of the slurry. Conventional means are used for detonating the booster, such as a blasting cap, an electric blasting cap, or a detonating fuse. The slurry may be formed in the bore or may be preformed and packaged for shipment, the latter being preferable.

Towle, L.W.

1966-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

185

Charges on Graupel and Snow Crystals and the Electrical Structure of Winter Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The shape and electric charge on particles in Hokuriku winter cumulus clouds have been measured using videosondes. The sign of the charge on graupel reversed at about ?11°C. Charges on graupel and ice crystals are responsible for the tripole ...

Tsutomu Takahashi; Takuya Tajiri; Yasuo Sonoi

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids  

Genome sequencing especially benefits from the nanoscale approach. The trap is a three-layer, three-dimensional crossing metal/insulator structure.

187

Autogenerator of beams of charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An autogenerating apparatus provides secondary intense relativistic current beam pulses in response to an injected beam pulse. One or more electromagnetic energy storage devices are provided in conjunction with gaps along a beam propagation path for the injected beam pulse. For injected beam pulses which are no longer than double the transit time of electromagnetic waves within the storage devices (which may be resonant cavities), distinct secondary beam pulses are generated by each of the energy storage devices. The beam propagation path, together with the one or more gaps provided therein, operates as a pulse forming transmission line cavity, in which the separate cavities associated with the gaps provide delays for electromagnetic waves generated at the gaps. After doubly traversing the cavity, the electromagnetic waves cause the gap to generate the secondary beam pulses, which are thus delayed by a time interval equal to the double transit time for the induced wave within the cavity.

Adler, R.J.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Miller, R.M.; Shope, S.L.; Smith, D.L.

1983-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Charged fermions tunneling from regular black holes  

SciTech Connect

We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions as a tunneling process from charged regular black holes, i.e., the Bardeen and ABGB black holes. For this purpose, we apply the semiclassical WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation for charged particles and evaluate the tunneling probabilities. We recover the Hawking temperature corresponding to these charged regular black holes. Further, we consider the back-reaction effects of the emitted spin particles from black holes and calculate their corresponding quantum corrections to the radiation spectrum. We find that this radiation spectrum is not purely thermal due to the energy and charge conservation but has some corrections. In the absence of charge, e = 0, our results are consistent with those already present in the literature.

Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk; Javed, W., E-mail: wajihajaved84@yahoo.com [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics (Pakistan)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

189

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0.5 seconds 0.5 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 83.2 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 100.6 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 10.6 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 18.6 seconds Maximum Speed: 82.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 101.9 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 145.1 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6,10 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 Distance (miles) Fuel Economy (mpg) AC Energy Consumed (kWh) 7 10 118.5 2.85 10 53.0 1.80 20 116.8 5.49 20 56.6 3.37 40 116.0 10.50 40 58.0 6.38 60 90.7 11.34 60 55.3 9.48 80 76.6 11.34 80 51.4 11.11 100 68.0 11.34 100 47.2 11.13 200 50.9 11.34 200 38.7 11.13 Fuel Economy with A/C Off 1 Cold Start Charge Depleting 2 : Fuel Economy: 119.7 MPG AC kWh Consumed 7 : 0.282 kWh/mi Charge Depleting

190

The Particle Adventure | Particle decays and annihiliations | Neutron beta  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle decays and annihiliations > Neutron beta Particle decays and annihiliations > Neutron beta decays Neutron beta decays A neutron (udd) decays to a proton (uud), an electron, and an antineutrino. This is called neutron beta decay. (The term beta ray was used for electrons in nuclear decays because they didn't know they were electrons!) Frame 1: The neutron (charge = 0) made of up, down, down quarks. Frame 2: One of the down quarks is transformed into an up quark. Since the down quark has a charge of -1/3 and and the up quark has a charge of 2/3, it follows that this process is mediated by a virtual W- particle, which carries away a (-1) charge (thus charge is conserved!) Frame 3: The new up quark rebounds away from the emitted W-. The neutron now has become a proton. Frame 4: An electron and antineutrino emerge from the virtual W- boson.

191

Electric:SpaceCharge  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... OOF2: The Manual. Electric:SpaceCharge. Prev, 6.4.1. Material Properties, Next. Name. Electric:SpaceCharge — Spatial charge density. Details. ...

2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

192

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 seconds 3 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.3 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.3 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 103.4 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 13.4 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.4 seconds Maximum Speed: 74.8 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 153.0 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

193

Charge Depleting:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

0 seconds 0 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.1 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 104.9 MPH Charge Sustaining: Acceleration 0-60 MPH Time: 12.8 seconds Acceleration 1/4 Mile Time: 20.0 seconds Maximum Speed: 75.7 MPH Acceleration 1 Mile Maximum Speed: 105.0 MPH Brake Test @ 60 MPH Distance Required: 126.8 ft UDDS Fuel Economy 6 HWFET Fuel Economy 6 Distance (miles)

194

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report Project Status to Date through: March 2012 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit -...

195

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles? |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerating particles Accelerating particles Accelerating particles It is fairly easy to obtain particles. Physicists get electrons by heating metals; they get protons by robbing hydrogen of its electron; etc. Accelerators speed up charged particles by creating large electric fields which attract or repel the particles. This field is then moved down the accelerator, "pushing" the particles along. In a linear accelerator the field is due to traveling electromagnetic (E-M) waves. When an E-M wave hits a bunch of particles, those in the back get the biggest boost, while those in the front get less of a boost. In this fashion, the particles "ride" the front of the E-M wave like a bunch of surfers. The next page shows this process in an easier to understand animation

198

Cerenkov radiation of spinning particle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cerenkov radiation of a neutral particle with magnetic moment is considered, as well as the spin-dependent contribution to the Cerenkov radiation of a charged spinning particle. The corresponding radiation intensity is obtained for an arbitrary value of spin and for an arbitrary spin orientation with respect to velocity.

I. B. Khriplovich

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

199

Classical Models of Subatomic Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We look at the program of modelling a subatomic particle---one having mass, charge, and angular momentum---as an interior solution joined to a classical general-relativistic Kerr-Newman exterior spacetime. We find that the assumption of stationarity upon which the validity of the Kerr-Newman exterior solution depends is in fact violated quantum mechanically for all known subatomic particles. We conclude that the appropriate stationary spacetime matched to any known subatomic particle is flat space.

R. B. Mann; M. S. Morris

1993-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

200

Electrically charged curvaton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the possibility that the primordial curvature perturbation was generated through the curvaton mechanism from a scalar field with an electric charge, or precisely the Standard Model U(1) weak hypercharge. This links the dynamics of the very early universe concretely to the Standard Model of particle physics, and because the coupling strength is known, it reduces the number of free parameters in the curvaton model. The gauge coupling also introduces several new physical effects. Charge fluctuations are generated during inflation, but they are screened by electron-positron pairs therefore do not violate observational constraints. After inflation, the curvaton interacts with thermal radiation which destroys the curvaton condensate and prevents the generation of curvature perturbations, unless the inflaton dynamics satisfy strong constraints. The curvaton also experiences a period of parametric resonance with the U(1) gauge field. Using the standard perturbative approach, we find that the model can generate the observed density perturbation for Hubble rate H_* > 10^8 GeV and curvaton mass m > 0.01 H_*, but with a level of non-Gaussianity (f_NL > 130) that violates observational constraints. However, previous studies have shown that the parametric resonance changes the predicted perturbations significantly, and therefore fully non-linear numerical field theory simulations are required.

Michela D'Onofrio; Rose N. Lerner; Arttu Rajantie

2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions kaons proton and anti?proton with beam momenta of 5 to 90 GeV/c and thin targets spanning the periodic table from (liquid) hydrogen to uranium to measure particle production cross sections in a full acceptance spectrometer with charged particle identification for particles from 0.1 to 120 GeV/c using Time Projection Chamber

Sonam Mahajan; The MIPP Collaboration

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Stochastic Dynamics of Charge Fluctuations in Dusty Plasma  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dust particles immersed in plasma acquire charge by collecting electrons and ions and also by emitting electrons. The grain charge fluctuates due to the discrete nature of the charge. The rates of ions and electrons capturing depend on the grain charge and therefore on the history of the absorption. Memory effects can be introduced into stochastic charging dynamics by generalizing the standard Langevin equation to fractional Langevin equation with shifted fractional derivative. The temporal autocorrelation function of grain charge fluctuation is derived and average amplitude of fluctuations is determined.

Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

203

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

period: May 2011 through December 2011 ChargePoint Charging Electricity Charge Unit Usage - Charging Units Events Consumed By State Installed Performed (AC MWh) California 657...

204

Minijet Deformation and Charge-independent Two-particleCorrelations on Momentum Subspace (eta,phi) In Au-Au Collisions atsqrt(sNN) = 130 GeV  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present first measurements of charge-independent correlations on momentum-space difference variables {eta}{sub 1}-{eta}{sub 2} (pseudorapidity) and {phi}{sub 1}-{phi}{sub 2} (azimuth) for charged primary hadrons with transverse momentum within 0.15 {le} p{sub t} {le} 2 GeV/c and |{eta}| {le} 1.3 from Au-Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV. We observe strong charge-independent correlations associated with minijets and elliptic flow. The width of the minijet peak on {eta}{sub 1}-{eta}{sub 2} increases by a factor 2.3 from peripheral to central collisions, suggesting strong coupling of partons to a longitudinally-expanding colored medium. New methods of jet analysis introduced here reveal nonperturbative medium effects in heavy ion collisions.

Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson,B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bai, Y.; Balewski,J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bharadwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bhatia, V.S; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth,C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la BarcaSanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; de Moura, M.M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip,P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Foley, K.J.; Fomenko, K.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M.S.; Gaudichet, L.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry,T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann,G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klay, J.; Klein,S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda,L.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; et al.

2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

205

Charge state simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The charge state balance (eg, the population of different charge states) inside the EBIT is determined by the balance between the different ...

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

206

Electric Vehicle Public Charging -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electric Vehicle Public Charging - Time vs. Energy March, 2013 A critical factor for successful PEV adoption is the deployment and use of charging infrastructure in non-...

207

Free Energy Formalism for Particle Adsorption  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equilibrium properties of particles adsorption is investigated theoretically. The model relies on a free energy formulation which allows to generalize the Maxwell-Boltzmann description to solutions for which the bulk volume fraction of potentially adsorbed particles is very high. As an application we consider the equilibrium physical adsorption of neutral and charged particles from solution onto two parallel adsorbing surfaces.

Pierre Gosselin; Herve Mohrbach

2005-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

208

Search for Millicharged Particles at SLAC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Particles with electric charge q SLAC. This experiment is sensitive to the infrequent excitation and ionization of matter expected from the passage of such a particle. Analysis of the data rules out a region of mass and charge, establishing, for example, a 95%-confidence upper limit on electric charge of 4.1X10^(-5)e for millicharged particles of mass 1 MeV/c^2 and 5.8X10^(-4)e for mass 100 MeV/c^2.

A. A. Prinz; R. Baggs; J. Ballam; S. Ecklund; C. Fertig; J. A. Jaros; K. Kase; A. Kulikov; W. G. J. Langeveld; R. Leonard; T. Marvin; T. Nakashima; W. R. Nelson; A. Odian; M. Pertsova; G. Putallaz; A. Weinstein

1998-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

209

Battery charging system  

SciTech Connect

A battery charging system designed to charge a battery, especially a nickel-cadmium (Ni-cd) battery from a lead acid power supply without overcharging, and to charge uniformly a plurality of batteries in parallel is described. A non-linear resistance is utilized and is matched to the voltage difference of the power supply battery and the batteries being charged.

Komatsu, K.; Mabuchi, K.

1982-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

210

Battery charging system  

SciTech Connect

A highly efficient battery charging system is described in which the amperehour discharge of the battery is sensed for controlling the battery charging rate. The battery is charged at a relatively high charge rate during a first time period proportional to the extent of battery discharge and at a second lower rate thereafter.

Bilsky, H.W.; Callen, P.J.

1982-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

211

The Universe Adventure - Fundamental Particles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fundamental Particles Fundamental Particles Chart of Fundamental Particles All matter in the universe is comprised of fundamental particles. So what exactly makes up this matter? All matter is made of fundamental particles that came into being at the birth of the Universe. Quarks experience the strong force which is carried by massless particles called gluons. They bond together in specific combinations to form protons, neutrons, and other hadrons. Leptons do not experience the strong force but may interact via the electromagnetic force, the weak force, or both. Anti-quarks and anti-leptons are exactly the same as their quark and lepton counterparts, but have an opposite charge. All massive particles are influenced by the force of gravity. Quark-Gluon Plasma: 10-12 Seconds After the Big Bang

212

The Particle Adventure | What is the world made of? | Matter...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is electrically negative. Gravity affects matter and antimatter the same way because gravity is not a charged property and a matter particle has the same mass as its...

213

An Instrument for the Simultaneous Measurement of the Image and Electric Charge of Hydrometeors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While past measurements of electric charges on cloud particles have led to some advances toward ascertaining the mechanisms of charge generation, it became evident that an important part of the problem is still unsolved, namely a one-to-one ...

J. J. Cupal; N. R. Kale; P. J. Wechsler; G. Vali

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

IMAGING HIGH SPEED PARTICLES IN EXPLOSIVE DRIVEN BLAST WAVES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research describes a new application of a commercially available particle image velocimetry (PIV) instrument adapted for imaging particles in a blast wave. Powder was dispersed through the PIV light sheet using a right circular cylindrical charge containing aluminum powder filled in the annular space between the explosive core and exterior paper tube wall of the charge. Images acquired from each shot showed particle agglomeration and unique structures with the smaller particle diameters having developed structured appearances.

Jenkins, C. M. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-6450 (United States); Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB FL 32542 (United States); Horie, Y. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin AFB FL 32542 (United States); Ripley, R. C.; Wu, C.-Y. [Martec Limited, Suite 400-1888 Brunswick Street, Halifax, NS, B3J3J8 (Canada)

2009-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles? | What  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What makes particles go in a circle? What makes particles go in a circle? What makes particles go in a circle? To keep any object going in a circle, there needs to be a constant force on that object towards the center of the circle. In a circular accelerator, an electric field makes the charged particle accelerate, while large magnets provide the necessary inward force to bend the particle's path in a circle. (In the image to the left, the particle's velocity is represented by the white arrow, while the inward force supplied by the magnet is the yellow arrow.) The presence of a magnetic field does not add or subtract energy from the particles. The magnetic field only bends the particles' paths along the arc of the accelerator. Magnets are also used to direct charged particle beams toward targets and to "focus" the beams, just as optical lenses focus light.

216

Influence of momentum and charge conservation on azimuthally sensitive correlations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Charge neutralisation procedure based on a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is applied to a system of generated hadrons. The algorithm changes the charge of a randomly picked particle by shifting it within its isomultiplet. For baryons changes in both electric charge and baryon number are applied and the algorithm leads to charge and baryon number neutralisation. The procedure can thus be used to study the effects of the local charge and baryon number conservation. We attempt to study these together with the local momentum conservation and their effect on azimuthal correlator observable sensitive to local C and CP violation in quark-gluon plasma.

Zuzana Fecková; Boris Tomášik

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

217

Outlook for Charged Higgs Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Almost all extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged Higgs bosons. This talk focuses on the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), which is relatively predictive. The outlook for detecting supersymmetric particles and Higgs bosons at the LHC are discussed, as are the prospects for finding indirect effects of supersymmetric Higgs bosons at low energies, e.g., in K decays. The outlook for discovering observable effects of CP-violating supersymmetric phases at high energies or in B decays is also mentioned.

John Ellis

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

218

Twisted waveguides for particle accelerator applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A novel microwave device for accelerating charged particles based on twisted waveguide is presented. Twisted guides support slow-wave TM modes whose phase velocity could reach the speed of light c. The axial electric field ...

Wilson, Joshua L.

219

Heterogeneous mixtures of elliptical particles: Directly resolving local and global properties and responses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In our earlier papers, Prosperetti's seminal Physalis method for fluid flows was extended to directly resolve electric fields in finite-sized particles and to investigate accurately the mutual fluid-particle, particle-particle, and particle-boundary ... Keywords: Directly resolving particles, Discontinuous interface condition, Elliptical particles, Elongated rod-like particle, Force and torque on particles, Heterogeneous functional materials, Interactions, Local charge distribution, Orientation and anisotropy, Singularity in elliptic coordinates

Qianlong Liu; Kenneth L. Reifsnider

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 2013 Number of Charging Units Charging Electricity Charging Unit - Private Not Installed to Events Consumed By Region Residential Commercia Public Specified Date Performed...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Soldier power. Battery charging.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soldier power. Marine. Battery charging. Advertising. Remote. SOFC (NanoDynamics, AMI) 60 watts q SOFC #12;

Hong, Deog Ki

222

Electrically charged pulsars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

M. D. Alloy; D. P. Menezes

2007-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

223

Electrically charged pulsars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

n the present work we investigate one possible variation on the usual electrically neutral pulsars: the inclusion of electric charge. We study the effect of electric charge in pulsars assuming that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. All calculations were performed for zero temperature and fixed entropy equations of state.

Alloy, M D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tau ( ) The third flavor of charged lepton (in order of increasing mass), with electric charge -1...

225

Particle Production and Fragmentation at HERA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent results from HERA are presented on a range of topics: charged multiplicities, production of non-strange mesons and strange particles, charm fragmentation, baryons decaying to strange particles, antideuteron production, Bose-Einstein correlations, and new interpretations of results on prompt photon production in DIS.

D. H. Saxon

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

226

Light particles - A window to fundamental physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In these proceedings we illustrate that light, very weakly interacting particles can arise naturally from physics which is fundamentally connected to very high energy scales. Searching for them therefore may give us interesting new insights into the structure of fundamental physics. Prime examples are the axion, and more general axion-like particles, as well as hidden sector photons and matter charged under them.

Joerg Jaeckel

2010-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

227

Investigation on non-glass laser fusion targets: their fabrication, characterization, and transport. Charged Particle Research Laboratory report No. 2-81, progress report, June 1, 1980-January 31, 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary is presented of the research progress made under LLNL Subcontract 8320003 for the period of June 1, 1980 through January 31, 1981. The main theme of the research has continued to be the development of techniques for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting laser fusion targets on a continuous basis. The target fabrication techniques are intended mainly for non-glass spherical shell targets, both cryogenic and non-cryogenic. Specifically, progress has been made in each of the following categories. (1) Investigation of liquid hydrogen behavior inside a spherical laser fusion target. (2) Development of automated target characterization scheme. (3) Study of cryogenic target fabrication scheme utilizing cold-gas-levitation and electric field positioning. (4) Development of a cryogenic target fabrication system based on target free-fall method. (5) Generation of hydrogen powder using electro-hydrodynamic spraying. (6) Study of target-charging techniques for application to contactless cryogenic target fabrication. (7) Development of hollow metal sphere production technique. A brief summary of the research progress made in each category is presented.

Kim, K.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Particle Lifetimes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reviewing Particle Lifetimes Reviewing Particle Lifetimes The lifetimes of elementary particles are statistical in nature. In a given sample, one particle might decay immediately, another in 1 nanosecond, yet another after 10 milliseconds, and still another in 50 years. What we call the lifetime is the time it takes for a sample to decay so 1/e (~30%) of the sample is left; after 2 lifetimes, 1/e2 of the sample is left, and so on. Take, for example, a sample of cosmic ray muons produced in the upper atmosphere. These muons, when observed at (relative) rest in the laboratory, have a mean lifetime T. Now, since particle decay is statistical in nature, the number of undecayed particles after a given time is a negative exponential function: N(t) = No e-t/T where N(t) is the number of muons at time t, No is the initial number of

229

Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan; D Manager

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

230

A charged rotating cylindrical shell 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give an example of a spacetime having an infinite thin rotating cylindrical shell constituted by a charged perfect fluid as a source. As the interior of the shell the Bonnor–Melvin universe is considered, while its exterior is represented by Datta– Raychaudhuri spacetime. We discuss the energy conditions and we show that our spacetime contains closed timelike curves. Trajectories of charged test particles both inside and outside the cylinder are also examined. Expression for the angular velocity of a circular motion inside the cylinder is given.

P. Klepá?; J. Horsk´y

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

PARTICLE ACCELERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fixed-field alternating gradient accelerator for simultaneous acceleration of two particle beams in opposite directions is described. (T.R.H.)

Ohkawa, T.

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

System Benefits Charge  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New York's system benefits charge (SBC), established in 1996 by the New York Public Service Commission (PSC), supports energy efficiency, education and outreach, research and development, and low...

233

Linear Thermite Charge  

The Linear Thermite Charge (LTC) is designed to rapidly cut through concrete and steel structural components by using extremely high temperature thermite reactions jetted through a linear nozzle. 

234

Particle detector spatial resolution  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for producing separated columns of scintillation layer material, for use in detection of X-rays and high energy charged particles with improved spatial resolution is disclosed. A pattern of ridges or projections is formed on one surface of a substrate layer or in a thin polyimide layer, and the scintillation layer is grown at controlled temperature and growth rate on the ridge-containing material. The scintillation material preferentially forms cylinders or columns, separated by gaps conforming to the pattern of ridges, and these columns direct most of the light produced in the scintillation layer along individual columns for subsequent detection in a photodiode layer. The gaps may be filled with a light-absorbing material to further enhance the spatial resolution of the particle detector. 12 figs.

Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Electrophoretic mobility without charge driven by spontaneous polarization of the nanoparticle/water interface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polarization of the interface, spontaneously occurring when water is in contact with hydrophobic solutes or air, couples with the uniform external field to produce a non-zero force acting on a suspended particle. This force exists even in the absence of a net particle charge, and its direction is affected by the first-order, dipolar and the second-order, qudrupolar orientational order parameters of the interfacial water. The quadrupolar polarization gives rise to an effectively negative charge. The corresponding surface charge density is inversely proportional to the area of the shear surface. As a result, the overall contribution from the quadrupolar polarization to the particle mobility becomes negligible compared to experimentally reported values for particles exceeding a few nanometers in size. The dipolar order of the interface dominates the zero-charge mobility of sub-micron particles. The corresponding electrokinetic charge is determined by the preferential orientation of interfacial dipoles relative to the surface normal.

Dmitry V. Matyushov

2012-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

236

Symmetry effects in electrostatic interactions between two arbitrarily charged spherical shells in the Debye-Hückel approximation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inhomogeneous charge distributions have important repercussions on electrostatic interactions in systems of charged particles but are often difficult to examine theoretically. We investigate how electrostatic interactions are influenced by patchy charge distributions exhibiting certain point group symmetries. We derive a general form of the electrostatic interaction energy of two permeable, arbitrarily charged spherical shells in the Debye-H\\"uckel approximation and apply it to the case of particles with icosahedral, octahedral, and tetrahedral inhomogeneous charge distributions. We analyze in detail how charge distribution symmetry modifies the interaction energy and find that local charge inhomogeneities reduce the repulsion of two overall equally charged particles, while sufficient orientational variation in the charge distribution can turn the minimum interaction energy into an attraction. Additionally we show that larger patches and thus lower symmetries and wave numbers result in bigger attraction given the same variation.

Anze Losdorfer Bozic; Rudolf Podgornik

2012-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

237

Charging and Transport of Aerosols near AC Transmission Lines: A Literature Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been hypothesized that the charging of airborne pollutant particles by alternating current (AC) transmission lines results in enhanced deposition and retention of these particles in the respiratory tract. This report provides an overview of the effect of AC transmission line corona on ion formation and the transfer of charge to aerosols. A literature review identified gaps in the information required to model the charging of aerosols by AC transmission lines and their dispersal downwind, so that e...

2003-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

238

Auxiliary battery charging terminal  

SciTech Connect

In accordance with the present invention there is provided an auxiliary battery charging terminal that may selectively engage battery charging circuitry inside a portable radio pager. There is provided a current conducting cap having a downwardly and outwardly flared rim that deforms to lock under the crimped edge an insulating seal ring of a standard rechargeable cell by application of a compressive axial force. The auxiliary battery charging terminal is further provided with a central tip axially projecting upwardly from the cap. The auxiliary terminal may be further provided with a cap of reduced diameter to circumferentially engage the raised battery cathode terminal on the battery cell. A mating recess in a remote battery charging receptacle may receive the tip to captivate the battery cell against lateral displacement. The tip may be further provided with a rounded apex to relieve localized frictional forces upon insertion and removal of the battery cell from the remote battery charging receptacle.

Field, H.; Richter, R. E.

1985-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

239

Particle beam dynamics | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle beam dynamics Particle beam dynamics Subscribe to RSS - Particle beam dynamics The study of the physics of charged particle beams and the accelerators that produce them. This cross-disciplinary area intersects with fields such as plasma physics, high-energy density science, and ultra-fast lasers. Premiere issue of "Quest" magazine details PPPL's strides toward fusion energy and advances in plasma science Quest Magazine Summer 2013 Welcome to the premiere issue of Quest, the annual magazine of the U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Read more about Premiere issue of "Quest" magazine details PPPL's strides toward fusion energy and advances in plasma science Ronald C Davidson Ronald Davidson heads PPPL research on charged particle beam dynamics and

240

Photon: history, mass, charge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The talk consists of three parts. ``History'' briefly describes the emergence and evolution of the concept of photon during the first two decades of the 20th century. ``Mass'' gives a short review of the literature on the upper limit of the photon's mass. ``Charge'' is a critical discussion of the existing interpretation of searches for photon charge. Schemes, in which all photons are charged, are grossly inconsistent. A model with three kinds of photons (positive, negative and neutral) seems at first sight to be more consistent, but turns out to have its own serious problems.

L. B. Okun

2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Particle Adventure | Particle decays and annihiliations ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

virtual particles. Virtual particles do not violate the conservation of energy. The kinetic energy plus mass of the initial decaying particle and the final decay products is...

242

The Particle Adventure | Accelerators and Particle Detectors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Waves and particles The world's meterstick Mass and energy Energy-mass conversion Accelerators How to obtain particles to accelerate Accelerating particles Accelerating...

243

Online Particle Physics Information - Particles & Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particles & Properties Data Review of Particle Physics (RPP) A biennial comprehensive review summarizing much of the known data about the field of particle physics produced by the...

244

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Availability: Range of Charging Units with a Vehicle Connected versus Time of Day Percentage Max percentage of charging units connected across all days Inner-quartile range of...

245

taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

Subramani, Praveen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Review of Particle Physics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

11. Particle Physics Education Sites . . . . . . . . .ONLINE PARTICLE PHYSICS INFORMATION 1.11. Particle Physics Education Sites . . . . . . . . . . 12.

Nakamura, Kenzo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Inclusive particle production at LHCb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to its unique pseudorapidity coverage and the possibility of extending measurements to low transverse momenta, LHCb provides important input to the understanding of particle production and energy flow in a kinematical range where QCD models have large uncertainties. Measurements of charged & strange particle production and energy flow are performed in the approximate pseudorapidity range 2<$\\eta $<5, which corresponds to the acceptance of the LHCb spectrometer. The results are compared to predictions given by several Monte Carlo event generators, which model the underlying event activity in different ways

Volyanskyy, D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutral Having a net charge equal to zero. Unless otherwise specified, it usually refers to electric charge...

249

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Color Charge The quantum number that determines participation in strong interactions. Quarks and gluons carry nonzero color charges...

250

International aeronautical user charges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

Odoni, Amedeo R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Direct photon-charged hadron coincidence measurements in STAR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The multiplicities of charged particle with transverse momentum (3 $direct photons and $\\pi^{0}$ of high transverse momentum (8 $direct $\\gamma$ are extracted. An agreement is observed between the measured suppression for direct $\\gamma$-trigger associated-particle yields in $Au+Au$ compared to that in $p+p$ and theoretical calculations, although the uncertainties are large. Within the current uncertainties, the suppression is similar to the previously observed suppression in single-particle yields as well as in hadron-triggered associated-particle yields.

Ahmed M. Hamed

2009-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

252

Particle dispersing system and method for testing semiconductor manufacturing equipment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The system and method prepare a gas stream comprising particles at a known concentration using a particle disperser for moving particles from a reservoir of particles into a stream of flowing carrier gas. The electrostatic charges on the particles entrained in the carrier gas are then neutralized or otherwise altered, and the resulting particle-laden gas stream is then diluted to provide an acceptable particle concentration. The diluted gas stream is then split into a calibration stream and the desired output stream. The particles in the calibration stream are detected to provide an indication of the actual size distribution and concentration of particles in the output stream that is supplied to a process chamber being analyzed. Particles flowing out of the process chamber within a vacuum pumping system are detected, and the output particle size distribution and concentration are compared with the particle size distribution and concentration of the calibration stream in order to determine the particle transport characteristics of a process chamber, or to determine the number of particles lodged in the process chamber as a function of manufacturing process parameters such as pressure, flowrate, temperature, process chamber geometry, particle size, particle charge, and gas composition.

Chandrachood, Madhavi (Sunnyvale, CA); Ghanayem, Steve G. (Sunnyvale, CA); Cantwell, Nancy (Milpitas, CA); Rader, Daniel J. (Albuquerque, NM); Geller, Anthony S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Trillion Particles,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Trillion Trillion Particles, 120,000 cores, and 350 TBs: Lessons Learned from a Hero I/O Run on Hopper Surendra Byna ∗ , Andrew Uselton ∗ , Prabhat ∗ , David Knaak † , and Yun (Helen) He ∗ ∗ Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA. Email: {sbyna, acuselton, prabhat, yhe}@lbl.gov † Cray Inc., USA. Email: knaak@cray.com Abstract-Modern petascale applications can present a variety of configuration, runtime, and data management challenges when run at scale. In this paper, we describe our experiences in running VPIC, a large-scale plasma physics simulation, on the NERSC production Cray XE6 system Hopper. The simulation ran on 120,000 cores using ∼80% of computing resources, 90% of the available memory on each node and 50% of the Lustre scratch file system. Over two trillion particles were simulated for 23,000 timesteps, and 10 one-trillion particle dumps, each ranging between

254

Carbon particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782402, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

256

Synergia: an accelerator modeling tool with 3-D space charge  

SciTech Connect

High precision modeling of space-charge effects, together with accurate treatment of single-particle dynamics, is essential for designing future accelerators as well as optimizing the performance of existing machines. We describe Synergia, a high-fidelity parallel beam dynamics simulation package with fully three dimensional space-charge capabilities and a higher order optics implementation. We describe the computational techniques, the advanced human interface, and the parallel performance obtained using large numbers of macroparticles. We also perform code benchmarks comparing to semi-analytic results and other codes. Finally, we present initial results on particle tune spread, beam halo creation, and emittance growth in the Fermilab booster accelerator.

Amundson, James F.; Spentzouris, P.; /Fermilab; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

PARTICLE ACCELERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

Teng, L.C.

1960-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

258

Charges/Reports | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charges/Reports High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) HEPAP Home Meetings Members .pdf file (20KB) Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (44KB) HEP Committees of Visitors HEP Home Charges/Reports Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) P5 Charge Letter .pdf file (191KB)(September 2013) HEP Facilities Charge Charge Letter .pdf file (790KB) (December 20, 2012) Final Report .pdf file (1.2MB) (March 22, 2013) Report on current policies and practices of the High Energy Physics program for disseminating research results Charge letter .pdf file (1.3MB) (February 25, 2011) Final Report .pdf file (6.1MB) (June 23, 2011) Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) Transmittal Letter .pdf file (13KB) (October 26, 2010)

259

Charging of insulating and conducting dust grains by flowing plasma and photoemission  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The charging of conducting or alternatively insulating dust grains in a supersonic plasma flow with a directed photon flux is studied by the particle-in-cell method. The electron emission modifies the surface charge distribution on a grain and in the surrounding plasma. The charge and potential distributions on and around a dust grain are studied for different photon fluxes and different angles of the incident unidirectional photons with respect to the plasma flow velocity vector. Continuous and pulsed radiations are considered. We show that photoemission allows controlling the charge on conducting grains, and discuss the charging of stationary and spinning insulating grains. Interactions between positively charged grains can be stronger than for negatively charged grains. The simulations are carried out in two spatial dimensions, treating ions and electrons as individual particles.

Miloch, W J; Pecseli, H L; Trulsen, J

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

The Particle Adventure | What holds it together? | Strong  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Standard Model > What holds it together? > Strong The Standard Model > What holds it together? > Strong Strong To understand what is happening inside the nucleus, we need to understand more about the quarks that make up the protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Quarks have electromagnetic charge, and they also have an altogether different kind of charge called color charge. The force between color-charged particles is very strong, so this force is "creatively" called The strong force holds quarks together to form hadrons, so its carrier particles are whimsically called gluons because they so tightly "glue" quarks together. (Other name candidates included the "hold-on," the "duct-tape-it-on," and the "tie-it-on!") Color charge behaves differently than electromagnetic charge. Gluons, themselves, have color charge, which is weird and not at all like photons which do not have electromagnetic charge. And while quarks have color charge, composite particles made out of quarks have no net color charge (they are color neutral). For this reason, the strong force only takes place on the really small level of quark interactions, which is why you are not aware of the strong force in your everyday life

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Conserved charges of order-parameter textures in Dirac systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simple expression for the induced fermion current in the presence of a texture in mass-order-parameters in two-dimensional condensed-matter Dirac systems is derived using the representation theory of Clifford algebras. In particular, it is shown that every texture in three mutually anticommuting order parameters, in graphene for example, implies an induced density of a properly defined conserved charge. The sufficient condition for the general charge to be the familiar electrical charge is that the remaining two anticommuting order parameters allowed by the particle-hole symmetry are the two phase components of some superconducting order. This allows eight different types of electrically charged textures in graphene or in the $\\pi$-flux Hamiltonian on the square lattice. Generalized charge of mass-textures on the surfaces of thin films of topological insulators, or in spinless Dirac fermions hopping on the honeycomb lattice is also discussed.

Igor F. Herbut; Chi-Ken Lu; Bitan Roy

2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

262

EV Charging Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charging Infrastructure Charging Infrastructure JOHN DAVIS: Virtually anywhere in the U.S. you can bring light to a room with the flick of a finger. We take it for granted, but creating the national electric grid to make that possible took decades to accomplish. Now, in just a few years, we've seen the birth of a new infrastructure that allows electric vehicles to quickly recharge their batteries at home, work, or wherever they may roam. But this rapid growth has come with a few growing pains. Starting with less than 500 in 2009, there are now over 19,000 public-access charging outlets available to electric vehicles owners at commuter lots, parking garages, airports, retail areas and thousands of

263

Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

Lal, Amit (Madison, WI); Li, Hui (Madison, WI); Blanchard, James P. (Madison, WI); Henderson, Douglass L. (Madison, WI)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Charged Vacuum Bubble Stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A type of scenario is considered where electrically charged vacuum bubbles, formed from degenerate or nearly degenerate vacuua separated by a thin domain wall, are cosmologically produced due to the breaking of a discrete symmetry, with the bubble charge arising from fermions residing within the domain wall. Stability issues associated with wall tension, fermion gas, and Coulombic effects for such configurations are examined. The stability of a bubble depends upon parameters such as the symmetry breaking scale and the fermion coupling. A dominance of either the Fermi gas or the Coulomb contribution may be realized under certain conditions, depending upon parameter values.

J. R. Morris

1998-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

265

Exchange Between Circularly Polarized Radiation and Charged Particles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

G. Shvets; N. J. Fisch; J. -m. Rax; G. Shvets; N. J. Fisch

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids - Energy ...  

Genome sequencing especially benefits from the nanoscale approach. Description. The trap is a three-layer, three-dimensional crossing metal/insulator ...

267

CATARACT PRODUCTION IN MICE BY HEAVY CHARGED PARTICLES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation-dose dependent. Posterior opacities Again the density and onset were Results of these pilot

Ainsworth, E.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A window is disclosed that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 {micro}m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons. 1 fig.

Logan, C.M.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cooled window for X-rays or charged particles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A window that provides good structural integrity and a very high capacity for removal of the heat deposited by x-rays, electrons, or ions, with minimum attenuation of the desired beam. The window is cooled by providing microchannels therein through which a coolant is pumped. For example, the window may be made of silicon with etched microchannels therein and covered by a silicon member. A window made of silicon with a total thickness of 520 .mu.m transmits 96% of the x-rays at an energy of 60 keV, and the transmission is higher than 90% for higher energy photons.

Logan, Clinton M. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Mass Spectrometer for High Molecular Weight Ions and Charged Particles  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Biotechnology ; Structural biology ; Materials science studies of nanoparticles ; ADVANTAGES:

271

System and method for collisional activation of charged particles  

SciTech Connect

A collision cell is disclosed that provides ion activation in various selective modes. Ion activation is performed inside selected segments of a segmented quadrupole that provides maximum optimum capture and collection of fragmentation products. The invention provides collisional cooling of precursor ions as well as product fragments and further allows effective transmission of ions through a high pressure interface into a coupled mass analysis instrument.

Ibrahim, Yehia M; Belov, Mikhail E; Prior, David C

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

272

Simulation of shaped charge collapse using smoothed particle ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The collapse of the liner was mathematically modeled in this work, using the ... Experimental study on deformation and fracture of Al2O3 ceramic under dynamic  ...

273

Particle? and photoinduced conductivity in type?IIa diamonds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrical characteristics associated with radiation detection were measured on single?crystal natural type?IIa diamond using two techniques: charged particle?induced conductivity and time?resolved transient photoinduced conductivity. The two techniques complement each other: The charged particle?induced conductivity technique measures the product of the carrier mobility ? and lifetime ? throughout the bulk of the material while the transient photoconductivity technique measures the carrier mobility and lifetime independently at the first few micrometers of the materialsurface. For each technique

L. S. Pan; S. Han; D. R. Kania; S. Zhao; K. K. Gan; H. Kagan; R. Kass; R. Malchow; F. Morrow; W. F. Palmer; C. White; S. K. Kim; F. Sannes; S. Schnetzer; R. Stone; G. B. Thomson; Y. Sugimoto; A. Fry; S. Kanda; S. Olsen; M. Franklin; J. W. Ager III; P. Pianetta

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Particle swarm optimization with opposite particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The particle swarm optimization algorithm is a kind of intelligent optimization algorithm. This algorithm is prone to be fettered by the local optimization solution when the particle's velocity is small. This paper presents a novel particle swarm ...

Rujing Wang; Xiaoming Zhang

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

ChargePoint America Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Report period: May 1, 2011 through August 31, 2011 Includes all charging units that were in use by the end of the reporting period A charging event is defined as the...

276

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stable Does not decay. A particle is stable if there exist no processes in which a particle disappears and in its place different particles appear...

277

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Event What occurs when two particles collide or a single particle decays. Particle theories predict the probabilities of various possible events occurring when many similar...

278

Electric Charge Separation during the Fragmentation of Rime in an Airflow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental evidence is presented to show that when fragments of rime break off a simulated graupel particle in an airflow, significant magnitudes of electric charge are separated only under very specific conditions. Subsidiary experiments ...

E. R. Jayaratne; D. J. Griggs

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Effects of W/sub R/ and charged Higgs in the leptonic decay of /tau/  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Experimental test of the existence of the right-hand W boson and the charged Higgs particle is suggested. The experiment involves measurement of muon polarization from the decay of polarized /tau/'s. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Tsai, Yung Su

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Temperature Dependence of Static Charging in Ice Growing by Riming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Charge transfer between colliding ice particles is measured using a wind tunnel inside a cold room. A cylinder growing by riming in a wind tunnel was used as a target for collisions between 5 and 6 m s?1 with ice spheres of 100-µm diameter. The ...

Eldo E. Avila; Guillermo G. Aguirre Varela; Giorgio M. Caranti

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residual Interaction An interaction between objects that do not carry a charge but do contain constituents that have that charge. Although some chemical substances involve...

282

Charge! for Scientists  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charge! for Scientists Charge! for Scientists This show can be adapted for grades 2-8. Materials This equipment is located in the Lederman Science Center. Please talk to Susan Dahl. Balloons PVC pipe and wool Electroscope (glass jar with wire hanging from top and two small pieces of aluminum foil hanging from wire) Van de Graaff generator Bar magnets with opposite ends painted blue and red Circular magnets and pencils Compass Iron filings Battery, wire and nail Things kids can do at home Olga's overheads David Christian's PowerPoint Demos Balloons - Ask for a few volunteers and have them rub a balloon on their head or shirt. PVC pipe and wool - Pour a bunch of pieces of various material onto the table in the front of the room, including pieces of aluminum foil, styrofoam peanuts, paper clips, staples. Have a student rub the wool on the

283

Gas-Solid Coexistence in Highly Charged Colloidal Suspensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aqueous suspensions of highly charged polystyrene particles with different volume fractions have been investigated for structural ordering and phase behavior using static light scattering (SLS) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Under deionized conditions, suspensions of high charge density colloidal particles remained disordered whereas suspensions of relatively low charge density showed crystallization by exhibiting iridescence for the visible light. Though for unaided eye crystallized suspensions appeared homogeneous, static light scattering measurements and CLSM observations have revealed their inhomogeneous nature in the form of coexistence of voids with dense ordered regions. CLSM investigations on disordered suspensions showed their inhomogeneous nature in the form coexistence of voids with dense disordered (amorphous) regions. Our studies on highly charged colloids confirm the occurrence of gas-solid transition and are in accordance with predictions of Monte Carlo simulations using a pair-potential having a long-range attractive term [Mohanty and Tata, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2003, 264, 101]. Based on our experimental and simulation results we argue that the reported reentrant disordered state [Yamanaka et al Phys. Rev. Lett. 1998, 80, 5806 and Toyotama et al Langmuir, 2003, 19, 3236] in charged colloids observed at high charge densities is a gas-solid coexistence state.

P. S. Mohanty; B. V. R. Tata; A. Toyotama; T. Sawada

2005-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

284

Distributor means for charging particulate material into receptacles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed are receptacles, such as shaft furnaces illustrated by a blast furnace and an upright oil shale retort, embodying rotatable charge distributor means for distributing particulate charge material in the furnace, which charge distributor means can provide a high uniformity of distribution of various sizes of particles and also can provide and maintain a stock line of desired contour and heighth in the receptacle. The distributor means includes a hopper having rigidly fixed to it a plurality of downwardly extending chutes with lower discharge portions that discharge in concentric circular zones at the stock line. The distributor means includes a segmented portion at the juncture of the hopper and the chutes that divides the charge material discharged into the hopper in proportion to the area of the circular zone at the stock line that is fed by the chute. The distributor means embodies means for providing mass flow of the particulate charge material through the chutes to the stock line and for avoiding segregation between larger and smaller particles of charge material deposited at the stock line.

Greaves, Melvin J. (9995 Cliff Drive, Cleveland, OH 44102)

1977-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

285

Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

Andrews, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Real-time Shape-based Particle Separation and Detailed In-situ Particle Shape Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Particle shape is an important attribute that is very difficult to characterize. We present a new portable system that offers, for the first time, the opportunity to separate particles with different shapes and characterize their chemical and physical properties, including their dynamic shape factors (DSFs) in the transition and free-molecular regimes, with high precision, in-situ, and in real-time. The system uses a new generation aerosol particle mass analyzer (APM) to classify particles based on their masses and transport them to a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) that is used to select particles of one charge, one mass, and one shape. These highly uniform particles are ready for use and/or characterization by any application or analytical tool. We combine APM and DMA with our single particle mass spectrometer, SPLAT II, to form the ADS, and demonstrate its utility to measure in real-time individual particle compositions and vacuum aerodynamic diameters to yield, for each selected shape, particle DSFs in two flow regimes. We apply the ADS to characterize aspherical ammonium sulfate and NaCl particles and show that both particle types have wide distribution of particle shapes with DSFs from nearly 1 to 1.5.

Beranek, Josef; Imre, D.; Zelenyuk, Alla

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

287

Strange particle production in neutrino interactions. [Rate lower limits  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ten strange particles were observed in a total of 1086 charged current neutrino interactions obtained in the analysis of 482,000 pictures taken in the Brookhaven Cryogenic 7' Bubble Chamber filled with hydrogen and deuterium. Details of these events are presented together with rates for associated strange particle and ..delta..S = +-..delta..Q production in neutrino interactions.

Cazzoli, E G; Cnops, A M; Connolly, P L; Louttit, R I; Murtagh, M J; Palmer, R B; Samios, N P; Tso, T T; Williams, H H

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Electrostatic quadrupole focused particle accelerating assembly with laminar flow beam  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charged particle accelerating assembly provided with a predetermined ratio of parametric structural characteristics and with related operating voltages applied to each of its linearly spaced focusing and accelerating quadrupoles, thereby to maintain a particle beam traversing the electrostatic fields of the quadrupoles in the assembly in an essentially laminar flow through the assembly.

Maschke, A.W.

1984-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

289

Light ternary fission products: probabilities and charge distributions. [Reviews, data systematics  

SciTech Connect

A survey was made of experimental information pertinent to the probability of ternary fission and the charge distribution of the light ternary fission products. A new prescription is presented for the ternary fission probability as a function of incident particle energy and certain compound nucleus properties. Based upon systematics, a method for obtaining charge distributions of the light ternary products is presented.

Madland, D.G.; Stewart, L.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Influence of Surfactants and Charges on CdSe Quantum Dots  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chemistry between CdSe quantum dots and common surface capping ligands is invested using density functional theory. We will discuss the electronic structures and optical properties of CdSe QDs controlled by the size of particle, self-organization, capping ligands, and positive charges. Charges on quantum dots have profound effects on their structures, binding energies, and optical properties.

Yang, Ping; Tretiak, Sergei; Ivanov, Sergei

2011-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

291

Plasma effect in Silicon Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Plasma effect is observed in CCDs exposed to heavy ionizing alpha-particles with energies in the range 0.5 - 5.5 MeV. The results obtained for the size of the charge clusters reconstructed on the CCD pixels agrees with previous measurements in the high energy region (>3.5 MeV). The measurements were extended to lower energies using alpha-particles produced by (n,alpha) reactions of neutrons in a Boron-10 target. The effective linear charge density for the plasma column is measured as a function of energy. The results demonstrate the potential for high position resolution in the reconstruction of alpha particles, which opens an interesting possibility for using these detectors in neutron imaging applications.

Juan Estrada; Jorge Molina; J. Blostein; G. Fernandez

2011-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

292

Main Injector Particle Production Experiment (MIPP) at Fermilab  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Main Injector Particle Production Experiment at Fermilab uses particle beams of charged pions, kaons, proton and anti-proton with beam momenta of 5 to 90 GeV/c and thin targets spanning the periodic table from (liquid) hydrogen to uranium to measure particle production cross sections in a full acceptance spectrometer with charged particle identification for particles from 0.1 to 120 GeV/c using Time Projection Chamber, Time of Flight, multicell Cherenkov, and Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors and Calorimeter for neutrons. Particle production using 120 GeV/c protons from Main Injector on the MINOS target was also measured. We describe the physics motivation to perform such cross section measurements and highlight the impact of hadronic interaction data on neutrino physics. Recent results on forward neutron cross sections and analysis of MINOS target data are also presented.

Mahajan, Sonam; /Panjab U. /Fermilab

2010-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

293

Anomalous centrality evolution of two-particle angular correlations from Au-Au collisions at [? over s[subscript NN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present two-dimensional (2D) two-particle angular correlations measured with the STAR detector on relative pseudorapidity ? and azimuth ? for charged particles from Au-Au collisions at [? over s[subscript NN

Balewski, Jan T.

294

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Raytheon Raytheon has installed seven dual 220-volt plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations (14 charging points) at three...

295

Argonne's Pilot Electric Vehicle Charging Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne's Pilot Electric Vehicle Charging Project solar array and charging station Solar array and charging station. View larger image. As part of Argonne's continuing efforts to...

296

Fermilab | Fermilab Director Search | Process and Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Process and Charge Charge to the Director Search Committee Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory The Fermi Research Alliance, LLC Board of Directors charges the Committee to engage...

297

Condition responsive battery charging circuit  

SciTech Connect

A battery charging circuit includes a ferroresonant transformer having a rectified output for providing a constant output voltage to be supplied to a battery to be charged. Battery temperature is sensed providing an input to a control circuit which operates a shunt regulator associated with the ferroresonant transformer to provide battery charge voltage as a function of battery temperature. In response to a high battery temperature the controller functions to lower the output voltage to the battery, and in response to a low battery temperature, operates to provide a higher output voltage, with suitable control for any battery temperature between minus 10* and plus 150* fahrenheit. As the battery approaches full charge and battery acceptance current falls below a predetermined level, a charge cycle termination control allows charging to continue for a period preset by the operator, at the end of which period, line voltage is removed from the charger thereby terminating the charge cycle.

Reidenbach, S.G.

1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

298

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZERTM SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T; Caldow, R; Pucher, A; Mirme, A; Kittelson, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

299

AN ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICLE SIZER{trademark} SPECTROMETER FOR TRANSIENT EMISSION PARTICLE MEASUREMENTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There has been increased interest in obtaining size distribution data during transient engine operation where both particle size and total number concentrations can change dramatically. Traditionally, the measurement of particle emissions from vehicles has been a compromise based on choosing between the conflicting needs of high time resolution or high particle size resolution for a particular measurement. Currently the most common technique for measuring submicrometer particle sizes is the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPSTM) system. The SMPS system gives high size resolution but requires an aerosol to be stable over a long time period to make a particle size distribution measurement. A Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) is commonly used for fast time response measurements but is limited to measuring total concentration only. This paper describes a new instrument, the Engine Exhaust Particle SizerTM (EEPSTM) spectrometer, which has high time resolution and a reasonable size resolution. The EEPS was designed specifically for measuring engine exhaust and, like the SMPS system, uses a measurement based on electrical mobility. Particles entering the instrument are charged to a predictable level, then passed through an annular space where they are repelled outward by the voltage from a central column. When the particles reach electrodes on the outer cylindrical (a column of rings), they create a current that is measured by an electrometer on one or more of the rings. The electrometer currents are measured multiple times per second to give high time resolution. A sophisticated realtime inversion algorithm converts the currents to particle size and concentration for immediate display.

Johnson, T: Caldow, R; Pucher, A Mirme, A Kittelson, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

300

Particle energization through time-periodic helical magnetic fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We solve for the motion of charged particles in a helical time-periodic ABC (Arnold-Beltrami-Childress) magnetic field. The magnetic field lines of a stationary ABC field with $A=B=C=1$ are chaotic, and we show that the motion of a charged particle in such a field is also chaotic at late time with positive Lyapunov exponent. We further show that in time-periodic (frequency $\\omega$) ABC fields the kinetic energy of a charged particle can increase indefinitely with time. At late times the mean kinetic energy grows as a power law in time with exponent $\\xi$ that approaches unity. For an initial distribution of particles, whose kinetic energy is uniformly distributed within some interval, the PDF of kinetic energy is, at late time, close to a Gaussian but with steeper tails.

Dhrubaditya Mitra; Axel Brandenburg; Brahmananda Dasgupta; Eyvind Niklasson; Abhay Ram

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Stabilization of tearing instability and heating of plasma ions by a modulated particle beam  

SciTech Connect

The tearing instability is considered for nonisothermal plasma penetrated by a low-velocity charged-particle beam. Possible stabilization of this instability due to the transformation of the high-frequency wave energy into the energy of a nonlinear ion-acoustic wave is discussed. This phenomenon is equivalent to the nonlinear absorption of the high-frequency waves. The efficiency of heating of heavy particles (ions) by a charged-particle beam is estimated.

Fainshtein, S.M.

1976-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

303

Stochastic dynamics of charge fluctuations in dusty plasma: A non-Markovian approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dust particles in typical laboratory plasma become charged largely by collecting electrons and/or ions. Most of the theoretical studies in dusty plasma assume that the grain charge remains constant even though it fluctuates due to the discrete nature of the charge. The rates of ions and electrons absorption depend on the grain charge, hence its temporal evolution. Stochastic charging model based on the standard Langevin equation assumes that the underlying process is Markovian. In this work, the memory effect in dust charging dynamics is incorporated using fractional calculus formalism. The resulting fractional Langevin equation is solved to obtain the amplitude and correlation function for the dust charge fluctuation. It is shown that the effects of ion-neutral collisions can be interpreted in phenomenological sense through the nonlocal fractional order derivative.

Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

304

The Pandora Particle Flow Algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A high-energy e+e- collider, such as the ILC or CLIC, is arguably the best option to complement and extend the LHC physics programme. A lepton collider will allow for exploration of Standard Model Physics, such as precise measurements of the Higgs, top and gauge sectors, in addition to enabling a multitude of New Physics searches. However, physics analyses at such a collider will place unprecedented demands on calorimetry, with a required jet energy resolution of \\sigma(E)/E energy resolution by fully reconstructing the paths of individual particles through the detector. The energies of charged particles can then be extracted from precise inner detector tracker measurements, whilst photon energies will be measured in the ECAL, and only neutral hadron energies (10% of jet energies) will be measured in the HCAL, largely avoiding the typically poor HCAL resolution. This document introduces the Pandora particle flow algorithms, which offer the current state of the art in particle flow calorimetry for the ILC and CLIC. The performance of the algorithms is investigated by examining the reconstructed jet energy resolution and the ability to separate the hadronic decays of W and Z bosons.

J. S. Marshall; M. A. Thomson

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

305

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Southern California Edison on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging...

306

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Chrysler Group LLC on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:...

307

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: WESCO International, Inc. on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: WESCO...

308

Charge Density Wave Compounds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fisher Research Group Fisher Research Group Layered Chalcogenides 29 February 2008 Controlling the Wave by Brad Plummer, SLAC Communications Stanford University researchers working in part at SSRL have discovered a novel set of properties pertaining to a compound of materials called tritellurides. These compounds, composed of three atoms of tellurium and a single atom of one of the rare earth elements, demonstrate unique electronic properties that can be controlled by altering the temperature of the material. The tritellurides display phenomena known as charge density waves (CDW). In a normal conductive metal, electrons persist in a "sea" wherein they are evenly distributed and equally available, or conductive. A CDW occurs under certain circumstances and causes the electrons to clump together, lowering their availability, and thereby lowering the compound's conductivity. Tellurium, when crystallized into quasi-two-dimensional planes and combined with rare earth elements, produces a material with CDWs that can be manipulated and controlled.

309

NERSC HPSS Charging  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HPSS Charging NERSC uses Storage Resource Units (SRUs) to help manage HPSS storage. The goal is to provide a balanced computing environment with appropriate amounts of storage and adequate bandwidth to keep the compute engines fed with data. Performance and usage tracking allows NERSC to anticipate demand and maintain a responsive storage environment. Storage management also recognizes storage as a distinct resource in support of an increasing amount of data intensive computing. Storage management and the quota system are intended to encourage efficient usage by the user community. SRU Management SRUs are reported and managed through the NERSC Information Management (NIM) system. If a user is out of SRUs in all of their HPSS repositories that user will be restricted so that they can no longer write data to HPSS

310

Stable Charged Cosmic Strings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius {approx_equal}10{sup -18} m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

Weigel, H. [Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Quandt, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen University, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Graham, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College , Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

311

Latchup in CMOS from single particles  

SciTech Connect

Single-particle latchup in bulk CMOS is examined, using heavy ions, a californium fission source, and a pulsed laser. Experiments with the laser demonstrated that latchup triggering was caused by secondary photocurrent in either the vertical or lateral parasitic transistor. Charge diffusion is shown to be important for bipolar transistor responses in latchup, which in turn makes it important to have uniform charge deposition for depths of 10 {mu}m or more. Californium sources have insufficient range, which causes cross sections measured with californium to be much lower than cross sections from heavy ion experiments.

Johnston, A.H.; Hughlock, B.W. (High Technology Center, Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, Seattle, WA (US))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

High dynamic range charge measurements  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

De Geronimo, Gianluigi

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

313

A new method to calculate the beam charge for an integrating current transformer  

SciTech Connect

The integrating current transformer (ICT) is a magnetic sensor widely used to precisely measure the charge of an ultra-short-pulse charged particle beam generated by traditional accelerators and new laser-plasma particle accelerators. In this paper, we present a new method to calculate the beam charge in an ICT based on circuit analysis. The output transfer function shows an invariable signal profile for an ultra-short electron bunch, so the function can be used to evaluate the signal quality and calculate the beam charge through signal fitting. We obtain a set of parameters in the output function from a standard signal generated by an ultra-short electron bunch (about 1 ps in duration) at a radio frequency linear electron accelerator at Tsinghua University. These parameters can be used to obtain the beam charge by signal fitting with excellent accuracy.

Wu Yuchi; Han Dan; Zhu Bin; Dong Kegong; Tan Fang; Gu Yuqiu [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

The Particle Adventure | Particle decays and annihiliations ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

alphabet: (alpha), (beta), and (gamma). Alpha particles are helium nuclei (2 p, 2 n): Beta particles are speedy electrons: Gamma radiation is a high-energy photon: These three...

315

Reading Comprehension - Charges and Electricity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Charges and Electricity Atoms, the basic building blocks of matter, are made of three basic components: protons, neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons cluster together...

316

Bulk viscosity in quasi particle models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss transport properties of dynamical fluid composed of quasi-particles whose masses depend on temperature and charge chemical potentials. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, we derive a general expression for the bulk viscosity in the quasi-particle medium. We show that dynamically generated particle masses imply an essential modification of the fluid compressibility. As an application of our results we consider a class of quasi-particle models with the chiral phase transition belonging to O(4) and Z(2) universality class. Based on the Ginzburg-Landau and the scaling theory we study the critical properties of the bulk viscosity zeta near the phase transition. We show that under the relaxation time approximation the zeta is not expected to show singular behavior near the O(4) and Z(2) critical point through static critical exponents.

Sasaki, C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Bulk viscosity in quasi particle models  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss transport properties of dynamical fluid composed of quasi-particles whose masses depend on temperature and charge chemical potentials. Based on the relativistic kinetic theory formulated under the relaxation time approximation, we derive a general expression for the bulk viscosity in the quasi-particle medium. We show that dynamically generated particle masses imply an essential modification of the fluid compressibility. As an application of our results we consider a class of quasi-particle models with the chiral phase transition belonging to O(4) and Z(2) universality class. Based on the Ginzburg-Landau and the scaling theory we study the critical properties of the bulk viscosity zeta near the phase transition. We show that under the relaxation time approximation the zeta is not expected to show singular behavior near the O(4) and Z(2) critical point through static critical exponents.

C. Sasaki; K. Redlich

2008-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

318

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boson A particle that has integer intrinsic angular momentum (spin) measured in units of h-bar (spin 0, 1, 2, ...). All particles are either fermions or bosons. The particles...

319

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rest Mass The rest mass (m) of a particle is the mass defined by the energy of the isolated (free) particle at rest, divided by the speed of light squared. When particle physicists...

320

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Decay A process in which a particle disappears and in its place different particles appear. The sum of the masses of the produced particles is always less than the mass of the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

The Particle Adventure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Is this particle really the Higgs... Is this particle really the Higgs Boson? Does it swim and quack like a duck? While decays of this kind had been observed for the new particle...

322

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantum Mechanics The laws of physics that apply on very small scales. The essential feature is that electric charge, momentum, and angular momentum, as well as charges, come in...

323

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strange Quark (s) The third flavor of quark (in order of increasing mass), with electric charge -13...

324

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

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Charm Quark Charm (c) is the fourth quark (in order of increasing mass), with an electric charge +23...

325

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

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Bottom Quark The fifth flavor of quark (in order of increasing mass), with electric charge of -13...

326

Nuclear & Particle Physics Directorate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nuclear & Particle Physics Directorate Nuclear and Particle Physics (NPP) at BNL comprises the Collider-Accelerator Department (including the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory,...

327

Glossary Term - Beta Particle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Decay Previous Term (Beta Decay) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Bohr Radius) Bohr Radius Beta Particle Beta particles are either electrons or positrons ejected from the nucleus....

328

Glossary Term - Alpha Particle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Decay Previous Term (Alpha Decay) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Atomic Number) Atomic Number Alpha Particle alphaparticle.gif Produced during alpha decay, an alpha particle is a...

329

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Virtual Particle A particle that exists only for an extremely brief instant in an intermediary process. Then the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle allows an apparent violation of...

330

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annihilation A process in which a particle meets its corresponding antiparticle and both disappear. The energy appears in some other form, perhaps as a different particle and its...

331

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hadron A particle made of strongly-interacting constituents (quarks andor gluons). These include the meson and baryons. Such particles participate in residual strong interactions...

332

Particle Physics Booklet 2008  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

212 25. Accelerator physics of colliders ? 26. High-energythe full Review. PARTICLE PHYSICS BOOKLET TABLE OF CONTENTSrev. ) Summary Tables of Particle Physics Gauge and Higgs

et al., C. Amsler

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Small Particles, Big Impact  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Particles, Big Impact Small Particles, Big Impact Small-scale effects of Aerosols Add up Over Time August 24, 2011 | Tags: Climate Research, Earth Sciences, Environmental...

334

Physics Out Loud - Particle Resonance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle Accelerator Previous Video (Particle Accelerator) Physics Out Loud Main Index Next Video (Photomultiplier Tube) Photomultiplier Tube Particle Resonance How is a particle...

335

Universal quantum computing with correlated spin-charge states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a universal quantum computing scheme in which the orthogonal qubit states $|0>$ and $|1>$ are identical in their single-particle spin and charge properties. Each qubit is contained in a single quantum dot and gate operations are induced all-electrically by changes in the confinement potential. Within the computational space, these qubits are robust against environmental influences that couple to the system through single-particle channels. Due to the identical spin and charge properties of the $|0>$, $|1>$ states, the lowest-order relaxation and decoherence rates $1/T_1$ and $1/T_2$, within the Born-Markov approximation, both vanish for a large class of environmental couplings. We give explicit pulse sequences for a universal set of gates (phase, $\\pi/8$, Hadamard, \\textsc{cnot}) and discuss state preparation, manipulation, and detection.

Jordan Kyriakidis; Guido Burkard

2006-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

336

Battery charging and testing circuit  

SciTech Connect

A constant current battery charging circuit is provided by which the battery receives a full charge until the battery voltage reaches a threshold. When the battery voltage is above the threshold, the battery receives a trickle charge. The actual battery voltage is compared with a reference voltage to determine whether the full charge circuit should be in operation. Hysteresis is provided for preventing a rapid on/off operation around the threshold. The reference voltage is compensated for temperature variations. The hysteresis system and temperature compensation system are independent of each other. A separate test circuit is provided for testing the battery voltage. During testing of the battery, the full charge circuit is inoperative.

Wicnienski, M. F.; Charles, D. E.

1984-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

337

Solar Particle Acceleration at Reconnecting 3D Null Points  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Context: The strong electric fields associated with magnetic reconnection in solar flares are a plausible mechanism to accelerate populations of high energy, non-thermal particles. One such reconnection scenario occurs at a 3D magnetic null point, where global plasma flows give rise to strong currents in the spine axis or fan plane. Aims: To understand the mechanism of charged particle energy gain in both the external drift region and the diffusion region associated with 3D magnetic reconnection. In doing so we evaluate the efficiency of resistive spine and fan models for particle acceleration, and find possible observables for each. Method: We use a full orbit test particle approach to study proton trajectories within electromagnetic fields that are exact solutions to the steady and incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. We study single particle trajectories and find energy spectra from many particle simulations. The scaling properties of the accelerated particles with respect to field and plasma para...

Stanier, Adam J; Dalla, Silvia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Capacitive charging system for high power battery charging  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes a project to design, build, demonstrate, and document a Level 3 capacitive charging system, and it will be based on the existing PEZIC prototype capacitive coupler. The capacitive coupler will be designed to transfer power at a maximum of 600 kW, and it will transfer power by electric fields. The power electronics will transfer power at 100 kW. The coupler will be designed to function with future increases in the power electronics output power and increases in the amp/hours capacity of sealed batteries. Battery charging algorithms will be programmed into the control electronics. The finished product will be a programmable battery charging system capable of transferring 100 kW via a capacitive coupler. The coupler will have a low power loss of less than 25 watts when transferring 240 kW (400 amps). This system will increase the energy efficiency of high power battery charging, and it will enhance mobility by reducing coupler failures. The system will be completely documented. An important deliverable of this project is information. The information will be distributed to the Army`s TACOM-TARDEC`s Advanced Concept Group, and it will be distributed to commercial organizations by the Society of Automotive Engineers. The information will be valuable for product research, development, and specification. The capacitive charging system produced in this project will be of commercial value for future electric vehicles. The coupler will be designed to rapid charge batteries that have a capacity of several thousand amp/hours at hundreds of volts. The charging system built here will rapid charge batteries with several hundred amp/hours capacity, depending on the charging voltage.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

339

Charge transport properties of CdMnTe radiation detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Growth, fabrication and characterization of indium-doped cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe)radiation detectors have been described. Alpha-particle spectroscopy measurements and time resolved current transient measurements have yielded an average charge collection efficiency approaching 100 %. Spatially resolved charge collection efficiency maps have been produced for a range of detector bias voltages. Inhomogeneities in the charge transport of the CdMnTe crystals have been associated with chains of tellurium inclusions within the detector bulk. Further, it has been shown that the role of tellurium inclusions in degrading chargecollection is reduced with increasing values of bias voltage. The electron transit time was determined from time of flight measurements. From the dependence of drift velocity on applied electric field the electron mobility was found to be n = (718 55) cm2/Vs at room temperature.

Kim K.; Rafiel, R.; Boardman, M.; Reinhard, I.; Sarbutt, A.; Watt, G.; Watt, C.; Uxa, S.; Prokopovich, D.A.; Belas, E.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; James, R.B.

2012-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

340

Dust Charging and Transport on Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we review laboratory studies of dust transport on surfaces in plasmas, performed for a number of different mechanisms: 1) Dust particles were levitated in plasma sheaths by electrostatic forces balancing the gravitational force. 2) Dust was observed to spread over and lift off a surface that repels electrons in a plasma. 3) Dust was transported on surfaces having different secondary electron yields in plasma with an electron beam as a consequence of differential charging. 4) We also report a mechanism of dust transport by electric fields occurring at electron beam impact/shadow boundaries. These processes are candidates to explain the formation of dust ponds that were recently observed in craters on the asteroid Eros by the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft.

Wang, X. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Robertson, S. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Horanyi, M. [Colorado Center for Lunar Dust And Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Space Charges Can Significantly Affect the Dynamics of Accelerator Maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Space charge effects can be very important for the dynamics of intense particle beams, as they repeatedly pass through nonlinear focusing elements, aiming to maximize the beam's luminosity properties in the storage rings of a high energy accelerator. In the case of hadron beams, whose charge distribution can be considered as "frozen" within a cylindrical core of small radius compared to the beam's dynamical aperture, analytical formulas have been recently derived \\cite{BenTurc} for the contribution of space charges within first order Hamiltonian perturbation theory. These formulas involve distribution functions which, in general, do not lead to expressions that can be evaluated in closed form. In this paper, we apply this theory to an example of a charge distribution, whose effect on the dynamics can be derived explicitly and in closed form, both in the case of 2--dimensional as well as 4--dimensional mapping models of hadron beams. We find that, even for very small values of the "perveance" (strength of the space charge effect) the long term stability of the dynamics changes considerably. In the flat beam case, the outer invariant "tori" surrounding the origin disappear, decreasing the size of the beam's dynamical aperture, while beyond a certain threshold the beam is almost entirely lost. Analogous results in mapping models of beams with 2-dimensional cross section demonstrate that in that case also, even for weak tune depressions, orbital diffusion is enhanced and many particles whose motion was bounded now escape to infinity, indicating that space charges can impose significant limitations on the beam's luminosity.

T. Bountis; Ch. Skokos

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

342

Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Counter-ions at single charged wall: Sum rules  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For inhomogeneous classical Coulomb fluids in thermal equilibrium, like the jellium or the two-component Coulomb gas, there exists a variety of exact sum rules which relate the particle one-body and two-body densities. The necessary condition for these sum rules is that the Coulomb fluid possesses good screening properties, i.e. the particle correlation functions or the averaged charge inhomogeneity, say close to a wall, exhibit a short-range (usually exponential) decay. In this work, we study equilibrium statistical mechanics of an electric double layer with counter-ions only, i.e. a globally neutral system of equally charged point-like particles in the vicinity of a plain hard wall carrying a fixed uniform surface charge density of opposite sign. At large distances from the wall, the one-body and two-body counter-ion densities go to zero slowly according to the inverse-power law. In spite of the absence of screening, all known sum rules are shown to hold for two exactly solvable cases of the present system: in the weak-coupling Poisson-Boltzmann limit (in any spatial dimension larger than one) and at a special free-fermion coupling constant in two dimensions. This fact indicates an extended validity of the sum rules and provides a consistency check for reasonable theoretical approaches.

Ladislav Samaj

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Super-iron Nanoparticles with Facile Cathodic Charge Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Super-irons contain the + 6 valence state of iron. One advantage of this is that it provides a multiple electron opportunity to store additional battery charge. A decrease of particle size from the micrometer to the nanometer domain provides a higher surface area to volume ratio, and opportunity to facilitate charge transfer, and improve the power, voltage and depth of discharge of cathodes made from such salts. However, super-iron salts are fragile, readily reduced to the ferric state, with both heat and contact with water, and little is known of the resultant passivating and non-passivating ferric oxide products. A pathway to decrease the super-iron particle size to the nano-domain is introduced, which overcomes this fragility, and retains the battery capacity advantage of their Fe(VI) valence state. Time and power controlled mechanosynthesis, through less aggressive, dry ball milling, leads to facile charge transfer of super-iron nanoparticles. Ex-situ X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy is used to explore the oxidation state and structure of these iron oxides during discharge and shows the significant change in stability of the ferrate structure to lower oxidation state when the particle size is in the nano-domain.

M Farmand; D Jiang; B Wang; S Ghosh; D Ramaker; S Licht

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

345

On the Origin of Elementary Particle Masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The oldest enigma in fundamental particle physics is: Where do the observed masses of elementary particles come from? Inspired by observation of the empirical particle mass spectrum we propose that the masses of elementary particles arise solely due to the self-interaction of the fields associated with a particle. We thus assume that the mass is proportional to the strength of the interaction of the field with itself. A simple application of this idea to the fermions is seen to yield a mass for the neutrino in line with constraints from direct experimental upper limits and correct order of magnitude predictions of mass separations between neutrinos, charged leptons and quarks. The neutrino interacts only through the weak force, hence becomes light. The electron interacts also via electromagnetism and accordingly becomes heavier. The quarks also have strong interactions and become heavy. The photon is the only fundamental particle to remain massless, as it is chargeless. Gluons gain mass comparable to quarks, or slightly larger due to a somewhat larger color charge. Including particles outside the standard model proper, gravitons are not exactly massless, but very light due to their very weak self-interaction. Some immediate and physically interesting consequences arise: i) Gluons have an effective range $\\sim 1$fm, physically explaining why QCD has finite reach ii) Gravity has an effective range $\\sim 100$ Mpc coinciding with the largest known structures; the cosmic voids iii) Gravitational waves undergo dispersion even in vacuum, and have all five polarizations (not just the two of $m=0$), which might explain why they have not yet been detected.

Johan Hansson

2012-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

The Energy of Charged Matter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this talk I will discuss some of the techniques that have been developed over the past 35 years to estimate the energy of charged matter. These techniques have been used to solve stability of (fermionic) matter in different contexts, and to control the instability of charged bosonic matter. The final goal will be to indicate how these techniques with certain improvements can be used to prove Dyson's 1967 conjecture for the energy of a charged Bose gas--the sharp $N^{7/5}$ law.

Jan Philip Solovej

2004-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Particle Adventure | Particle decays and annihiliations ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

like everyday objects and have momentum, but they also have wave properties. Quantum mechanics, the mathematical basis for our theories about particles, explains the behavior of...

348

The Particle Adventure | Particle decays and annihiliations ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle decays and annihiliations - Electron positron annhiliation When an electron and positron (antielectron) collide at high energy, they can annihilate to produce charm...

349

Electric double layer for spherical particles in salt-free concentrated suspensions including ion size effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The equilibrium electric double layer (EDL) that surrounds the colloidal particles is determinant for the response of a suspension under a variety of static or alternating external fields. An ideal salt-free suspension is composed by the charged colloidal particles and the ionic countercharge released by the charging mechanism. The existing macroscopic theoretical models can be improved by incorporating different ionic effects usually neglected in previous mean-field approaches, which are based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PB). The influence of the finite size of the ions seems to be quite promising because it has been shown to predict phenomena like charge reversal, which has been out of the scope of classical PB approximations. In this work we numerically obtain the surface electric potential and the counterions concentration profiles around a charged particle in a concentrated salt-free suspension corrected by the finite size of the counterions. The results show the large importance of such corrections for moderate to high particle charges at every particle volume fraction, specially, when a region of closest approach of the counterions to the particle surface is considered. We conclude that finite ion size considerations are obeyed for the development of new theoretical models to study nonequilibrium properties in concentrated colloidal suspensions, particularly the salt-free ones with small and highly charged particles.

R. Roa; F. Carrique; E. Ruiz-Reina

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles; Optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately… (more)

Subramani, Praveen

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Car Charging Group Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Car Charging Group Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Car Charging Group, Inc. Place Miami Beach, Florida Product Miami Beach, USA based installer of plug-in vehicle charge...

352

Motion of test particles in a regular black hole space--time  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the motion of test particles in the regular black hole space-time given by Ay\\'{o}n-Beato and Garc\\'{\\i}a in Phys. Rev. Lett. 80:5056 (1998). The complete set of orbits for neutral and weakly charged test particles is discussed, including for neutral particles the extreme and over-extreme metric. We also derive the analytical solutions for the equation of motion of neutral test particles in a parametric form and consider a post-Schwarzschild expansion of the periastron shift to second order in the charge.

Alberto Garcia; Eva Hackmann; Jutta Kunz; Claus Lämmerzahl; Alfredo Macias

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

353

Tools for Charged Higgs Bosons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to identify the Higgs sector realized in nature, the predictions for Higgs boson masses, production cross sections and decay widths have to be compared with experimental results. We give a brief overview about computer codes for the evaluation of the properties of charged Higgs bosons, mostly focusing on the case of the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We briefly review the relevance of the various contributions to the charged MSSM Higgs boson mass arising at the one-loop level.

S. Heinemeyer

2008-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

354

Policy Implications from: -Charging Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;Workplace Charging 0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00% 120.00% ToyotaPlug-In Prius ChevyVolt Nissan.00% 120.00% ToyotaPlug-In Prius ChevyVolt Nissan Leaf FreeWorkplaceCharging morethan 5 times aweek 4.00% ToyotaPlug-In Prius ChevyVolt Nissan Leaf WorkplaceSame Price AsHome Electricity morethan 5 times aweek 4

California at Davis, University of

355

Electrically charged dilatonic black rings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this note we present (electrically) charged dilatonic black ring solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in five dimensions and we consider their physical properties. These solutions are static and as in the neutral case possess a conical singularity. We show how one may remove the conical singularity by application of a Harrison transformation, which physically corresponds to supporting the charged ring with an electric field. Finally, we discuss the slowly rotating case for arbitrary dilaton coupling.

Hari K. Kunduri; James Lucietti

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

356

Particle Physics Education Sites  

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쭺-¶ 쭺-¶ Particle Physics Education Sites ¡]¥H¤U¬°¥~¤åºô¯¸¡^ quick reference Education and Information - National Laboratory Education Programs - Women and Minorities in Physics - Other Physics Sites - Physics Alliance - Accelerators at National Laboratories icon Particle Physics Education and Information sites: top Introduction: The Particle Adventure - an interactive tour of particle physics for everyone: the basics of theory and experiment. Virtual Visitor Center of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. Guided Tour of Fermilab, - overviews of several aspects of Particle Physics. Also check out Particle Physics concepts. Probing Particles - a comprehensive and straight-forward introduction to particle physics. Big Bang Science - approaches particle physics starting from the theoretical origin of the universe.

357

Laser particle sorter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus are provided for sorting particles, such as biological particles. A first laser is used to define an optical path having an intensity gradient which is effective to propel the particles along the path but which is sufficiently weak that the particles are not trapped in an axial direction. A probe laser beam is provided for interrogating the particles to identify predetermined phenotypical characteristics of the particles. A second laser beam is provided to intersect the driving first laser beam, wherein the second laser beam is activated by an output signal indicative of a predetermined characteristic. The second laser beam is switchable between a first intensity and a second intensity, where the first intensity is effective to displace selected particles from the driving laser beam and the second intensity is effective to propel selected particles along the deflection laser beam. The selected particles may then be propelled by the deflection beam to a location effective for further analysis. 2 figs.

Martin, J.C.; Buican, T.N.

1987-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

358

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

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Coca-Cola Company. plug-in electric vehicles parked at charging stations in parking garage Fast Facts Joined the Workplace Charging Challenge: February 27, 2013 Headquarters:...

359

PropagateUnequalCharges3.PDF  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Beams of Unequal Charges through the same Lattice Abstract: In the Enhanced Transformer Ratio experiment, a train of 4 electron bunches, each with a different charge must...

360

American Battery Charging Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Edit with form History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon American Battery Charging Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name American Battery Charging Inc Place...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Method and apparatus for rapid battery charging  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus for charging electrical storage batteries having a known nominal amperage are described. The method consists in discharging the battery to a predetermined value and then charging the battery with a charging current initially several times greater than the nominal battery amperage. The charging current decreases exponentially from the initial charging current to a charging current much less than the nominal battery amperage when the battery is fully charged. The apparatus uses the discharge rate of an RC circuit to control the charging current applied to the battery. 3 figures, 1 table.

Samsioe, P.E.

1979-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

362

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

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Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: ABB Inc. on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: ABB Inc....

363

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Google to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Google on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging...

364

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Cisco Systems, Inc. on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Cisco...

365

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: 3M on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: 3M on...

366

Charge-Focusing Readout of Time Projection Chambers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time projection chambers (TPCs) have found a wide range of applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, and homeland security. For TPCs with high-resolution readout, the readout electronics often dominate the price of the final detector. We have developed a novel method which could be used to build large-scale detectors while limiting the necessary readout area. By focusing the drift charge with static electric fields, we would allow a small area of electronics to be sensitive to particle detection for a much larger detector volume. The resulting cost reduction could be important in areas of research which demand large-scale detectors, including dark matter searches and detection of special nuclear material. We present simulations made using the software package Garfield of a focusing structure to be used with a prototype TPC with pixel readout. This design should enable significant focusing while retaining directional sensitivity to incoming particles. We also present first experimental results and compare them with simulation.

S. J. Ross; M. T. Hedges; I. Jaegle; M. D. Rosen; I. S. Seong; T. N. Thorpe; S. E. Vahsen; J. Yamaoka

2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

367

Charge-Focusing Readout of Time Projection Chambers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Time projection chambers (TPCs) have found a wide range of applications in particle physics, nuclear physics, and homeland security. For TPCs with high-resolution readout, the readout electronics often dominate the price of the final detector. We have developed a novel method which could be used to build large-scale detectors while limiting the necessary readout area. By focusing the drift charge with static electric fields, we would allow a small area of electronics to be sensitive to particle detection for a much larger detector volume. The resulting cost reduction could be important in areas of research which demand large-scale detectors, including dark matter searches and detection of special nuclear material. We present simulations made using the software package Garfield of a focusing structure to be used with a prototype TPC with pixel readout. This design should enable significant focusing while retaining directional sensitivity to incoming particles. We also present first experimental results and com...

Ross, S J; Jaegle, I; Rosen, M D; Seong, I S; Thorpe, T N; Vahsen, S E; Yamaoka, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Princeton Plasma Physics Lab - Particle beam dynamics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

particle-beam-dynamics The study of particle-beam-dynamics The study of the physics of charged particle beams and the accelerators that produce them. This cross-disciplinary area intersects with fields such as plasma physics, high-energy density science, and ultra-fast lasers. en Premiere issue of "Quest" magazine details PPPL's strides toward fusion energy and advances in plasma science http://www.pppl.gov/news/2013/09/premiere-issue-quest-magazine-details-pppls-strides-toward-fusion-energy-and-advances-0

369

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quark The down quark (d) is the second flavor of quark (in order of increasing mass), with an electric charge -13...

370

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

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Quark (t) The sixth flavor of quark (in order of increasing mass), with electric charge 23. Its mass is much greater than any other quark or lepton...

371

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutrino ( ) A lepton with no electric charge. Neutrinos participate only in weak and gravitational interactions and are therefore very difficult to detect. There are three known...

372

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton A fundamental fermion that does not participate in strong interactions. The electrically-charged leptons are the electron (e-), the muon ( ), the tau ( ), and their...

373

Readout electronics of silicon detectors used in space cosmic-ray charges measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A readout electronics used in space cosmic-ray charges measurement for multi-channel silicon detector and its performance test results are introduced in this paper. A 64-channel charge sensitive ASIC (VA140) from IDEAS company is adopt in this method. With its features of low power consumption, low noise, large dynamic range and high integration, it can be used in future particle detecting experiments base on silicon detector.

Zhang Fei; Fan Rui-Rui; Peng Wen-Xi; Dong Yi-Fan; Gong Ke; Liang Xiao-Hua; Liu Ya-Qing; Wang Huan-Yu

2013-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

374

Particle deposition in human and canine tracheobronchial casts  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this work is to measure deposition patterns and efficiencies of aerosol particles within realistic, single-pathway physical models of the tracheobronchial airways of humans and experimental animals over a range of particle sizes for a variety of respiratory modes and rates. This will provide data needed to assess the dose to the bronchial epithelium from inhaled radon progeny. In the current year theoretical studies based on a developing flow model were extended. We concluded that although the developing flow model is better predictor of the data than assumption of parabolic flow, the predicated deposition is significantly lower than that predicted by our best fit equation. The mass size dispersion of particles classified according to their electrical mobilities was also studies. For the conditions tested, doubly charged particles constituted 9--13% of the total particle number concentration and 24--48% of the total mass concentration. We demonstrated that the multiply charged particles are effectively removed, and nearly monodisperse particles produced, if an impactor is placed in the aerosol generation system. A condensation aerosol generator was constructed and tested for the production of high concentrations of radioactively tagged aerosol particles with diameters from 0.2 to 10{mu}m. 9 refs.

Cohen, B.S.

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fermion Any particle that has odd-half-integer (12, 32, ...) intrinsic angular momentum (spin), measured in units of h-bar. All particles are either fermions or bosons. Fermions...

376

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Interaction A process in which a particle decays or it responds to a force due to the presence of another particle (as in a collision). The four fundamental interactions are...

377

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Pauli Exclusion Principle The principle that no two particles in the same quantum state may exist in the same place at the same time. Particles that obey this principle are called...

378

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle A particle with no internal substructure. In the Standard Model the quarks, leptons, photons, gluons, W+ and W- bosons, and the Z bosons are fundamental. All other objects...

379

SMALL PARTICLE HEAT EXCHANGERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ON ~m Small Particle Heat Exchangers Arion J. Hunt June 1978d. LBL 7841 Small Particle Heat Exchangers by Arlon J. Huntgenerally to non-solar heat exchangers. These may be of the

Hunt, A.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The Particle Adventure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Boson - 2 Finding the Mass of the Higgs Boson - Part 2 Adding up the masses of the particles from the Higgs decay doesn't work, because these particles have enormous kinetic energy...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations in the particle beam.

Danby, Gordon T. (Wading River, NY); Jackson, John W. (Shoreham, NY)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Method of correcting eddy current magnetic fields in particle accelerator vacuum chambers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for correcting magnetic field aberrations produced by eddy currents induced in a particle accelerator vacuum chamber housing is provided wherein correction windings are attached to selected positions on the housing and the windings are energized by transformer action from secondary coils, which coils are inductively coupled to the poles of electro-magnets that are powered to confine the charged particle beam within a desired orbit as the charged particles are accelerated through the vacuum chamber by a particle-driving rf field. The power inductively coupled to the secondary coils varies as a function of variations in the power supplied by the particle-accelerating rf field to a beam of particles accelerated through the vacuum chamber, so the current in the energized correction coils is effective to cancel eddy current flux fields that would otherwise be induced in the vacuum chamber by power variations (dB/dt) in the particle beam.

Danby, G.T.; Jackson, J.W.

1990-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

383

Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

Kale, S.R.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Space Charge Correction on Emittance Measurement of Low Energy Electron Beams  

SciTech Connect

The goal of any particle accelerator is to optimize the transport of a charged particle beam along a set path by confining the beam to a small region close to the design trajectory and directing it accurately along the beamline. To do so in the simplest fashion, accelerators use a system of magnets that exert approximately linear electromagnetic forces on the charged beam. These electromagnets bend the beam along the desired path, in the case of bending magnets, and constrain the beam to the desired area through alternating focusing and defocusing effects, in the case of quadrupole magnets. We can model the transport of such a beam through transfer matrices representing the actions of the various beamline elements. However, space charge effects, produced from self electric fields within the beam, defocus the beam and must be accounted for in the calculation of beam emittance. We present below the preliminary results of a MATLAB code built to model the transport of a charged particle beam through an accelerator and measure the emittance under the influence of space charge effects. We demonstrate the method of correctly calculating the emittance of a beam under space charge effects using a least square fit to determine the initial properties of the beam given the beam size measured at a specific point after transport.

Treado, Colleen J.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst

2012-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

385

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Synchrotron A type of circular accelerator in which the particles travel in synchronized bunches at fixed radius...

386

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fermilab Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois (near Chicago). Named for particle physics pioneer Enrico Fermi...

387

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CERN CERN (European Laboratory for Particle Physics) is the major European international accelerator laboratory located near Geneva, Switzerland...

388

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tracking The reconstruction of a "track" left in a detector by the passage of a particle through the...

389

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators and particle detectors - How do we experiment with tiny particles? - How to obtain particles to accelerate Electrons: Heating a metal causes electrons to be ejected. A...

390

The Particle Adventure | How do we experiment with tiny particles...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerators and particle detectors - How do we experiment with tiny particles? - Detector shapes Physicists are curious about the events that occur during and after a particle's...

391

New Spectral Method for Halo Particle Definition in Intense Mis-matched Beams  

SciTech Connect

An advanced spectral analysis of a mis-matched charged particle beam propagating through a periodic focusing transport lattice is utilized in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. It is found that the betatron frequency distribution function of a mismatched space-charge-dominated beam has a bump-on-tail structure attributed to the beam halo particles. Based on this observation, a new spectral method for halo particle definition is proposed that provides the opportunity to carry out a quantitative analysis of halo particle production by a beam mismatch. In addition, it is shown that the spectral analysis of the mismatch relaxation process provides important insights into the emittance growth attributed to the halo formation and the core relaxation processes. Finally, the spectral method is applied to the problem of space-charge transport limits.

Mikhail A. Dorf, Ronald C. Davidson, and Edward A. Startsev

2011-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

392

Electric Charge Quantization in Standard Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of Standard Model for the arbitrary values of Higgs and fermions fields hypercharges, taking into account parity invariance of electromagnetic interaction, expressions for the fermions charges, testifying the electric charge quantization are obtained. From the chiral anomalies cancellation condition within one family of leptons and quarks, numerical values of fermions charges, coinciding with standard values of charges have been obtained.

O. B. Abdinov; F. T. Khalil-zade; S. S. Rzaeva

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

393

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

394

Puerto Rico Refinery Desulfurization, Gasoline Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Desulfurization, Gasoline Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

395

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

396

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

397

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

398

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

399

The Particle Adventure | Particle decays and annihiliations ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle decays and annihiliations - Half life A lump of uranium left to itself will gradually decay, one nucleus at a time. The rate of decay is measured by how long it would take...

400

The Particle Adventure | Particle decays and annihiliations ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mass in a radioactive decay go? Recall that we said that when uranium decays into thorium and an alpha particle, 0.0046 u of mass appears to have been lost. As Einstein said,...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Free form hemispherical shaped charge  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is a spherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved. It is an object of this invention to provide an improved shape charge for oil well perforation.

Haselman, L.C. Jr.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

402

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bloomberg LP to someone by E-mail Bloomberg LP to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bloomberg LP on AddThis.com... Goals Research & Development Testing and Analysis Workplace Charging Partners Ambassadors Resources Community and Fleet Readiness

403

Connecting Blackbody Radiation, Relativity, and Discrete Charge in Classical Electrodynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is suggested that an understanding of blackbody radiation within classical physics requires the presence of classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation, the restriction to relativistic (Coulomb) scattering systems, and the use of discrete charge. The contrasting scaling properties of nonrelativistic classical mechanics and classical electrodynamics are noted, and it is emphasized that the solutions of classical electrodynamics found in nature involve constants which connect together the scales of length, time, and energy. Indeed, there are analogies between the electrostatic forces for groups of particles of discrete charge and the van der Waals forces in equilibrium thermal radiation. The differing Lorentz- or Galilean-transformation properties of the zero-point radiation spectrum and the Rayleigh-Jeans spectrum are noted in connection with their scaling properties. Also, the thermal effects of acceleration within classical electromagnetism are related to the existence of thermal equilibrium within a gravitational field. The unique scaling and phase-space properties of a discrete charge in the Coulomb potential suggest the possibility of an equilibrium between the zero-point radiation spectrum and matter which is universal (independent of the particle mass), and an equilibrium between a universal thermal radiation spectrum and matter where the matter phase space depends only upon the ratio mc^2/kT. The observations and qualitative suggestions made here run counter to the ideas of currently accepted quantum physics.

Timothy H. Boyer

2006-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

404

Physics Out Loud - Particle Accelerator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nucleus Previous Video (Nucleus) Physics Out Loud Main Index Next Video (Particle Resonance) Particle Resonance Particle Accelerator Andrew Hutton, Director of Accelerators at...

405

Method and apparatus for battery charging  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of charging a battery and terminating the charging thereof upon determination of the existence of a prescribed condition comprising the steps of: applying charging current to the battery; measuring the battery voltage soon after the charging current is applied; determining, on the basis of the battery voltage measurement, the knee voltage of the charging characteristic of the particular battery being charged; calculating a battery voltage limit beyond which no further charging current is to be applied, the voltage limit being the point at which the instantaneous battery voltage is a pre-determined value greater than the knee voltage of the battery's charging characteristic; continued measuring of the battery voltage as the charging current is applied; and terminating the application of charging current when the battery voltage limit is reached.

Westhaver, L.A.; Ruksznis, R.E.

1987-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

406

Electric Charge in Interaction with Magnetically Charged Black Holes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the angular momentum of an electric charge e placed at rest outside a dilaton black hole with magnetic charge Q. The electromagnetic angular momentum which is stored in the electromagnetic field outside the black hole shows several common features regardless of the dilaton coupling strength, though the dilaton black holes are drastically different in their spacetime structure depending on it. First, the electromagnetic angular momentum depends on the separation distance between the two objects and changes monotonically from eQ to 0 as the charge goes down from infinity to the horizon, if rotational effects of the black hole are discarded. Next, as the black hole approaches extremality, however, the electromagnetic angular momentum tends to be independent of the distance between the two objects. It is then precisely $eQ$ as in the electric charge and monopole system in flat spacetime. We discuss why these effects are exhibited and argue that the above features are to hold in widely generic settings including black hole solutions in theories with more complicated field contents, by addressing the no hair theorem for black holes and the phenomenon of field expulsion exhibited by extremal black holes.

J. H. Kim; Sei-Hoon Moon

2007-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

407

Adhesive particle shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (Dublin, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Albuquerque, NM); Walton, Christopher (Berkeley, CA); Folta, James (Livermore, CA)

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

408

Method for charging a storage battery  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for charging a lead-acid storage battery, the method comprising the steps of charging the battery at an initially high rate during an initial stage of the charging cycle, monitoring the internal battery voltage, charging the battery at a lower, finishing rate after a preselected battery voltage has been monitored, and periodically interrupting the finishing charge until the battery is recharged.

Fallon, W.H.; Kirby, D.W.; Neukirch, E.O.; Schober, W.R.

1983-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

409

Stability of charged thin shells  

SciTech Connect

In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Simeone, Claudio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

410

Transmission Access Charge Informational Filing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of any new Participating Transmission Owner (“Participating TO”) during the proceeding six months or (2) changes to Transmission Revenue Requirements of any of the Participating TOs. 1 Because the Access Charges are determined through a formula rate mechanism, these semi-annual adjustments take place automatically. In the enclosed informational filing, the ISO is providing notice regarding the updated Access Charges that reflect the charges that will be in effect beginning January 1, 2002 in accordance with the formula rate. The adjusted charges are based on the modified Transmission Revenue Requirements, both High Voltage and Low Voltage as a result of: (1) the Offer of Settlement accepted by the Commission in Pacific Gas & Electric Company’s (“PG&E”) Docket No. ER01-66-000, (2) San Diego Gas and Electric Company’s supplemental surcharge accepted, subject to refund, in Docket No. ER01-3074-000, and (3) the annual adjustment to the Transmission Revenue Balancing Account (“TRBA”) of the Participating TOs. 1 Capitalized terms not otherwise defined herein are defined in the Master Definitions

unknown authors

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

A fields only version of the Lorentz Force Law: Particles replaced by their fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the Lorentz force law, F^L_1=q_1(E+v_1xB) being the charge on particle 1 interacting with the electromagnetic fields due to all other particles, can be written in a pure field form F^L_1=-\

Philip H. Butler; Niels G. Gresnigt; Martin B. van der Mark; Peter F. Renaud

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

412

Radiation Bursts from Particles in the Field of Compact, Impenetrable, Astrophysical Objects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The radiation emitted by charged, scalar particles in a Schwarzschild field with maximal acceleration corrections is calculated classically and in the tree approximation of quantum field theory. In both instances the particles emit radiation that has characteristics similar to those of gamma-ray bursters.

G. Papini; G. Scarpetta; V. Bozza; A. Feoli; G. Lambiase

2002-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

413

Simulation of space charge effects in a synchrotron  

SciTech Connect

We have studied space charge effects in a synchrotron with multi-particle tracking in 2-D and 3-D configuration space (4-D and 6-D phase space, respectively). First, we will describe the modelling of space charge fields in the simulation and a procedure of tracking. Several ways of presenting tracking results will be also mentioned. Secondly, it is discussed as a demonstration of the simulation study that coherent modes of a beam play a major role in beam stability and intensity limit. The incoherent tune in a resonance condition should be replaced by the coherent tune. Finally, we consider the coherent motion of a beam core as a driving force of halo formation. The mechanism is familiar in linac, and we apply it in a synchrotron.

Machida, Shinji; Ikegami, Masanori [KEK-Tanashi, Midori-cho, Tanashi-shi, Tokyo, 188-8501 Japan (Japan); JAERI, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-11 (Japan)

1998-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

414

Harrison transformation of hyperelliptic solutions and charged dust disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We use a Harrison transformation on solutions to the stationary axisymmetric Einstein equations to generate solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The case of hyperelliptic solutions to the Ernst equation is studied in detail. Analytic expressions for the metric and the multipole moments are obtained. As an example we consider the transformation of a family of counter-rotating dust disks. The resulting solutions can be interpreted as disks with currents and matter with a purely azimuthal pressure or as two streams of freely moving charged particles. We discuss interesting limiting cases as the extreme limit where the charge becomes identical to the mass, and the ultrarelativistic limit where the central redshift diverges.

C. Klein

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

415

The AMS-RICH velocity and charge reconstruction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The AMS detector, to be installed on the International Space Station, includes a Ring Imaging Cerenkov detector with two different radiators, silica aerogel (n=1.05) and sodium fluoride (n=1.334). This detector is designed to provide very precise measurements of velocity and electric charge in a wide range of cosmic nuclei energies and atomic numbers. The detector geometry, in particular the presence of a reflector for acceptance purposes, leads to complex Cerenkov patterns detected in a pixelized photomultiplier matrix. The results of different reconstruction methods applied to test beam data as well as to simulated samples are presented. To ensure nominal performances throughout the flight, several detector parameters have to be carefully monitored. The algorithms developed to fulfill these requirements are presented. The velocity and charge measurements provided by the RICH detector endow the AMS spectrometer with precise particle identification capabilities in a wide energy range. The expected performances on light isotope separation are discussed.

F. Barao; M. Aguilar-Benitez; L. Arruda; B. Baret; A. Barrau; G. Barreira; E. Belmont; J. Berdugo; J. Borges; M. Buenerd; D. Casadei; J. Casaus; E. Cortina; M. Costado; D. Crespo; C. Delgado; C. Diaz; L. Derome; P. Goncalves; R. Garcia-Lopez; C. de la Guia; A. Herrero; E. Lanciotti; G. Laurenti; A. Malinin; C. Mana; J. Marin; M. Mangin-Brinet; G. Martinez; A. Menchaca-Rocha; C. Palomares; R. Pereira; M. Pimenta; A. Putze; Y. Sallaz-Damaz; E. S. Seo; I. Sevilla; A. Torrento; M. Vargas-Trevino; O. Veziant

2007-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

416

How Usage is Charged at NERSC  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

usage usage is charged How usage is charged MPP Charging (Computational Systems) When a job runs on a NERSC MPP system, such as Hopper, charges accrue against one of the user's repository allocations. The unit of accounting for these charges is the "MPP Hour". A parallel job is charged for exclusive use of each multi-core node allocated to the job. The MPP charge for such a job is calculated as the product of: the job's elapsed wall-clock time in hours, the number of nodes allocated to the job (regardless of the number actually used), the number of cores available on each allocated node, a machine charge factor (MCF) based on typical performance of the machine relative to Hopper (MCF=1.0), and a queue charge factor (QCF). Queue priority scheduling gives users

417

The Particle Adventure | How do we interpret our data? | Typical detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Typical detector components Typical detector components The reason that detectors are divided into many components is that each component tests for a special set of particle properties. These components are stacked so that all particles will go through the different layers sequentially. A particle will not be evident until it either interacts with the detector in a measurable fashion, or decays into detectable particles. The interaction of various particles with the different components of a detector: *Neutrinos are not shown on this chart because they rarely interact with matter, and can only be detected by missing matter and energy. Just so you know, the pion ( ) is a charged meson.* A few important things to note: Charged particles, like electrons and protons, are detected both in the tracking chamber and the electromagnetic calorimeter.

418

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quark (q) A fundamental fermion that has strong interactions. Quarks have electric charge of either +23 (up, charm, top) or -13 (down, strange, bottom) in units where the proton...

419

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proton (p) The most common hadron, a baryon with electric charge +1 equal and opposite to that of the electron. Protons have a basic structure of two up quarks and one down quark...

420

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Generation A set of one of each charge type of quark and lepton, grouped by mass. The first generation contains the up and down quarks, the electron and the electron neutrino....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flavor The name used for the different quarks types (up, down, strange, charm, bottom, top) and for the different lepton types (electron, muon, tau). For each charged lepton flavor...

422

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Neutron (n) A baryon with electric charge zero; it is a fermion with a basic structure of two down quarks and one up quark (held together by gluons). The neutral component of an...

423

PLASMA WAKE EXCITATION BY LASERS OR PARTICLE BEAMS  

SciTech Connect

Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. Plasma wake excitation driven by lasers or particle beams is examined, and the implications of the different physical excitation mechanisms for accelerator design are discussed. Plasma-based accelerators have attracted considerable attention owing to the ultrahigh field gradients sustainable in a plasma wave, enabling compact accelerators. These relativistic plasma waves are excited by displacing electrons in a neutral plasma. Two basic mechanisms for excitation of plasma waves are actively being researched: (i) excitation by the nonlinear ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) of an intense laser or (ii) excitation by the space-charge force of a dense charged particle beam. There has been significant recent experimental success using lasers and particle beam drivers for plasma acceleration. In particular, for laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs), the demonstration at LBNL in 2006 of high-quality, 1 GeV electron beams produced in approximately 3 cm plasma using a 40 TW laser. In 2007, for beam-driven plasma accelerators, or plasma-wakefield accelerators (PWFAs), the energy doubling over a meter to 42 GeV of a fraction of beam electrons on the tail of an electron beam by the plasma wave excited by the head was demonstrated at SLAC. These experimental successes have resulted in further interest in the development of plasma-based acceleration as a basis for a linear collider, and preliminary collider designs using laser drivers and beam drivers are being developed. The different physical mechanisms of plasma wave excitation, as well as the typical characteristics of the drivers, have implications for accelerator design. In the following, we identify the similarities and differences between wave excitation by lasers and particle beams. The field structure of the plasma wave driven by lasers or particle beams is discussed, as well as the regimes of operation (linear and nonlinear wave). Limitations owing to driver emittance are also discussed.

Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Leemans, Wim

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Pressure Calculation in Polar and Charged Systems using Ewald Summation Results for the Extended Simple Point Charge Model of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ewald summation and physically equivalent methods such as particle-mesh Ewald, kubic-harmonic expansions, or Lekner sums are commonly used to calculate long-range electrostatic interactions in computer simulations of polar and charged substances. The calculation of pressures in such systems is investigated. We find that the virial and thermodynamic pressures differ because of the explicit volume dependence of the effective, resummed Ewald potential. The thermodynamic pressure, obtained from the volume derivative of the Helmholtz free energy, can be expressed easily for both ionic and rigid molecular systems. For a system of rigid molecules, the electrostatic energy and the forces at the atom positions are required, both of which are readily available in molecular dynamics codes. We then calculate the virial and thermodynamic pressures for the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model at standard conditions. We find that the thermodynamic pressure exhibits considerably less system size dependence than t...

Hummer, G; Neumann, M; Hummer, Gerhard; Gr{ø}nbech-Jensen, Niels; Neumann, Martin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Pressure Calculation in Polar and Charged Systems using Ewald Summation: Results for the Extended Simple Point Charge Model of Water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ewald summation and physically equivalent methods such as particle-mesh Ewald, kubic-harmonic expansions, or Lekner sums are commonly used to calculate long-range electrostatic interactions in computer simulations of polar and charged substances. The calculation of pressures in such systems is investigated. We find that the virial and thermodynamic pressures differ because of the explicit volume dependence of the effective, resummed Ewald potential. The thermodynamic pressure, obtained from the volume derivative of the Helmholtz free energy, can be expressed easily for both ionic and rigid molecular systems. For a system of rigid molecules, the electrostatic energy and the forces at the atom positions are required, both of which are readily available in molecular dynamics codes. We then calculate the virial and thermodynamic pressures for the extended simple point charge (SPC/E) water model at standard conditions. We find that the thermodynamic pressure exhibits considerably...

Gerhard Hummer; Niels Grønbech-Jensen; Martin Neumann

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Surrogate protein particle standards  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The large particles may be useful as a standard for the counting of ... drugs require visual inspection, at present there are no standards available for ...

2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

427

Nuclear & Particle Physics Directorate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

at RHIC or the AGS should be submitted to the Associate Laboratory Director for Nuclear and Particle Physics, presently Steve Vigdor, Bldg. 510F, Brookhaven National...

428

Nuclear & Particle Physics Directorate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven National Laboratory Nuclear and Particle Physics Program Advisory Committee Meeting 12-14 September 2006 Tuesday, 12 September Room 2-160, Bldg. 510 (Physics) 0900...

429

Nuclear & Particle Physics Directorate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven National Laboratory Nuclear and Particle Physics Program Advisory Committee Meeting June 15-16, 2009 Agenda Reference Documents Letter to Barbara Jacak and Nu Xu (129...

430

Nuclear & Particle Physics Directorate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Brookhaven National Laboratory Nuclear and Particle Physics Program Advisory Committee Meeting 7-8 June 2012 Agenda Related Documents: PHENIX Beam Use Proposal, STAR Beam Use...

431

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Standard Model Physicists have developed a theory of fundamental particles and interactions called the Standard Model. This site describes various aspects of this model...

432

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Weak Interaction The interaction responsible for all processes in which flavor changes, hence for the instability of heavy quarks and leptons, and particles that contain them. Weak...

433

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Antimatter Material made from antifermions. We define the fermions that are common in our universe as matter and their antiparticles as antimatter. In the particle theory there is...

434

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Z Boson A carrier particle of the weak interactions. It is involved in all weak processes that do not change flavor...

435

The Particle Adventure | Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Accelerator A machine used to accelerate particles to high speeds, and thus high energy compared to their rest-mass energy...

436

Particle Event Pictures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- Identifying Particles - D0 Detector - CDF Detector - Links Project Contact: Thomas Jordan - jordant@fnal.gov Web Maintainer: qnet-webmaster@fnal.gov Last Update: April 13, 2001...

437

The Particle Adventure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The discovery of the Higgs boson is an enormous clue about the mechanism for giving mass to fundamental particles, as conceived by Higgs, Brout, Englert, Guralnik, Hagen, and...

438

FPGA particle graphics hardware.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Particle graphics simulations are well suited for modeling phenomena such as water, cloth, explosions, fire, smoke, and clouds. They are normally realized in software, as… (more)

Beeckler, John Sachs.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Particle Data Group - Products  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group HOME: pdgLive Summary Tables Reviews, Tables, Plots Particle Listings Europe, Africa, Middle East, India, Pakistan, Russia and all other countries For copies of: ...

440

Particle Physics Education Sites  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Particle Physics Education Sites quick reference Education and Information - National Laboratory Education Programs - Women and Minorities in Physics - Other Physics Sites -...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tary charged particles" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Investigation of the Charge Collection Efficiency of CdMnTe Radiation Detectors  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the growth, fabrication and characterization of indium-doped cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe) crystals grown by the vertical Bridgman technique. The 10 x 10 x 1.9 mm{sup 3} samples have been fabricated, and the charge collection properties of the CdMnTe detectors have been measured. Alpha-particle spectroscopy measurements have yielded an average charge collection efficiency approaching 100%. Ion beam induced charge (IBIC) measurements have been performed by raster scanning focused 5.5 MeV {sup 4}He beams onto the detectors. Spatially resolved charge collection efficiency maps have been produced for a range of detector bias voltages. Inhomogeneities in the charge transport of the CdMnTe crystals have been associated with chains of Te inclusions within the detector bulk, and the reduction in charge collection efficiency in their locality has been quantified. It has been shown that the role of Te inclusions in degrading charge collection is reduced with increasing values of bias voltage. IBIC measurements for a range of low biases have highlighted the evolution of the charge collection uniformity across the detectors.

Bolotnikov A.; Rafiei, R.; Boardman, D.; Sarbutt, A.; Prokopovich, A.; Kim, K.; Reinhard, M.I.; James, R.B.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Multiplicity dependence of two-particle azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at the LHC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the measurements of particle pair yields per trigger particle obtained from di-hadron azimuthal correlations in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.76, and 7 TeV recorded with the ALICE detector. The yields are studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. Taken together with the single particle yields the pair yields provide information about parton fragmentation at low transverse momenta, as well as on the contribution of multiple parton interactions to particle production. Data are compared to calculations using the PYTHIA6, PYTHIA8, and PHOJET event generators.

ALICE Collaboration

2013-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

443

Multiple-stage catalytic reforming with gravity-flowing dissimilar catalyst particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple-stage catalytic conversion system in which a hydrocarbonaceous charge stock and hydrogen flow serially through a plurality of catalytic reaction zones in each of which the catalyst particles are movable via gravity flow. Dissimilar catalyst particles are utilized in the reactor systems which share a common regenerating tower through which the catalyst particles are downwardly movable via gravity flow and in which the catalyst particles are regenerated in segregated fashion. Dissimilarity of the catalyst particles stems from a difference in activity, stability and selectivity characteristics. In turn, this difference may be attributed either to physical, or chemical distinctions between the two composites, or both.

Sikonia, J. G.; Bennett, R. W.

1985-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

444

Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Large Plastic Deformation in High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Batteries Caused by Charge and Discharge, Massachusetts 02138 Evidence has accumulated recently that a high-capacity elec- trode of a lithium-ion battery in the particle is high, possibly leading to fracture and cavitation. I. Introduction LITHIUM-ION batteries

Suo, Zhigang

445

Probing Charged Matter Through Higgs Diphoton Decay, Gamma Ray Lines, and EDMs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerous experiments currently underway offer the potential to indirectly probe new charged particles with masses at the weak scale. For example, the tentative excess in Higgs diphoton decay and the tentative gamma-ray line in Fermi-LAT data have recently attracted attention as possible one-loop signatures of new charged particles. We explore the interplay between such signals, dark matter direct detection through Higgs exchange, and measurements of the electron EDM, by studying the size of these effects in several models. We compute one-loop effects to explore the relationship among couplings probed by different experiments. In particular, models in which dark matter and the Higgs both interact with charged particles at a detectable level typically induce, at loop level, couplings between dark matter and the Higgs that are around the level of current direct detection sensitivity. Intriguingly, one-loop Higgs diphoton decay and DM annihilation into two photons, two-loop EDMs, and loop-induced direct detection rates are all coming within range of existing experiments for approximately the same range of charged particle masses, offering the prospect of an exciting coincidence of signals at collider, astrophysical, underground and atomic physics measurements.

JiJi Fan; Matthew Reece

2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

446

Charge-Confining Gravitational Electrovacuum Shock Wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In previous publications we have extensively studied spherically symmetric solutions of gravity coupled to a non-standard type of non-linear electrodynamics containing a square root of the ordinary Maxwell Lagrangian (the latter is known to yield QCD-like confinement in flat space-time). A class of these solutions describe non-standard black holes of Reissner-Nordstroem-(anti-)-de-Sitter type with an additional constant radial vacuum electric field, in particular, a non-asymptotically flat Reissner-Nordstroem-type black hole. Here we study the ultra-relativistic boost (Aichelburg-Sexl-type) limit of the latter and show that, unlike the ordinary Reissner-Nordstroem case, we obtain a gravitational electrovacuum shock wave as a result of the persistence of the gauge field due to the "square-root" Maxwell Lagrangian term. Next, we show that this gravitational electrovacuum shock wave confines charged test particles (both massive and massless) within a finite distance from its front.

Eduardo Guendelman; Emil Nissimov; Svetlana Pacheva

2013-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

447

Search for massive rare particles with MACRO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Massive rare particles have been searched for in the penetrating cosmic radiation using the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso National Laboratories. Liquid scintillators, streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors have been used to search for magnetic monopoles (MMs). Based on no observation of such signals, stringent flux limits are established for MMs as slow as a few 10^(-5)c. The methods based on the scintillator and on the nuclear track subdetectors were also applied to search for nuclearites. Preliminary results of the searches for charged Q-balls are also presented.

The MACRO Collaboration

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Vacuum chamber for containing particle beams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vacuum chamber for containing a charged particle beam in a rapidly changing magnetic environment comprises a ceramic pipe with conducting strips oriented along the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with circumferential conducting bands oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis but joined with a single longitudinal electrical connection. When both strips and bands are on the outside of the ceramic pipe, insulated from each other, a high-resistance conductive layer such as nickel can be coated on the inside of the pipe.

Harvey, A.

1985-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

449

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ARM-0501 ARM-0501 Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Science Plan June 2005 M.A. Miller Brookhaven National Laboratory Earth System Science Division Upton, New York A. Bucholtz Naval Research Laboratory Monterey, California B. Albrecht and P. Kollias Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Miami, Florida Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research M.A. Miller et al., June 2005, DOE/ER-ARM-0501 Abstract Marine stratus is one of the most prevalent and under sampled cloud types on earth and is an important component of the earth's climate system. Marine stratus is thought to be susceptible to infusions of anthropogenic aerosols that alter in-cloud microphysical processes and is known to

450

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 2 DOE Review of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility February 3-4, 2005 American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C. June 2005 W.R. Ferrell Climate Change Research Division Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research DOE/SC-ARM-0502 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................. 1 2. SUMMARY OF ACRF INFRASTRUCTURE REVIEW PANEL COMMENTS................ 3 2.1 Management.................................................................................................................... 3 2.2 Research Support ............................................................................................................

451

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

001 001 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Infrastructure Review Report (AIR): Summary of Recommendations January 2001 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research DOE/SC-ARM-0001 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Infrastructure Review Report (AIR): Summary of Recommendations The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Infrastructure Review committee feels that the organization of the ARM Infrastructure must change as the amount of required work grows and budgets remain fixed. The current structure may not lend itself to the more efficient operation that will be needed. The current ARM Infrastructure is site centric; that structure served ARM well in its early years of development but is one that has become limiting.

452

Charge  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Mixed-Phase Cloud Microphysics for Global Climate Models First Quarter 2007 ARM Metric Report January 2007 Xiaohong Liu and Steven J. Ghan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research X. Liu and S.J. Ghan, DOE/SC-ARM-0701 iii Summary Mixed-phase clouds are composed of a mixture of cloud droplets and ice crystals. The partitioning of condensed water into liquid droplets and ice crystals in clouds varies throughout the life cycle of clouds, with droplets forming initially but crystals dominating later as ice forms first by crystal nucleation and then by vapor deposition. This report documents an ice nucleation

453

Nuclear Data from the LBNL Particle Data Group (PDG)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

The Particle Data Group is an international collaboration charged with summarizing Particle Physics, as well as related areas of Cosmology and Astrophysics. The summaries are published in even-numbered years as a book, the Review of Particle Physics, and as an abbreviated version, the Particle Physics Booklet. The Review is also published in a major journal. The Review has been called the bible of particle physics; over the years, it has been cited in tens of thousands of papers. The Review includes a compilation and evaluation of measurements of the properties of the elementary particles. Evaluations of these properties are abstracted in summary tables. Data and data applications found on the PDG website include: 1) PDG Live (Interactive tables of data and reviews from the Review of Particle Physics; 2) Hundreds of pages of summary tables from the Review; 3) Reviews, tables, and data plots grouped by subject area rather than names of particles; 4) Particle listings; and 5) Atomic and Nuclear Properties of Materials for more than 300 substances.

454

Free form hemispherical shaped charge  

SciTech Connect

A hemispherical shaped charge has been modified such that one side of the hemisphere is spherical and the other is aspherical allowing a wall thickness variation in the liner. A further modification is to use an elongated hemispherical shape. The liner has a thick wall at its pole and a thin wall at the equator with a continually decreasing wall thickness from the pole to the equator. The ratio of the wall thickness from the pole to the equator varies depending on liner material and HE shape. Hemispherical shaped charges have previously been limited to spherical shapes with no variations in wall thicknesses. By redesign of the basic liner thicknesses, the jet properties of coherence, stability, and mass distribution have been significantly improved.

Haselman, Jr., Leonard C. (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Nonadiabatic charged spherical gravitational collapse  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a complete set of the equations and matching conditions required for the description of physically meaningful charged, dissipative, spherically symmetric gravitational collapse with shear. Dissipation is described with both free-streaming and diffusion approximations. The effects of viscosity are also taken into account. The roles of different terms in the dynamical equation are analyzed in detail. The dynamical equation is coupled to a causal transport equation in the context of Israel-Stewart theory. The decrease of the inertial mass density of the fluid, by a factor which depends on its internal thermodynamic state, is reobtained, with the viscosity terms included. In accordance with the equivalence principle, the same decrease factor is obtained for the gravitational force term. The effect of the electric charge on the relation between the Weyl tensor and the inhomogeneity of the energy density is discussed.

Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L. [Escuela de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela); Le Denmat, G. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/UMR 8112, LERMA/ERGA, Boite 142, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Observatoire de Paris (France); MacCallum, M. A. H. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Santos, N. O. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica, 25651-070 Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Electric charge in the field of a magnetic event in three-dimensional spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the motion of an electric charge in the field of a magnetically charged event in three-dimensional spacetime. We start by exhibiting a first integral of the equations of motion in terms of the three conserved components of the spacetime angular momentum, and then proceed numerically. After crossing the light cone of the event, an electric charge initially at rest starts rotating and slowing down. There are two lengths appearing in the problem: (i) the characteristic length $\\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, where $q$ and $m$ are the electric charge and mass of the particle, and $g$ is the magnetic charge of the event; and (ii) the spacetime impact parameter $r_0$. For $r_0 \\gg \\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, after a time of order $r_0$, the particle makes sharply a quarter of a turn and comes to rest at the same spatial position at which the event happened in the past. This jump is the main signature of the presence of the magnetic event as felt by an electric charge. A derivation of the expression for the angular momentum that uses Noether's theorem in the magnetic representation is given in the Appendix.

Claudio Bunster; Cristian Martinez

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

457

Effects of the Charge-Dipole Interaction on the Coagulation of Fractal Aggregates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A numerical model with broad applications to complex (dusty) plasmas is presented. The self-consistent N-body code allows simulation of the coagulation of fractal aggregates, including the charge-dipole interaction of the clusters due to the spatial arrangement of charge on the aggregate. It is shown that not only does a population of oppositely charged particles increase the coagulation rate, the inclusion of the charge-dipole interaction of the aggregates as well as the electric dipole potential of the dust ensemble decreases the gelation time by a factor of up to twenty. It is further shown that these interactions can also stimulate the onset of gelation, or "runaway growth," even in a population of particles charged to a monopotential where previously it was believed that like-charged grains would inhibit coagulation. Gelation is observed to occur due to the formation of high-mass aggregates with fractal dimensions greater than two which act as seeds for runaway growth.

Lorin Swint Matthews; T. W. Hyde

2004-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

458

A study of signal generation and charge collection in a-Si:H diodes for radiation imaging  

SciTech Connect

Its high radiation resistivity and large-area capability are the expected advantages of this material together with its ability to provide a front-end readout electronics in the vicinity of the sensor element. Electrons and holes created by incoming charged particles, X-rays, {gamma} rays, are drifted by the electric field inside a-Si:H diodes and this carrier movement induces signal charges on electrodes. Charge collection and signal generation process are analyzed in terms of carrier mobilities, lifetimes and electric field. Charge collection in thick a-Si:H diodes is often limited by deep-level trapping of carriers during transit and a finite charge integration time required for single particle counting in some applications and sometimes by volume recombination of carriers for detecting heavily-ionizing particles such as {alpha} particles. The charge collection process is also strongly affected by the non-uniform electric field profiles in a-Si:H diodes caused by the fixed space charges inside the material under reverse-bias. Signal generation due to a weak light pulse irradiating each end of a thick diode is measured as a function of a reverse-bias and it gives a valuable information about the fixed space charges. Field profiles can be manipulated by either doping, electrode geometry, or combination of both to improve the charge collection process. One can apply a higher reverse-bias on a diode with an equivalent thickness by providing buffer layers at each end of the diode and thus suppressing soft breakdown phenomena. X-ray detection with a good sensitivity is demonstrated by an a-Si:H photodiode coupled to an evaporated CsI scintillator. The scintillation quality of evaporated CsI layers can be made almost identical to its single crystal counterpart. Fields of a-Si:H radiation detector application include high energy physics, medical imaging, materials science and life science. 78 refs., 68 figs., 11 tabs.

Fujieda, I.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Position sensing by charge division  

SciTech Connect

A summary of a comprehensive analysis of theoretical and practical aspects of position sensing by charge division from resistive electrodes is presented. Properties of transformer decoupling of the resistive electrode from detector bias voltage are analyzed and compared to the usual capacitive decoupling methods. Optimization and limitiation of signal shaping is discussed as a function of diffusion time constant, signal rise times, and notes. (auth)

Alberi, J.L.; Radeka, V.

1975-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

An efficient mixed-precision, hybrid CPU-GPU implementation of a nonlinearly implicit one-dimensional particle-in-cell algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, an implicit, nonlinearly consistent, energy- and charge-conserving one-dimensional (1D) particle-in-cell method has been proposed for multi-scale, full-f kinetic simulations [G. Chen et al., J. Comput. Phys. 230 (18) (2011)]. The method employs ... Keywords: Energy and charge conserving, GPU computing, Heterogeneous architecture, Implicit particle in cell, Ion-acoustic wave, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov solver, Multi-scale, Particle enslavement

G. Chen; L. ChacóN; D. C. Barnes

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

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461

Method for controlled hydrogen charging of metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for controlling hydrogen charging of hydride forming metals through a window of a superimposed layer of a non-hydriding metal overlying the portion of the hydride forming metals to be charged.

Cheng, Bo-Ching (Fremont, CA); Adamson, Ronald B. (Fremont, CA)

1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

462

Systematics of Soft Particle Production at RHIC: Lessons from PHOBOS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The PHOBOS experiment has measured the properties of particle production in heavy ion collisions between sqrt(s_NN) of 20 and 200 GeV. The dependencies of charged particle yield on energy, system size, and both longitudinal and transverse momentum have been determined over close to the full kinematic range. Identified charged particles emitted near mid-rapidity have been studied over about 2 orders of magnitude in transverse momentum. This broad data set was found to be characterized by a small number of simple scalings which factorize to a surprising degree. This study has recently been extended by the addition of new data for Cu+Cu as well as new analyses of Au+Au data, including more peripheral collisions. In addition, the exploration of global properties has been expanded with the use of new techniques, including two-particle correlations, more sensitive searches for rare events, and more detailed studies of particles emitted at very forward rapidity. The characteristics of particle production which are revealed by this extensive data set will be described along with the implications for future data from the LHC.

G. S. F. Stephans

2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

463

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator - Energy ...  

... -phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, ...

465

Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

Onstott, E.I.

1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

466

CNST Researchers Observe Nanoscale Charge Transport in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The efficiency is strongly dependent on the material morphology, making ... of nanoscale charge transport in bulk heterojunction solar cells, BH ...

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

467

Systematic measurements of identified particle spectra in pp, d+Au, and Au+Au collisions at the STAR detector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identified charged-particle spectra of ?[superscript ±], K[superscript ±], p, and p? at midrapidity (|y|<0.1) measured by the dE/dx method in the STAR (solenoidal tracker at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) time ...

Sakuma, Tai

468

Role of radiation reaction forces in the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we study the influence of radiation reaction (RR) forces on the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles. It is assumed that the particles move along magnetic field lines anchored in the rotating central object. The common 'bead-on-the-wire' approximation is used. The solutions are found and analyzed for cases when the form of the prescribed trajectory (rigidly rotating field line) is approximated by: (a) straight line, and (b) Archimedes spiral. Dynamics of neutral and charged particles are compared with the emphasis on the role of RR forces in the latter case. It is shown that for charged particles there exist locations of stable equilibrium. It is demonstrated that for particular initial conditions RR forces cause centripetal motion of the particles: their 'falling' on the central rotating object. It is found that in the case of Archimedes spiral both neutral and charged particles can reach infinity where their motion has asymptotically force-free character. The possible importance of these processes for the acceleration of relativistic, charged particles by rotating magnetospheres in the context of the generation of nonthermal, high-energy emission of AGN and pulsars is discussed.

Dalakishvili, G. T.; Rogava, A. D.; Berezhiani, V. I. [Eugene Kharadze Georgian National Astrophysical Observatory, 2a Kazbegi Avenue, Tbilisi-0160(Georgia); Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University, Faculty of Natural and Exact Sciences, Physics Department, 3, Chavchavadze Avenue, 0128 Tbilisi (Georgia); Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste I-34014 (Italy); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5-Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Institute of Physics, 6 Tamarashvili Street., 0177 Tbilisi (Georgia)

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

469

POPCORN: privacy-preserving charging for emobility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upcoming years will see a massive deployment of electric vehicles and, combined with this, of charging infrastructure. This will require protocols and standards that will control authentication, authorization, and billing of electric-vehicle charging. ... Keywords: electric vehicle charging, iso/iec 15118, privacy, privacy enhancing technologies, security

Christina Höfer, Jonathan Petit, Robert Schmidt, Frank Kargl

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Effect of charged partons on black hole production at the Large Hadron Collider  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The cross section for black hole production in hadron colliders is calculated using a factorization hypothesis in which the parton-level process is integrated over the parton density functions of the protons. The mass, spin, charge, colour, and finite size of the partons are usually ignored. We examine the effects of parton electric charge on black hole production using the trapped-surface approach of general relativity. Accounting for electric charge of the partons could reduce the black hole cross section by one to four orders of magnitude at the Large Hadron Collider. The cross section results are sensitive to the Standard Model brane thickness. Lower limits on the amount of energy trapped behind the event horizon in the collision of charged particles are also calculated.

Douglas M. Gingrich

2006-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

471

Review of Particle Physics  

SciTech Connect

This biennial Review summarizes much of particle physics. Using data from previous editions, plus 2158 new measurements from 551 papers, we list, evaluate, and average measured properties of gauge bosons, leptons, quarks, mesons, and baryons. We also summarize searches for hypothetical particles such as Higgs bosons, heavy neutrinos, and supersymmetric particles. All the particle properties and search limits are listed in Summary Tables. We also give numerous tables, figures, formulae, and reviews of topics such as the Standard Model, particle detectors, probability, and statistics. Among the 108 reviews are many that are new or heavily revised including those on neutrino mass, mixing, and oscillations, QCD, top quark, CKM quark-mixing matrix, V{sub ud} and V{sub us}, V{sub cb} and V{sub ub}, fragmentation functions, particle detectors for accelerator and non-accelerator physics, magnetic monopoles, cosmological parameters, and big bang cosmology. A booklet is available containing the Summary Tables and abbreviated versions of some of the other sections of this full Review. All tables, listings, and reviews (and errata) are also available on the Particle Data Group website: http://pdg.lbl.gov.

Particle Data Group; Nakamura, Kenzo; al., et

2010-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

472

EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Range of Percent of Charging Units with a Vehicle Connected versus Time of Day Max percentage of charging units connected across all days Min percentage of charging units...

473

Charge It: The Promise of Plug-in Electric Hybrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our study found that a simple upgrade from 120-volt to240-volt charging outlets allowed for charging durationsaffordable conversion from 120-volt to 240-volt charging at

Recker, W.W.; Kang, J.E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Charge It: The Promise of Plug-in Electric Hybrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our study found that a simple upgrade from 120-volt to240-volt charging outlets allowed for charging durationsaffordable conversion from 120-volt to 240-volt charging at

Recker, W. W.; Kang, J. E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

U.S. Refinery Catalytic Hydrocracking, Gas Oil Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Cat. Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Downstream Charge Capacity ; Cat. Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Downstream Charge Capacity ; U.S. Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable ...

476

EV Project Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Summary Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Max percentage of charging units connected across all days Inner-quartile range of charging units connected across all days Median percentage of charging units connected across all...

477

Open Problems in $?$ Particle Condensation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

$\\alpha$ particle condensation is a novel state in nuclear systems. We briefly review the present status on the study of $\\alpha$ particle condensation and address the open problems in this research field: $\\alpha$ particle condensation in heavier systems other than the Hoyle state, linear chain and $\\alpha$ particle rings, Hoyle-analogue states with extra neutrons, $\\alpha$ particle condensation related to astrophysics, etc.

Y. Funaki; M. Girod; H. Horiuchi; G. Roepke; P. Schuck; A. Tohsaki; T. Yamada

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

478

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems to Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace

479

Review of charged Higgs searches at the Tevatron  

SciTech Connect

Although the standard model of particle physics (SM) is remarkably successful at describing the fundamental particles and their interactions, the mechanism for the breaking of elecroweak symmetry (EWSB) has yet to be confirmed. In the SM, the EWSB sector consists of four scalar fields represented by a single SU(2) complex doublet. Following EWSB, three of the fields are responsible for the generation of the W{sup {+-}} and Z masses, while the fourth is the neutral Higgs boson. At the present time, the Tevatron experiments have set 95% CL exclusion limits on the mass of the SM Higgs boson for the ranges 100 to 109 GeV and 158 to 175 GeV. In addition to these constraints on the SM Higgs boson, the Tevatron experiments have also set limits on neutral and charged Higgs bosons (H{sup {+-}}) in the context of several models beyond the SM. In this review, we discuss searches for charged Higgs bosons performed by the CDF and D0 collaborations at the Fermilab Tevatron in the mass range of 80 to 300 GeV.

Gutierrez, Phillip; /Oklahoma U.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

lynda.com to someone by E-mail lynda.com to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: lynda.com on AddThis.com... Goals Research & Development Testing and Analysis Workplace Charging Partners Ambassadors Resources Community and Fleet Readiness Workforce Development