National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tary charged particles

  1. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  2. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  3. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-09-02

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  4. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-01-01

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  5. Electrostatic wire stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, D.S.; Caporaso, G.J.; Briggs, R.J.

    1983-03-21

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  6. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Palmer, R.B.

    1985-09-09

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator is described. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams onto the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  7. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W.H.

    1999-03-09

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector. 5 figs.

  8. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  9. CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES AT BRAHMS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DEBBE, R., FOR THE BRAHMS COLLABORATION

    2001-07-30

    This report presents the measurement of charged particle multiplicity densities dN/d{eta} in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions as function of {eta} and the centrality of the collisions. This distributions were extracted from data collected by the BRAHMS collaboration during the first RHK run with gold ions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130A {center_dot} GeV. The analysis method is described and, results are compared to some model predictions.

  10. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W.; Dobelbower, M. Christian

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  11. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how

  13. Means for counteracting charged particle beam divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hooper, Jr., Edwin B.

    1978-01-01

    To counteract charge particle beam divergence, magnetic field-generating means are positioned along the edges of a charged particle beam to be controlled, such as to deflect and redirect particles tending to diverge from a desired beam direction. By selective arrangement of the magnetic field-generating means, the entire beam may be deflected and guided into different directions.

  14. Particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F.

    1990-01-01

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles.

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone ...

  16. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  17. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  18. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K.; Haverty, Thomas W.; Nordin, Carl W.; Tyree, William H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  19. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  20. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  1. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  2. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  4. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The STXM capabilities at ALS Beamline 5.3.2 and 11.0.2 allow researchers to not only map the particles' charges in freeze frame, but also enable in situ tracking during the...

  5. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  6. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory (Conference...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory You are accessing a ...

  7. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Centrality evolution of the charged-particle ...

  8. Electrostatic wire for stabilizing a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prono, Daniel S.; Caporaso, George J.; Briggs, Richard J.

    1985-01-01

    In combination with a charged particle beam generator and accelerator, apparatus and method are provided for stabilizing a beam of electrically charged particles. A guiding means, disposed within the particle beam, has an electric charge induced upon it by the charged particle beam. Because the sign of the electric charge on the guiding means and the sign of the particle beam are opposite, the particles are attracted toward and cluster around the guiding means to thereby stabilize the particle beam as it travels.

  9. EXTRACTOR FOR HIGH ENERGY CHARGED PARTICLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lambertson, G.R.

    1964-04-01

    A particle-extracting apparatus for use with a beam of high-energy charged particles such as travel in an evacuated chamber along a circular equilibrium axis is described. A magnetized target is impacted relatively against the beam whereby the beam particles are deflected from the beam by the magnetic induction in the target. To this end the target may be moved into the beam or the beam may coast into the target and achieve high angular particle deflection and slow extraction. A deflecting septum magnet may additionally be used for deflection at even sharper angles. (AEC)

  10. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator includes an evacuated chamber having a gun for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam or ion beam. The beam is discharged through a beam exit in the chamber into a higher pressure region. A plasma interface is disposed at the beam exit and includes a plasma channel for bounding a plasma maintainable between a cathode and an anode disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel is coaxially aligned with the beam exit for propagating the beam from the chamber, through the plasma, and into the higher pressure region. The plasma is effective for pumping down the beam exit for preventing pressure increase in the chamber and provides magnetic focusing of the beam discharged into the higher pressure region 24. 7 figs.

  11. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  12. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clauser, C. F. Farengo, R.

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  13. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator 14,14b includes an evacuated chamber 16a,b having a gun 18,18b for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam 12 or ion beam 12b. The beam 12,12b is discharged through a beam exit 22 in the chamber 16a,b into a higher pressure region 24. A plasma interface 34 is disposed at the beam exit 22 and includes a plasma channel 38 for bounding a plasma 40 maintainable between a cathode 42 and an anode 44 disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel 38 is coaxially aligned with the beam exit 22 for propagating the beam 12,12b from the chamber 16a,b, through the plasma 40, and into the higher pressure region 24. The plasma 40 is effective for pumping down the beam exit 22 for preventing pressure increase in the chamber 16a,b, and provides magnetic focusing of the beam 12,12b discharged into the higher pressure region 24.

  14. (Interaction of charged particles with matter)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, O.H.

    1990-12-05

    This report covers the activity of the traveler participating in a workshop entitled The 13th Werner Brandt Workshop on the Interaction of Charged Particles with Solids and conducting collaborative research with two physicists at Tokyo University. The Werner Brandt Workshops are organized by members of the traveler's group, led by Dr. R. H. Ritchie, with advice from an international committee. The traveler participated in planning for the next in the series of workshops, which will be held in or near the traveler's home base. Oak Ridge, Tennessee, in early 1992. He interacted with scientists from Japan, Spain, USSR, Israel, and other countries, initiated plans for a new collaboration with a Japanese scientist, and renewed existing collaborations, At Tokyo University, the traveler performed collaborative research with Professors Y. Yamazaki and K. Komaki on two topics of importance to the traveler's programs with the Department of Energy (DOE).

  15. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jason, Andrew J.; Blind, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  16. Searches for Fractionally Charged Particles: What Should Be Done Next?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perl, Martin L.; /SLAC

    2009-01-15

    Since the initial measurements of the electron charge a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question as to whether elementary particles exist that have charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. I concisely review the results of the last 50 years of searching for fractional charge particles with no confirmed positive results. I discuss the question of whether more searching is worthwhile?

  17. Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion Inventors..--.. James M. Mitrani, Igor D, Kaganovich, Ronald C, Davidson. | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Transverse Focussing of Intense Charged Particle Beams with Chromatic Effects for Heavy Ion Fusion Inventors..--.. James M. Mitrani, Igor D, Kaganovich, Ronald C, Davidson. A two solenoid lens designed has been designed for tranverse focusing of charged particle beams. Solenoids focus the charged particles in the transverse direction, but chromatic effects in

  18. A particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1988-02-25

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles. 3 figs.

  19. Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams The process of channeling of charged particle beams in bent crystals is described, including the effects of angular acceptance, spatial acceptance, normal dechanneling, bending dechanneling, and surface acceptance. Some bending applications that have been tried and future

  20. Bipolar charging of dust particles under ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippov, A. V. Babichev, V. N.; Fortov, V. E.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Pal', A. F.; Petrov, O. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Sarkarov, N. E.

    2011-05-15

    The photoemission charging of dust particles under ultraviolet radiation from a xenon lamp has been investigated. The velocities of yttrium dust particles with a work function of 3.3 eV and their charges have been determined experimentally; the latter are about 400-500 and about 100 elementary charges per micron of radius for the positively and negatively charged fractions, respectively. The dust particle charging and the dust cloud evolution in a photoemission cell after exposure to an ultraviolet radiation source under the applied voltage have been simulated numerically. The photoemission charging of dust particles has been calculated on the basis of nonlocal and local charging models. Only unipolar particle charging is shown to take place in a system of polydisperse dust particles with the same photoemission efficiency. It has been established that bipolar charging is possible in the case of monodisperse particles with different quantum efficiencies. Polydispersity in this case facilitates the appearance of oppositely charged particles in a photoemission plasma.

  1. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. But, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. Moreover, a charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify themore » particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. Our study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes.« less

  2. Determination of Dusty Particle Charge Taking into Account Ion Drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Orazbayev, S. A.; Petrov, O. F.; Antipov, S. N.

    2008-09-07

    This work is devoted to the experimental estimation of charge of dust particle that levitates in the stratum of dc glow discharge. Particle charge is determined on the basis of the balance between ion drag force, gravitational and electric forces. Electric force is obtained from the axial distribution of the light intensity of strata.

  3. Determination of time zero from a charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Jesse Andrew

    2011-03-15

    A method, system and computer program is used to determine a linear track having a good fit to a most likely or expected path of charged particle passing through a charged particle detector having a plurality of drift cells. Hit signals from the charged particle detector are associated with a particular charged particle track. An initial estimate of time zero is made from these hit signals and linear tracks are then fit to drift radii for each particular time-zero estimate. The linear track having the best fit is then searched and selected and errors in fit and tracking parameters computed. The use of large and expensive fast detectors needed to time zero in the charged particle detectors can be avoided by adopting this method and system.

  4. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  5. Noncommutative magnetic moment of charged particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adorno, T. C.; Gitman, D. M.; Shabad, A. E.; Vassilevich, D. V.

    2011-10-15

    It has been argued that in noncommutative field theories, the sizes of physical objects cannot be taken smaller than an ''elementary length'' related to noncommutativity parameters. By gauge covariantly extending field equations of noncommutative U(1){sub *} theory to cover the presence of external sources, we find electric and magnetic fields produced by an extended static charge. We find that such a charge, apart from being an ordinary electric monopole, is also a magnetic dipole. By writing off the existing experimental clearance in the value of the lepton magnetic moments for the present effect, we get the bound on noncommutativity at the level of 10{sup 4} TeV.

  6. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery...

  7. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion...

  8. Charged particle detectors with active detector surface for partial energy deposition of the charged particles and related methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerts, David W; Bean, Robert S; Metcalf, Richard R

    2013-02-19

    A radiation detector is disclosed. The radiation detector comprises an active detector surface configured to generate charge carriers in response to charged particles associated with incident radiation. The active detector surface is further configured with a sufficient thickness for a partial energy deposition of the charged particles to occur and permit the charged particles to pass through the active detector surface. The radiation detector further comprises a plurality of voltage leads coupled to the active detector surface. The plurality of voltage leads is configured to couple to a voltage source to generate a voltage drop across the active detector surface and to separate the charge carriers into a plurality of electrons and holes for detection. The active detector surface may comprise one or more graphene layers. Timing data between active detector surfaces may be used to determine energy of the incident radiation. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed herein.

  9. Motion of charged test particles in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-05-15

    We investigate the circular motion of charged test particles in the gravitational field of a charged mass described by the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. We study in detail all the spatial regions where circular motion is allowed around either black holes or naked singularities. The effects of repulsive gravity are discussed by finding all the circles at which a particle can have vanishing angular momentum. We show that the geometric structure of stable accretion disks, made of only test particles moving along circular orbits around the central body, allows us to clearly distinguish between black holes and naked singularities.

  10. Systems for detecting charged particles in object inspection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2013-08-20

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons. In one implementation, a monitoring system has a cosmic ray-produced charged particle tracker with a plurality of drift cells. The drift cells, which can be for example aluminum drift tubes, can be arranged at least above and below a volume to be scanned to thereby track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons, while also detecting gamma rays. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can also detect any radioactive sources occupying the volume from gamma rays emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift tubes can be sealed to eliminate the need for a gas handling system. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  11. Analysis of ``soft`` recovered shaped charge jet particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lassila, D.H.; Nikkel, D.J. Jr.; Kershaw, R.P.; Walters, W.P.

    1996-04-01

    A shaped charge with an 81 mm diameter, 42{degree} apex angle oxygen-free high-conductivity (OFHC) copper conical liner was fired into a ``soft`` recovery bunker to allow metallurgical examination of recovered jet particles and the slug. The initial weight of the copper liner was 245 g, of which 184 g was recovered. The number of jet particles recovered was 37 (approximately 63% of the particles formed by the charge). Extensive metallurgical analyses were performed on the recovered slug and jet particles. The microstructural features associated with voids, e.g., dendritic grain growth, clearly indicate that the regions in the vicinity of the centerline of the slug and jet particles were melted. In this work the authors present calculations of jet temperature as a function of constitutive behavior. In order to predict melt in the center region of the jet they find it necessary to scale flow stress with a pressure dependent shear modulus.

  12. APPARATUS FOR CLEANING GASES WITH ELECTROSTATICALLY CHARGED PARTICLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnstone, H.F.

    1960-02-01

    An apparatus is described for cleaning gases with the help of electrostatically charged pellets. The pellets are blown past baffles in a conduit and into the center of a rotuting body of the gas to be cleaned. The pellets are charged electrostatically by impinging on the baffles. The pellets collect the particles suspended in the gas in their passage from the center of the rotating body to its edge.

  13. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goncharov, A. A.; Dobrovolskiy, A. M.; Dunets, S. M.; Litovko, I. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Oks, E. M.

    2012-02-15

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  14. Method of measuring a profile of the density of charged particles in a particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyman, L.G.; Jankowski, D.J.

    1975-10-01

    A profile of the relative density of charged particles in a beam is obtained by disposing a number of rods parallel to each other in a plane perpendicular to the beam and shadowing the beam. A second number of rods is disposed perpendicular to the first rods in a plane perpendicular to the beam and also shadowing the beam. Irradiation of the rods by the beam of charged particles creates radioactive isotopes in a quantity proportional to the number of charged particles incident upon the rods. Measurement of the radioactivity of each of the rods provides a measure of the quantity of radioactive material generated thereby and, together with the location of the rods, provides information sufficient to identify a profile of the density of charged particles in the beam.

  15. Calibration of charge state conversion surfaces for neutral particle detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlstroem, P.; Scheer, J. A.; Wurz, P.; Hertzberg, E.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2008-08-01

    Molecular oxygen and hydrogen ions were scattered off hydrogen terminated diamondlike carbon (DLC) charge state conversion surfaces at incident grazing angles. The energy range of the scattered particles was 390-1000 eV, and the surface roughness of the DLC surface was of the order of 1 A rms. For all surfaces almost equal angular scattering and negative ion fractions were found within the uncertainties of the measurement. This result supports the fact that charge state conversion with DLC surfaces is a reliable technology for neutral particle sensing instruments. Furthermore, these instruments can work in the laboratory as well as in the harsh environment on board a satellite.The surfaces measured here are used in the IBEX-lo sensor, a neutral particle sensing instrument on the NASA IBEX mission, which is scheduled for launch into orbit around Earth in July 2008.

  16. Nonstationary stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle in plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shotorban, B.

    2011-06-15

    Stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle that are due to discreteness of electrons and ions in plasmas can be described by a one-step process master equation [T. Matsoukas and M. Russell, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4285 (1995)] with no exact solution. In the present work, using the system size expansion method of Van Kampen along with the linear noise approximation, a Fokker-Planck equation with an exact Gaussian solution is developed by expanding the master equation. The Gaussian solution has time-dependent mean and variance governed by two ordinary differential equations modeling the nonstationary process of dust particle charging. The model is tested via the comparison of its results to the results obtained by solving the master equation numerically. The electron and ion currents are calculated through the orbital motion limited theory. At various times of the nonstationary process of charging, the model results are in a very good agreement with the master equation results. The deviation is more significant when the standard deviation of the charge is comparable to the mean charge in magnitude.

  17. Channeling problem for charged particles produced by confining environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuluunbaatar, O.; Gusev, A. A.; Derbov, V. L.; Krassovitskiy, P. M.; Vinitsky, S. I.

    2009-05-15

    Channeling problem produced by confining environment that leads to resonance scattering of charged particles via quasistationary states imbedded in the continuum is examined. Nonmonotonic dependence of physical parameters on collision energy and/or confining environment due to resonance transmission and total reflection effects is confirmed that can increase the rate of recombination processes. The reduction of the model for two identical charged ions to a boundary problem is considered together with the asymptotic behavior of the solution in the vicinity of pair-collision point and the results of R-matrix calculations. Tentative estimations of the enhancement factor and the total reflection effect are discussed.

  18. Low energy charged particles interacting with amorphous solid water layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Asscher, Micha

    2012-04-07

    The interaction of charged particles with condensed water films has been studied extensively in recent years due to its importance in biological systems, ecology as well as interstellar processes. We have studied low energy electrons (3-25 eV) and positive argon ions (55 eV) charging effects on amorphous solid water (ASW) and ice films, 120-1080 ML thick, deposited on ruthenium single crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Charging the ASW films by both electrons and positive argon ions has been measured using a Kelvin probe for contact potential difference (CPD) detection and found to obey plate capacitor physics. The incoming electrons kinetic energy has defined the maximum measurable CPD values by retarding further impinging electrons. L-defects (shallow traps) are suggested to be populated by the penetrating electrons and stabilize them. Low energy electron transmission measurements (currents of 0.4-1.5 {mu}A) have shown that the maximal and stable CPD values were obtained only after a relatively slow change has been completed within the ASW structure. Once the film has been stabilized, the spontaneous discharge was measured over a period of several hours at 103 {+-} 2 K. Finally, UV laser photo-emission study of the charged films has suggested that the negative charges tend to reside primarily at the ASW-vacuum interface, in good agreement with the known behavior of charged water clusters.

  19. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DETERMINING CHARGED PARTICLE MOTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1959-08-01

    An analog system for determining the motion of charged particles in three dimensional electrical fields is described. A model electrode structure is formed and potentials are applied to the electrodes to provide an analog of the field which is to be studied. To simulate charged particles within the model, conducting spheres are placed at points from which particle motion is to be traced. To free the spheres from gravitational attraction in order that they will be electrostatically accelerated through the model, the apparatus is suspended and dropped. During the pericd that the model is dropping the spheres move through the electrcde structure with a motion corresponding to that of particles in the real system. The model is photographed in the course of falling so that the instantaneous position of the spheres within the simulated field at selected times may be observed and measured. The device thus gives data of particles in the real system. The model is photographed in the course of falling so that the instantaneous position of the spheres within the simulated field at selected times may be observed and measured. The device thus gives data which frequently can otherwise be obtained only with a digital computer.

  20. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  1. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility.

  2. Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Trapping and Measuring Charged Particles in Liquids Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Printable fact sheet (552 KB) Planar aqueous Paul trap (PAPT) devices and experimental platform Planar aqueous Paul trap (PAPT) devices and experimental platform Technology Marketing SummaryA nanoscale version of the Paul ion trap was developed by

  3. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Nenes, Athanasios; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-01-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequentmore » effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.« less

  4. Laser-driven deflection arrangements and methods involving charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plettner, Tomas; Byer, Robert L.

    2011-08-09

    Systems, methods, devices and apparatus are implemented for producing controllable charged particle beams. In one implementation, an apparatus provides a deflection force to a charged particle beam. A source produces an electromagnetic wave. A structure, that is substantially transparent to the electromagnetic wave, includes a physical structure having a repeating pattern with a period L and a tilted angle .alpha., relative to a direction of travel of the charged particle beam, the pattern affects the force of the electromagnetic wave upon the charged particle beam. A direction device introduces the electromagnetic wave to the structure to provide a phase-synchronous deflection force to the charged particle beam.

  5. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov V. M.; Abbott B.; Acharya B. S.; Adams M.; Adams T.; Alexeev G. D.; Alimena J.; Alkhazov G.; Alton A.; Alverson G.; Alves G. A.; Aoki M.; Askew A.; Asman B.; Atkins S.; Atramentov O.; Augsten K.; Avila C.; BackusMayes J.; Badaud F.; Bagby L.; Baldin B.; Bandurin D. V.; Banerjee S.; Barberis E.; Baringer P.; Barreto J.; Bartlett J. F.; Bassler U.; Bazterra V.; Bean A.; Begalli M.; Belanger-Champagne C.; Bellantoni L.; Beri S. B.; Bernardi G.; Bernhard R.; Bertram I.; Besancon M.; Beuselinck R.; Bezzubov V. A.; Bhat P. C.; Bhatnagar V.; Blazey G.; Blessing S.; Bloom K.; Boehnlein A.; Boline D.; Boos E. E.; Borissov G.; Bose T.; Brandt A.; Brandt O.; Brock R.; Brooijmans G.; Bross A.; Brown D.; Brown J.; Bu X. B.; Buehler M.; Buescher V.; Bunichev V.; Burdin S.; Burnett T. H.; Buszello C. P.; Calpas B.; Camacho-Perez E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga M. A.; Casey B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez H.; Chakrabarti S.; Chakraborty D.; Chan K. M.; Chandra A.; Chapon E.; Chen G.; Chevalier-Thery S.; Cho D. K.; Cho S. W.; Choi S.; Choudhary B.; Cihangir S.; Claes D.; Clutter J.; Cooke M.; Cooper W. E.; Corcoran M.; Couderc F.; Cousinou M. -C.; Croc A.; Cutts D.; Das A.; Davies G.; De K.; de Jong S. J.; De la Cruz-Burelo E.; Deliot F.; Demina R.; Denisov D.; Denisov S. P.; Desai S.; Deterre C.; DeVaughan K.; Diehl H. T.; Diesburg M.; Ding P. F.; Dominguez A.; Dorland T.; Dubey A.; Dudko L. V.; Duggan D.; Duperrin A.; Dutt S.; Dyshkant A.; Eads M.; Edmunds D.; Ellison J.; Elvira V. D.; Enari Y.; Evans H.; Evdokimov A.; Evdokimov V. N.; Facini G.; Ferbel T.; Fiedler F.; Filthaut F.; Fisher W.; Fisk H. E.; Fortner M.; Fox H.; Fuess S.; Garcia-Bellido A.; Garcia-Guerra G. A.; Gavrilov V.; Gay P.; Geng W.; Gerbaudo D.; Gerber C. E.; Gershtein Y.; Ginther G.; Golovanov G.; Goussiou A.; Grannis P. D.; Greder S.; Greenlee H.; Greenwood Z. D.; Gregores E. M.; Grenier G.; Gris Ph.; Grivaz J. -F.; Grohsjean A.; Gruenendahl S.; Gruenewald M. W.; Guillemin T.; Gutierrez G.; Gutierrez P.; Haas A.; Hagopian S.; Haley J.; Han L.; Harder K.; Harel A.; Hauptman J. M.; Hays J.; Head T.; Hebbeker T.; Hedin D.; Hegab H.; Heinson A. P.; Heintz U.; Hensel C.; Heredia-De La Cruz I.; Herner K.; Hesketh G.; Hildreth M. D.; Hirosky R.; Hoang T.; Hobbs J. D.; Hoeneisen B.; Hohlfeld M.; Hubacek Z.; Hynek V.; Iashvili I.; Ilchenko Y.; Illingworth R.; Ito A. S.; Jabeen S.; Jaffre M.; Jamin D.; Jayasinghe A.; Jesik R.; Johns K.; Johnson M.; Jonckheere A.; Jonsson P.; Joshi J.; Jung A. W.; Juste A.; Kaadze K.; Kajfasz E.; Karmanov D.; Kasper P. A.; Katsanos I.; Kehoe R.; Kermiche S.; Khalatyan N.; Khanov A.; Kharchilava A.; Kharzheev Y. N.; Kohli J. M.; Kozelov A. V.; Kraus J.; Kulikov S.; Kumar A.; Kupco A.; Kurca T.; Kuzmin V. A.; Kvita J.; Lammers S.; Landsberg G.; Lebrun P.; Lee H. S.; Lee S. W.; Lee W. M.; Lellouch J.; Li L.; Li Q. Z.; Lietti S. M.; Lim J. K.; Lincoln D.; Linnemann J.; Lipaev V. V.; Lipton R.; Liu Y.; Lobodenko A.; Lokajicek M.; de Sa R. Lopes; Lubatti H. J.; Luna-Garcia R.; Lyon A. L.; Maciel A. K. A.; Mackin D.; Madar R.; Magana-Villalba R.; Malik S.; Malyshev V. L.; Maravin Y.; Martinez-Ortega J.; McCarthy R.; McGivern C. L.; Meijer M. M.; et al.

    2012-03-21

    We report on a search for charged massive long-lived particles (CMLLPs), based on 5.2 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. We search for events in which one or more particles are reconstructed as muons but have speed and ionization energy loss (dE/dx) inconsistent with muons produced in beam collisions. CMLLPs are predicted in several theories of physics beyond the standard model. We exclude pair-produced long-lived gaugino-like charginos below 267 GeV and Higgsino-like charginos below 217 GeV at 95% C.L., as well as long-lived scalar top quarks with mass below 285 GeV.

  6. Diagnostic resonant cavity for a charged particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barov, Nikolai

    2007-10-02

    Disclosed is a diagnostic resonant cavity for determining characteristics of a charged particle beam, such as an electron beam, produced in a charged particle accelerator. The cavity is based on resonant quadrupole-mode and higher order cavities. Enhanced shunt impedance in such cavities is obtained by the incorporation of a set of four or more electrically conductive rods extending inwardly from either one or both of the end walls of the cavity, so as to form capacitive gaps near the outer radius of the beam tube. For typical diagnostic cavity applications, a five-fold increase in shunt impedance can be obtained. In alternative embodiments the cavity may include either four or more opposing pairs of rods which extend coaxially toward one another from the opposite end walls of the cavity and are spaced from one another to form capacitative gaps; or the cavity may include a single set of individual rods that extend from one end wall to a point adjacent the opposing end wall.

  7. Integral charged particle nuclear date bibliography. Editon 1, Supplement 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.; Dunford, C.L.

    1986-04-01

    This bibliography is divided into three sections, ''References'', ''Target Index'', and ''Residual Index.'' The ''References'' section contains all references satisfying the following criteria: excitation functions, thick targets, or product yield leading to the formation of a ground or metastable state; the atomic mass and charge of the incident particle must be greater than or equal to 1; the atomic mass of the target must be greater than or equal to 1; and the atomic masses of the outgoing and residual nuclei must be greater than or equal to 1 with the exception of processes which do not lead to a definite residual nucleus and of gamma-ray production cross sections. The ''Target Index'' section contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite target nucleus and reaction. These reference lines contain the Journal name, followed by the volume and page number. The ''Residual Index'' section also contains the incident particle energy and the abbreviated reference lines for all the entries, which contain information on a definite residual nucleus and a definite target-reaction.

  8. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  9. Photonic crystal devices formed by a charged-particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Shawn-Yu; Koops, Hans W. P.

    2000-01-01

    A photonic crystal device and method. The photonic crystal device comprises a substrate with at least one photonic crystal formed thereon by a charged-particle beam deposition method. Each photonic crystal comprises a plurality of spaced elements having a composition different from the substrate, and may further include one or more impurity elements substituted for spaced elements. Embodiments of the present invention may be provided as electromagnetic wave filters, polarizers, resonators, sources, mirrors, beam directors and antennas for use at wavelengths in the range from about 0.2 to 200 microns or longer. Additionally, photonic crystal devices may be provided with one or more electromagnetic waveguides adjacent to a photonic crystal for forming integrated electromagnetic circuits for use at optical, infrared, or millimeter-wave frequencies.

  10. Contemporary Instrumentation and Application of Charge Exchange Neutral Particle Diagnostics in Magnetic Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medley, S. S.; Donn, A. J.H.; Kaita, R.; Kislyakov, A. I.; Petrov, M. P.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2007-07-21

    An overview of the developments post-circa 1980's of the instrumentation and application of charge exchange neutral particle diagnostics on Magnetic Fusion Energy experiments is presented.

  11. Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; BEAM OPTICS; CHANNELING; ATTENUATION; ... BEAMS 430200* -- Particle Accelerators-- Beam Dynamics, Field Calculations, & Ion Optics

  12. Local phase transformation in alloys during charged-particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.

    1984-10-01

    Among the various mechanisms and processes by which energetic irradiation can alter the phase stability of alloys, radiation-induced segregation is one of the most important phenomena. Radiation-induced segregation in alloys occurs as a consequence of preferential coupling between persistent fluxes of excess defects and solute atoms, leading to local enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Thus, this phenomenon tends to drive alloy systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium, on a local scale. During charged-particle irradiations, the spatial nonuniformity in the defect production gives rise to a combination of persistent defect fluxes, near the irradiated surface and in the peak-damage region. This defect-flux combination can modify the alloy composition in a complex fashion, i.e., it can destabilize pre-existing phases, causing spatially- and temporally-dependent precipitation of new metastable phases. The effects of radiation-induced segregation on local phase transformations in Ni-based alloys during proton bombardment and high-voltage electron-microscope irradiation at elevated temperatures are discussed.

  13. Method and system for treating an interior surface of a workpiece using a charged particle beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swenson, David Richard

    2007-05-23

    A method and system of treating an interior surface on an internal cavity of a workpiece using a charged particle beam. A beam deflector surface of a beam deflector is placed within the internal cavity of the workpiece and is used to redirect the charged particle beam toward the interior surface to treat the interior surface.

  14. First Direct Limits on Lightly Ionizing Particles with Electric Charge Less than e/6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; et al

    2015-03-18

    While the Standard Model of particle physics does not include free particles with fractional charge, experimental searches have not ruled out their existence. We report results from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS II) experiment that give the first direct-detection limits for cosmogenically- produced relativistic particles with electric charge lower than e/6. A search for tracks in the six stacked detectors of each of two of the CDMS II towers found no candidates, thereby excluding new parameter space for particles with electric charges between e/6 and e/200.

  15. Method and apparatus for detection of charge on ions and particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuerstenau, Stephen Douglas; Soli, George Arthur

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a tessellated array detector with charge collecting plate (or cup) electrode pixels and amplifying circuitry integrated into each pixel making it sensitive to external electrostatic charge; a micro collector/amplifier pixel design possessing a small capacitance to ensure a high charge to voltage signal conversion for low noise/high sensitivity operation; a micro-fabricated array of such pixels to create a useful macroscopic target area for ion and charged particle collection.

  16. Statistical charge distribution over dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Misra, Shikha, E-mail: shikhamish@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies (CES), Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2014-07-15

    On the basis of statistical mechanics and charging kinetics, the charge distribution over uniform size spherical dust particles in a non-Maxwellian Lorentzian plasma is investigated. Two specific situations, viz., (i) the plasma in thermal equilibrium and (ii) non-equilibrium state where the plasma is dark (no emission) or irradiated by laser light (including photoemission) are taken into account. The formulation includes the population balance equation for the charged particles along with number and energy balance of the complex plasma constituents. The departure of the results for the Lorentzian plasma, from that in case of Maxwellian plasma, is graphically illustrated and discussed; it is shown that the charge distribution tends to results corresponding to Maxwellian plasma for large spectral index. The charge distribution predicts the opposite charging of the dust particles in certain cases.

  17. Means and method for the focusing and acceleration of parallel beams of charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1983-07-05

    A novel apparatus and method for focussing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The quadrupole arrays may comprise electrodes which are shared by two or more quadrupoles. Such quadrupole arrays are particularly adapted to providing strong focussing forces for high current, high brightness, beams of charged particles, said beams further comprising a plurality of parallel beams, or beamlets, each such beamlet being focussed by one quadrupole of the array. Such arrays may be incorporated in various devices wherein beams of charged particles are accelerated or transported, such as linear accelerators, klystron tubes, beam transport lines, etc.

  18. 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ELECTRON GUNS; BEAM EMITTANCE; CHARGE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SPACE 430200* -- Particle Accelerators-- Beam Dynamics, Field Calculations, & Ion Optics The evolution of the electron-beam phase space distribution in laser-driven rf guns is...

  19. Charging and de-charging of dust particles in bulk region of a radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15

    An analysis to investigate the effect of the dust particle size and density on the floating potential of the dust particles of uniform radius and other plasma parameters in the bulk region plasma of a RF-discharge in collisionless/collisional regime has been presented herein. For this purpose, the average charge theory based on charge balance on dust and number balance of plasma constituents has been utilized; a derivation for the accretion rate of electrons corresponding to a drifting Maxwellian energy distribution in the presence of an oscillatory RF field has been given and the resulting expression has been used to determine the floating potential of the dust grains. Further, the de-charging of the dust grains after switching off the RF field has also been discussed.

  20. Anomalous deflection of a charged-particle beam by bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taratin, A.M.; Vorobev, S.A.

    1986-05-01

    Using computer simulations of particle trajectory, a deflection of part of the beam in the direction opposite to the curvature is discovered for charged particles passing through a bent crystal. The passage of a proton beam of energy E(0) = 1 GeV through a curved silicon single crystal is considered, and only particles that move through the single crystal in a quasi-channel mode are deflected. It is suggested that the observed anomalous deflection can be used to deflect beams of high energy charged particles through angles that are tens of times greater than the critical angle for channeling, with application to experimental nuclear physics. 6 references.

  1. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2013-07-23

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  2. System and method for trapping and measuring a charged particle in a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Mark A; Krstic, Predrag S; Guan, Weihua; Zhao, Xiongce

    2012-10-23

    A system and method for trapping a charged particle is disclosed. A time-varying periodic multipole electric potential is generated in a trapping volume. A charged particle under the influence of the multipole electric field is confined to the trapping volume. A three electrode configuration giving rise to a 3D Paul trap and a four planar electrode configuration giving rise to a 2D Paul trap are disclosed.

  3. Possible applications of the steering of charged particles by bent single crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Gibson, W.M.; Sun, C.R.; Tsyganov, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews some aspects of the steering of charged particles using channeling in bent crystals. Crystal angular and spatial acceptance, deflection dechanneling, and radiation damage are discussed. Examples of possible bent transport, focusing, the possibility of charm particle separated beams, and magnetic moment determination.

  4. Method and apparatus for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux for analysis of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denton, M. Bonner; Sperline, Roger , Koppenaal, David W. , Barinaga, Charles J. , Hieftje, Gary , Barnes, IV, James H.; Atlas, Eugene

    2009-03-03

    A charged particle detector and method are disclosed providing for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux in a measurement cycle. The detector provides multiple and independently selectable levels of integration and/or gain in a fully addressable readout manner.

  5. Process and apparatus for changing the energy of charged particles contained in a gaseous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenn, J. B.; Whitehouse, C.; Yamashita, M.

    1985-09-17

    A method of changing the energy of charged particles contained in a gas comprises allowing the gas to flow into a region of reduced pressure through a tube like member so that viscous forces exerted on the charged particles by the flowing gas molecules determine the kinetic energy of the charged particles. A potential gradient is maintained along the length of the tube so that the potential energy of the charged particles is changed as they pass through the tube. At the end of the tube a free jet expansion occurs so that the kinetic energy of the charged particles is no longer determined by the flowing gas, so that they can be accelerated to any desired kinetic energy by means of another potential gradient. The invention can be used to interface any high pressure ion source to a magnetic sector mass spectrometer, or to permit the operation of an electrospray ion source with an earthed inlet capillary with either a quadrupole or a magnetic sector mass spectrometer.

  6. Control Of Screening Of A Charged Particle In Electrolytic Aqueous Paul Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Krstic, Predrag S.

    2011-06-01

    Individual charged particles could be trapped and confined by the combined radio-frequency and DC quadrupole electric field of an aqueous Paul trap. Viscosity of water improves confinement and extends the range of the trap parameters which characterize the stability of the trap. Electrolyte, if present in aqueous solution, may screen the charged particle and thus partially or fully suppress electrophoretic interaction with the applied filed, possibly reducing it to a generally much weaker dielectrophoretic interaction with an induced dipole. Applying molecular dynamics simulation we show that the quadrupole field has a different effect at the electrolyte ions and at much heavier charged particle, effectively eliminating the screening by electrolyte ions and reinstating the electrophoretic confinement.

  7. Integral charged particle nuclear data bibliography: Literature scanned from April 11, 1987 through November 10, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, N.E.; Ramavataram, S.

    1988-12-01

    This publication is the annual supplement to the first edition published in 1984. The primary goal of this publication has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data. The reader is referred to a partial list of other bibliographies relevant to charged-particle-induced reaction data and to ''A Source List of Nuclear Data Bibliographies, Compilations, and Evaluations'' for a more comprehensive list. Since this publication is not cumulative, earlier versions are also shown in this paper. This publication makes use of a modification to the database of the Nuclear Structure References (NSR) file. This modification allows the retrieval of integral charged particle nuclear data entries from the NSR file. In recent years, the presentation of various sections was changed, as a result of users' suggestions. The authors continue to welcome users' comments. 190 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Development of a WDM platform for charged-particle stopping experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C. K.; Collins, G. W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S. B.; Hu, S. X.; et al

    2016-01-01

    A platform has been developed for generating large and relatively quiescent plasmas in the warm-dense matter (WDM) regime on the OMEGA laser facility. A cylindrical geometry is used to allow charged-particle probing along the axis. The plasma heating is radiative by L-shell emission generated on the outside of the cylinder. The cylinder drive is characterized with x-ray diagnostics. Possibilities for direct characterization of the plasma temperature are discussed. Lastly, the unimportance of electromagnetic fields around the target is demonstrated with proton radiography. We expect this platform to be used extensively in future experiments studying charged-particle stopping in this regime.

  9. Passive Electrostatic Recycling Spectrometer of Desk-Top Size for Charged Particles of Low Kinetic Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tessier, D. R.; Niu, Y.; Seccombe, D. P.; Reddish, T. J.; Alderman, A. J.; Birdsey, B. G.; Hammond, P.; Read, F. H.

    2007-12-21

    A passive electrostatic recycling spectrometer for charged particles is described and demonstrated to store electrons with typical kinetic energies of tens of eV. The design of the charged particle optics and the basic operating characteristics of the storage ring are discussed. The storage lifetime achieved is {approx}50 {mu}s, which is target gas pressure limited and corresponds to {approx}200 orbits of the 0.65 m orbital circumference. The storage ring also has controllable energy dispersive elements enabling it to operate as a spectroscopic device.

  10. Slow wave structures using twisted waveguides for charged particle applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Yoon W.; Fathy, Aly E.; Wilson, Joshua L.

    2012-12-11

    A rapidly twisted electromagnetic accelerating structure includes a waveguide body having a central axis, one or more helical channels defined by the body and disposed around a substantially linear central axial channel, with central portions of the helical channels merging with the linear central axial channel. The structure propagates electromagnetic waves in the helical channels which support particle beam acceleration in the central axial channel at a phase velocity equal to or slower than the speed of light in free space. Since there is no variation in the shape of the transversal cross-section along the axis of the structure, inexpensive mechanical fabrication processes can be used to form the structure, such as extrusion, casting or injection molding. Also, because the field and frequency of the resonant mode depend on the whole structure rather than on dimensional tolerances of individual cells, no tuning of individual cells is needed. Accordingly, the overall operating frequency may be varied with a tuning/phase shifting device located outside the resonant waveguide structure.

  11. APPARATUS FOR THE DENSIFICATION AND ENERGIZATION OF CHARGED PARTICLES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.; Coensgen, F.H.

    1962-12-18

    This patent relates to a device for materially increasing the energy and density of a plasma to produce conditions commensurate with the establishment and promotion of controlled thermonuclear reactions. To this end the device employs three successive stages of magnetic compression, each stage having magnetic mirrors to compress a plasma, the mirrors being moveable to transfer the plasma to successive stages for further compression. Accordingly, a plasma introduced to the first stage is increased in density and energy in stepwide fashion by virtue of the magnetic compression in the successive stages such that the plasma upon reaching the last stage is of extremely high energy and density commensurate the plasma particles undergoing thermonuclear reactions. The principal novelty of the device resides in the provision of a unidirectional magnetic field which increases in stepwise fashion in coaxially communicating compression chambers of progressively decreasing lengths and diameters. Pulsed magnetic fields are superimposed upon the undirectional field and are manipulated to establish resultant magnetic compression fields which increase in intensity and progressively move, with respect to time, through the compression chambers in the direction of the smallest one thereof. The resultant field in the last compression chamber is hence of relatively high intensity, and the density and energy of the plasma confined therein are correspondingly high. (AEC)

  12. Means for the focusing and acceleration of parallel beams of charged particles. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maschke, A.W.

    1980-09-23

    Apparatus for focusing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The array may be assembled from a single component which comprises a support plate containing uniform rows of poles. Each pole is separated by a hole through the plate designed to pass a beam. Two such plates may be positioned with their poles intermeshed to form a plurality of quadrupoles.

  13. Means for the focusing and acceleration of parallel beams of charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maschke, Alfred W.

    1982-09-21

    Apparatus for focusing beams of charged particles comprising planar arrays of electrostatic quadrupoles. The array may be assembled from a single component which comprises a support plate containing uniform rows of poles. Each pole is separated by a hole through the plate designed to pass a beam. Two such plates may be positioned with their poles intermeshed to form a plurality of quadrupoles.

  14. Use of incomplete energy recovery for the energy compression of large energy spread charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David R.; Benson, Stephen V.

    2007-01-23

    A method of energy recovery for RF-base linear charged particle accelerators that allows energy recovery without large relative momentum spread of the particle beam involving first accelerating a waveform particle beam having a crest and a centroid with an injection energy E.sub.o with the centroid of the particle beam at a phase offset f.sub.o from the crest of the accelerating waveform to an energy E.sub.full and then recovering the beam energy centroid a phase f.sub.o+Df relative to the crest of the waveform particle beam such that (E.sub.full-E.sub.o)(1+cos(f.sub.o+Df))>dE/2 wherein dE=the full energy spread, dE/2=the full energy half spread and Df=the wave form phase distance.

  15. Studies of emittance growth and halo particle production in intense charged particle beams using the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Dorf, Mikhail; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Chung, Moses; Gutierrez, Michael S.; Kabcenell, Aaron N.

    2010-05-15

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a compact laboratory experiment that places the physicist in the frame-of-reference of a long, charged-particle bunch coasting through a kilometers-long magnetic alternating-gradient (AG) transport system. The transverse dynamics of particles in both systems are described by the same set of equations, including nonlinear space-charge effects. The time-dependent voltages applied to the PTSX quadrupole electrodes in the laboratory frame are equivalent to the spatially periodic magnetic fields applied in the AG system. The transverse emittance of the charge bunch, which is a measure of the area in the transverse phase space that the beam distribution occupies, is an important metric of beam quality. Maintaining low emittance is an important goal when defining AG system tolerances and when designing AG systems to perform beam manipulations such as transverse beam compression. Results are reviewed from experiments in which white noise and colored noise of various amplitudes and durations have been applied to the PTSX electrodes. This noise is observed to drive continuous emittance growth and increase in root-mean-square beam radius over hundreds of lattice periods. Additional results are reviewed from experiments that determine the conditions necessary to adiabatically reduce the charge bunch's transverse size and simultaneously maintain high beam quality. During adiabatic transitions, there is no change in the transverse emittance. The transverse compression can be achieved either by a gradual change in the PTSX voltage waveform amplitude or frequency. Results are presented from experiments in which low emittance is achieved by using focusing-off-defocusing-off waveforms.

  16. Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Yunhe; /Brown U.

    2009-05-01

    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb{sup -1} of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.

  17. Hardware and software for ground tests of onboard charged particle spectrometers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batischev, A. G. Galper, A. M.; Grishin, S. A.; Naumov, P. Yu.; Niadvetski, N. S.

    2015-12-15

    The article presents a hardware and software complex for ground tests of onboard charged particle spectrometers that are designed at the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI for monitoring of nuclear-physical factors of space weather and can be installed in a wide class of satellites. The structural scheme and operating principles of component parts are discussed. The main algorithm and software features are presented. The technique of ground spectrometer tests and calibrations in various measurement modes at atmospheric cosmic particle flows, both in autonomous laboratories and in interface tests as part of a satellite, is also described.

  18. Final Report - Interaction of radiation and charged particles in miniature plasma structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonsen, Thomas M.

    2014-07-16

    The extension of our program to the development of theories and models capable of describing the interactions of intense laser pulses and charged particles in miniature plasma channels is reported. These channels, which have recently been created in the laboratory, have unique dispersion properties that make them interesting for a variety of applications including particle acceleration, high harmonic generation, and THz generation. Our program systematically explored the properties of these channels, including dispersion, losses, and coupling. A particular application that was pursued is the generation of intense pulses of THz radiation by short laser pulses propagating these channels. We also explored the nonlinear dynamics of laser pulses propagating in these channels.

  19. An Algorithm for Decomposition of the Charged Particle Scattering Cross Sections into Singular and Regular Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inanc, Feyzi

    2005-04-09

    Any radiography simulation effort that involves high energy photons should also address charged particle transport problem as well. The scattering cross sections with the charged particles, namely electrons and positrons, go through elastic and inelastic scattering interactions that are highly anisotropic. The conventional Boltzmann operator used in the transport computations can not represent the highly anisotropic scattering interactions. One way is to implement Fokker-Planck operators. The implementation of Fokker-Planck operators requires decomposition of scattering kernels into singular and regular components. This paper introduces an algorithm on how to decompose the elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections into singular and regular components and how to compute momentum transfer and stopping power coefficients from singular components.

  20. Apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, Matesh N.; Baum, John W.

    1982-11-02

    Charged particle beam monitoring means (40) are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam (44) in an experimental device (10). The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component (42) which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam (44), while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof (46) for incidence in an experimental chamber (18), and providing a signal (I.sub.m) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Calibration means (36) are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I.sub.f) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means (41 and 43) are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

  1. New and improved apparatus and method for monitoring the intensities of charged-particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varma, M.N.; Baum, J.W.

    1981-01-16

    Charged particle beam monitoring means are disposed in the path of a charged particle beam in an experimental device. The monitoring means comprise a beam monitoring component which is operable to prevent passage of a portion of beam, while concomitantly permitting passage of another portion thereof for incidence in an experimental chamber, and providing a signal (I/sub m/) indicative of the intensity of the beam portion which is not passed. Caibration means are disposed in the experimental chamber in the path of the said another beam portion and are operable to provide a signal (I/sub f/) indicative of the intensity thereof. Means are provided to determine the ratio (R) between said signals whereby, after suitable calibration, the calibration means may be removed from the experimental chamber and the intensity of the said another beam portion determined by monitoring of the monitoring means signal, per se.

  2. Azimuthal Charged-Particle Correlations and Possible Local Strong Parity Violation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAR Collaboration; Abelev, Betty

    2010-07-05

    Parity-odd domains, corresponding to non-trivial topological solutions of the QCD vacuum, might be created during relativistic heavy-ion collisions. These domains are predicted to lead to charge separation of quarks along the system's orbital momentum axis. We investigate a three particle azimuthal correlator which is a {Rho} even observable, but directly sensitive to the charge separation effect. We report measurements of charged hadrons near center-of-mass rapidity with this observable in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV using the STAR detector. A signal consistent with several expectations from the theory is detected. We discuss possible contributions from other effects that are not related to parity violation.

  3. -delayed ?-proton decay in ??Zn: Analysis of the charged-particle spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrigo, S. E.A.; Rubio, B.; Fujita, Y.; Blank, B.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Ascher, P.; Cceres, L.; Cakirli, R. B.; Fujita, H.; Ganio?lu, E.; Gerbaux, M.; Kozer, H. C.; Kucuk, L.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Popescu, L.; Rogers, A. M.; Susoy, G.; Stodel, C.; Suzuki, T.; Tamii, A.; Thomas, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    A study of the ? decay of the proton-rich Tz = 2 nucleus ??Zn has been reported in a recent publication. A rare and exotic decay mode, ?-de-layed ?-proton decay, has been observed there for the first time in the fp shell. Here, we expand on some of the details of the data analysis, focusing on the charged particle spectrum.

  4. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  5. Observation of high iron charge states at low energies in solar energetic particle events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Z.; Mbius, E.; Bochsler, P.; Connell, J. J.; Popecki, M. A.; Klecker, B.; Kartavykh, Y. Y.; Mason, G. M.

    2014-04-10

    The ionic charge states of solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide direct information about the source plasma, the acceleration environment, and their transport. Recent studies report that both gradual and impulsive SEP events show mean iron charge states (Q {sub Fe}) ? 10-14 at low energies E ? 0.1 MeV nuc{sup 1}, consistent with their origin from typical corona material at temperatures 1-2 MK. Observed increases of (Q {sub Fe}) up to 20 at energies 0.1-0.5 MeV nuc{sup 1} in impulsive SEPs are attributed to stripping during acceleration. However, Q {sub Fe} > 16 is occasionally found in the solar wind, particularly coming from active regions, in contrast to the exclusively reported (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14 for low energy SEPs. Here we report results from a survey of all 89 SEP events observed with Advanced Composition Explorer Solar Energetic Particle Ionic Charge Analyzer (SEPICA) in 1998-2000 for iron charge states augmented at low energy with Solar and Heliospheric Observatory CELIAS suprathermal time-of-flight (STOF). Nine SEP events with (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14 throughout the entire SEPICA and STOF energy range have been identified. Four of the nine events are impulsive events identified through velocity dispersion that are consistent with source temperatures ?2 MK up to ?4 MK. The other five events show evidence of interplanetary acceleration. Four of them involve re-acceleration of impulsive material, whose original energy dependent charge states appear re-distributed to varying extent bringing higher charge states to lower energy. One event, which shows flat but elevated (Q {sub Fe}) ? 14.2 over the entire energy range, can be associated with interplanetary acceleration of high temperature material. This event may exemplify a rare situation when a second shock plows through high temperature coronal mass ejection material.

  6. Spacecraft charging analysis with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deca, J.; Lapenta, G. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Marchand, R. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada)] [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada); Markidis, S. [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-10-15

    We present the first results on the analysis of spacecraft charging with the implicit particle-in-cell code iPic3D, designed for running on massively parallel supercomputers. The numerical algorithm is presented, highlighting the implementation of the electrostatic solver and the immersed boundary algorithm; the latter which creates the possibility to handle complex spacecraft geometries. As a first step in the verification process, a comparison is made between the floating potential obtained with iPic3D and with Orbital Motion Limited theory for a spherical particle in a uniform stationary plasma. Second, the numerical model is verified for a CubeSat benchmark by comparing simulation results with those of PTetra for space environment conditions with increasing levels of complexity. In particular, we consider spacecraft charging from plasma particle collection, photoelectron and secondary electron emission. The influence of a background magnetic field on the floating potential profile near the spacecraft is also considered. Although the numerical approaches in iPic3D and PTetra are rather different, good agreement is found between the two models, raising the level of confidence in both codes to predict and evaluate the complex plasma environment around spacecraft.

  7. Restoring The Azimuthal Symmetry Of Charged Particle Lateral Density In The Range Of KASCADE-Grande

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Apel, W. D.; Bekk, K.; Bozdog, H.; Daumiller, K.; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Engler, J.; Finger, M.; Gils, H. J.; Haungs, A.; Heck, D.; Huege, T.; Isar, P. G.; Klages, H. O.; Mathes, H. J.; Mayer, H. J.; Milke, J.; Nehls, S.

    2010-11-24

    KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located in Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. An important observable for analyzing the EAS is the lateral density of charged particles in the intrinsic shower plane. This observable is deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposit - first in the observation plane, by using a Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF), then in the intrinsic shower plane, by applying an adequate mapping procedure. In both steps azimuthal.

  8. Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-09-28

    The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a time-dependent vector potential evolving under Schrdinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Thus, special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.

  9. Studies of Charged Particle Emission in the Decay of 45Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Grigorenko, L.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, R.; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, M. M.; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay of extremely neutron-deficient isotope 45Fe has been studied by using a new type of gaseous detector in which a technique of optical imaging is used to record tracks of charged particles. The two-proton radioactivity and the -decay channels accompanied by proton(s) emission were clearly identified. For the first time, the angular and energy correlations between two protons emitted from the 45Fe ground-state were measured. The obtained distributions were confronted with predictions of a three-body model. Studies of -decay channels of 45Fe provided first unambiguous evidence for the -delayed three proton emission.

  10. Volume-preserving algorithm for secular relativistic dynamics of charged particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ruili; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yulei; He, Yang; Qin, Hong; Sun, Yajuan

    2015-04-15

    Secular dynamics of relativistic charged particles has theoretical significance and a wide range of applications. However, conventional algorithms are not applicable to this problem due to the coherent accumulation of numerical errors. To overcome this difficulty, we develop a volume-preserving algorithm (VPA) with long-term accuracy and conservativeness via a systematic splitting method. Applied to the simulation of runaway electrons with a time-span over 10 magnitudes, the VPA generates accurate results and enables the discovery of new physics for secular runaway dynamics.

  11. Charged Particle in a Time-dependent Electric Field: A White Noise Functional Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gravador, E. B.; Bornales, J. B.; Liwanag, M. J.

    2008-06-18

    The propagator for a charged particle in a time-dependent electric field is calculated following Hida and Streit's framework where the propagator is the T-transform of Feynman functional. However, we have to regard the potential V = -qE({tau})x{identical_to}{radical}((m/({Dirac_h}/2{pi}))){xi}x following C. C. Bernido and M. V. Carpio-Bernido's prescription of time-dependent potentials. The result agrees with the limiting form of Eqn. (16) of N. Morgenstern Horing, H. L. Cui, and G. Fiorenza, when the magnetic field is switched off, and Eqn. (17) of [3] when the electric field is constant in time.

  12. Quantum work statistics of charged Dirac particles in time-dependent fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deffner, Sebastian; Saxena, Avadh

    2015-09-28

    The quantum Jarzynski equality is an important theorem of modern quantum thermodynamics. We show that the Jarzynski equality readily generalizes to relativistic quantum mechanics described by the Dirac equation. After establishing the conceptual framework we solve a pedagogical, yet experimentally relevant, system analytically. As a main result we obtain the exact quantum work distributions for charged particles traveling through a time-dependent vector potential evolving under Schrödinger as well as under Dirac dynamics, and for which the Jarzynski equality is verified. Thus, special emphasis is put on the conceptual and technical subtleties arising from relativistic quantum mechanics.

  13. SELF-CONSISTENT LANGEVIN SIMULATION OF COULOMB COLLISIONS IN CHARGED-PARTICLE BEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. QIANG; R. RYNE; S. HABIB

    2000-05-01

    In many plasma physics and charged-particle beam dynamics problems, Coulomb collisions are modeled by a Fokker-Planck equation. In order to incorporate these collisions, we present a three-dimensional parallel Langevin simulation method using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach implemented on high-performance parallel computers. We perform, for the first time, a fully self-consistent simulation, in which the friction and diffusion coefficients are computed from first principles. We employ a two-dimensional domain decomposition approach within a message passing programming paradigm along with dynamic load balancing. Object oriented programming is used to encapsulate details of the communication syntax as well as to enhance reusability and extensibility. Performance tests on the SGI Origin 2000 and the Cray T3E-900 have demonstrated good scalability. Work is in progress to apply our technique to intrabeam scattering in accelerators.

  14. Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-05-08

    Warp is a multidimensional discrete-particle beam simulation program designed to be applicable where the beam space-charge is non-negligible or dominant. It is being developed in a collaboration among LLNL, LBNL and the University of Maryland. It was originally designed and optimized for heave ion fusion accelerator physics studies, but has received use in a broader range of applications, including for example laser wakefield accelerators, e-cloud studies in high enery accelerators, particle traps and other areas. At present it incorporates 3-D, axisymmetric (r,z) planar (x-z) and transverse slice (x,y) descriptions, with both electrostatic and electro-magnetic fields, and a beam envelope model. The code is guilt atop the Python interpreter language.

  15. Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-08

    Warp is a multidimensional discrete-particle beam simulation program designed to be applicable where the beam space-charge is non-negligible or dominant. It is being developed in a collaboration among LLNL, LBNL and the University of Maryland. It was originally designed and optimized for heave ion fusion accelerator physics studies, but has received use in a broader range of applications, including for example laser wakefield accelerators, e-cloud studies in high enery accelerators, particle traps and other areas.more » At present it incorporates 3-D, axisymmetric (r,z) planar (x-z) and transverse slice (x,y) descriptions, with both electrostatic and electro-magnetic fields, and a beam envelope model. The code is guilt atop the Python interpreter language.« less

  16. Method and apparatus for directing ions and other charged particles generated at near atmospheric pressures into a region under vacuum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for focusing dispersed charged particles. More specifically, a series of elements within a region maintained at a pressure between 10.sup.-1 millibar and 1 bar, each having successively larger apertures forming an ion funnel, wherein RF voltages are applied to the elements so that the RF voltage on any element has phase, amplitude and frequency necessary to define a confinement zone for charged particles of appropriate charge and mass in the interior of the ion funnel, wherein the confinement zone has an acceptance region and an emmitance region and where the acceptance region area is larger than the emmitance region area.

  17. Synchro-curvature radiation of charged particles in the strong curved magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelner, S. R.; Prosekin, A. Yu.; Aharonian, F. A. E-mail: Anton.Prosekin@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2015-01-01

    It is generally believed that the radiation of relativistic particles in a curved magnetic field proceeds in either the synchrotron or the curvature radiation modes. In this paper we show that in strong curved magnetic fields a significant fraction of the energy of relativistic electrons can be radiated away in the intermediate, the so-called synchro-curvature regime. Because of the persistent change of the trajectory curvature, the radiation varies with the frequency of particle gyration. While this effect can be ignored in the synchrotron and curvature regimes, the variability plays a key role in the formation of the synchro-curvature radiation. Using the Hamiltonian formalism, we find that the particle trajectory has the form of a helix wound around the drift trajectory. This allows us to calculate analytically the intensity and energy distribution of prompt radiation in the general case of magnetic bremsstrahlung in the curved magnetic field. We show that the transition to the limit of the synchrotron and curvature radiation regimes is determined by the relation between the drift velocity and the component of the particle velocity perpendicular to the drift trajectory. The detailed numerical calculations, which take into account the energy losses of particles, confirm the principal conclusions based on the simplified analytical treatment of the problem, and allow us to analyze quantitatively the transition between different radiation regimes for a broad range of initial pitch angles. These calculations demonstrate that even very small pitch angles may lead to significant deviations from the spectrum of the standard curvature radiation when it is formally assumed that a charged particle moves strictly along the magnetic line. We argue that in the case of realization of specific configurations of the electric and magnetic fields, the gamma-ray emission of the pulsar magnetospheres can be dominated by the component radiated in the synchro-curvature regime.

  18. Charged Particle Radiation Therapy for Uveal Melanoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zhen; Nabhan, Mohammed; Schild, Steven E.; Stafford, Scott L.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Foote, Robert L.; Murad, M. Hassan

    2013-05-01

    Charged particle therapy (CPT) delivered with either protons, helium ions, or carbon ions, has been used to treat uveal melanoma. The present analysis was performed to systematically evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of CPT for uveal melanoma. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and SciVerse Scopus and cross-referenced recent systematic reviews through January 2012. Two independent reviewers identified clinical trials and observational studies of CPT (protons, helium ions, and carbon ions). These reviewers extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-seven studies enrolling 8809 uveal melanoma patients met inclusion criteria. The rate of local recurrence was significantly less with CPT than with brachytherapy (odds ratio [OR] = 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.21-0.23). There were no significant differences in mortality or enucleation rates. Results were robust in multiple sensitivity analyses. CPT was also associated with lower retinopathy and cataract formation rates. Data suggest better outcomes may be possible with charged particle therapy with respect to local recurrence, retinopathy, and cataract formation rates. The overall quality of the evidence is low, and higher quality comparative effectiveness studies are needed to provide better evidence.

  19. Evidence for MeV-particle emission from Ti charged with low-energy deuterium ions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, G.P.; Hubler, G.K.; Grabowski, K.S.

    1991-12-18

    Thin titanium films have been bombarded with low energy (350 eV) deuterium ions at high current density (0.2-0.4 mA.cm2) to investigate the reported occurrence of nuclear reactions at ambient temperatures in deuterium charged metals. A silicon charged particle detector was used to search for charged particles produced by such reactions. Evidence is reported for the detection of hydrogen isotopes with 5 MeV energy at a rate of 10-16 events/deuteron pair/s. Low energy deuterium (350 eV) ions produced by an ECR microwave source impinge normally on a thin metal film in vacuum, while a Si particle detector placed directly behind the film detects particle emission. The advantages of this method are rapid and efficient deuterium charging of any material (including insulators), high particle detection efficiency and sensitivity (low background), and the ability to measure the particle energy and determine the particle type. Titanium was chosen as the target because previous work by Jones had shown neutron emission and because Ti retains more hydrogen near room temperature than does PD.

  20. Energy exchange between a laser beam and charged particles using inverse transition radiation and method for its use

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kimura, Wayne D.; Romea, Richard D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.

    1998-01-01

    A method and apparatus for exchanging energy between relativistic charged particles and laser radiation using inverse diffraction radiation or inverse transition radiation. The beam of laser light is directed onto a particle beam by means of two optical elements which have apertures or foils through which the particle beam passes. The two apertures or foils are spaced by a predetermined distance of separation and the angle of interaction between the laser beam and the particle beam is set at a specific angle. The separation and angle are a function of the wavelength of the laser light and the relativistic energy of the particle beam. In a diffraction embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the diffraction effect due to the apertures in the optical elements. In a transition embodiment, the interaction between the laser and particle beams is determined by the transition effect due to pieces of foil placed in the particle beam path.

  1. The role of electrostatic charge in the adhesion of spherical particles onto planar surfaces in atmospheric systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira Z.; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-06-19

    In this study, the influence of electrostatic charge on the adhesive force between spherical particles and planar surfaces in atmospheric systems was studied using atomic force microscopy. Electrical bias was applied to modify the surface charge, and it was found that application of a stronger positive bias to a particle induces a stronger total adhesive force. The sensitivity of the system to changes in the bias depended on the surface charge density. For larger-size particles, the contribution of the electrostatic force decreased, and the capillary force became the major contributor to the total adhesive force. The influence of water adsorption on the total adhesive force and, specifically, on the contribution of the electrostatic force depended on the hydrophobicity of interacting surfaces. For a hydrophilic surface, water adsorption either attenuated the surface charge or screened the effect of surface potential. An excessive amount of adsorbed water provided a path to surface charge leakage, which might cancel out the electrostatic force, leading to a reduction in the adhesive force. Theoretically calculated forces were comparable with measured adhesive forces except for mica which has a highly localized surface potential. The results of this study provide information on the behavior of charged colloidal particles in atmospheric systems.

  2. The role of electrostatic charge in the adhesion of spherical particles onto planar surfaces in atmospheric systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kweon, Hyojin; Yiacoumi, Sotira Z.; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-06-19

    In this study, the influence of electrostatic charge on the adhesive force between spherical particles and planar surfaces in atmospheric systems was studied using atomic force microscopy. Electrical bias was applied to modify the surface charge, and it was found that application of a stronger positive bias to a particle induces a stronger total adhesive force. The sensitivity of the system to changes in the bias depended on the surface charge density. For larger-size particles, the contribution of the electrostatic force decreased, and the capillary force became the major contributor to the total adhesive force. The influence of water adsorptionmore » on the total adhesive force and, specifically, on the contribution of the electrostatic force depended on the hydrophobicity of interacting surfaces. For a hydrophilic surface, water adsorption either attenuated the surface charge or screened the effect of surface potential. An excessive amount of adsorbed water provided a path to surface charge leakage, which might cancel out the electrostatic force, leading to a reduction in the adhesive force. Theoretically calculated forces were comparable with measured adhesive forces except for mica which has a highly localized surface potential. The results of this study provide information on the behavior of charged colloidal particles in atmospheric systems.« less

  3. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zylstra, A.  B.; Frenje, J.  A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C.  K.; Collins, G.  W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.  B.; Hu, S. X.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Keiter, P.; Reynolds, H.; Rygg, J.  R.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories in WDM plasma.

  4. Measurement of charged-particle stopping in warm-dense plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zylstra, A.  B.; Frenje, J.  A.; Grabowski, P. E.; Li, C.  K.; Collins, G.  W.; Fitzsimmons, P.; Glenzer, S.; Graziani, F.; Hansen, S.  B.; Hu, S. X.; et al

    2015-05-27

    We measured the stopping of energetic protons in an isochorically-heated solid-density Be plasma with an electron temperature of ~32 eV, corresponding to moderately-coupled [(e²/a/(kBTe + EF ) ~ 0.3] and moderately-degenerate [kBTe/EF ~2] 'warm dense matter' (WDM) conditions. We present the first high-accuracy measurements of charged-particle energy loss through dense plasma, which shows an increased loss relative to cold matter, consistent with a reduced mean ionization potential. The data agree with stopping models based on an ad-hoc treatment of free and bound electrons, as well as the average-atom local-density approximation; this work is the first test of these theories inmore » WDM plasma.« less

  5. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1987-02-20

    A high-power-density-laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems. 25 figs.

  6. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, George P.

    1988-01-01

    A high-power-density laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor system maximizes the directed kinetic energy imparted to a large mass of liquid lithium by a centrally located fusion target. A fusion target is embedded in a large mass of lithium, of sufficient radius to act as a tritium breeding blanket, and provided with ports for the access of beam energy to implode the target. The directed kinetic energy is converted directly to electricity with high efficiency by work done against a pulsed magnetic field applied exterior to the lithium. Because the system maximizes the blanket thickness per unit volume of lithium, neutron-induced radioactivities in the reaction chamber wall are several orders of magnitude less than is typical of other fusion reactor systems.

  7. Studies of Charged Particle Emission in the Decay of 45Fe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miernik, K.; Dominik, W.; Janas, Z.; Pfutzner, M.; Grigorenko, L.; Bingham, C. R.; Czyrkowski, H.; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Darby, Iain; Dabrowski, Ryszard; Ginter, T. N.; Grzywacz, Robert; Karny, M.; Korgul, A.; Kusmierz, W.; Liddick, Sean; Rajabali, Mustafa; Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Stolz, A.

    2008-01-01

    The decay of extremely neutron-deficient isotope 45Fe has been studied by using a new type of gaseous detector in which a technique of optical imaging is used to record tracks of charged particles. The two-proton radioactivity and the beta-decay channels accompanied by proton(s) emission were clearly identified. For the first time, the angular and energy correlations between two protons emitted from the 45Fe ground-state were measured. The obtained distributions were confronted with predictions of a three-body model. Studies of beta-decay channels of 45Fe provided first unambiguous evidence for the beta-delayed three proton emission.

  8. A Multimedia Tutorial for Charged-Particle Beam Dynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silbar, Richard R.

    1999-07-26

    In September 1995 WhistleSoft, Inc., began developing a computer-based multimedia tutorial for charged-particle beam dynamics under Phase II of a Small Business Innovative Research grant from the U.S. Department of Energy. In Phase I of this project (see its Final Report) we had developed several prototype multimedia modules using an authoring system on NeXTStep computers. Such a platform was never our intended target, and when we began Phase II we decided to make the change immediately to develop our tutorial modules for the Windows and Macintosh microcomputer market. This Report details our progress and accomplishments. It also gives a flavor of the look and feel of the presently available and upcoming modules.

  9. Production of .sup.64 Cu and other radionuclides using a charged-particle accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Michael J.; McCarthy, Deborah W.; Shefer, Ruth E.; Klinkowstein, Robert E.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclides are produced according to the present invention at commercially significant yields and at specific activities which are suitable for use in radiodiagnostic agents such as PET imaging agents and radiotherapeutic agents and/or compositions. In the method and system of the present invention, a solid target having an isotopically enriched target layer electroplated on an inert substrate is positioned in a specially designed target holder and irradiated with a charged-particle beam. The beam is preferably generated using an accelerator such as a biomedical cyclotron at energies ranging from about 5 MeV to about 25 MeV. The target is preferably directly irradiated, without an intervening attenuating foil, and with the charged particle beam impinging an area which substantially matches the target area. The irradiated target is remotely and automatically transferred from the target holder, preferably without transferring any target holder subassemblies, to a conveyance system which is preferably a pneumatic or hydraulic conveyance system, and then further transferred to an automated separation system. The system is effective for processing a single target or a plurality of targets. After separation, the unreacted target material can be recycled for preparation of other targets. In a preferred application of the invention, a biomedical cyclotron has been used to produce over 500 mCi of .sup.64 Cu having a specific activity of over 300 mCi/.mu.g Cu according to the reaction .sup.64 Ni(p,n).sup.64 Cu. These results indicate that accelerator-produced .sup.64 Cu is suitable for radiopharmaceutical diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

  10. Dead layer on silicon p-i-n diode charged-particle detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, B. L.; Amsbaugh, John F.; Beglarian, A.; Bergmann, T.; Bichsel, H. C.; Bodine, L. I.; Boyd, N. M.; Burritt, Tom H.; Chaoui, Z.; Corona, T. J.; Doe, Peter J.; Enomoto, S.; Harms, F.; Harper, Gregory; Howe, M. A.; Martin, E. L.; Parno, D. S.; Peterson, David; Petzold, Linda; Renschler, R.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Schwarz, J.; Steidl, M.; Van Wechel, T. D.; VanDevender, Brent A.; Wustling, S.; Wierman, K. J.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2014-04-21

    Abstract Semiconductor detectors in general have a dead layer at their surfaces that is either a result of natural or induced passivation, or is formed during the process of making a contact. Charged particles passing through this region produce ionization that is incompletely collected and recorded, which leads to departures from the ideal in both energy deposition and resolution. The silicon p-i-n diode used in the KATRIN neutrinomass experiment has such a dead layer. We have constructed a detailed Monte Carlo model for the passage of electrons from vacuum into a silicon detector, and compared the measured energy spectra to the predicted ones for a range of energies from 12 to 20 keV. The comparison provides experimental evidence that a substantial fraction of the ionization produced in the "dead" layer evidently escapes by discussion, with 46% being collected in the depletion zone and the balance being neutralized at the contact or by bulk recombination. The most elementary model of a thinner dead layer from which no charge is collected is strongly disfavored.

  11. Modified theory of secondary electron emission from spherical particles and its effect on dust charging in complex plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Shikha [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar-382428 (India); Sodha, M. S. [Department of Education Building, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)

    2013-01-15

    The authors have modified Chow's theory of secondary electron emission (SEE) to take account of the fact that the path length of a primary electron in a spherical particle varies between zero to the diameter or x{sub m} the penetration depth depending on the distance of the path from the centre of the particle. Further by including this modified expression for SEE efficiency, the charging kinetics of spherical grains in a Maxwellian plasma has been developed; it is based on charge balance over dust particles and number balance of electrons and ionic species. It is seen that this effect is more pronounced for smaller particles and higher plasma temperatures. Desirable experimental work has also been discussed.

  12. Precursors to cold fusion phenomenon and the detection of energetic charged particles in deuterium/solid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, S.Y.; Wang, K.L.; Feng, Y.Y.; Chang, L.; Luo, C.M.; Hu, R.Y.; Zhou, P.L.; Mo, D.W.; Zhu, Y.F.; Song, C.L.; Chen, Y.T.; Yao, M.Y.; Ren, C.; Chen, Q.K.; Li, X.Z. )

    1991-11-01

    A precursor to the cold fusion phenomenon in deuterium/solid systems is sought in order to solve the problem of reproducibility. The results of the first experiments are discussed. Electromagnetic radiation and energetic charged particles have been detected. In this paper it is shown that the surface condition has an important effect on this phenomenon.

  13. Generation of excited coherent states for a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A. E-mail: alireza.dehghani@gmail.com

    2015-04-15

    We introduce excited coherent states, |β,α;nгЂ‰≔a{sup †n}|β,αгЂ‰, where n is an integer and states |β,αгЂ‰ denote the coherent states of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. States |β,αгЂ‰ minimize the Schrödinger-Robertson uncertainty relation while having the nonclassical properties. It has been shown that the resolution of identity condition is realized with respect to an appropriate measure on the complex plane. Some of the nonclassical features such as sub-Poissonian statistics and quadrature squeezing of these states are investigated. Our results are compared with similar Agarwal’s type photon added coherent states (PACSs) and it is shown that, while photon-counting statistics of |β,α,nгЂ‰ are the same as PACSs, their squeezing properties are different. It is also shown that for large values of |β|, while they are squeezed, they minimize the uncertainty condition. Additionally, it has been demonstrated that by changing the magnitude of the external magnetic field, B{sub ext}, the squeezing effect is transferred from one component to another. Finally, a new scheme is proposed to generate states |β,α;nгЂ‰ in cavities. .

  14. Physics with gamma-beams and charged particle detectors: I) Nuclear structure II) Nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gai, Moshe

    2015-02-24

    The Charged Particle Working Group (CPWG) is proposing to construct large area Silicon Strip Detector (SSD), a gas Time Projection Chamber detector read by an electronic readout system (eTPC) and a Bubble Chamber (BC) containing superheated high purity water to be used in measurements utilizing intense gamma-ray beams from the newly constructed ELI-NP facility at Magurele, Bucharest in Romania. We intend to use the SSD and eTPC detectors to address essential problems in nuclear structure physics, such as clustering and the many alpha-decay of light nuclei such as {sup 12}C and {sup 16}O. All three detectors (SSD, eTPC and BC) will be used to address central problems in nuclear astrophysics such as the astrophysical cross section factor of the {sup 12}C(α,γ) reaction and other processes central to stellar evolution. The CPWG intends to submit to the ELI-NP facility a Technical Design Report (TDR) for the proposed detectors.

  15. Limiting current of axisymmetric relativistic charged-particle beam propagating in strong axial magnetic field in coaxial drift tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yatsenko, T.; Ilyenko, K.; Sotnikov, G. V.

    2012-06-15

    In the strong axial magnetic field approximation, we calculate the space-charge limited (SCL) current of axisymmetric relativistic charged-particle beam in a coaxial drift tube of finite length. Results are compared to analytical estimates and numerical modeling of SCL current in the infinitely long drift tube. For the infinitely long drift tube, which inner conductor is biased and the outer conductor is lined with a finite-width dielectric insert, analytic approximations for the SCL current in the bias voltage are developed.

  16. Stopping power for a charged particle moving through three-dimensional nonideal finite-temperature electron gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Ya; Song Yuanhong; Wang Younian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2011-07-15

    We investigate the interaction of a charged particle with nonideal 3D electron gases by using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) theory. The stopping power for a nonideal electron gas at a finite-temperature has been theoretically analyzed and numerically calculated. In our calculation, the impact of nonideality and temperature on stopping power is stressed and clearly presented. The QHD dielectric function is obtained and compared to random-phase approximation result. It is shown that the QHD theory can properly describe the stopping power for higher particle velocities greater than the Bohr velocity.

  17. ß-delayed γ-proton decay in ⁵⁶Zn: Analysis of the charged-particle spectrum

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Orrigo, S. E.A.; Rubio, B.; Fujita, Y.; Blank, B.; Gelletly, W.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Ascher, P.; Bilgier, B.; Cáceres, L.; et al

    2015-01-01

    A study of the β decay of the proton-rich Tz = –2 nucleus ⁵⁶Zn has been reported in a recent publication. A rare and exotic decay mode, β-de-layed γ-proton decay, has been observed there for the first time in the fp shell. Here, we expand on some of the details of the data analysis, focusing on the charged particle spectrum.

  18. Strong focus space charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex

    1981-01-01

    Strong focus space charge lens wherein a combination of current-carrying coils and charged electrodes form crossed magnetic and electric fields to focus charged particle beams.

  19. Microparticles in a Collisional Rf Plasma Sheath under Hypergravity Conditions as Probes for the Electric Field Strength and the Particle Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckers, J.; Stoffels, W. W.; Dijk, J. van; Kroesen, G. M. W.; Ockenga, T.; Wolter, M.; Kersten, H.

    2011-03-18

    We used microparticles under hypergravity conditions, induced by a centrifuge, in order to measure nonintrusively and spatially resolved the electric field strength as well as the particle charge in the collisional rf plasma sheath. The measured electric field strengths demonstrate good agreement with the literature, while the particle charge shows decreasing values towards the electrode. We demonstrate that it is indeed possible to measure these important quantities without changing or disturbing the plasma.

  20. Emission of secondary particles from metals and insulators at impact of slow highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenkel, T.

    1996-10-31

    Emission of secondary electrons and ions from clean Au, CxHy-Au, and SiO{sub 2} surfaces at impact of slow (v{approx}0.3 v{sub Bohr}) ions were measured as function of incident ion charge for 1+{le}q{le}75+. Electron yields from thermal SiO{sub 2} films (150 mm on Si) were found to be lower than those from the other two for q>3+. Yields of negative secondary ions from SiO{sub 2} and CxHy-Au were recorded in parallel with electron emission data and exhibit a q{sub 4} dependency on incident ion charge. Direct comparison of collisional and electronic contributions to secondary ion production from SiO{sub 2} films using a beam of charge state equilibrated Xe (at 2.75 keV/u) shows positive and negative secondary ion yield increases with incident ion charge of >400. Results are discussed in relation to key signatures of electronic sputtering by Coulomb explosions.

  1. Dynamics of charged particle motion in the vicinity of three dimensional magnetic null points: Energization and chaos

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gascoyne, Andrew

    2015-03-15

    Using a full orbit test particle approach, we analyse the motion of a single proton in the vicinity of magnetic null point configurations which are solutions to the kinematic, steady state, resistive magnetohydrodynamics equations. We consider two magnetic configurations, namely, the sheared and torsional spine reconnection regimes [E. R. Priest and D. I. Pontin, Phys. Plasmas 16, 122101 (2009); P. Wyper and R. Jain, Phys. Plasmas 17, 092902 (2010)]; each produce an associated electric field and thus the possibility of accelerating charged particles to high energy levels, i.e., > MeV, as observed in solar flares [R. P. Lin, Space Sci. Rev. 124, 233 (2006)]. The particle's energy gain is strongly dependent on the location of injection and is characterised by the angle of approach β, with optimum angle of approach β{sub opt} as the value of β which produces the maximum energy gain. We examine the topological features of each regime and analyse the effect on the energy gain of the proton. We also calculate the complete Lyapunov spectrum for the considered dynamical systems in order to correctly quantify the chaotic nature of the particle orbits. We find that the sheared model is a good candidate for the acceleration of particles, and for increased shear, we expect a larger population to be accelerated to higher energy levels. In the strong electric field regime (E{sub 0}=1500 V/m), the torsional model produces chaotic particle orbits quantified by the calculation of multiple positive Lyapunov exponents in the spectrum, whereas the sheared model produces chaotic orbits only in the neighbourhood of the null point.

  2. APPARATUS FOR TRAPPING ENERGETIC CHARGED PARTICLES AND CONFINING THE RESULTING PLASMA

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, G.; Jordan, W.C.; Lauer, E.J.

    1963-04-01

    The present invention relates to a plasma-confining device and a particle injector therefor, the device utilizing a generally toroidal configuration with magnetic fields specifically tailored to the associated injector. The device minimizes the effects of particle end losses and particle drift to the walls with a relatively simple configuration. More particularly, the magnetic field configuration is created by a continuous array of circular, mirror field coils, disposed side-by- side, in particularly spaced relation, to form an endless, toroidal loop. The resulting magnetic field created therein has the appearance of a bumpy'' torus, from which is derived the name Bumpy Torus.'' One of the aforementioned coils is split transverse to its axis, and injection of particles is accomplished along a plane between the halves of such modified coil. The guiding center of the particles follows a constant magnetic field in the plane for a particular distance within the torus, to move therefrom onto a precessional surface which does not intersect the point of injection. (AEC)

  3. Charge-changing particle-hole excitation of {sup 16}N and {sup 16}F nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taqi Al-Bayati, Ali H.; Darwesh, Sarah S.

    2013-12-16

    The nuclear structure of {sup 16}N (closed shell + ν − π) and {sup 16}F (closed shell + π − ν) nuclei is studied using particle-hole proton-neutron Tamm-Dancoff Approximation pn TDA and particle-hole proton-neutron Random Phase Approximation pn RPA. The particle-hole Hamiltonian of PSD model space is to be diagonalized in the presence of the PSDMWKPN interaction: for P-space the Cohen-Kurath interaction, for SD-space the Wildenthal Interaction, for the coupling matrix elements between P- and SD-spaces the Millener-Kurath interaction is used, spurious components were eliminated with CM contribution. The results containing energy level schemes and electromagnetic transition strength are compared with the available experimental data.

  4. Search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles in pp collisions at √s = 8  TeV using the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    None

    2015-08-08

    A search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles is performed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Data collected in 2012 at √s = 8 TeV from pp collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1 are examined. Particles producing anomalously high ionisation, consistent with long-lived massive particles with electric charges from |q| = 2e to |q| = 6e are searched for. No signal candidate events are observed, and 95 % confidence level cross-section upper limits are interpreted as lower mass limits for a Drell–Yan production model. The mass limits range between 660 and 785 GeV.

  5. Anomalous diffusion of field lines and charged particles in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress force-free magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram, Abhay K.; Dasgupta, Brahmananda; Krishnamurthy, V.; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2014-07-15

    The cosmic magnetic fields in regions of low plasma pressure and large currents, such as in interstellar space and gaseous nebulae, are force-free in the sense that the Lorentz force vanishes. The three-dimensional Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) field is an example of a force-free, helical magnetic field. In fluid dynamics, ABC flows are steady state solutions of the Euler equation. The ABC magnetic field lines exhibit a complex and varied structure that is a mix of regular and chaotic trajectories in phase space. The characteristic features of field line trajectories are illustrated through the phase space distribution of finite-distance and asymptotic-distance Lyapunov exponents. In regions of chaotic trajectories, an ensemble-averaged variance of the distance between field lines reveals anomalous diffusion—in fact, superdiffusion—of the field lines. The motion of charged particles in the force-free ABC magnetic fields is different from the flow of passive scalars in ABC flows. The particles do not necessarily follow the field lines and display a variety of dynamical behavior depending on their energy, and their initial pitch-angle. There is an overlap, in space, of the regions in which the field lines and the particle orbits are chaotic. The time evolution of an ensemble of particles, in such regions, can be divided into three categories. For short times, the motion of the particles is essentially ballistic; the ensemble-averaged, mean square displacement is approximately proportional to t{sup 2}, where t is the time of evolution. The intermediate time region is defined by a decay of the velocity autocorrelation function—this being a measure of the time after which the collective dynamics is independent of the initial conditions. For longer times, the particles undergo superdiffusion—the mean square displacement is proportional to t{sup α}, where α > 1, and is weakly dependent on the energy of the particles. These super-diffusive characteristics

  6. Improved Design of Active Pixel CMOS Sensors for Charged Particle Detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz

    2007-11-12

    The Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear physics program requires developments in detector instrumentation electronics with improved energy, position and timing resolution, sensitivity, rate capability, stability, dynamic range, and background suppression. The current Phase-I project was focused on analysis of standard-CMOS photogate Active Pixel Sensors (APS) as an efficient solution to this challenge. The advantages of the CMOS APS over traditional hybrid approaches (i.e., separate detection regions bump-bonded to readout circuits) include greatly reduced cost, low power and the potential for vastly larger pixel counts and densities. However, challenges remain in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and readout speed (currently on the order of milliseconds), which is the major problem for this technology. Recent work has shown that the long readout time for photogate APS is due to the presence of (interface) traps at the semiconductor-oxide interface. This Phase-I work yielded useful results in two areas: (a) Advanced three-dimensional (3D) physics-based simulation models and simulation-based analysis of the impact of interface trap density on the transient charge collection characteristics of existing APS structures; and (b) Preliminary analysis of the feasibility of an improved photogate pixel structure (i.e., new APS design) with an induced electric field under the charge collecting electrode to enhance charge collection. Significant effort was dedicated in Phase-I to the critical task of implementing accurate interface trap models in CFDRC's NanoTCAD 3D semiconductor device-physics simulator. This resulted in validation of the new NanoTCAD models and simulation results against experimental (published) data, within the margin of uncertainty associated with obtaining device geometry, material properties, and experimentation details. Analyses of the new, proposed photogate APS design demonstrated several promising trends.

  7. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity inside jets from $$$\\sqrt{s}=8$$$ $$${\\mathrm{TeV}}$$$ pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; et al

    2016-06-13

    The number of charged particles inside jets is a widely used discriminant for identifying the quark or gluon nature of the initiating parton and is sensitive to both the perturbative and non-perturbative components of fragmentation. This paper presents a measurement of the average number of charged particles with pT > 500 MeV inside high-momentum jets in dijet events using 20.3 fb-1 of data recorded with the ATLAS detector in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV collisions at the LHC. The jets considered have transverse momenta from 50 GeV up to and beyond 1.5 TeV . The reconstructed charged-particle track multiplicity distributionmore » is unfolded to remove distortions from detector effects and the resulting charged-particle multiplicity is compared to several models. Lastly, quark and gluon jet fractions are used to extract the average charged-particle multiplicity for quark and gluon jets separately.« less

  8. Correlations between jets and charged particles in PbPb and pp collisions at $$ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $$ TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-02-23

    In this study, the quark-gluon plasma is studied via medium-induced changes to correlations between jets and charged particles in PbPb collisions compared to pp reference data. This analysis uses data sets from PbPb and pp collisions with integrated luminosities of 166 inverse microbarns and 5.3 inverse picobarns, respectively, collected atmore » $$ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $$ TeV. The angular distributions of charged particles are studied as a function of relative pseudorapidity (Δη) and relative azimuthal angle (ΔΦ) with respect to reconstructed jet directions. Charged particles are correlated with all jets with transverse momentum (pT) above 120 GeV, and with the leading and subleading jets (the highest and second-highest in pT, respectively) in a selection of back-to-back dijet events. Modifications in PbPb data relative to pp reference data are characterized as a function of PbPb collision centrality and charged particle pT. A centrality-dependent excess of low-pT particles is present for all jets studied, and is most pronounced in the most central events. This excess of low-pT particles follows a Gaussian-like distribution around the jet axis, and extends to large relative angles of Δη ≈ 1 and ΔΦ ≈ 1.« less

  9. Jet and underlying event properties as a function of charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.,

    2013-12-17

    Characteristics of multi-particle production in proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity, N[ch]. The produced particles are separated into two classes: those belonging to jets and those belonging to the underlying event. Charged particles are measured with pseudorapidity abs(eta) < 2.4 and transverse momentum pt > 0.25 GeV. Jets are reconstructed from charged-particles only and required to have pt > 5 GeV. The distributions of jet pt, average pt of charged particles belonging to the underlying event or to jets, jet rates, and jet shapes are presented as functions of N[ch] and compared to the predictions of the PYTHIA and HERWIG event generators. Predictions without multi-parton interactions fail completely to describe the N[ch]-dependence observed in the data. For increasing N[ch], PYTHIA systematically predicts higher jet rates and harder pt spectra than seen in the data, whereas HERWIG shows the opposite trends. At the highest multiplicity, the data-model agreement is worse for most observables, indicating the need for further tuning and/or new model ingredients.

  10. Dust particle charge screening in the dry-air plasma produced by an external ionization source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derbenev, I. N.; Filippov, A. V.

    2015-08-15

    The ionic composition of the plasma produced by an external ionization source in dry air at atmospheric pressure and room temperature and the screening of the electric field of a dust particle in such a plasma have been investigated. The point sink model based on the diffusion-drift approximation has been used to solve the screening problem. We have established that the main species of ions in the plasma under consideration are O{sub 4}{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup -}, and O{sub 4}{sup -} and that the dust particle potential distribution is described by a superposition of four exponentials with four different constants. We show that the first constant coincides with the inverse Debye length, the second is described by the inverse ambipolar diffusion length of the positive and negative plasma components in the characteristic time of their recombination, the third is determined by the conversion of negative ions, and the fourth is determined by the attachment and recombination of electrons and diatomic ions.

  11. A hybrid approach for quantizing complicated motion of a charged particle in time-varying magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menouar, Salah; Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2015-02-15

    Quantum characteristics of a charged particle subjected to a singular oscillator potential under an external magnetic field is investigated via SU(1,1) Lie algebraic approach together with the invariant operator and the unitary transformation methods. The system we managed is somewhat complicated since we considered not only the time-variation of the effective mass of the system but also the dependence of the external magnetic field on time in an arbitrary fashion. In this case, the system is a kind of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems which require more delicate treatment when we study it. The complete wave functions are obtained without relying on the methods of perturbation and/or approximation, and the global phases of the system are identified. To promote the understanding of our development, we applied it to a particular case, assuming that the effective mass slowly varies with time under a time-dependent magnetic field.

  12. Laser or charged-particle-beam fusion reactor with direct electric generation by magnetic flux compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lasche, G.P.

    1983-09-29

    The invention is a laser or particle-beam-driven fusion reactor system which takes maximum advantage of both the very short pulsed nature of the energy release of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and the very small volumes within which the thermonuclear burn takes place. The pulsed nature of ICF permits dynamic direct energy conversion schemes such as magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generation and magnetic flux compression; the small volumes permit very compact blanket geometries. By fully exploiting these characteristics of ICF, it is possible to design a fusion reactor with exceptionally high power density, high net electric efficiency, and low neutron-induced radioactivity. The invention includes a compact blanket design and method and apparatus for obtaining energy utilizing the compact blanket.

  13. Testing model energy spectra of charged particles produced in hadron interactions on the basis of atmospheric muons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dedenko, L. G.; Roganova, T. M.; Fedorova, G. F.

    2015-10-15

    An original method for calculating the spectrum of atmospheric muons with the aid of the CORSIKA 7.4 code package and numerical integration is proposed. The first step consists in calculating the energy distribution of muons for various fixed energies of primary-cosmic-ray particles and within several chosen hadron-interaction models included in the CORSIKA 7.4 code package. After that, the spectrum of atmospheric muons is calculated via integrating the resulting distribution densities with the chosen spectrum of primary-cosmic-ray particles. The atmospheric-muon fluxes that were calculated on the basis of the SIBYLL 2.1, QGSJET01, and QGSJET II-04 models exceed the predictions of the wellknown Gaisser approximation of this spectrum by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8 in the range of muon energies between about 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4} GeV.Under the assumption that, in the region of extremely highmuon energies, a dominant contribution to the muon flux comes from one to two generations of charged π{sup ±} and K{sup ±} mesons, the production rate calculated for these mesons is overestimated by a factor of 1.3 to 1.5. This conclusion is confirmed by the results of the LHCf and TOTEM experiments.

  14. Study of dust particle charging in weakly ionized inert gases taking into account the nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippov, A. V. Dyatko, N. A.; Kostenko, A. S.

    2014-11-15

    The charging of dust particles in weakly ionized inert gases at atmospheric pressure has been investigated. The conditions under which the gas is ionized by an external source, a beam of fast electrons, are considered. The electron energy distribution function in argon, krypton, and xenon has been calculated for three rates of gas ionization by fast electrons: 10{sup 13}, 10{sup 14}, and 10{sup 15} cm{sup ?1}. A model of dust particle charging with allowance for the nonlocal formation of the electron energy distribution function in the region of strong plasma quasi-neutrality violation around the dust particle is described. The nonlocality is taken into account in an approximation where the distribution function is a function of only the total electron energy. Comparative calculations of the dust particle charge with and without allowance for the nonlocality of the electron energy distribution function have been performed. Allowance for the nonlocality is shown to lead to a noticeable increase in the dust particle charge due to the influence of the group of hot electrons from the tail of the distribution function. It has been established that the screening constant virtually coincides with the smallest screening constant determined according to the asymptotic theory of screening with the electron transport and recombination coefficients in an unperturbed plasma.

  15. Charged particle dynamics and molecular kinetics in the hydrogen postdischarge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diomede, P.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2006-11-15

    The afterglow of a parallel plate radio frequency discharge in hydrogen is studied by numerical modelling to compare ion dynamics and chemical effects on the behavior of negative ions. While the ion dynamics requires a kinetic description of space dependent plasma relaxation (at least 1D), chemical effects require a vibrational kinetics of hydrogen molecules. Since previous models did not include both features it has not been possible until now to realize both effects in a single simulation. We apply an updated version of the 1D Bari model which includes a 1.5D (1Dr2Dv) Particle in Cell/Monte Carlo (PIC/MC) multispecies module coupled to the space and time dependent master equation for H{sub 2}(X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +},v=0,...,14) vibrational level population. Negative ion fronts are described in hydrogen for the first time and their impact on the plasma limiting surfaces produces a negative ion current evolution compatible with experimental findings. In the same conditions, the attachment rate overshoot is found to contribute about 7% to the average ion density in the plasma.

  16. Search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles in pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}=8$$ s = 8  TeV using the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J. -B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D’Auria, S.; D’Onofrio, M.; Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J. Da; Via, C. Da; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell’Acqua, A.; Dell’Asta, L.; Dell’Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. 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A.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P. U. E.; Oram, C. J.; Oreglia, M. J.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlando, N.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R. S.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Otono, H.; Ouchrif, M.; Ouellette, E. A.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Oussoren, K. P.; Ouyang, Q.; Ovcharova, A.; Owen, M.; Owen, R. E.; Ozcan, V. E.; Ozturk, N.; Pachal, K.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Pagáčová, M.; Pagan Griso, S.; Paganis, E.; Pahl, C.; Paige, F.; Pais, P.; Pajchel, K.; Palacino, G.; Palestini, S.; Palka, M.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Pan, Y. B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Pandini, C. E.; Panduro Vazquez, J. G.; Pani, P.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Paolozzi, L.; Papadopoulou, Th. D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Paramonov, A.; Paredes Hernandez, D.; Parker, M. A.; Parker, K. A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J. A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passaggio, S.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pásztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N. D.; Pater, J. R.; Pauly, T.; Pearce, J.; Pearson, B.; Pedersen, L. E.; Pedersen, M.; Pedraza Lopez, S.; Pedro, R.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Pelikan, D.; Peng, H.; Penning, B.; Penwell, J.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perez Codina, E.; Pérez García-Estañ, M. T.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrella, S.; Peschke, R.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peters, K.; Peters, R. F. Y.; Petersen, B. A.; Petersen, T. C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Pettersson, N. E.; Pezoa, R.; Phillips, P. W.; Piacquadio, G.; Pianori, E.; Picazio, A.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickering, M. A.; Piegaia, R.; Pignotti, D. T.; Pilcher, J. E.; Pilkington, A. D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J. L.; Pingel, A.; Pinto, B.; Pires, S.; Pitt, M.; Pizio, C.; Plazak, L.; Pleier, M. -A.; Pleskot, V.; Plotnikova, E.; Plucinski, P.; Pluth, D.; Poettgen, R.; Poggioli, L.; Pohl, D.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Pollard, C. S.; Polychronakos, V.; Pommès, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B. G.; Popeneciu, G. A.; Popovic, D. S.; Poppleton, A.; Pospisil, S.; Potamianos, K.; Potrap, I. N.; Potter, C. J.; Potter, C. T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Pralavorio, P.; Pranko, A.; Prasad, S.; Prell, S.; Price, D.; Price, L. E.; Primavera, M.; Prince, S.; Proissl, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopapadaki, E.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Przybycien, M.; Ptacek, E.; Puddu, D.; Pueschel, E.; Puldon, D.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Qian, J.; Qin, G.; Qin, Y.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D. R.; Quayle, W. B.; Queitsch-Maitland, M.; Quilty, D.; Raddum, S.; Radeka, V.; Radescu, V.; Radhakrishnan, S. K.; Radloff, P.; Rados, P.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rangel-Smith, C.; Rauscher, F.; Rave, S.; Ravenscroft, T.; Raymond, M.; Read, A. L.; Readioff, N. P.; Rebuzzi, D. M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Rehnisch, L.; Reisin, H.; Relich, M.; Rembser, C.; Ren, H.; Renaud, A.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Rezanova, O. L.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richter, R.; Richter, S.; Richter-Was, E.; Ricken, O.; Ridel, M.; Rieck, P.; Riegel, C. J.; Rieger, J.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Ristić, B.; Ritsch, E.; Riu, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S. H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J. E. M.; Robson, A.; Roda, C.; Roe, S.; Røhne, O.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romano, M.; Romano Saez, S. M.; Romero Adam, E.; Rompotis, N.; Ronzani, M.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rosbach, K.; Rose, P.; Rosendahl, P. L.; Rosenthal, O.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L. P.; Rosten, R.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C. R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubbo, F.; Rubinskiy, I.; Rud, V. I.; Rudolph, C.; Rudolph, M. S.; Rühr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N. A.; Ruschke, A.; Russell, H. L.; Rutherfoord, J. P.; Ruthmann, N.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N. C.; Saavedra, A. F.; Sabato, G.; Sacerdoti, S.; Saddique, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Saimpert, M.; Sakamoto, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salek, D.; Sales De Bruin, P. H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Saadi, D. Shoaleh; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Denis, R. D. St.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, L.; Yao, W-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-08-01

    A search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles is performed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Data collected in 2012 at √s=8 TeV TeV from pp collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1 are examined. Particles producing anomalously high ionisation, consistent with long-lived massive particles with electric charges from |q|=2e to |q|=6e are searched for. No signal candidate events are observed, and 95 % confidence level cross-section upper limits are interpreted as lower mass limits for a Drell–Yan production model. The mass limits range between 660 and 785 GeV.

  17. Search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles in pp collisions at ?s = 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-08

    A search for heavy long-lived multi-charged particles is performed using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Data collected in 2012 at ?s = 8 TeV from pp collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb-1 are examined. Particles producing anomalously high ionisation, consistent with long-lived massive particles with electric charges from |q| = 2e to |q| = 6e are searched for. No signal candidate events are observed, and 95 % confidence level cross-section upper limits are interpreted as lower mass limits for a DrellYan production model. The mass limits range between 660 and 785 GeV.

  18. Sheet beam model for intense space-charge: with application to Debye screening and the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies in a thermal equilibrium beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lund, Steven M.; Friedman, Alex; Bazouin, Guillaume

    2011-01-10

    A one-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson model for sheet beams is reviewed and extended to provide a simple framework for analysis of space-charge effects. Centroid and rms envelope equations including image charge effects are derived and reasonable parameter equivalences with commonly employed 2D transverse models of unbunched beams are established. This sheet beam model is then applied to analyze several problems of fundamental interest. A sheet beam thermal equilibrium distribution in a continuous focusing channel is constructed and shown to have analogous properties to two- d three-dimensional thermal equilibrium models in terms of the equilibrium structure and Deybe screening properties. The simpler formulation for sheet beams is exploited to explicitly calculate the distribution of particle oscillation frequencies within a thermal equilibrium beam. It is shown that as space-charge intensity increases, the frequency distribution becomes broad, suggesting that beams with strong space-charge can have improved stability.

  19. New multigroup Monte Carlo scattering algorithm suitable for neutral- and charged-particle Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sloan, D.P.

    1983-05-01

    Morel (1981) has developed multigroup Legendre cross sections suitable for input to standard discrete ordinates transport codes for performing charged-particle Fokker-Planck calculations in one-dimensional slab and spherical geometries. Since the Monte Carlo neutron transport code, MORSE, uses the same multigroup cross section data that discrete ordinates codes use, it was natural to consider whether Fokker-Planck calculations could be performed with MORSE. In order to extend the unique three-dimensional forward or adjoint capability of MORSE to Fokker-Planck calculations, the MORSE code was modified to correctly treat the delta-function scattering of the energy operator, and a new set of physically acceptable cross sections was derived to model the angular operator. Morel (1979) has also developed multigroup Legendre cross sections suitable for input to standard discrete ordinates codes for performing electron Boltzmann calculations. These electron cross sections may be treated in MORSE with the same methods developed to treat the Fokker-Planck cross sections. The large magnitude of the elastic scattering cross section, however, severely increases the computation or run time. It is well-known that approximate elastic cross sections are easily obtained by applying the extended transport (or delta function) correction to the Legendre coefficients of the exact cross section. An exact method for performing the extended transport cross section correction produces cross sections which are physically acceptable. Sample calculations using electron cross sections have demonstrated this new technique to be very effective in decreasing the large magnitude of the cross sections.

  20. Improvement of charged particles transport across a transverse magnetic filter field by electrostatic trapping of magnetized electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, B. K. Hazarika, P.; Chakraborty, M.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2014-07-15

    A study on the transport of charged particles across a magnetic filter field has been carried out in a double plasma device (DPD) and presented in this manuscript. The DPD is virtually divided into two parts viz. source and target regions by a transverse magnetic field (TMF) which is constructed by inserting strontium ferrite magnets into two stainless steel rectangular tubes. Plasma electrons are magnetized but ions are unmagnetized inside the TMF region. Negative voltages are applied to the TMF tubes in order to reduce the loss of electrons towards them. Plasma is produced in the source region by filament discharge method and allowed to flow towards the target region through this negatively biased TMF. It is observed that in the target region, plasma density can be increased and electron temperature decreased with the help of negatively biased TMF. This observation is beneficial for negative ion source development. Plasma diffusion across the negatively biased TMF follows Bohm or anomalous diffusion process when negative bias voltage is very less. At higher negative bias, diffusion coefficient starts deviating from the Bohm diffusion value, associated with enhanced plasma flow in the target region.

  1. Particle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moosmuller, Hans; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Arnott, W. Patrick

    2011-04-26

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  2. Analytical methods for describing charged particle dynamics in general focusing lattices using generalized Courant-Snyder theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Burby, Joshua W.; Chung, Moses

    2014-04-08

    The dynamics of charged particles in general linear focusing lattices with quadrupole, skew-quadrupole, dipole, and solenoidal components, as well as torsion of the fiducial orbit and variation of beam energy is parametrized using a generalized Courant-Snyder (CS) theory, which extends the original CS theory for one degree of freedom to higher dimensions. The envelope function is generalized into an envelope matrix, and the phase advance is generalized into a 4D symplectic rotation, or a U2 element. The 1D envelope equation, also known as the Ermakov-Milne-Pinney equation in quantum mechanics, is generalized to an envelope matrix equation in higher dimensions. Other components of the original CS theory, such as the transfer matrix, Twiss functions, and CS invariant (also known as the Lewis invariant) all have their counterparts, with remarkably similar expressions, in the generalized theory. The gauge group structure of the generalized theory is analyzed. By fixing the gauge freedom with a desired symmetry, the generalized CS parametrization assumes the form of the modified Iwasawa decomposition, whose importance in phase space optics and phase space quantum mechanics has been recently realized. This gauge fixing also symmetrizes the generalized envelope equation and expresses the theory using only the generalized Twiss function ?. The generalized phase advance completely determines the spectral and structural stability properties of a general focusing lattice. For structural stability, the generalized CS theory enables application of the Krein-Moser theory to greatly simplify the stability analysis. The generalized CS theory provides an effective tool to study coupled dynamics and to discover more optimized lattice designs in the larger parameter space of general focusing lattices.

  3. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-05-29

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV in the range 0.4 T CM| T CM = 0, with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lowermorecenter-of-mass energies. The pT distribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with pT > 20 GeV/c compared to expectations from the pp reference. The enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations that include antishadowing modifications of nPDFs.less

  4. Tunable resonant sensing means to sense a particular frequency in a high energy charged particle beam and generate a frequency-domain signal in response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Michiyuki; Nolan, Marvin L.

    1988-01-01

    A frequency domain sensing system is disclosed for sensing the position of a high energy beam of charged particles traveling within a housing which comprises a plurality of sensors positioned in the wall of the housing radially around the axis of the beam. Each of the sensors further comprises a first electrode of predetermined shape received in a bore in the housing to define a fixed capacitance and an inductance structure attached to the electrode to provide an inductance for the sensing means which will provide an LC circuit which will resonate at a predetermined frequency known to exist in the beam of charged particles. The sensors are further provided with tuning apparatus associated with the inductance structure to vary the amount of the inductance to thereby tune the sensors to the predetermined frequency prior to transmission of the signal to signal detection circuitry.

  5. Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-10-29

    Pseudorapidity ( $\\eta $ ) distributions of charged particles produced in protonproton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 $~\\text {TeV}$ are measured in the ranges $|\\eta | moredepleted in single diffractive dissociation events. The data are compared to models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. None of the models considered provide a consistent description of the measured distributions.less

  6. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\mathrm {NN}}} =5.02$$ TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-29

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, in the range 0.4T < 120 GeV/c and pseudorapidity |ηCM|<1.8 in the proton–nucleon center-of-mass frame. For pT < 10 GeV/c, the charged-particle production is asymmetric about ηCM=0, with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at √s = 5.02 TeV is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The pTdistribution measured inmore » pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with pT > 20GeV/c compared to expectations from the pp reference. As a result, the enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations that include antishadowing modifications of nPDFs.« less

  7. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{_\\mathrm {NN}}} =5.02$ TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-05-29

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at √sNN = 5.02 TeV, in the range 0.4T < 120 GeV/c and pseudorapidity |ηCM|<1.8 in the proton–nucleon center-of-mass frame. For pT < 10 GeV/c, the charged-particle production is asymmetric about ηCM=0, with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at √s = 5.02 TeV is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The pTdistribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with pT > 20GeV/c compared to expectations from the pp reference. As a result, the enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations that include antishadowing modifications of nPDFs.

  8. Nuclear effects on the transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in pPb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-05-29

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles are measured by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC in pPb collisions at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV in the range 0.4 < pT < 120 GeV/c and pseudorapidity |?CM| < 1.8 in the protonnucleon center-of-mass frame. For pT < 10 GeV/c, the charged-particle production is asymmetric about ?CM = 0, with smaller yield observed in the direction of the proton beam, qualitatively consistent with expectations from shadowing in nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDF). A pp reference spectrum at ?sNN = 5.02 TeV is obtained by interpolation from previous measurements at higher and lower center-of-mass energies. The pT distribution measured in pPb collisions shows an enhancement of charged particles with pT > 20 GeV/c compared to expectations from the pp reference. The enhancement is larger than predicted by perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations that include antishadowing modifications of nPDFs.

  9. IonCCD for direct position-sensitive charged-particle detection: from electrons and keV ions to hyperthermal biomolecular ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjar, Omar; Johnson, Grant E.; Laskin, Julia; Kibelka, Gottfried; Shill, Scott M.; Kuhn, Ken; Cameron, Chad; Kassan, Scott

    2011-04-01

    A novel charged-particle sensitive, pixel based detector array is described and its usage is demonstrated for a variety of applications, from detection of elemental particles (electrons) to hyper-thermal large biomolecular positive and negative ions including keV light atomic and molecular ions. The array detector is a modified light-sensitive charged coupled device (CCD). The IonCCDTM was engineered for direct charged particle detection by replacing the semi-conductor part of the CCD pixel by a conductor1. In contrast with the CCD, where the semi-conductive pixel is responsible for electron-hole pair formation upon photon bombardment, the IonCCD uses a capacitor coupled to the conductive electrode for direct charge integration. The detector can be operated from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum since no high voltages are needed. The IonCCD, presented in this work is an array of 2126 active pixels with 21 um pixel width and 3 um pixel gap. The detection area is 1.5x51mm2 where 1.5 mm and 51 mm are pixel and detector array length, respectively. The result is a one-dimensional position-sensitive detector with 24 um spatial resolution and 88 % pixel area ratio (PAR). In this work we demonstrate the capabilities and the performance of the detector. For the first time we show the direct detection of 250 eV electrons providing linearity response and detection efficiency of the IonCCD as function of electron beam current. Using positive ions from and electron impact source (E-I), we demonstrate that the detection efficiency of the IonCCD is virtually independent of particle energy [250 eV, 1250 eV], particle impact angle [45o, 90o] and particle flux. By combining the IonCCD with a double focusing sector field of Mattauch-Herzog geometry (M-H), we demonstrate fast acquisition of mass spectra in direct air sniffing mode. A first step towards fast in vivo breath analysis is presented. Detection of hyper-thermal biomolecular ions produced using an electrospray ionization

  10. Forward energy flow, central charged-particle multiplicities, and pseudorapidity gaps in W and Z boson events from pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}= 7$ TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; et al.

    2012-01-01

    A study of forward energy flow and central charged-particle multiplicity in events with W and Z bosons decaying into leptons is presented. The analysis uses a sample of 7 TeV pp collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36 inverse picobarns, recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The observed forward energy depositions, their correlations, and the central charged-particle multiplicities are not well described by the available non-diffractive soft-hadron production models. A study of about 300 events with no significant energy deposited in one of the forward calorimeters, corresponding to a pseudorapidity gap of at least 1.9 units, is also presented. An indication for a diffractive component in these events comes from the observation that the majority of the charged leptons from the (W/Z) decays are found in the hemisphere opposite to the gap. When fitting the signed lepton pseudorapidity distribution of these events with predicted distributions from an admixture of diffractive (POMPYT) and non-diffractive (PYTHIA) Monte Carlo simulations, the diffractive component is determined to be (50.0 +/- 9.3 (stat.) +/- 5.2 (syst.))%.

  11. Search for metastable heavy charged particles with large ionisation energy loss in pp collisions at ${\\sqrt{s} = 8}$ s = 8 TeV using the ATLAS experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.

    2015-09-03

    Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged heavy long-lived particles, such as R-hadrons or charginos. These particles, if produced at the Large Hadron Collider, should be moving non-relativistically and are therefore identifiable through the measurement of an anomalously large specific energy loss in the ATLAS pixel detector. Measuring heavy long-lived particles through their track parameters in the vicinity of the interaction vertex provides sensitivity to metastable particles with lifetimes from 0.6 ns to 30 ns. A search for such particles with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is presented, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of \\(18.4\\) fb\\(^{-1}\\) of pp collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s} = 8\\) TeV. No significant deviation from the Standard Model background expectation is observed, and lifetime-dependent upper limits on R-hadrons and chargino production are set. Gluino R-hadrons with 10 ns lifetime and masses up to 1185 GeV are excluded at 95 \\(\\%\\) confidence level, and so are charginos with 15 ns lifetime and masses up to 482 GeV.

  12. Search for metastable heavy charged particles with large ionisation energy loss in pp collisions at $${\\sqrt{s} = 8}$$ s = 8 TeV using the ATLAS experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2015-09-03

    Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged heavy long-lived particles, such as R-hadrons or charginos. These particles, if produced at the Large Hadron Collider, should be moving non-relativistically and are therefore identifiable through the measurement of an anomalously large specific energy loss in the ATLAS pixel detector. Measuring heavy long-lived particles through their track parameters in the vicinity of the interaction vertex provides sensitivity to metastable particles with lifetimes from 0.6 ns to 30 ns. A search for such particles with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is presented, based on a data samplemore » corresponding to an integrated luminosity of \\(18.4\\) fb\\(^{-1}\\) of pp collisions at \\(\\sqrt{s} = 8\\) TeV. No significant deviation from the Standard Model background expectation is observed, and lifetime-dependent upper limits on R-hadrons and chargino production are set. Gluino R-hadrons with 10 ns lifetime and masses up to 1185 GeV are excluded at 95 \\(\\%\\) confidence level, and so are charginos with 15 ns lifetime and masses up to 482 GeV.« less

  13. Field calculations, single-particle tracking, and beam dynamics with space charge in the electron lens for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noll, Daniel; Stancari, Giulio

    2015-11-17

    An electron lens is planned for the Fermilab Integrable Optics Test Accelerator as a nonlinear element for integrable dynamics, as an electron cooler, and as an electron trap to study space-charge compensation in rings. We present the main design principles and constraints for nonlinear integrable optics. A magnetic configuration of the solenoids and of the toroidal section is laid out. Singleparticle tracking is used to optimize the electron path. Electron beam dynamics at high intensity is calculated with a particle-in-cell code to estimate current limits, profile distortions, and the effects on the circulating beam. In the conclusions, we summarize the main findings and list directions for further work.

  14. Measurement of the underlying event activity using charged-particle jets in proton-proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 2.76 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-09-21

    A measurement of the underlying event (UE) activity in proton-proton collisions is performed using events with charged-particle jets produced in the central pseudorapidity region (|η jet| < 2) and with transverse momentum 1 ≤ pT jet < 100 GeV. The analysis uses a data sample collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The UE activity is measured as a function of pT jet in terms of the average multiplicity and scalar sum of transverse momenta (pT) of charged particles, with |η| < 2 and pT > 0.5 GeV, in the azimuthal regionmore » transverse to the highest pT jet direction. By further dividing the transverse region into two regions of smaller and larger activity, various components of the UE activity are separated. As a result, the measurements are compared to previous results at 0.9 and 7 TeV, and to predictions of several Monte Carlo event generators, providing constraints on the modelling of the UE dynamics« less

  15. Measurement of the underlying event activity using charged-particle jets in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-09-21

    A measurement of the underlying event (UE) activity in proton-proton collisions is performed using events with charged-particle jets produced in the central pseudorapidity region (|η jet| < 2) and with transverse momentum 1 ≤ pT jet < 100 GeV. The analysis uses a data sample collected at a centre-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV with the CMS experiment at the LHC. The UE activity is measured as a function of pT jet in terms of the average multiplicity and scalar sum of transverse momenta (pT) of charged particles, with |η| < 2 and pT > 0.5 GeV, in the azimuthal region transverse to the highest pT jet direction. By further dividing the transverse region into two regions of smaller and larger activity, various components of the UE activity are separated. As a result, the measurements are compared to previous results at 0.9 and 7 TeV, and to predictions of several Monte Carlo event generators, providing constraints on the modelling of the UE dynamics

  16. Charged particle spectra in [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p[sub T] dN/dp[sub T] and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central [sup 32]S + [sup 32]S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be [Delta]y [approximately] 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p[sub T]. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T[sub f] [approximately] 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  17. Charged particle spectra in {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon from CCD-imaged nuclear collisions in a streamer chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teitelbaum, L.P.

    1992-04-01

    We have measured the transverse momentum spectra 1/p{sub T} dN/dp{sub T} and rapidity distributions dN/dy of negatively charged hadrons and protons for central {sup 32}S + {sup 32}S interactions at 200 GeV/nucleon incident energy. The negative hadron dN/dy distribution is too broad to be accounted for by thermal models which demand isotropic particle emission. It is compatible with models which emphasize longitudinal dynamics, by either a particle production mechanism, as in the Lund fragmentation model, or by introducing one-dimensional hydrodynamic expansion, as in the Landau model. The proton dN/dy distribution, although showing no evidence for a peak in the target fragmentation region, exhibits limited nuclear stopping power. We estimate the mean rapidity shift of participant target protons to be {Delta}y {approximately} 1.5, greater than observed for pp collisions, less than measured in central pA collisions, and much less than would be observed for a single equilibrated fireball at midrapidity. Both the negative hadron and proton dN/dy distributions can be fit by a symmetric Landau two-fireball model. Although the spectrum possesses a two-component structure, a comparison to pp data at comparable center-of-mass energy shows no evidence for enhanced production at low p{sub T}. The two-component structure can be explained by a thermal and chemical equilibrium model which takes into account the kinematics of resonance decay. Using an expression motivated by longitudinal expansion we find the same temperature for both the protons and negative hadrons at freezeout, T{sub f} {approximately} 170 MeV. We conclude that the charged particle spectra of negative hadrons and protons can be accommodated in a simple collision picture of limited nuclear stopping, evolution through a state of thermal equilibrium, followed by longitudinal hydrodynamic expansion until freezeout.

  18. Separability of massive field equations for spin-0 and spin-1/2 charged particles in the general nonextremal rotating charged black hole spacetimes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Shuangqing

    2009-10-15

    We continue to investigate the separability of massive field equations for spin-0 and spin-1/2 charged particles in the general, nonextremal, rotating, charged, Chong-Cvetic-Lue-Pope black holes with two independent angular momenta and a nonzero cosmological constant in minimal D=5 gauged supergravity theory. We show that the complex Klein-Gordon equation and the modified Dirac equation with the inclusion of an extra counterterm can be separated by variables into purely radial and purely angular parts in this general Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons background spacetime. A second-order symmetry operator that commutes with the complex Laplacian operator is constructed from the separated solutions and expressed compactly in terms of a rank-2 Staeckel-Killing tensor which admits a simple diagonal form in the chosen pentad one-forms so that it can be understood as the square of a rank-3 totally antisymmetric tensor. A first-order symmetry operator that commutes with the modified Dirac operator is expressed in terms of a rank-3 generalized Killing-Yano tensor and its covariant derivative. The Hodge dual of this generalized Killing-Yano tensor is a generalized principal conformal Killing-Yano tensor of rank-2, which can generate a 'tower' of generalized (conformal) Killing-Yano and Staeckel-Killing tensors that are responsible for the whole hidden symmetries of this general, rotating, charged, Kerr-anti-de Sitter black hole geometry. In addition, the first laws of black hole thermodynamics have been generalized to the case that the cosmological constant can be viewed as a thermodynamical variable.

  19. Multi-purpose two- and three-dimensional momentum imaging of charged particles for attosecond experiments at 1 kHz repetition rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mnsson, Erik P. Sorensen, Stacey L.; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Arnold, Cord L.; Kroon, David; Gunot, Diego; Fordell, Thomas; Johnsson, Per; LHuillier, Anne; Lpine, Franck

    2014-12-15

    We report on the versatile design and operation of a two-sided spectrometer for the imaging of charged-particle momenta in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D). The benefits of 3D detection are to discern particles of different mass and to study correlations between fragments from multi-ionization processes, while 2D detectors are more efficient for single-ionization applications. Combining these detector types in one instrument allows us to detect positive and negative particles simultaneously and to reduce acquisition times by using the 2D detector at a higher ionization rate when the third dimension is not required. The combined access to electronic and nuclear dynamics available when both sides are used together is important for studying photoreactions in samples of increasing complexity. The possibilities and limitations of 3D momentum imaging of electrons or ions in the same spectrometer geometry are investigated analytically and three different modes of operation demonstrated experimentally, with infrared or extreme ultraviolet light and an atomic/molecular beam.

  20. Characterization of solid state nuclear track detectors of the polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (CR-39/PM-355) type for light charged particle spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malinowska, A. Jask?a, M.; Korman, A.; Kuk, M.; Szyd?owski, A.

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a method which uses the characteristics of the etch pits induced in a polyallyl-diglycol-carbonate (PADC) detector of the CR-39/PM-355 type to estimate particle energy. This method is based on the data provided by a semiautomatic system that selects tracks according to two parameters, crater diameters, and mean gray level values. In this paper we used the results of the calibration measurements that were obtained in our laboratory in the period 20002014. Combining the information on the two parameters it is possible to determine unambiguously the incident projectile energy values. The paper presents the results of an attempt to estimate the energy resolution of the method when analyzing the tracks produced in the CR-39/PM-355 detector by energetic ions such as alpha particles, protons, and deuterons. We discuss the energy resolution of the measurement of light charged particle energy which is based on the parameters (crater diameter and mean gray level value) of tracks induced in solid state nuclear track detectors of the PADC type.

  1. Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 8 TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-10-29

    Pseudorapidity (η) distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV are measured in the ranges |η|<2.2 and 5.3<|η|<6.4 covered by the CMS and TOTEM detectors, respectively. We found that the data correspond to an integrated luminosity of L=45 μb-1. These measurements are presented for three event categories. The most inclusive category is sensitive to 91–96 % of the total inelastic proton–proton cross section. The other two categories are disjoint subsets of the inclusive sample that are either enhanced or depleted in single diffractive dissociation events. Finally, the data are compared to models usedmore » to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. None of the models considered provide a consistent description of the measured distributions.« less

  2. Measurement of pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV by the CMS and TOTEM experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei

    2014-10-29

    Pseudorapidity (η) distributions of charged particles produced in proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV are measured in the ranges |η|<2.2 and 5.3<|η|<6.4 covered by the CMS and TOTEM detectors, respectively. We found that the data correspond to an integrated luminosity of L=45 μb-1. These measurements are presented for three event categories. The most inclusive category is sensitive to 91–96 % of the total inelastic proton–proton cross section. The other two categories are disjoint subsets of the inclusive sample that are either enhanced or depleted in single diffractive dissociation events. Finally, the data are compared to models used to describe high-energy hadronic interactions. None of the models considered provide a consistent description of the measured distributions.

  3. A novel adaptive time stepping variant of the BorisBuneman integrator for the simulation of particle accelerators with space charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toggweiler, Matthias; Adelmann, Andreas; Arbenz, Peter; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-09-15

    We show that adaptive time stepping in particle accelerator simulation is an enhancement for certain problems. The new algorithm has been implemented in the OPAL (Object Oriented Parallel Accelerator Library) framework. The idea is to adjust the frequency of costly self-field calculations, which are needed to model Coulomb interaction (space charge) effects. In analogy to a Kepler orbit simulation that requires a higher time step resolution at the close encounter, we propose to choose the time step based on the magnitude of the space charge forces. Inspired by geometric integration techniques, our algorithm chooses the time step proportional to a function of the current phase space state instead of calculating a local error estimate like a conventional adaptive procedure. Building on recent work, a more profound argument is given on how exactly the time step should be chosen. An intermediate algorithm, initially built to allow a clearer analysis by introducing separate time steps for external field and self-field integration, turned out to be useful by its own, for a large class of problems.

  4. Charge asymmetry in rovibrationally excited HD{sup +} determined using explicitly correlated all-particle Gaussian functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirnosov, Nikita; Sharkey, Keeper L.; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721

    2013-11-28

    Very accurate non-Born-Oppenheimer quantum-mechanical calculations are performed to determine the average values of the interparticle distances and the proton-deuteron density function for the rovibrationally excited HD{sup +} ion. The states corresponding to excitations to all bound vibrational states (v = 0, , 22) and simultaneously excited to the first excited rotational state (N = 1) are considered. To describe each state up to 8000 explicitly correlated all-particle Gaussian functions are used. The nonlinear parameters of the Gaussians are variationally optimized using a procedure that employs the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The results show an increasing asymmetry in the electron distribution with the vibrational excitation as the electron density shifts towards deuteron and away from the proton.

  5. Effects of T-odd asymmetry of the emission of light charged particles and photons during fission of heavy nuclei by polarized neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagarskii, A. M.; Guseva, I. S.; Goennenwein, F.; Kopach, Yu. N.; Mutterer, M.; Kuz'mina, T. E.; Petrov, G. A.; Tyurin, G.; Nesvizhevsky, V.

    2011-12-15

    The new physical effects of T-odd asymmetry of the emission of light charged particles (LCPs) during the ternary fission of some heavy nuclei by cold polarized neutrons have been experimentally studied. The coefficients of triple scalar and vector correlation of the pulses of light particles and fission fragments (TRI effect) and the fivefold correlation of the same vectors (ROT effect) have been measured. These effects are believed to be caused by the rotation of polarized fissioning system around its polarization direction. The treatment of the experimental data for LCPs in the framework of this hypothesis leads to a good agreement between the calculation results and experimental data. The calculated value of the angle of rotation of the fission axis in the ternary fission of the polarized fissioning {sup 236}U* compound nucleus was used to process the results of measuring the ROT effect for {gamma} photons from binary-fission fragments of the same nucleus. A satisfactory description of these experimental data is obtained which serves a convincing confirmation of the rotation hypothesis.

  6. TURTLE with MAD input (Trace Unlimited Rays Through Lumped Elements) -- A computer program for simulating charged particle beam transport systems and DECAY TURTLE including decay calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, D.C.

    1999-12-09

    TURTLE is a computer program useful for determining many characteristics of a particle beam once an initial design has been achieved, Charged particle beams are usually designed by adjusting various beam line parameters to obtain desired values of certain elements of a transfer or beam matrix. Such beam line parameters may describe certain magnetic fields and their gradients, lengths and shapes of magnets, spacings between magnetic elements, or the initial beam accepted into the system. For such purposes one typically employs a matrix multiplication and fitting program such as TRANSPORT. TURTLE is designed to be used after TRANSPORT. For convenience of the user, the input formats of the two programs have been made compatible. The use of TURTLE should be restricted to beams with small phase space. The lumped element approximation, described below, precludes the inclusion of the effect of conventional local geometric aberrations (due to large phase space) or fourth and higher order. A reading of the discussion below will indicate clearly the exact uses and limitations of the approach taken in TURTLE.

  7. One-dimensional kinetic description of nonlinear traveling-pulse and traveling-wave disturbances in long coasting charged particle beams

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davidson, Ronald C.; Qin, Hong

    2015-09-21

    This paper makes use of a one-dimensional kinetic model to investigate the nonlinear longitudinal dynamics of a long coasting beam propagating through a perfectly conducting circular pipe with radius r w . The average axial electric field is expressed as z >=(?/?z)=ebg???b/?z ebg2r2w?3?b/?z3, where g0 and g2 are constant geometric factors, ?b(z,t)=?dpz Fb (z,pz,t) is the line density of beam particles, and F b (z,pz,t) satisfies the 1D Vlasov equation. Detailed nonlinear properties of traveling-wave and traveling-pulse (soliton) solutions with time-stationary waveform are examined for a wide range of system parameters extending from moderate-amplitudes to large-amplitude modulations ofmorethe beam charge density. Two classes of solutions for the beam distribution function are considered, corresponding to: (i) the nonlinear waterbag distribution, where Fb = const in a bounded region of pz-space; and (ii) nonlinear Bernstein-Green-Kruskal (BGK)-like solutions, allowing for both trapped and untrapped particle distributions to interact with the self-generated electric field.less

  8. Searches for heavy long-lived charged particles with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2015-01-14

    Searches for heavy long-lived charged particles are performed using a data sample of 19.1 fb-1 from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of \\( \\sqrt{s}=8 \\) TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess is observed above the estimated background and limits are placed on the mass of long-lived particles in various supersymmetric models. Long-lived tau sleptons in models with gauge-mediated symmetry breaking are excluded up to masses between 440 and 385 GeV for tan β between 10 and 50, with a 290 GeV limit in the case where only direct tau slepton production ismore » considered. In the context of simplified LeptoSUSY models, where sleptons are stable and have a mass of 300 GeV, squark and gluino masses are excluded up to a mass of 1500 and 1360 GeV, respectively. Directly produced charginos, in simplified models where they are nearly degenerate to the lightest neutralino, are excluded up to a mass of 620 GeV. As a result, R-hadrons, composites containing a gluino, bottom squark or top squark, are excluded up to a mass of 1270, 845 and 900 GeV, respectively, using the full detector; and up to a mass of 1260, 835 and 870 GeV using an approach disregarding information from the muon spectrometer.« less

  9. Searches for heavy long-lived charged particles with the ATLAS detector in proton-proton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.

    2015-01-14

    Searches for heavy long-lived charged particles are performed using a data sample of 19.1 fb-1 from proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of \\( \\sqrt{s}=8 \\) TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess is observed above the estimated background and limits are placed on the mass of long-lived particles in various supersymmetric models. Long-lived tau sleptons in models with gauge-mediated symmetry breaking are excluded up to masses between 440 and 385 GeV for tan ? between 10 and 50, with a 290 GeV limit in the case where only direct tau slepton production is considered. In the context of simplified LeptoSUSY models, where sleptons are stable and have a mass of 300 GeV, squark and gluino masses are excluded up to a mass of 1500 and 1360 GeV, respectively. Directly produced charginos, in simplified models where they are nearly degenerate to the lightest neutralino, are excluded up to a mass of 620 GeV. As a result, R-hadrons, composites containing a gluino, bottom squark or top squark, are excluded up to a mass of 1270, 845 and 900 GeV, respectively, using the full detector; and up to a mass of 1260, 835 and 870 GeV using an approach disregarding information from the muon spectrometer.

  10. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions at $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; et al

    2016-04-01

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μb-1 of proton–lead collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The ρ + Ρb collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the ρ + Ρb collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber–Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. In conclusion, charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon–nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of ρ + Ρb collisions.« less

  11. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity distribution in proton–lead collisions at $$$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; et al

    2016-04-12

    The centrality dependence of the mean charged-particle multiplicity as a function of pseudorapidity is measured in approximately 1 μb−1 of proton–lead collisions at a nucleon–nucleon centre-of-mass energy ofmore » $$$\\sqrt{s_{_\\text {NN}}} = 5.02$$$ TeV using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Charged particles with absolute pseudorapidity less than 2.7 are reconstructed using the ATLAS pixel detector. The ρ + Ρb collision centrality is characterised by the total transverse energy measured in the Pb-going direction of the forward calorimeter. The charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions are found to vary strongly with centrality, with an increasing asymmetry between the proton-going and Pb-going directions as the collisions become more central. Three different estimations of the number of nucleons participating in the ρ + Ρb collision have been carried out using the Glauber model as well as two Glauber–Gribov inspired extensions to the Glauber model. In conclusion, charged-particle multiplicities per participant pair are found to vary differently for these three models, highlighting the importance of including colour fluctuations in nucleon–nucleon collisions in the modelling of the initial state of ρ + Ρb collisions.« less

  12. High-power radio frequency pulse generation and extration based on wakefield excited by an intense charged particle beam in dielectric-loaded waveguides.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, F.; High Energy Physics; Illinois Inst. of Tech

    2009-07-24

    Power extraction using a dielectric-loaded (DL) waveguide is a way to generate high-power radio frequency (RF) waves for future particle accelerators, especially for two-beam-acceleration. In a two-beam-acceleration scheme, a low-energy, high-current particle beam is passed through a deceleration section of waveguide (decelerator), where the power from the beam is partially transferred to trailing electromagnetic waves (wakefields); then with a properly designed RF output coupler, the power generated in the decelerator is extracted to an output waveguide, where finally the power can be transmitted and used to accelerate another usually high-energy low-current beam. The decelerator, together with the RF output coupler, is called a power extractor. At Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA), we designed a 7.8GHz power extractor with a circular DL waveguide and tested it with single electron bunches and bunch trains. The output RF frequency (7.8GHz) is the sixth harmonic of the operational frequency (1.3GHz) of the electron gun and the linac at AWA. In single bunch excitation, a 1.7ns RF pulse with 30MW of power was generated by a single 66nC electron bunch passing through the decelerator. In subsequent experiments, by employing different splitting-recombining optics for the photoinjector laser, electron bunch trains were generated and thus longer RF pulses could be successfully generated and extracted. In 16-bunch experiments, 10ns and 22ns RF pulses have been generated and extracted; and in 4-bunch experiments, the maximum power generated was 44MW with 40MW extracted. A 26GHz DL power extractor has also been designed to test this technique in the millimeter-wave range. A power level of 148MW is expected to be generated by a bunch train with a bunch spacing of 769ps and bunch charges of 20nC each. The arrangement for the experiment is illustrated in a diagram. Higher-order-mode (HOM) power extraction has also been explored in a dual-frequency design. By using a bunch

  13. A Summary of Recent Experimental Research on Ion Energy and Charge States of Pulsed Vacuum Arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oks, Efim M.; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-16

    The paper reviews the results of vacuum arc experimental investigations made collaboratively by research groups from Berkeley and Tomsk over the last two years, i.e. since the last ISDEIV in 2006. Vacuum arc plasma of various metals was produced in pulses of a few hundred microseconds duration, and the research focussed on three topics: (i) the energy distribution functions for different ion charge states, (ii) the temporal development of the ion charge state distribution, and (iii) the evolution of the mean directed ion velocities during plasma expansion. A combined quadruple mass-to-charge and energy ana-lyzer (EQP by HIDEN Ltd) and a time-of-flight spectrometer were employed. Cross-checking data by those complimen-tary techniques helped to avoid possible pitfalls in interpre-tation. It was found that the ion energy distribution func-tions in the plasma were independent of the ion charge state, which implies that the energy distribution on a substrate are not equal to due to acceleration in the substrate's sheath. In pulsed arc mode, the individual ion charge states fractions showed changes leading to a decrease of the mean charge state toward a steady-state value. This decrease can be re-duced by lower arc current, higher pulse repetition rate and reduced length of the discharge gap. It was also found that the directed ion velocity slightly decreased as the plasma expanded into vacuum.

  14. Transverse energy production and charged-particle multiplicity at midrapidity in various systems from sNN=7.7 to 200 GeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Akimoto, R.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Al-Jamel, A.; et al

    2016-02-03

    Measurements of midrapidity charged-particle multiplicity distributions, dNch/dη, and midrapidity transverse-energy distributions, dET/dη, are presented for a variety of collision systems and energies. Included are distributions for Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200, 130, 62.4, 39, 27, 19.6, 14.5, and 7.7 GeV, Cu+Cu collisions at √sNN=200 and 62.4 GeV, Cu+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV, U+U collisions at√sNN=193 GeV, d+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV, He3+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV, and p+p collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. We present centrality-dependent distributions at midrapidity in terms of the number of nucleon participants, Npart, and the number of constituent quark participants, Nqp. For all A+A collisions down tomore » √sNN=7.7 GeV, we observed that the midrapidity data are better described by scaling with Nqp than scaling with Npart. Finally, our estimates of the Bjorken energy density, εBJ, and the ratio of dET/dη to dNch/dη are presented, the latter of which is seen to be constant as a function of centrality for all systems.« less

  15. Space Charge Correction on Emittance Measurement of Low Energy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a charged particle beam through an accelerator and measure the emittance under the influence of space charge effects. We demonstrate the method of correctly calculating the...

  16. On-demand production of uniform DT droplets using pulsed electrohydrodynamic spraying. Charged Particle Research Laboratory report No. 1-82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, K.; Gavrilovic, P.

    1982-04-01

    A technique suitable for on-demand production of uniform DT droplets is investigated using pulsed electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spraying. Liquid hydrogen is employed as the working liquid, into which charge is injected using a sharp tungsten needle raised to high voltage. By controlling this high voltage, the amount of charge injection required for disrupting the liquid surface into a smooth liquid jet of desired size is determined. For on-demand production of the liquid jet (which breaks up into uniform droplets), high voltage pulses of appropriate height and duration are applied to the charge injection electrode. Results obtained with liquid hydrogen and liquid nitrogen are presented. Considering the potential hazard and scarcity of tritium, the present technique may prove to be particularly useful when there is a need for filling ICF targets with a controlled amount of DT micropellets.

  17. Synergistic Effect of High Charge and Energy Particle Radiation and Chronological Age on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Tissue Degeneration: A Ground-Based Study Using the Vertebrate Laboratory Model Organism Oryzias latipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Xinyan; Ding, Lingling; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Weinberger, Paul M.; Dynan, William S.

    2014-11-06

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are a main hazard of the space radiation environment. Uncertainty regarding their health effects is a limiting factor in the design of human exploration-class space missions, that is, missions beyond low earth orbit. Previous work has shown that HZE exposure increases cancer risk and elicits other aging-like phenomena in animal models. Here, we investigate how a single exposure to HZE particle radiation, early in life, influences the subsequent age-dependent evolution of oxidative stress and appearance of degenerative tissue changes. Embryos of the laboratory model organism, Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka fish), were exposed to HZE particle radiation at doses overlapping the range of anticipated human exposure. A separate cohort was exposed to reference γ-radiation. Survival was monitored for 750 days, well beyond the median lifespan. The population was also sampled at intervals and liver tissue was subjected to histological and molecular analysis. HZE particle radiation dose and aging contributed synergistically to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, which are a marker of chronic oxidative stress. This was mirrored by a decline in PPARGC1A mRNA, which encodes a transcriptional co-activator required for expression of oxidative stress defense genes and for mitochondrial maintenance. Consistent with chronic oxidative stress, mitochondria had an elongated and enlarged ultrastructure. Livers also had distinctive, cystic lesions. Depending on the endpoint, effects of γ-rays in the same dose range were either lesser or not detected. Results provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for understanding relative contributions of HZE particle radiation exposure and aging to chronic oxidative stress and tissue degeneration.

  18. Synergistic Effect of High Charge and Energy Particle Radiation and Chronological Age on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Tissue Degeneration: A Ground-Based Study Using the Vertebrate Laboratory Model Organism Oryzias latipes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Xuan; Zhang, Xinyan; Ding, Lingling; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Weinberger, Paul M.; Dynan, William S.

    2014-11-06

    High charge and energy (HZE) particles are a main hazard of the space radiation environment. Uncertainty regarding their health effects is a limiting factor in the design of human exploration-class space missions, that is, missions beyond low earth orbit. Previous work has shown that HZE exposure increases cancer risk and elicits other aging-like phenomena in animal models. Here, we investigate how a single exposure to HZE particle radiation, early in life, influences the subsequent age-dependent evolution of oxidative stress and appearance of degenerative tissue changes. Embryos of the laboratory model organism, Oryzias latipes (Japanese medaka fish), were exposed to HZEmore » particle radiation at doses overlapping the range of anticipated human exposure. A separate cohort was exposed to reference γ-radiation. Survival was monitored for 750 days, well beyond the median lifespan. The population was also sampled at intervals and liver tissue was subjected to histological and molecular analysis. HZE particle radiation dose and aging contributed synergistically to accumulation of lipid peroxidation products, which are a marker of chronic oxidative stress. This was mirrored by a decline in PPARGC1A mRNA, which encodes a transcriptional co-activator required for expression of oxidative stress defense genes and for mitochondrial maintenance. Consistent with chronic oxidative stress, mitochondria had an elongated and enlarged ultrastructure. Livers also had distinctive, cystic lesions. Depending on the endpoint, effects of γ-rays in the same dose range were either lesser or not detected. Results provide a quantitative and qualitative framework for understanding relative contributions of HZE particle radiation exposure and aging to chronic oxidative stress and tissue degeneration.« less

  19. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workplace Charging Policy Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their ...

  20. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  1. Constraints on the pMSSM, AMSB model and on other models from the search for long-lived charged particles in protonproton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-07-17

    Stringent limits are set on the long-lived lepton-like sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) and the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. The limits are derived from the results presented in a recent search for long-lived charged particles in protonproton collisions, based on data collected by the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. In the pMSSM parameter sub-space considered, 95.9 % of the points predicting charginos with a lifetime of at least 10 ns are excluded. These constraints on the pMSSM are the first obtained at the LHC. Charginos with a lifetime greater than 100 ns and masses up to about 800 GeV in the AMSB model are also excluded. The method described can also be used to set constraints on other models.

  2. Constraints on the pMSSM, AMSB model and on other models from the search for long-lived charged particles in protonproton collisions at ?s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, V.

    2015-07-17

    Stringent limits are set on the long-lived lepton-like sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) and the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. The limits are derived from the results presented in a recent search for long-lived charged particles in protonproton collisions, based on data collected by the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. In the pMSSM parameter sub-space considered, 95.9 % of the points predicting charginos with a lifetime of at least 10 ns are excluded. These constraints on the pMSSM are the first obtained at the LHC. Charginos withmorea lifetime greater than 100 ns and masses up to about 800 GeV in the AMSB model are also excluded. The method described can also be used to set constraints on other models.less

  3. Constraints on the pMSSM, AMSB model and on other models from the search for long-lived charged particles in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-07-17

    Stringent limits are set on the long-lived lepton-like sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) and the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. We derived the limits from the results presented in a recent search for long-lived charged particles in proton–proton collisions, based on data collected by the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. In the pMSSM parameter sub-space considered, 95.9 % of the points predicting charginos with a lifetime of at least 10 ns are excluded. Furthermore, these constraints on the pMSSM are the first obtained at the LHC. Charginos with a lifetime greater than 100 ns and masses up to about 800 GeV in the AMSB model are also excluded. Furthermore, the method described can also be used to set constraints on other models.

  4. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Would you be willing to pay a fee for charging? Workplace Charging Challenge How many charging stations does my worksite need? 3 Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging ...

  5. Study of Charged Particle Species Produced in Association with B0, B-, and Bs Mesons in proton - anti-proton collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usynin, Denys

    2005-12-01

    The authors study the yields of charged kaons, charged pions, and protons produced in association with B mesons produced in proton-antiproton collisions at center of mass energy 1960 GeV using 355 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. This is the first reported measurements of these yields at a hadron collider. The B mesons are reconstructed using their semileptonic decays: B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}D{sup -}X, D{sup -} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -}; B{sup 0} {yields} {ell}{sup +}D*{sup -}X, D*{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{bar D}{sup 0},{bar D}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}; B{sup +} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{bar D}{sup 0}X, {bar D}{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}; B{sub s}{yields}{ell}{sup +}D{sub s}{sup -}X, D{sub s}{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -}{phi},{phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -}. The K, {pi}, and p are identified using the Time of Flight detector (TOF), the CDF spectrometer, and the specific ionization (dE/dx) measured in the central drift chamber (COT). The fraction of charged kaons produced in association with {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons is found to be larger than the fraction produced in association with the {bar B}{sup 0} and B{sup -} mesons, as expected from naive models of heavy quark hadronization to mesons. The particle species yields are found to be in qualitative agreement with simulation of B meson production in hadron collisions from the PYTHIA Monte Carlo, although the yield of kaons around {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons is found to be larger in the simulation when compared to the data. These studies are important for understanding methods of identifying the flavor of {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} mesons in measurement of {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} flavor oscillations and charge conjugation-parity (CP) violation in {bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} meson decays.

  6. Study of charged particle motion in fields of different configurations for developing the concept of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, V. P.; Samokhin, A. A.; Vorona, N. A.; Gavrikov, A. V., E-mail: gavrikov@ihed.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    The concept of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field in an electric potential of special configuration is developed. A specific feature of the proposed approach consists in using an accelerating potential for reducing energy and angular spread of plasma ions at the entrance to the separator chamber and a potential well for the spatial separation of ions with different masses. The trajectories of ions of the substance imitating spent nuclear fuel are calculated. The calculations are performed for azimuthal and axial magnetic fields and model electric field configurations corresponding to different geometries of the separator chamber. It is shown that, using magnetic fields with a characteristic strength of 1 kG and electric potentials of up to 1 kV inside a region with a linear size less than 100 cm, it is possible to separate ions of spent nuclear fuel with energies from 0.2 to 3 eV. The calculations were performed for a collisionless mode in the single-particle approximation. Possible variants of the experimental facility for plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel are proposed.

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV ...

  8. The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    professionals in learning about charged particle beams and particle beam optical systems. ... is a graphic user interface shell that provides for a highly interactive learning session. ...

  9. Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2015-09-09

    Charged-particle spectra obtained in Pb+Pb interactions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV and pp interactions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented, using data with integrated luminosities of 0.15 nb⁻¹ and 4.2 pb⁻¹, respectively, in a wide transverse momentum (0.5 T AA and RCP are presented in detail asmore »a function of centrality, pT and η. They show a distinct pT-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, RAA is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is 0.55 ± 0.01(stat.) ± 0.04(syst.) in the most central collisions. The RAA distribution is consistent with flat |η| dependence over the whole transverse momentum range in all centrality classes.« less

  10. Constraints on the pMSSM, AMSB model and on other models from the search for long-lived charged particles in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-07-17

    Stringent limits are set on the long-lived lepton-like sector of the phenomenological minimal supersymmetric standard model (pMSSM) and the anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model. We derived the limits from the results presented in a recent search for long-lived charged particles in proton–proton collisions, based on data collected by the CMS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider. In the pMSSM parameter sub-space considered, 95.9 % of the points predicting charginos with a lifetime of at least 10 ns are excluded. Furthermore, these constraints on the pMSSM are the first obtained at the LHC. Charginosmore » with a lifetime greater than 100 ns and masses up to about 800 GeV in the AMSB model are also excluded. Furthermore, the method described can also be used to set constraints on other models.« less

  11. Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2015-09-09

    Charged-particle spectra obtained in Pb+Pb interactions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV and pp interactions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented, using data with integrated luminosities of 0.15 nb⁻¹ and 4.2 pb⁻¹, respectively, in a wide transverse momentum (0.5 < pT < 150 GeV) and pseudorapidity (|η| < 2) range. For Pb+Pb collisions, the spectra are presented as a function of collision centrality, which is determined by the response of the forward calorimeters located on both sides of the interaction point. The nuclear modification factors RAA and RCP are presented in detail asmore » a function of centrality, pT and η. They show a distinct pT-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, RAA is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is 0.55 ± 0.01(stat.) ± 0.04(syst.) in the most central collisions. The RAA distribution is consistent with flat |η| dependence over the whole transverse momentum range in all centrality classes.« less

  12. Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at s N N = 2.76 $$ \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 $$ TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. 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A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yao, W-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2015-09-01

    Charged-particle spectra obtained in Pb+Pb interactions at √sNN=2.76 and pp interactions at √sNN=2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented, using data with integrated luminosities of 0.15 nb-1 and 4.2 pb-1, respectively, in a wide transverse momentum (0.5 < p T < 150 GeV) and pseudorapidity (|η| < 2) range. For Pb+Pb collisions, the spectra are presented as a function of collision centrality, which is determined by the response of the forward calorimeters located on both sides of the interaction point. The nuclear modification factors R AA and R CP are presented in detail as a function of centrality, p T and η. They show a distinct p T-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, R AA is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is 0.55 ± 0.01(stat.) ± 0.04(syst.) in the most central collisions. The R AA distribution is consistent with flat |η| dependence over the whole transverse momentum range in all centrality classes.

  13. Measurement of charged-particle spectra in Pb+Pb collisions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aad, G.

    2015-09-09

    Charged-particle spectra obtained in Pb+Pb interactions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV and pp interactions at \\( \\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=2.76 \\) TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented, using data with integrated luminosities of 0.15 nb⁻¹ and 4.2 pb⁻¹, respectively, in a wide transverse momentum (0.5 < pT < 150 GeV) and pseudorapidity (|η| < 2) range. For Pb+Pb collisions, the spectra are presented as a function of collision centrality, which is determined by the response of the forward calorimeters located on both sides of the interaction point. The nuclear modification factors RAA and RCP are presented in detail as a function of centrality, pT and η. They show a distinct pT-dependence with a pronounced minimum at about 7 GeV. Above 60 GeV, RAA is consistent with a plateau at a centrality-dependent value, within the uncertainties. The value is 0.55 ± 0.01(stat.) ± 0.04(syst.) in the most central collisions. The RAA distribution is consistent with flat |η| dependence over the whole transverse momentum range in all centrality classes.

  14. HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.

    1959-04-14

    An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

  15. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 143; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0265-931X Publisher: Elsevier Research Org: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, ...

  16. Autogenerator of beams of charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, R.J.; Mazarakis, M.G.; Miller, R.M.; Shope, S.L.; Smith, D.L.

    1983-10-31

    An autogenerating apparatus provides secondary intense relativistic current beam pulses in response to an injected beam pulse. One or more electromagnetic energy storage devices are provided in conjunction with gaps along a beam propagation path for the injected beam pulse. For injected beam pulses which are no longer than double the transit time of electromagnetic waves within the storage devices (which may be resonant cavities), distinct secondary beam pulses are generated by each of the energy storage devices. The beam propagation path, together with the one or more gaps provided therein, operates as a pulse forming transmission line cavity, in which the separate cavities associated with the gaps provide delays for electromagnetic waves generated at the gaps. After doubly traversing the cavity, the electromagnetic waves cause the gap to generate the secondary beam pulses, which are thus delayed by a time interval equal to the double transit time for the induced wave within the cavity.

  17. Autogenerator of beams of charged particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, Richard J.; Mazarakis, Michael G.; Miller, Robert B.; Shope, Steven L.; Smith, David L.

    1986-01-01

    An autogenerating apparatus provides secondary intense relativistic current beam pulses in response to an injected beam pulse. One or more electromagnetic energy storage devices are provided in conjunction with gaps along a beam propagation path for the injected beam pulse. For injected beam pulses which are no longer than double the transit time of electromagnetic waves within the storage devices (which may be resonant cavities), distinct secondary beam pulses are generated by each of the energy storage devices. The beam propagation path, together with the one or more gaps provided therein, operates as a pulse forming transmission line cavity, in which the separate cavities associated with the gaps provide delays for electromagnetic waves generated at the gaps. After doubly traversing the cavity, the electromagnetic waves cause the gap to generate the secondary beam pulses, which are thus delayed by a time interval equal to the double transit time for the induced wave within the cavity.

  18. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Energy Map: Projected Growth of the Wind Industry From Now Until 2050 Map: Projected Growth of the Wind Industry From Now Until 2050 Wind Vision See the projected growth of the wind industry over the next 35 years. Select a Year 2000 2010 2013 2020 2030 2050 All units are in gigawatts (GW). Only states with total capacity over 0.1 GW are included per year. Find out more about the data by reading the Wind Vision Report. You can download the data used for this graphic directly here.

  19. Charged-particle multiplicity at LHC energies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06

    The talk presents the measurement of the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution with ALICE at the achieved LHC energies of 0.9 and 2.36 TeV.An overview about multiplicity measurements prior to LHC is given and the related theoretical concepts are briefly discussed.The analysis procedure is presented and the systematic uncertainties are detailed. The applied acceptance corrections and the treatment of diffraction are discussed.The results are compared with model predictions. The validity of KNO scaling in restricted phase space regions is revisited. 

  20. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  1. Influence of Radioactivity on Surface Charging and Aggregation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Radioactivity on Surface Charging and Aggregation Kinetics of Particles in the Atmosphere Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Influence of Radioactivity on Surface ...

  2. A research Program in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sobel, Henry; Molzon, William; Lankford, Andrew; Taffard, Anyes; Whiteson, Daniel; Kirkby, David

    2013-07-25

    Work is reported in: Neutrino Physics, Cosmic Rays and Elementary Particles; Particle Physics and Charged Lepton Flavor Violation; Research in Collider Physics; Dark Energy Studies with BOSS and LSST.

  3. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  4. ELEMENTARY PARTICLE INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EFREMENKO, YURI; HANDLER, THOMAS; KAMYSHKOV, YURI; SIOPSIS, GEORGE; SPANIER, STEFAN

    2013-07-30

    The High-Energy Elementary Particle Interactions group at UT during the last three years worked on the following directions and projects: Collider-based Particle Physics; Neutrino Physics, particularly participation in NO?A, Double Chooz, and KamLAND neutrino experiments; and Theory, including Scattering amplitudes, Quark-gluon plasma; Holographic cosmology; Holographic superconductors; Charge density waves; Striped superconductors; and Holographic FFLO states.

  5. Big Bang Day: 5 Particles - 3. The Anti-particle

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Simon Singh looks at the stories behind the discovery of 5 of the universe's most significant subatomic particles: the Electron, the Quark, the Anti-particle, the Neutrino and the "next particle". 3. The Anti-particle. It appears to be the stuff of science fiction. Associated with every elementary particle is an antiparticle which has the same mass and opposite charge. Should the two meet and combine, the result is annihilation - and a flash of light. Thanks to mysterious processes that occurred after the Big Bang there are a vastly greater number of particles than anti-particles. So how could their elusive existence be proved? At CERN particle physicists are crashing together subatomic particles at incredibly high speeds to create antimatter, which they hope will finally reveal what happened at the precise moment of the Big Bang to create the repertoire of elementary particles and antiparticles in existence today.

  6. CLASHING BEAM PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burleigh, R.J.

    1961-04-11

    A charged-particle accelerator of the proton synchrotron class having means for simultaneously accelerating two separate contra-rotating particle beams within a single annular magnet structure is reported. The magnet provides two concentric circular field regions of opposite magnetic polarity with one field region being of slightly less diameter than the other. The accelerator includes a deflector means straddling the two particle orbits and acting to collide the two particle beams after each has been accelerated to a desired energy. The deflector has the further property of returning particles which do not undergo collision to the regular orbits whereby the particles recirculate with the possibility of colliding upon subsequent passages through the deflector.

  7. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  8. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Kenneth E.

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  9. Battery Particle Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-15

    Two simulations show the differences between a battery being drained at a slower rate, over a full hour, versus a faster rate, only six minutes (a tenth of an hour). In both cases battery particles go from being fully charged (green) to fully drained (red), but there are significant differences in the patterns of discharge based on the rate.

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Employees with access to workplace charging are six times more likely to drive a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) than the average worker. Promoting PEV charging at workplaces is one great way that...

  11. Electrostatic attraction of charged drops of water inside dropwise cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shavlov, A. V.; Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo Str., Tyumen 625000 ; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.

    2013-08-15

    Based on the analytical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we demonstrate that inside the electrically neutral system of charges an electrostatic attraction can occur between the like-charged particles, where charge Z ? 1 (in terms of elementary charge) and radius R > 0, whereas according to the literature, only repulsion is possible inside non-electrically neutral systems. We calculate the free energy of the charged particles of water inside a cluster and demonstrate that its minimum is when the interdroplet distance equals several Debye radii defined based on the light plasma component. The deepest minimum depth is in a cluster with close spatial packing of drops by type, in a face-centered cubic lattice, if almost all the electric charge of one sign is concentrated on the drops and that of the other sign is concentrated on the light compensation carriers of charge, where the charge moved by equilibrium carriers is rather small.

  12. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully.

  13. Minijet Deformation and Charge-independent Two-particleCorrelations on Momentum Subspace (eta,phi) In Au-Au Collisions atsqrt(sNN) = 130 GeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson,B.D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Bai, Y.; Balewski,J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bezverkhny, B.I.; Bharadwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bhatia, V.S; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth,C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la BarcaSanchez, M.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; de Moura, M.M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dubey, A.K.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip,P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Foley, K.J.; Fomenko, K.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gans, J.; Ganti, M.S.; Gaudichet, L.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.E.; Grachov, O.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry,T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann,G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klay, J.; Klein,S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda,L.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; et al.

    2004-11-04

    We present first measurements of charge-independent correlations on momentum-space difference variables {eta}{sub 1}-{eta}{sub 2} (pseudorapidity) and {phi}{sub 1}-{phi}{sub 2} (azimuth) for charged primary hadrons with transverse momentum within 0.15 {le} p{sub t} {le} 2 GeV/c and |{eta}| {le} 1.3 from Au-Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130 GeV. We observe strong charge-independent correlations associated with minijets and elliptic flow. The width of the minijet peak on {eta}{sub 1}-{eta}{sub 2} increases by a factor 2.3 from peripheral to central collisions, suggesting strong coupling of partons to a longitudinally-expanding colored medium. New methods of jet analysis introduced here reveal nonperturbative medium effects in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  15. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  16. CPIC: A Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code for Studying Spacecraft...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Particle-In-Cell Code for Studying Spacecraft Charging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CPIC: A Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code for Studying Spacecraft Charging You are ...

  17. CPIC: A Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code for Studying Spacecraft...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Particle-In-Cell Code for Studying Spacecraft Charging Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CPIC: A Parallel Particle-In-Cell Code for Studying Spacecraft Charging Authors: ...

  18. Electric Vehicle Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for annual capital fleet purchases 10 of 17 locations currently have charging stations Agreement with employees to provide workplace charging Ultimate goal is ...

  19. Workplace Charging Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Fact sheet about the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge which is to increase the number of American employers offering workplace charging by tenfold in the next five years.

  20. Utilities and Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for workplace charging Aid in forecasting similar workplace charging needs with ... of plug-in vehicle technology, costs, and benefits? 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 ...

  1. Dynamic Wireless Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-13

    ORNL successfully demonstrated in-motion wireless charging in the laboratory using a small GEM vehicle and a series of six charging coils.

  2. Electric Vehicle Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or Twitter Attend local EV events Share your story Currently have 13 ChargePoint charging stations scattered throughout Vermont 2015 - 12 Freedom Stations & 10...

  3. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, committing to install charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at their worksites. By taking on this Challenge, they are helping...

  4. Pileup per particle identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing pileup per particle identification (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape ? which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of ? for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used to rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. We also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.

  5. Pileup per particle identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing “pileup per particle identification” (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape α which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of α for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used to rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. As a result, we also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.

  6. Pileup per particle identification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing “pileup per particle identification” (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape α which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of α for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used tomore » rescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. As a result, we also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.« less

  7. Pileup per particle identification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertolini, Daniele; Harris, Philip; Low, Matthew; Tran, Nhan

    2014-10-09

    We propose a new method for pileup mitigation by implementing pileup per particle identification (PUPPI). For each particle we first define a local shape ? which probes the collinear versus soft diffuse structure in the neighborhood of the particle. The former is indicative of particles originating from the hard scatter and the latter of particles originating from pileup interactions. The distribution of ? for charged pileup, assumed as a proxy for all pileup, is used on an event-by-event basis to calculate a weight for each particle. The weights describe the degree to which particles are pileup-like and are used tomorerescale their four-momenta, superseding the need for jet-based corrections. Furthermore, the algorithm flexibly allows combination with other, possibly experimental, probabilistic information associated with particles such as vertexing and timing performance. We demonstrate the algorithm improves over existing methods by looking at jet pT and jet mass. We also find an improvement on non-jet quantities like missing transverse energy.less

  8. Dust charging and charge fluctuations in a weakly collisional radio-frequency sheath at low pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piel, Alexander Schmidt, Christian

    2015-05-15

    Models for the charging of dust particles in the bulk plasma and in the sheath region are discussed. A new model is proposed that describes collision-enhanced ion currents in the sheath. The collisions result in a substantial reduction of the negative charge of the dust. Experimental data for the dust charge in the sheath can be described by this model when a Bi-Maxwellian electron distribution is taken into account. Expressions for the dust charging rate for all considered models are presented and their influence on the rise of the kinetic dust temperature is discussed.

  9. Particle beam injector system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guethlein, Gary

    2013-06-18

    Methods and devices enable coupling of a charged particle beam to a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. Coupling of the charged particle beam is accomplished, at least in-part, by relying on of sensitivity of the input phase space acceptance of the radio frequency quadrupole to the angle of the input charged particle beam. A first electric field across a beam deflector deflects the particle beam at an angle that is beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. By momentarily reversing or reducing the established electric field, a narrow portion of the charged particle beam is deflected at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole. In another configuration, beam is directed at an angle within the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole by the first electric field and is deflected beyond the acceptance angle of the radio frequency quadrupole due to the second electric field.

  10. Charges/Reports | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home » Charges/Reports High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) HEPAP Home Meetings 2016 HEPAP Membership Charges/Reports Charter .pdf file (44KB) HEP Committees of Visitors Federal Advisory Committees HEP Home Charges/Reports Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page 2016 Committee of Visitors HEPAP Charge Letter Response Signed 7-15-2016 .pdf file (606KB). Charge to Evaluate Effectiveness and Impact of the United States Particle Accelerator School (USPAS) USPAS Charge Letter .pdf file