Sample records for target loading operation

  1. EA-1131: Relocation of Neutron Tube Target Loading Operation, Los Alamos Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to relocate the Neutron Tube Target Loading operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico from...

  2. SNS Target Systems Operational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    a failed gas seal on the shaft and leaking oil seals but has operated well since then · The moderator 7.5 k First target replacement · No observed corrosion · Internal Boroscope examination in progress · ~ 50 mm

  3. THERMAL LOADING OF A DIRECT DRIVE TARGET IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    optics. A background gas, such as Xe, could reduce the damage on the wall from ion and heat loading fusion micro explosion (~ 10 Hz), ions and heat loads threaten to damage the reactor wall and driver. · The thermal loading of a target (radiation from the chamber wall and convection from the protective gas) may

  4. An effective loading method of americium targets in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohki, Shigeo; Sato, Isamu; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the development of target fuel with high americium (Am) content has been launched for the reduction of the overall fuel fabrication cost of the minor actinide (MA) recycling. In the framework of the development, this study proposes an effective loading method of Am targets in fast reactors. As a result of parametric survey calculations, we have found the ring-shaped target loading pattern between inner and outer core regions. This loading method is satisfactory both in core characteristics and in MA transmutation property. It should be noted that the Am targets can contribute to the suppression of the core power distribution change due to burnup. The major drawback of Am target is the production of helium gas. A target design modification by increasing the cladding thickness is found to be the most feasible measure to cope with the helium production. (authors)

  5. Operator Performance in Long Duration Control Operations: Switching from Low to High Task Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornburg, K. M.

    Long duration, low task load environments are typical for nuclear power plant control rooms, where operators, after hours of operating under a low task load situation, may have to shift to a high task load situation. The ...

  6. Neurocontrol of Pressurized Water Reactors in Load-Follow Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Chaung; Shen Chihming

    2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The neurocontrol technique was applied to control a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in load-follow operations. Generalized learning or direct inverse control architecture was adopted in which the neural network was trained off-line to learn the inverse model of the PWR. Two neural network controllers were designed: One provided control rod position, which controlled the axial power distribution, and the other provided the change in boron concentration, which adjusted core total power. An additional feedback controller was designed so that power tracking capability was improved. The time duration between control actions was 15 min; thus, the xenon effect is limited and can be neglected. Therefore, the xenon concentration was not considered as a controller input variable, which simplified controller design. Center target strategy and minimum boron strategy were used to operate the reactor, and the simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller.

  7. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  8. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Project demonstrates and promotes the use of responsive load to provide ancillary services; helps ISOsand grid operators understand the resource and how best to apply it. Technical...

  9. High Power Target Design and Operational Considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    remote handling is a major driving requirement). #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department Issues · Steady state power handling. ­ Cooling of target/enclosure window ­ wettability. ­ Hot spots systems: ­ Mercury loop operation. ­ Remote handling. · Nuclear data. #12;4 Managed by UT

  10. High load operation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Kieser, Andrew J. (Morton, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Rodman, Anthony (Chillicothe, IL); Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL)

    2008-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine is set up by first identifying combinations of compression ratio and exhaust gas percentages for each speed and load across the engines operating range. These identified ratios and exhaust gas percentages can then be converted into geometric compression ratio controller settings and exhaust gas recirculation rate controller settings that are mapped against speed and load, and made available to the electronic

  11. OPERATOR PERFORMANCE IN LONG DURATION, LOW TASK LOAD CONTROL OPERATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    and conducted. Overall, 36 participants operated a digital nuclear power plant control workstation simulation In the United States, a major effort is underway to modernize existing nuclear power plants and their control rooms, as well as design new, advanced nuclear power plants. Current control rooms for nuclear power

  12. Load-follow operation with the MSHIM control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, T.; Carlsen, B.W.; Kutz, J.P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's ongoing efforts to improve plant daily load-follow capability, a system has been developed that promises a significant enhancement of current load-maneuvering capabilities, while simultaneously reducing the burden on operators and plant systems. This concept, the mechanical shim (MSHIM), control system utilizes two independently operable groups of control banks for essentially simultaneous control of reactivity and axial power distribution. This system has been developed with the goal of supporting either of two operational modes. One mode is designed to maximize spinning reserve (MAXSR) capacity (return to full-power capability). The other mode minimizes boric (MINB) acid changes, hence effluent production, during the power maneuver. The features of the two control modes are summarized.

  13. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  14. Are domestic load profiles stable over time? An attempt to identify target households for demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Are domestic load profiles stable over time? An attempt to identify target households for demand Bamberg, Germany Email: thorsten.staake@uni-bamberg.de Abstract--Elaborating demand side management future demand side will largely depend on an automatic control of larger loads, it is also widely agreed

  15. On the High Load Limit of Boosted Gasoline HCCI Engine Operating in NVO mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaringe, Robert J.

    The high load limit of a boosted homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) engine operating on negative-valve-overlap (NVO) was assessed. When operating under stoichiometric condition with no external dilution, the ...

  16. PWR core monitoring and simulation during load follow operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beard, C. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Commercial Nuclear Fuel Div.); Winter, M.; Niederer, R. (Commonwealth Edison Co., Zion, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a new operation core support system developed for pressurized water reactors. This system provides an enhanced understanding of the operating core with significant benefits in operational flexibility. It also permits evaluation of alternatives and specific situations that allows for enhanced operation of the unit, which provides benefits in power capability and minimizes potential operational issues.

  17. Modeling operator performance in low task load supervisory domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mkrtchyan, Armen A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, numerous automated systems need constant monitoring but require little to no operator interaction for prolonged periods, such as unmanned aerial systems, nuclear power plants, and air traffic management systems. ...

  18. Method for operating a nuclear reactor to accommodate load follow while maintaining a substantially constant axial power distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, N.P.; Rossi, C.E.; Scherpereel, L.R.

    1980-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method of operating a nuclear reactor having a negative reactivity moderator temperature coefficient with the object of maintaining a uniform and symmetric xenon distribution above and below substantially the center of the core over a substantial axial length of the core during normal reactor operation including load follow. In one embodiment variations in the xenon distribution are controlled by maintaining a substantially symmetric axial power distribution. The axial offset, which is employed as an indication of the axial power distribution, is maintained substantially equal to a target value , which is modified periodically to account for core burnup. A neutron absorbing element within the core coolant, or moderator, is employed to assist control of reactivity changes associated with changes in power, with the full-length control rods mainly employed to adjust variations in the axial power distribution while the part-length rodsremain completely withdrawn from the fuel region of the core. Rapid changes in reactivity are implemented, to accommodate corresponding changes in load, by a controlled reduction of the core coolant temperature. Thus, active core coolant temperature control is employed to control the reactivity of the core during load follow operation and effectively increase the spinning reserve capability of a power plant without altering the axial power distribution.

  19. Development of Fast-Running Simulation Methodology Using Neural Networks for Load Follow Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seong, Seung-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heui-Youn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Yong-Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Seop [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Koo, In-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Un-Chul [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Wook [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong-Chul [Yonsei University (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new fast-running analytic model has been developed for analyzing the load follow operation. The new model was based on the neural network theory, which has the capability of modeling the input/output relationships of a nonlinear system. The new model is made up of two error back-propagation neural networks and procedures to calculate core parameters, such as the distributions and density of xenon in a quasi-steady-state core like load follow operation. One neural network is designed to retrieve the axial offset of power distribution, and the other is for reactivity corresponding to a given core condition. The training data sets for learning the neural networks in the new model are generated with a three-dimensional nodal code and, also, the measured data of the first-day test of load follow operation. Using the new model, the simulation results of the 5-day load follow test in a pressurized water reactor show a good agreement between the simulation data and the actual measured data. Required computing time for simulating a load follow operation is comparable to that of a fast-running lumped model. Moreover, the new model does not require additional engineering factors to compensate for the difference between the actual measurements and analysis results because the neural network has the inherent learning capability of neural networks to new situations.

  20. Controller for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply, and a method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantin, Luc (Baie Comeau, CA); Deschenes, Mario (Baie Comeau, CA); D'Amours, Mario (Sept Iles, CA)

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A controller is provided for controlling operation of at least one electrical load operating on an AC supply having a typical frequency, the AC supply being provided via power transformers by an electrical power distribution grid. The controller is associated with the load and comprises an input interface for coupling the controller to the grid, a frequency detector for detecting the frequency of the AC supply and producing a signal indicative of the frequency, memory modules for storing preprogrammed commands, a frequency monitor for reading the signal indicative of the frequency and producing frequency data derived thereof, a selector for selecting at least one of the preprogrammed commands with respect to the frequency data, a control unit for producing at least one command signal representative of the selected preprogrammed commands, and an output interface including a device responsive to the command signal for controlling the load. Therefore, the load can be controlled by means of the controller depending on the frequency of the AC supply.

  1. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL & OPERATING LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACKEY, T.C.

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TOLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs).

  2. An examination of loads and responses of a wind turbine undergoing variable-speed operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.D.; Buhl, M.L. Jr.; Bir, G.S.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has recently developed the ability to predict turbine loads and responses for machines undergoing variable-speed operation. The wind industry has debated the potential benefits of operating wind turbine sat variable speeds for some time. Turbine system dynamic responses (structural response, resonance, and component interactions) are an important consideration for variable-speed operation of wind turbines. The authors have implemented simple, variable-speed control algorithms for both the FAST and ADAMS dynamics codes. The control algorithm is a simple one, allowing the turbine to track the optimum power coefficient (C{sub p}). The objective of this paper is to show turbine loads and responses for a particular two-bladed, teetering-hub, downwind turbine undergoing variable-speed operation. The authors examined the response of the machine to various turbulent wind inflow conditions. In addition, they compare the structural responses under fixed-speed and variable-speed operation. For this paper, they restrict their comparisons to those wind-speed ranges for which limiting power by some additional control strategy (blade pitch or aileron control, for example) is not necessary. The objective here is to develop a basic understanding of the differences in loads and responses between the fixed-speed and variable-speed operation of this wind turbine configuration.

  3. Target Particle and Heat Loads in Low-Triangularity L-mode Plasmas in JET with Carbon and Beryllium/Tungsten Walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Target Particle and Heat Loads in Low-Triangularity L-mode Plasmas in JET with Carbon and Beryllium/Tungsten Walls

  4. Analysis of high-burnup fuel performance during load-follow operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsui, T.; Fukuya, K.; Kinoshita, M.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Japan, an objective of the burnup extension of nuclear fuel is to raise the licensing limit of burnup from 39 to 48 GWd/t for pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in the near future. Because of an increasing ratio of nuclear power generation, the necessity of the load-follow operation, which responds flexibly to changing power demands, is more apparent. To evaluate accurately the mechanical integrity of PWR fuel at high burnup during a load-follow operation, the FEMAXI-III code, originally developed for analyses of fuel experiments, was modified, improving submodels to evaluate PWR fuel; the new code was named IRON. The results of verification work on the code using data on PWR fuel covering wide ranges of burnup and linear heat rate show that it has good predictability and, therefore, that the improvement was confirmed as effective.

  5. Evaluation of the megawatt demand setter for load-follow operation of C-E's SYSTEM 80+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.I.; Scarola, K.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Megawatt Demand Setter (MDS) is a digital supervisory control system that automatically assures that the turbine load is consistent with plant operating limits for critical parameters. The MDS is designed to avert plant trips by limiting the load demand during load transients and by reducing the turbine load if plant operating limits are approached or violated. The MDS, devised and patented by Combustion Engineering, Inc., in the 1970s for automatic load dispatching, has been installed at two plants. Those plants have since been operated in a base-load capacity, however, and have not needed to implement the load-follow capabilities of the MDS. As the percentage of electricity generated by nuclear units increases, the need to implement such load-follow capabilities will also increase. Combustion Engineering intends to incorporate improved load-follow capability in its SYSTEM 80+ nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design. One aspect of this will be incorporation of the MDS in the design of the NUPLEX 80+ advanced control complex for system 80+. This paper presents an evaluation of two major design features of the MDS for load-follow operation based on simulation of SYSTEM 80+ plant responses.

  6. Design, Operations, and Safety Report for the MERIT Target System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, Van B [ORNL; Spampinato, Philip Thomas [ORNL

    2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mercury Intense Target Project (MERIT) is a proof-of-principal experiment to determine the feasibility of using a free-jet of Hg as a spallation target in a Neutrino Factory or a Muon Collider facility. The 1-cm-diameter, 20-m/sec jet will be generated inside a 15-Tesla magnetic field, and high-speed optical diagnostics will be used to photograph the interaction between the Hg jet and a 24-GeV proton beam.The experiment is scheduled to be conducted at CERN in 2007. ORNL is responsible for the design, fabrication, and testing of a system to deliver the Hg jet within the confines of the 15-cm magnet bore. This report documents the functional and safety requirements of the Hg system along with descriptions of its interfaces to the other experimental equipment.

  7. Coupling between JET Pedestal ne-Te and Outer Target Plate Recycling: Consequences for JET ITER-Like-Wall Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupling between JET Pedestal ne-Te and Outer Target Plate Recycling: Consequences for JET ITER-Like-Wall Operation

  8. An efficient algorithm for load balancing of transformers and feeders by switch operation in large scale distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoki, K. (Hiroshima Univ., Higashihiroshima (JP)); Kuwabara, H. (Kinki Univ., Kure (JP)); Satoh, T. (Hiroshima Univ., Higashihiroshima (JP)); Kanezashi, M. (Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota (JP))

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a systematic and practical algorithm for load balancing of transformers and feeders by automatic sectionalizing switch operation in large scale distribution systems of radial type. The algorithm is developed by extending an approximation algorithm for load transfer of desired two transformers. The algorithm proposed here is applicable to operations not only in normal state, but also in scheduled and failure outage states. Computational experience on a real large scale system has indicated that the algorithm is valid and effective for practical operations.

  9. Load following capability of CANDLE reactor by adjusting coolant operation condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Sinsuke [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-17, Ookayama, Meguro-ku 152-8550 (Japan)

    2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The load following capability of CANDLE reactor is investigated in the condition that the control rods are unavailable. Both sodium cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (SFR) and {sup 208}Pb cooled metallic fuel fast reactor (LFR) are investigated for their performance in power rate changing by changing its coolant operation condition; either coolant flow rate or coolant inlet temperature. The change by coolant flow rate is difficult especially for SFR because the maximum temperature criteria on cladding material may be violated. The power rate can be changed for its full range easily by changing the coolant temperature at the core inlet. LFR can reduce the same amount of power rate by smaller change of temperature than SFR. However, the coolant output temperature is generally decreased for this method and the thermal efficiency becomes worse.

  10. Design of Single-Switch Inverters for Variable Resistance/Load Modulation Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roslaniec, Lukasz

    Single-Switch inverters such as the conventional Class-E inverter are often highly load sensitive, and maintain zero-voltage switching over only a narrow range of load resistances. This paper introduces a design methodology ...

  11. Target Plate Conditions During Stochastic Boundary Operation on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, J; Evans, T; Moyer, R; Lasnier, C; Rudakov, D

    2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A major concern for large tokamaks like ITER is the presence of edge localized modes (ELMs) that repeatedly send large bursts of particles and heat into the divertor plates. Operation with resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) at the boundary of DIII=D has suppressed ELMs for values of q95 {approx} 3.7. At the target plate, the conditions during ELM suppressed operation for both high and low collisionality are observed by a set of radially distributed Langmuir probes. At high collisionality (n*{approx}1), the target plate particle flux and temperature drops by > 30% during ELM suppression. At low collisionality (n*{approx}0.1), the core density, target plate density, and target plate particle flux drop but the plate electron temperature increases after the ELMs are suppressed. The ELM-suppressed target plate heat flux is nearly the same as the heat flux between ELMs but the (5X higher) transient heat flux peaks due to ELMs are eliminated.

  12. Load sharing operation of a 14kW photovoltaic/wind hybrid power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, S.; Kim, C. [Kongju National Univ., Chungnam (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Song, J.; Yu, G.; Jung, Y. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Photovoltaic Research Team

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a design procedure for photovoltaic/wind hybrid power generation system is presented. The hybrid system is composed of a DC/DC converter for a photovoltaic energy conversion, a DC/DC converter for a wind energy conversion, a four switch IGBT inverter converting the combined DC power to the AC power and a backup power battery. Here, it is very important to select the desired battery size to meet the stable output and economic cost aspect since this system utilizes fluctuating and finite energy resource. The purpose of this paper is to develop a sizing method for the PV/Wind energy hybrid system with load sharing operation. The method demonstrates a simple tool to determine the desired battery size that satisfies the energy demand from the user with the photovoltaic and wind natural source. The proposed method is verified on a 14kW hybrid power system including a 10kW PV generator and a 4kW wind generator established in Cheju island, Korea.

  13. Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, John E. (Alamo, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator ich provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal.

  14. Pressure Drop and Voltage Response of PEMFC Operation under Transient Temperature and Loading Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    to be a good diagnostic tool in characterizing the PEM fuel cells. Wang and Wang (8) numerically in to be versatile in power generation to meet the varying vehicular dynamic loads. The PEM fuel cell stacks within if the fuel cell powertrain is able to generate the load faithfully in corresponding to the varying demand

  15. A knowledge-based system for control of xenon-induced spatial power oscillations during load-follow operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Sun-Kyo; Danofsky, R.A.; Spinrad, B.I.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As is well known, large pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are subject to xenon-induced axial power oscillations at some time during a given cycle. Attention to this behavior is required during load-follow operations. A knowledge-based system for controlling xenon-induced spatial power oscillations is described. Experience with a limited set of load-follow patterns has demonstrated that the system is capable of providing advice on appropriate control actions. A simulation model, coupled with a rule-learning process, has been found to be a useful way for determining appropriate weights for the rules that relate power patterns and control actions.

  16. Hydrogen loaded metal for bridge-foils for enhanced electric gun/slapper detonator operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Osher, J.E.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a more efficient electric gun or slapper detonator which provides a higher velocity flyer by using a bridge foil made of a hydrogen loaded metal. 8 figs.

  17. Micro-grid operation of inverter based distributed generation with voltage and frequency dependent loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeineldin, H. H.

    Distribution systems are experiencing increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG). One attractive option is to use the available DG capacity during utility outages by forming planned micro-grids. Load sharing ...

  18. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. Currently, uncertainties associated with wind and load forecasts, as well as uncertainties associated with random generator outages and unexpected disconnection of supply lines, are not taken into account in power grid operation. Thus, operators have little means to weigh the likelihood and magnitude of upcoming events of power imbalance. In this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a framework has been developed for incorporating uncertainties associated with wind and load forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications. A new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope including balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration has been proposed. The approach includes three stages: forecast and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence levels. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis, incorporating all sources of uncertainties of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the flying brick technique has been developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation algorithm has been developed to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals.

  19. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. In this report, a new methodology to predict the uncertainty ranges for the required balancing capacity, ramping capability and ramp duration is presented. Uncertainties created by system load forecast errors, wind and solar forecast errors, generation forced outages are taken into account. The uncertainty ranges are evaluated for different confidence levels of having the actual generation requirements within the corresponding limits. The methodology helps to identify system balancing reserve requirement based on a desired system performance levels, identify system breaking points, where the generation system becomes unable to follow the generation requirement curve with the user-specified probability level, and determine the time remaining to these potential events. The approach includes three stages: statistical and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence intervals. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis incorporating all sources of uncertainty and parameters of a continuous (wind forecast and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and failures to start up) nature. Preliminary simulations using California Independent System Operator (California ISO) real life data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed approach. A tool developed based on the new methodology described in this report will be integrated with the California ISO systems. Contractual work is currently in place to integrate the tool with the AREVA EMS system.

  20. Aperture Test for Internal Target Operation in the JLAB High-current ERL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Shukui

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high current beam transmission test has been successfully completed at the JLAB FEL Facility, culminating in very low-loss transmission of a high current CW beam through a small aperture. The purpose of this test was to determine if an ERL is capable of meeting the stringent requirements imposed by the use of a 1018/cm3 internal gas target proposed for the DarkLight experiment*. Minimal beamline modifications were made to create a machine configuration that is substantially different from those used in routine UV or IR FEL operation. A sustained (8 hour) high power beam run was performed, with clean transmission through a 2 mm transverse aperture of 127 mm length simulating the target configuration. A beam size of 50 um (rms) was measured near the center of the aperture. Experimental data from a week-long test run consistently exhibited beam loss of only a few ppm on the aperture while running 4.5 mA current at 100 MeV -- or nearly 0.5 MW beam power. This surpassed the users? expectation and demonstrated a unique capability of an ERL for this type of experiments. This report presents a summary of the experiment, a brief overview of our activities, and outlines future plans.

  1. The maneuvering area of VVER-1000 during the daily load-cycling operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubov, A. A., E-mail: dubov@vver.kiae.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility of the VVER-1000 reactor operation in the mode of power maneuvering is analyzed with the most conservative approximations in view of control of the in-core power distribution.

  2. Results of Continuous Load Cell Monitoring Field Trial for UF6 Withdrawals at an Operating Industrial Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL] [ORNL; Bell, Lisa S [ORNL] [ORNL; Conchewski, Curtis A [ORNL] [ORNL; Peters, Benjamin R [ORNL] [ORNL; Pickett, Chris A [ORNL] [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL] [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL] [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) has been implemented and tested for use as a safeguards tool during a 2009 field trial in an operating UF6 transfer facility. The transfer facility is part of the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Piketon, Ohio, operated by the United States Enrichment Corporation. During the field trial, two process scales for UF{sub 6} cylinders were continuously monitored for a 6-month period as cylinders were being filled. The collected CLCM data were used in testing an event processor serving as a filter for highlighting measurements representing significant operational activities that are important in verifying declared operations. The collection of CLCM data, coupled with rules-based event processing, can provide inspectors with knowledge of a facility's feed and withdrawal activities occurring between site visits. Such process knowledge promises to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards by enabling inspectors to quantitatively compare declared activities directly with process measurements. Selected results of the field trial and event processing will be presented in the context of their value to an independent inspector and a facility operator.

  3. Integrating UF6 Cylinder RF Tracking With Continuous Load Cell Monitoring for Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations Verifying Declared UF6 Feed and Withdrawal Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Miller, Paul [ORNL; Pickett, Chris A [ORNL; Richardson, Dave [ORNL; Rowe, Nathan C [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Younkin, James R [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating the integration of UF6 cylinder tracking, using RF technology, with continuous load cell monitoring (CLCM) at mock UF6 feed and withdrawal (F&W) stations. CLCM and cylinder tracking are two of several continuous-monitoring technologies that show promise in providing integrated safeguards of F&W operations at enrichment plants. Integrating different monitoring technologies allows advanced, automated event processing to screen innocuous events thereby minimizing false alerts to independent inspectors. Traditionally, international inspectors rely on batch verification of material inputs and outputs derived from operator declarations and periodic on-site inspections at uranium enrichment plants or other nuclear processing facilities. Continuously monitoring F&W activities between inspections while providing filtered alerts of significant operational events will substantially increase the amount of valuable information available to inspectors thereby promising to enhance the effectiveness of safeguards and to improve efficiency in conducting on-site inspections especially at large plants for ensuring that all operations are declared.

  4. Folate-encoded and Fe3O4-loaded polymeric micelles for dual targeting of cancer cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Jinming

    and an anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) were coencapsulated within the micelles less than 100 nm in diameters. These SPIODOX-loaded micelles were superparamagnetic at room tem- perature, but turned ferrimagnetic at 10 K

  5. Mode K - A Core Control Logic for Enhanced Load-Follow Operations of a Pressurized Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Soo-Youl [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Jonghwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong-Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Carrasco, Manuel [Framatome (France)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New core control logic known as Mode K has been developed to enhance the load-follow operation (LFO) capability of a pressurized water reactor. The Mode K reactor regulating system, which actuates control bank movements, consists of two closed control loops, one for the coolant average temperature control and the other for the axial power shape control. Via its peculiar logic for selecting the control banks to be driven, the Mode K controls the coolant average temperature and axial power shape simultaneously and automatically within their allowed operating limits. In this way, the Mode K significantly reduces the operator burden associated with conventional manual power shape control during LFOs. A simple and flexible soluble boron scenario complements the Mode K logic and contributes toward reducing operational burden by its simplicity. The Mode K logic has been implanted in the Korean Next-Generation Reactor, a 1300-MW(electric) class evolutionary nuclear power plant under development in Korea, and various kinds of LFOs including frequency control have been simulated using the Framatome engineering simulator SAPHIR. The simulation results show reasonable core control performance of the Mode K as well as proper behaviors of other major nuclear steam supply system components such as the pressurizer and steam generator.

  6. Target-Area Studies. Volume 1. Combustible-fuel loads in Nashville, Tennessee. Technical report, 19 May 85-23 Dec 88

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaj, R.A.; Dore, M.A.; Small, R.D.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard land use and census data is used to construct a detailed combustible fuel load map for a typical medium-sized U.S. city (Nashville, Tennessee). Our method recognizes eleven land use categories. Each category is assigned fuel loading values based on analyses of the total burnable fuel mass and areal densities of the buildings and vegetation present. The authors find that the distribution of fuels is non-uniform and highly dependent on the internal structure of the city. The highest fuel load densities are found in portions of the city occupied by densely-packed multiple-family residential buildings, liquid fuel storage terminals, and in industrial/commercial complexes. Much lower fuel loads are found in outlying suburbs and rural areas. This uneven fuel distribution results in a several-fold difference in the net fuel availability for potential urban targets spaced only a short distance apart. They demonstrate that this may in turn strongly influence the intensity of nuclear burst-generated fires, the amount of smoke emitted, and the altitudes to which the smoke is injected.

  7. SINGLE-SHELL TANK INTEGRITY PROJECT ANALYSIS OF RECORD-PRELIMINARY MODELING PLAN FOR THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RAST RS; RINKER MW; BAPANAALLI SK; DEIBLER JE; GUZMAN-LEONG CE; JOHNSON KI; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; SANBORN SE

    2010-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a Phase I deliverable for the Single-Shell Tank Analysis of Record effort. This document is not the Analysis of Record. The intent of this document is to guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort. Preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. The preliminary analysis document reviews and preliminary modeling analysis results are reported herein. In addition, this report provides recommendations for the next phase of the SST AOR project, SST detailed modeling. Efforts and results discussed in this report do not include seismic modeling as seismic modeling is covered by a separate report. The combined results of both static and seismic models are required to complete this effort. The SST AOR project supports the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) mission for obtaining a better understanding of the structural integrity of Hanford's SSTs. The 149 SSTs, with six different geometries, have experienced a range of operating histories which would require a large number of unique analyses to fully characterize their individual structural integrity. Preliminary modeling evaluations were conducted to determine the number of analyses required for adequate bounding of each of the SST tank types in the Detailed Modeling Phase of the SST AOR Project. The preliminary modeling was conducted in conjunction with the Evaluation Criteria report, Johnson et al. (2010). Reviews of existing documents were conducted at the initial stage of preliminary modeling. These reviews guided the topics that were explored in the SST preliminary modeling. The reviews determined the level of detail necessary to perform the analyses of the SSTs. To guide the Phase II detailed modeling effort, preliminary finite element models for each of the tank types were developed and different case studies were performed on one or more of these tank types. Case studies evaluated include thermal loading, waste level variation, the sensitivity of boundary effects (soil radial extent), excavation slope or run to rise ratio, soil stratigraphic (property and layer thickness) variation at different farm locations, and concrete material property variation and their degradation under thermal loads. Conclusions were derived from case studies on one of the tank types when no additional runs of similar cases on other types of tanks were found necessary to derive those conclusions. The document reviews provided relatively complete temperature histories for Type IV tanks. The temperature history data for Type I, II, and III tanks was almost nonexistent for years prior to 1975. Document reviews indicate that there might be additional useful data in the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) records in Seattle, WA, and these records need to be reviewed to extract data that might have been disregarded during previous reviews. Thermal stress analyses were conducted using different temperature distribution scenarios on Type IV tanks. Such studies could not be carried out for other tank types due to lack of temperature history data. The results from Type IV tank analyses indicate that factors such as temperature distribution in the tank waste and rate of rise in waste temperature have a significant impact on the thermal stresses in the tank structures. Overall, the conclusion that can drawn from the thermal stress analyses is that these studies should be carried out for all tank types during the detailed analysis phase with temperature values that are reasonably close to the typical temperature histories of the respective tank types. If and/or when additional waste temperature data

  8. Fuel Effects on Combustion and Emissions of a Direct-Inection Diesel Engine Operating at Moderate to High Engine Speed and Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Szymkowicz, Patrick G. [General Motors Corporation; Northrop, William F [General Motors Corporation

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is advantageous to increase the specific power output of diesel engines and to operate them at higher load for a greater portion of a driving cycle to achieve better thermal efficiency and thus reduce vehicle fuel consumption. Such operation is limited by excessive smoke formation at retarded injection timing and high rates of cylinder pressure rise at more advanced timing. Given this window of operation, it is desired to understand the influence of fuel properties such that optimum combustion performance and emissions can be retained over the range of fuels commonly available in the marketplace. It has been shown in previous studies that varying cetane number (CN) of diesel fuel has little effect on ignition delay at high engine load due to the domination of high cylinder temperature on ignition kinetics. The work here experimentally confirms that finding but also shows that emissions and combustion performance vary according to fuel reactivity. Data are examined from a direct-injection single cylinder research engine for eight common diesel fuels including soy-based biodiesel blends at two high load operating points with no exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and at a moderate load with four levels of EGR. It is shown in the work that at high engine load where combustion is controlled by mixing processes, CN and other fuel properties have little effect on engine performance, although lower CN fuels produce a small increase in noise, smoke and CO emissions. Biodiesel blends increase NOX emissions and decreases CO and smoke emissions at high load, but otherwise have little effect on performance. At moderate load, higher CN fuels are more tolerant to EGR due to their better chemical reactivity at retarded injection timing, but all fuels produce comparable thermal efficiency at advanced combustion phasing regardless of EGR. In contrast to the high load conditions, there was no increase in NOX emissions for biodiesel at the moderate load condition. It is concluded that although higher CN does not significantly alter ignition delay at moderate to high loads it has a dominant influence on the acceptable injection timing range. Apart from CN effects, fuel oxygen content plays an independent role in reducing some emissions. It is therefore recommended that compensation for fuel ignitability and oxygen content be included in combustion control strategies to optimize emissions and performance of future diesel engines.

  9. HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK THERMAL AND SEISMIC PROJECT SUMMARY OF COMBINED THERMAL AND OPERATING LOADS WITH SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MACKEY TC; DEIBLER JE; RINKER MW; JOHNSON KI; ABATT FG; KARRI NK; PILLI SP; STOOPS KL

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of the Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Operating Loads Analysis (TaLA) combined with the Seismic Analysis. This combined analysis provides a thorough, defensible, and documented analysis that will become a part of the overall analysis of record for the Hanford double-shell tanks (DSTs). The bases of the analytical work presented herein are two ANSYS{reg_sign} finite element models that were developed to represent a bounding-case tank. The TaLA model includes the effects of temperature on material properties, creep, concrete cracking, and various waste and annulus pressure-loading conditions. The seismic model considers the interaction of the tanks with the surrounding soil including a range of soil properties, and the effects of the waste contents during a seismic event. The structural evaluations completed with the representative tank models do not reveal any structural deficiencies with the integrity of the DSTs. The analyses represent 60 years of use, which extends well beyond the current date. In addition, the temperature loads imposed on the model are significantly more severe than any service to date or proposed for the future. Bounding material properties were also selected to provide the most severe combinations. While the focus of the analyses was a bounding-case tank, it was necessary during various evaluations to conduct tank-specific analyses. The primary tank buckling evaluation was carried out on a tank-specific basis because of the sensitivity to waste height, specific gravity, tank wall thickness, and primary tank vapor space vacuum limit. For this analysis, the occurrence of maximum tank vacuum was classified as a service level C, emergency load condition. The only area of potential concern in the analysis was with the buckling evaluation of the AP tank, which showed the current limit on demand of l2-inch water gauge vacuum to exceed the allowable of 10.4 inches. This determination was based on analysis at the design waste temperature of 350 F and the full 60-year corrosion allowance on the tank wall of 0.060 inch. However, analysis at a more realistic temperature of 250 F or corrosion allowance of 0.025 inch results in an acceptable demand/capacity ratio according to the ASME code criteria. Thus, buckling of the primary tank is judged to be unlikely for the current lack of corrosion in the tanks, and the expectation that the maximum waste temperature will not exceed 210 F. The reinforced concrete structure was evaluated as specified by the American Concrete Institute (ACI) code requirements for nuclear safety-related structures (ACI-349). The demand was demonstrated to be lower than the capacity at all locations. Revision 1 is being issued to document changes to the anchor bolt evaluation. RPP-RPT-32237 Rev. 1, Hanford Double-Shell Tank Thermal and Seismic Project-Increased Liquid Level Analysis for 241AP Tank Farms, described changes to the anchor bolt modeling and evaluation which were implemented in response to the independent reviewer's comments. Similar changes have been made in the bounding tank analysis and are documented in RPP-RPT-28968 Rev. 1. The conclusions of the previous releases of this report remain unchanged.

  10. A new approach to control of xenon spatial oscillation during load follow operation via robust servo systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ukai, Hiroyuki; Iwazumi, Tetsuo (Nagoya Inst. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The control problem of xenon-induced spatial oscillations of PWR in the axial direction during a load following operation is investigated. The system models are described by a one-group diffusion equation with xenon and temperature feed-backs, iodine and xenon dynamic equations, and heat conductions processes. Control is implemented by the full-length and the part-length control rods and the boron concentration. In order to achieve the control purpose, control models are formulated as the design problem of robust servo systems for distributed parameter reactor systems. The total thermal power and the axial offset are chosen as outputs to be controlled. The control systems consist of servo compensators and stabilizing compensators. They are designed based on the finite-dimensional systems which are constructed by linearizing around steady states, approximately by the Galerkin method, and reducing dimensions via the singular perturbation method. A new and simple computational algorithm to obtain an approximate solution of a steady-state neutron balance is developed via the perturbation method. Some results of numerical simulations are shown in order to discuss the effectiveness of the theory developed in this paper. In particular, it is shown that the designed servo systems are robust against model errors with linearization and modal truncation.

  11. Matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanisms for performing matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. A load and splat operation is performed to load an element of a second vector operand and replicating the element to each of a plurality of elements of a second target vector register. A multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the matrix multiplication operation. The partial product of the matrix multiplication operation is accumulated with other partial products of the matrix multiplication operation.

  12. SNS Target Test Facility: Prototype Hg Operations and Remote Handling Tests P. T. Spampinato, T. W. Burgess, J. B. Chesser, V. B. Graves, and S.L. Schrock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    SNS Target Test Facility: Prototype Hg Operations and Remote Handling Tests P. T. Spampinato, T. W remote handling techniques and tools for replacing target system components. During the past year and analytical data. These included a welded-tube heat exchanger, an electromagnetic flow meter, a hydraulically

  13. Complex matrix multiplication operations with data pre-conditioning in a high performance computing architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E; Gschwind, Michael K; Gunnels, John A

    2014-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Mechanisms for performing a complex matrix multiplication operation are provided. A vector load operation is performed to load a first vector operand of the complex matrix multiplication operation to a first target vector register. The first vector operand comprises a real and imaginary part of a first complex vector value. A complex load and splat operation is performed to load a second complex vector value of a second vector operand and replicate the second complex vector value within a second target vector register. The second complex vector value has a real and imaginary part. A cross multiply add operation is performed on elements of the first target vector register and elements of the second target vector register to generate a partial product of the complex matrix multiplication operation. The partial product is accumulated with other partial products and a resulting accumulated partial product is stored in a result vector register.

  14. Status of ArDM-1t: First observations from operation with a full ton-scale liquid argon target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ArDM Collaboration; J. Calvo; C. Cantini; M. Daniel; U. Degunda; S. Di Luise; L. Epprecht; A. Gendotti; S. Horikawa; L. Knecht; B. Montes; W. Mu; M. Munoz; S. Murphy; G. Natterer; K. Nguyen; K. Nikolics; L. Periale; C. Regenfus; L. Romero; A. Rubbia; R. Santorelli; F. Sergiampietri; D. Sgalaberna; T. Viant; S. Wu

    2015-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ArDM-1t is the first operating ton-scale liquid argon detector for direct search of Dark Matter particles. Developed at CERN as Recognized Experiment RE18, the experiment has been approved in 2010 to be installed in the Spanish underground site LSC (Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc). Under the label of LSC EXP-08-2010 the ArDM detector underwent an intensive period of technical completion and safety approval until the recent filling of the target vessel with almost 2 ton of liquid argon. This report describes the experimental achievements during commissioning of ArDM and the transition into a stage of first physics data taking in single phase operational mode. We present preliminary observations from this run. A first indication for the background discrimination power of LAr detectors at the ton-scale is shown. We present an outlook for completing the detector with the electric drift field and upgrade of the scintillation light readout system with novel detector modules based on SiPMs in order to improve the light yield.

  15. Computer vision-based localization and mapping of an unknown, uncooperative and spinning target for spacecraft proximity operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tweddle, Brent Edward

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior studies have estimated that there are over 100 potential target objects near the Geostationary Orbit belt that are spinning at rates of over 20 rotations per minute. For a number of reasons, it may be desirable to ...

  16. 16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ke

    -to-day operations, system analysis in smart grids, system visualization, system performance reliability, energy..............................................................................................................397 #12;376 Smart Grids The load forecast generally provides annual peak values for the whole system saving, and accuracy in system planning [14]. * This work is partly supported by a collaborative

  17. Correlation between simulations and cavitation-induced erosion damage in Spallation Neutron Source target modules after operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riemer, Bernie [ORNL] [ORNL; McClintock, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Kaminskas, Saulius [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdou, Ashraf A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An explicit finite element (FE) technique developed for estimating dynamic strain in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) mercury target module vessel is now providing insight into cavitation damage patterns observed in used targets. The technique uses an empirically developed material model for the mercury that describes liquid-like volumetric stiffness combined with a tensile pressure cut-off limit that approximates cavitation. The longest period each point in the mercury is at the tensile cut-off threshold is denoted its saturation time. Now, the pattern of saturation time can be obtained from these simulations and is being positively correlated with observed damage patterns and is interpreted as a qualitative measure of damage potential. Saturation time has been advocated by collaborators at J-Parc as a factor in predicting bubble nuclei growth and collapse intensity. The larger the ratio of maximum bubble size to nucleus, the greater the bubble collapse intensity to be expected; longer saturation times result in greater ratios. With the recent development of a user subroutine for the FE solver saturation time is now provided over the entire mercury domain. Its pattern agrees with spots of damage seen above and below the beam axis on the SNS inner vessel beam window and elsewhere. The other simulation result being compared to observed damage patterns is mercury velocity at the wall. Related R&D has provided evidence for the damage mitigation that higher wall velocity provides. In comparison to observations in SNS targets, inverse correlation of high velocity to damage is seen. In effect, it is the combination of the patterns of saturation time and low velocity that seems to match actual damage patterns.

  18. Operations Information for Studies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Information for Studies This page contains historical information about hydropower operations. Reclamation UC Region 24-Month Studies FY2009 Load Information (pdf) SLIP...

  19. Vacuum Predictions and Measurements for an Internal Pellet Target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, I; Friden, C J; Norman, G; Ekstrm, C; Johansson, T; Wiedner, U; Lehmann, Inti; Nordhage, Orjan; Friden, Carl-Johan; Norman, Gunar; Ekstrom, Curt; Johansson, Tord; Wiedner, Ulrich

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements with low Z targets at internal experiments typically imply a gas load which deteriorates the ring vacuum. Future experiments need reliable estimates for the expected vacuum conditions in order to design 4-pi detectors closely surrounding the interaction area. We present a method for the calculation of the resulting vacuum of such a complex system using a Pellet Target. In order to test the method, a vacuum system with diagnostic tools has been set up and a Pellet Target was operated under realistic conditions. The results for the absolute vacuum agree within factors of two with the expected pressures.

  20. Vacuum Predictions and Measurements for an Internal Pellet Target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inti Lehmann; Orjan Nordhage; Carl-Johan Friden; Gunar Norman; Curt Ekstrom; Tord Johansson; Ulrich Wiedner

    2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements with low Z targets at internal experiments typically imply a gas load which deteriorates the ring vacuum. Future experiments need reliable estimates for the expected vacuum conditions in order to design 4-pi detectors closely surrounding the interaction area. We present a method for the calculation of the resulting vacuum of such a complex system using a Pellet Target. In order to test the method, a vacuum system with diagnostic tools has been set up and a Pellet Target was operated under realistic conditions. The results for the absolute vacuum agree within factors of two with the expected pressures.

  1. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  2. Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

  3. Electrical and Production Load Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for ...

  4. Electrical and Production Load Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  5. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  6. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  7. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1995-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  8. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  9. A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.

    A NOVEL APPROACH TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs... minimized. Because of the difficully in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly...

  10. A high power beam-on-target test of liquid lithium target for RIA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nolen, J.; Reed, C.; Novick, V.; Specht, J.; Plotkin, P.; Momozaki,Y.; Gomes, I.

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the stable operation of a windowless liquid lithium target under extreme thermal loads that are equivalent to uranium beams from the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) driver linac. The engineering and safety issues accompanying liquid lithium systems are first discussed. The liquid metal technology knowledge base generated primarily for fast reactors, and liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, was applied to the development of these systems in a nuclear physics laboratory setting. The use of a high energy electron beam for simulating a high power uranium beam produced by the RIA driver linac is also described. Calculations were performed to obtain energy deposition profiles produced by electron beams at up to a few MeV to compare with expected uranium beam energy deposition profiles. It was concluded that an experimental simulation using a 1-MeV electron beam would be a valuable tool to assess beam-jet interaction. In the experiments, the cross section of the windowless liquid lithium target was 5 mm x 10 mm, which is a 1/3rd scale prototype target, and the velocity of the liquid lithium was varied up to 6 m/s. Thermal loads up to 20 kW within a beam spot diameter of 1mm were applied on the windowless liquid lithium target by the 1-MeV electron beam. The calculations showed that the maximum power density and total power deposited within the target, from the electron beam, was equivalent to that of a 200-kW, 400-MeV/u uranium beam. It was demonstrated that the windowless liquid lithium target flowing at velocities as low as 1.8 m/s stably operated under beam powers up to 20 kW without disruption or excessive vaporization.

  11. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  12. Plug Load

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeedingBiomassPPPOPetroleum38 (1996)representative of thePlug-Load Sign In

  13. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study presented herein establishes a picture of how the agency is positioned today in its loads and resources balance. It is a snapshot of expected resource operation, contractual obligations, and rights. This study does not attempt to present or analyze future conservation or generation resource scenarios. What it does provide are base case assumptions from which scenarios encompassing a wide range of uncertainties about BPA`s future may be evaluated. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The Federal system and regional analyses for medium load forecast are presented.

  14. Inertial fusion energy target injection, tracking, and beam pointing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzoldt, R.W.

    1995-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Several cryogenic targets must be injected each second into a reaction chamber. Required target speed is about 100 m/s. Required accuracy of the driver beams on target is a few hundred micrometers. Fuel strength is calculated to allow acceleration in excess of 10,000 m/s{sup 2} if the fuel temperature is less than 17 K. A 0.1 {mu}m thick dual membrane will allow nearly 2,000 m/s{sup 2} acceleration. Acceleration is gradually increased and decreased over a few membrane oscillation periods (a few ms), to avoid added stress from vibrations which could otherwise cause a factor of two decrease in allowed acceleration. Movable shielding allows multiple targets to be in flight toward the reaction chamber at once while minimizing neutron heating of subsequent targets. The use of multiple injectors is recommended for redundancy which increases availability and allows a higher pulse rate. Gas gun, rail gun, induction accelerator, and electrostatic accelerator target injection devices are studied, and compared. A gas gun is the preferred device for indirect-drive targets due to its simplicity and proven reliability. With the gas gun, the amount of gas required for each target (about 10 to 100 mg) is acceptable. A revolver loading mechanism is recommended with a cam operated poppet valve to control the gas flow. Cutting vents near the muzzle of the gas gun barrel is recommended to improve accuracy and aid gas pumping. If a railgun is used, we recommend an externally applied magnetic field to reduce required current by an order of magnitude. Optical target tracking is recommended. Up/down counters are suggested to predict target arrival time. Target steering is shown to be feasible and would avoid the need to actively point the beams. Calculations show that induced tumble from electrostatically steering the target is not excessive.

  15. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  16. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  17. Load Management for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    customer management programs exist. EPRI Report (EM-1606) loads to beneficially alter a'utility's load curve. (Page 1-2) list them as: Load management alternatives are covered. 1. Direct or voluntary control of customer Load management methods can... and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report energy management programs. (EM-1606) states that "the objective of load manage ment is to alter the real or apparent pattern of Our load management program was designed electricity use in order to...

  18. Determination of the Price-Load Curve by Using Smoothing Splines Under Tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Determination of the Price-Load Curve by Using Smoothing Splines Under Tension Master Thesis 4.2. Price-Load Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 4 load and price . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.5. Merit order curve with operating

  19. An Evaluation of the HVAC Load Potential for Providing Load Balancing Service

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the potential of providing aggregated intra-hour load balancing services using heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. A direct-load control algorithm is presented. A temperature-priority-list method is used to dispatch the HVAC loads optimally to maintain consumer-desired indoor temperatures and load diversity. Realistic intra-hour load balancing signals were used to evaluate the operational characteristics of the HVAC load under different outdoor temperature profiles and different indoor temperature settings. The number of HVAC units needed is also investigated. Modeling results suggest that the number of HVACs needed to provide a {+-}1-MW load balancing service 24 hours a day varies significantly with baseline settings, high and low temperature settings, and the outdoor temperatures. The results demonstrate that the intra-hour load balancing service provided by HVAC loads meet the performance requirements and can become a major source of revenue for load-serving entities where the smart grid infrastructure enables direct load control over the HAVC loads.

  20. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  1. Industrial Load Shaping: A Utility Strategy to Deal with Competition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D.

    manufacturing facilities. Both the customer and the utility should realize benefits from these changes. There are five generic load shaping categories: rescheduling operations, capacity additions, product storage, automation and flexible manufacturing... Implementation * Program Monitoring LOAD SHAPE ALTERNATIVES General categories of load shape alternatives include process rescheduling, capacity additions, product storage, automation and flexible manufacturing and electrotechnologies. Process rescheduling...

  2. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  3. Buildings Stock Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing...

  4. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  5. Published in Proceedings of the XL2003 (Response of Structures to Extreme Loading) Conference, Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    , Toronto, August 2003. EFFICIENT MODELS FOR WIND TURBINE EXTREME LOADS USING INVERSE RELIABILITY K, USA ABSTRACT The reliability of wind turbines against extreme loads is the focus of this study loads for a 600kW three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine. Only operating loads here, flapwise (out

  6. Modeling Operational Constraints imposed by Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniels, Thomas E.

    4 #12;Operational effects into NETPLAN G LX L T R 5 #12;Effect of Wind on Load Following 10 min, that include: Regulation, Intra-hour and inter-hour load following, Contingency reserves, Generation cycling

  7. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  8. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurt, Christopher J [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL; Hobbs, Randall W [ORNL; Owens, R Steven [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  9. 1990 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional profile, which includes loads and resources in addition to the federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study emulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement as completed by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years 1991--92 through 2010--11. The study shows the federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electrical demand and monthly maximum generating capability -- capacity -- for OY 1991--92, 1996--97, 2001--02 and 2010--11. The federal system and regional monthly capacity surpluses/deficits are summarized for 20 operating years. 17 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands--firm loads--are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and ''contracted for'' resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA's Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem. The 1999 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix (available electronically only) detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 2000-01 through 2009-10. The study shows the Federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electricity demand, monthly energy demand, monthly energy generation, and monthly maximum generating capability--capacity--for OY 2000-01, 2004-05, and 2009-10. The Federal system and regional monthly capacity surplus/deficit projections are summarized for 10 operating years. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for wh

  11. DOE Program/Targets and Workshop Objectives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nancy Garland DOE Hydrogen Program Fuel Cell Operation at Sub- Freezing Temperatures DOE ProgramTargets and Workshop Objectives Sub-Freezing Temperature Effects on Fuel Cells...

  12. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF TOKAMAK PLASMA OPERATION MODES AS FUSION POWER PLANTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    disruptions 1 1/10 Demonstrate a closed tritium fuel cycle Yes Yes Must demonstrate operation at partial load

  14. Rotating Target Development for SNS Second Target Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamy, Thomas J [ORNL; Rennich, Mark J [ORNL; Crawford, Roy K [ORNL; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Janney, Jim G [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotating target for the second target station (STS) at SNS has been identified as an option along with a mercury target. Evaluation of the rotating target alternative for STS has started at 1.5 MW which is considered an upper bound for the power. Previous preconceptual design work for a 3 MW rotating target is being modified for the lower power level. Transient thermal analysis for a total loss of active water cooling has been done for a simplified 2D model of the target and shielding monolith which shows that peak temperatures are well below the level at which tungsten vaporization by steam could exceed site boundary dose limits. Design analysis and integration configuration studies have been done for the target-moderator-reflector assembly which maximizes the number of neutron beam lines and provides for replacement of the target and moderators. Target building hot cell arrangement for this option will be described. An option for operation in rough vacuum without a proton beam window using Ferro fluid seals on a vertical shaft is being developed. A full scale prototypic drive module based on the 3 MW preconceptual design has been fabricated and successfully tested with a shaft and mock up target supplied by the ESS-Bilbao team. Overall planning leading to decision between mercury and the rotating target in 2011 will be discussed

  15. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  16. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  17. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  18. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  19. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  20. Load-follow control simulation with optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yim, Man-Sung; Christenson, J.M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the simulation of load-follow control operation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs), the system model needs to describe both primary and secondary system behaviors, because the load-change signal in the secondary system delivers a change in the primary system through the thermal-hydraulic interactions in the steam generator. In this study, the characteristics of load-follow control for a PWR were investigated using a one-dimensional core model combined with a simplified nuclear steam supply system model using optimization. The overall system model includes one-dimensional core neutronics with all the space-dependent feedback effects, Xe-I dynamics, core thermal balances, primary loop thermal balances, and steam generator dynamic responses to turbine load changes. The final system equations were manipulated for the lumped parameter representations by using the model expansion technique for the core model.

  1. Target assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, Richard A. (Falls Church, VA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A target for a proton beam which is capable of generating neutrons for absorption in a breeding blanket includes a plurality of solid pins formed of a neutron emissive target material disposed parallel to the path of the beam and which are arranged axially in a plurality of layers so that pins in each layer are offset with respect to pins in all other layers, enough layers being used so that each proton in the beam will strike at least one pin with means being provided to cool the pins. For a 300 mA, 1 GeV beam (300 MW), stainless steel pins, 12 inches long and 0.23 inches in diameter are arranged in triangular array in six layers with one sixth of the pins in each layer, the number of pins being such that the entire cross sectional area of the beam is covered by the pins with minimum overlap of pins.

  2. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy we analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. in extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  3. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Wind Technology Div.

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable-speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable-speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy analyzed uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  4. Variable speed operation of generators with rotor-speed feedback in wind power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C.P.; Migliore, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of induction generators in wind power applications has been common since the early development of the wind industry. Most of these generators operate at fixed frequency and are connected directly to the utility grid. Unfortunately, this mode of operation limits the rotor speed to a specific rpm. Variable speed operation is preferred in order to facilitate maximum energy capture over a wide range of wind speeds. This paper explores variable speed operating strategies for wind turbine applications. The objectives are to maximize energy production, provide controlled start-up, and reduce torque loading. This paper focuses on optimizing the energy captured by operating at maximum aerodynamic efficiency at any wind speed. The control strategy the authors analyze uses rotor speed and generator power as the feedback signals. In the normal operating region, rotor speed is used to compute a target power that corresponds to optimum operation. With power as the control objective, the power converter and generator are controlled to track the target power at any rpm. Thus, the torque-speed characteristic of the generator is shaped to optimize the energy capture. The target power is continuously updated at any rpm. In extreme areas of the operating envelope, during start-up, shutdown, generator overload, or overspeed, different strategies driven by other system considerations must be used.

  5. Tar loads on Omani beaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F.T. (National Research Center, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to Oman's geographic position and long coastal line, the coastal areas of Oman are particularly vulnerable to oil pollution from normal tanker operations, illegal discharges, and accidental spills as well as local sources of oil input. UNEP carried out a survey on the coasts of Oman to determine the major sources of oil pollution and concluded that the major shoreline pollution problems in Oman arose from operational discharges of oil from passing vessels traffic. The oil, because of the high sea and air temperatures in the area, was subjected to relatively high rates of evaporation and photo-oxidation and tended to arrive at the coast as heavy petroleum particulate residues (tar balls). The aim of the present study was to measure the loads of tar balls in Omani coastal areas and to identify the source of oil pollutants on beaches.

  6. Evaluation of Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring for shipboard cycling system diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mosman, James P. (James Paul)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a device that utilizes voltage and current measurements to determine the operating schedule of all of the major loads on an electrical service. Additionally, the NILM can use its ...

  7. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the results of a low-cost approach used to measure reported load reductions from a residential electric water heater (EWH) load control program operated as part of PJM Interconnection's Demand Response small customer pilot program. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted this independent review of the engineering estimates for EWH load control reported by a Curtailment Service Provider (CSP) at PJM's request. LBNL employed low-cost measurement and verification (M&V) approaches that utilized existing interval metering equipment to monitor results for a series of load control tests. The CSP collected hourly load data for two substations and several hundred households over a six-week period in October and November 2003. During this time period, the CSP operated its electric water heater load control program during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems signifiogram during pre-specified test periods in the morning, afternoon and early evening. LBNL then analyzed substation and premise-level data from these tests in order to verify the diversified demand reductions claimed by the CSP for customers participating in the EWH load control program. We found that the observed load reductions for the premise-level data aggregated over all households in the two participating electric cooperatives were, respectively, 40 percent-60 percent less and 3 percent less-10 percent higher than the estimated diversified demand reduction values assumed by the CSP, depending on whether observed or normalized results are considered. We also analyzed sub-station level data and found that the observed load reductions during the test periods were significantly lower than expected, although confounding influences and operational problems significantly limit our ability to differentiate between control-related and non-control related differences in substation-level load shape data. The usefulness and accuracy of the results were hampered by operational problems encountered during the measurement period as well as in sufficient number of load research grade interval meters at one cooperative. Given the larger sample size at one electric cooperative and more statistically-robust results, there is some basis to suggest that the Adjusted Diversified Demand Factor (ADDF) values used by the CSP somewhat over-state the actual load reductions. Given the results and limitations of the M&V approach as implemented, we suggest several options for PJM to consider: (1) require load aggregators participating in ISODR programs to utilize formal PURPA-compliant load research samples in their M&V plans, and (2) continue developing lower cost M&V approaches for mass market load control programs that incorporate suggested improvements described in this study.

  8. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  9. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  10. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  11. Accelerator target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlyer, D.J.; Ferrieri, R.A.; Koehler, C.

    1999-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression. 5 figs.

  12. Accelerator target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlyer, David J. (Bellport, NY); Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Koehler, Conrad (Miller Place, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A target includes a body having a depression in a front side for holding a sample for irradiation by a particle beam to produce a radioisotope. Cooling fins are disposed on a backside of the body opposite the depression. A foil is joined to the body front side to cover the depression and sample therein. A perforate grid is joined to the body atop the foil for supporting the foil and for transmitting the particle beam therethrough. A coolant is circulated over the fins to cool the body during the particle beam irradiation of the sample in the depression.

  13. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  14. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  15. Power System load management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudenko, Yu.N.; Semenov, V.A.; Sovalov, S.A.; Syutkin, B.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation in demand nonuniformity is analyzed for the Unified Electric Power System of the USSR and certain interconnected power systems; the conditions for handling such nonuniformity with utilization of generating equipment having differing flexibility capabilities are also considered. On this basis approaches and techniques for acting on user loads, load management, in order to assure a balance between generated and consumed power are considered.

  16. 2004 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of BPA and/or the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These deficits could be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). The PNCA defines the planning and operation of seventeen U.S. Pacific Northwest utilities and other parties with generating facilities within the region's hydroelectric (hydro) system. The hydroregulation study used for the 2004 White Book incorporates measures from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries) Biological Opinion dated December 2000, and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's 2000 Biological Opinion (2000 FCRPS BiOps) for the Snake River and Columbia River projects. These measures include: (1) Increased flow augmentation for juvenile fish migrations in the Snake and Columbia rivers in the spring and summer; (2) Mandatory spill requirements at the Lower Snake and Columbia dams to provide for non-turbine passage routes for juvenile fish migrants; and (3) Additional flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon in the spring; The hydroregulation criteria for this analysis includes the following: (1) Detailed Operation Plan operation for Treaty reservoirs for Operating Year (OY) 2004; (2) PNCA planning criteria for OY 2004; and (3) Juvenile fish bypass spill levels for 2000 FCRPS BiOps implementation. The 2004 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2004 White Book analysis updates the 2003 White Book. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2006 through 2015. The study shows the Federal s

  17. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: the model initializes properly, all the parameter settings are functioning, and the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  18. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  19. Energy Storage for Use in Load Frequency Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitermann, Olivia

    Certain energy storage technologies are well-suited to the high-frequency, high-cycling operation which is required in provision of load frequency control (LFC). To limit the total stored energy capacity required while ...

  20. A high power liquid hydrogen target for the Mainz A4 parity violation experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Altarev; E. Schilling; S. Baunack; L. Capozza; J. Diefenbach; K. Grimm; Th. Hammel; D. vonHarrach; Y. Imai; E. M. Kabuss; R. Kothe; J. H. Lee; A. LopesGinja; F. E. Maas; A. SanchezLorente; G. Stephan; C. Weinrich

    2005-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new powerful liquid hydrogen target developed for the precise study of parity violating electron scattering on hydrogen and deuterium. This target has been designed to have minimal target density fluctuations under the heat load of a 20$\\mu$A CW 854.3 MeV electron beam without rastering the electron beam. The target cell has a wide aperture for scattered electrons and is axially symmetric around the beam axis. The construction is optimized to intensify heat exchange by a transverse turbulent mixing in the hydrogen stream, which is directed along the electron beam. The target is constructed as a closed loop circulating system cooled by a helium refrigerator. It is operated by a tangential mechanical pump with an optional natural convection mode. The cooling system supports up to 250 watts of the beam heating removal. Deeply subcooled liquid hydrogen is used for keeping the in-beam temperature below the boiling point. The target density fluctuations are found to be at the level 10$^{-3}$ at a beam current of 20 $\\mu$A.

  1. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  2. ISAC target vacuum system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yosifov, Dimo; Sekachev, Igor [TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF has been in full operation since 1999. The ISAC east and west targets use proton beam from the cyclotron to produce various radioactive isotopes, which are then ionized and extracted. The ions are then passed through the mass separator and selected ions are transferred to the low energy experiments or injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The accompanying radioactive contamination from the production of radioactive ions requires a complex vacuum system. The main target vacuum space consists of two semiseparate (primary and secondary) volumes pumped by turbo-molecular pumps. The primary volume uses four pumps while the secondary volume uses two pumps. Two hermetic rotary vane pumps are used as backing pumps. The nominal vacuum in both volumes is about 1.33x10{sup -4} Pa (1.0x10{sup -6} Torr). The pressure is monitored by two cold cathode and two hot filament ion gauges. The cold cathode gauges are used to interlock the system, which is critical during the bake out of the target and beam production. The exhaust gas from the vacuum pumps can be radioactive. Three gas storage tanks (decay tanks) are used for temporary storage of the radioactive exhaust and its controlled release to the atmosphere. Gas-species insensitive membrane gauges are used for monitoring the pressure in the storage tanks. This article describes the details of the ISAC target vacuum system as well as some procedures related to the handling of the exhaust gas with traces of radioactive contamination produced by the targets.

  3. Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsagarakis, G; Kiprakis, A E

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.

  4. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  5. Extending operating range of a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine via cylinder deactivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hergart, Carl-Anders (Peoria, IL); Hardy, William L. (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin P. (Metamora, IL); Liechty, Michael P. (Chillicothe, IL)

    2008-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An HCCI engine has the ability to operate over a large load range by utilizing a lower cetane distillate diesel fuel to increase ignition delay. This permits more stable operation at high loads by avoidance of premature combustion before top dead center. During low load conditions, a portion of the engines cylinders are deactivated so that the remaining cylinders can operate at a pseudo higher load while the overall engine exhibits behavior typical of a relatively low load.

  6. contingency Nominal loading margin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Member Member Fellow Electrical and Computer Engineering Department University of Wisconsin, Madison WI 53706 USA Abstract: The change in the loading margin to voltage collapse when line outages occur the line outages of the IEEE 118 bus system. The results show the effective ranking of contingencies

  7. Cooling load estimation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

  8. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  9. Towards A Structural Load Testing Tool CheerSun D. Yang and Lori L. Pollock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, Lori L.

    by the tester within an operational profile. This method of load testing is applied at system inte­ gration timeTowards A Structural Load Testing Tool Cheer­Sun D. Yang and Lori L. Pollock Department of Computer and Information Sciences University of Delaware Newark, DE 19716 (302) 831­1953 Abstract Load sensitive faults

  10. Automatic load follow control system for PWR plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakakura, H.; Ishiguro, A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Japan, load follow operation (daily load follow, automatic frequency control (AFC) operation, and governor free (GF) operation) of nuclear plants will be required in the near future to control grid frequency, as the ratio of nuclear plant electrical production to total grid production will increase. The AFC operation regulated power by demand from the central load dispatcher to control mainly the fringe component of the grid frequency fluctuation, and GF operation regulates power by turbine revolution or grid frequency to control mainly the cyclic component of grid frequency fluctuation. This paper deals with the automatic power distribution control system, which is important to load follow operation and possibly will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear plants. The reactor control systems noted below are conventional design with some improvements for AFC/GF operation, so that the reactor operates the turbine as before: (1) rod control system (reactor power control); (2) pressurizer pressure control system; (3) pressurizer level control system; and (4) steam generator level control system.

  11. Field Operations Program, Toyota PRIUS Hybrid Electric Vehicle Performance Characterization Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francfort, James Edward; Nguyen, N.; Phung, J.; Smith, J.; Wehrey, M.

    2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energys Field Operations Program evaluates advanced technology vehicles in real-world applications and environments. Advanced technology vehicles include pure electric, hybrid electric, hydrogen, and other vehicles that use emerging technologies such as fuel cells. Information generated by the Program is targeted to fleet managers and others considering the deployment of advanced technology vehicles. As part of the above activities, the Field Operations Program has initiated the testing of the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), a technology increasingly being considered for use in fleet applications. This report describes the Pomona Loop testing of the Prius, providing not only initial operational and performance information, but also a better understanding of HEV testing issues. The Pomona Loop testing includes both Urban and Freeway drive cycles, each conducted at four operating scenarios that mix minimum and maximum payloads with different auxiliary (e.g., lights, air conditioning) load levels.

  12. Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

  13. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  14. The International Mass Loading Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Leonid

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The International Mass Loading Service computes four loadings: a) atmospheric pressure loading; b) land water storage loading; c) oceanic tidal loading; and d) non-tidal oceanic loading. The service provides to users the mass loading time series in three forms: 1) pre-computed time series for a list of 849 space geodesy stations; 2) pre-computed time series on the global 1deg x 1deg grid; and 3) on-demand Internet service for a list of stations and a time range specified by the user. The loading displacements are provided for the time period from 1979.01.01 through present, updated on an hourly basis, and have latencies 8-20 hours.

  15. Load-Dependent and Precedence-Based Models for Pickup and ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 6, 2014 ... Combining the Scaled Flow System with the Aggregated Flow System ..... These inequalities can be interpreted as the SOP cuts (25) lifted in the load .... extending set V by artificial source and target nodes, and defining A =.

  16. V-203: HP LoadRunner Multiple Bugs Let Remote Users Deny Service...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    execute arbitrary code on the target system. A remote user can cause denial of service conditions. PLATFORM: HP LoadRunner prior to 11.52 ABSTRACT: Multiple vulnerabilities were...

  17. 1 ISO 14001 requires that operational control be maintained over significant environmental aspects such that lack of control would lead to deviation from environmental policy and targets. 2 Targets are as described and scheduled in the Recovery and Resource Loaded schedule and are dependent on funding of Recovery Plan .

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch >Internship ProgramBiomassUniversityNuclearIBM8) SectionFP03-09)Improve

  18. alliance targets separation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We find the largest significant increases in targets stock prices, investment, and operating profitability when ownership is combined with alliances, joint ventures, and...

  19. Microfluidic Facility, Harvard Medical School UVO-42 Operation Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulsson, Johan

    Microfluidic Facility, Harvard Medical School UVO-42 Operation Manual 1. Load the substrate then be opened the tray removed, and the parts unloaded. Calixto Saenz, Microfluidic Facility

  20. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  1. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  2. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  3. Pilot plant used to develop load and pressure controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagata, Kazue; Yamada, Toshihiro; Hiza, Tomoyuki

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Viewed from the perspective of the power-generation mixture in Japan, nuclear power plants will continue to be operated to meet the base load. Meanwhile, integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants will be required to serve as thermal power plants to cover the middle load, as is the case with conventional thermal power plants. In terms of operational performance, therefore, IGCC power plants will need to have a capability of following a wide range of load demand at high speed. For this purpose, a load and pressure controller was developed and tested during the operational research on a 200 tons/day entrained flow IGCC pilot plant at the Nakoso Power Station by the Engineering Research Association for IGCC Power Systems (IGC Association). This article reports on the development of the load and pressure controller and the results of the control test carried out to check the load follow capability of the pilot plant, while touching upon the simulation study also being conducted.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that demonstrated the quantitative impact of WL on the number of cells (each Saltstone vault contains two cells) required to disposition all of the {approx}100 million gallons of DSS available in the tanks. This calculation revealed that the number of cells required over the range of 0.48 to 0.62 w/cm ratio (equivalent to a WL range of 591 to 666 mL/L) varies from 65 to 57 cells (33 to 29 vaults). The intent of this oversimplified example was to show the range of variation in vaults expected due to w/cm ratio rather than to estimate the actual number of vaults required. There is a tradeoff between the waste loading and the processing and performance properties of Saltstone. The performance properties improve in general as the w/cm ratio decreases whereas the waste loading is reduced at lower w/cm ratios resulting in a larger number of Saltstone vaults. The final performance and processing requirements of Saltstone will determine the maximum waste loading achievable.

  5. ALT-3 Target & CMU Version 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griego, Jeffrey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, Walter L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, Leonard J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The third Advance Liner Technology (ALT-3) experiment is the next in a long tradition of collaborations between LANL and RFNC/VNIIEF in high-explosive pulsed-power. Here a VNIIEF provided Disk Explosive Magnetic Generator (DEMG) will drive a LANL provided experimental load and diagnostic package. The objective of the experiment is to explore the use of a cylindrical liner-ontarget in tera-Pascal equation of state measurement. This presentation will discuss version 4 of the experimental target and central measuring unit (CMU) along with R & D already performed in fabrication of the target.

  6. First SNS Target Replacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    First SNS Target Replacement Experience M. Dayton, M. Rennich, Van Graves, J. DeVore Presented by T.S. Department of Energy AHIP Workshop Oct. 2009 Overview · Initial Target Replacement · Target Maintenance-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy AHIP Workshop Oct. 2009 First SNS Target Replacement · Replacement

  7. MECO Production Target Developments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    be reoptimized Tungsten target Simulations of design parameters with GEANT3 indicate that both production targetMECO Production Target Developments James L. Popp University of California, Irvine NuFact'03 Columbia, June, 2003 #12;June, 2003J.L.Popp, UCI MECO Production Target 2 MECO Collaboration Institute

  8. Structural load inventory database for the Kansas City federal complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Johnson, M.W.; Nakaki, D.K. [EQE International, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Lynch, D.T.; Drury, M.A. [AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Division

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structural load inventory database (LID) has been developed to support configuration management at the DOE Kansas City Plant (KCP). The objective of the LID is to record loads supported by the plant structures and to provide rapid assessments of the impact of future facility modifications on structural adequacy. Development of the LID was initiated for the KCP`s Main Manufacturing Building. Field walkdowns were performed to determine all significant loads supported by the structure, including the weight of piping, service equipment, etc. These loads were compiled in the LID. Structural analyses for natural phenomena hazards were performed in accordance with UCRL-15910. Software to calculate demands on the structural members due to gravity loads, total demands including both gravity and seismic loads, and structural member demand-to-capacity ratios were also developed and integrated into the LID. Operation of the LID is menu-driven. The LID user has options to review and print existing loads and corresponding demand-to-capacity ratios, and to update the supported loads and demand-to-capacity ratios for any future facility modifications.

  9. Short-Term Load Forecasting Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load forecasting in the day-ahead timescale is a critical aspect of power system operations that is used in the unit commitment process. It is also an important factor in renewable energy integration studies, where the combination of load and wind or solar forecasting techniques create the net load uncertainty that must be managed by the economic dispatch process or with suitable reserves. An understanding of that load forecasting errors that may be expected in this process can lead to better decisions about the amount of reserves necessary to compensate errors. In this work, we performed a statistical analysis of the day-ahead (and two-day-ahead) load forecasting errors observed in two independent system operators for a one-year period. Comparisons were made with the normal distribution commonly assumed in power system operation simulations used for renewable power integration studies. Further analysis identified time periods when the load is more likely to be under- or overforecast.

  10. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    componentssuchaspowersources,loads, transformersandcomponentssuchaspowersources,loads, transformersand

  11. Polarized internal target apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holt, R.J.

    1984-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A polarized internal target apparatus with a polarized gas target of improved polarization and density (achieved by mixing target gas atoms with a small amount of alkali metal gas atoms, and passing a high intensity polarized light source into the mixture to cause the alkali metal gas atoms to become polarized which interact in spin exchange collisions with target gas atoms yielding polarized target gas atoms) is described.

  12. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  13. Office of Enterprise Assessment Targeted Review of the Safety-Significant Ventilation Systems at the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory Operated by UT-Battelle for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Office of Science - April 2015

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM PolicyOf Environmental ManagementRollout -Summary byTargeted

  14. Construction of an unyielding target for large horizontal impacts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, Douglas James; Davie, Neil Thomas; Kalan, Robert J.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories has constructed an unyielding target at the end of its 2000-foot rocket sled track. This target is made up of approximately 5 million pounds of concrete, an embedded steel load spreading structure, and a steel armor plate face that varies from 10 inches thick at the center to 4 inches thick at the left and right edges. The target/track combination will allow horizontal impacts at regulatory speeds of very large objects, such as a full-scale rail cask, or high-speed impacts of smaller packages. The load-spreading mechanism in the target is based upon the proven design that has been in use for over 20 years at Sandia's aerial cable facility. That target, with a weight of 2 million pounds, has successfully withstood impact forces of up to 25 million pounds. It is expected that the new target will be capable of withstanding impact forces of more than 70 million pounds. During construction various instrumentation was placed in the target so that the response of the target during severe impacts can be monitored. This paper will discuss the construction of the target and provide insights on the testing capabilities at the sled track with this new target.

  15. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

  16. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: hydrodynamic loading

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    loading High-Fidelity Hydrostructural Analysis of Ocean Renewable Power Company's (ORPC's) TidGen Turbine On March 19, 2014, in Computational Modeling & Simulation, Energy, News,...

  18. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssuesEnergy Solar Decathlon | Department of EnergySHARINGAncillary

  19. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value of the counter, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  20. Performing a local barrier operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  1. Electrical transient stability and underfrequency load shedding analysis for a large pump station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shilling, S.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical transients from faults, loss of generation, and load swings can disrupt pump station operations. Isolated stations with no utility tie and those with weak utility ties are especially at risk. Relative to this problem, the following four main issues are addressed: (1) Analyze the methods that use high-speed underfrequency load shedding to maintain system stability and preserve station operations. (2) Analyze combustion gas turbine generator and diesel generator transient responses, as they pertain to the Electrical Engineer. (3) Discuss system component modeling and the use of low voltage circuit switching devices to shed loads. (4) Compare two computer analysis program outputs for underfrequency load shedding responses.

  2. Electrical transient stability and underfrequency load shedding analysis for a large pump station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shilling, S.R. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)] [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical transients from faults, loss of generation, and load swings can disrupt pump station operations. Isolated stations with no utility tie, and those with weak utility ties, are especially at risk. Relative to this problem, the following four main issues are addressed: (1) analyze the methods that use high-speed underfrequency load shedding to maintain system stability and preserve station operations; (2) analyze combustion gas turbine generator and diesel generator transient responses, as they pertain to the electrical engineer; (3) discuss system component modeling and the use of low voltage circuit switching devices to shed loads; (4) compare two computer analysis program outputs for underfrequency load shedding responses.

  3. Operations & Maintenance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations and Maintenance Operations OASIS: OATI (Note: this site is not hosted by Western and requires a digital certificate and login for full access.) Contact Information...

  4. Operations & Maintenance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates Operations & Maintenance Operations OASIS: WACM (Note: this site is not hosted by Western and requires a digital certificate and login for full access.) wesTTrans Common...

  5. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1994-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

  6. An all-optical ion-loading technique for scalable microtrap architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. J. Hendricks; D. M. Grant; P. F. Herskind; A. Dantan; M. Drewsen

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental demonstration of a novel all-optical technique for loading ion traps, that has particular application to microtrap architectures, is presented. The technique is based on photo-ionisation of an atomic beam created by pulsed laser ablation of a calcium target, and provides improved temporal control compared to traditional trap loading methods. Ion loading rates as high as 125 ions per second have so far been observed. Also described are observations of trap loading where Rydberg state atoms are photo-ionised by the ion Doppler cooling laser.

  7. Analysis of the Thermal Loads on the KSTAR Cryogenic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.; Kim, W.C.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, S.B.; Sa, J.W.; Choi, C.H.; Cho, K.W.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Yusung-Ku, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A large-scale helium refrigeration system is one of the key components for the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device. In the design of the refrigeration system, an estimation of the thermal loads on the cold mass is an important issue according to the operation scenario. The cold mass of the KSTAR device is about 250 tons including 30 superconducting (SC) coils and the magnet structure. In addition to the static thermal loads, pulsed thermal loads to the refrigeration system have been considered in the operation stage. The main pulsed thermal loads on magnet system are AC losses in the SC coils and eddy current losses in the magnet structure that depend on the magnetic field variation rate. The nuclear radiation loss due to plasma pulse operation is also considered. The designed cooling capacity of the refrigeration system is estimated to be about 9 kW at 4.5 K isothermal. In this paper, calculation of the various kinds of thermal loads on KSTAR cryogenic system and design of the large-scale helium refrigeration system are presented.

  8. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  9. Multiple source/multiple target fluid transfer apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid transfer apparatus includes: a) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid sources; b) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid targets; c) a set of fluid source conduits and fluid target conduits associated with the orifices; d) a pump fluidically interposed between the source and target conduits to transfer fluid therebetween; e) a purge gas conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass a purge gas under pressure; f) a solvent conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass solvent, the solvent conduit including a solvent valve; g) pump control means for controlling operation of the pump; h) purge gas valve control means for controlling operation of the purge gas valve to selectively impart flow of purge gas to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; i) solvent valve control means for controlling operation of the solvent valve to selectively impart flow of solvent to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; and j) source and target valve control means for controlling operation of the fluid source conduit valves and the fluid target conduit valves to selectively impart passage of fluid between a selected one of the fluid source conduits and a selected one of the fluid target conduits through the pump and to enable passage of solvent or purge gas through selected fluid source conduits and selected fluid target conduits.

  10. High Power Cryogenic Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Smith

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of high power cryogenic targets for use in parity violating electron scattering has been a crucial ingredient in the success of those experiments. As we chase the precision frontier, the demands and requirements for these targets have grown accordingly. We discuss the state of the art, and describe recent developments and strategies in the design of the next generation of these targets.

  11. Optimizing Process Loads in Industrial Cogeneration Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.; Babson, P. E.

    processes. AUTOMATION REQUIREMENTS The Operations energy Management System (OEMS) can require on-line operation using current measurements (e.g. flow, powers, temperatures, etc.), and calculating optimum energy purchase and equipment dispatch within...kW., A.. kW >- kW OPTIMIZING PROCESS LOADS IN INDUSTRIAL COGENERAnON ENERGY SYSTEMS DJ. Ahner Manager, Generation Technology Power Tecbnologies, Inc. Schenectady, New York ABSTRACT Optimum dispatcb of energy supply systems can...

  12. Recovery Act: Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energys National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel smart power strip to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects. 1) An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing. 2) A novel Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution. 3) Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  13. Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Special Issue Load Profiling Based Routing for Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows \\Lambda IBRAHIM MATTA y the load across the set of candidate routes. In this paper, we propose the use of load profiling as an attractive alternative to load balancing for routing guaranteed bandwidth VCs (flows). Load profiling

  14. C AND M BOTTOM LOADING FURNACE TEST DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonds, D

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The test was performed to determine the response of the HBL Phase III Glovebox during C&M Bottom Loading Furnace operations. In addition the data maybe used to benchmark a heat transfer model of the HBL Phase III Glovebox and Furnace.

  15. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The renewable supply may comprise, for example, a photovoltaic power supply or a wind-based power supply.

  16. Molecular mechanisms of hydrogen loaded B-hydroquinone clathrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daschbach, John L.; Chang, Tsun-Mei; Corrales, Louis R.; Dang, Liem X.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the molecular interactions of hydrogen loaded beta-hydroquinone clathrate. It is found that at lower temperatures, higher loadings are more stable, whereas, at higher temperatures, lower loadings are more stable. This trend can be understood based on the interactions in the system. For loadings greater than one, the repulsive forces between the guest molecules shove each other towards the attractive forces between the guest and host molecules leading to a stabilized minimum energy configuration at low temperatures. At higher temperatures greater displacements take the system away from the shallow energy minimum and the trend reverses. The asymmetries of the clathrate cage structure are due to the presence of the attractive forces at loadings greater than one that lead to confined states. The nature of the cavity structure is nearly spherical for a loading of one, leads to preferential occupation near the hydroxyl ring crowns of the cavity with a loading of two, and at higher loadings, leads to occupation of the interstitial sites (the hydroxyl rings) between cages by a single H2 molecule with the remaining molecules occupying the equatorial plane of the cavity. At higher temperatures, the cavity is more uniformly occupied for all loadings, where the occupation of the interstitial positions of the cavities leads to facile diffusion. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This work was partially supported by NIDO (Japan), LDRD (PNNL), EERE U.S. Department of Energy, and by OBES, U.S. DOE. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy

  17. Short-term load forecasting using generalized regression and probabilistic neural networks in the electricity market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, M.M.; Upadhyay, K.G.; Singh, S.N.

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For the economic and secure operation of power systems, a precise short-term load forecasting technique is essential. Modern load forecasting techniques - especially artificial neural network methods - are particularly attractive, as they have the ability to handle the non-linear relationships between load, weather temperature, and the factors affecting them directly. A test of two different ANN models on data from Australia's Victoria market is promising. (author)

  18. Field Test Protocol: Standard Internal Load Generation in Unoccupied Test Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, X.; Christensen, D.; Barker, G.; Hancock, E.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes a simple and general way to generate House Simulation Protocol (HSP)-consistent internal sensible and latent loads in unoccupied homes. It is newly updated based on recent experience, and provides instructions on how to calculate and set up the operational profiles in unoccupied homes. The document is split into two sections: how to calculate the internal load magnitude and schedule, and then what tools and methods should be used to generate those internal loads to achieve research goals.

  19. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  20. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs...

  1. Advanced nonintrusive load monitoring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichakool, Warit, 1977-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need for flexible, inexpensive metering technologies that can be deployed in many different monitoring scenarios. Individual loads may be expected to compute information about their power consumption. Utility ...

  2. OTC Paper Number 24645 GPU-Event-Mechanics Evaluation of Ice Impact Load Statistics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Dennis

    OTC Paper Number 24645 GPU-Event-Mechanics Evaluation of Ice Impact Load Statistics Claude Daley of a GPU-Event-Mechanics (GEM) simulation to assess local ice loads on a vessel operating in pack ice workstation. The simulation domain contains hundreds of discrete and interacting ice floes. A simple vessel

  3. Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    Optimal Industrial Load Control in Smart Grid: A Case Study for Oil Refineries Armen Gholian, Hamed units finish their operations. Considering an oil refinery industry as an example, we not only identify Terms­Demand response, load management, manufactur- ing industries, oil refineries, optimal scheduling

  4. Short Term Hourly Load Forecasting Using Abductive Networks R. E. Abdel-Aal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    Physical Sciences, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi for forecasting next-day hourly loads have been developed. Evaluated on data for the 6th year, the models give. INTRODUCTION Accurate load forecasting is a key requirement for the planning and economic and secure operation

  5. An All Metal High Power Circularly Polarized 100 MW RF Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Jongewaard, E.N.; Loewen, R.J.; Tantawi, S.G.; Vlieks, A.E.; /SLAC

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact RF load has been designed using a cascaded array of lossy radial RF chokes to dissipate 100 MW peak and 8 kW average power uniformly along the length of the load. Operation in the circularly polarized Te{_}11 mode assures uniform dissipation azimuthally as well.

  6. The evaluation of a turbulent loads characterization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss an on-line turbulent load characterization system that has been designed to acquire loading spectra from turbines of the same design operating in several different environments and from different turbine designs operating in the same environment. This System simultaneously measures the rainflow-counted alternating and mean loading spectra and the hub-height turbulent mean shearing stress and atmospheric stability associated with the turbulent inflow. We discuss the theory behind the measurement configuration and the results of proof-of-concept testing recently performed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using a Bergey EXCEL-S 10-kW wind turbine. The on-line approach to characterizing the load spectra and the inflow turbulent scaling parameter produces results that are consistent with other measurements. The on-line approximation of the turbulent shear stress or friction velocity u* also is considered adequate. The system can be used to characterize turbulence loads during turbine deployment in a wide variety of environments. Using the WISPER protocol, we found that a wide-range, variable-speed turbine will accumulate a larger number of stress cycles in the low-cycle, high-amplitude (LCHA) region when compared with a constant speed rotor under similar inflow conditions.

  7. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  8. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

  9. Sandia Energy - Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Wind Energy Resources Wind Software Downloads Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database Sandia Wind...

  10. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  11. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  12. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  13. TEMPERATURE AND LOAD EFFECTS ON ACOUSTIC EMISSION SIGNALS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    TEMPERATURE AND LOAD EFFECTS ON ACOUSTIC EMISSION SIGNALS FOR STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING. KEYWORDS : Structural Health Monitoring, Acoustic Emission, Environmental and Operational Conditions2014 Author manuscript, published in "EWSHM - 7th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring

  14. A hierarchical heuristic approach for machine loading problems in a partially grouped environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Hwan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The loading problem in a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) lies in the allocation of operations and associated cutting tools to machines for a given set of parts subject to capacity constraints. This dissertation proposes a hierarchical approach...

  15. Power System Dynamics as Primal-Dual Algorithm for Optimal Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    in the Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communica- tions, Tainan City, Taiwan- based load control does not require communication to a centralized grid operator, and is thus suitable for

  16. Target Cost Management Strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okano, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Target cost management (TCM) is an innovation of Japanese management accounting system and by common sense has been considered with great interest by practitioners. Nowadays, TCM related

  17. Interaction of the high energy deuterons with the graphite target in the plasma focus devices based on Lee model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akel, M., E-mail: pscientific2@aec.org.sy; Alsheikh Salo, S.; Ismael, Sh. [Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P. O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Saw, S. H. [INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148 (Australia); Lee, S. [INTI International University, 71800 Nilai (Malaysia); Institute for Plasma Focus Studies, 32 Oakpark Drive, Chadstone VIC 3148 (Australia); Physics Department, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical experiments are systematically carried out using the Lee model code extended to compute the ion beams on various plasma focus devices operated with Deuterium gas. The deuteron beam properties of the plasma focus are studied for low and high energy plasma focus device. The energy spectral distribution for deuteron ions ejected from the pinch plasma is calculated and the ion numbers with energy around 1?MeV is then determined. The deuterongraphite target interaction is studied for different conditions. The yield of the reaction {sup 12}C(d,n){sup 13}N and the induced radioactivity for one and multi shots plasma focus devices in the graphite solid target is investigated. Our results present the optimized high energy repetitive plasma focus devices as an alternative to accelerators for the production of {sup 13}N short lived radioisotopes. However, technical challenges await solutions on two fronts: (a) operation of plasma focus machines at high rep rates for a sufficient period of time (b) design of durable targets that can take the thermal load.

  18. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  19. Helium Refrigerator Design for Pulsed Heat Load in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuendig, A.; Schoenfeld, H. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak type will be operated in a pulsed mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time steps of approximately one hour. What are the necessary steps for a refrigerator to cope with such load variations?A series of numerical simulations has been performed indicating the possibility of an active refrigerator control with low exergetic losses. A basic comparison is made between the largest existing refrigerator sizes and the size required to service for example the ITER requirements.

  20. 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study: The White Book.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

  1. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Electricity Generation Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    To address industry challenges in attaining operational excellence for electricity generation plants, the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTARTM). This presentation will highlight the AVESTARTM Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission electricity generation plants. The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real-time, high-fidelity dynamic simulators with full-scope operator training systems (OTSs) and 3D virtual immersive training systems (ITSs) into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. AVESTARs initial offering combines--for the first time--a gasification with CO2 capture process simulator with a combined-cycle power simulator together in a single OTS/ITS solution for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. IGCC systems are an attractive technology option for power generation, especially when capturing and storing CO2 is necessary to satisfy emission targets. The AVESTAR training program offers a variety of courses that merge classroom learning, simulator-based OTS learning in a control-room operations environment, and immersive learning in the interactive 3D virtual plant environment or ITS. All of the courses introduce trainees to base-load plant operation, control, startups, and shutdowns. Advanced courses require participants to become familiar with coordinated control, fuel switching, power-demand load shedding, and load following, as well as to problem solve equipment and process malfunctions. Designed to ensure work force development, training is offered for control room and plant field operators, as well as engineers and managers. Such comprehensive simulator-based instruction allows for realistic training without compromising worker, equipment, and environmental safety. It also better prepares operators and engineers to manage the plant closer to economic constraints while minimizing or avoiding the impact of any potentially harmful, wasteful, or inefficient events. The AVESTAR Center is also used to augment graduate and undergraduate engineering education in the areas of process simulation, dynamics, control, and safety. Students and researchers gain hands-on simulator-based training experience and learn how the commercial-scale power plants respond dynamically to changes in manipulated inputs, such as coal feed flow rate and power demand. Students also analyze how the regulatory control system impacts power plant performance and stability. In addition, students practice start-up, shutdown, and malfunction scenarios. The 3D virtual ITSs are used for plant familiarization, walk-through, equipment animations, and safety scenarios. To further leverage the AVESTAR facilities and simulators, NETL and its university partners are pursuing an innovative and collaborative R&D program. In the area of process control, AVESTAR researchers are developing enhanced strategies for regulatory control and coordinated plant-wide control, including gasifier and gas turbine lead, as well as advanced process control using model predictive control (MPC) techniques. Other AVESTAR R&D focus areas include high-fidelity equipment modeling using partial differential equations, dynamic reduced order modeling, optimal sensor placement, 3D virtual plant simulation, and modern grid. NETL and its partners plan to continue building the AVESTAR portfolio of dynamic simulators, immersive training systems, and advanced research capabilities to satisfy industrys growing need for training and experience with the operation and control of clean energy plants. Future dynamic simulators under development include natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and supercritical pulverized coal (SCPC) plants with post-combustion CO2 capture. These dynamic simulators are targeted for us

  2. Neutrino Factory Target Vessel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Update 26 June 2012 Cooling Channel in both walls for draining · Downstream end can be shortened, assuming the window cooling is adequate #12;11 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Update 26 June 2012 Remote Handling

  3. MODELING AND CONTROL OF THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analyt- ical models) is well matched to the role of load following. Re- search into the behavior of TCLs began with the work was then employed in a minimum variance control law to demonstrate the load following capability of a population

  4. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve #12;1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve #12;What are they? How do you make one? #12;Describes

  5. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve 1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve What are they? How do you make one? Describes the percent of time a flow rate

  6. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Optimization Studies for ISOL Type High-Powered Targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Remec, Igor [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Ronningen, Reginald Martin [Michigan State University] [Michigan State University

    2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The research studied one-step and two-step Isotope Separation on Line (ISOL) targets for future radioactive beam facilities with high driver-beam power through advanced computer simulations. As a target material uranium carbide in the form of foils was used because of increasing demand for actinide targets in rare-isotope beam facilities and because such material was under development in ISAC at TRIUMF when this project started. Simulations of effusion were performed for one-step and two step targets and the effects of target dimensions and foil matrix were studied. Diffusion simulations were limited by availability of diffusion parameters for UCx material at reduced density; however, the viability of the combined diffusion?effusion simulation methodology was demonstrated and could be used to extract physical parameters such as diffusion coefficients and effusion delay times from experimental isotope release curves. Dissipation of the heat from the isotope-producing targets is the limiting factor for high-power beam operation both for the direct and two-step targets. Detailed target models were used to simulate proton beam interactions with the targets to obtain the fission rates and power deposition distributions, which were then applied in the heat transfer calculations to study the performance of the targets. Results indicate that a direct target, with specification matching ISAC TRIUMF target, could operate in 500-MeV proton beam at beam powers up to ~40 kW, producing ~8 1013 fission/s with maximum temperature in UCx below 2200 C. Targets with larger radius allow higher beam powers and fission rates. For the target radius in the range 9-mm to 30-mm the achievable fission rate increases almost linearly with target radius, however, the effusion delay time also increases linearly with target radius.

  8. Analysis and Synthesis of Load Forecasting Data for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steckler, N.; Florita, A.; Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As renewable energy constitutes greater portions of the generation fleet, the importance of modeling uncertainty as part of integration studies also increases. In pursuit of optimal system operations, it is important to capture not only the definitive behavior of power plants, but also the risks associated with systemwide interactions. This research examines the dependence of load forecast errors on external predictor variables such as temperature, day type, and time of day. The analysis was utilized to create statistically relevant instances of sequential load forecasts with only a time series of historic, measured load available. The creation of such load forecasts relies on Bayesian techniques for informing and updating the model, thus providing a basis for networked and adaptive load forecast models in future operational applications.

  9. 1998 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (summary)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for inventory planning to determine BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The 1998 White Book is presented in two documents: 1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and 2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. The load forecast is derived by using economic planning models to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPAs Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit 1) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The 1998 study uses the same economic forecast used for the 1997 study. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demandsfirm loadsare subtracted from the projected capability of existing and contracted for resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads.

  10. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

  11. U-208: HP Operations Agent Bugs Let Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two vulnerabilities were reported in HP Operations Agent. A remote user can execute arbitrary code on the target system

  12. Modeling DT Vaporization and Melting in a Direct Drive Target B. R. Christensen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raffray, A. René

    concept utilizes multiple laser beams to compress and heat small spherical targets loaded with fusion fuel (fig. 2). This simplifies both the heat conduction equation and the calculation of the deflection energy (IFE) direct drive targets are subjected to heating from energy exchange with the background gas

  13. Optical system for Argus 355-nm 90-mm aperture target-illumination experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, B.C.; Boyd, R.; Hermes, G.; Hildum, J.S.; Linford, G.; Martin, W.E.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements of laser alignment, crystal tuning, target alignment, and laser beam diagnosis are provided by this optical system. Initial setup and preshot alignment techniques are discussed. Layout and operation are contrasted with the 532 nm target experiments.

  14. 1999 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to its regional power sales contracts.1 Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. The White Book will not be used in calculations for the 2002 regional power sales contract subscription process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions, including expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demandsfirm loadsare subtracted from the projected capability of existing and contracted for resources to determine whether BPA and the region will be surplus or deficit. If Federal system resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPAs Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem.

  15. Improving Dynamic Load and Generator Response PerformanceTools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a scoping study to examine research opportunities to improve the accuracy of the system dynamic load and generator models, data and performance assessment tools used by CAISO operations engineers and planning engineers, as well as those used by their counterparts at the California utilities, to establish safe operating margins. Model-based simulations are commonly used to assess the impact of credible contingencies in order to determine system operating limits (path ratings, etc.) to ensure compliance with NERC and WECC reliability requirements. Improved models and a better understanding of the impact of uncertainties in these models will increase the reliability of grid operations by allowing operators to more accurately study system voltage problems and the dynamic stability response of the system to disturbances.

  16. A cask fleet operations study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the cask fleet currently available to transport spent nuclear fuels. The report describes the proposed operational procedures for these casks and the vehicles intended to transport them. Included are techniques for loading the cask, lifting it onto the transport vehicle, preparing the invoices, and unloading the cask at the destination. The document concludes with a discussion on the maintenance and repair of the casks. (tem) 29 figs.

  17. Condition-Based Maintenance via Simulation and a Targeted Bayesian

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Gal, Irad E.

    malfunctioning. Accordingly, it is essential to undertake an effective preventive maintenance (PM) policyCondition-Based Maintenance via Simulation and a Targeted Bayesian Network Metamodel Aviv Gruber, Israel ABSTRACT Condition-based maintenance (CBM) is increasingly applied to operational systems

  18. Synchronous motor with soft start element formed between the motor rotor and motor output shaft to successfully synchronize loads that have high inertia and/or high torque

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D; Nisley, Donald L; Melfi, Michael J

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A line-start synchronous motor has a housing, a rotor shaft, and an output shaft. A soft-start coupling portion is operatively coupled to the output shaft and the rotor shaft. The soft-start coupling portion is configurable to enable the synchronous motor to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling. The synchronous motor is sufficiently rated to obtain synchronous operation and to drive, at least near synchronous speed during normal steady state operation of the motor, a load having characteristics sufficient to prevent obtaining normal synchronous operation of the motor when the motor is operatively connected to the load in the absence of the soft-start coupling.

  19. Addressing the Challenges of RCCI Operation on a Light-Duty...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    + ULSD EGR controls MPR but may adversely impact BTE due to EGR heat rejection and turbo-machinery limitations. Ethanol-gasoline blends enable higher load operation with...

  20. PRB rail loadings shatter record

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Rail transport of coal in the Powder River Basin has expanded, with a record 2,197 trains loaded in a month. Arch Coal's Thunder basin mining complex has expanded by literally bridging the joint line railway. The dry fork mine has also celebrated its safety achievements. 4 photos.

  1. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, R.L.; Casamajor, A.B.; Parsons, R.E.

    1980-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupling mechanism for engaging and lifting a load has a housing with a guide passage for receiving a knob which is secured to the load through a neck of smaller diameter. A hollow ball in the housing has an opening which receives the knob and the ball is then turned to displace the opening from the housing passage and to cause the neck to enter a slot in the ball thereby securing the load to the coupling mechanism as elements of the housing block travel of the neck back into the opening when the ball is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball is preferably turned by a motor through worm gearing and the coupling mechanism may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements.

  2. Behavior of Capstone and Honeywell microturbine generators during load changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yinger, Robert J.

    2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes test measurements of the behavior of two microturbine generators (MTGs) under transient conditions. The tests were conducted under three different operating conditions: grid-connect; stand-alone single MTG with load banks; and two MTGs running in parallel with load banks. Tests were conducted with both the Capstone 30-kW and Honeywell Parallon 75-kW MTGs. All tests were conducted at the Southern California Edison /University of California, Irvine (UCI) test facility. In the grid-connected mode, several test runs were conducted with different set-point changes both up and down and a start up and shutdown were recorded for each MTG. For the stand-alone mode, load changes were initiated by changing load-bank values (both watts and VARs). For the parallel mode, tests involved changes in the load-bank settings as well as changes in the power set point of the MTG running in grid-connect mode. Detailed graphs of the test results are presented. It should be noted that these tests were done using a specific hardware and software configuration. Use of different software and hardware could result in different performance characteristics for the same units.

  3. Operating Costs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter is focused on capital costs for conventional construction and environmental restoration and waste management projects and examines operating cost estimates to verify that all elements of the project have been considered and properly estimated.

  4. Technical and economic assessment of fluidized-bed-augmented compressed-air energy-storage system: system load following capability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lessard, R.D.; Blecher, W.A.; Merrick, D.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The load-following capability of fluidized bed combustion-augmented compressed air energy storage systems was evaluated. The results are presented in two parts. The first part is an Executive Summary which provides a concise overview of all major elements of the study including the conclusions, and, second, a detailed technical report describing the part-load and load following capability of both the pressurized fluid bed combustor and the entire pressurized fluid bed combustor/compressed air energy storage system. The specific tasks in this investigation were to: define the steady-state, part-load operation of the CAES open-bed PFBC; estimate the steady-state, part-load performance of the PFBC/CAES system and evaluate any possible operational constraints; simulate the performance of the PFBC/CAES system during transient operation and assess the load following capability of the system; and establish a start-up procedure for the open-bed PFBC and evaluate the impact of this procedure. The conclusions are encouraging and indicate that the open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant should provide good part-load and transient performance, and should have no major equipment-related constraints, specifically, no major problems associated with the performance or design of either the open-end PFBC or the PFBC/CAES power plant in steady-state, part-load operation are envisioned. The open-bed PFBC/CAES power plant would have a load following capability which would be responsive to electric utility requirements for a peak-load power plant. The open-bed PFBC could be brought to full operating conditions within 15 min after routine shutdown, by employing a hot-start mode of operation. The PFBC/CAES system would be capable of rapid changes in output power (12% of design load per minute) over a wide output power range (25% to 100% of design output). (LCL)

  5. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Estimated Load Reductions for PJMs Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJMs Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

  6. High power target design and operation considerations for kaon production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    V 24 GeV 24 GeV* 22 GeV* Peak Beam Intensity 62 x 1012 ppp 62 x 1012 ppp 46 x 1012 ppp 72 x 1012 ppp 58 x 1012 ppp 61 x 1012 ppp 63 x 1012 ppp 76 x 1012 ppp Total protons accelerated 0.9 x 1020 0.4 x 1020

  7. Design, maintenance and operational aspects of the CNGS target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    of 400 GeV/c protons every 6 seconds Nominal 2x 2.4*1013 ppp in 10.5 s interleaved by 50 ms (currently 2x 2.1*1013 ppp) Beam power: ~500 kW (currently 448 kW) Sigma = 0.53 mm Ultimate 2x 3.5*1013 ppp

  8. Microsoft Word - 2013 IWD #3155 Trident Target Area Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Bounding Conditions Specify preventive measures, controls for each hazard (e.g., lockouttagout points, specific Personal Protective Equipment PPE, Tamper Indicating...

  9. Durability of Low Platinum Fuel Cells Operating at High Power Density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polevaya, Olga [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Blanchet, Scott [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.] [Nuvera Fuel Cells Inc.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh [Argonne National Lab] [Argonne National Lab; Borup, Rod [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los-Alamos National Lab] [Los-Alamos National Lab

    2014-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding and improving the durability of cost-competitive fuel cell stacks is imperative to successful deployment of the technology. Stacks will need to operate well beyond todays state-of-the-art rated power density with very low platinum loading in order to achieve the cost targets set forth by DOE ($15/kW) and ultimately be competitive with incumbent technologies. An accelerated cost-reduction path presented by Nuvera focused on substantially increasing power density to address non-PGM material costs as well as platinum. The study developed a practical understanding of the degradation mechanisms impacting durability of fuel cells with low platinum loading (?0.2mg/cm2) operating at high power density (?1.0W/cm2) and worked out approaches for improving the durability of low-loaded, high-power stack designs. Of specific interest is the impact of combining low platinum loading with high power density operation, as this offers the best chance of achieving long-term cost targets. A design-of-experiments approach was utilized to reveal and quantify the sensitivity of durability-critical material properties to high current density at two levels of platinum loading (the more conventional 0.45 mgPt.cm1 and the much lower 0.2 mgPt.cm2) across several cell architectures. We studied the relevance of selected component accelerated stress tests (AST) to fuel cell operation in power producing mode. New stress tests (NST) were designed to investigate the sensitivity to the addition of electrical current on the ASTs, along with combined humidity and load cycles and, eventually, relate to the combined city/highway drive cycle. Changes in the cathode electrochemical surface area (ECSA) and average oxygen partial pressure on the catalyst layer with aging under AST and NST protocols were compared based on the number of completed cycles. Studies showed elevated sensitivity of Pt growth to the potential limits and the initial particle size distribution. The ECSA loss was correlated with the upper potential limit in the cycle tests, although the performance degradation was found to be a strong function of initial Pt loading. A large fraction of the voltage degradation was found due to increased mass transfer overpotentials, especially in the lower Pt loading cells. Increased mass transfer overpotentials were responsible for a large fraction of the voltage degradation at high current densities. Analysis of the impedance and polarization data indicated O2 diffusion in the aged electrode ionomer to be the main source of the increased mass transfer overpotentials. Results from the experimental parametric studies were used to inform and calibrate newly developed durability model, simulating lifetime performance of the fuel cell under variety of load-cycle protocols, electrode loadings and throughout wide range of operating conditions, including elevated-to-3.0A/cm2 current densities. Complete durability model included several sub-models: platinum dissolution-and-growth as well as reaction-diffusion model of cathode electrode, applied sequentially to study the lifetime predictions of ECSA and polarization performance in the ASTs and NSTs. These models establish relations between changes in overpotentials, ECSA and oxygen mass transport in fuel cell cathodes. The model was calibrated using single cells with land-channel and open flowfield architectures. The model was validated against Nuvera Orion (open flowfield) short stack data in the load cycle durability tests. The reaction-diffusion model was used to correlate the effective mass transfer coefficients for O2 diffusion in cathode ionomer and separately in gas pores with the operating conditions (pressure, temperature, gas velocity in flow field and current density), Pt loading, and ageing related growth in Pt particles and thinning of the electrode. Achievements of both modeling and experimental objectives were demonstrated in a full format, subscale stacks operating in a simulated but fully realistic ambient environment, using system-compatible operating protocols.

  10. Notes 04. Static load performance of plain journal bearings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    San Andres, Luis

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    .s/m 2 ] ? 2 4 LR L WC ? ? ? ?? = ?? ?? Modified Sommerfeld number (short length bearing) ? Journal angular speed (rad/s) NOTES 4. STATIC LOAD PERFORMANCE OF PLAIN JOURNAL BEARINGS. Dr. Luis San Andr?s ? 2010 2 For incompressible...) pressure profiles for a short length journal bearing with the following dimensions and operating characteristics. Length L=50 mm; clearance, C=100 ?m, rotational speed at 3,000 rpm (?=314 rad/s), and lubricant viscosity ?=19 centipoise (19 10 -3 N...

  11. Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

  12. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Developments of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

  13. HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weall, Adam J [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Edwards, Kevin Dean [ORNL] [ORNL; Foster, Matthew [Delphi] [Delphi; Confer, Keith [Delphi] [Delphi; Moore, Wayne [Delphi] [Delphi

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000rpm. Using different injection strategies, including the NVO pilot injection approach, the single-cylinder engine is operated over a load range from 160-390 kPa net IMEP at 2000 rpm. Changes to valve opening duration on the single-cylinder HVA engine illustrate opportunities for load expansion and efficiency improvement at certain conditions. For instance, the low load limit can be extended on the HVA engine by reducing breathing and operating closer to a stoichiometric air fuel ratio (AFR) by using valve deactivation. The naturally aspirated engine used here without external EGR confirmed that as operating load increases the emissions of NOx increases due to combustion temperature. NOx emissions are found to be one limitation to the maximum load limitation, the other being high pressure rise rate. It is found that the configuration of the production intent cam-based system represents a good compromise between valve lift and duration in the low to medium load region. Changing the extent of charge motion and breathing via valve deactivation prove beneficial at moderating the pressure rise rate and combustion stability and extending the low load limit at 2000rpm on the HVA engine. It also confirms that strategies using a pilot fuel injection are beneficial at low operating loads but that as operating load is increased, the benefits of multiple injection diminish to the point where a single injection offers the best performance.

  14. Twenty Years of Tevatron Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jay C. Theilacker

    2004-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The superconducting Tevatron accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) has surpassed twenty years of operation. The Tevatron is still the highest energy particle accelerator in the world and will remain so until the commissioning of the LHC in Europe later this decade. The Tevatron has operated in a Fixed Target mode, accelerating a proton beam into stationary targets/detectors, as well as a Colliding Beam mode, continuously colliding counter rotating beams of protons and antiprotons. Upon completion, the Tevatron cryogenic system became the world's largest helium refrigeration system. In 1993, the Tevatron cryogenic system was given the designation of International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The operational history, experiences and statistics of the Tevatron, with an emphasis on the cryogenic system, is presented. Improvements, upgrades and current challenges of the cryogenic system are discussed.

  15. Direct versus Facility Centric Load Control for Automated Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Piette, Mary Ann

    2009-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct load control (DLC) refers to the scenario where third party entities outside the home or facility are responsible for deciding how and when specific customer loads will be controlled in response to Demand Response (DR) events on the electric grid. Examples of third parties responsible for performing DLC may be Utilities, Independent System Operators (ISO), Aggregators, or third party control companies. DLC can be contrasted with facility centric load control (FCLC) where the decisions for how loads are controlled are made entirely within the facility or enterprise control systems. In FCLC the facility owner has more freedom of choice in how to respond to DR events on the grid. Both approaches are in use today in automation of DR and both will continue to be used in future market segments including industrial, commercial and residential facilities. This paper will present a framework which can be used to differentiate between DLC and FCLC based upon where decisions are made on how specific loads are controlled in response to DR events. This differentiation is then used to compare and contrast the differences between DLC and FCLC to identify the impact each has on:(1)Utility/ISO and third party systems for managing demand response, (2)Facility systems for implementing load control, (3)Communications networks for interacting with the facility and (4)Facility operators and managers. Finally a survey of some of the existing DR related specifications and communications standards is given and their applicability to DLC or FCLC. In general FCLC adds more cost and responsibilities to the facilities whereas DLC represents higher costs and complexity for the Utility/ISO. This difference is primarily due to where the DR Logic is implemented and the consequences that creates. DLC may be more certain than FCLC because it is more predictable - however as more loads have the capability to respond to DR signals, people may prefer to have their own control of end-use loads and FCLC systems. Research is needed to understand the predictability of FCLC which is related to the perceived value of the DR from the facility manager or home owner's perspective.

  16. Energy-Aware Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Vimal; Shenoy, Prashant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internet-scale distributed systems such as content delivery networks (CDNs) operate hundreds of thousands of servers deployed in thousands of data center locations around the globe. Since the energy costs of operating such a large IT infrastructure are a significant fraction of the total operating costs, we argue for redesigning CDNs to incorporate energy optimizations as a first-order principle. We propose techniques to turn off CDN servers during periods of low load while seeking to balance three key design goals: maximize energy reduction, minimize the impact on client-perceived service availability (SLAs), and limit the frequency of on-off server transitions to reduce wear-and-tear and its impact on hardware reliability. We propose an optimal offline algorithm and an online algorithm to extract energy savings both at the level of local load balancing within a data center and global load balancing across data centers. We evaluate our algorithms using real production workload traces from a large commercial ...

  17. Improved Boiler System Operation with Real-time Chemical Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.; Jenkins, B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,910. The return on investment for these changes is shown in Table 3. The savings amounts do not include labor savings associated with reduced operator testing loads, nor possible chemical savings from reduced chemical usage, due to higher cycles. CASE...

  18. Data Analytics Methods in Wind Turbine Design and Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation develops sophisticated data analytic methods to analyze structural loads on, and power generation of, wind turbines. Wind turbines, which convert the kinetic energy in wind into electrical power, are operated within stochastic...

  19. Data Analytics Methods in Wind Turbine Design and Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation develops sophisticated data analytic methods to analyze structural loads on, and power generation of, wind turbines. Wind turbines, which convert the kinetic energy in wind into electrical power, are operated within stochastic...

  20. Fatigue damage estimate comparisons for northern European and U.S. wind farm loading environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutherland, H.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Wind Energy Technology Dept.; Kelley, N.D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Wind Technology Div.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Typical loading histories associated with wind turbine service environments in northern Europe and within a large wind farm in the continental US were recently compared by Kelley (1995) using the WISPER [Ten Have, 1992] loading standard and its development protocol. In this study, an equivalent load spectrum for a US wind farm was developed by applying the WISPER development protocol to representative service load histories collected from two adjacent turbines operating within a large wind farm in San Gorgonio Pass, California. The results of this study showed that turbines operating in the California wind farm experience many more loading cycles with larger peak-to-peak values for the same mean wind speed classification than their European counterparts. In this paper, the impact of the two WISPER-protocol fatigue-load spectra on service lifetime predictions are used to compare and contrast the impact of the two loading environments with one another. The service lifetime predictions are made using the LIFE2 Fatigue Analysis Code [Sutherland and Schluter, 1989] with the fatigue properties of typical fiber glass composite blade materials. Additional analyses, based on rainflow counted time histories from the San Gorgonio turbines, are also used in the comparisons. In general, these results indicate that the WISPER load spectrum from northern European sites significantly underestimates the WISPER protocol load spectrum from a US wind farm site; i.e., the WISPER load spectrum significantly underestimates the number and magnitude of the loads observed at a US wind farm site. The authors conclude that there are fundamental differences in the two service environments.

  1. FY 93 thermal loading systems study final report: Volume 2. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to meet the overall performance requirements for the proposed Mined Geology Disposal System at Yucca Mountain, Nevada requires the two major subsystem (natural barriers and engineered barriers) to positively contribute to containment and radionuclide isolation. In addition to the postclosure performance the proposed repository must meet preclosure requirements of safety, retrievability, and operability. Cost and schedule were also considered. The thermal loading strategy chosen may significantly affect both the postclosure and preclosure performance of the proposed repository. Although the current Site Characterization Plan reference case is 57 kilowatts (kW)/acre, other thermal loading strategies (different areal mass loadings) have been proposed which possess both advantages and disadvantages. The objectives of the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study were to (1) place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading regime that is ``too hot`` and the loading regime that is ``too cold``, to (2) ``grade`` or evaluate the performance, as a function of thermal loading, of the repository to contain high level wastes against performance criteria and to (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability. Additionally, the effort was to (4) identify important uncertainties that need to be resolved by tests and/or analyses in order to complete a performance assessment on the effects of thermal loading. The FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study was conducted from December 1, 1992 to December 30, 1993 and this final report provides the findings of the study. Volume 2 consists of 10 appendices which contain the following: Waste Stream Analysis; Waste Package Design Inputs; Subsurface Design Inputs; Thermal-Hydrologic Model Inputs; Near-Field Calculations; Far-Field; Reliability of Electronics as a Function of Temperature; Cost Analysis Details; Geochemistry; and Areas of Uncertainty in Thermal Loading.

  2. FY 93 Thermal Loading Systems Study Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.F. Saterlie

    1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Thermal Loading Systems Study being conducted by the is to identify a thermal strategy that will meet the performance requirements for waste isolation and will be safe and licensable. Specifically, both postclosure and preclosure performance standards must be met by the thermal loading strategy ultimately selected. In addition cost and schedule constraints must be considered. The Systems Engineering approach requires structured, detailed analyses that will ultimately provide the technical basis for the development, integration, and evaluation of the overall system, not just a subelement of that system. It is also necessary that the systems study construct options from within the range that are allowed within the current legislative and programmatic framework. For example the total amount of fuel that can legally be emplaced is no more than 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) which is composed of 63,000 MTU spent fuel and 7,000 MTU of defense high level waste. It is the intent of this study to begin the structured development of the basis for a thermal loading decision. However, it is recognized that to be able to make a final decision on thermal loading will require underground data on the effects of heating as well as a suite of ''validated'' models. It will be some time before these data and models are available to the program. Developing a final, thermal loading decision will, therefore, be an iterative process. In the interim, the objective of the thermal loading systems study has been to utilize the information available to assess the impact of thermal loading. Where technical justification exists, recommendations to narrow the range of thermal loading options can be made. Additionally, recommendations as to the type of testing and accuracy of the testing needed to establish the requisite information will be made. A constraint on the ability of the study to select an option stems from the lack of primary hard data, uncertainties in derived data, unsubstantiated models, and the inability to fully consider simultaneously coupled processes. As such, the study must rely on idealized models and available data to compare the thermal loading options. This report presents the findings of the FY 1993 MGDS Thermal Loading Systems Study. The objectives of the study were to: (1) if justified, place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading that is ''too hot''; (2) ''grade'' or evaluate the performance as a function of thermal loading of the potential repository to contain high level spent nuclear fuel against performance criteria; (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability; and (4) recommend the additional types of tests and/or analyses to be conducted to provide the necessary information for a thermal loading selection.

  3. Operations Videos

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeeding access toTest and EvaluationOperational ManagementCenterOperations

  4. MI high power operation and future plans

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kourbanis, Ioanis; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing both the beam intensity and power. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the near future plans.

  5. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  6. Cooled particle accelerator target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel particle beam target comprising: a rotating target disc mounted on a retainer and thermally coupled to a first array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially inwardly from the retainer and mesh without physical contact with a second array of spaced-apart parallel plate fins that extend radially outwardly from and are thermally coupled to a cooling mechanism capable of removing heat from said second array of spaced-apart fins and located within the first array of spaced-apart parallel fins. Radiant thermal exchange between the two arrays of parallel plate fins provides removal of heat from the rotating disc. A method of cooling the rotating target is also described.

  7. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  8. Operational benefits of relaxed axial power distribution control limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitlan, M.S. Jr.; Miller, R.W.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Constant axial offset control (CAOC) was developed in the early 1970s in response to lower loss-of-coolant accident-based peaking factor limits. Th CAOC requires control of the axial power distribution within a specified band, typically +/- 5% or +3, -12% axial flux difference (AFD), about a measured target value of AFD. Operational outside of the CAOC limits results in the accumulation of penalty time. One hour of penalty time in any 24-h period is permitted. Although CAOC is sufficient to ensure peaking factor limits are satisfied, operation outside of CAOC limits is beneficial under certain conditions. Allowing a relaxation in CAOC restrictions can be used both to enhance the load follow capability of the plant by allowing control strategies that minimize the boron system duty or increase the return to power capability and to greatly increase the ability to return to power after a plant trip or shutdown. To achieve these benefits, relaxed axial offset control (RAOC) was developed. Other benefits of RAOC include a simplified technical specification and the ability to perform in-core/ex-core calibrations at higher powers. Duke Power Company has benefited in many of these ways by changing from CAOC power distribution limits to RAOC power distribution limits at the McGuire Nuclear Station. One of the chief benefits has been the ability to achieve full power much more quickly following shutdowns of short duration and reactor trips during the last half of the cycle lifetime.

  9. NUMERICAL MODELING OF SHOCK-INDUCED DAMAGE FOR GRANITE UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, Sarah T.

    NUMERICAL MODELING OF SHOCK-INDUCED DAMAGE FOR GRANITE UNDER DYNAMIC LOADING H. A. Ai1 , T. J beneath impact crater in granite. Model constants are determined either directly from static uniaxial from Century Dynamics to simulate the shock-induced damage in granite targets impacted by projectiles

  10. Foam encapsulated targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nuckolls, John H. (Livermore, CA); Thiessen, Albert R. (Livermore, CA); Dahlbacka, Glen H. (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Foam encapsulated laser-fusion targets wherein a quantity of thermonuclear fuel is embedded in low density, microcellular foam which serves as an electron conduction channel for symmetrical implosion of the fuel by illumination of the target by one or more laser beams. The fuel, such as DT, is contained within a hollow shell constructed of glass, for example, with the foam having a cell size of preferably no greater than 2 .mu.m, a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3, and external diameter of less than 200 .mu.m.

  11. Targeted polypeptide degradation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Janse, Daniel M. (Brookline, MA)

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to compositions, methods, cells and organisms useful for selectively localizing polypeptides to the proteasome for degradation. Therapeutic methods and pharmaceutical compositions for treating disorders associated with the expression and/or activity of a polypeptide by targeting these polypeptides for degradation, as well as methods for targeting therapeutic polypeptides for degradation and/or activating therapeutic polypeptides by degradation are provided. The invention provides methods for identifying compounds that mediate proteasome localization and/or polypeptide degradation. The invention also provides research tools for the study of protein function.

  12. Flight Path Target 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1 Flight Path flightTargetL -

  13. Flight Path Target 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1 Flight Path flightTargetL - -

  14. Flight Path Target 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1 Flight Path flightTargetL - -

  15. Flight Path Target 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Environmental Assessments (EA)Budget(DANCE) Target 1 Flight Path flightTargetL - - -

  16. Communication Load Reduction for Neural Network Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    the total amount of communication load, followed by a placement of partitions onto proces- sors 3]. We

  17. Load Management DSM: Past, Present & Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, E.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Several current load control programs have discovered that the best FIGURE 6 I marketing method is a "direct mailing" that gets across the message "Load Management will help keep everyone's electrical rates ~ low." The offer of the rebate may catch... thermostat was satisfied or whether the LCR prevented the electrical demand. At the 1993 DA/DSM conference, Scientific-Atlanta introduced the industry's first Load Management Interface &MI) circuit board which fits in a standard load control receiver...

  18. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  19. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    become apparent that dynamic, or sud- denly applied loads, present a different type of problem to the engineer. Wind loads on tall structures, pile driving, nuclear blasts, and many other familiar loading conditions cannot be de- scribed or handled... an earthquake or nuclear blast. Also under this category of loading is the pulse which would be purposely induced to fail the soil structure for the purpose of excavation or pile driving. As part of a broader research project concerned with pile dri- ving...

  20. Monte Carlo modeling of spallation targets containing uranium and americium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yury Malyshkin; Igor Pshenichnov; Igor Mishustin; Walter Greiner

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron production and transport in spallation targets made of uranium and americium are studied with a Geant4-based code MCADS (Monte Carlo model for Accelerator Driven Systems). A good agreement of MCADS results with experimental data on neutron- and proton-induced reactions on $^{241}$Am and $^{243}$Am nuclei allows to use this model for simulations with extended Am targets. It was demonstrated that MCADS model can be used for calculating the values of critical mass for $^{233,235}$U, $^{237}$Np, $^{239}$Pu and $^{241}$Am. Several geometry options and material compositions (U, U+Am, Am, Am$_2$O$_3$) are considered for spallation targets to be used in Accelerator Driven Systems. All considered options operate as deep subcritical targets having neutron multiplication factor of $k \\sim 0.5$. It is found that more than 4 kg of Am can be burned in one spallation target during the first year of operation.

  1. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  2. Detecting Load Imbalance on the Cray XT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @cray.com) © Cray Inc. Slide 10 Profile with Load Distribution by Groups Table 1: Profile by Function GroupDetecting Load Imbalance on the Cray XT Luiz DeRose Programming Environment Director Cray Inc. ldr@cray.com #12;Slide 2 Motivation for Load Imbalance Analysis Increasing system software and architecture

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  4. Beam heat load in superconducting wigglers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casalbuoni, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The beam heat load is a fundamental input parameter for the design of superconducting wigglers since it is needed to specify the cooling power. In this presentation I will review the possible beam heat load sources and the measurements of beam heat load performed and planned onto the cold vacuum chambers installed at different synchrotron light sources.

  5. Incorporating voltage security into the planning, operation and monitoring of restructured electric energy markets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Nirmal-Kumar

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    As open access market principles are applied to power systems, significant changes are happening in their planning, operation and control. In the emerging marketplace, systems are operating under higher loading conditions ...

  6. Experimental Characterization of the Full Load Vortex Rope Pulsation in the Draft Tube of a Francis Turbine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbine Objective Francis turbines working in off design operating conditions may experience the formation the stability of the machine operation, since it is a major source of pressure fluctuation in the hydraulic of the draft tube on a reduce scale model of a Francis turbine operating at full load. In particular

  7. Future Fixed Target Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melnitchouk, Wolodymyr

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review plans for future fixed target lepton- and hadron-scattering facilities, including the 12 GeV upgraded CEBAF accelerator at Jefferson Lab, neutrino beam facilities at Fermilab, and the antiproton PANDA facility at FAIR. We also briefly review recent theoretical developments which will aid in the interpretation of the data expected from these facilities.

  8. Targeted radionuclide therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Lawrence E.; DeNardo, Gerald L.; Meredith, Ruby F. [Radiology Division, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California 91010 (United States); Internal Medicine, University of California Davis Medical Center, 1508 Alhambra Boulevard, Suite 3100, Sacramento, California 95816 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Wallace Tumor Institute WTI No. 117, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) seeks molecular and functional targets within patient tumor sites. A number of agents have been constructed and labeled with beta, alpha, and Auger emitters. Radionuclide carriers spanning a broad range of sizes; e.g., antibodies, liposomes, and constructs such as nanoparticles have been used in these studies. Uptake, in percent-injected dose per gram of malignant tissue, is used to evaluate the specificity of the targeting vehicle. Lymphoma (B-cell) has been the primary clinical application. Extension to solid tumors will require raising the macroscopic absorbed dose by several-fold over values found in present technology. Methods that may effect such changes include multistep targeting, simultaneous chemotherapy, and external sequestration of the agent. Toxicity has primarily involved red marrow so that marrow replacement can also be used to enhance future TRT treatments. Correlation of toxicities and treatment efficiency has been limited by relatively poor absorbed dose estimates partly because of using standard (phantom) organ sizes. These associations will be improved in the future by obtaining patient-specific organ size and activity data with hybrid SPECT/CT and PET/CT scanners.

  9. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

  10. Solid Target Options S. Childress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    power is higher than for existing solid target designs - but not by a large factor. · NuMI graphite beam power) · High beam power solid targets frequently use higher z materials for increased yield plusSolid Target Options NuFACT'00 S. Childress Solid Target Options · The choice of a primary beam

  11. Increasing High-Level Waste Loading In Glass Without Changing The Baseline Melter Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Alton, Jesse; Plaisted, Trevor J.; Klouzek, Jaroslav; Matyas, Josef; Mika, Martin; Schill, Petr; Trochta, Miroslav; Nemec, Lubomir

    2001-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The main factors that determine the cost of high-level waste (HLW) vitrification are the waste loading (which determines the volume of glass) and the melting rate. Product quality should be the only factor determining the waste loading while melter design should provide a rapid melting technology. In reality, the current HLW melters are slow in glass-production rate and are subjected to operational risks that require waste loading to be kept far below its intrinsic level. One of the constraints that decrease waste loading is the liquidus-temperature limit. close inspection reveals that this constraint is probably too severe, even for the current technology. The purpose of the liquidus-temperature constraint is to prevent solids from settling on the melter bottom. It appears that some limited settling would niether interfere with melter operation nor shorten its lifetime and that the rate of settling can be greatly reduced if only small crystals are allowed to form.

  12. Efficient Photoionization-Loading of Trapped Cadmium Ions with Ultrafast Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Deslauriers; M. Acton; B. B. Blinov; K. -A. Brickman; P. C. Haljan; W. K. Hensinger; D. Hucul; S. Katnik; R. N. Kohn, Jr.; P. J. Lee; M. J. Madsen; P. Maunz; S. Olmschenk; D. L. Moehring; D. Stick; J. Sterk; M. Yeo; K. C. Younge; C. Monroe

    2006-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic cadmium ions are loaded into radiofrequency ion traps by photoionization of atoms in a cadmium vapor with ultrafast laser pulses. The photoionization is driven through an intermediate atomic resonance with a frequency-quadrupled mode-locked Ti:Sapphire laser that produces pulses of either 100 fsec or 1 psec duration at a central wavelength of 229 nm. The large bandwidth of the pulses photoionizes all velocity classes of the Cd vapor, resulting in high loading efficiencies compared to previous ion trap loading techniques. Measured loading rates are compared with a simple theoretical model, and we conclude that this technique can potentially ionize every atom traversing the laser beam within the trapping volume. This may allow the operation of ion traps with lower levels of background pressures and less trap electrode surface contamination. The technique and laser system reported here should be applicable to loading most laser-cooled ion species.

  13. Improving Unit Operations-Test Station Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filak, J. J. Jr.

    IMPROVING UNIT OPERATIONS - TEST STATION PERFORMANCE JosqIb 1. Filak. Jr, ? Corporate Energy Manager. Park.er?Hannafin COfpontioo- Cleveland. Oh ABSTRACT: This program's basic concept deals with the possibilities for reducing energy efficiency... requirements, control operation test performance functions more successfully, and retain peak load surges from reaching higher utility rate expense levels. 142 ESL-IE-95-04-23 Proceedings from the Seventeenth Industrial Energy Technology Conference...

  14. Operational Effectiveness in Use fo BAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobker, M.; Joseph, M.; Ascazubi, M.; Brown, T.; Thorpe, K.; Essman, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , making it an under-utilized resource. We do not have an established industry baseline of how operators use BAS nor what best practices might be. An ASHRAE research project is surveying operators to investigate desirable ?dashboard? interfaces...-to-machine feedback is most advanced in the area of Demand Response, where initiation of a special mode activates prioritized load-shedding to meet a pre- determined kw level. The major controls manufacturers have prototypes for machine-to- machine oversight...

  15. AdaptLoad: e ective balancing in clustered web servers under transient load conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riska, Alma

    manner [4, 17]. In this paper we concentrate on e#11;ective load sharing for a clustered web server makes e#11;ective request scheduling a dicult task that traditional load balancing methods failAdaptLoad: e#11;ective balancing in clustered web servers under transient load conditions #3; Alma

  16. Balancing load under large and fast load changes in distributed computing systems A case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthomieu, Bernard

    have been written about load sharing or load balancing (see e.g. [2] for references), but our sharing'' [7] technique. Load transfer can be implemented by moving processes at the time they are created (placement), but this method would not handle load implosions. Instead, we will use preemptive migrations

  17. Dynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemper, Alfons

    server during runtime. Figure 1 shows the load curve of a typical interactive service. In the morningDynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load Forecasting Daniel-organizing infrastructures to react proactively. For this pur- pose we present two techniques: Short-term load forecasting

  18. Operation Poorman

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruvost, N.; Tsitouras, J.

    1981-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of Operation Poorman were to design and build a portable seismic system and to set up and use this system in a cold-weather environment. The equipment design uses current technology to achieve a low-power, lightweight system that is configured into three modules. The system was deployed in Alaska during wintertime, and the results provide a basis for specifying a mission-ready seismic verification system.

  19. Operating Strategies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen→ globalOPERATING PLAN

  20. Operations Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen→ globalOPERATING

  1. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  2. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  3. Neutronic Characterization of the Megapie Target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Panebianco; Olivier Bringer; Pavel Bokov; Sebastien Chabod; Frederic Chartier; Emmeric Dupont; Diane Dore; Xavier Ledoux; Alain Letourneau; Ludovic Oriol; Aurelien Prevost; Danas Ridikas; Jean-Christian Toussaint

    2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The MEGAPIE project is one of the key experiments towards the feasibility of Accelerator Driven Systems. On-line operation and post-irradiation analysis will provide the scientific community with unique data on the behavior of a liquid spallation target under realistic irradiation conditions. A good neutronics performance of such a target is of primary importance towards an intense neutron source, where an extended liquid metal loop requires some dedicated verifications related to the delayed neutron activity of the irradiated PbBi. In this paper we report on the experimental characterization of the MEGAPIE neutronics in terms of the prompt neutron (PN) flux inside the target and the delayed neutron (DN) flux on the top of it. For the PN measurements, a complex detector, made of 8 microscopic fission chambers, has been built and installed in the central part of the target to measure the absolute neutron flux and its spatial distribution. Moreover, integral information on the neutron energy distribution as a function of the position along the beam axis could be extracted, providing integral constraints on the neutron production models implemented in transport codes such as MCNPX. For the DN measurement, we used a standard 3He counter and we acquired data during the start-up phase of the target irradiation in order to take sufficient statistics at variable beam power. Experimental results obtained on the PN flux characteristics and their comparison with MCNPX simulations are presented, together with a preliminary analysis of the DN decay time spectrum.

  4. A test platform for measuring the energy efficiency of AC induction motors under various loading conditions and control schemes/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granata, John A. (John Anthony)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A test platform was developed to measure and compare the energy efficiency of an AC induction motor under steady-state and cyclical loading conditions while operating in both a constant speed mode and while performing speed ...

  5. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  6. Field tests and new design procedure for laterally loaded drilled shafts in clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierschwale, Mark W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is reduced by the construct1on operation. 5. Failures of a drilled shaft can be expensive because a single shaft is usually designed to car ry a load of large magnitude. Behavior of Laterall Loaded Drilled Shafts The problem of a drilled shaft subjected... method based on elastic theory, for the solution of lateral load behavior of rigid shafts. The results of this study indicated that, for deflections up to 0. 5 in. (12. 7 mm) the finite-difference approach produced good agreement. However, for large...

  7. Microturbines - an economic and reliability evaluation for commercial, residential, and remote load applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.W.; Gifford, A.H.; Krupa, T.J.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most distributed self-generation operates base loaded and in parallel with the electric utility system (1) to minimize peak loads, (2) to improve reliability, (3) to eliminate the need for reserve margin (standby) and (4) may or may not sell back excess generation. This paper examines the economics of distributed microturbine generation operating isolated from the electric utility system and having enough reserve margin to either match or improve the existing reliability of service provided by central station generation and the T and D system. This analysis shows the isolated operation of microturbines with a reserve margin can provide the same or a higher level of reliability as the electric utility, yet the costs can be lower. Sensitivity analysis for different investment costs, O and M costs, fuel costs, reliability, load shapes (load factors), and alternative fuels were performed and the economic comparisons are made in terms of {cents}/kWh. This analysis shows a strong economic preference in applying microturbines to high load factor commercial loads. The cost of standby (from the utility) was found to be from .52 to 2.09{cents}/kWh greater than if the microturbine generation provided its own standby through a built in reserve margin.

  8. Analysis of the cryogenic system behavior for pulsed heat load in EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, L. B.; Zhuang, M.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    EAST is the first full superconducting fusion device. The plasma is confined by the magnetic fields generated from a large set of superconducting magnets which are made of cable in-conduit conductor (CICC). In operation, these magnets suffer heat loads from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as the eddy currents and the AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and the resistive heat generated at the current lead transiting to room temperature. The cryogenic system of our EAST consists of a 2kW/4K helium refrigerator and a distribution system for the cooling of poloidal field (PF) and toroidal field (TF) coils, structures, thermal shields, buslines and current leads. Pulsed heat load is the main difference between the cryogenic system of a full superconducting Tokamak system and other large scale cryogenic systems. The cryogenic system operates in a pulsed heat loads mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time. At the same time, the cryogenic system parameters such as helium cooling superconducting magnets, helium refrigerator and helium distribution system are changing. In this paper, the variation range of the parameters of superconducting magnets and refrigerator has been analyzed in the typical plasma discharge mode. The control scheme for the pulsed loads characteristics of the cryogenic system has been proposed, the implementation of which helps to smooth the pulse loads and to improve the stability of the operation of the cryogenic system.

  9. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  10. Operational Excellence

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear Astrophysics One ofSpeedingthis site » OpenOperational

  11. Operations Information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for RenewableSpeeding accessSpeedingOctoberResearchOpen→ globalOPERATING Who We

  12. Cycling operation of fossil plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devendorf, D.; Kulczycky, T.G. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A necessity for many utilities today is the cycling of their fossil units. Fossil plants with their higher fuel costs are being converted to cycling operation to accommodate daily load swings and to decrease the overall system fuel costs. For a large oil-fired unit, such as Oswego Steam Station Unit 5, millions of dollars can be saved annually in fuel costs if the unit operates in a two-shift mode. However, there are also penalties attributable to cycling operation which are associated with availability and thermal performance. The objectives of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation were to minimize the losses in availability and performance, and the degradation in the life of the equipment by incorporating certain cycling modifications into the unit. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of three of these cycling modifications: (1) the superheater and turbine bypass (Hot Restart System), (2) the use of variable pressure operation, and (3) the full-flow condensate polishing system. To meet this objective, Unit 5 was tested using the cycling modifications, and a dynamic mathematical model of this unit was developed using the Modular Modeling System (MMS) Code from EPRI. This model was used to evaluate various operating modes and to assist in the assessment of operating procedures. 15 refs., 41 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. Loading of a surface electrode ion trap from a remote, pre-cooled source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate for the first time the loading of ions into a surface electrode trap (SET) from a remote, laser-cooled source of neutral atoms. We first cool and load $\\sim$ $10^6$ neutral $^{88}$Sr atoms into a magneto-optical trap (MOT) from an oven that has no line-of-sight with the SET. The cold atoms are then pushed with a resonant laser into the trap region where they are subsequently photoionized and trapped in an SET operated at a cryogenic temperature of 4.6 K. We present studies of the loading process and show that our technique achieves ion loading into a shallow (15 meV depth) trap at rates as high as 125 ions/s while drastically reducing the amount of deposition of metal on the trap surface as compared with direct loading from a hot vapor. Furthermore, we note that due to multiple stages of isotopic filtering in our loading process, this technique has enhanced isotopic selectivity over other loading methods. Rapid loading from a clean, isotopically pure, and pre-cooled source will potentially enab...

  14. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  15. Simulations of Alpha Wall Load in ITER. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The partially DOE funded International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will produce massive amounts of energetic charged alpha particles, which are imperfectly confined by a strong magnetic field. The wall of the experiment is designed to withstand an estimated wall load from these fusion alpha particles, but the accuracy of this estimate needs to be improved to avoid potentially catastrophic surprises when the experiment becomes operational. We have added a more accurate, gyro-dynamic model of particle motion to the existing drift-dynamic model in the DELTA5D simulation software used for the project. We have also added the ability to load a detailed engineering model of the wall and use it in the simulations.

  16. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for generators. A partial list of load attributes andpartial list includes: Minimum run times Minimum off times Minimum load

  17. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  18. Price-Responsive Load (PRL) Program - Framing Paper No.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By definition, effective and efficient competitive markets need a supply side and a demand side. One criticism of electric restructuring efforts in many states is that most of the attention has been focused on the supply side, in a market focused on the short term. In general, the demand side of the market has been under-addressed. The objective of the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) is to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the New England regional power markets. NEDRI aims to maximize the capability of demand response to compete in the wholesale market and to improve the economic efficiency and environmental profile of the electric sector. To those ends, NEDRI is focusing its efforts in four interrelated areas: (1) ISO-level reliability programs, (2) Market-based price-responsive load programs, (3) Demand response at retail through pricing, rate design, and advanced metering, and (4) End-use energy efficiency resources as demand response. The fourth area, energy efficiency, is the subject of this framing paper. Energy efficiency reduces the energy used by specific end-use devices and systems, typically without affecting the level of service and without loss of amenity. Energy savings and peak load reductions are achieved by substituting technically more advanced equipment, processes, or operational strategies to produce the same or an improved level of end-use service with less electricity. In contrast, load management programs lower peak demand during specific, limited time periods by either (1) influencing the timing of energy use by shifting load to another time period, or (2) reducing the level of energy use by curtailing or interrupting the load, typically with some loss of service or amenity.

  19. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  20. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  1. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  2. Target: Subpoena (2010-SE-2001)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE issued a Subpoena for Information and Production of Documents to Target Corporation requesting information regarding the compliance of various torchieres Target has distributed in commerce in the U.S.

  3. Non-PGM Target Update

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    targets that need to be met are cost, efficiency, and durability. A secondary target is heat rejection at rated power. (ANL) * Given that for current Pt systems catalyst cost is ...

  4. Using Whole-Building Electric Load Data in Continuous or Retro-Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whole-building electric load data can often reveal problems with building equipment or operations. In this paper, we present methods for analyzing 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building operators, energy managers, and commissioning agents to better understand a building's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to 'ask the right questions' to discover opportunities for electricity waste elimination, energy efficiency, peak load management, and demand response. For example: Does the building use too much energy at night, or on hot days, or in the early evening? Knowing the answer to questions like these can help with retro-commissioning or continuous commissioning. The methods discussed here can also be used to assess how building energy performance varies with time. Comparing electric load before and after fixing equipment or changing operations can help verify that the fixes have the intended effect on energy consumption. Analysis methods discussed in this paper include: ways to graphically represent electric load data; the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads; and a regression-based electricity load model that accounts for both time of week and outdoor air temperature. The methods are illustrated by applying them to data from commercial buildings. We demonstrate the ability to recognize changes in building operation, and to quantify changes in energy performance. Some key findings are: 1) Plotting time series electric load data is useful for understanding electricity consumption patterns and changes to those patterns, but results may be misleading if data from different time intervals are not weather-normalized. 2) Parameter plots can highlight key features of electric load data and may be easier to interpret than plots of time series data themselves. 3) A time-of-week indicator variable (as compared to time-of-day and day-of-week indicator variables) improves the accuracy of regression models of electric load. 4) A piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence can be derived without the use of a change-point model (which would add complexity to the modeling algorithm) or assumptions about when structural changes occur (which could introduce inaccuracy). 5) A model that includes time-of-week and temperature dependence can be used for weather normalization and can determine whether the building is unusually temperature-sensitive, which can indicate problems with HVAC operation.

  5. Target | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:Holdings Co08.0Information ExpansionTarget GmbH Jump

  6. DOE-EM-45 PACKAGING OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE COURSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, R.; England, J.

    2010-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Savannah River National Laboratory - Savannah River Packaging Technology (SRNL-SRPT) delivered the inaugural offering of the Packaging Operations and Maintenance Course for DOE-EM-45's Packaging Certification Program (PCP) at the University of South Carolina Aiken on September 1 and 2, 2009. Twenty-nine students registered, attended, and completed this training. The DOE-EM-45 Packaging Certification Program (PCP) sponsored the presentation of a new training course, Packaging Maintenance and Operations, on September 1-2, 2009 at the University of South Carolina Aiken (USC-Aiken) campus in Aiken, SC. The premier offering of the course was developed and presented by the Savannah River National Laboratory, and attended by twenty-nine students across the DOE, NNSA and private industry. This training informed package users of the requirements associated with handling shipping containers at a facility (user) level and provided a basic overview of the requirements typically outlined in Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) Chapters 1, 7, and 8. The course taught packaging personnel about the regulatory nature of SARPs to help reduce associated and often costly packaging errors. Some of the topics covered were package contents, loading, unloading, storage, torque requirements, maintaining records, how to handle abnormal conditions, lessons learned, leakage testing (including demonstration), and replacement parts. The target audience for this course was facility operations personnel, facility maintenance personnel, and field quality assurance personnel who are directly involved in the handling of shipping containers. The training also aimed at writers of SARP Chapters 1, 7, and 8, package designers, and anyone else involved in radioactive material packaging and transportation safety. Student feedback and critiques of the training were very positive. SRNL will offer the course again at USC Aiken in September 2010.

  7. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  8. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  9. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AirConditionerTestinginWECC,IEEEPower EngineeringAirConditionerModeling,WECCLoadModelingTask Forceinpowersystemstudies:WECCprogressupdate,?Powerand

  10. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lights HVAC Figure 15 Demand Response and Market AnalysisHVAC Load % of Total Hour of Day Figure 16 Demand Response and Market

  11. Cancer Cell Targeting Androgen Receptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    in the development of endo- crine therapies targeting estrogen production or ER for both breast cancer treatment targeting of AR, Wnt or HER2 signaling impairs androgen-stimulated tumor cell growth suggesting potential. Therapies targeting HER2 such as trastuzumab are becoming increasingly important in the treatment of HER2

  12. 2012 White Book, Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The White Book is a planning analysis produced by BPA that informs BPA of its load and resource conditions for sales and purchases. The White Book provides a 10-year look at the expected obligations and resources in the Federal system and PNW region. The White Book is used as a planning tool for the Columbia River Treaty (Treaty) studies, as an information tool for customers and regional interests, and as a publication of information utilized by other planning entities for their analyses. The White Book is not used to guide day-to-day operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) or determine BPA revenues or rates.

  13. Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark Assist and Hydraulic Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szybist, James P [ORNL; Nafziger, Eric J [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A spark-assist homogeneous charge compression ignition (SA-HCCI) operating strategy is presented here that allows for stoichiometric combustion from 1000-3000 rpm, and at loads as high as 750 kPa net IMEP. A single cylinder gasoline engine equipped with direct fuel injection and fully variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) is used for this experimental study. The HVA system enables negative valve overlap (NVO) valve timing for hot internal EGR. Spark-assist stabilizes combustion over a wide range of engine speeds and loads, and allows for stoichiometric operation at all conditions. Characteristics of both spark-ignited combustion and HCCI are present, with combustion analysis showing a distinctive spark ignited phase of combustion, followed by a much more rapid HCCI combustion phase. At high load, the maximum pressure rise rate is controlled by a combination of spark timing and retarding the intake valve closing angle. The latter reduces the effective compression ratio, and therefore the compressive temperatures, allowing the high load limit of the operating range to be expanded. The SA-HCCI operating strategy exhibits improved thermal efficiency at most operating conditions, with fuel consumption improvements up to 9% realized at light engine loads. The SA-HCCI operating strategy presented here does not provide an efficiency advantage at all operating points compared to SI combustion; a decrease was observed at the highest speed and at loads above 500 kPa net IMEP. At light engine loads the majority of the heat release takes place during the HCCI phase of the heat release, and as such the NOx emissions are very low and are similar to levels observed in pure HCCI. At higher loads, a larger portion of the heat release takes place during the spark ignited phase of combustion, which produces NOx emissions that are much higher than is typically associated with HCCI, but still represent a decrease from conventional SI combustion. By limiting the fuel/air mixture to stoichiometric conditions, the higher NOx emissions do not represent an implementation barrier to this strategy because compatibility is maintained with very effective conventional 3-way catalysts.

  14. Effects of dynamic conditions and sheave efficiency on hook load, derrick load, and line tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Gregory Robert

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Approved as to style and content by: Hans...

  15. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  16. High-Efficiency Retrofit Lessons for Retail from a SuperTarget: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langner, R.; Deru, M.; Hirsch, A.; Williams, S.

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Target under the Commercial Building Program to design and implement a retrofit of a SuperTarget in Thornton, CO. The result was a retrofit design that predicted 37% energy savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 29% compared to existing (pre-retrofit) store consumption. The largest savings came from energy efficient lighting, energy efficient cooling systems, improved refrigeration, and better control of plug loads.

  17. Rep-Rated Target Injection for Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frey, D.T.; Goodin, D.T.; Stemke, R.W.; Petzoldt, R.W.; Drake, T.J.; Egli, W.; Vermillion, B.A.; Klasen, R.; Cleary, M.M

    2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) with laser drivers is a pulsed power generation system that relies on repetitive, high-speed injection of targets into a fusion reactor. To produce an economically viable IFE power plant the targets must be injected into the reactor at a rate between 5 and 10 Hz.To survive the injection process, direct drive (laser fusion) targets (spherical capsules) are placed into protective sabots. The sabots separate from the target and are stripped off before entering the reactor chamber. Indirect drive (heavy ion fusion) utilizes a hohlraum surrounding the spherical capsule and enters the chamber as one piece.In our target injection demonstration system, the sabots or hohlraums are injected into a vacuum system with a light gas gun using helium as a propellant. To achieve pulsed operation a rep-rated injection system has been developed. For a viable power plant we must be able to fire continuously at 6 Hz. This demonstration system is currently set up to allow bursts of up to 12 targets at 6 Hz. Using the current system, tests have been successfully run with direct drive targets to show sabot separation under vacuum and at barrel exit velocities of {approx}400 m/s.The existing revolver system along with operational data will be presented.

  18. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  19. FINAL REPORT ON CONTROL ALGORITHM TO IMPROVE THE PARTIAL-LOAD EFFICIENCY OFSURFACE PM MACHINES WITH FRACTIONAL-SLOT CONCENTRATED WINDINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, P.B.; Jahns, T.M.

    2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

  20. Final Report on Control Algorithm to Improve the Partial-Load Efficiency of Surface PM Machines with Fractional-Slot Concentrated Windings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKeever, John W [ORNL; Reddy, Patel [University of Wisconsin; Jahns, Thomas M [ORNL

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface permanent magnet (SPM) synchronous machines using fractional-slot concentrated windings are being investigated as candidates for high-performance traction machines for automotive electric propulsion systems. It has been shown analytically and experimentally that such designs can achieve very wide constant-power speed ratios (CPSR) [1,2]. This work has shown that machines of this type are capable of achieving very low cogging torque amplitudes as well as significantly increasing the machine power density [3-5] compared to SPM machines using conventional distributed windings. High efficiency can be achieved in this class of SPM machine by making special efforts to suppress the eddy-current losses in the magnets [6-8], accompanied by efforts to minimize the iron losses in the rotor and stator cores. Considerable attention has traditionally been devoted to maximizing the full-load efficiency of traction machines at their rated operating points and along their maximum-power vs. speed envelopes for higher speeds [9,10]. For example, on-line control approaches have been presented for maximizing the full-load efficiency of PM synchronous machines, including the use of negative d-axis stator current to reduce the core losses [11,12]. However, another important performance specification for electric traction applications is the machine's efficiency at partial loads. Partial-load efficiency is particularly important if the target traction application requires long periods of cruising operation at light loads that are significantly lower than the maximum drive capabilities. While the design of the machine itself is clearly important, investigation has shown that this is a case where the choice of the control algorithm plays a critical role in determining the maximum partial-load efficiency that the machine actually achieves in the traction drive system. There is no evidence that this important topic has been addressed for this type of SPM machine by any other authors. This topic takes on even greater significance for fractional-slot concentrated-winding SPM machine designs. In particular, maximizing the torque/power density of this class of SPM machines typically leads to machine designs with high numbers of poles. The resulting high electrical frequencies can easily result in high stator core losses unless special care is taken during the machine design process. The purpose of this report is to discuss a modified vector control algorithm for a fractional-slot concentrated winding SPM machine that has been developed to maximize the machine's partial-load efficiency over a wide range of operating conditions. For purposes of this discussion, a 55 kW (peak) SPM machine designed to meet requirements established in the US FreedomCar program [13] is used as the basis for demonstrating the proposed technique. A combination of closed-form analysis [14] and finite element analysis (FEA) is used during this investigation.

  1. Thermionic converter in load-switching mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel'baum, M.A.; Es'kov, V.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical equivalent circuit is proposed for a thermionic electrogenerating element. It is suitable for calculation of transients in load-switching mode. Formulas are given for estimating circuit parameters. A sample numerical calculation is given for the transient between no-load and short-circuit regimes. The results may be employed to identify experimental data in the frequency domain.

  2. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  3. REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS EttoreBompard, Enrico of the nodal prices in competitive electricity markets based on the Pool paradigm. Such prices focus of the paper is on the explicit evaluation of the impactsof the reactive load onthenodal real

  4. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    Wind induced torsional loads on structures A. Kareem Department of Civil Engineering, University degrees of freedom. If the resultant wind forces do not coincide with the centre of mass at each floor is also sensitive to the ratio of torsional to translational frequencies. There is no existing wind load

  5. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  6. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughter, Mark D [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL; Howell, John [University of Glasgow

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated load cell data; (8) hardware and software implementation for process load cell data collection; (9) costs associated with unattended monitoring of load cells (for both operator and inspector) weighed against the potential benefits of having access to such data; (10) results from field tests of load cell data collection systems in operating facilities; and (11) use of unattended load cell data to increase efficiency of on-site inspection schedules and activities.

  7. Target detection portal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brusseau, Charles A. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portal apparatus for screening persons or objects for the presence of trace amounts of target substances such as explosives, narcotics, radioactive materials, and certain chemical materials. The portal apparatus can have a one-sided exhaust for an exhaust stream, an interior wall configuration with a concave-shape across a horizontal cross-section for each of two facing sides to result in improved airflow and reduced washout relative to a configuration with substantially flat parallel sides; air curtains to reduce washout; ionizing sprays to collect particles bound by static forces, as well as gas jet nozzles to dislodge particles bound by adhesion to the screened person or object. The portal apparatus can be included in a detection system with a preconcentrator and a detector.

  8. PDFs for nuclear targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karol Kovarik

    2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding nuclear effects in parton distribution functions (PDF) is an essential component needed to determine the strange and anti-strange quark contributions in the proton. In addition Nuclear Parton Distribution Functions (NPDF) are critically important for any collider experiment with nuclei (e.g. RHIC, ALICE). Here two next-to-leading order chi^2-analyses of NPDF are presented. The first uses neutral current charged-lepton Deeply Inelastic Scattering (DIS) and Drell-Yan data for several nuclear targets and the second uses neutrino-nucleon DIS data. We compare the nuclear corrections factors (F_2^Fe/F_2^D) for the charged-lepton data with other results from the literature. In particular, we compare and contrast fits based upon the charged-lepton DIS data with those using neutrino-nucleon DIS data.

  9. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  10. Effects of pulsed-power loads upon an electric power grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolleck, H.A.; Ranade, S.J.; Prasad, N.R. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (USA). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Velasco, R.O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Certain proposed particle-accelerator and laser experiments, and other devices related to fusion research, require multi-megawatt, repetitive power pulses, often at low (subsynchronous) frequency. While some power-delivery technologies call for a certain degree of buffering of the utility demand using capacitive, inductive, or inertial energy storage, considerations have also been made for serving such loads directly from the line. In either case, such pulsed loads represent non-traditional applications from the utility's perspective which, in certain cases, can have significant design and operational implications. This paper outlines an approach to the analysis of the effects of such loads upon the electric power grid using existing analysis techniques. The impacts studied include busvoltage flicker, transient and dynamic stability, and torsional excitation. The impact of a particular pulsed load is examined and illustrated for the power network serving the Los Alamos National Laboratory. 19 refs., 13 figs.

  11. Coolerado Cooler Helps to Save Cooling Energy and Dollars: New Cooling Technology Targets Peak Load Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robichaud, R.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is about a new evaporative cooling technology that can deliver cooler supply air temperatures than either direct or indirect evaporative cooling systems, without increasing humidity. The Coolerado Cooler technology can help Federal agencies reach the energy-use reduction goals of EPAct 2005, particularly in the western United States.

  12. Thermal Loading of a Direct Drive Target in Rarefied Gas B. R. Christensen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    of the radiation and ion energy from the fusion event, and then slowly release it to the chamber wall and ion energy from the fusion event, and then slowly release it to the chamber wall. Unfortunately is to fill the reaction chamber with a gas, such as Xe, at low density. The gas will absorb much

  13. THE EVALUATION OF THE HEAT LOADING FROM STEADY, TRANSIENT AND OFF-NORMAL CONDITIONS IN ARIES POWER PLANTS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    PLANTS* C. E. Kessel1, M. S. Tillack2, J. P. Blanchard3 1Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box limitation for design and operation of the first wall, divertor, and other special components. Power plants. The characterization of heat loads developed for ITER1 can be applied to power plants to better develop the operating

  14. DPC loading feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dafoe, R.E.; Lopez, D.A.; Williams, K.L.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a ``Settlement Agreement`` between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This study investigates the feasibility of using the Dry Transfer Cell facility to package waste into Dual Purpose Canisters for interim storage at the adjacent Dry Storage System comprised of an interim storage pad with NUHOMS{reg_sign} storage modules. The wastes would then be road-ready for eventual disposal in a permanent repository. The operating period for these activities is expected to be from 2015 to 2035.

  15. Electrical and Production Load Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    88 96 104 112 120 128 136 144 152 160 168 Operating Hours per Week R e l a t i v e F r e q ue nc y ESL-IE-09-05-31 Proceedings of the Thirty-First Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 12-15, 2009 The hours in the database... instead of billing hours. Equation 2 was modified as shown in Equation 4 to use the annual values from the IAC database. ESL-IE-09-05-31 Proceedings of the Thirty-First Industrial Energy Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, May 12-15, 2009 anoh...

  16. LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    LQG control of horizontal wind turbines for blades and tower loads alleviation A. Pintea*, N of power produced by two bladed horizontal variable speed wind turbines. The proposed controller ensures not only an optimal operation of turbines but also enables a compromise with the minimization of the blade

  17. Steady-sate and load-follow characteristics of various BWR fuel designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takei, K.; Kogai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Umehara, H.; Uchida, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of an irradiation study carried out in the Halden boiling water reactor (HBWR). The objective of this irradiation was to clarify the performance of various BWR fuel designs - helium prepressurization (0.3 MPa), pellet shape modification (annular and short-length annular) and barrier cladding (copper and zirconium) - under steady-state and load-follow operations.

  18. EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES DUE TO LOAD Luis F. Ochoa1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering and Electronics - Edinburgh, UK luis_ochoa@ieee.org, rciric be harmful to the operation of the network, its reliability and safety. Furthermore, measurements show mistakes in loss analysis. It is assumed here that a load unbalance affects only the fundamental component

  19. A Dynamic Voltage Scaling Controller for Maximum Energy Saving Across Full Range of Load Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    to an explosive increase in both power density and total power consumption in modem VLSI circuits. In order or low power mode, energy saving from dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is limited due to very poor efficiency of the PWM DC/DC converter operating at light load conditions, resulting in shorter than expected

  20. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashburn, Douglas N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  1. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  2. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  3. The impact of nanoparticle ligand density on dendritic-cell targeted vaccines Arunima Bandyopadhyaya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fahmy, Tarek

    function and subsequent T cell response. We modi ed the surface of biodegradable nanoparticles loaded and nanoparticles composed of biodegradable and bio- compatible poly (lactide-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymersThe impact of nanoparticle ligand density on dendritic-cell targeted vaccines Arunima

  4. Target Space Duality III: Potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orlando Alvarez; Blazej Ruszczycki

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We generalize previous results on target space duality to the case where there are background fields and the sigma model lagrangian has a potential function.

  5. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  6. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  7. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  8. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  9. Coordinated dynamic planning for air and space operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wroten, Matthew Christian

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Planners of military air and space operations in a battlefield environment seek to allocate resources against targets in a way that best achieves the objectives of the commander. In future conflicts, the presence of new ...

  10. PIKA: A Network Service for Multikernel Operating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckmann, Nathan Z.

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    PIKA is a network stack designed for multikernel operating systems that target potential future architectures lacking cache-coherent shared memory but supporting message passing. PIKA splits the network stack into several ...

  11. Automatic target recognition apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumgart, Chris W. (Santa Fe, NM); Ciarcia, Christopher A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automatic target recognition apparatus (10) is provided, having a video camera/digitizer (12) for producing a digitized image signal (20) representing an image containing therein objects which objects are to be recognized if they meet predefined criteria. The digitized image signal (20) is processed within a video analysis subroutine (22) residing in a computer (14) in a plurality of parallel analysis chains such that the objects are presumed to be lighter in shading than the background in the image in three of the chains and further such that the objects are presumed to be darker than the background in the other three chains. In two of the chains the objects are defined by surface texture analysis using texture filter operations. In another two of the chains the objects are defined by background subtraction operations. In yet another two of the chains the objects are defined by edge enhancement processes. In each of the analysis chains a calculation operation independently determines an error factor relating to the probability that the objects are of the type which should be recognized, and a probability calculation operation combines the results of the analysis chains.

  12. Crystallization In High Level Waste (HLW) Glass Melters: Operational Experience From The Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.

    2014-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    processing strategy for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The basis of this alternative approach is an empirical model predicting the crystal accumulation in the WTP glass discharge riser and melter bottom as a function of glass composition, time, and temperature. When coupled with an associated operating limit (e.g., the maximum tolerable thickness of an accumulated layer of crystals), this model could then be integrated into the process control algorithms to formulate crystal tolerant high level waste (HLW) glasses targeting higher waste loadings while still meeting process related limits and melter lifetime expectancies. This report provides a review of the scaled melter testing that was completed in support of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. Testing with scaled melters provided the data to define the DWPF operating limits to avoid bulk (volume) crystallization in the un-agitated DWPF melter and provided the data to distinguish between spinels generated by K-3 refractory corrosion versus spinels that precipitated from the HLW glass melt pool. This report includes a review of the crystallization observed with the scaled melters and the full scale DWPF melters (DWPF Melter 1 and DWPF Melter 2). Examples of actual DWPF melter attainment with Melter 2 are given. The intent is to provide an overview of lessons learned, including some example data, that can be used to advance the development and implementation of an empirical model and operating limit for crystal accumulation for WTP. Operation of the first and second (current) DWPF melters has demonstrated that the strategy of using a liquidus temperature predictive model combined with a 100 C offset from the normal melter operating temperature of 1150 C (i.e., the predicted liquidus temperature (TL) of the glass must be 1050 C or less) has been successful in preventing any detrimental accumulation of spinel in the DWPF melt pool, and spinel has not been observed in any of the pour stream glass samples. Spinel was observed at the bottom of DWPF Melter 1 as a result of K-3 refractory corrosion. Issues have occurred with accumulation of spinel in the pour spout during periods of operation at higher waste loadings. Given that both DWPF melters were or have been in operation for greater than 8 years, the service life of the melters has far exceeded design expectations. It is possible that the DWPF liquidus temperature approach is conservative, in that it may be possible to successfully operate the melter with a small degree of allowable crystallization in the glass. This could be a viable approach to increasing waste loading in the glass assuming that the crystals are suspended in the melt and swept out through the riser and pour spout. Additional study is needed, and development work for WTP might be leveraged to support a different operating limit for the DWPF. Several recommendations are made regarding considerations that need to be included as part of the WTP crystal tolerant strategy based on the DWPF development work and operational data reviewed here. These include: Identify and consider the impacts of potential heat sinks in the WTP melter and glass pouring system; Consider the contributions of refractory corrosion products, which may serve to nucleate additional crystals leading to further accumulation; Consider volatilization of components from the melt (e.g., boron, alkali, halides, etc.) and determine their impacts on glass crystallization behavior; Evaluate the impacts of glass REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) conditions and the distribution of temperature within the WTP melt pool and melter pour chamber on crystal accumulation rate; Consider the impact of precipitated crystals on glass viscosity; Consider the impact of an accumulated crystalline layer on thermal convection currents and bubbler effectiveness within the melt pool; Evaluate the impact of spinel accumulation on Joule heating of the WTP melt pool; and Include noble metals in glass melt experiments because of their potential to act as nucleation site

  13. General solutions for thermopiezoelectrics with various holes under thermal loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Qinghua

    induced by thermal loads. The loads may be uniform remote heat ¯ow, point heat source and temperature elastic plate with an hole of various shapes subjected to remote uniform mechanical loading. For plane

  14. Psychosocial mediators of ethnic disparities in Allostatic Load /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomfohr, Lianne Marie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in Allostatic Load A dissertation submitted in partialPartial Associations between Posited Mediators with Ethnicity and Allostatic LoadPartial Associations between Posited Mediators with Ethnicity and Allostatic Load

  15. axial compressive load: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  16. axial loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  17. axial loaded mri: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  18. axial compressive loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as the electromagnetic and thermal contraction loads are large but also for the heat load from the AC coupling loss. Reduction of the transverse load and warm-up cool-down...

  19. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  20. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bravo, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yinger, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chassin, Dave [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Huang, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Ning [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hiskens, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Venkataramanan, Giri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  1. High density load bearing insulation peg

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A high density peg is disclosed which can support a large load and exhibits excellent thermal resistance produced by a method wherein the peg is made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 4 figs.

  2. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    tovoltageandfrequency disturbancesbyofferingamuchtovoltageandfrequency disturbancesbyofferingamuchdisturbancesisthatmodelingthevoltagesensitivityoftheloadisfarmoreimportantthanthe frequency

  3. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  4. Cooling System for the MERIT High-Power Target Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    and a remote PVSS supervision station connected via Ethernet. Operation Modes: Cooling of proximity cryogenicsCooling System for the MERIT High-Power Target Experiment Haug F., Pereira H., Silva P., Pezzetti M a free mercury jet inside a normal conducting pulsed 15 T capture solenoid magnet cooled with liquid

  5. Abstract--In this paper, a hierarchical control scheme is pro-posed for enhancement of Sensitive Load Bus (SLB) voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ) are often connected to the utility grid or microgrid through a power-electronic interface converter. Microgrid is a local grid consisting of DGs, energy storage systems and dispersed loads which may operate Load Bus (SLB) voltage quality in microgrids. The control structure consists of primary and secondary

  6. Disruptions, loads, and dynamic response of ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, B.; Riemer, B.; Sayer, R.; Strickler, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Barabaschi, P.; Ioki, K.; Johnson, G.; Shimizu, K.; Williamson, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany). International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Team

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma disruptions and the resulting electromagnetic loads are critical to the design of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This paper describes the status of plasma disruption simulations and related analysis, including the dynamic response of the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, stresses and deflections in the vacuum vessel, and reaction loads in the support structures.

  7. MCO loading and cask loadout technical manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PRAGA, A.N.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compilation of the technical basis for loading a multi-canister overpack (MCO) with spent nuclear fuel and then placing the MCO into a cask for shipment to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The technical basis includes a description of the process, process technology that forms the basis for loading alternatives, process control considerations, safety considerations, equipment description, and a brief facility structure description.

  8. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  9. Target Proposal Feb. 15, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    enables simpler system design, compatible with high magnetic field, no toxic waste, replaceable option initial approach can be very important in progress toward a real facility #12; Target Proposal Feb. 15 Target Survivability (cont) . Cooling 23 kW per MW of beam power -- A significant advantage of carbon

  10. VERTEX CHAMBERS TARGET CELL CALORIMETER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DRIFT VC 1/2 FC 1/2 VERTEX CHAMBERS TARGET CELL DVC MC 13 HODOSCOPE H0 MONITOR BC 1/2 BC 3/4 TRD at Threashold Lambda Physics (u L spin transfer) Motivation: W L Target cell e beam L p p e Elastic: Peltier elements ( T ~ 20C ) Custom built electronics + HELIX chips low autgassing (

  11. Prototype Spallation Neutron Source Rotating Target Assembly Final Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McManamy, Thomas J [ORNL; Graves, Van [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Garmendia, Amaia Zarraoa [IDOM Bilbao; Sorda, Fernando [ESS Bilbao; Etxeita, Borja [IDOM Bilbao; Rennich, Mark J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A full-scale prototype of an extended vertical shaft, rotating target assembly based on a conceptual target design for a 1 to 3-MW spallation facility was built and tested. Key elements of the drive/coupling assembly implemented in the prototype include high integrity dynamic face seals, commercially available bearings, realistic manufacturing tolerances, effective monitoring and controls, and fail-safe shutdown features. A representative target disk suspended on a 3.5 meter prototypical shaft was coupled with the drive to complete the mechanical tests. Successful operation for 5400 hours confirmed the overall mechanical feasibility of the extended vertical shaft rotating target concept. The prototype system showed no indications of performance deterioration and the equipment did not require maintenance or relubrication.

  12. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  13. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  14. amplitude dynamic loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University February 6, 2001 Abstract We present the load-calculus, used to model dynamic loading, and prove it sound. The calculus extends the polymorphic -calculus with a...

  15. Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home Field Offices Welcome to the NNSA Production Office NPO News Releases Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading Ahead of Schedule Y-12 Finishes Initial HEUMF Loading...

  16. acute acid loading an: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 queries Meagher, Mary 29 An Automatic Load Sharing Approach for a DFIG Based Wind Generator in a Microgrid Engineering Websites Summary: An Automatic Load Sharing Approach...

  17. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  18. Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar Cells Characterization of Dynamic Loads on Solar Modules with Respect to Fracture of Solar...

  19. Activity Stream - NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data 22 days ago harvest created the dataset NREL EFM DATA: Disaggregated Residential Load Cost Data 1 month ago harvest created...

  20. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1987-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems for ICF targets are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel. The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system, or by an ion beam system, that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion. 3 figs.

  1. Hybrid-drive implosion system for ICF targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mark, James W. (Danville, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid-drive implosion systems (20,40) for ICF targets (10,22,42) are described which permit a significant increase in target gain at fixed total driver energy. The ICF target is compressed in two phases, an initial compression phase and a final peak power phase, with each phase driven by a separate, optimized driver. The targets comprise a hollow spherical ablator (12) surroundingly disposed around fusion fuel (14). The ablator is first compressed to higher density by a laser system (24), or by an ion beam system (44), that in each case is optimized for this initial phase of compression of the target. Then, following compression of the ablator, energy is directly delivered into the compressed ablator by an ion beam driver system (30,48) that is optimized for this second phase of operation of the target. The fusion fuel (14) is driven, at high gain, to conditions wherein fusion reactions occur. This phase separation allows hydrodynamic efficiency and energy deposition uniformity to be individually optimized, thereby securing significant advantages in energy gain. In additional embodiments, the same or separate drivers supply energy for ICF target implosion.

  2. A Helium Gas-Scintillator Active Target for Photoreaction Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Al Jebali; J. R. M. Annand; J. -O. Adler; I. Akkurt; E. Buchanan; J. Brudvik; K. Fissum; S. Gardner; D. J. Hamilton; K. Hansen; L. Isaksson; K. Livingston; M. Lundin; J. C. McGeorge; I. J. D. MacGregor; R. MacRae; D. G. Middleton; A. J. H. Reiter; G. Rosner; B. Schrder; J. Sjgren; D. Sokhan; B. Strandberg

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-cell He gas-scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 $\\mathrm{g/cm^{2}}$ at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of $\\mathrm{N}_{2}$ to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has good timing resolution and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in $^{4}\\mathrm{He}$, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response.

  3. A Helium Gas-Scintillator Active Target for Photoreaction Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jebali, R Al; Adler, J -O; Akkurt, I; Buchanan, E; Brudvik, J; Fissum, K; Gardner, S; Hamilton, D J; Hansen, K; Isaksson, L; Livingston, K; Lundin, M; McGeorge, J C; MacGregor, I J D; MacRae, R; Middleton, D G; Reiter, A J H; Rosner, G; Schrder, B; Sjgren, J; Sokhan, D; Strandberg, B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-cell He gas-scintillator active target, designed for the measurement of photoreaction cross sections, is described. The target has four main chambers, giving an overall thickness of 0.103 $\\mathrm{g/cm^{2}}$ at an operating pressure of 2 MPa. Scintillations are read out by photomultiplier tubes and the addition of small amounts of $\\mathrm{N}_{2}$ to the He, to shift the scintillation emission from UV to visible, is discussed. First results of measurements at the MAX IV Laboratory tagged-photon facility show that the target has good timing resolution and can cope well with a high-flux photon beam. The determination of reaction cross sections from target yields relies on a Monte Carlo simulation, which considers scintillation light transport, photodisintegration processes in $^{4}\\mathrm{He}$, background photon interactions in target windows and interactions of the reaction-product particles in the gas and target container. The predictions of this simulation are compared to the measured target response...

  4. Effects of Price-Responsive Residential Demand on Retail and Wholesale Power Market Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Effects of Price-Responsive Residential Demand on Retail and Wholesale Power Market Operations/C) on integrated retail and wholesale power market operations. The physical operations of the A/C sys- tem at wholesale conditional on A/C load, and the retail energy prices offered to residential A/C consumers

  5. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  6. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  7. Office Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  8. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  9. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  10. Experimental results of a load management system for large commercial customers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, W.A.; Devaney, T.M.; Maher, A.M.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Encouraging experimental results have been obtained from a two-way load management system for large commercial as well as governmental customers on the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCo) system. This paper presents these results and describes the inovative twoway load management system that was developed and installed to achieve them. The Robinton Products, Inc. system operates from a central processor located in PEPCO's control center and it communicates with the customer locations through a telephone system called ''Select-A-Station''. Future plans for the expansion of the system are presented along with experimental results.

  11. Predictive two-dimensional scrape-off layer plasma transport modeling of phase-I operations of tokamak SST-1 using SOLPS5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himabindu, M.; Tyagi, Anil; Sharma, Devendra; Deshpande, Shishir P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Bonnin, Xavier [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procds et des Matriaux, CNRS, Universit Paris13, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Villetaneuse 93430 (France)] [Laboratoire des Sciences des Procds et des Matriaux, CNRS, Universit Paris13, Sorbonne Paris Cit, Villetaneuse 93430 (France)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational analysis of coupled plasma and neutral transport in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) region of the Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is done using SOLPS for Phase-I of double-null divertor plasma operations. An optimum set of plasma parameters is explored computationally for the first phase operations with the central objective of achieving an effective control over particle and power exhaust. While the transport of plasma species is treated using a fluid model in the B2.5 code, a full kinetic description is provided by the EIRENE code for the neutral particle transport in a realistic geometry. Cases with and without external gas puffing are analyzed for finding regimes where an effective control of plasma operations can be exercised by controlling the SOL plasma conditions over a range of heating powers. In the desired parameter range, a reasonable neutral penetration across the SOL is observed, capable of causing a variation of up to 15% of the total input power, in the power deposited on the divertors. Our computational characterization of the SOL plasma with input power 1 MW and lower hybrid current drive, for the separatrix density up to 10{sup 19}?m{sup ?3}, indicates that there will be access to high recycling operations producing reduction in the temperature and the peak heat flux at the divertor targets. This indicates that a control of the core plasma density and temperature would be achievable. A power balance analysis done using the kinetic neutral transport code EIRENE indicates about 60%-75% of the total power diverted to the targets, providing quantitative estimates for the relative power loading of the targets and the rest of the plasma facing components.

  12. Gasoline-like Fuel Effects on High-load, Boosted HCCI Combustion Employing Negative Valve Overlap Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalaskar, Vickey B [ORNL] [ORNL; Szybist, James P [ORNL] [ORNL; Splitter, Derek A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years a number of studies have demonstrated that boosted operation combined with external EGR is a path forward for expanding the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation with the negative valve overlap (NVO) valve strategy. However, the effects of fuel composition with this strategy have not been fully explored. In this study boosted HCCI combustion is investigated in a single-cylinder research engine equipped with direct injection (DI) fueling, cooled external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), laboratory pressurized intake air, and a fully-variable hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) valve train. Three fuels with significant compositional differences are investigated: regular grade gasoline (RON = 90.2), 30% ethanol-gasoline blend (E30, RON = 100.3), and 24% iso-butanol-gasoline blend (IB24, RON = 96.6). Results include engine loads from 350 to 800 kPa IMEPg for all fuels at three engine speeds 1600, 2000, and 2500 rpm. All operating conditions achieved thermal efficiency (gross indicated efficiency) between 38 and 47%, low NOX emissions ( 0.1 g/kWh), and high combustion efficiency ( 96.5%). Detailed sweeps of intake manifold pressure (atmospheric to 250 kPaa), EGR (0 25% EGR), and injection timing are conducted to identify fuel-specific effects. The major finding of this study is that while significant fuel compositional differences exist, in boosted HCCI operation only minor changes in operational conditions are required to achieve comparable operation for all fuels. In boosted HCCI operation all fuels were able to achieve matched load-speed operation, whereas in conventional SI operation the fuel-specific knock differences resulted in significant differences in the operable load-speed space. Although all fuels were operable in boosted HCCI, the respective air handling requirements are also discussed, including an analysis of the demanded turbocharger efficiency.

  13. EURISOL-DS Multi?MW Target: Radiological Protection, Radiation Safety and Shielding Aspects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Romanets and R. Lus (ITN)

    The objective of this work was to carry out a detailed study and analysis of all aspects related toradioprotection and radiation safety of the spallation target area and the whole spaces reservedfor the fission targets and spallation target maintenance. Operational and no?operationalconditions were considered for an evaluation of the radiation safety conditions.An analysis of the proposed shielding dimensions and configuration was performed for thesystem during operation time. Parameters as activation, dose rate, energy deposition, etc. aremore important for the no?operation period, in order to evaluate the hazard level anddetermine the staff access type to the maintenance areas (direct or remote control).Such elements as the fission targets and the whole structure involved on it were studied in moredetail because of the disposal issues, after operation. Activation, dose rate and residual nuclideswere studied for each element of the assembly. All parameters were analyzed according to their...

  14. Joint-Frequency Bins versus Conventional Bin Weather Data in Analysis of HVAC System Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, A.; Baltazar, J. C.; Claridge, D. E.

    this study the use of joint-frequency bins has relative added value to the analysis of HVAC system operation depending on whether the system is dominated by ventilation loads....

  15. Spinning Reserve from Pump Load: A Technical Findings Report to the California Department of Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, BJ

    2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), at the request of the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating opportunities for electrical load to provide the ancillary service of spinning reserve to the electric grid. The load would provide this service by stopping for a short time when there is a contingency on the grid such as a transmission line or generator outage. There is a possibility that a significant portion of the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO's) spinning reserve requirement could be supplied from the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) pumping load. Spinning reserve has never been supplied from load before, and rule changes would be needed to allow it. In this report, we are presenting technical findings on the possibility of supplying spinning reserve from pumping system load. In parallel, we are pursuing the needed rule changes with the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and the CAISO. NERC and FERC have agreed that they have no prohibition against supplying spinning reserve from load. The WECC Minimum Operability Reliability Criteria working group has agreed that the concept should be considered, and they are presently discussing the needed tariff and rule changes. Presently, spinning reserve is provided by generation that is actually spinning but is operating at low power levels and can be ramped up quickly to provide reserve power. In a sense, this is an inefficient and environmentally unfriendly way of providing reserves because it requires the generator to operate at a low power level that may be inefficient and may discharge more pollutants per kW than operating at rated power. It would be better if this generation capacity were in a position to bid into the energy market. Providing an additional supply of spinning reserve would tend to reduce prices for both reserves and the regular electric energy market. The CAISO is presently in the process of redesigning its market rules for ancillary services. The time is right to pursue this opportunity to supply spinning reserve from load. It is our hope that the CDWR will endorse this recommendation. ORNL will then work with FERC, NERC, WECC, and the CAISO to obtain the needed rule changes. This project would provide the CDWR with another option in the complex process of obtaining its energy at the lowest possible cost, while at the same time providing more flexibility to the ISO and relief to the energy market. After this project is implemented in California, we hope that the practice spreads across the nation, allowing much more flexibility in energy markets and increasing the availability of reserve services.

  16. Cosmogenic activation of a natural tellurium target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozza, V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    130Te is one of the candidates for the search for neutrinoless double beta decay. It is currently planned to be used in two experiments: CUORE and SNO+. In the CUORE experiment TeO2 crystals cooled at cryogenic temperatures will be used. In the SNO+ experiment natTe will be deployed up to 0.3% loading in the liquid scintillator volume. A possible background for the signal searched for, are the high Q-value, long-lived isotopes, produced by cosmogenic neutron and proton spallation reaction on the target material. A total of 18 isotopes with Q-value larger than 2 MeV and T1/2 >20 days have been identified as potential backgrounds. In addition low Q-value, high rate isotopes can be problematic due to pile-up effects, specially in liquid scintillator based detectors. Production rates have been calculated using the ACTIVIA program, the TENDL library, and the cosmogenic neutron and proton flux parametrization at sea level from Armstrong and Gehrels for both long and short lived isotopes. The obtained values for the...

  17. Operations and compositions in transrecursive operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgin, M.S.; Borodyanskii, Yu.M.

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present study is a continuation of a study focusing on introduction and analysis of operations on transrecursive operators, which are similar to the operators considered in the theory of algorithms. Such operations may be standard product of algorithms) or special ({alpha}-disjunction and {alpha}-iteration. In some respects, these operations in the class of transrecursive operators are similar to their traditional analogs. In other respects, however, they are essentially different. For instance, they may have different types and modes. Specific features of operations on transrecursive operators are attributable to explicit omission of some restrictions on their construction compared with the construction of algorithms. The standard approaches to mathematical modeling of the concept of algorithm assume a number of essential restrictions. Specifically, they assume finiteness of (1) the input data arriving during a finite time interval; (2) the list of rules underlying the operations of the algorithm; (3) the transformations executed by a single operation; (4) the description of each rule; (5) the time to execute one operation; (6) the time to execute one operation; (7) the number of cycles that the algorithm executes in order to realize the mapping. In application to Turing machines, these restrictions imply finiteness of the initial word, finiteness of the command table of the read head, and ultimate stopping when the result is obtained after finitely many steps. Various classes of transrecursive operators are constructed by dropping various combinations of the {open_quotes}finiteness{close_quotes} restrictions. Two classes of transrecursive operators - the limit (inductive) Turing machines and transalgorithms - have been obtained by dropping respectively the assumption of finiteness of the number of execution cycles and the assumption of finiteness of the list of rules.

  18. Improved Load Distribution for Load Rating of Low-Fill Box Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acharya, Raju

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The distribution of live loads on the top slab of a box culvert plays a major role in determining the rating factor of the culvert. The current AASHTO guidelines do not consider the effects of pavements present above the fill while determining the load distribution...

  19. Modality Effects on Cognitive Load and Performance in High-Load Information Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijholt, Anton

    INTRODUCTION Intelligent human-computer interfaces are often multimodal, i.e. the human-computer communications into the modality planning procedure for systems that support high-load human-computer interaction. Author Keywords-load information presenta- tion scenario. Mainly based on modality-related psychology theories, we selected five

  20. Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peruani, Fernando

    Dielectric breakdown model for conductor-loaded and insulator-loaded composite materials P. Bergero strength is highly desirable, and in the past years composite materials such as resin matrix filled- tors, and composites containing carbon black and titanium dioxide have recently been tested

  1. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  2. Operating Permits (New Jersey)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The owner or operator of a facility subject to this article shall obtain and maintain an operating permit for the facility. The owner or operator of a facility subject to this article shall ensure...

  3. Cogeneration Operational Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M.

    operations. Other operational issues also include utility transmission planning, generation planning and fuel mix decisions. All of these operational problems have an impact on the ratepayer in regard to quality of electric service and future rates. Both...

  4. Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    Classification and forecasting of load curves Nolwen Huet Abstract The load curve, which gives of electricity customer uses. This load curve is only available for customers with automated meter reading. For the others, EDF must estimate this curve. Usually a clustering of the load curves is performed, followed

  5. Discharge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, Richard M.

    : effective discharge, transport, sediment, constituents, rating curve, half-load Citation: Vogel, R. M., J. RDischarge indices for water quality loads Richard M. Vogel Department of Civil and Environmental load is ultimately the quantity of interest, we define a new index, the half-load discharge, which

  6. ANALYTICAL APPROACH TO TRANSIENT HEAT CONDUCTION IN COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michal Duka; Martin Bartk; Frantiek Drkal; Jan Hensen

    equation in cooling load calculations. The performance of nine different procedures (the four methods and

  7. Measured Performance of Residential Dehumidifiers Under Cyclic Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential construction practices are progressing toward higher levels of energy efficiency. A proven strategy to save energy is to simultaneously increase building insulation levels and reduce outdoor air infiltration. Tight homes require intentional mechanical ventilation to ensure healthy indoor air. Overall, this strategy results in a shift in the mix of latent and sensible space conditioning loads, requiring proportionally more moisture to be removed compared to standard homes. There is currently not sufficient information available at a wide enough range of operating points to design dehumidification systems for high performance homes in hot-humid climates. The only industry information available on dehumidifier moisture removal and energy consumption are performance ratings conducted at a single test condition, which does not provide a full representation of dehumidifier operation under real-world conditions. Winkler et al. (2011) developed steady state performance maps to predict dehumidifier performance at a variety of indoor conditions. However, installed heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment rarely operates at steady state. Part load performance testing of residential dehumidifiers is not mandated by current test standards. Therefore, we tested the part load performance of four residential dehumidifiers in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory . The part load efficiency of each dehumidifier was measured under 13 cycling scenarios, and combined with NREL field data to develop part load fraction (PLF) performance curves under realistic cycling scenarios.

  8. Possible Target Options Michael A. Green

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Possible Target Options Michael A. Green WATER COOLED SOLID TARGETS For high energy drivers, a desirable target material should have a medium to high Z. For low energy drivers the targe should be made are obvious medium Z target materials. A less obvious candidate is a titanium or niobium-titanium alloy target

  9. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  10. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  11. Heat Transfer Operators Associated with Quantum Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Aksak; S. Turgut

    2011-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Any quantum operation applied on a physical system is performed as a unitary transformation on a larger extended system. If the extension used is a heat bath in thermal equilibrium, the concomitant change in the state of the bath necessarily implies a heat exchange with it. The dependence of the average heat transferred to the bath on the initial state of the system can then be found from the expectation value of a hermitian operator, which is named as the heat transfer operator (HTO). The purpose of this article is the investigation of the relation between the HTOs and the associated quantum operations. Since, any given quantum operation on a system can be realized by different baths and unitaries, many different HTOs are possible for each quantum operation. On the other hand, there are also strong restrictions on the HTOs which arise from the unitarity of the transformations. The most important of these is the Landauer erasure principle. This article is concerned with the question of finding a complete set of restrictions on the HTOs that are associated with a given quantum operation. An answer to this question has been found only for a subset of quantum operations. For erasure operations, these characterizations are equivalent to the generalized Landauer erasure principle. For the case of generic quantum operations however, it appears that the HTOs obey further restrictions which cannot be obtained from the entropic restrictions of the generalized Landauer erasure principle.

  12. Building Operator Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lilley, D.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Building Operator Certification Energy Efficiency through Operator Training CATEE December 18, 2013 San Antonio, TX Dennis Lilley, CEM, PMP ESL-KT-13-12-49 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16...-18 Building Operator Certification Energy Efficiency through Operator Training What is Building Operator Certification? Industry-recognized credential in energy efficient building operation practices Created with 100 industry experts Launched in 1996 9...

  13. Load calculation and system evaluation for electric vehicle climate control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aceves-Saborio, S.; Comfort, W.J. III

    1993-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Providing air conditioning for electric vehicles (EVs) represents an important challenge, because vapor compression air conditioners, which are common in gasoline powered vehicles, may consume a substantial part of the total energy stored in the EV battery. This report consists of two major parts. The first part is a cooling and heating load calculation for electric vehicles. The second part is an evaluation of several systems that can be used to provide the desired cooling and heating in EVs. Four cases are studied. Short range and full range EVs are each analyzed twice, first with the regular vehicle equipment, and then with a fan and heat reflecting windows, to reduce hot soak. Recent legislation has allowed the use of combustion heating whenever the ambient temperature drops below 5{degrees}C. This has simplified the problem of heating, and made cooling the most important problem. Therefore, systems described in this project are designed for cooling, and their applicability to heating at temperatures above 5{degrees}C is described. If the air conditioner systems cannot be used to cover the whole heating load at 5{degrees}C, then the vehicle requires a complementary heating system (most likely a heat recovery system or electric resistance heating). Air conditioners are ranked according to their overall weight. The overall weight is calculated by adding the system weight and the weight of the battery necessary to provide energy for system operation.

  14. INITIAL MAR ASSESSMENTS TO ACCESS THE IMPACT OF AL DISSOLUTION ON DWPF OPERATING WINDOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, J; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    SRNL was tasked to provide an assessment of the downstream impacts (or lack thereof) to DWPF of decisions regarding the implementation of Al-dissolution to support sludge mass reduction and processing. Based on future sludge batch compositional projections, assessments have been made with respect to the ability to maintain comparable projected operating windows for sludges with high temperature Al-dissolution and without Al-dissolution. In general, paper study assessments indicated that most of the future sludge batches (twelve with and fourteen without high temperature Al-dissolution) had multiple frits available that yielded relatively large operating windows. The projected operating windows were defined by the waste loading (WL) interval over which glasses were classified as acceptable based on current process control models and their related constraints. Although multiple frits were identified, using a 17-point width as a general guide for a reasonable operating window (e.g., 25-41% WL), there generally appeared to be more flexibility in frit selection for the without Al-dissolution flowsheets. This larger frit compositional platform could allow frit development efforts to make more significant adjustments to melt rate. However, based on the general observations of the paper study, there is essentially no clear distinction between the two options with which to drive a decision to implement Al-dissolution. That is, comparable operating windows can be achieved through the frit development and selection process for either process. One could interpret this general summary statement to indicate: given frit development efforts can compensate for the different pretreatment strategies yielding equivalent operating windows or maximum WL targets, the lower sludge mass as a result of Al-dissolution would obviously result in reducing the number of cans produced at DWPF. Although the basic mathematics is technically sound, other factors need to be considered including facility operating times or mission life for the Tank Farm, DWPF and Saltstone. To address some of these questions, candidate frit compositions have been selected to assess melt rate as a function of waste loading for the glass systems representing future sludge batches with and without Al dissolution. The frit selection process was driven by reviewing compositional trends that have historically influenced melt rate as well as identifying systems with relatively large operating windows. With respect to the identification of sludge batches to support the melt rate testing, average compositions representing with and without Al-dissolution 'clusters' were developed using a statistical grouping routine. Ultimately, five frits were identified for each average 'cluster' composition. Melt rate assessments will be performed as a function of waste loading for the five frits selected. The data obtained from the experimental melt rate program can be used in combination with actual DWPF processing data to provide valuable insight into the waste throughput potentials for both flowsheets.

  15. Operation and Maintenance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations and Maintenance Operations OASIS: WALC-DSW (Note: this site is not hosted by Western and requires a digital certificate and login for full access.) Contact Information...

  16. Operations Cost Allocation Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Operations Consolidation Project Operations Consolidation Project (OCP) Cost Allocation Presentation - September 20, 2011 OCP Cost Allocation Customer Presentation List of Acronyms...

  17. Operations Research Analyst

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The incumbent in this position will serve as an Operations Research Analyst in the Generation Scheduling (PGS). The Operations Research Analyst is responsible for analytical work that involves...

  18. Three-dimensional isotropic perfect lens based on LC-loaded transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Alitalo; S. Maslovski; S. Tretyakov

    2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotropic three-dimentional perfect lens based on cubic meshes of interconnected transmission lines and bulk loads is proposed. The lens is formed by a slab of a loaded mesh placed in between two similar unloaded meshes. The dispersion equations and the characteristic impedances of the eigenwaves in the meshes are derived analytically, with an emphasis on generality. This allows designing of transmission-line meshes with desired dispersion properties. The required backward-wave mode of operation in the lens is realized with simple inductive and capacitive loads. An analytical expression for the transmission through the lens is derived and the amplification of evanescent waves is demonstrated. Factors that influence enhancement of evanescent waves in the lens are studied and the corresponding design criteria are established. A possible realization of the structure is outlined.

  19. Cavity resonance absorption in ultra-high bandwidth CRT deflection structure by a resistive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, M.E.; Hudson, C.L.

    1993-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved ultra-high bandwidth helical coil deflection structure for a cathode ray tube is described comprising a first metal member having a bore therein, the metal walls of which form a first ground plane; a second metal member coaxially mounted in the bore of the first metal member and forming a second ground plane; a helical deflection coil coaxially mounted within the bore between the two ground planes; and a resistive load disposed in one end of the bore and electrically connected to the first and second ground planes, the resistive load having an impedance substantially equal to the characteristic impedance of the coaxial line formed by the two coaxial ground planes to inhibit cavity resonance in the structure within the ultra-high bandwidth of operation. Preferably, the resistive load comprises a carbon film on a surface of an end plug in one end of the bore.

  20. IGFC response to initial fuel cell load for various syngas compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, David [U.S DOE; Hughes, Dimitri O. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Haynes, Comas L. [Georgia Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The system response to an initial electric load of the fuel cell during the startup of a direct-fired fuel cell turbine power system was studied using the Hybrid Performance (Hyper) project hardware-based simulation facility at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory for a range of input fuel compositions. The facility was brought to a steady condition at a temperature deemed adequate to minimize stress on the fuel cell during the initial load transient. A 1D distributed fuel cell model operating in real-time was used to produce individual cell transient temperature profiles during the course of the load change. The process was conducted with humidified hydrogen, and then repeated with various syngas compositions representative of different gasifier technologies. The results provide insight into control strategy requirements for mitigation of expected fuel cell failure modes relevant to available gasifier technology.

  1. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Letto, Daryl [Enbala Power Networks; Johnson, Brandon [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Dowling, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); George, Raoule [Enbala Power Networks; Khan, Saqib [University of Texas, Austin

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  2. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INVESTIGATION OF SP&NDS SUBJECTED TO DTNAMIC LOADING A Tucsis By Gary N. Reeves Submitted to the Grad ate Coll Ee of the T xas AGM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the deEree of MASTER OF SCIPNCE AuBust 19G7 Major... Subject: Civil EnEineering LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SANDS SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING A Thesis by Gary N. Reeves Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department Membe Me er August 1967 ACIINOWLEDGR&J. 'NTS I...

  3. Telemetering system supports load curtailment and billing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mabry, R. (Potomac Electric Power Co., Washington, DC (United States)); Biagini, D. (Landis and Gyr Systems, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the greatest challenges facing electric utilities today is satisfying increasing peak demand without adding new generating capacity. Supporting utilities in this quest are state-of-the-art computer systems designed to accommodate complex load management as well as billing and load survey programs. The Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) is utilizing such computer technology along with an innovative organizational approach to implement a comprehensive energy plan for its customers. The plan is enabling the utility to meet the growing demand placed on its power system by intensive expansion in the greater Washington DC area.

  4. Turbulence descriptors for scaling fatigue loading spectra of wind turbine structural components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The challenge for the designer in developing a new wind turbine is to incorporate sufficient strength in its components to safely achieve a 20- or 30-year service life. To accomplish this, the designer must understand the load and stress distributions (in a statistical sense at least) that the turbine is likely to encounter during its operating life. Sources of loads found in the normal operating environment include start/stop cycles, emergency shutdowns, the turbulence environment associated with the specific site and turbine location, and extreme or ``rare`` events that can challenge the turbine short-term survivability. Extreme events can result from an operational problem (e.g., controller failure) or violent atmospheric phenomena (tornadic circulations, strong gust fronts). For the majority of the operating time, however, the character of the turbulent inflow is the dominant source of the alternating stress distributions experienced by the structural components. Methods of characterizing or scaling the severity of the loading spectra (or the rate of fatigue damage accumulation) must be applicable to a wide range of turbulent inflow environments -- from solitary isolation to the complex flows associated with multi-row wind farms. The metrics chosen must be related to the properties of the turbulent inflow and independent of the nature of local terrain features.

  5. Interactive display system having a scaled virtual target zone

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.; DeSanto, Leonard

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A display system includes a waveguide optical panel having an inlet face and an opposite outlet face. A projector and imaging device cooperate with the panel for projecting a video image thereon. An optical detector bridges at least a portion of the waveguides for detecting a location on the outlet face within a target zone of an inbound light spot. A controller is operatively coupled to the imaging device and detector for displaying a cursor on the outlet face corresponding with the detected location of the spot within the target zone.

  6. Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

  7. Targets and methods for target preparation for radionuclide production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhuikov, Boris L; Konyakhin, Nicolai A; Kokhanyuk, Vladimir M; Srivastava, Suresh C

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to nuclear technology, and to irradiation targets and their preparation. One embodiment of the present invention includes a method for preparation of a target containing intermetallic composition of antimony Ti--Sb, Al--Sb, Cu--Sb, or Ni--Sb in order to produce radionuclides (e.g., tin-117 m) with a beam of accelerated particles. The intermetallic compounds of antimony can be welded by means of diffusion welding to a copper backing cooled during irradiation on the beam of accelerated particles. Another target can be encapsulated into a shell made of metallic niobium, stainless steel, nickel or titanium cooled outside by water during irradiation. Titanium shell can be plated outside by nickel to avoid interaction with the cooling water.

  8. Monotonic Target Assignment for Robotic Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen L; Bullo, Francesco

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Target assignment for robotic networks: Worst-case andTARGET ASSIGNMENT FOR ROBOTIC NETWORKS [6] H. W. Kuhn, TheTarget Assignment for Robotic Networks Stephen L. Smith,

  9. Electron Scattering with Polarized Targets at TESLA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The TESLA-N Study Group; :; M. Anselmino; E. C. Aschenauer; S. Belostotski; W. Bialowons; J. Bluemlein; V. Braun; R. Brinkmann; M. Dueren; F. Ellinghaus; K. Goeke; St. Goertz; A. Gute; J. Harmsen; D. v. Harrach; R. Jakob; E. M. Kabuss; R. Kaiser; V. Korotkov; P. Kroll; E. Leader; B. Lehmann-Dronke; L. Mankiewicz; A. Meier; W. Meyer; N. Meyners; D. Mueller; P. J. Mulders; W. -D. Nowak; L. Niedermeier; K. Oganessyan; P. V. Pobilitsa; M. V. Polyakov; G. Reicherz; K. Rith; D. Ryckbosch; A. Schaefer; K. Sinram; G. v. d. Steenhoven; E. Steffens; J. Steijger; C. Weiss

    2000-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of polarized electron-nucleon scattering can be realized at the TESLA linear collider facility with projected luminosities that are about two orders of magnitude higher than those expected of other experiments at comparable energies. Longitudinally polarized electrons, accelerated as a small fraction of the total current in the e+ arm of TESLA, can be directed onto a solid state target that may be either longitudinally or transversely polarized. A large variety of polarized parton distribution and fragmentation functions can be determined with unprecedented accuracy, many of them for the first time. A main goal of the experiment is the precise measurement of the x- and Q^2-dependence of the experimentally totally unknown quark transversity distributions that will complete the information on the nucleon's quark spin structure as relevant for high energy processes. Comparing their Q^2-evolution to that of the corresponding helicity distributions constitutes an important precision test of the predictive power of QCD in the spin sector. Measuring transversity distributions and tensor charges allows access to the hitherto unmeasured chirally odd operators in QCD which are of great importance to understand the role of chiral symmetry. The possibilities of using unpolarized targets and of experiments with a real photon beam turn TESLA-N into a versatile next-generation facility at the intersection of particle and nuclear physics.

  10. Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

  11. Modularization and simulation techniques for heat balance-based energy and load calculation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard K. Strand

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Loads Toolkit research project is to obtain a heat balance based load calculation procedure that

  12. Appendix 5-Ba 12-Passenger Van Operators Checklist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaddle, John

    as a maximum load. 2. Wear seat belts/shoulder harnesses as provided in the vehicle. 3. Drivers of College vehicles are required to operate vehicles in a safe manner and to obey all State laws. In many states, the use of a handheld cell phone while driving a vehicle is prohibited by State law except for emergency

  13. Recirculating Liquid Nitrogen System for Operation of Cryogenic Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Mitchell

    is provided by a LN2-cooled radiation shroud, which reduces the radiative heat load on the cryosail. Since Engineering, Mitchell.Walker@ae.gatech.edu #12;2 nitrogen shroud, the heat transfer calculated by Eqn. (1 operating temperature. This is seen notionally by equation 1: Eqn. (1) where Q is the rate of heat transfer

  14. Chamber and target technology development for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdou, M; Besenbruch, G; Duke, J; Forman, L; Goodin, D; Gulec, K; Hoffer, J; Khater, H; Kulcinsky, G; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Margevicious, B; Meier, W R; Moir, R W; Morley, N; Nobile, A; Payne, S; Peterson, P F; Peterson, R; Petzoldt, R; Schultz, K; Steckle, W; Sviatoslavsky, L; Tillack, M; Ying, A

    1999-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Fusion chambers and high pulse-rate target systems for inertial fusion energy (IFE) must: regenerate chamber conditions suitable for target injection, laser propagation, and ignition at rates of 5 to 10 Hz; extract fusion energy at temperatures high enough for efficient conversion to electricity; breed tritium and fuel targets with minimum tritium inventory; manufacture targets at low cost; inject those targets with sufficient accuracy for high energy gain; assure adequate lifetime of the chamber and beam interface (final optics); minimize radioactive waste levels and annual volumes; and minimize radiation releases under normal operating and accident conditions. The primary goal of the US IFE program over the next four years (Phase I) is to develop the basis for a Proof-of-Performance-level driver and target chamber called the Integrated Research Experiment (IRE). The IRE will explore beam transport and focusing through prototypical chamber environment and will intercept surrogate targets at high pulse rep-rate. The IRE will not have enough driver energy to ignite targets, and it will be a non-nuclear facility. IRE options are being developed for both heavy ion and laser driven IFE. Fig. 1 shows that Phase I is prerequisite to an IRE, and the IRE plus NIF (Phase II) is prerequisite to a high-pulse rate. Engineering Test Facility and DEMO for IFE, leading to an attractive fusion power plant. This report deals with the Phase-I R&D needs for the chamber, driver/chamber interface (i.e., magnets for accelerators and optics for lasers), target fabrication, and target injection; it is meant to be part of a more comprehensive IFE development plan which will include driver technology and target design R&D. Because of limited R&D funds, especially in Phase I, it is not possible to address the critical issues for all possible chamber and target technology options for heavy ion or laser fusion. On the other hand, there is risk in addressing only one approach to each technology option. Therefore, in the following description of these specific feasibility issues, we try to strike a balance between narrowing the range of recommended R&D options to minimize cost, and keeping enough R&D options to minimize risk.

  15. Development and application of the spatially explicit load enrichment calculation tool (select) to determine potential E. coli loads in watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riebschleager, Kendra Jean

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    to contamination is the Load Duration Curve (LDC) method (USEPA, 2006a). The LDC approach was developed for assessing nutrient loading in streams (Cleland, 2002). This graphical approach combines daily 9 stream flow with water quality data for the pollutant... on the field data available, thus the LDC determines load reductions for the flow conditions at which measurements were taken (Li and Guo, 2003). Load reduction is based on the percent exceedance above the maximum allowable load line. In Texas, the water...

  16. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  17. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  18. load balancing tool for OASIS coupled systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LUCIA, load balancing tool for OASIS coupled systems Eric Maisonnave, Arnaud Caubel TR-CMGC-14-63 #12;Table of contents 1. Description of an OASIS3-MCT-based coupled system..............................................................................................14 #12;This document focuses on how to optimize performances of an OASIS3-MCT-based coupled system

  19. Analysis of the Load Impacts and Economic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the Time of Use (TOU) rate plan, called "Analysis of the Load Impacts and Economic Benefits model. The TOU data was rerun through the new spreadsheet model and the results are reported here. · Participation in the TOU rate option also resulted in an average net reduction of 292 kWh/year in annual

  20. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  1. LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universit de

    1 PhD Thesis LOAD AND THE SPATIAL PROFILE OF VISUAL SELECTIVE ATTENTION Serge Caparos Goldsmiths). This thesis examined (1) the shape of the profile of perceptual resources in space and (2) the effect of several factors on the focus of this profile. The spatial profile of perceptual resources was indexed

  2. A LOADING-DEPENDENT MODEL OF PROBABILISTIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    of the salient features of large blackouts of electric power trans- mission systems+ This leads to a new loadings+ 1. INTRODUCTION Cascading failure is the usual mechanism for large blackouts of electric power and containing 50 million people @33#+ The vital importance of the electrical infrastructure to society motivates

  3. Fig. 1. Example System phase loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    power system (SPS) consists of various components such as generators, cables, switchboards, load centers Transformer 9 25 12 Alternate path Generator switchboard Bus-tie breaker Generator 1 Generator 3 Generator 2 4 26 G 29 7 8 ABT 3 single phase cables Visualization for Shipboard Power Systems Karen L. Butler

  4. CALIFORNIA'S NEXT GENERATION OF LOAD MANAGEMENT STANDARDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy the need for new peaking generation capacity and associated transmission and distribution capacity's "load management" authority as a way to achieve higher levels of costeffective demand response

  5. NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pzsit, Imre

    NUCLEAR PLANT OPERATIONS AND CONTROL KEYWORDS: neutron flux, cur- rent noise, vibration diagnostics: Swedish Nuclear Powe

  6. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Spring 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almor, Amit

    the operations and supply chain strategy. This survey course in operations management introduces students1 MGSC 395 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT Spring 2008 Course Syllabus Instructor: Professor Anand Nair Class MATERIALS Required Text Books Textbook: Krajewski, Lee, Ritzman, Larry, and Malhotra, Manoj. Operations

  7. Towards Increased Waste Loading in High Level Waste Glasses: Developing a Better Understanding of Crystallization Behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Kim, Dong -Sang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advanced glass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.

  8. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PARR

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  9. Towards Increased Waste Loading in High Level Waste Glasses: Developing a Better Understanding of Crystallization Behavior

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Marra, James C.; Kim, Dong -Sang

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of waste components in US defense high level radioactive wastes (HLW) have proven challenging for current Joule heated ceramic melter (JCHM) operations and have limited the ability to increase waste loadings beyond already realized levels. Many of these ''troublesome'' waste species cause crystallization in the glass melt that can negatively impact product quality or have a deleterious effect on melter processing. Recent efforts at US Department of Energy laboratories have focused on understanding crystallization behavior within HLW glass melts and investigating approaches to mitigate the impacts of crystallization so that increases in waste loading can be realized. Advancedmoreglass formulations have been developed to highlight the unique benefits of next-generation melter technologies such as the Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Crystal-tolerant HLW glasses have been investigated to allow sparingly soluble components such as chromium to crystallize in the melter but pass out of the melter before accumulating. The Hanford site AZ-101 tank waste composition represents a waste group that is waste loading limited primarily due to high concentrations of Fe2O3 (with higher Al2O3). Systematic glass formulation development utilizing slightly higher process temperatures and higher tolerance to spinel crystals demonstrated that an increase in waste loading of more than 20% could be achieved for this waste composition, and by extension higher loadings for wastes in the same group.less

  10. Operator pencil passing through a given operator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, A., E-mail: khudian@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: adam.biggs@student.manchester.ac.uk; Khudaverdian, H. M., E-mail: khudian@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: adam.biggs@student.manchester.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Let ? be a linear differential operator acting on the space of densities of a given weight ?{sub 0} on a manifold M. One can consider a pencil of operators ?-circumflex(?)=(?{sub ?}) passing through the operator ? such that any ?{sub ?} is a linear differential operator acting on densities of weight ?. This pencil can be identified with a linear differential operator ?-circumflex acting on the algebra of densities of all weights. The existence of an invariant scalar product in the algebra of densities implies a natural decomposition of operators, i.e., pencils of self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint operators. We study lifting maps that are on one hand equivariant with respect to divergenceless vector fields, and, on the other hand, with values in self-adjoint or anti-self-adjoint operators. In particular, we analyze the relation between these two concepts, and apply it to the study of diff?(M)-equivariant liftings. Finally, we briefly consider the case of liftings equivariant with respect to the algebra of projective transformations and describe all regular self-adjoint and anti-self-adjoint liftings. Our constructions can be considered as a generalisation of equivariant quantisation.

  11. Computational Hydrocode Study of Target Damage due to Fragment-Blast Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatch-Aguilar, T; Najjar, F; Szymanski, E

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A target's terminal ballistic effects involving explosively generated fragments, along with the original blast, are of critical importance for many different security and safety related applications. Personnel safety and protective building design are but a few of the practical disciplines that can gain from improved understanding combined loading effects. Traditionally, any engineering level analysis or design effort involving explosions would divide the target damage analysis into two correspondingly critical areas: blast wave and fragment related impact effects. The hypothesis of this paper lies in the supposition that a linear combination of a blast-fragment loading, coupled with an accurate target response description, can lead to a non-linear target damage effect. This non-linear target response could then stand as the basis of defining what a synergistic or combined frag-blast loading might actually look like. The table below, taken from Walters, et. al. categorizes some of the critical parameters driving any combined target damage effect and drives the evaluation of results. Based on table 1 it becomes clear that any combined frag-blast analysis would need to account for the target response matching similar ranges for the mechanics described above. Of interest are the critical times upon which a blast event or fragment impact loading occurs relative to the target's modal response. A blast, for the purposes of this paper is defined as the sudden release of chemical energy from a given material (henceforth referred to as an energetic material) onto its surrounding medium. During the coupling mechanism a discrete or discontinuous shockwave is generated. This shockwave travels outward from the source transferring energy and momentum to any surrounding objects including personnel and engineering structures. From an engineering perspective blast effects are typically characterized by way of physical characteristics such as Peak Pressure (PP), Time of Arrival (TOA), Pressure-Impulse (PI) and Time of Duration (TD). Other peculiarities include the radial decrease in pressure from the source, any fireball size measurement, and subsequent increase in temperature from the passing of the shockwave through the surrounding medium. In light of all of these metrics, the loading any object receives from a blast event becomes intricately connected to the distance between itself and the source. Because of this, a clear distinction is made between close-in effects and those from a source far away from the object of interest. Explosively generated fragments on the other hand are characterized by means of their localized damage potential. Metrics such as whether the fragment penetrates or perforates a given object is quantified as well as other variables including fragment's residual velocity, % kinetic energy decrease, residual fragment mass and other exit criteria. A fragment launched under such violent conditions could easily be traveling at speeds in excess of 2500 ft/s. Given these speeds it is conceivable to imagine how any given fragment could deliver a concentrated load to a target and penetrates through walls, vehicles or even the protection systems of nearby personnel. This study will focus on the individual fragment-target impact event with the hopes of expanding it to eventually include statistical procedures. Since this is a modeling excursion into the combined frag-blast target damage effects the numerical methods used to frame this problem become important in-so-far as the simulations are done in a consistent manner. For this study a Finite-Element based Hydrocode solution called ALE3D (ALE=Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) was utilized. ALE3D is developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA), and as this paper will show, successfully implemented a converged ALE formulation including as many of the different aspects needed to query the synergistic damage on a given target. Further information on the modeling setup is included.

  12. Estimation of Collection Efficiency Change of Moving Granular Bed Filter by Dust Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furuuchi, M.; Hata, M.; Kanaoka, C.; Kawaminami, Y.

    2002-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Final goal of this study is to theoretically describe effects of influencing factors on the performance of the coke bed filter as a material classifier and to predict its optimal operating condition. In this paper, the author focuses on the basic investigation on collection mechanism of a fixed coke bed filter on the basis of the depth filtration theory, in which an influence of dust load on the dust collection efficiency.

  13. Optimal control theory for xenon spatial oscillations in load follow of a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, N.Z.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple core control model has been developed for the control of xenon spatial oscillations in load-following operations of a current design commercial nuclear pressurized water reactor. The model has been formulated as a linear - quadratic - tracking problem in the context of moderm optimal control theory and the resulting two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP) has been solved directly by the techniques of initial value methods.

  14. Methods for Analyzing Electric Load Shape and its Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Philip

    2010-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Current methods of summarizing and analyzing electric load shape are discussed briefly and compared. Simple rules of thumb for graphical display of load shapes are suggested. We propose a set of parameters that quantitatively describe the load shape in many buildings. Using the example of a linear regression model to predict load shape from time and temperature, we show how quantities such as the load?s sensitivity to outdoor temperature, and the effectiveness of demand response (DR), can be quantified. Examples are presented using real building data.

  15. Smart Grid - Transforming Power System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Kirkham, Harold

    2010-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    AbstractElectric power systems are entering a new realm of operations. Large amounts of variable generation tax our ability to reliably operate the system. Couple this with a greater reliance on the electricity network to serve consumer demand that is likely to rise significantly even as we drive for greater efficiency. Trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated, while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in a world where threats of disruption have risen. Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help address the challenges confronting system operations. This paper reviews the impact of smart grid functionality on transforming power system operations. It explores models for distributed energy resources (DER generation, storage, and load) that are appearing on the system. It reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be addressed as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  16. Loading and pre-loading processes generate a distinct siRNA population in Tetrahymena

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochizuki, Kazufumi, E-mail: kazufumi.mochizuki@imba.oeaw.ac.at; Kurth, Henriette M.

    2013-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: The Tetrahymena Argonaute protein Twi1p binds to ?2830-nt siRNAs called scnRNAs. The size of scnRNAs is determined during a pre-loading process. The 5? uracil bias of scnRNAs is attributed to pre-loading and loading processes. The thermodynamic asymmetry of scnRNA duplex doesnot affect the guide strand decision. scnRNAs may be produced non-sequentially from dsRNA substrates by Dicer. -- Abstract: The various properties of small RNAs, such as length, terminal nucleotide, thermodynamic asymmetry and duplex mismatches, can impact their sorting into different Argonaute proteins in diverse eukaryotes. The developmentally regulated 26- to 32-nt siRNAs (scnRNAs) are loaded to the Argonaute protein Twi1p and display a strong bias for uracil at the 5? end. In this study, we used deep sequencing to analyze loaded and unloaded populations of scnRNAs. We show that the size of the scnRNA is determined during a pre-loading process, whereas their 5? uracil bias is attributed to both pre-loading and loading processes. We also demonstrate that scnRNAs have a strong bias for adenine at the third base from the 3? terminus, suggesting that most scnRNAs are direct Dicer products. Furthermore, we show that the thermodynamic asymmetry of the scnRNA duplex does not affect the guide and passenger strand decision. Finally, we show that scnRNAs frequently have templated uracil at the last base without a strong bias for adenine at the second base indicating non-sequential production of scnRNAs from substrates. These findings provide a biochemical basis for the varying attributes of scnRNAs, which should help improve our understanding of the production and turnover of scnRNAs in vivo.

  17. Targets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesis of 2D AlloysTrails TakingRTape Mounts Last

  18. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (Magnetized Target Fusion)( g g )

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , 2011 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA Slide 1 for the DOE/NNSA Slide 2 Some MIF-IFE reactor considerations #12;A Wide Range of Driver/Target Combinations for the DOE/NNSA S. A. Slutz, et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010) A. G. Lynn, et al, Rev. Sci. Instr. 81

  19. A Monte Carlo Analysis of Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Process Load Cell Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garner, James R [ORNL; Whitaker, J Michael [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As uranium enrichment plants increase in number, capacity, and types of separative technology deployed (e.g., gas centrifuge, laser, etc.), more automated safeguards measures are needed to enable the IAEA to maintain safeguards effectiveness in a fiscally constrained environment. Monitoring load cell data can significantly increase the IAEA s ability to efficiently achieve the fundamental safeguards objective of confirming operations as declared (i.e., no undeclared activities), but care must be taken to fully protect the operator s proprietary and classified information related to operations. Staff at ORNL, LANL, JRC/ISPRA, and University of Glasgow are investigating monitoring the process load cells at feed and withdrawal (F/W) stations to improve international safeguards at enrichment plants. A key question that must be resolved is what is the necessary frequency of recording data from the process F/W stations? Several studies have analyzed data collected at a fixed frequency. This paper contributes to load cell process monitoring research by presenting an analysis of Monte Carlo simulations to determine the expected errors caused by low frequency sampling and its impact on material balance calculations.

  20. Load follow-up control of a pressurized water reactor power plant by using an approximate noninteractive control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsuji, M.; Ogawa, Y.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present paper describes an attempt to apply an approximate noninteractive control to the load-following operation of the nuclear steam supply (NSS) system of a pressurized water reactor power plant. A control strategy is proposed for maximizing the unique merit of the noninteractive control in advancing the operational performance of the NSS system. An noninteractive load follow-up control system is designed based on the idea of approximate model-following. The authors make the design method more flexible and widely applicable to more general control problems by introducing some modifications. Digital simulations and graphical studies based on the Bode-diagram demonstrate the effectiveness of the noninteractive load follow-up control as well as the applicability of the proposed design method.

  1. A Concept for a Low Pressure Noble Gas Fill Intervention in the IFE Fusion Test Facility (FTF) Target Chamber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Gentile, W.R. Blanchard, T.A. Kozub, M. Aristova, C. McGahan, S. Natta, K. Pagdon, J. Zelenty

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An engineering evaluation has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering methods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber. The employment of a low pressure noble gas in the target chamber to thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall could dramatically increase the useful life of the first wall in the FTF reactor1. For the purpose of providing flexibility, two target chamber configurations are addressed: a five meter radius sphere and a ten meter radius sphere. Experimental studies at Nike have indicated that a low pressure, ambient gas resident in the target chamber during laser pulsing does not appear to impair the ability of laser light from illuminating targets2. In addition, current investigations into delivering, maintaining, and processing low pressure gas appear to be viable with slight modification to current pumping and plasma exhaust processing technologies3,4. Employment of a gas fill solution for protecting the dry wall target chamber in the FTF may reduce, or possibly eliminate the need for other attenuating technologies designed for keeping He ions from implanting in first wall structures and components. The gas fill concept appears to provide an effective means of extending the life of the first wall while employing mostly commercial off the shelf (COTS) technologies. Although a gas fill configuration may provide a methodology for attenuating damage inflicted on chamber surfaces, issues associated with target injection need to be further analyzed to ensure that the gas fill concept is viable in the integrated FTF design5. In the proposed system, the ambient noble gas is heated via the energetic helium ions produced by target detonation. The gas is subsequently cooled by the chamber wall to approximately 800oC, removed from the chamber, and processed by the chamber gas processing system (CGPS). In an optimized scenario of the above stated concept, the chamber wall acts as the primary heat exchanger. During removal, gas is pumped through the laser ports by turbo molecular-drag pumps (TM-DP). For the purpose of reducing organic based lubricants and seals, a magnetically levitated TM-DP is being investigated with pump manufacturers. Currently, magnetically levitated turbo molecular pumps are commercially available. The pumps will be exposed to thermal loads and ionizing radiation (tritium, Ar-41, post detonation neutrons). Although the TM-DP's will be subjected to these various radiations, current designs for similar pumping devices have been hardened and have the ability of locating control electronics in remote radiation shielded enclosures4. The radiation hardened TM-DP's will be 5 required to operate with minimal maintenance for periods of up to 18 continuous months. As part of this initial investigation for developing a conceptual engineering strategy for a gas fill solution, commercial suppliers of low pressure gas pumping systems have been contacted and engaged in this evaluation. Current technology in the area of mechanical pumping systems indicates that the development of a robust pumping system to meet the requirements of the FTF gas fill concept is within the limits of COTS equipment3,4.

  2. Deterministic Josephson Vortex Ratchet with a load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Knufinke; K. Ilin; M. Siegel; D. Koelle; R. Kleiner; E. Goldobin

    2011-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate experimentally a deterministic underdamped Josephson vortex ratchet -- a fluxon-particle moving along a Josephson junction in an asymmetric periodic potential. By applying a sinusoidal driving current one can compel the vortex to move in a certain direction, producing average dc voltage across the junction. Being in such a rectification regime we also load the ratchet, i.e., apply an additional dc bias current I_dc (counterforce) which tilts the potential so that the fluxon climbs uphill due to the ratchet effect. The value of the bias current at which the fluxon stops climbing up defines the strength of the ratchet effect and is determined experimentally. This allows us to estimate the loading capability of the ratchet, the output power and efficiency. For the quasi-static regime we present a simple model which delivers simple analytic expressions for the above mentioned figures of merit.

  3. Target diagnostic system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeper, R.J.; Chandler, G.A.; Cooper, G.W.; Derzon, M.S. [and others

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review of recent progress on the design of a diagnostic system proposed for ignition target experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be presented. This diagnostic package contains an extensive suite of optical, x-ray, gamma-ray, and neutron diagnostics that enable measurements of the performance of both direct and indirect driven NIF targets. The philosophy used in designing all of the diagnostics in the set has emphasized redundant and independent measurement of fundamental physical quantities relevant to the operation of the NIF target. A unique feature of these diagnostics is that they are being designed to be capable of operating, in the high radiation, EMP, and debris backgrounds expected on the NIF facility. The diagnostic system proposed can be categorized into three broad areas: laser characterization, hohlraum characterization, and capsule performance diagnostics. The operating principles of a representative instrument from each class of diagnostic employed in this package will be summarized and illustrated with data obtained in recent prototype diagnostic tests.

  4. Evaluating Utility System Operations Using APLUS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pethe, S.; Singh, R.

    cost analysis in APLUS was used to identify the high cost areas in operating the steam system. This analysis highlighted that the cost of power from the 200 psig steam driven back pressure turbine was a prohibitive $270/MWh. The 600 psig boiler... and extraction turbine were found to be large enough to meet all the steam and power requirements of the plant. This required that a new 600 HP motor be bought to drive the paper machine currently driven by the back pressure turbine. Shifting the load...

  5. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BOWEN, W.W.

    1999-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This document reflects the 1 Oct 1999 baseline.

  6. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  7. Composition containing aerogel substrate loaded with tritium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashley, Carol S. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Ellefson, Robert E. (Centerville, OH); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Reed, Scott (Albuquerque, NM); Walko, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a process for loading an aerogel substrate with tritium and the resultant compositions. According to the process, an aerogel substrate is hydrolyzed so that surface OH groups are formed. The hydrolyzed aerogel is then subjected to tritium exchange employing, for example, a tritium-containing gas, whereby tritium atoms replace H atoms of surface OH groups. OH and/or CH groups of residual alcohol present in the aerogel may also undergo tritium exchange.

  8. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and resource recovery. Anaerobic digestion of manure has re- ceived much attention as a method to reduce the pollution threat to the environment while reclaiming energy in the form of methane gas from the biomass. Currently there is one commercial anaerobic... production than the conventional process used in most studies to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate a batch load digestion process for methane production from dairy manure to determine the optimum influent total solids concentration...

  9. Sharif-Abadi and Joseph 1 Soft ground reaction to cyclic loading by large mobile mining equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Tim Grain

    opt for large mobile mining equipment. In the oil sand, loading and hauling of material results, truck and shovels operating on soft-ground will become less stable. Trucks in summer are frequently payloads the cycled ground after only a few passing trucks is unable to support the weight of the truck

  10. 1634 IEEE ANTENNAS AND WIRELESS PROPAGATION LETTERS, VOL. 12, 2013 A Compact Dual-Band Rectenna Using Slot-Loaded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    , dual-band rectenna, dual-band rectifier, energy harvesting, wireless power transmission. I bands, RF energy harvesters capable of operating in multiple bands are of great importance. Nowadays by a microwave signal of available power of 9 dBm for a load resistor of 2.2 k . Index Terms--Dipole antenna

  11. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  12. Storage Ring Operation Modes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Longitudinal bunch profile and Up: APS Storage Ring Parameters Previous: Source Parameter Table Storage Ring Operation Modes Standard Operating Mode, top-up Fill pattern: 102 mA in...

  13. Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Emily V.

    -1123 Laboratory FAX (916) 752-4107 Standard Operating Procedures Technical Information Document TI 201A #12;TI 201.................................................................................................................................................. 3 1.0 Weekly Maintenance ProceduresIMPROVE Aerosol Sampler Operations Manual February 10, 1997 Air Quality Group Crocker Nuclear

  14. Climate Data Operators (CDO)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climate Data Operators (CDO) Climate Data Operators (CDO) Description and Overview CDO is a large tool set for working on climate data. NetCDF 34, GRIB including SZIP compression,...

  15. Reservoir Operation in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurbs, Ralph A.

    management of the surface water resources of the various river basins of the state. The operation of these essential water control facilities is examined in this report. Reservoir operation is viewed here from the perspective of deciding how much water...

  16. Load Management and Houston Lighting and Power Co.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drawe, R. G.; Ramsay, I. M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Defining Load Management as influencing of customer loads in order to shift the time use of electric power and energy, encompasses a broad spectrum of activities at Houston Lighting & Power Company. This paper describes those activities by directing...

  17. Structural loading of cross deck connections for trimaran vessels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhoads, Jason L

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work investigates the fundamental relationships of wave loading on cross deck structures for trimaran vessels. In contrast with a monohull ship, trimaran vessels experience several possible structural loading cases ...

  18. Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

  19. acute cholesterol loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  20. acute sodium loading: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  1. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiant heat transfer for cooling load calculation.heat gain is well recognized by cooling load calculationload calculation approach for radiant systems, Corgnati [17] also tackled the direct radiant heat

  2. assessing critical loads: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  3. aerodynamic loads estimated: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of sector 78 1. The estimate of the helium inventory, a prerequisite for the heat load calculation, is also presented. Heat loads to the cold mass are evaluated from the...

  4. SWPF Crane Lift Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple vview shot of the SWPF crane lift operation at the Savannah River Site. Funded by the Recovery Act.

  5. Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

  6. NPP operation and maintenance with French-built NPPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mira, J.J.; Charbonneau, S.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In France, 80% of the electricity production will be nuclear in 1990. More than to-day, PWR units will be operated by Electricite de France on a load-follow basis. Every effort is made to reduce planned and forced outages. Maintenance is shared between EdF and Framatome, the latter being in charge of high technology operations. All these actions are eased by the standardization of units, within each power class, the resulting build-up of experience being available to all PWR operators in the world, more particularly those of Framatome-built units.

  7. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  8. Improved Load Plan Design Through Integer Programming Based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The load plan determines which shipments are packed together into the ...... More importantly, however, from an implementation perspective, this profile.

  9. JLF Conduct of Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    security for users and staff. The Target Areas contain a variety of potentially hazardous ultra-violet, visible and infrared lasers. Due to the complexity and scale of the laser...

  10. Load Schedule Coordination for a Large Linear Accelerator: An Operation Powerplay Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, W. H.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Jwan: 1110.'20 11111.20 161.00 166.00 ]21.20 ]12.20 -"" HW 16.70 21.10 21.70 11.10 17.70Honthly !tall:. 21.10 Iionthly lUn. >IV 26.70 27.70 26.70 21.50 2&.70 li.\\O tllll'ay ow 66.)0 ~.20 111.)] 94.50 \\11.60 In./A ",,,,,,,'1..: li'J-!'to !1.60 H.1'lu... 87.110 78.90 17),29 U~.90 i'lOnthlyl1azH\\l 14.60 1.... 80 11?? 60 IILIO 14.64 18. !'lOnthly Hln. HW Lt..60 2. ,0 1t..60 6.10 14.t.O 2.iO I./AJ'JI PUk1ng: MONTH HW-Mo 101.40 93.90 90.00 81.10 L91.':'0 L1).OO t1onthlyH.llll. HW 17.90 23.60 1...

  11. Operational Impacts of Responsive Electricity Loads: A Modeling Framework Including Policy Implications for Cyprus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruchon, Matthew Bremer

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet EU mandates, the island nation of Cyprus must raise penetration of renewable energy from roughly 5% in 2013 to 16% in 2020. This means Cyprus will need economical ways of balancing intermittency, a special ...

  12. Report on Peak Load Mechanisms A background report prepared by the Nordel Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /OPG in the Nordel project Enhancing efficient functioning of the Nordic electricity market 23 February 2005 #12 3.2.4 Evolution of demand response and price sensitive consumption................... 11 3 4.1 EXISTING PRICE SETTING FOR ELSPOT POWER

  13. Global performance analysis of floating harbor and container ship for loading and offloading operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Sung Ho

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The feasibility and general performance of a floating harbor system is studied with regard to the relative motion of a floating quay and a container ship. A 350[m] 160[m] box-type barge is selected as the floating harbor and it is positioned by a...

  14. Dynamic analysis of floating quay and container ship for container loading and offloading operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Brajesh

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ................................................................................................vii LIST OF FIGURES??????????????????????????viii LIST OF TABLES??????????????????????????..xiii 1. INTRODUCTION.........................................................................................................1 1.1 Floating Mobile Quay Wall... System??........................................................1 1.2 Data for Research and Layout of the Interacting Bodies ...............................4 1.3 Objective...

  15. Top 100 Operators: Proved Reserves and Production, Operated vs...

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Top 100 Operators: Proved Reserves and Production, Operated vs Owned, 2009 1 Top 100 Operators: Proved Reserves and Production, Operated vs Owned, 2009 The operator of an oil or...

  16. Chaining direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J. (Rochester, MN); Blocksome, Michael A. (Rochester, MN)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for chaining DMA data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA engine on an origin node in an origin injection FIFO buffer for the origin DMA engine, a RGET data descriptor specifying a DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node and a second RGET data descriptor on the origin node, the second RGET data descriptor specifying a target RGET data descriptor on the target node, the target RGET data descriptor specifying an additional DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node; creating, by the origin DMA engine, an RGET packet in dependence upon the RGET data descriptor, the RGET packet containing the DMA transfer operation data descriptor and the second RGET data descriptor; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine to a target DMA engine on the target node, the RGET packet.

  17. Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time-Series Application of the Super Electric Energy System #12;Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time-Series Application of the SuperOPF." (PSERC

  18. AIAA980057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    AIAA­98­0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH MULTIPLE that is most useful in estimating fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. The histograms of rainflow counted turbulence measures---can be used to estimate fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. We first de­ scribe

  19. Load Alleviation on Wind Turbine Blades using Variable Airfoil Geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Load Alleviation on Wind Turbine Blades using Variable Airfoil Geometry Peter Bjrn Andersen, Mac Loads, Trailing Edge Flaps, PID control, Signal Noise. 1 Introduction Wind turbine blades are subject to 40% when signal noise is added to the control. Keywords: Wind Turbine, Load Alleviation, Fatigue

  20. Guide to Dowel LoadTransfer Systems for Jointed Concrete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guide to Dowel LoadTransfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements TECH BRIEF SEPTEMBER 2011 #12;#12;GUIDE TO DOWEL LOAD TRANSFER SYSTEMS FOR JOINTED CONCRETE ROADWAY PAVEMENTS i Technical and Subtitle Guide to Dowel Load Transfer Systems for Jointed Concrete Roadway Pavements 5. Report Date