National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tar sands gilsonite

  1. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  2. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  3. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  4. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  5. Nigeria to step up tar sands activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Nigerian government has directed its Ministry of Mines, Power and Steel to assume responsibility for the exploration and exploitation of tar sands deposits in Bendel, Ondo and Oyo States. The directive resulted from a survey report by the University of Ife's geological consultancy unit on bituminous sand deposits in the area. The statement said the government was satisfied that there were large commercial quantities of the sands in the three states. The survey had reported that Nigeria could recover between 31 and 40 billion barrels of heavy crude from the tar sand deposits. Exploration for hydrocarbons is currently going on in Anambra and Lake Chad basins as well as the Benue Trough. Apart from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Shell Petroleum and Gulf Oil have begun exploration activities in the Ondo area. Meanwhile, Nigeria has had to import heavy crude from Venezuela, for processing at the Kaduna refinery.

  6. Tar Sands | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'SHeavyAgencyTendo New Energy EquipmentSvendborg BrakesOTags HomeTar

  7. Aspects of tar sands development in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adewusi, V.A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (NG))

    1992-07-01

    Development of Nigerian massive reserves of crude bitumen and associated heavy oil is imminent in view of the impacts that the huge importation of these materials and their products have on the nation's economy, coupled with the depleting reserves of Nigeria and highlights the appropriate production technology options and their environmental implications. The utilization potentials of these resources are also enumerated, as well as the government's role in achieving accelerated, long-term tar sands development in the country.

  8. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stauffer, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

  10. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX) [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  11. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Colmenares, Tulio Rafael (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX); Marino, Marian (Houston, TX); Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria (Houston, TX); Ryan, Robert Charles (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Dombrowski, Robert James (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX)

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  12. Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon); see Intergovernmental Panel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    was 28% of global oil use for the cumulative amounts over the past 200 years. So Alberta tar sands would lead eventually to ways of cooking the oil out of most of the tar sands. Moreover, these numbersGrandparents Oppose Tar Sands Alberta tar sands are estimated to be 240 GtC (gigatons of carbon

  13. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

    1989-01-01

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

  14. Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

    1988-05-04

    A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  16. Heavy liquid beneficiation developed for Alabama tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The tar sand deposits in the State of Alabama contain about 1.8 billion barrels of measured and more than 4 billion barrels of speculative in-place bitumen. A comprehensive research program is in progress for the separation of bitumen from these deposits. In general, Alabama tar sands are oil wetted, low grade and highly viscous in nature. In view of these facts, a beneficiation strategy has been developed to recover bitumen enriched concentrate which can be used as a feed material for further processing. Heavy liquid separation tests and results are discussed. A 77% zinc bromide solution, specific gravity of 2.4, was used for the tests. 2 figures.

  17. In situ recovery of oil from Utah tar sand: a summary of tar sand research at the Laramie Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchant, L.C.; Westhoff, J.D.

    1985-10-01

    This report describes work done by the United States Department of Energy's Laramie Energy Technology Center from 1971 through 1982 to develop technology for future recovery of oil from US tar sands. Work was concentrated on major US tar sand deposits that are found in Utah. Major objectives of the program were as follows: determine the feasibility of in situ recovery methods applied to tar sand deposits; and establish a system for classifying tar sand deposits relative to those characteristics that would affect the design and operation of various in situ recovery processes. Contents of this report include: (1) characterization of Utah tar sand; (2) laboratory extraction studies relative to Utah tar sand in situ methods; (3) geological site evaluation; (4) environmental assessments and water availability; (5) reverse combustion field experiment, TS-1C; (6) a reverse combustion followed by forward combustion field experiment, TS-2C; (7) tar sand permeability enhancement studies; (8) two-well steam injection experiment; (9) in situ steam-flood experiment, TS-1S; (10) design of a tar sand field experiment for air-stream co-injection, TS-4; (11) wastewater treatment and oil analyses; (12) economic evaluation of an in situ tar sand recovery process; and (13) appendix I (extraction studies involving Utah tar sands, surface methods). 70 figs., 68 tabs.

  18. Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-02-26

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

  19. Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2009-07-21

    A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

  20. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

  1. Request received (from Norway, regarding e-mail titled "Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands"): Thanks. I have seen them in the news here in Norway as well about the Tar Sands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Request received (from Norway, regarding e-mail titled "Grandparents Oppose Tar Sands"): Thanks. I have seen them in the news here in Norway as well about the Tar Sands. Question: When you send us by Anne Dalberg, chair of the Sami Church Council. Norway's First Nation - the Sami - showing solidarity

  2. In situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation after drive process treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Stanecki, John (Blanco, TX)

    2010-09-21

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing a drive fluid to a hydrocarbon containing layer of the tar sands formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the layer. At least some first hydrocarbons from the layer are produced. Heat is provided to the layer from one or more heaters located in the formation. At least some second hydrocarbons are produced from the layer of the formation. The second hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons that are upgraded compared to the first hydrocarbons produced by using the drive fluid.

  3. Norway, Canada, the United States, and the Tar Sands James Hansen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    Norway, Canada, the United States, and the Tar Sands 9 May 2013 James Hansen Today 36 Norwegian development, given the fact that Norway saves much of its oil earnings for future generations and given the fact that Norway is not likely among the nations that will suffer most from climate change. I wonder

  4. Method of producing drive fluid in situ in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju (Houston, TX); Jaiswal, Namit (Houston, TX); Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-23

    Methods of treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. The heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation such that a drive fluid is produced in situ in the formation. The drive fluid may move at least some mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons from a first portion of the formation to a second portion of the formation. At least some of the mobilized, visbroken, and/or pyrolyzed hydrocarbons may be produced from the formation.

  5. Third international conference on heavy crude and tar sands. Part II. Highlights on cooperations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-08-28

    Oversupplies of conventional light petroleum worldwide have all but eclipsed the importance of heavy crude and tar sands where near-term market prospects are concerned. However, ongoing investments in productivity of heavy oil projects, from high-tech California to underdeveloped Guatemala, will hopefully continue at a pace that will assure uninterrupted advances. This issue continues ED's coverage of the Third International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands. A graph shows the results of Guatemala's efforts to attract foreign investment in its crude oil production. This issue also contains: (1) the refining netback data for the US Gulf and West Coast, Singapore, and Rotterdam as of Aug. 27, 1985; and (2) the fuel price/tax series and the principal industrial fuel prices as of July 1985 for countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  6. Controlling and assessing pressure conditions during treatment of tar sands formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Etuan; Beer, Gary Lee

    2015-11-10

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the tar sands formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A pressure in the portion of the formation is controlled such that the pressure remains below a fracture pressure of the formation overburden while allowing the portion of the formation to heat to a selected average temperature of at least about 280.degree. C. and at most about 300.degree. C. The pressure in the portion of the formation is reduced to a selected pressure after the portion of the formation reaches the selected average temperature.

  7. Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-11-01

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

  8. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  9. Method of condensing vaporized water in situ to treat tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chia-Fu (Rijswijk, NL)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. Heat may be allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a first portion of the formation. Conditions may be controlled in the formation so that water vaporized by the heaters in the first portion is selectively condensed in a second portion of the formation. At least some of the fluids may be produced from the formation.

  10. In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-11-30

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

  11. Varying properties of in situ heat treatment of a tar sands formation based on assessed viscosities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

    2014-03-04

    A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. A viscosity of one or more zones of the hydrocarbon layer is assessed. The heating rates in the zones are varied based on the assessed viscosities. The heating rate in a first zone of the formation is greater than the heating rate in a second zone of the formation if the viscosity in the first zone is greater than the viscosity in the second zone. Fluids are produced from the formation through the production wells.

  12. Moving hydrocarbons through portions of tar sands formations with a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Mudunuri, Ramesh Raju; Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Jaiswal, Namit; Mo, Weijian

    2010-05-18

    A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes heating a first portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the first portion. The heat is controlled to increase a fluid injectivity of the first portion. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid is injected and/or created in the first portion to cause at least some hydrocarbons to move from a second portion of the hydrocarbon layer to a third portion of the hydrocarbon layer. The second portion is between the first portion and the third portion. The first, second, and third portions are horizontally displaced from each other. The third portion is heated from one or more heaters located in the third portion. Hydrocarbons are produced from the third portion of the formation. The hydrocarbons include at least some hydrocarbons from the second portion of the formation.

  13. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  14. Investigation of sand consolidation using steam for the Tar Zone, Wilmington field, California 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Knut Arild

    1999-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to better understand and optimize the process of sand consolidation using high-pH steam in wells of the Wilmington field, California. The apparatus consisted of a vertical 18 in. long aluminum cylindrical cell...

  15. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  16. Glossary Glossary

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    and drip gas, as well as liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Excludes topped crude oil, residual oil, other unfinished oils, and liquids...

  17. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  18. Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, V.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

  19. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  20. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operationsand Lee, P. : Does the Alberta tar sands industry pollute?gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76

  1. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  2. Experimental investigation of sand consolidation using high-temperature alkaline solution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreno Romero, Fidel Enrique

    2000-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to better understand the sand consolidation process under high-temperature alkaline solution. Wilmington Tar sand samples were successfully consolidated in the laboratory using high-temperature (250-260?C...

  3. Centrifuge treatment of coal tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov

    2009-07-15

    New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

  4. SLOW SAND FILTRATIONSLOW SAND FILTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SLOW SAND FILTRATIONSLOW SAND FILTRATION:: Timeless Technology and Recent AdvancesBiological Filtration Systems ­­ Riverbank FiltrationRiverbank Filtration ­­ Slow Sand FiltrationSlow Sand Filtration #12;Slow Sand Filtration (SSF)Slow Sand Filtration (SSF) Headspace Supernatant Water Schmutzdecke Raw

  5. Air quality over the Canadian oil sands: A first assessment using satellite observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boersma, Folkert

    -measurement trends and increases in annual bitumen production. An increase in SO2 was also found, but given larger. 1. Introduction [2] Vast deposits of bitumen­oil mixed with sand, clay, and water generally referred to as "oil sands" (or "tar sands")­ are located in the Canadian province of Alberta (see Figure 1a). The oil

  6. GJO-2000-183-TAR

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1.Reports1E~ S·D3 2,000 4,000DOEK83-TAR

  7. Sand Castle 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holden, E.

    1997-01-01

    s excavated at 20 meter intervals. At shovel test 6, a single burned chert flake was found at 10 cm in loamy sand. The test was dug to 70 cm, and no additional artifacts were found. Next, additional tests (8 and 9) were dug to the west at 10 meter... northern end of this area with shovel tests excavated at 20 mete r intervals near the shore and forty meter intervals at the northern end. At shovel test 61, a Yarbrough dart point was found at 35 cm in loamy sand. The test was dug to 70 cm...

  8. SAND REPORT SAND2004-2871

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    SAND REPORT SAND2004-2871 Unlimited Release August 19, 2004 A Mathematical Framework for Multiscale://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm #12;SAND2004-2871 Unlimited Release Printed August 19, 2004 A Mathematical Framework for Multiscale

  9. SAND REPORT SAND2006-0002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    SAND REPORT SAND2006-0002 Unlimited Release Printed March 2006 Computer Science Research Institute;Page 3 SAND2006-0002 Unlimited Release Printed March 2006 Computer Science Research Institute 2004

  10. SAND REPORT SAND2003-0799

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-0799 Unlimited Release Printed March 2003 Field Demonstrations://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2003-0799 Unlimited Release Printed March 2003 Field Demonstrations

  11. SAND REPORT SAND2003-3410

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-3410 Unlimited Release Printed September 2003 Chemiresistor Microsensors://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online 2 #12;SAND2003-3410 Unlimited Release Printed September 2003 Chemiresistor Microsensors

  12. SAND REPORT SAND2004-1777

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Homer F.

    SAND REPORT SAND2004-1777 Unlimited Release Printed May 2004 Globalization techniques for Newton RTMENT OF EN ERGY · · UNITED STATES OF AM ERICA #12;SAND2004-1777 Unlimited Release Printed May 2004

  13. Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S.

    2009-11-15

    The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

  14. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  15. SAND REPORT SAND2003-1428

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SAND REPORT SAND2003-1428 Unlimited Release Printed May 2003 Cost Study for Large Wind Turbine://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm #12;SAND2003-1428 Unlimited Release Printed May 2003 Cost Study for Large Wind Turbine Blades Wind Blades: WindPACT Blade System Design Studies TPI Composites, Inc. 373 Market Street Warren, RI 02885

  16. SAND REPORT SAND2002-4135

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SAND REPORT SAND2002-4135 Unlimited Release Printed December 2002 FY02 Field Evaluations of an In://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2002-4135 Unlimited Release Printed December 2002 FY02 Field Evaluations

  17. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  18. Wet Sand flows better than dry sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jorge E. Fiscina; Christian Wagner

    2007-11-19

    We investigated the yield stress and the apparent viscosity of sand with and without small amounts of liquid. By pushing the sand through a tube with an enforced Poiseuille like profile we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We find that the system starts to flow when a critical shear of the order of one particle diameter is exceeded. In contrast to common believe, we observe that the resistance against the flow of wet sand is much smaller than that of dry sand. For the dissipative flow we propose a non-equilibrium state equation for granular fluids.

  19. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND927005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND92­7005 Unlimited Release UC­261 Fatigue of Fiberglass Wind Turbine Blade . #12;Distribution CategoryUC-261 SAND92-7005 UnlimitedRelease PrintedAugust 1992 FATIGUE OF FIBERGLASS

  20. ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hanks, Lawrence M.

    ACULEATA HYMENOPTERA OF SAND MOUNTAIN AND BLOW SAND MOUNTAINS, NEVADA R. W. Rust1, L. !\\1. Hanks collected from Sand !\\1ountain and Blow Sand Mountains, Nevada. Four species are considered new to science and none are considered endemic to ei ther dune area. Sand Mountain and Blow Sand Mountains were visited 19

  1. Sand Simulation Abhinav Golas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Ming C.

    Sand Simulation Abhinav Golas COMP 768 - Physically Based Simulation Final Project Presentation May (Wikipedia) Size variation from 1m to icebergs Food grains, sand, coal etc. Powders ­ can be suspended 6, 2009 9 0I #12;Understanding the behavior Why can sand sustain shear stress? Friction between

  2. Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1984-07-01

    This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

  3. The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    companies, (3) climate disruption costs not paid c. Only workable solution: rising across-the-board flat fee on carbon, collected from fossil companies at point where fossil fuel enters domestic market (domestic mine/gallon of gasoline. The public will not allow this to happen unless 100% of the collected fee

  4. Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLE DIRECTIVES Pursuant to the contract clause entitled, "Laws,of

  5. Biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Research progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghoshal, S.; Ramaswami, A.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-02-07

    Biodegradation experiments were conducted to evaluate the mineralization of naphthalene released from coal tar entrapped in microporous silica media. Tests were performed with two coal tars recovered from former manufactured gas plant sites. Results from these tests showed that the degradation end point for naphthalene was significantly lower than the total amount of naphthalene present in coal tar. The role of physico-chemical and biological processes on the rate of biotransformation of naphthalene was evaluated. Mass transfer rates for dissolution of naphthalene from entrapped coal tar were measured in batch, flow-through systems. The rate of naphthalene mass transfer from the coal tar was found to be significantly greater than the rate of naphthalene biomineralization in batch slurry reactors. This implied that the rate acting factor for the biodegradation process was related to biokinetic phenomena rather than mass transfer processes. Further tests indicated that conditions inhibitory to bacteria limited the biodegradation of naphthalene, and in some cases the inhibition was reversible upon dilution of the reactor contents.

  6. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3. Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons pro- duced from oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is...

  7. untitled

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    3. Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is...

  8. Effect of ozonation on the composition of crude coal-tar benzene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semenova, S.A.; Patrakov, Y.F.

    2007-05-15

    The effect of ozonation on the composition of crude benzene produced by the coal-tar chemical industry was studied.

  9. HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 VOCsVOCs,, PAHsPAHs, soot, tar, CO, soot, tar, CO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of tar (from biomass gasificationbiomass gasification)) ·· COCO see: www.hut.fi/~see: www, TOCEmission standards: CO and THC, TOC Power plant Finland (1990+) MSW incinerator Finland (1994) MSW incinerator EU (2000) Power plant Germany (1999) MSW incinerator Germany (1999) Hazardou s waste incinerator

  10. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  11. SAND20096226 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plimpton, Steve

    SAND2009­6226 Unlimited Release Printed October 2009 Crossing the Mesoscale No-Man's Land via method and its variants are powerful tools for modeling materials at the mesoscale, meaning at length

  12. The Timeless Sands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finch, Sandra

    1986-01-01

    The petroleum engineering literature clearly shows that large proppant volumes and concentrations are required to effectively stimulate low-permeability gas sands. To pump large proppant concentrations, one must use a viscous fluid. However, many...

  13. White Sands Reservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    .S. Departments of Energy and the Interior for Use in preparation of their Programmatic Environmental Impact Sands National Monument New Mexico Lincoln National Forest Mescalero Apache Reservation 54 82 54 54 70 Cruces New Mexico Solar Energy Study Areas in New Mexico Map Prepared June 5, 2009 Property of the U

  14. Introduction Sand sole, Psettichthys melanostictus,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    67(4) 9 Introduction Sand sole, Psettichthys melanostictus, is a common nearshore pleuronectid flat- fish in the northeast Pacific Ocean.Also known as fringe sole, spotted flounder, or sand flounder catches (Kramer et al., 1995). Commercial landings of sand sole in California, Oregon, and Wash- ington

  15. MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjrn Qvale, Ulrik Henriksen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -tar, high-efficient biomass gasification concept for medium- to large-scale power plants has been designed that will lead to a breakthrough of gasification technology. Keywords: Biomass, Gasification, Tar, Steam drying Value DNA Dynamic Network Analysis INTRODUCTION In order to introduce biomass gasification technol- ogy

  16. Beach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luyendyk, Bruce

    quantification was used at Coal Oil Point (COP), California to study the mechanisms transporting oil/tar fromBeach tar accumulation, transport mechanisms, and sources of variability at Coal Oil Point, California Tonya S. Del Sontro a,*, Ira Leifer a , Bruce P. Luyendyk b , Bernardo R. Broitman c a Marine

  17. Moving sand dunes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  18. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1992-08-01

    The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

  19. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Bradley E.; Kabir, Md. E.; Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  20. Sand2004-1111

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall ReactorRaymondScientificScientific and TechnicalSAND

  1. Sand2004-6066

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail. (Conference) | SciTech ConnectDiagnosticsScientific andKentucky. SemiannualSAND

  2. Canadian Oil Sands: Canada An Emerging Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    , the expectations regarding oil sands productive capacity, the assumption that all land disturbed by Syncrude1 Canadian Oil Sands: Canada ­ An Emerging Energy Superpower 0 University of Alberta February 8 Oil Sands Limited ("Canadian Oil Sands"), Syncrude Canada Ltd. ("Syncrude") and the oil sands industry

  3. Heavy crude and tar sands: Hydrocarbons for the 21st century. Volume 1, Geology, characterization and mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, R.F. [ed.] [Geological Survey, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Volume 1 is concerned with the geology of the resources and with the mining of those occurring at or near the earth`s surface. The chemical characterization of natural bitumens and heavy oil is the subject of 15 papers. These concentrate on those properties which govern the exploitability and use of these hydrocarbons. Six reports deal with exploration for bitumens and certain aspects of their later development. No less than three of the papers investigate the trace metals and their possible role in comprehending the occurrence of the bitumens and, therefore, the clues they may offer for the location of additional deposits. Another eight reports are concerned directly with the geologic occurrence of specific resource accumulations. These deposits are found in Canada, China, Madagascar, Nigeria, and Venezuela. One report describes a model that may be applied in basin analysis for predicting the composition of heavy oils expelled from the sources rocks of the basin. Additional papers then characterize the resources found in Indonesia, Iran, and the USA. Volume 1 concludes with the reports on the many kinds of bitumen extraction and use. Not only are innovative techniques evolving for the extraction of the material but also for its economic enhancement through the exploitation of coproducts. Ten papers deal with bitumen mining and its present, or prospective, utilization in places like the Mongolia Republic, the State of Utah in the USA, Trinidad in Latin America or Nigeria in Africa. Each paper has been processed separately for the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  4. Blackening Character, Imagining Race, and Mapping Morality: Tarring and Feathering in Nineteenth Century American Literature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trninic, Marina

    2013-08-05

    This study examines the ritual of tarring and feathering within specific American cultural contexts and literary works of the nineteenth-century to show how the discourse surrounding the actual and figurative practice ...

  5. NREL Patents a Catalyst that Removes Syngas Tar, Boosting the Economics of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01

    NREL has patented a catalyst that reforms tar into syngas, a breakthrough that can accelerate the process of getting biomass ready for fuel synthesis and use as a drop-in fuel.

  6. Application of multidimensional analytical transport models to coal-tar derivatives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sim, Youn

    1992-01-01

    APPLICATION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANALYTICAL TRANSPORT MODELS TO COAL-TAR DERIVATIVES A Thesis by YOUN SIM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1992 Major Subject: Geology APPLICATION OF MULTIDIMENSIONAL ANALYTICAL TRANSPORT MODELS TO COAL-TAR DERIVATIVES A Thesis by YOUN SIM Approved as to style and content by: Patrick A. Domenico (Chair of Committee) N man...

  7. Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

    2011-05-28

    Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

  8. Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    Animating Sand as a Fluid by Yongning Zhu B.Sc., Peking University, 2003 A THESIS SUBMITTED;Abstract My thesis presents a physics-based simulation method for animating sand. To allow for efficiently scaling up to large volumes of sand, we abstract away the individual grains and think of the sand

  9. Laboratory compaction of cohesionless sands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delphia, John Girard

    1998-01-01

    A total of 62 cohesiveness sands were tested to rographics. investigate the importance of the water content, grain size distribution, grading of the soil, particle shape, grain crushing during testing and laboratory compaction test method...

  10. Minimal Model for Sand Dunes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Kroy; Gerd Sauermann; Hans J. Herrmann

    2002-03-02

    We propose a minimal model for aeolian sand dunes. It combines an analytical description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The model provides a qualitative understanding of important features of real dunes, such as their longitudinal shape and aspect ratio, the formation of a slip face, the breaking of scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune size.

  11. Transforming the Oil Industry into the Energy Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    made from tar sands and conventional oil. Environmentalvery heavy oils fuel providers that and tar sands, also emit

  12. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin [LSGC - Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Science, Nancy (France)

    2006-10-01

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Catalyst specificities in high pressure hydroprocessing of pyrolysis and gasification tars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltes, E.J.; Lin, S.C.K.; Sheu, Y.H.E.

    1987-04-01

    Over a period of several years, the Department of Forest Science at Texas A and M University has been conducting studies in the hydroprocessing (catalytic high pressure hydrotreating or hydrodeoxygenation accompanied by hydrocracking) of pyrolytic tars produced in biomass pyrolysis and gasification. Upgrading through hydroprocessing results in good yields of volatile hydrocarbon and phenolic products. This paper compares the performance of twenty different catalysts selected for hydroprocessing of a pine pyrolysis oil, describes the use of noble metal catalysts with tars produced from nine different biomass feedstocks (oil from pine pyrolysis and the tars from pine wood chip, pine plywood trim, pecan shell, peanut shell, sugarcane bagasse, corncob, rice hull, and cottonseed hull gasification), and compares the use of several catalysts in a trickle bed reactor for kinetic studies of the hyroprocessing reaction.

  14. Seasonal sand level changes on southern california beaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, Marissa L.

    2009-01-01

    2.3 Sand level measurements . . . . . .2.4 Sand level changes . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Wave4.3.2 Sand level observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  15. Seasonal Sand Level Changes on Southern California Beaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yates, Marissa L

    2009-01-01

    2.3 Sand level measurements . . . . . .2.4 Sand level changes . . . . . . . . . . 2.5 Wave4.3.2 Sand level observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  16. Detailed kinetic study of anisole pyrolysis and oxidation to understand tar formation during biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    biomass combustion and gasification Milena Nowakowska, Olivier Herbinet, Anthony Dufour, Pierre. Methoxyphenols are one of the main precursors of PAH and soot in biomass combustion and gasification. Lignocellulosic biomass may be a promising feedstock through the gasification processes [1] and [2], but tar

  17. Numerical Simulation of Vortex Pyrolysis Reactors for Condensable Tar Production from Biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard S.

    Numerical Simulation of Vortex Pyrolysis Reactors for Condensable Tar Production from Biomass R. S is performed in order to evaluate the performance and optimal operating conditions of vortex pyrolysis reactors particle pyrolysis is coupled with a compressible Reynolds stress transport model for the turbulent reactor

  18. FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FIELD DESCRIPTION Water Oil/Tar Sediment Tissue STUDYNAME Study Name X X X X QCBATCH Laboratory than the MDL, however, peak height is greater than 3 times the noise level and ID criteria are met. FJ Alpha Analytical Found. Analyte detected at less than the MDL, however, peak height is greater than 3

  19. THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON OXIDATION KINETICS OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    -peak temperatures and activation energies above 500 şC and 100 kJ/mol, respectively, the tar is not expected-peak temperatures, higher apparent H/C ratio of fuel, and lower HTO activation energy. All these effects

  20. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Sand Filters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Sand filters are beds of granular material, or sand, drained from underneath so that pretreated wastewater can be treated, collected and distributed to a land application system. This publication explains the treatment, design, operation...

  1. SANDIA REPORT SAND872461 q UC60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    \\ .i SANDIA REPORT SAND87­2461 q UC­60 Unlimited Release Printed April 1988 Modal Testing Springfield, VA 22161 NTIS price codes Printed copy: A02 Microfiche copy AO1 u ., #12;SAND87 ­ 2461 Unlimited

  2. SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-1000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2012-1000 Unlimited Release Printed September 2012 Project Report: A Survey · · UNITED STATES OF AM ERICA 2 #12;SAND2012-1000 Unlimited Release Printed September 2012 Project Report

  3. SANDIA REPORT SAND930731 s UC706

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kansas, University of

    SANDIA REPORT SAND93­0731 s UC­706 Unlimited Release Printed March 1993 Spaceborne SAR Study: LDRD, VA 22161 NTIS price codes Printed copy A06 Microfiche copy AO1 #12;SAND93-0731 Unlimited Release

  4. SANDIA REPORT SAND2001-1642

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2001-1642 Unlimited Release Printed June 2001 LIST/BMI Turbines Instrumentation)605-6900 E-Mail: orders@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/ordering.htm #12;SAND2001

  5. SANDIA REPORT SAND2001-0643

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2001-0643 Unlimited Release Printed March 2001 Review of Chemical Sensors for In, VA 22161 NTIS price codes Printed copy: A03 Microfiche copy: A01 #12;iii SAND2001-0643 Unlimited

  6. SANDIA REPORT SAND89-1396

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND89-1396 · UC-905 Unlimited Release Printed September 1989 8232 codes Printed copy: A08 Microfiche copy: A01 #12;Distribution Category UC-905 SAND89-1396 Unlimited

  7. Compression and Creep of Venice Lagoon Sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanzeni, Alex

    A laboratory test program was conducted to evaluate the one-dimensional (1D) compression and creep properties of intact sand (and silty-sand) samples from a deep borehole at the Malamocco Inlet to the Venice Lagoon. The ...

  8. The Time of Sands: Quartz-rich Sand Deposits as a Renewable Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Nelson R.

    2006-01-01

    Sand: Glassmaking: Containers Flat, plate and window Specialty Fiberglass, unground Fiberglass, ground Foundry:

  9. Development of stresses in cohesionless poured sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudin, Philippe

    Development of stresses in cohesionless poured sand By M. E. Cates1 , J. P. Wittmer1 , J a conical sandpile, created by pouring sand from a point source onto a rough rigid support, shows) is required for systems with two-dimensional symmetry, such as a wedge of sand; for a three

  10. Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teschner, Matthias

    Animating Sand as a Fluid Yongning Zhu University of British Columbia Robert Bridson University of British Columbia Figure 1: The Stanford bunny is simulated as water and as sand. Abstract We present a physics-based simulation method for animating sand. To allow for efficiently scaling up to large volumes

  11. Quinoline and derivatives at a tar oil contaminated site: hydroxylated products as indicator for natural attenuation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anne-Kirsten Reineke; Thomas Goeen; Alfred Preiss; Juliane Hollender [RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany). Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine

    2007-08-01

    LC-MS-MS analysis of groundwater of a tar oil contaminated site (a former coal mine and coking plant in Castrop-Rauxel, Germany) showed the occurrence of the N-heterocycles quinoline and isoquinoline as well as their hydroxylated and hydrogenated metabolites. The concentrations of the hydroxylated compounds, 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, were significantly higher than those of the nonsubstituted parent compounds. Therefore, exclusive quantification of the parent compounds leads to an underestimation of the amount of N-heterocycles present in the groundwater. Microbial degradation experiments of quinoline and isoquinoline with aquifer material of the site as inocculum showed the formation of hydroxylated and hydrogenated products under sulfate-reducing conditions, the prevailing conditions in the field. However, since analyses of seven tar products showed that these compounds are also primary constituents, their detection in groundwater is found to be a nonsufficient indicator for the occurrence of biological natural attenuation processes. Instead, the ratio of hydroxylated to parent compound (R{sub metabolite}) is proposed as a useful indicator. We found that 65-83% of all groundwater samples showed R{sub metabolite} for 2(1H)-quinolinone, 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone, and 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-isoquinolinone, which was higher than the highest ratio found in tar products. With respect to the observed partition coefficient between tar oil and water of 3.5 for quinoline and isoquinoline and 0.3 for 2(1H)-quinolinone and 1(2H)-isoquinolinone, the ratio in groundwater would be approximately 10 times higher than the ratio in tar oil. When paying attention to these two parameters, 19-31% of groundwater samples exceed the highest tar oil ratio. This indicates that biological processes take place in the aquifer of the site and R{sub metabolite} is an applicable indicator for natural attenuation. 42 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Filamentous carbon catalytic deposition of coal-tar pitch fraction on corundum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martynkova, G.S.; Supova, M.

    2007-01-15

    Our work was focused on deposition of volatile hydrocarbons of carbonaceous precursor on corundum wafer, taking advantage of a metallic catalyst incorporated in precursor. Coal tar-pitch, namely a fraction soluble in toluene, served as precursor material for deposition of filamentous material. The toluene-soluble fraction of tar-pitch originally contained metallic particles of iron and nickel. During heat treatment up to 1000{sup o}C, metallic particles accompanied the volatile hydrocarbons conducive to forming a filamentous deposit. The deposit obtained demonstrates a semicrystalline material that has an irregular filamentous structure with an average filament diameter of 30 {mu}m. The presence of catalysts after the deposition process was proved in the deposit but catalysts were not found in the residuum.

  13. Relationship of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yield of cigarettes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Sherrill, D.L.; Paoletti, P.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometric indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.

  14. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Energy Board (2004). Canada's oil sands: opportunities andheavy oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomassproduction), extra heavy oil, tar sands, and even natural

  15. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Energy Board (2004). Canada's oil sands: opportunities andheavy oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomassproduction), extra heavy oil, tar sands, and even natural

  16. Oil sands processes-affected water treatment Research field: Oil sands processes-affected water treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    Oil sands processes-affected water treatment Research field: Oil sands processes-affected water., to make the system work as desired. We have experimental projects on oil extraction, polymers, fluid

  17. Environmental Information Sources: Websites and Books

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrode, Flora

    2009-01-01

    about tar sands, or oil sands, which are "a combination ofa heavy black viscous oil. Tar sands can be mined andthen refined into oil." Discusses tar sands locations, the

  18. technology offer SandTES -High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szmolyan, Peter

    technology offer SandTES - High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage key words: High Temperature Energy Storage | Fluidized Bed | Sand | The invention consists of a fluidized bed with internal heat together with Dr. Eisl of ENRAG GmbH. Background Thermal energy storage (TES) systems are essential

  19. Dating of Sand Dunes Using Cosmogenic Chlorine-36: An Example From the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zreda, Marek

    Dating of Sand Dunes Using Cosmogenic Chlorine-36: An Example From the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA Stephen Moysey, Marek Zreda and Jim Goeke The large-scale mobility of sand dunes in continental dune of the history of a dune field can therefore, provide a proxy climate record derived from the continental plains

  20. Numerical and analytical modeling of sanding onset prediction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Xianjie

    2004-09-30

    To provide technical support for sand control decision-making, it is necessary to predict the production condition at which sand production occurs. Sanding onset prediction involves simulating the stress state on the surface of an oil/gas producing...

  1. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methane hydrate-bearing sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis, George J.

    2006-01-01

    through methane hydrate-bearing sand. X-ray CT was usedin partially saturated sand, 229th ACS National Meeting, SanOF METHANE HYDRATE- BEARING SAND Yongkoo Seol, Timothy J.

  2. EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    m #12;#12;EFFECTS of OIL MIXED with CARBONIZED SAND on AQUATIC ANIMALS Marine Biological l Albert M. Day, Director Special Scientific Report - Fisheries No. 1 EFFECTS OF OIL MIXED WITH CARBONIZED CONTENT Pago Preface Introduction 1 Injury to aquatic life caused by oil. 2 Amount of carbonized sand

  3. SANDIA REPORT SAND 2004-0001

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND 2004-0001 Unlimited Release Printed January 2004 Estimation Of Fatigue@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;SAND 2004-0001 Unlimited Release Printed January 2004 ESTIMATION OF FATIGUE AND EXTREME LOAD DISTRIBUTIONS FROM LIMITED DATA

  4. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-5131

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-5131 Unlimited Release July 2013 DOE/EPRI 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook. #12;DOE/EPRI 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA Issued by Sandia National/EPRI 2013 Electricity Storage Handbook in Collaboration with NRECA SAND2013-5131 Unlimited Release July 2013

  5. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-1185

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Systems, Inc. to develop and test a novel photovoltaic (PV) arc- fault detection system. The systemSANDIA REPORT SAND2013-1185 Unlimited Release Printed February 2013 Preliminary Photovoltaic Arc://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2013-1185 Unlimited Release Printed February 2013 Preliminary Photovoltaic

  6. SAND80-2646 UnlimitedRelease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SAND80-2646 UnlimitedRelease UC-60 Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Drive Train Transient Dynamics David #12;SAND80-2646 Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Drive Train Transient Dynamics* David B. Clauss Thomas G-up of a vertical axis wind turbine causes transient torque oscillations in the drive train with peak torques which

  7. SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-0336

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2005-0336 Unlimited Release Printed Month/Year FY04 Field Evaluations of an In@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online 2 #12;SAND2005-0336 Unlimited

  8. SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-4596

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ho, Cliff

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2004-4596 Unlimited Release Printed September 2004 Sensors for Environmental@ntis.fedworld.gov Online order: http://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online 2 #12;SAND2004-4596 Unlimited

  9. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-2789

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-2789 Printed April 2013 New Wholesale Power Market Design Using Linked://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online DEPA RTMENT OF EN ERGY · · UNITED STATES OF AM ERICA 2 #12;SAND2013-2789 Unlimited

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND2002-0771

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2002-0771 Unlimited Release Printed March 2002 FATIGUE OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS;SAND2002-0771 Unlimited Release Printed March2002 Fatigue of Composite Materials and Substructures Materials Fatigue Program from 1997to 2001, andis intendedto be usedin conjunction with theDOEMSU Composite

  11. Carcinogenic effects in A/J mice of particulate of a coal-tar paint used in potable water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, M.; Laurie, R.D.; Bull, R.J.; Stober, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Coal-tar paints are among the products used as inside coatings for water pipes and storage tanks to retard corrosion in potable water-supply systems. Four different formulations of these paints were tested in earlier work by this laboratory in the Ames mutagenesis and the mouse skin carcinogenesis bioassays(6). The paint most active in these assays was then tested in a particulate form in the lung adenoma assay with A/J mice. The paint was applied to clean glass plates, cured, collected and homogenized in 2% Emulphor. Doses of this coal-tar suspension were administered by gavage at 1.0, 10.0, and 55.0 mg in 0.2 ml per mouse 3 x weekly for 8 weeks. The total doses of coal-tar paint were 24, 240, and 1320 mg/mouse. Benzo(a)pyrene, administered in a parallel schedule to a total dose of 6 mg/mouse, served as positive control. A negative control group received an equivalent volume of 2% Emulphor. Animals were sacrificed at 9 months of age (8 months after first dose) and lung adenomas counted. A dose-related response, in the average number of lung tumors per mouse, was observed with the coal-tar particulate. There were also squamous-cell tumors of the forestomach in 42% of the mice receiving 55.0 mg coal tar paint per application.

  12. Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

  13. Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  14. A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire/sand interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    A finite element analysis of pneumatic-tire/sand interactions during off-road vehicle travel M pneumatic tire and sand during off-road vehicle travel. Keywords Finite element analysis, Road vehicles and for other tire/sand combinations. Since the finite element analysis of the tire/sand interaction enables

  15. Generation of sand bars under surface waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hancock, Matthew James, 1975-

    2005-01-01

    (cont.) Experiments were performed in a large wave flume to validate the theory and to study additional aspects of sand bar evolution. The wave envelope and bar profile were recorded for low and high beach reflection, ...

  16. New method for sand control and well stimulation in unconsolidated dirty sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aslesen, K.S.; Short, C.J.; Terwilliger, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique, the Solder Glass sand consolidation well completion method, has been developed which allows unlimited drawdown and improves productivity in wells completed in unconsolidated formations containing shales and clays. This technique eliminates the problems of sand production and fines migration by artificially consolidating a volume of reservoir sand near the wellbore. The consolidation is resistant to high temperature, chemical attack, and degradation resulting from high velocity fluid flow. Additionally, porosity and permeability in the consolidated volume of reservoir sand are improved as a result of irreversible dehydration of clays. 12 refs.

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-19432

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generationSANDIA REPORT SAND2014-19432 Unlimited Release Printed November 2014 Solar PV O&M Standards://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online #12;3 SAND2014-19432 Unlimited Release Printed November 2014 Solar PV O&M Standards

  18. Environ. Sci. Technol. 1993, 27, 2831-2843 Coal Tar Dissolution in Water-Miscible Solvents: Experimental Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    Environ. Sci. Technol. 1993, 27, 2831-2843 Coal Tar Dissolution in Water-Miscible Solvents remediationtechnology is water-miscible solvent extraction, which requires un- derstandingof the effectof water data and Raoult's law assumption for aqueous solubility. For three solvents, n-butylamine,acetone,and 2

  19. Mass transfer and biodegradation of PAH compounds from coal tar. Quarterly technical report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramaswami, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Luthy, R.G.

    1994-09-01

    This study examines the role of physico-chemical mass transfer processes on the rate of biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds released from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) coal tar present at residual saturation within a microporous medium. A simplified coupled dissolution-degradation model is developed that describes the concurrent mass transfer and biokinetic processes occurring in the system. Model results indicate that a dimensionless Damkohler number can be utilized to distinguish between systems that are mass transfer limited, and those that are limited by biological phenomena. The Damkohler number is estimated from independent laboratory experiments that measure the rates of aqueous phase dissolution and biodegradation of naphthalene from coal tar. Experimental data for Stroudsburg coal tar imbibed within 236 {mu}m diameter silica particles yield Damkohler numbers smaller than unity, indicating, for the particular system under study, that the overall rate of biotransformation of naphthalene is not limited by the mass transfer of naphthalene from coal tar to the bulk aqueous phase. There is a need for investigation of mass transfer for larger particles and/or other PAH compounds, and study of microbial rate-limiting phenomena including toxicity, inhibition and competitive substrate utilization.

  20. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

    2006-10-15

    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Co-Designing Sustainable Communities: The Identification and Incorporation of Social Performance Metrics in Native American Sustainable Housing and Renewable Energy System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shelby, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    the development of tar oil sands supplies and deliverfrom Canadian Athabasca tar sands oil to the United States.with extracting the oil from tar sands makes the energy

  2. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    in Figure 9 for tar sands and heavy oil. But, because of theregion for the tar sands and heavy oil resource in Figurewith small tar sands and heavy oil endowment use their

  3. 30 E MAGAZINE MAY/JUNE 2012 Rob Jackson, Ph.D., is the Nicholas Chair of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    you see public resistance against fracking and the Keystone XL tar sands pipeline as positive signs to fracking is a concern about human health. The tar sands perhaps, because tar sands extraction is environmen

  4. Study of pore pressure variation during liquefaction using two constitutive models for sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taiebat, Mahdi; Shahir, Hadi; Pak, Ali

    2007-01-01

    of the behavior of liquefiable sand in the centrifuge test.surface plasticity model for sands. Geotechnique 1997; 47(Yanagisawa E. Settlement of sand models under unidirectional

  5. Minimal model for aeolian sand dunes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Kroy; Gerd Sauermann; Hans J. Herrmann

    2002-03-02

    We present a minimal model for the formation and migration of aeolian sand dunes. It combines a perturbative description of the turbulent wind velocity field above the dune with a continuum saltation model that allows for saturation transients in the sand flux. The latter are shown to provide the characteristic length scale. The model can explain the origin of important features of dunes, such as the formation of a slip face, the broken scale invariance, and the existence of a minimum dune size. It also predicts the longitudinal shape and aspect ratio of dunes and heaps, their migration velocity and shape relaxation dynamics. Although the minimal model employs non-local expressions for the wind shear stress as well as for the sand flux, it is simple enough to serve as a very efficient tool for analytical and numerical investigations and to open up the way to simulations of large scale desert topographies.

  6. Wind profiles on the stoss slope of sand dunes: Implications for eolian sand transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, A.; Kocurek, G. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Starting with the work of R.A. Bagnold it has been recognized that the shear stress exerted by the wind on sand grains is the driving force for eolian sand transport. Calculation of accurate rates of sand transport is essential for prediction of migration rates of sand dunes in modern environments as well as reconstructing paleoclimates (wind speed and direction) from eolian deposits. Because a sand dune is a streamlined obstacle in the path of the wind, continuity necessitates that the flow field is compressed over the windward side of a dune and shear stress should progressively increase up the slope as the flow accelerates. However, airflow measurements over 14 dunes (at White Sands, New Mexico; Algodones, CA; and Padre Island, TX) show that compression of the flow field occurs very close to the surface and as a consequence, the overlying flow actually shows an overall decrease in shear stress up the slope. Measurements commonly collected in the overlying zone are not representative of the near-surface, sand-driving wind. Furthermore, near-surface compression of the flow field implies that a pressure gradient exists that would render the current transport models inappropriate for sloping surfaces that dominate natural sandy desert terrains.

  7. Analytical mesoscale modeling of aeolian sand transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc Lämmel; Anne Meiwald; Klaus Kroy

    2014-05-03

    We analyze the mesoscale structure of aeolian sand transport, based on a recently developed two-species continuum model. The calculated sand flux and important average characteristics of the grain trajectories are found to be in remarkable agreement with field and wind-tunnel data. We conclude that the essential mesoscale physics is insensitive to unresolved details on smaller scales and well captured by the coarse-grained analytical model, thus providing a sound basis for precise and numerically efficient mesoscale modeling of aeolian structure formation.

  8. ARE Update Volume 13, Number 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    conversion of tar sands for oil is highly contaminating.to invest in oil produced from tar sands and to convert coal

  9. ARE Update Volume 12, Number 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    oil versus oil produced from tar sands. A third policy isas the fraction of oils produced from tar sands and shale

  10. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    Petroleum, natural gas, very heavy oil, coal, tar sands, oilgas production), extra heavy oil, tar sands, and evenof hydrocarbons are the heavy oils of California, Venezuela,

  11. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Petroleum, natural gas, very heavy oil, coal, tar sands, oilgas production), extra heavy oil, tar sands, and evenof hydrocarbons are the heavy oils of California, Venezuela,

  12. SANDIA REPORT SAND96I 992 q UC1211

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C.3 SANDIA REPORT SAND96­I 992 q UC­1211 Unlimited Release Printed August 1996 A Generalized codes Printed copy: A03 Microfiche copy: AOI #12;Category Distribution UC-1211 SAND96-1992 Unlimited

  13. SAND87-2039 UC-60 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SAND87-2039 UC-60 Unlimited Release Printed November 1987 Fatigue Crack Growth Due to Random Road Springfield, VA 22161 NTIS price codes Printed copy: A08 Microfiche copy: A01 . #12;SAND87

  14. Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

    2010-01-01

    WITH BIODEGRADATION OF CRUDE-OIL IN THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS,A SPHALTS AND H EAVY O IL Crude oil is an extremely complexto natural gas, liquid crude oil, shale oil, tars and

  15. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methane hydrate-bearing sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis, George J.

    2006-01-01

    sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood

  16. SANDIA REPORT SAND2003-0723

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Release Printed March 2003 INNOVATIVE DESIGN APPROACHES FOR LARGE WIND TURBINE BLADES WindPACT Blade of the WindPACT Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation and evaluation of design and manufacturingSANDIA REPORT SAND2003-0723 Unlimited Release Printed March 2003 Innovative Design Approaches

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-0201

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ://www.ntis.gov/help/ordermethods.asp?loc=7-4-0#online 2 #12;Design of 9-Meter Carbon-Fiberglass Prototype Blades: CX-100 and TX-100 Final to facilitate the blade design and analyses performed. At GEC, Dayton Griffin was the technical leaSANDIA REPORT SAND2007-0201 Unlimited Release Printed September 2007 Design of 9-Meter Carbon

  18. SANDIA REPORT SAND2001-1441

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2001-1441 Unlimited Release Printed May 2001 Analysis of a Composite Blade Design-1441 Unlimited Release Printed May 2001 Analysis of a Composite Blade Design for the AOC lY50 Wind Turbine Using Abstract A fiberglass blade was designed for the Atlantic Orient Corporation (AOC) H/50 wind turbine

  19. SANDIA REPORT SAND99-2706

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Approved for public release; further disseminationSANDIA REPORT SAND99-2706 Unlimited Release Printed October 1999 Space-Variant Post for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE: This report was prepared as an account

  20. Sand Ripples and Dunes Francois Charru,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudin, Philippe

    Sand Ripples and Dunes Franc¸ois Charru,1 Bruno Andreotti,2 and Philippe Claudin2 1 Institut de M qsat f H p d BarchanTransverse Water Air Figure 1 Migration velocity c of dunes as a function of their height H for aeolian barchan dunes ( filled circles), dunes propagating on the back of large aeolian

  1. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND97-3002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND97-3002 Unlimited Release UC-121O DOE/MSU Composite Material Fatigue Database commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does directly from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from Office of Scientific

  2. SAND 2004-0074 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    TURBINE BLADES FINAL REPORT WindPACT Blade System Design Studies TPI Composites, Inc. 373 Market StreetSAND 2004-0074 Unlimited Release Printed May 2004 INNOVATIVE DESIGN APPROACHES FOR LARGE WIND Warren, RI 02885 ABSTRACT The goal of the Blade System Design Study (BSDS) was investigation

  3. 16th President Timothy D. Sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and its economy." Said Sands: "I am delighted and honored to serve this great university. There is so much earned a bachelor's degree with highest honors in engineering physics and a master's degree and doctorate as the Basil S. Turner Professor of Engineering in the School of Materials Engineering and the School

  4. SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-1100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2009-1100 Unlimited Release Printed March 2009 Assessment of Wind Turbine Seismic for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does

  5. SANDIA REPORT SAND931380 q UC261

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE APPLICATION OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE TECHNIQUES TO THE TESTING OF A WIND TURBINE BLADE Herbert Sutherland, Alan (Pratt & Whitney); West Palm Beach, FL 33410 ABSTRACT NonDestructive Testing (NDT), also called NonDestructiveSANDIA REPORT SAND93­1380 q UC­261 Unlimited Release Printed June 1994 The Application of Non-Destructive

  6. SAND91-2228 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Release Printed July 1992 MEASURED DATA FOR THE SANDIA 34-METER VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE by Thomas D The 34-meter Test Bed is a research-oriented, variable-speed vertical-axis wind turbine locatedSAND91-2228 Unlimited Release Printed July 1992 Measured Data for the Sandia 34-Meter Vertical Axis

  7. SAND80-2669 Unlimited Release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SAND80-2669 Unlimited Release UC-60 ; Guy Cable Design and Damping for Vertical Axis Wind Turbines ABSTRACT Guy cables are frequently used to support vertical axis wind turbines since guying the turbine;Introduction Most vertical axis wind turbines use guy cables to support the top of a single, fully rotating

  8. The Time of Sands: Quartz-rich Sand Deposits as a Renewable Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaffer, Nelson R.

    2006-01-01

    rich Sand Deposits as a Renewable Resource Nelson R. Shaffercan even be considered a renewable resource. The reader willbuild our society, and its renewable nature. We are not the

  9. Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, David K. (Kingwood, TX); Mondragon, III, Julius J. (Redondo Beach, CA); Hara, Philip Scott (Monterey Park, CA)

    2003-04-29

    A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

  10. DRIVEN PIPE PILES IN DENSE SAND BYRON BYRNE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Byron

    DRIVEN PIPE PILES IN DENSE SAND BYRON BYRNE GEOMECHANICS GROUP THE UNIVERSITY OF WESTERN AUSTRALIA #12;Driven Pipe Piles in Dense Sand Byron Byrne Geomechanics Group The University of Western Australia #12;Driven Pipe Piles in Dense Sand Byron Byrne Geomechanics Group The University of Western Australia

  11. Channel bed evolution and sediment transport under declining sand inputs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomery, David R.

    Channel bed evolution and sediment transport under declining sand inputs Karen B. Gran,1,2 David R structure development and sediment transport as sand inputs decline. On the Pasig-Potrero River, we investigated channel recovery following emplacement of sand-rich pyroclastic deposits in the 1991 eruption

  12. Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Pseudomonas sabulinigri sp. nov., isolated from black beach sand Kyoung-Ho Kim,1 Seong Woon Roh,1 , was isolated from black sand collected from Soesoggak, Jeju Island, Korea. Cells grew at 4­37 6C, at pH 5 beach sand, a bacterium was isolated and subjected to taxonomic characterization. On the basis

  13. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  14. EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management, with DOE’s Western Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, was preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct, operate, and maintain the Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility on private and federal lands in Albany County, Wyoming. If the proposed action had been implemented, Western would have interconnected the proposed facility to an existing transmission line. This project has been canceled.

  15. Eolian cover sands: a sedimentologic model and paleoenvironmental implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lea, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    In periglacial areas, accumulations of eolian sand commonly form low-relief blankets without well-developed dunes. Internally, these sandsheet deposits exhibit subhorizontal lamination rather than high-angle cross-bedding. Such cover sands of late-Pleistocene age mantle extensive areas in northern Europe, but have been reported more rarely from North America. The processes by which cover sands, as opposed to dunes, accumulate have not yet been determined conclusively. Wind ripples and sand dunes do not form a continuum; flow separation and avalanching and negligible in the former and vital in the latter. Accretion of a sand patch into a mound sufficient to cause flow separation and dune growth requires a consistently available supply of loose sand. In cover-sand areas, sand may be immobilized prior to dune development by several factors: (1) a sparse vegetation cover, (2) moist ground conditions, (3) snow cover, and (4) a shallow permafrost table and/or an ice-cemented active layer. Detailed sedimentologic studies may allow discrimination among these various controls. The importance of the individual controlling factors can vary seasonally in a given deposit, as well as between deposits in different paleogeographic settings. However, all factors imply more mesic conditions than those associated with many dune deposits. The association of cover sands with paraboloid dunes is also consistent with somewhat moist conditions. The relatively mesic nature of cover sands controls their Pleistocene distribution; they become decreasingly important relative to dunes in maritime-to-continental transects across Alaska and northern Europe.

  16. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  17. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-3416 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SAND2014-3416 Unlimited Release Printed April 2014 Safety, Codes and Standards for Hydrogen Installations: Hydrogen Fueling System Footprint Metric Development A.P. Harris,...

  18. Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana; Rebecca Holt 29 ENERGY...

  19. SAND97-8490 UC-404 Unlimited Release

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SAND 97-8490 Unlimited Release Printed March 1997 UC-404 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND ENERGY ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A POLYURETHANE FOAM S. H. Goods Materials Reliability...

  20. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01

    Subject: Civil EnEineering LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF SANDS SUBJECTED TO DYNAMIC LOADING A Thesis by Gary N. Reeves Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee Head of Department Membe Me er August 1967 ACIINOWLEDGR&J. 'NTS I... am indebted to Dz. II. M. Coylc ior his advice and guidan& e while serving as chairman of my Graduate Advisory Cormaii tcc. Grati- tude is also expressed to Dr. T. J. I:irsch for his suggestions and assistance, and to Dr. J. R. Runkles, both...

  1. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  2. November 2015 | SAND2015-XXXX M

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shinesSolarNewsusceptometer under pressure |Cafés November 12,| SAND2015-XXXX M

  3. Sand Bluff Wind Farm | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewableSMUD WindI Jump to:Miguel, California:Sand

  4. SAND_ModelFormUQ.dvi

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The EnergyRyan REPORT SAND352PP5.02 Jim Stewart SNL

  5. CONE PENETRATION TESTING AND SITE EXPLORATION IN EVALUATING THE LIQUEFACTION RESISTANCE OF SANDS AND SILTY SANDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONE PENETRATION TESTING AND SITE EXPLORATION IN EVALUATING THE LIQUEFACTION RESISTANCE OF SANDS the magnitude of earthquake- induced shear stresses in a natural soil deposit. These seismically-induced shear resistance for this purpose. The seismic shear stress ratio (SSR) is calculated as described by

  6. Composition of modern sand from the Sierra Nevada, California, USA: Implications for actualistic petrofacies of continental-margin magmatic arcs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingersoll, Raymond V.; Eastmond, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    variability of modern sands: Sedimentary Geology, v. 171, p.nonquartzose) lithic (L) sand(stone) composition. Designatedpredicted trend for sand(stone) composition during arc

  7. Humic acid complexation of basic and neutral polycyclic aromatic compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    , metallurgical processes, and some coal, oil shale, and tar sand conversion systems. These com- pounds exhibit

  8. Zebra processes of oil recovery using fireflood and waterflood in alternate sands in a multi-sand environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new process of oil recovery, namely, the zebra process, which is specifically advantageous to use in heavy oil reservoirs that exist in multiple sands. This process uses firefloods and waterfloods in alternate sands. The firefloods serve as formation preheaters which reduce the oil viscosities in the neighboring sands so that these sands, normally not amenable to waterfloods because of high viscosity, can be waterflooded with ease. The exciting news is that the air compression cost in firefloods can be reduced by a factor of three with a proper application of the zebra process. This great savings in air compression cost is possible because the heat that is normally lost to the overburden and underburden in firefloods is now being put to good use, by preheating the neighboring sands. Examples are given on zebraing several idealized sand-shale sequences involving three-, five-, six-, and seven-sand reservoirs, and also zebraing two actual sand-shale sequences, both involving five-sand reservoirs.

  9. Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

  10. Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orencio Duran; Philippe Claudin; Bruno Andreotti

    2014-11-07

    Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement towards the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by mid-air collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport.

  11. TESTING OF TMR SAND MANTIS FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krementz, D; William Daugherty, W

    2007-06-12

    Screening tests of Sand Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candidate zoom tube materials given equal operating exposure. Additionally, this testing has shown that erosion of the rubber discharge hose directly downstream of the vehicle could be expected to limit the service life of the discharge hose. On the basis of these test results, SRNL recommends the following; {lg_bullet} redesign of critical system components (e.g., zoom tube, discharge hose) should be conducted to improve system characteristics relative to erosion and capitalize on the results of this testing, {lg_bullet} continued efforts to deploy the Sand Mantis should include testing to better define and optimize operating parameters, and gain an understanding of system dynamics, {lg_bullet} discontinue wear testing with the selected materials pending redesign of critical system components (1st recommendation) and inclusion of other candidate materials. The final selection of additional candidate materials should be made following design changes, but might include a Stellite alloy or zirconia.

  12. Introduction Alberta, Canada is home to oil sands where new development is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Sally

    Introduction Hypothesis Methods Discussion Results Alberta, Canada is home to oil sands where new. Stress Hormone Analysis of Deer (Odocoileus virginiana and O. hemionus) in the Alberta Oil Sands in the Alberta oil sands area. #12;

  13. Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Modelling of reoxidation inclusion formation in steel sand casting A. J. Melendez, K. D. Carlson pouring, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate. The inclusion model is implemented in a general-purpose casting simulation code. The model is validated

  14. Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

    2009-05-15

    Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs...

  15. Household scale slow sand filtration in the Dominican Republic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donison, Kori S. (Kori Shay), 1981-

    2004-01-01

    Slow sand filtration is a method of water treatment that has been used for hundreds of years. In the past two decades, there has been resurgence in interest in slow sand filtration, particularly as a low-cost, household-scale ...

  16. TECHNICAL NOTE Centrifuge cone penetration tests in sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Malcolm

    TECHNICAL NOTE Centrifuge cone penetration tests in sand M. D. BOLTON,Ă M. W. GUI,Ă J. GARNIER,{ J. F. CORTE,{ G. BAGGE,{ J. LAUE} and R. RENZIk KEYWORDS: centrifuge modelling; in-situ testing; laboratory tests; piles; sands. INTRODUCTION Centrifuges have been widely adopted in modelling geotechnical

  17. The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bel, Golan

    2013-01-01

    Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth u...

  18. Arsenic Removal Using AgedArsenic Removal Using Aged Rapid Sand Filter MediaRapid Sand Filter Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arsenic Removal Using AgedArsenic Removal Using Aged Rapid Sand Filter MediaRapid Sand Filter Media byby C. Menard, D. Burt, M.R. CollinsC. Menard, D. Burt, M.R. Collins Water Treatment Technology Assistance CenterWater Treatment Technology Assistance Center Department of Civil Engineering

  19. Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beattie, Alan G. (Corrales, NM); Bohon, W. Mark (Frisco, TX)

    1993-01-01

    The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

  20. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  1. Specters in the Sand: The Urban Hauntings in Alicia Gaspar de Alba’s Desert Blood: The Juárez Murders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocegueda, Isela

    2008-01-01

    Specters in the Sand: The Urban Hauntings in Alicia Gasparentitled “Specters in the Sand: The Urban Hauntings in

  2. Diplomoppgaven tar for seg emnet datamodeller for digitale film-og video-arkiv. Vren 1993 utfrte jeg et vrprosjekt med tittelen "Datamodeller for film".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forord Diplomoppgaven tar for seg emnet datamodeller for digitale film- og video-arkiv. Vĺren 1993 utfřrte jeg et vĺrprosjekt med tittelen "Datamodeller for film". Diplomoppgaven utdyper og viderefřrer. Trondheim, 22. desember, 1993 Petter Merok Datamodeller for digitale film- og videoarkiv i #12;ii

  3. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01

    S E DWARD B URTYNSKY , Oil Sands #2, Fort McMurray, Alberta,for the very heavy oils and tar sands that oil companies aremade from tar sands and conventional oil. Envi- ronmental

  4. Modeling Urban Storm-Water Quality Treatment: Model Development and Application to a Surface Sand Filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    management; Urban areas; Hydraulic models; Sand, filter; Parameters; Estimation; Water treatment. Author and nutrient removal is often low. Water quality performance of the sand filter can be evaluated by comparing a surface sand filter. If the water quality attributes of the sand filter can be confidently mod- eled

  5. DC WRRC Report No. 178 AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE OPTIMAL THICKNESS OF A SAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    FILTER WATER QUALITY STRUCTURE July 1994 D.C. Water Resources Research Center University of the District OF THE OPTIMAL THICKNESS OF A SAND LAYER IN A SAND FILTER WATER QUALITY STRUCTURE Submitted by: Farshad Amini THICKNESS OF A SAND LAYER IN A SAND FILTER WATER QUALITY STRUCTURE July 1994 D.C. Water Resources Research

  6. Effect of mould expansion on pattern allowances in sand casting of steel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    properties of the sand and the solidifying steel. Such hindered shrinkage of restrained casting featuresEffect of mould expansion on pattern allowances in sand casting of steel F. Peters1 , R. Voigt2 , S. Z. Ou3 and C. Beckermann*3 For steel castings produced in sand moulds, the expansion of the sand

  7. Implementing Per Bak's Sand Pile Model as a Two-Dimensional Cellular Automaton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    -dimensional cellular automaton (checkerboard model) · Pseudo-code description of Per Bak's sand pile model (Winslow

  8. Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing in Oil Sands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-11-16

    Hydraulic fracturing is a widely used and e cient technique for enhancing oil extraction from heavy oil sands ..... phenomenon are the main issues involved in hydraulic fracturing. ..... energy ux due to conduction and convection: Lei = @T. @xi.

  9. Study of properties of sand asphalt using a torsional rheometer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasula, Lavan Kumar Reddy

    2004-11-15

    The modeling of Sand Asphalt and experiments to measure their rheological properties are of vital concern to many industrial processes especially highway and roadway pavement construction industry. A variety of hot mix asphalt mixtures are used...

  10. Bathymetric evolution of sand bed forms under partially standing waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landry, Blake Jude

    2004-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in a large wave flume where the interaction between water waves and a movable sand bed were investigated. Monochromatic and poly- chromatic waves of specified amplitudes and period were generated ...

  11. SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-3556 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SANDIA REPORT SAND2013-3556 Unlimited Release April 2013 Designing a Water Leasing Market for the Mimbres River, New Mexico Made Possible by a WaterSMART Water and Energy...

  12. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes Shai Kinast,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

    different forms of desertification. Sand dunes have been the subject of active research for many years these questions is signifi- cant for understanding desertification processes, i.e. pro- cesses involving

  13. Acoustic detection of Immiscible Liquids in Sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Jil T.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Seifert, Patricia K.; Nihei, Kurt T.

    1999-03-01

    Laboratory cross-well P-wave transmission at 90 kHz was measured in a 61 cm diameter by 76 cm tall water-saturated sand pack, before and after introducing a non-aqueous phase organic liquid (NAPL) (n-dodecane). In one experiment NAPL was introduced to form a lens trapped by a low permeability layer; a second experiment considered NAPL residual trapped behind the front of flowing NAPL. The NAPL caused significant changes in the travel time and amplitude of first arrivals, as well as the generation of diffracted waves arriving after the direct wave. The spatial variations in NAPL saturation obtained from excavation at the end of the experiment correlated well with the observed variations in the P-wave amplitudes and travel times. NAPL residual saturation changes from NAPL flow channels of 3 to 4% were detectable and the 40 to 80% NAPL saturation in the NAPL lens was clearly visible at acoustic frequencies. The results of these experiments demonstrate that small NAPL saturations may be more easily detected with amplitude rather than travel time data, but that the relationships between the amplitude changes and NAPL saturation maybe more complex than those for velocity.

  14. The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golan Bel; Yosef Ashkenazy

    2013-08-30

    Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth under (i) specific sand drift or (ii) specific wind power. We show that psammophilous plants enrich the sand dune dynamics. Depending on the climatological conditions, it is possible to obtain one, two, or three steady dune states. The activity of the dunes can be associated with the surface cover--bare dunes are active, and dunes with significant cover of vegetation, biogenic soil crust, or psammophilous plants are fixed. Our model shows that under suitable precipitation rates and wind power, the dynamics of the different cover types is in accordance with the common view that dunes are initially stabilized by psammophilous plants that reduce sand activity, thus enhancing the growth of regular vegetation that eventually dominates the cover of the dunes and determines their activity.

  15. Sedimentary structures and textures of Rio Orinoco channel sands, Venezuela and Colombia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    The majority of the sedimentary structures in the channel sands of the Orinoco River are planar cross-strata that are products of sand-wave deposition. Sands in these deposits are mostly medium-grained. Eolian dunes form on top of the sand waves when they are exposed to the trade winds at low river stages. The windblown sands are typically fine-grained.

  16. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  17. Milling of Sand Blocks to Make Casting Moulds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Rodriguez, A.; Lamikiz, A.; Penafiel, F. J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2011-01-17

    In this paper a full procedure to make moulds in sand for direct casting of metallic parts is presented. The technology aims at unique pieces or art pieces, where only one prototype or components is required, but lead times are much reduced. The key of the procedure is to achieve enough tool life when milling with carbide tools, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage.The use of inverse techniques is a common input due to the industrial sectors where the direct milling is interesting. Two examples of moulds are presented, evaluating times and costs. A special study of tool wear is also presented.

  18. Western Gas Sands Project: stratigrapy of the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, S. (comp.)

    1980-08-01

    The Western Gas Sands Project Core Program was initiated by US DOE to investigate various low permeability, gas bearing sandstones. Research to gain a better geological understanding of these sandstones and improve evaluation and stimulation techniques is being conducted. Tight gas sands are located in several mid-continent and western basins. This report deals with the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado. This discussion is an attempt to provide a general overview of the Piceance Basin stratigraphy and to be a useful reference of stratigraphic units and accompanying descriptions.

  19. Case study of a multiple sand waterflood, Hewitt Unit, OK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruble, D.B.

    1982-03-01

    Twenty-two sands in the Hewitt field have been flooded simultaneously by Exxon Co. U.S.A.'s Hewitt Unit, and a case history of the operations is detailed. A multiple sand waterflood project requires special optimization methods to improve oil recovery. Injection and production surveillance programs and optimization methods used are highlighted. These include injection wellbore design, injection distribution, production stimulation, polymer augmented injection, and infill drilling. Successful application of these techniques has increased ultimate recovery from this waterflood operation. 3 refs.

  20. X-ray computed-tomography observations of water flow through anisotropic methane hydrate-bearing sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seol, Yongkoo

    2010-01-01

    of gas hydrate-bearing sand. J. Geophys. Res. 110 (B01311).in a partially saturated sand, The 229th ACS NationalScale Partially Saturated Sand Sample, Journal of Petroleum

  1. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels Title Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands...

  2. Hot alkaline treatment to stimulate and consolidate the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 sand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valera Villarroel, Cesar Amabilis

    2005-02-17

    An experimental study was conducted to verify experimentally whether sand consolidation by high-temperature alkaline treatment was possible in the heavy oil Bachaquero-01 reservoir. The experiments were conducted using sand samples from a core taken...

  3. Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands Derived Fuels Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR using Oil Sands Derived Fuels 2003 DEER Conference Presentation:...

  4. Depositional environment of the "stringer sand" member, Lower Tuscaloosa Formation (Cretaceous), Mallalieu field, Mississippi 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, Billy Charles

    1968-01-01

    with the lower Unit being subdivided into an upper "sand and shale section" a middle "marine section", and a lower "massive sand section". The Mississippi Geological Society (1957) subdivided the subsurface Tuscaloosa Group into the Upper, Marine, and Lower...) described the Lower Tuscaloosa Formation of southern Mississippi as a unit of "rapidly alternating sands and shales of shallow marine origin, overlying a nearly unbroken sand sec- tion of still shallower marine or continental origin". Braunstein ai. so...

  5. The application of triaxial compression tests to the design of sand-asphalt paving mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritter, Leo J

    1940-01-01

    of Changes in Sand. Orading upon the JLngle of Internal Friction III. Effect of the Initial Void Ratio upon ths ' ingle of Internal friction (Pine Sand. ) . . . . . . . Page 31 35 IV. Xffect oi Dust on the Angle of Internal Jriction in Sand Nixes... after Failure . . , 24 S. Nffsct of Changes in Sand. Grading on the Angle of Internal Friction . . . . . . '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Relation between ths Angle of Internal Friction ank Initial Yolk Ratio (Fine Sank...

  6. Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Supernatant Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figure 1. Typical Slow Sand Filter Schematic Headspace Supernatant Water Schmutzdecke Raw water for support and also at the bottom an underdrain system collects the filtered water (Figure 1). As water of SSFs to marginal source waters, filter harrowing and faster methods of filter scraping have greatly

  7. Tree Harvest in an Experimental Sand Ecosystem: Plant Effects on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    generation mechanisms. Prior to harvest, K soil- water concentrations were relatively uniform with depthTree Harvest in an Experimental Sand Ecosystem: Plant Effects on Nutrient Dynamics and Solute to determine how trees affect the behavior of these nutrients in soil water, both during growth and after

  8. Nonlinear dynamics of Aeolian sand ripples Leonid Prigozhin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    Nonlinear dynamics of Aeolian sand ripples Leonid Prigozhin Center for Energy and Environmental grains move by long tra- jectories that end in high-energy impacts with the surface. These impacts take on the wind strength and grain size 5 . After an impact, a saltating grain usually rebounds sufficiently high

  9. Sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lancaster, N.; Greeley, R. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA))

    1990-07-10

    Data from studies of the cross-sectional area of terrestrial transverse dunes have been combined with maps of dune morphometry derived from Viking orbiter images to generate new estimates of sediment thickness and dune sediment volume in the north polar sand seas of Mars. A relationship between dune spacing and equivalent sediment thickness (EST) was developed from field data on Namibian and North American dunes and was applied to data on dune spacing and dune cover measured on Viking orbiter images to generate maps of dune sediment thickness for Martian north polar sand seas. There are four major sand seas in the north polar region of Mars, covering an area of 6.8 x 10{sup 5} km{sup 2}. Equivalent sediment thickness ranges between 0.5 and 6.1 m with a mean of 1.8 m. The sand seas contain a total of 1158 km{sup 3} of dune sediment, which may have been derived by erosion of polar layered deposits and concentrated in its present location by winds that change direction seasonally.

  10. Mechanism of acoustic emissions from booming sand dunes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen-Ting Wang

    2013-05-10

    The classical elastic mechanics shows that the fundamental frequency of a sand grain chain is similar to the typical frequency of acoustic emission generated by the booming dunes. The "song of dunes" is therefore considered to originate from the resonance of grain chains occurring within a solid layer only several centimeters thick.

  11. Ecology of Pacific Northwest coastal sand dunes: a community profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiedemann, A.M.

    1984-03-01

    Sand dunes occur in 33 localities along the 950 km of North American Pacific coast between the Straits of Juan de Fuca (49/sup 0/N) and Cape Mendocino (40/sup 0/). The dune landscape is a mosaic of dune forms: transverse ridge, oblique dune, retention ridge, foredune, parabola dune, sand hummock, blowout, sand plain, deflation plain, dune ridge, swale, remnant forest, and ponds and lakes. These forms are the basic morphological units making up the four dune systems: parallel ridge, parabola dune, transverse ridge, and bay dune. Vegetation is well-developed on stabilized dunes. Of the 21 plant communities identified, nine are herbaceous, five are shrub, and seven are forest. A wide variety of vertebrate animals occur in seven distinct habitats: open dunes, grassland and meadow, shrub thicket, forest, marsh, riparian, and lakes and ponds. Urban development, increased rate of stabilization due to the introduction of European beachgrass (Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link), and massive disturbance resulting from heavy off-road vehicle traffic are the greatest threats to the long-term survival and stability of a number of sand dune habitats. Two animals and three plants dependent on dune habitats are listed as rare, threatened, or endangered. 93 references, 52 figures, 13 tables.

  12. SANDIA REPORT SAND86 -1623 Unlimited Release UC -60

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the 34 Meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Test Bed Located at Bushland, Texas William A. Stephenson SAND 86-1623 Unlimited Release TEST P M FOR THE 34 METfiR VERTICAL AXIS WIND TEST BED LIXATED Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 A plan is presented for the testing and evaluation of a new 500 kw vertical axis

  13. SAND98-2823C ALAA 99-0047

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was acquired using accelerometers mounted on the rotor of a parked and undamaged horizontal-axis wind turbine is a photo of one of the three wind turbine blades on the rotor. This vertically orientated bladeSAND98-2823C ALAA 99-0047 Application of Damage Detection Techniques using Wind Turbine Modal Data

  14. COSTS MODELS IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF SAND CASTING PRODUCTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COSTS MODELS IN DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING OF SAND CASTING PRODUCTS Nicolas PERRY Ass. Prof., IRCCy.Bernard@irccyn.ec-nantes.fr Abstract: In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization

  15. Formation of Two-Dimensional Sand Ripples under Laminar Shear Flow Vincent Langlois and Alexandre Valance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Formation of Two-Dimensional Sand Ripples under Laminar Shear Flow Vincent Langlois and Alexandre sand bed patterns under a laminar and steady shear flow. Several issues are addressed here: (i fluid is investigated theoretically. The sand transport is described taking into account both the local

  16. One-dimensional inversion of airborne electromagnetic data: application to oil sands exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farquharson, Colin G.

    One-dimensional inversion of airborne electromagnetic data: application to oil sands exploration, and Larry Mewhort. · Richard Kellett, formerly of Komex International. #12;Oil sands in Canada #12;Source: Mark Savage, "Oil Sands Characteristics - Geology," 9 April 2002 Wabasca Calgary Edmonton Cold Lake

  17. RESPONSES OF BENTHIC MICROORGANISMS (THECAMOEBIANS) TO OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED MATERIALS; PROVIDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Timothy

    RESPONSES OF BENTHIC MICROORGANISMS (THECAMOEBIANS) TO OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED MATERIALS an important role in reclamation options for fluid tailings (OSPW/M) at surface oil sands operations. Through of oil sands operation have been compared. An index of response to stress has been compiled with the goal

  18. Achieving Canada's climate targets and the impacts on Alberta's oil sands industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achieving Canada's climate targets and the impacts on Alberta's oil sands industry by Maximilian Management 608 Title of Project: Achieving Canada's climate targets and the impacts on Alberta's oil sands of domestic and international climate efforts on Alberta's oil sands industry. The modelling results predict

  19. The Great Sand Dunes Ecosystem Elk and Bison Carrying Capacity Model: Description and Scenario Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boone, Randall B.

    1 The Great Sand Dunes Ecosystem Elk and Bison Carrying Capacity Model: Description and Scenario studying the Sand Dunes ecosystem in the past decade. The information they have gathered has been.S. Geological Survey, and Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve for providing funding to support

  20. Comment on ``Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes'' by Nathalie M. Vriend et al.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Robert W.

    Comment on ``Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes'' by Nathalie M. Vriend et al. B. Andreotti), Comment on ``Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes'' by Nathalie M. Vriend et al., Geophys. Res. Lett, does not apply to the surface layer of sand dunes. According to several experi- mental, theoretical

  1. Nuclear Technology & Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Technology & Canadian Oil Sands: Integration of Nuclear Power with In-Situ Oil Extraction A for a Canadian oil sands extraction facility using Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) technology. The energy to produce steam as well as electricity for the oil sands facility; and (3) using the reactor to produce

  2. Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mudd, Simon Marius

    Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets David Jon by raindrop impacts. We use high-speed imaging of drop impacts on dry sand to describe the drop (2007), Rain splash of dry sand revealed by high-speed imaging and sticky paper splash targets, J

  3. Extending the SAND Spatial Database System for the Visualization of Three-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samet, Hanan

    Extending the SAND Spatial Database System for the Visualization of Three- Dimensional Scientific of the SAND (Spatial and Nonspatial Data) spatial database system is described as is its use for data found supported by SAND involve locating spatial objects in the order of their distance from other spatial objects

  4. SAND: Relation between the Database and Printed Maps Erik Tjong Kim Sang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sang, Erik Tjong Kim

    SAND: Relation between the Database and Printed Maps Erik Tjong Kim Sang Meertens Institute erik.tjong.kim.sang@meertens.knaw.nl May 16, 2014 1 Introduction SAND, the Syntactic Atlas of the Dutch Dialects, is a collection of maps database which can be accessed via a web interface: DynaSAND [1]. The printed maps are not exactly the same

  5. VECTOR/PATHOGEN/HOST INTERACTION, TRANSMISSION Virulence of a Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, for Its Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schall, Joseph J.

    mexicanum, for Its Sand Fly Vectors, Lutzomyia vexator and Lutzomyia stewarti (Diptera: Psychodidae) JOS. J, for its vectors, two species of sand Ă?y (Diptera: Psychodi- dae), Lutzomyia vexator (Coquillett 1907 rate from egg to eclosion differed for the two species when noninfected. For both sand Ă?y species

  6. Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Ellen

    Naturally Saline Boreal Communities as Models for Reclamation of Saline Oil Sand Tailings Brett G. Purdy,1,2 S. Ellen Macdonald,1 and Victor J. Lieffers1 Abstract Reclaimed landscapes after oil sands found on the predisturbance land- scape can be established on all reclaimed landscapes after oil sands

  7. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 A two species model of aeolian sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 A two species model of aeolian sand 30 January 2004) The transport of sand by the wind results from the equilibrium between the erosion governing the saturation of the sand flux are investigated theo- retically. We first demonstrate

  8. Shear band in sand with spatially varying density Ronaldo I. Borja a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borja, Ronaldo I.

    Shear band in sand with spatially varying density Ronaldo I. Borja a,n , Xiaoyu Song a , Amy L Keywords: Bifurcation Digital Image Correlation Heterogeneous sand Shear band Strain localization a b s t r for the selection of the persistent shear band in a symmetrically loaded localizing sand body. We combine

  9. Stress Corrosion Cracking and Delayed Increase in Penetration Resistance after Dynamic Compaction of Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalowski, Radoslaw L.

    of Sand R.L. Michalowski1 , F. ASCE and S. S. Nadukuru2 , Student Member, ASCE 1 University of Michigan Engineering, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125, U.S.A.; siddu@umich.edu ABSTRACT Dynamically compacted sands exhibit on the process of stress corrosion cracking of the micro-morphological features on the surface of the sand grains

  10. Animating Sand, Mud, and Snow Robert W. Sumner James F. O'Brien Jessica K. Hodgins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Brien, James F.

    Animating Sand, Mud, and Snow Robert W. Sumner James F. O'Brien Jessica K. Hodgins College footprints made by a runner in sand, mud, and snow as well as bicycle tire tracks, a bicycle crash- sulting motion, we compare the simulated footprints to video footage of human footprints in sand. Keywords

  11. MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING OF LWIR SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY OF CONTAMINATED QUARTZ SAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING OF LWIR SPECTRAL EMISSIVITY OF CONTAMINATED QUARTZ SAND John Kerekes measurements for samples of SiO2 (sand) with and without 0.3% (by weight) of SF96 (poly dimethyl siloxane) oil. Two different sand particle size ranges were considered. The modeling was performed using a micro

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF SAND LANCE, AlVIMODYTES SP., LARVAE ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF FROM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DISTRIBUTION OF SAND LANCE, AlVIMODYTES SP., LARVAE ON THE CONTINENTAL SHELF FROM CAPE COD TO CAPE of one species of sand lance, which rasembled AlIllllodytes lIlarillUS exactly, were collected along abundance of sand lance larval' occurred in winter off the mouths of the principal estuaries (southern New

  13. Effect of Sand Supply on Transport Rates in a Gravel-Bed Channel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curran, Joanna C.

    Effect of Sand Supply on Transport Rates in a Gravel-Bed Channel Joanna C. Curran, A.M.ASCE,1 depth, and gravel feed rate, sand feed rates were varied from 0.16 to 6.1 times that of gravel. The bed slope decreased with increasing sand supply, indicating that the gravel could be transported at the same

  14. GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GROWTH RATE OF THE SAND CRAB, EMERITA ANALOGA, (HIPPIDAE) IN TWO DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS CRAIG of the present work. This study is an analysis of the growth rate in two nearby populations of the sand crab. tions are not considered here. The crab normally lives between high and low tide marks buried in sand

  15. The impact of sand slugs against beams and plates: Coupled discrete particle/finite element simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    The impact of sand slugs against beams and plates: Coupled discrete particle/finite element/continuum coupling Dynamic loading a b s t r a c t The impact of a slug of dry sand particles against a metallic for shock mitigation. The sand particles interact via a combined linear-spring-and-dashpot law whereas

  16. Marinomonas basaltis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from black sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Marinomonas basaltis sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from black sand Ho-Won Chang,1 Seong black sand in Soesoggak, Jeju island, Korea. The strain, designated J63T , was oxidase- and catalase- negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, J63T , was isolated recently from black sand from Soesoggak, Jeju

  17. CSC2522 Course Project Michael Tao 6.1 Rendering Wet Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CSC2522 Course Project Michael Tao 6.1 Rendering Wet Sand 6.1.1 Goals The primary goal of this project was to implement a method for rendering sand as a wet porous medium with water flowing into it from within PBRT. The final result was a video of sand being wetted by water particles flowing through

  18. Vibrio areninigrae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from black sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Jin-Woo

    Vibrio areninigrae sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from black sand Ho-Won Chang,1 Seong Woon strain was isolated from black sand collected from Soesoggak, Jeju island, Korea. The strain, designated , was recently isolated from black sand collected from Soesoggak, Jeju island, Korea. In the present study

  19. The sand seatrout (Cynoscion are-narius) and the silver seatrout (C.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    24 The sand seatrout (Cynoscion are- narius) and the silver seatrout (C. nothus) from the family investigated. Sand seatrout use inshore waters extensively but also move offshore seasonally to evade. Furthermore, information is lim- ited on whether the distribution of sand seatrout offshore correlates

  20. Sand Drawings and Gaussian Graphs Erik D. Demaine Martin L. Demaine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demaine, Erik

    Sand Drawings and Gaussian Graphs Erik D. Demaine Martin L. Demaine Computer Science and AI@cs.mcgill.ca Abstract Sand drawings form a part of many cultural artistic traditions. Depending on the part of the world uncover a bridge between sand drawings and Gaussian graphs, leading to a variety of new mathematical

  1. Numerical Simulations of the Wave Bottom Boundary Layer over Sand Ripples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slinn, Donald

    Numerical Simulations of the Wave Bottom Boundary Layer over Sand Ripples by Thomas Pierro A Thesis over sand ripples, and to compare the results with flows over a smooth bed to determine how wave energy energy dissipation rates are quantified and a better understanding of oscillatory flow over sand ripples

  2. The dynamic response of edge clamped plates loaded by spherically expanding sand shellsq

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    The dynamic response of edge clamped plates loaded by spherically expanding sand shellsq Kumar P and water saturated sand has been investigated, both experimentally and via a particle based simulation methodology. The spherically expanding sand shell is generated by detonating a sphere of explosive surrounded

  3. The Relationship between Virulence and Transport of Listeria monocytogenes in Saturated Sand Columns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    The Relationship between Virulence and Transport of Listeria monocytogenes in Saturated Sand efficiencies of the seven strains Correlate L. monocytogenes retention in sand to the varying pathogenicity of the isolates Hypothesis Increasingly virulent strains of L. monocytogenes demonstrate higher adherence to sand

  4. Multicomponent Transport of Sulfate in a Goethite-Silica Sand System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sparks, Donald L.

    Multicomponent Transport of Sulfate in a Goethite-Silica Sand System at Variable pH and Ionic sand column. The agreement between the experiments and the predictions is very good, especially of a goethite-coated silica sand column, which is similar to systems used in our earlier work (1, 2

  5. Sand column impact onto a Kolsky pressure bar , N.A. Fleck a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Sand column impact onto a Kolsky pressure bar S. Park a , T. Uth a , N.A. Fleck a , H.N.G. Wadley b loading Sand-structure interaction a b s t r a c t A laboratory-based methodology to launch cylindrical sand slugs at high velocities is developed. The methodology generates well-characterised soil ejecta

  6. Velocities of deep water reservoir sands De-hua Han, University of Houston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and shale, which is not focus for this study. Sorting HP Shale ShallowDeep Sorting HP Shale Sorting HP Shale sands. Grain density is 2.65 gm/cc, typical for clean sands. Measured gas permeability ranged from 100 have revealed gradual effect of clay content on porosity and velocity of shaly sands and sandy shales

  7. The C-Terminus of Transmembrane Helix 2 (TM2) of the Escherichia coli Tar Chemorecptor Determines Signal Output and Ligand Sensitivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adase, Christopher A. 1981-

    2012-11-20

    to ribose and galactose (Trg); and taxis-associated protein for dipeptides (Tap). The aerotaxis receptor (Aer) is an additional MCP-like protein that mediates redox responses in the cell and undergoes methylation-independent adaptation, unlike... the methylation-dependent adaptation of the MCPs (8-13). The two major transducers in E.coli are Tar and Tsr, which are found in approximately 3-5 fold greater abundance than the minor transducers Tap, Trg, and Aer (14). The major transducers do not require...

  8. Single event-driven export of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and suspended matter from coal tar-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Totsche, K.U.; Jann, S.; Kogel-Knabner, I. [University of Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Mobile colloidal and suspended matter is likely to affect the mobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the unsaturated soil zone at contaminated sites. We studied the release of mobile particles and dissolved organic matter as a function of variable climatic boundary conditions, and their effect on the export of PAHs at a coal tar-contaminated site using zero-tension lysimeters. Seepage water samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity, and particles larger than 0.7 {mu}m. The 16 Environmental Protection Agency PAHs were analyzed in the filtrate < 0.7 m and in the particle fraction. Our results show that extended no-flow periods that are followed by high-intensity rain events, such as thunderstorms, promote the mobilization of particles in the size 0.7 to 200 m. Mobilization is enforced by extended drying during summer. High particle concentrations are also associated with freezing and thawing cycles followed by either rain or snowmelt events. The export of PAHs is strongly connected to the release of particles in the 0.7- to 200-{mu}m size fraction. During the 2-yr monitoring period, up to 0.418 {mu}g kg{sup -1} PAHs were mobilized in the. ltrate (< 0.7 m) while the eightfold mass, 3.36 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, was exported with the retentate (0.7-200 {mu}m). Equilibrium dissolution of PAHs and transport in the dissolved phase seem to be of minor importance for the materials studied. Extreme singular-release events occurred in January 2003 and January 2004, when up to 55 {mu}g L{sup -1} PAHs per one single seepage event were observed within the retentate. Freezing and thawing cycles affect the PAH source materials, that is, the remnants of the nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL). High mechanical strain during freezing results in the formation of particles. At the onset of the thawing and following rain or snowmelt events, PAHs associated with these particles are then exported from the lysimeter.

  9. Comment on "Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Andreotti; L. Bonneau; E. Clement

    2007-10-30

    We show here that the standard physical model used by Vriend et al. to analyse seismograph data, namely a non-dispersive bulk propagation, does not apply to the surface layer of sand dunes. According to several experimental, theoretical and field results, the only possible propagation of sound waves in a dry sand bed under gravity is through an infinite, yet discrete, number of dispersive surface modes. Besides, we present a series of evidences, most of which have already been published in the literature, that the frequency of booming avalanches is not controlled by any resonance as argued in this article. In particular, plotting the data provided by Vriend et al. as a table, it turns out that they do not present any correlation between the booming frequency and their estimate of the resonant frequency.

  10. A study of the stress-strain response of sand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigham, Robert Eric

    1969-01-01

    -Strain Response of Sand. (!lay 1969) Robert E. Bigham, B. S. , Texas A8N University Directed by: Dr. Wayne A. Dunlap The deformation of soil under load is profoundly affected by environmental conditions and stress history, in contrast to some common... engineering materials. In pavements and some other soil engineering structures, deformation analagous to elastic deformation in steel (as distinguished from that caused by densification under long-time loading, e. g. , consolidation of clays) is a point...

  11. EA-1978: Sand Creek Winds, McCone County, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the proposed Sand Creek Winds Project, a 75-MW wind farm between the towns of Circle and Wolf Point in McCone County, Montana. The proposed wind farm would interconnect to Western’s existing Wolf Point to Circle 115-kV transmission line approximately 18 miles north of Wolf Point.

  12. Sand Springs, Oklahoma: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage Resources JumpDimas,Rey,Sanctuary, Texas:Sand Springs,

  13. Uinta Basin Oil and Gas Development Air Quality Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    Production EASTERN UTAH BLM Proposed Leasing for Oil Shale and Tar Sands Development "Indian Country" ­ Regulatory Authority Controlled by the Tribes and EPA Oil Shale Leasing Tar Sands Leasing "Indian Country

  14. Insulation from basaltic stamp sand. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, F. D.

    1981-04-01

    A Midwest Appropriate Technology Grant was awarded to determine the technical and economic feasibility of producing mineral-fiber insulation directly from extensive deposits of basaltic sand produced during former mining and milling operations in the Keweenaw Peninsula region of Michigan's Upper Peninsula. The amounts of local basaltic sands available and representative chemical compositions were determined. The variation of viscosity with temperature and chemical composition was estimated. Samples were melted and either pulled or blown into fiber. In all cases fiber could be made with a reasonable tensile strength to ensure usefulness. It was concluded that it was technically feasible to produce fibers from basaltic stamp sands of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A technical feasibility study using published data, a cost and design analysis of a basalt fiber production plant, a market survey of fiber needs, and an economic analysis for investing in a basalt fiber venture was undertaken. These studies concluded that the local production of basaltic insulation was both feasible and economically reasonable. It was suggested that the plant be located in a region of greater population density with lower utility costs. A representative one-third of these studies is included as appendices A, B, C, and D.

  15. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

  16. Assessment of the KE Basin Sand Filter Inventory In Support of Hazard Categorization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, Steven B.; Young, Jonathan

    2005-09-28

    In 1978, the water cleaning system for the KE Basin was upgraded by adding a sand filter and ion exchange columns. Basin water containing finely divided solids is collected by three surface skimmers and pumped to the sand filter. Filtrate from the sand filter is further treated in the ion exchange modules. The suspended solids accumulate in the sand until the pressure drop across the filter reaches established operating limits, at which time the sand filter is backwashed. The backwash is collected in the NLOP, where the solids are allowed to settle as sludge. Figure 2-1 shows a basic piping and instrumentation diagram depicting the relationship among the basin skimmers, sand filter, and NLOP. During the course of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of the K-Basins, the sand filter and its media will need to be dispositioned. The isotopic distribution of the sludge in the sand filter has been estimated in KE Basin Sand Filter Monolith DQO (KBC-24705). This document estimates the sand filter contribution to the KE hazard categorization using the data from the DQO.

  17. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1997-11-26

    The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

  18. temperature that Earth will experience to the year 2100 depends most reliably on the total

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -traditional fossil-fuel sources of tar shales, oil sands or methane hydrates. Last year, we probably emitted more

  19. Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , vehicles can still drive with gasoline/diesel derived from tar sand, oil shale, and coal derived liquids

  20. Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utah, University of

    " or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

  1. Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughlin, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Adam R. 2008. “Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

  2. Quantifying the benefits of hybrid vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turrentine, Tom; Delucchi, Mark; Heffner, Reid R.; Kurani, Kenneth S; Sun, Yongling

    2006-01-01

    in deep-sea deposits, heavy oils, and tar sands. Ominously,Includes crude oil, light products, and heavy products.

  3. Asilomar Declaration on Climate Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    intensive oil sources such as tar sands and heavy oil.sands produces about ?fty percent more CO 2 emissions than making gasoline from conventional oil.

  4. Biofuels: Review of Policies and Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janda, Karel; Kristoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David

    2011-01-01

    with new technologies of fracking or tar sands mining.oil drilling. Hydraulic fracking, which is considered to betar sands or hydraulic fracking which, on one hand, provide

  5. Sand transport and deposition in horizontal multiphase trunklines of subsea satellite developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudeman, P. )

    1993-11-01

    Gravel packing is unattractive as a way to protect against the effects of sand production in subsea wells because it involves additional completion costs, loss of productivity, and difficulties in subsequent recompletion/well servicing operations. On the other hand, omitting gravel packs means that subsea developments must be designed and operated so that they can tolerate sand production. An experimental study was carried out on sand transport and deposition in multiphase flow in modeled subsea flowlines to address the problem and sand collection in horizontal trunklines, which could lead to reduced line throughput, pigging problems, enhanced pipe-bottom erosion, or even blockage. This study led to the definition of a new model for sand transport in multiphase flow, which was used to establish the risk of sand deposition in trunklines connecting a subsea development to nearby production platform.

  6. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  7. Preliminary examination of oil bonding at sand surfaces and its influence on hot water separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hupka, J.; Budzich, M.; Miller, J.D.

    1991-12-31

    The efficiency of water-based separation of oil from sand particles is dependent on the nature of the oil-sand association and a preliminary examination of this bonding has been completed. The degree of hydration of the sand surface at the time of contact with oil was related to the subsequent efficiency of the oil-sand separation process. Variables which influence hot water separation were correlated by multiple linear regression, and a second order experimental model was obtained. The processing temperature appeared to be the most significant variable, followed by digestion time and pH. Oil-coated sand particles which had intrinsic water left on their surface during sample preparation were easily processed in hot water separation experiments, and 64 to 90% of the oil was removed. On the other hand, only 1 to 23% separation and oil recovery was possible when a calcinated sand-oil mixture was used.

  8. "How did you become an activist?" I was surprised by the question. I never considered myself an activist. I am a slow-paced taciturn scientist from the Midwest. Most of my relatives are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    coal use rapidly, (2) leave tar sands in the ground, and (3) not go after the last drops of oil of Statoil, should intervene in their plans to develop the tar sands of Canada. I received a polite response, by letter, from the Deputy Minister of Petroleum and Energy. The government position is that the tar sands

  9. Investigation of the thermal conductivity of unconsolidated sand packs containing oil, water, and gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gore, David Eugene

    1958-01-01

    INVESTIGATION OF THE THERNAL CONDUCTIVITY OF UNCONSOLIDATED SAND PACKS CONTAINING OIL, WATER, AND GAS A Thesis David E. Gore Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Nechanical College oi' Texas in Partial fulfillment... and thxee-phase fluid saturation on the thermal conductivity of sand packs. The current research was conducted using a sand and lubricating oil on which related studies had been pexfoxmed. The thermal conductivity measuxements were made undex condi...

  10. Laboratory Analysis of a New Sand Consolidation Material for Oilfield Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Filbrandt, Joseph Daniel

    2012-02-14

    a liquid material which will create a grain to grain contact that will bind individual sand grains together. Most consolidation treatments contain a preflush to clean and wet the surface, the consolidating system to bind the sand grains and give... residual strength, and, finally, an overflush to ensure the formation is still able to produce fluids. With the successful placement of this fluid, the sand grains will be locked in placed so that they will not be produced. The technology has gone...

  11. Internal geometry of sand waves: a comparison between modern and fossil examples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berne, S.; Homewood, P.

    1988-08-01

    Recent developments in acquiring and processing very high-resolution geophysical data help us better understand large subtidal sand waves of the French continental shelf. They are compared with ancient analogs, especially from the Miocene Swiss Molasse. Internal structure, interpreted from seismic sections, vibracorings, and large outcrops, shows a hierarchy comparable to aeolian dunes. (1) Steep (25/degree/-30/degree/) reflectors, dipping leeward, are interpreted as foreset beds. Vibracoring shows that in modern cases they consist of alternating layers of medium- and coarse-grained sand, similar to those produced by sand avalanching. These deposits give the highest porosity values in the central body of the sand wave. They are comparable to the Miocene sand waves of the Swiss Molasse. (2) Erosional reflectors, dipping at lower angles cut across the foresets, are interpreted as reactivation surfaces created by high-energy events (equinox tides, added tidal and wave effects) rather than by the semidiurnal currents occasionally preserved in fossil sand waves. (3) Subhorizontal reflectors were probably created by truncation of sand waves during major storms. Fossil analogs more like larger present-day sand waves might be difficult to recognize due to the complex internal architecture of the sand body.

  12. Boundary processes between a desert sand dune community and an encroaching suburban landscape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrows, Cameron W.; Allen, M F; Rotenberry, J T

    2006-01-01

    biology of the Namib dune lizard, Aporosaura anchietae,energetics of a Namib Desert dune ecosystem. Journal of Aridbetween a desert sand dune community and an encroaching

  13. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silin, D.

    2011-01-01

    a homoge- neous reservoir the condensate saturation will bewater saturation distribution in a tight gas sand reservoirreservoir, the accumulating condensate can become mobile after reaching a certain saturation

  14. Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

    2002-06-28

    Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

  15. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silin, D.

    2011-01-01

    include tight gas sands, gas shales, and coal-bed methane.Figure 3. Although the gas-shale production grows at a

  16. Determining sand-body geometries for waterflood reservoirs: Examples from Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreisa, R.D.; Pinero, E. )

    1987-02-01

    Waterflood projects require an accurate knowledge of reservoir geometry and well-to-well continuity. However, sandstones with thin, multiple-pay zones can be extremely difficult to correlate with confidence. Two case studies of Pennsylvanian sandstones in Oklahoma illustrate how a model for the depositional history of such reservoirs can be an effective tool for determining reservoir continuity. In contrast, correlation criteria such as similar wireline log signatures and relative sand-body thicknesses are not reliable in many situations. In Southwest Logan field (Beaver County), 5 to 15-ft thick reservoir sands formed as shallow marine sand ridges. Their dimensions were approximated from height-to-width ratios of modern sand ridges. Then the reservoir sands were mapped using wireline logs and core data. Individual reservoir sands were approximately 1-2 km wide and stacked en echelon vertically. Thus, a line-drive waterflood pattern oriented parallel to the axes of the ridges is recommended. Tatums field (Carter County) consists of 5 to 50-ft thick sandstones deposited in various deltaic environments. Distributary channel sands have good continuity downdip, but are narrow and lenticular across depositional strike. Crevasse splay and other bay-fill sands were deposited marginal to the channels and are extremely discontinuous. This depositional model can be used to improve flood patterns for these sands, leading to improved sweep efficiency. In both examples, for effective mapping, the depositional facies models have been used to register reservoir quality and wireline log signatures.

  17. Prediction of Liquefaction Potential of Dredge Fill Sand by DCP and Dynamic Probing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, Md. Jahangir [Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh); Azad, Abul Kalam; Rahman, Ziaur [Graduate Students, Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-07-08

    From many research it is proved that liquefaction potential of sand is function of mainly relative density and confining pressure. During routine site investigations, high-quality sampling and laboratory testing of sands are not feasible because of inevitable sample disturbance effects and budgetary constraints. On the other hand quality control of sand fill can be done by determining in situ density of sand in layer by layer which is expensive and time consuming. In this paper TRL DCP (Transportation Research Laboratory Dynamic Cone Penetration) and DPL (Dynamic Probing Light) are calibrated to predict the relative density of sand deposit. For this purpose sand of known relative density is prepared in a calibration chamber which is a mild steel cylinder with diameter 0.5 m and height 1.0 m. Relative density of sand is varied by controlling height of fall and diameter of hole of sand discharge bowl. After filling, every time DPL and DCP tests are performed and for every blow the penetration of cone is recorded. N10 is then calculated from penetration records. Thus a database is compiled where N10 and relative densities are known. A correlation is made between N{sub 10} and relative density for two types of sand. A good correlation of N{sub 10} and relative density is found.

  18. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  19. User`s manual for SNL-SAND-II code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; VanDenburg, J.W.

    1994-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, in the process of characterizing the neutron environments at its reactor facilities, has developed an enhanced version of W. McElroy`s original SAND-II code. The enhanced input, output, and plotting interfaces make the code much easier to use. The basic physics and operation of the code remain unchanged. Important code enhancements include the interfaces to the latest ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 dosimetry-quality cross sections and the ability to use silicon displacement-sensitive devices as dosimetry sensors.

  20. Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

  1. Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Perry; Magali Mauchand; Alain Bernard

    2010-11-26

    In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

  2. RFC Sand Creek Development LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/Colorado <RAPID/Geothermal/Water Use/NevadaaTools <REpower Systems AG JumpRFC Sand

  3. Patriotic Sands Form the Science of Summer | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeeding access| Department ofStephenSkinner,PastPatent80 -PatriciaPatriotic Sands

  4. White Sands, New Mexico: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThinWarsaw,What Is a Small Community WindWhere isSands, New Mexico:

  5. SAND97-8490 UC-404 Unlimited Release

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding access toSmall ReactorRaymond Davis,Robert Curl,S E\ ternSAND97-8490

  6. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-1199P Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The EnergyRyan REPORT SAND

  7. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-4352P Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The EnergyRyan REPORT SAND352P Unlimited Release

  8. SANDIA REPORT SAND2007-4407P Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The EnergyRyan REPORT SAND352P Unlimited

  9. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-0687 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The EnergyRyan REPORT SAND352P Unlimited4-0687

  10. SANDIA REPORT SAND2014-3416 Unlimited Release

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumni > The EnergyRyan REPORT SAND352P

  11. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations Soc. , 81(reducing bacteria in oil sands fine tail- ings waste, Can.fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse

  12. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2007-03-01

    This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  13. Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

  14. Evaluating Energy and Water Saving Opportunities in SAGD Oil Sands Plants via Process Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrendt, Wolfgang

    Evaluating Energy and Water Saving Opportunities in SAGD Oil Sands Plants via Process Integration Alberta, Canada are produced as a mix of hydrocarbons (bitumen), clay, sand and water. The resource barrel of bitumen produced which presents water/energy tradeoffs in the design and operation

  15. Dynamics of unusual debris flows on Martian sand dunes Hideaki Miyamoto,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourke, Mary C.

    Dynamics of unusual debris flows on Martian sand dunes Hideaki Miyamoto,1,2 James M. Dohm,3 Victor 9 June 2004; published 8 July 2004. [1] Gullies that dissect sand dunes in Russell impact crater a surface layer of interstitial ice within the dune deposits to several centimeters depth. INDEX TERMS: 1824

  16. Sand dune dynamics and climate change: A modeling H. Yizhaq,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashkenazy, Yossi "Yosef"

    Sand dune dynamics and climate change: A modeling approach H. Yizhaq,1 Y. Ashkenazy,1 and H. Tsoar2] We provide several examples for the coexistence of active and fixed sand dunes under similar climatic conditions, namely, with respect to wind power and precipitation rate. A model is developed for dune

  17. Reply to comment by B. Andreotti et al. on ``Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Robert W.

    Reply to comment by B. Andreotti et al. on ``Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes'' Nathalie M to comment by B. Andreotti et al. on ``Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes,'' Geophys. Res. Lett., 35]. The waveguide model still holds in the dune for the observed velocities, even with a velocity increase

  18. ARTICLE IN PRESS Oxalate, calcium and ash intake and excretion balances in fat sand rats

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vatnick, Itzick

    ARTICLE IN PRESS Oxalate, calcium and ash intake and excretion balances in fat sand rats (Psammomys and other inorganic matter (ash) intake and excretion in fat sand rats feeding on two different diets/3 of the ash content. In animals feeding on both diets, 65­80% of the oxalate ingested did not appear in urine

  19. Chemistry and Anatomy of the Frontal Gland in Soldiers of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danchin, Etienne

    Chemistry and Anatomy of the Frontal Gland in Soldiers of the Sand Termite Psammotermes hybostoma of the frontal gland and on the diversity of soldier defensive chemicals in the sand ter- mite, Psammotermes (Crespi, 1994). In termite ancestors, the caste of soldiers evolved as the first altruistic caste, com

  20. Empirical model determines energy required to clean sand from well bore

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appah, D.; Ichara, M. (Univ. of Port Harcourt (Nigeria))

    1994-02-28

    An empirical hydraulic model has been developed for determining the energy required for cleaning a vertical and nearly vertical well bore plugged with sand particles. The model considers pressure losses and cleanout time and compares sand cleanout time during direct and reverse circulation of water. Good agreement was obtained between the model and experimental results.

  1. Velocities of deep water reservoir sands De-hua Han, University of Houston

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velocities of deep water reservoir sands De-hua Han, University of Houston M. Batzle, Colorado the application for DHI techniques. Summary In deep-water sedimentary processes, compaction is a major force of weakly cemented deep-water sands. Geological compaction and possible weak cementation can reduce porosity

  2. Sand and mud deposited by Hurricane Katrina on Deer Island, Biloxi Bay, Mississippi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winglee, Robert M.

    Sand and mud deposited by Hurricane Katrina on Deer Island, Biloxi Bay, Mississippi Annaliese A University of Washington Department of Earth and Space Sciences #12;Sand and mud deposited by Hurricane ................................................................................................................. 14 ABSTRACT Hurricane Katrina overwash berms on both sides of Deer Island, Mississippi, include sub

  3. Alberta bound : the interface between Alberta's environmental policies and the environmental management of three Albertan oil sands companies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemphers, Nathan C

    2009-01-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, were for many years anomalous. Two oil sands operators developed their extraction techniques for 30 years, refining their technology before production became ...

  4. On the relevance of numerical simulations to booming sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Richard; Sean Mcnamara; Merline Tankeo

    2012-01-04

    We have performed a simulation study of 3D cohesionless granular flows down an inclined chute. We find that the oscillations observed in [L.E. Silbert, Phys. Rev. Lett., 94, 098002 (2005)] near the angle of repose are harmonic vibrations of the lowest normal mode. Their frequencies depend on the contact stiffness as well as on the depth of the flow. Could these oscillations account for the phenomena of "booming sand"? We estimate an effective contact stiffness from the Hertz law, but this leads to frequencies several times higher than observed. However, the Hertz law also predicts interpenetrations of a few nanometers, indicating that the oscillations frequencies are governed by the surface stiffness, which can be much lower than the bulk one. This is in agreement with previous studies ascribing the ability to sing to the presence of a soft coating on the grain surface.

  5. Measurement of Moisture Content in Sand, Slag, and Crucible Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.

    1999-09-20

    The deinventory process at Rocky Flats (RFETS) has included moisture content measurements of sand, slag, and crucible (SSC) materials by performing weight loss measurements at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius on representative samples prior to packaging for shipment. Shipping requirements include knowledge of the moisture content. Work at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) showed that the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius did not account for all of the moisture. The objective of the work in this report was to determine if the measurement at 210 degrees - 220 degrees Celsius at RFETS could be used to set upper bounds on moisture content and therefore, eliminate the need for RFETS to unpack, reanalyze and repack the material.

  6. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  7. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearingsediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas productionfrom gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeabilityparameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by meansof inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictionswith observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-raycomputed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and thehydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-rayCT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations arenon-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydratesaturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at twolocations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parametersets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydratesaturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parametersrequire further refinement of the experimental design, and betterdescription of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  8. Centrifuge modeling of LNAPL transport in partially saturated sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esposito, G.; Allersma, H.G.B.; Selvadurai, A.P.S.

    1999-12-01

    Model tests were performed at the Geotechnical Centrifuge Facility of Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands, to examine the mechanics of light nonaqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) movement in a partially saturated porous granular medium. The experiment simulated a 2D spill of LNAPL in an unsaturated sand prepared at two values of porosity. The duration of the centrifuge model tests corresponded to a prototype equivalent of 110 days. The choice of modeling a 2D flow together with the use of a transparent container enabled direct visual observation of the experiments. Scaling laws developed in connection with other centrifuge modeling studies were used to support the test results. Tests were conducted at two different centrifuge accelerations to verify, by means of the modeling of models technique, the similitude between the different experiments. The paper presents details of the experimental methodologies and the measuring techniques used to evaluate the final distribution of water and LNAPL content in the soils.

  9. Canada's natural resources industries (particularly oil sands production, hard rock mining and forestry) face local challenges and opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    Canada's natural resources industries (particularly oil sands production, hard rock mining and society. For example, oil sands production is pushing innovation in how and where oil can be produced costs, predict maintenance issues and increase safety and environmental performance. As oil sands

  10. Long-time evolution of models of aeolian sand dune fields: Influence of dune formation and collision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasner, Karl B.

    Long-time evolution of models of aeolian sand dune fields: Influence of dune formation December 2008 Accepted 6 February 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Sand dune Dune field Dune field model Dune collision Coarsening Coalescence Theoretical models which approximate individual sand dunes

  11. Author's personal copy Long-time evolution of models of aeolian sand dune elds: In uence of dune

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byrne, Shane

    Author's personal copy Long-time evolution of models of aeolian sand dune elds: In uence of dune December 2008 Accepted 6 February 2009 Available online 20 February 2009 Keywords: Sand dune Dune eld Dune eld model Dune collision Coarsening Coalescence Theoretical models which approximate individual sand

  12. Wet-sand impulse loading of metallic plates and corrugated core sandwich panels J.J. Rimoli a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Wet-sand impulse loading of metallic plates and corrugated core sandwich panels J.J. Rimoli a , B the mechanical response of edge-clamped sandwich panels subject to the impact of explosively driven wet sand of wet sand placed at different standoff distances. Monolithic plates of the same alloy and mass per unit

  13. Experience with SAND-Tcl: A Scripting Tool for Spatial Databases 1 CLAUDIO ESPERANC A (Contact Author)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samet, Hanan

    Experience with SAND-Tcl: A Scripting Tool for Spatial Databases 1 CLAUDIO ESPERANC¸ A (Contact. This is illustrated by de- scribing our experience with SAND-Tcl, a scripting tool developed by us for building spatial database applications. SAND-Tcl is an extension of the Tcl embedded scripting language

  14. Measurement of Elastic Modulus of PUNB Bonded Sand as a Function of Temperature J. Thole and C. Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    and distortions in steel casting are particularly sensitive to the elastic modulus of the sand mold. The objective1 Measurement of Elastic Modulus of PUNB Bonded Sand as a Function of Temperature J. Thole and C Measurements of the elastic modulus of PUNB bonded silica sand are performed using a three-point bend test from

  15. Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea-sured and modeled data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea) properties of heavy-oil sands over a range of frequencies (2 - 2000Hz) covering the seismic bandwidth and at ultrasonic frequencies (0.8MHz). The measurements were carried on heavy-oil sand sample from Asphalt Ridge

  16. Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, T.J.

    1998-10-01

    Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

  17. The record of sea level rise by tidal sand bodies of the English Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berne, S; Lericolais, G. (Ifremer, Plouzane, (France)); Lafont, F. (Universite d'Orsay (France))

    1990-05-01

    Improvements of very high resolution seismic reflection provide new information about internal structures of modern sand bodies. This allows us to reconstruct their recent history, which is related to the Holocene sea level rise. A major distinction is found between inner shelf sand bodies, dominated by autocyclic processes, and outer shelf sand bodies, where allocyclic processes are invoked to explain the apparent contradiction between internal structures and present-day dynamics. On the inner shelf, evidence of the migration of tidal dunes (sand waves) has been obtained by repeated surveys using accurate positioning systems. Major bounding surfaces are thought to result from the action of tidal current and/or from episodic storms. A rough estimation of the age of these sand bodies can be proposed. On the outer shelf, some dunes of the English Channel exhibit cross-beds indicative of a past net bed-load transport at the opposite of present days dynamics, inherited from different tidal conditions when sea level was between 20 and 40 m lower. Some large tidal sand banks (e.g., the Sark Bank near the Channel Islands) display a more complicated pattern. The upper part of the sand bank is the result of the migration of very large dunes climbing at positive angles, whereas the lower part shows major erosional surfaces, attributed to the action of storms during lower sea levels.

  18. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pauul J. Tikalsky

    2004-10-31

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  19. Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

    2004-10-15

    This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

  20. Characterization of the L-1 sand using well logs and amplitude attribute analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratliff, Thomas Lee

    1989-01-01

    University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Joel S. Watkins The L-1 sand (located in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas) is the first sand of the Miocene and lies just above the Anahuac marine shale. Its thickness ranges from 9? 64 feet throughout the study... area. A relatively thick bed of shale ranging from 126 ? 160 feet lies immediately above it, The data set used for this study consists of a three dimensional seismic survey and existing well control. The L-1 sand thickness, sub-sea depth, reservoir...

  1. Supplementary material for "Improved satellite retrievals of NO2 and SO2 over the Canadian oil sands and comparisons with surface measurements" by McLinden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    monitoring stations in and around the oil sands region (Percy et al., 2012). Some of these stations-years trends in regional air quality for criteria pollutants in the Athabasca oil sands region, Proc. 2010 A Oil Sands Region, in Volume 11: Alberta Oil Sands, Energy, Industry and the Environment, edited by K

  2. Estimation of dynamic petrophysical properties of water-bearing sands invaded with oil-base mud from multi-physics borehole geophysical measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Estimation of dynamic petrophysical properties of water-bearing sands invaded with oil-base mud, capillary pressure, and relative permeability of water-bearing sands invaded with oil-base mud (OBM) from-saturated sands are used for calibration of equivalent properties in hydrocarbon-bearing sands within the same

  3. Summary of the engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1981-09-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  4. Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially-saturated sand in the sonic frequency range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

    2002-06-17

    Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1 - 9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (QE dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.

  5. Air and water flows in a large sand box with a two-layer aquifer system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    the initial water table, the larger the vacuum, and the longer the time to reach the maximum vacuum table is close to the interface of the two layers. Keywords Sand box . Groundwater hydraulics

  6. Seismic amplitude and coherency response of channel sand, offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischer, Elena Mikhaylovna

    1999-01-01

    amplitude anomalies associated with channel sand deposits may indicate potential accumulations of hydrocarbons in reservoirs. However, shallow hydrocarbon accumulations are rarely of production size. More often, they are potential geological drilling hazards...

  7. Behavior of Geogrid-Sand Interface in Direct Shear Mode Chia-Nan Liu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    is significantly higher than that of sand-geotextile interfaces. Analysis of shear displacement-strength response of transverse ribs has not been clearly identified. In the case of geomembranes and geotextiles, the interface

  8. Technologies, markets and challenges for development of the Canadian Oil Sands industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lacombe, Romain H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the current status of development of the Canadian oil sands industry, and considers possible paths of further development. We outline the key technology alternatives, critical resource ...

  9. The apparent roughness of a sand surface blown by wind from an analytical model of saltation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Pähtz; Jasper F. Kok; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-03-16

    We present an analytical model of aeolian sand transport. The model quantifies the momentum transfer from the wind to the transported sand by providing expressions for the thickness of the saltation layer and the apparent surface roughness. These expressions are derived from basic physical principles and a small number of assumptions. The model further predicts the sand transport rate (mass flux) and the impact threshold (the smallest value of the wind shear velocity at which saltation can be sustained). We show that, in contrast to previous studies, the present model's predictions are in very good agreement with a range of experiments, as well as with numerical simulations of aeolian saltation. Because of its physical basis, we anticipate that our model will find application in studies of aeolian sand transport on both Earth and Mars.

  10. Investigation of in-situ low-temperature oxidation as a viable sand consolidation technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

    by flowing back at a rate of 44 bpd/ft (the maximum available pump capacity) without any sand production of the most serious problems encountered in the petro- leum industry. Without proper measures to control

  11. Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bogatchev, Kirill Y.

    2009-05-15

    and experience about completion and stimulation technologies used in TGS reservoirs. We developed the principal design and two modules of a computer program called Tight Gas Sand Advisor (TGS Advisor), which can be used to assist engineers in making decisions...

  12. Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.E. Demick

    2011-10-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

  13. Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, A.M.

    1999-02-10

    This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

  14. Study of the Behavior of a Commercial Scale Inhibitor on Silica Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaca Bustamante, Victor

    2010-12-14

    squeeze lifetimes in order to minimize the number of treatments, thus reducing the cost. The objective of this thesis is to study the adsorption of the commercial scale inhibitor SI onto silica sand. By investigating this intrinsic phenomenon, an optimized...

  15. Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The format of this document is considerably different than that usually expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

  16. Soil water content dependent wetting front characteristics in sands T.W.J. Bautersa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    Soil water content dependent wetting front characteristics in sands T.W.J. Bautersa , D.A. Di 94305, USA Received 2 April 1999; accepted 13 August 1999 Abstract The initial soil water content into a 20/30 sand with initial volumetric water contents of 0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04 and 0

  17. Effects of Phosphate on Uranium(VI) Adsorption to Goethite-Coated Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roden, Eric E.

    Effects of Phosphate on Uranium(VI) Adsorption to Goethite-Coated Sand T A O C H E N G , M A R K O natural and contaminated environments. We studied U(VI) adsorption on goethite-coated sand (to mimic of increase in U(VI) adsorption. Phosphate was strongly bound by the goethite surface in the low pH range

  18. Sand pack residual oil saturations as affected by extraction with various solvents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Clarence

    1958-01-01

    LIBRARY S 4 M COLLEGE OF TEXAS SAND PACK RESIDUAL OIL SATURATIONS AS AFFECTED BY EXTRACTION WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS A Thesis CLARENCE MURRAY, JR. Submitted to the Graduate School of The Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, I958 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering SAND PACK RESIDUAL OIL SAT URATIONS AS AFFECTED BY EXTRACTION WITH VARIOUS SOLVENTS A Thesis By CLARENCE MURRAY, JR. Approved...

  19. A Multiphase First Order Model for Non-Equilibrium Sand Erosion, Transport and Sedimentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Preziosi, Luigi; Bruno, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Three phenomena are involved in sand movement: erosion, wind transport, and sedimentation. This paper presents a comprehensive easy-to-use multiphase model that include all three aspects with a particular attention to situations in which erosion due to wind shear and sedimentation due to gravity are not in equilibrium. The interest is related to the fact that these are the situations leading to a change of profile of the sand bed.

  20. Experience from topside and subsea use of the erosion based sand monitoring system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braaten, N.A.; Blakset, T.J.; Morton, D.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the use of an erosion based on-line sand monitoring system, both for topside and subsea applications. It shows the practical use of the system, both from a safety point of view, with the probe giving early warning of sand production/erosion, in addition to being a tool for optimizing the production from the oil/gas wells. The probe works equally well in all flow regimes, single or multiphase flow.

  1. FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raymond L. Mazza

    2004-11-30

    These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

  2. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    31] NEB. Canada’s oil sands: opportunities and challenges toUtah. Technical report, Oil Sands Exploration Company andSupply Conventional oil Tar sands production GTL production

  3. Dune-dammed lakes of the Nebraska Sand Hills: Geologic setting and paleoclimatic implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loope, D.B.; Swinehart, J.B. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Within the western half of this grass-stabilized dunefield, about 1,000 interdune lakes are grouped into two clusters here named the Blue and Birdwood lake basins. In the lake basins, those parts of the valley not filled by dune sand are occupied by modern lakes and Holocene lake sediments. The Blue Creek dam is mounded transverse to flow; spill-over of the lake basin takes place over bedrock on the east side of the dam when lake level is 2 m higher than present. The permeability of dune sand prevents massive overflow, and thereby contributes to the integrity and longevity of the dam. Preserved lake sediments in the basin indicate that Blue Creek was obstructed prior to 13,000 yr BP, probably during glacial maximum (18,000 yr BP). Extensive peats dated at 1,500-1,000 yr BP lie directly on fluvial sand and gravel along the Calamus River, a stream that presently discharges a nearly constant 350 cfs. These sediments indicate blockage of streams also took place when linear dunes were active in the eastern Sand Hills in Late Holocene time. With the onset of an arid episode, dunes forming an interfluves curtail the severity of runoff events. As the regional water table drops, drainages go dry and dunes move uncontested into blocking positions. Although drainages of the eastern Sand Hills appear to have repeatedly broken through sand-blocked channels, the Blue and Birdwood lake basins are still blocked by Late Pleistocene dune dams. The repeated episodes of stream blockage and interbedded lake sediments and dune sands behind the extant dams record several strong fluctuations in Holocene climate. Recently proposed climatic models indicate that the northward flow of warm, moist air from the Gulf of Mexico is enhanced when the Gulf's surface temperature is low and the Bermuda high is intensified and in a western position. When the Bermuda high moves eastward, the core of the North American continent becomes desiccated.

  4. SOLVING THE SHUGART QUEEN SAND PENASCO UNIT DECLINING PRODUCTION PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowell Deckert

    2000-08-25

    The Penasco Shugart Queen Sand Unit located in sections 8, 9, 16 & 17, T18S, 31E Eddy County New Mexico is operated by MNA Enterprises Ltd. Co. Hobbs, NM. The first well in the Unit was drilled in 1939 and since that time the Unit produced 535,000 bbl of oil on primary recovery and 375,000 bbl of oil during secondary recovery operations that commenced in 1973. The Unit secondary to primary ratio is 0.7, but other Queen waterfloods in the area had considerably larger S/P ratios. On June 25 1999 MNA was awarded a grant under the Department of Energy's ''Technology Development with Independents'' program. The grant was used to fund a reservoir study to determine if additional waterflood reserves could be developed. A total of 14 well bores that penetrate the Queen at 3150 ft are within the Unit boundaries. Eleven of these wells produced oil during the past 60 years. Production records were pieced together from various sources including the very early state production records. One very early well had a resistivity log, but nine of the wells had no logs, and four wells had gamma ray-neutron count-rate perforating logs. Fortunately, recent offset deep drilling in the area provided a source of modern logs through the Queen. The logs from these wells were used to analyze the four old gamma ray-neutron logs within the Unit. Additionally the offset well log database was sufficient to construct maps through the unit based on geostatistical interpolation methods. The maps were used to define the input parameters required to simulate the primary and secondary producing history. The history-matched simulator was then used to evaluate four production scenarios. The best scenario produces 51,000 bbl of additional oil over a 10-year period. If the injection rate is held to 300 BWPD the oil rate declines to a constant 15 BOPD after the first year. The projections are reasonable when viewed in the context of the historical performance ({approx}30 BOPD with a {approx}600 BWPD injection rate during 1980-1990). If an additional source of water is developed, increasing the injection rate to 600 BWPD will double the oil-producing rate. During the log evaluation work the presence of a possibly productive Penrose reservoir about 200 ft below the Queen was investigated. The Penrose zone exists throughout the Unit, but appears to be less permeable than the Queen. The maps suggest that either well 16D or 16C are suitable candidates for testing the Penrose zone.

  5. High-speed X-ray imaging of a ball impacting on loose sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, Tess; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2014-01-01

    When a ball is dropped in fine, very loose sand, a splash and subsequently a jet are ob- served above the bed, followed by a granular eruption. To directly and quantitatively determine what happens inside the sand bed, high-speed X-ray tomography measurements are carried out in a custom-made setup that allows for imaging of a large sand bed at atmospheric pressures. Herewith we show that the jet originates from the pinch-off point created by the collapse of the air cavity formed behind the penetrating ball.Subsequently we measure how the entrapped air bubble rises through the sand and show that this is consistent with bubbles rising in continuously fluidized beds. Finally, we measure the packing fraction variation throughout the bed. From this we show that there is (i) a compressed area of sand in front of and next to the ball while the ball is moving down, (ii) a strongly compacted region at the pinch-off height after the cavity collapse; and (iii) a relatively loosely packed center in the wake of the rising...

  6. Discrete Element Method simulations of the saturation of aeolian sand transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pähtz, Thomas; Carneiro, Marcus V; Araújo, Nuno A M; Herrmann, Hans J

    2015-01-01

    The saturation length of aeolian sand transport ($L_s$), characterizing the distance needed by wind-blown sand to adapt to changes in the wind shear, is essential for accurate modeling of the morphodynamics of Earth's sandy landscapes and for explaining the formation and shape of sand dunes. In the last decade, it has become a widely-accepted hypothesis that $L_s$ is proportional to the characteristic distance needed by transported particles to reach the wind speed (the ``drag length''). Here we challenge this hypothesis. From extensive numerical Discrete Element Method simulations, we find that, for medium and strong winds, $L_s\\propto V_s^2/g$, where $V_s$ is the saturated value of the average speed of sand particles traveling above the surface and $g$ the gravitational constant. We show that this proportionality is consistent with a recent analytical model, in which the drag length is just one of four similarly important length scales relevant for sand transport saturation.

  7. Discrete Element Method simulations of the saturation of aeolian sand transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Pähtz; Amir Omeradži?; Marcus V. Carneiro; Nuno A. M. Araújo; Hans J. Herrmann

    2015-03-13

    The saturation length of aeolian sand transport ($L_s$), characterizing the distance needed by wind-blown sand to adapt to changes in the wind shear, is essential for accurate modeling of the morphodynamics of Earth's sandy landscapes and for explaining the formation and shape of sand dunes. In the last decade, it has become a widely-accepted hypothesis that $L_s$ is proportional to the characteristic distance needed by transported particles to reach the wind speed (the ``drag length''). Here we challenge this hypothesis. From extensive numerical Discrete Element Method simulations, we find that, for medium and strong winds, $L_s\\propto V_s^2/g$, where $V_s$ is the saturated value of the average speed of sand particles traveling above the surface and $g$ the gravitational constant. We show that this proportionality is consistent with a recent analytical model, in which the drag length is just one of four similarly important length scales relevant for sand transport saturation.

  8. Regional aeolian dynamics and sand mixing in the Gran Desierto: Evidence from Landsat thematic mapper images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blount, G.; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P.R. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (USA)); Smith, M.O.; Adams, J.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1990-09-10

    Spatial variations in sand composition were mapped on a regional scale in a terrestrial sand sea, the Gran Desierto of Sonora, Mexico. Mesoscale mapping on a satellite image base allowed quantitative interpretation of the dynamic development of sand sheets and dunes. The results were used to interpret the Quaternary geologic history of the tectonically active region at the mouth of the Colorado River. Landsat thematic mapper multispectral images were used to predict the abundance of different mineralogies of sand grains in a mixed aeolian terrain. A spectral mixing model separated the effects of vegetation and topographically induced shading and shadow from the effects produced by different mineral and rock types. Compositions determined remotely agreed well with samples from selected areas within the spectral limitations of the thematic mapper. A simple discrimination capability for active versus inactive sand surfaces is demonstrated based upon differences in the percentage of low-albedo accessory grains occurring on dormant aeolian surfaces. A technique for discriminating between low-albedo materials and macroscopic shade is implemented by combing thermal images with the results of the spectral mixing model. The image analysis revealed important compositional variations over large areas that were not readily apparent in the field.

  9. p=constant compression on loose Hostun sand: The case of an anisotropic response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Evesque

    2005-07-08

    Experimental data from axially symmetric compression test at constant mean pressure p on Hostun sand from Flavigny experiments on loose sands are used to study the validity of an "isotropic" modelling at different densities . It is found that the material response is not isotropic even at small deviatoric stress. As an "isotropic" behaviour is found for compression test at constant volume on the same sand, this new result questions the unicity of the trajectory in the classical phase space of soil mechanics (q,p,v), with q being thed deviatoric stress, v the specific volume. This asks whether the space shall be taken larger than 3d or not. Pacs # : 5.40 ; 45.70 ; 62.20 ; 83.70.Fn

  10. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  11. Process for detoxifying coal tars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longwell, John P. (Cambridge, MA); Peters, William A. (Arlington, MA)

    1983-01-01

    A process for treating liquid hydrocarbons to remove toxic, mutagenic and/or carcinogenic aromatic hydrocarbons comprises feeding the hydrocarbons into a reactor where vapors are thermally treated in contact with a catalyst consisting essentially of calcium oxide or a calcium oxide containing mineral. Thermally treating liquid hydrocarbons in contact with calcium oxide preferentially increases the cracking of aromatics thus producing a product having a reduced amount of aromatic compounds.

  12. GJO-2000-163-TAR

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1.Reports1E~ S·D3 2,000 4,000DOEK

  13. GJO-2001-208-TAR

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1.Reports1E~ S·D3 2,000

  14. Mineral resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbons, A.B.; Barbon, H.N.; Kulik, D.M. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)); McDonnell, J.R. Jr. (US Bureau of Mines (US))

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and appraise the identified resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, southwestern Wyoming, There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas nor any producing oil or gas wells; however, there are occurrences of coal, claystone and shale, and sand. There is a moderate resource potential for oil shale and natural gas and a low resource potential for oil, for metals, including uranium, and for geothermal sources.

  15. High-pressure coiled-tubing technology solves resin-sand-control problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    Operators of high-pressure offshore gas wells (> 5,000 psi) have had few options for controlling sand production. Sand-control (SC) processes can be economically prohibitive when they involve extensive mobilization, demobilization, and rig-up cost of the conventional offshore rig or hydraulic workover unit. Bullheading SC chemicals from the surface can damage the formation and prohibit production. Coiled-tubing (CT) technology now allows an offshore operator to remove extensive cement residue effectively from the wellbore and place chemical SC treatments in a high-pressure-gas environment. An example from the Gulf of Mexico illustrates the technology.

  16. Translating Water Spray Cooling of a Steel Bar Sand Casting Thomas J. Williams, Daniel Galles, and Christoph Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    Translating Water Spray Cooling of a Steel Bar Sand Casting Thomas J. Williams, Daniel Galles, IA 52242 Abstract Ablation casting is a recently introduced process in which the sand mold is ablated, i.e., washed away, from the casting during solidification. The method uses a water-soluble binder

  17. Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Sand Casting K.D. Carlson, A.J. Melendez and C. Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    1 Modeling of Reoxidation Inclusion Formation in Steel Sand Casting K.D. Carlson, A.J. Melendez, as well as their final locations on the surface of steel sand castings. Inclusions originate on the melt. The inclusion model is implemented in a general-purpose casting simulation code. The model is validated

  18. Species Diversity of Seed-Eating Desert Rodents in Sand Dune Habitats Author(s): James H. Brown

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, James H.

    Species Diversity of Seed-Eating Desert Rodents in Sand Dune Habitats Author(s): James H. Brown DIVERSITY OF SEED-EATING DESERT RODENTS IN SAND DUNE HABITATS' JAMES H. BROWN Department of Biology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City 84112 Abstract.The seed-eatingrodent faunas were sampled on 18 dunes

  19. Miocene sand distribution of the South Marsh Island and the Vermillion area, offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jingoo

    1997-01-01

    that these structural features are important pathways for sands prograding to the seaward and to the area for deposition of sands. These maps show two major directions of sediment flux toward the southeast and the south. My analyses suggest that depocenters shifted...

  20. Numerical modeling of gas migration into and through faulted sand reservoirs in Pabst Field (Main Pass East Block 259), northern Gulf of Mexico 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yuqian

    2006-08-16

    allow gas communication among the sands. Meanwhile, three fault families break up the three sands into numerous compartments. A primary fault and large synthetic and antithetic faults act as gas migration pathways: the synthetic and antithetic faults...

  1. Evaluation of water production in tight gas sands in the Cotton Valley formation in the Caspiana, Elm Grove and Frierson fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ozobeme, Charles Chinedu

    2007-04-25

    in the Elm Grove and Caspiana fields. 3 Fig. 1.2: Distribution of Cotton Valley Reservoirs across East Texas and North Louisiana. (Source - Collins 2 ) CV Lime Producing Trend. CV Blanket Sands . Good porosity and permeability..., no fracturing required. CV Massive Sands . Low permeability and porosity, require fracturing. CV Sand Fields. CV Lime Fields. 4 1.2 The Cotton Valley Formation in Northwest Louisiana The Cotton Valley formation is a tight gas sand play...

  2. SAND2013-4882 C 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Tampa, FL, June 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SAND2013-4882 C 39th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Tampa, FL, June 2013 Testing National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, 87123, USA Abstract -- Photovoltaic (PV) modules with attached designed for AC modules. Index Terms -- inverters, photovoltaic systems, power electronics, solar energy. I

  3. Numerical Modeling of Sedimentation by Storm Waves at Sand Island in Lake Superior, Wisconsin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    (1 m) above the Low Water Datum (LWD) or 601 ft (183 m) according to the International Great Lake at the lakeside end of the dock is 2.6 ft (0.8 m) below the LWD. Figure 1. Sand Island north of Bayfield Peninsula

  4. Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand-blasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand@ust.hk Abstract: Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by scattering the light is one of the effective methods for large-area lighting applications. In this paper, we present a very simple and cost

  5. THE SUBSURFACE ANATOMY OF THE BOOTHEEL'S SAND BLOWS: REMNANTS OF THE NEW MADRID EARTHQUAKES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Freeland, Robert S.

    . Freeland, Ph.D., P.E. J. T. Ammons, Ph.D. Professor, Agricultural Engineering Professor, Soil Science The Department of Biosystems Engineering & Soil Science The University of Tennessee 2506 E. J. Chapman Dr within the subsurface were sand-filled vents channeling between the water table and surface; as such

  6. Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow V. Langlois and A. Valance laminar shear flow using a process-based stability approach. The hydrodynamics of the problem is solved under steady laminar shear flow, J. Geophys. Res., 110, F04S09, doi:10.1029/2004JF000278. 1

  7. Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially saturated sand in the sonic frequency range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

    2001-08-10

    Extensional wave attenuation and velocity measurements on a high permeability Monterey sand were performed over a range of gas saturations for imbibition and degassing conditions. These measurements were conducted using extensional wave pulse propagation and resonance over a 1-9 kHz frequency range for a hydrostatic confining pressure of 8.3 MPa. Analysis of the extensional wave data and the corresponding X-ray CT images of the gas saturation show strong attenuation resulting from the presence of the gas (Q{sub E} dropped from 300 for the dry sand to 30 for the partially-saturated sand), with larger attenuation at a given saturation resulting from heterogeneous gas distributions. The extensional wave velocities are in agreement with Gassmann theory for the test with near-homogeneous gas saturation and with a patchy saturation model for the test with heterogeneous gas saturation. These results show that partially-saturated sands under moderate confining pressure can produce strong intrinsic attenuation for extensional waves.

  8. Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska: A Terrestrial Analog Site for Polar, Topographically Confined Martian Dune Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillman, David E.

    P13B-1369 Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Alaska: A Terrestrial Analog Site for Polar, Topographically Confined Martian Dune Fields Dinwiddie, C. L.1 ; D. M. Hooper1 ; T. I. Michaels2 ; R. N. Mcginnis1 ; D and Engineering Laboratory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Ft. Wainwright, AK, United States. Martian dune systems

  9. A comparison of methods used to estimate the height of sand dunes on Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourke, Mary C.

    A comparison of methods used to estimate the height of sand dunes on Mars M.C. Bourke a,b,, M bodies is difficult. We assess four methods that can be used to estimate the height of aeolian dunes of which were not previously available for dunes on Mars. They include dune height, width, length, surface

  10. Morphodynamics of small-scale superimposed sand waves over migrating dune bed forms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Morphodynamics of small-scale superimposed sand waves over migrating dune bed forms Jeremy G migrating dunes are examined using data drawn from laboratory experiments. We refer to the superimposed classified as ripples, dunes, or bars. Within the experiments, the sheets formed downstream

  11. Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes Nathalie M. Vriend,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clayton, Robert W.

    Solving the mystery of booming sand dunes Nathalie M. Vriend,1 Melany L. Hunt,1 Robert W. Clayton,2 of a large dune. The sound is remarkable because it is composed of one dominant audible frequency (70 to 105 Hz) plus several higher harmonics. This study challenges earlier reports that the dunes' frequency

  12. Geospatial analysis of a coastal sand dune field evolution: Jockey's Ridge, North Carolina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitasova, Helena

    Geospatial analysis of a coastal sand dune field evolution: Jockey's Ridge, North Carolina Helena to the Jockey's Ridge, North Carolina, the largest active dune field on the east coast of the United States, lidar and GPS point data were used to compute a multitemporal elevation model of the dune field

  13. INITIATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SAND DUNES IN RIVER CHANNELS Jeremy George Venditti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    INITIATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SAND DUNES IN RIVER CHANNELS by Jeremy George Venditti B in the experiments. The 2D bedforms initiated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability developed into dune features that grew exponentially towards equilibrium dimensions. Dune heights and lengths increased with flow

  14. Deposition of carbonate mud beds within high-energy subtidal sand Dunes, Bahamas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dill, R.F.; Steinen, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Laminated, carbonate mud beds are being deposited in the interisland channels of the Exuma Cays in the Bahamas. They are associated with stromatolites and interbedded with ooid sands that form large migrating subtidal dunes on flood tidal deltas and bars. Currents up to 3 knots sweep in and out of the 4-8 m deep channels 3 hours out of every 6 hours, creating a high-energy bank margin environment not usually considered to be the site of mud-sized particle deposition. Mud deposits reach thicknesses of 1 m and have individual beds 2-5 cm thick. When exposed to flowing seawater, bed surfaces become encrusted with carbonate cement and algal mats. The white interior of mud beds between the crusts appears homogeneous, is soft, and has the consistency of ''tooth paste.'' Loose uncemented ooid sand is found above and below the mud beds, showing that both are occupying the same depositional environment. Rip-up clasts of the crusted mud beds, formed by scour of underlying sands, are carried throughout the channels and accumulate as a lag deposit within the troughs of migrating dunes. Some clasts are colonized by algal mats that trap ooid and skeletal sands forming stromatolite structures that can grow up to 2 m high.

  15. Mineral magnetic study of the Taklimakan desert sands and its relevance to the Chinese loess

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Mineral magnetic study of the Taklimakan desert sands and its relevance to the Chinese loess M and weathered loess sections from the Chinese Loess Plateau. We found an apparent decreasing grain size trend it is located more than 2000 km west of the central Loess Plateau. Key words: Chinese loess, magnetic

  16. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  17. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araujo

    2010-06-15

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

  18. Highway 280 North or South Take the Sand Hill Road exit, head east

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, James

    Highway 280 North or South · Take the Sand Hill Road exit, head east · Turn right on Stock Farm for "all" below From Bayshore US Highway 101 NorthFrom Bayshore US Highway 101 North or South · Take · Turn left on Stock Farm Road LKSC ParkingTurn left on Stock Farm Road · Make the next lefthand turn

  19. SAND2014-4411 C 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Denver, CO, June 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    characterization model for AC modules. Index Terms -- inverters, photovoltaic systems, power electronics, solarSAND2014-4411 C 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Denver, CO, June 2014 Determining/microinverter system output, it is difficult to determine the effects of correlated parameters on system performance

  20. Effects of Sand on the Components and Performance of Electric Submersible Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvajal Diaz, Nicolas 1985-

    2012-08-15

    of an erosion test rig built at the facilities of the Turbomachinery Laboratory in Texas A&M University. The test rig is capable of introducing 100 mesh (6 mil) sand into the flow loop, measure its concentration and separate it at the exit with minimal water...

  1. Stress Dilatancy and Fabric Dependencies on Sand Richard G. Wan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Richard G.

    Stress Dilatancy and Fabric Dependencies on Sand Behavior Richard G. Wan1 and Pei J. Guo2 Abstract: A stress dilatancy model with embedded microstructural information, originally developed by the writers, as a second-order tensor, enters into the stress dilatancy equation obtained from a microscopic analysis

  2. INTRODUCTION Sand lances (Family Ammodytidae) are a group of fishes that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Adam P.

    they are exerting force onto a fluid for propulsion. Because water continuously deforms under shear stress to investigate the mechanics of both locomotion within and transitions between different environments. Seawater behaves as a Newtonian fluid and will flow continuously when a shear stress is applied, whereas a sand

  3. Geophys. J. Int. (0000) 000, 000000 Laboratory monitoring of P-waves in partially saturated sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . The study consists in running an ex- periment in a sand-filled tank partially saturated with water. Seismic propagation in the tank is generated in the kHz range by hitting a steel ball on a granite plate. Seismic data that seismic prospection may be a powerful tool for the characterization of transport phenomena in porous media

  4. Integration of nuclear power with oil sands extraction projects in Canada

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Finan, Ashley (Ashley E.)

    2007-01-01

    One of the largest oil reserves in the world is not in the Middle East or in Alaska, but in Canada. This fuel exists in the form of bitumen in Alberta's oil sands. While it takes a tremendous amount of energy to recover ...

  5. Production and Pressure Decline Curves for Wet Gas Sands With Closed Outer Boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    . SPE SPE 23442 Production and Pressure Decline Curves for Wet Gas Sands With Closed Outer, Richardson, TX 7S0834S36 U.5A. Telex, 730989 SPEDAL. ABSTRACT A family of pressure and production decline as gas reservoirs which produce substan- tial amounts of water together with ~as. Production of water

  6. Re: Report has been approved: Effects of Building a Sand Barrier Berm to Mitigate the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Louisiana Marshes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a Sand Barrier Berm to Mitigate the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Louisiana Marshes of Building a Sand Barrier Berm to Mitigate the Effects of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on LouisianaRe: Report has been approved: Effects of Building a Sand Barrier Berm to Mitigate the Effects

  7. Re: Account 2155-E7P10 -Deepwater Oil Spill sand-berm report Jack L Kindinger 0 Rebecca J Deckard 05/26/201006:08 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Re: Account 2155-E7P10 - Deepwater Oil Spill sand-berm report t Jack L Kindinger 0 Rebecca J Re: Account 2155-E7P10 -- Deepwater Oil spill sand-berm >, kcrutch > > > > > > > > Hey, Kim. > OS/26/2010 12:55 PM Re: Account 21SS-E7PIO -- Deepwater Oil Spill sand-berm > Just wanted

  8. GEOPHYSICS, VOL. 63, NO. 4 (JULY-AUGUST 1998); P. 12251233, 11 FIGS. High-resolution shallow-seismic experiments in sand,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sailhac, Pascal

    -seismic experiments in sand, Part I: Water table, fluid flow, and saturation Ran Bachrach and Amos Nur ABSTRACT A high response of groundwater level changes in beach sand in situ. A fixed 10-m-long receiver array was used in the sand were taken as well. The water table in the well changed by about 1 m in slightly delayed response

  9. In: J. Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, 126(3): 305-313, 2000. Reservoir Model of Ebb-Tidal Shoal Evolution and Sand Bypassing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    of Ebb-Tidal Shoal Evolution and Sand Bypassing By Nicholas C. Kraus,1 Member, ASCE ABSTRACT A mathematical model is presented for calculating the change in volume and sand-bypassing rate at ebb reservoir can fill to a maximum (equilibrium) volume. The ratio of the input longshore sand transport rate

  10. 2 eme Atelier International \\Formation et Migration des Dunes", Nouakchott, 7 -13 f evrier 2001 On the rate of aeolian sand transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sørensen, Michael

    2001 On the rate of aeolian sand transport Michael S#31;RENSEN #3; #3; Department of Statistics. Abstract: An analytic formula for for rate of aeolian sand transport is derived by introducing a few reasonable approximations in the equations of motion of the sand grains and in the model for the modi#12

  11. Should you eat your offspring before someone else does? Effect of an egg predator on filial cannibalism in the sand goby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cannibalism in the sand goby Ashley Chin-Baarstad a,b,*, Hope Klug a,c,1 , Kai Lindstro¨m d,2 a Department-off sand goby Costs and benefits of parental care are expected to affect filial cannibalism. One factor on filial cannibalism in the sand goby. Males caring for eggs were exposed to three treatments: no egg

  12. Flowing sand a physical realization of Directed Percolation Haye Hinrichsen 1 , Andrea Jim'enez Dalmaroni 2;3 , Yadin Rozov 2 , and Eytan Domany 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domany, Eytan

    Flowing sand ­ a physical realization of Directed Percolation Haye Hinrichsen 1 , Andrea Jim to describe recent experiments by Douady and Daerr on flowing sand. The model reproduces experimentally here that a simple system of sand flow on an inclined plane, recently studied by Daerr and Douady (DD

  13. SAND: A Fault-Tolerant Streaming Architecture for Network Traffic Analytics Qin Liu, John C.S. Lui, Cheng He, Lujia Pan, Wei Fan, Yunlong Shi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lui, John C.S.

    SAND: A Fault-Tolerant Streaming Architecture for Network Traffic Analytics Qin Liu, John C.S. Lui is essential for network analytics. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of SAND, a fault-tolerant distributed stream processing system for network analytics. SAND is designed to operate under high

  14. Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boswell, R.D.; Shelander, D.; Lee, M.; Latham, T.; Collett, T.; Guerin, G.; Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.; Goldberg, D.

    2009-07-15

    A unique set of high-quality downhole shallow subsurface well log data combined with industry standard 3D seismic data from the Alaminos Canyon area has enabled the first detailed description of a concentrated gas hydrate accumulation within sand in the Gulf of Mexico. The gas hydrate occurs within very fine grained, immature volcaniclastic sands of the Oligocene Frio sand. Analysis of well data acquired from the Alaminos Canyon Block 818 No.1 ('Tigershark') well shows a total gas hydrate occurrence 13 m thick, with inferred gas hydrate saturation as high as 80% of sediment pore space. Average porosity in the reservoir is estimated from log data at approximately 42%. Permeability in the absence of gas hydrates, as revealed from the analysis of core samples retrieved from the well, ranges from 600 to 1500 millidarcies. The 3-D seismic data reveals a strong reflector consistent with significant increase in acoustic velocities that correlates with the top of the gas-hydrate-bearing sand. This reflector extends across an area of approximately 0.8 km{sup 2} and delineates the minimal probable extent of the gas hydrate accumulation. The base of the inferred gas-hydrate zone also correlates well with a very strong seismic reflector that indicates transition into units of significantly reduced acoustic velocity. Seismic inversion analyses indicate uniformly high gas-hydrate saturations throughout the region where the Frio sand exists within the gas hydrate stability zone. Numerical modeling of the potential production of natural gas from the interpreted accumulation indicates serious challenges for depressurization-based production in settings with strong potential pressure support from extensive underlying aquifers.

  15. A comparison of general circulation model predictions to sand drift and dune orientations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumberg, D.G.; Greeley, R.

    1996-12-01

    The growing concern over climate change and decertification stresses the importance of aeolian process prediction. In this paper the use of a general circulation model to predict current aeolian features is examined. A GCM developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center was used in conjunction with White`s aeolian sand flux model to produce a global potential aeolian transport map. Surface wind shear stress predictions were used from the output of a GCM simulation that was performed as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project on 1979 climate conditions. The spatial resolution of this study (as driven by the GCM) is 4{degrees} X 5{degrees}; instantaneous 6-hourly wind stress data were saved by the GCM and used in this report. A global map showing potential sand transport was compared to drift potential directions as inferred from Landsat images from the 1980s for several sand seas and a coastal dune field. Generally, results show a good correlation between the simulated sand drift direction and the drift direction inferred for dune forms. Discrepancies between the drift potential and the drift inferred from images were found in the North American deserts and the Arabian peninsula. An attempt to predict the type of dune that would be formed in specific regions was not successful. The model could probably be further improved by incorporating soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation information for a better assessment of sand threshold conditions. The correlation may permit use of a GCM to analyze {open_quotes}fossil{close_quotes} dunes or to forecast aeolian processes. 48 refs., 8 figs.

  16. X-ray computed-tomography observations of water flow through anisotropic methane hydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2009-06-01

    We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) to image and quantify the effect of a heterogeneous sand grain-size distribution on the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate, as well as the effect on water flow through the heterogeneous hydrate-bearing sand. A 28 cm long sand column was packed with several segments having vertical and horizontal layers with sands of different grain-size distributions. During the hydrate formation, water redistribution occurred. Observations of water flow through the hydrate-bearing sands showed that water was imbibed more readily into the fine sand, and that higher hydrate saturation increased water imbibition in the coarse sand due to increased capillary strength. Hydrate dissociation induced by depressurization resulted in different flow patterns with the different grain sizes and hydrate saturations, but the relationships between dissociation rates and the grain sizes could not be identified using the CT images. The formation, presence, and dissociation of hydrate in the pore space dramatically impact water saturation and flow in the system.

  17. Meso-scale cooling effects of high albedo surfaces: Analysis of meteorological data from White Sands National Monument and White Sands Missile Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fishman, B.; Taha, H.; Akbari, H.

    1994-05-20

    Urban summer daytime temperatures often exceed those of the surrounding rural areas. Summer ``urban heat islands`` are caused by dark roofs and paved surfaces as well as the lack of vegetation. Researchers at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are interested in studying the effects of increasing the albedo of roof tops and paved surfaces in order to reduce the impacts of summer urban heat islands. Increasing the albedo of urban surfaces may reduce this heat island effect in two ways, directly and indirectly. The direct effect involves reducing surface temperature and, therefore, heat conduction through the building envelope. This effect of surface albedo on surface temperatures is better understood and has been quantified in several studies. The indirect effect is the impact of high albedo surfaces on the near surface air temperatures. Although the indirect effect has been modeled for the Los Angeles basin by Sailor, direct field observations are required. The objective of this report is to investigate the meso-scale climate of a large high albedo area and identify the effects of albedo on the near surface air temperature. To accomplish this task, data from several surface weather stations at White Sands, New Mexico were analyzed. This report is organized into six sections in addition to this introduction. The first gives the general geological, topographic, and meteorological background of White Sands. The second is a discussion of the basic surface meteorology of the White Sands region. This section is followed by a general discussion of the instrumentation and available data. The fourth section is a description of the method used for data analyis. The fifth section which presents the results of this analysis. Finally, the last section is the summary and conclusion, where a discussion of the results is presented.

  18. Dynamics of the Oil Transition: Modeling Capacity, Costs, and Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brandt, Adam R.; Farrell, Alexander E.

    2008-01-01

    EOR continues to unlock oil resources. Oil & Gas Journal, [of conventional oil resource availability. Estimates ofthe tar sands and heavy oil resource in Figure 10. Note that

  19. Microsoft Word - Summary of Presentations and Comments for QER...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and export, and turns America's heartland into a throughway for Canadian tar sands export pipelines will directly undercut the laudable efforts of the Administration to...

  20. Hydrogen Generation for Refineries

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    vacuum resid) * Dilbit (tar sand bitumen diluted with 30% condensate) * Biomass fast pyrolysis oil (whole raw oil) * Norpar 12 (C 11 C 12 paraffinic solvent - used as naphtha...

  1. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CELEBRATION OF THE 50th ANNIVERSARY OF THE LAWRENCE BERKELEY LABORATORY. SYMPOSIUM AND BANQUET SPEECHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    locked up in tar sand and oil shale. One can anticipate thatin our own Green River oil shale is also comparable to that

  2. pubs.acs.org/Organometallicsr XXXX American Chemical Society Organometallics XXXX, XXX, 000000 A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baik, Mu-Hyun

    feedstocks,6,7 such as heavy oils, tar sands, coal, and oil shale, the key components in need of significant

  3. Transportation Energy Futures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Daniel

    1989-01-01

    TRANSPORTATION ment of Oil Shale Technology. Washing- ton,interest and investments in oil shale, ethanol, coal liquidsbiomass materials, coal, oil shale, tar sands, natural gas,

  4. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farrell, Alexander E.; Sperling, Dan

    2007-01-01

    from California’s heavy oil and importing fuel refined frommanufactured from heavy oil, and fuel b might representresources, including heavy oil, tar sands, oil shale and

  5. A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 2: Policy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    from California’s heavy oil and importing fuel refined frommanufactured from heavy oil, and fuel b might representresources, including heavy oil, tar sands, oil shale and

  6. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    workshop Traeger R K ed Harding B W GEOSCIENCES GEOTHERMAL ENERGY PETROLEUM NATURAL GAS OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS BOREHOLES SAMPLING WELL...

  7. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    USDOE - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE)","02 PETROLEUM; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; BIOFUELS;...

  8. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Available","58 GEOSCIENCES; 15 GEOTHERMAL ENERGY; 02 PETROLEUM; 03 NATURAL GAS; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; BOREHOLES; SAMPLING;...

  9. DOE Project 18546, AOP Task 1.1, Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combustion Engines Bunting, Bruce G ORNL; Bunce, Michael ORNL 02 PETROLEUM; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; BIOFUELS;...

  10. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effects on Advanced Combustion Engines Bunting Bruce G ORNL Bunce Michael ORNL PETROLEUM OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS SYNTHETIC FUELS ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS BIOFUELS CHEMISTRY...

  11. Paleoecology of the Devonian-Mississippian black-shale sequence...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 03 NATURAL GAS; 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS; BLACK SHALES; GEOLOGY; PALEONTOLOGY; KENTUCKY; DEVONIAN PERIOD; FOSSILS; GEOLOGIC HISTORY; BITUMINOUS...

  12. Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    2009-01-01

    Basin, is estimated to have 2 billion barrels of OOIP while other known tar sands at Oxnard, Arroyo Grande and Paris

  13. Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, I. Matias; Combe, Gaeel; Foray, Pierre; Flin, Frederic; Lesaffre, Bernard [Universite de Grenoble, 3SR Lab, UMR 5521 Grenoble-INP, UJF-Grenoble 1, CNRS, Grenoble, France CEN, CNRM-GAME UMR 3589, Meteo France - CNRS, Grenoble (France)

    2013-06-18

    Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety of cyclic loading paths due to their complex environment. While many studies focus on global pile behaviour, the soil-pile interface is explored here by a micromechanical study of the soil layer in contact with the pile surface. This work is devoted to the analysis of frozen post-mortem silica sand samples recovered at the pile interface following installation and cyclic loading tests in a calibration chamber using x-ray tomography. An experimental procedure developed for three dimensional (3D) snow imaging was adapted for the recovery of the in-situ sand samples to preserve their structure during tomography scans. 3D images at a pixel size of 7 {mu}m were then obtained using a cryogenic cell. Results confirm the presence of a shear band at the pile surface as well as void ratios changes in the direction of the pile's radius.

  14. Sand transverse dune aerodynamics: 3D Coherent Flow Structures from a computational study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruno, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The engineering interest about dune fields is dictated by the their interaction with a number of human infrastructures in arid environments. The aerodynamic behaviour of sand dunes in atmospheric boundary layer belongs to the class of bluff bodies. Because of their simple geometry and their frequent occurrence in desert area, transverse sand dunes are usually adopted in literature as a benchmark to investigate dune aerodynamics by means of both computational or experimental approach, usually in nominally 2D setups. The writers suspect the flow in the wake is characterised by 3D features and affected by wind tunnel setup - e.g. blockage effect, duct side wall boundary layer, incoming velocity profile - when experimental studies are carried out. The present study aims at evaluating the 3D flow features of an idealised transverse dune under different setup conditions by means of computational simulations and to compare the obtained results with experimental measurements.

  15. Advanced secondary recovery project for the Sooner D Sand Unit, Weld County, Colorado: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippel, M.A.; Cammon, T.J.

    1986-06-01

    The objective of this project was to increase production at the Sooner D Sand Unit through geologically targeted infill drilling and improved reservoir management of waterflood operations. The Sooner D Sand Unit demonstration project should be an example for other operators to follow for reservoir characterization and exploitation methodologies to increase production by waterflood from the Cretaceous D Sandstone in the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin. This project involved multi-disciplinary reservoir characterization using high-density 3D seismic, detailed stratigraphy and reservoir simulation studies. Infill drilling, water-injection conversion and re-completing some wells to add short-radius laterals were based on the results of the reservoir characterization studies. Production response were evaluated using reservoir simulation and production tests. Technology transfer utilized workshops, presentations and technical papers which emphasized the economic advantages of implementing the demonstrated technologies.

  16. Prediction of reservoir properties of the N-sand, vermilion block 50, Gulf of Mexico, from multivariate seismic attributes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaradat, Rasheed Abdelkareem

    2005-08-29

    seismic data and strongly maintain the proposed geological model of the N-sand interval. Results suggest that multivariate seismic attribute technique can be used to predict various reservoir properties and can be applied to a wide variety of geological...

  17. Ecological Responses to Hydrogeomorphic Fluctuations in a Sand Bed Prairie River: River Complexity, Habitat Availability, and Benthic Invertebrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neill, Brian James

    2010-04-02

    Rivers with stochastic precipitation have fauna that overcome unique challenges. Organisms surmount these challenges by using refugia. Research was conducted on the sand bed Kansas River (Kaw). I (a) quantified how the hydrology affects the Kaw...

  18. Validation/enhancement of the "Jones-Owens" technique for the prediction of permeability in low permeability gas sands 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florence, Francois-Andre

    2007-09-17

    This work presents the validation and enhancement of existing correlations for estimating and predicting the permeability in low permeability gas sands. The "original" problem of predicting the corrected or "liquid equivalent" ...

  19. Viscous sublayer code Supplementary material to the paper `Sand ripples and dunes', Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 45

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claudin, Philippe

    Viscous sublayer code Supplementary material to the paper `Sand ripples and dunes', Annu. Rev and Dunes Charru, Andreotti, and Claudin #12;2 Linearised equations For small enough amplitudes, we can

  20. PETROGRAPHY AND PROVENANCE OF VOLCANICLASTIC SANDS AND SANDSTONES RECOVERED FROM THE WOODLARK RIFT BASIN AND TROBRIAND FOREARC BASIN, LEG 180 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharp, Timothy R; Robertson, Alastair H F

    2002-01-01

    Modal analysis of middle Miocene to Pleistocene volcaniclastic sands and sandstones recovered from Sites 1108, 1109, 1118, 1112, 1115, 1116, and 1114 within the Woodlark Basin during Leg 180 of the Ocean Drilling Program ...

  1. Dissolution and compaction of natural quartz sand as functions of temperature, pore-fluid pressure, and strain 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elmquist, Valerie Renee

    1995-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted using quartz sand and distilled water in a hydrotherinal flow-through system at conditions which simulate diagenesis. The flow-through system can monitor fluid chemistry and time-dependent ...

  2. Northwest Plume Groundwater System Green-sand Media Removal and Waste Packaging Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troutman, M.T.; Richards, C.J.; Tarantino, J.J. [CDM Federal Programs Corporation, 325 Kentucky Avenue, Kevil, KY 42053 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The Northwest Plume Groundwater System (NWPGS) was temporarily shut down due to high differential pressures across the green-sand filters. Increased levels of suspended solids were introduced into the system from monitoring well development water, equipment decontamination water, and secondary containment water. These waters were treated for suspended solids through a groundwater pretreatment system but were suspected of causing the high differential pressures in the green-sand filters. Prior to the system being shutdown, the NWPGS had been experiencing increasingly shorter run times between filter backwashes indicating that the normal backwash cycle was not adequately removing the fines. This condition led to the removal and replacement of green-sand media from two filter vessels. Discussions include problems with the removal process, waste packaging specifications, requirements for the disposition of green-sand media, and lessons learned. (authors)

  3. Reservoir characterization of the upper Merecure and lower Oficina Formations sands in the Leona Este Field, Eastern Venezuela Basin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flores Millan, Maria Carolina

    2001-01-01

    Field, which is located in the southern portion of the Eastern Venezuela Basin. Two or more of these reservoir sands, which are interbedded with shales, have been simultaneously produced pursuing an increase in the oil production rate, but an unexpected...

  4. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.; Brame, Scott; Current, Caitlin J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity was needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  5. Quantitative Methods for Reservoir Characterization and Improved Recovery: Application to Heavy Oil Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castle, James W.; Molz, Fred J.

    2003-02-07

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity is needed to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involved application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation.

  6. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viorel Badescu; Richard B. Cathcart; Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2007-07-21

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with hydrogeology and some hydromancy. We estimate its cost at 1 billion dollars - about 0.01 per sent of the USA 2007 Gross Domestic Product.

  7. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

    1980-02-01

    Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

  8. Temporal and spatial variability of ooid sand shoals: Comparison of Mississippian of Kentucky and Quaternary of Bahamas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, M.R. (Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (USA))

    1989-08-01

    An examination of the lithology and topography of Andros Island, Bahamas, reveals it is a Pleistocene ooid sand shoal. A comparison with Joulters Cays (a modern ooid sand shoal directly to the north) shows that much of the original depositional topography is preserved through at least one cycle of sea level highstand and lowstand. Both the Pleistocene and the Holocene ooid sand bodies are a few kilometers to tens of kilometers wide. The total vertical relief of a single episode of Quaternary ooid sand deposition is more than 10 m and includes accumulation in tidal channels, shallow flat areas, and eolian dunes. Today, much of Andros Island is within 2 m of present sea level and is the site of a belt several kilometers wide consisting of muddy tidal flat sediments overlying an exposure surface. The site of ooid sand deposition and shoal complex formation is not continuous along shorelines, especially windward margins, but shifts abruptly along the margins of platforms as a result of minor fluctuations of sea level. Thus, it should be expected that ooid sand shoals (ancient and modern) should be in direct lateral and vertical contact with lagoons, tidal flats, and reefs. The Mississippian Slade Formation contains many of the features of Quaternary ooid sand accumulation: abrupt vertical and lateral gradations between oolitic grainstones, packstones, and lime mudstones, vertical relief of individual oolitic sedimentary packages up to 30 m (perhaps with eolian dunes) and numerous exposure surfaces of varying intensities. These characteristics suggest that this formation represents a time of rapid fluctuations of relative sea level and abrupt shifts in the sites of ooid sand shoal complexes.

  9. The effect of sand grain size distribution on the minimum oil saturation necessary to support in-situ combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, William Marvin

    1973-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Petroleum. Engineering THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Approved...

  10. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Development of CFD Based Simulation Tools for In Situ Thermal Processing of Oil Shale Sands None OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS In our research we are taking the novel approach of...

  11. Development of CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In-Situ Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In-Situ Thermal Processing of Oil ShaleSands None 04 OIL SHALES AND TAR SANDS In our research, we are taking the novel approach of developing and...

  12. Olig sand, shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, Kern County, California: General reservoir study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-08-01

    The Olig Sand Reservoirs, classified as part of the Shallow Oil Zone, were studied and evaluated. The reservoirs are located in Section 30R, T30S, R23E and Section 24Z, T30S, R22E, M.D.B. and M., all in Elk Hills Oil Field, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California. The three productive reservoirs studied cover an area of 255 acres, and originally contained 3311 MMCF of gas condensate in 4292 acre-feet of sand. The main reservoir, Fault Block I in Section 30R, has been on production since 1982 and is largely depleted. The reservoirs around wells 324-30R and 385-24Z should still be in a virgin state. They can be depleted either through those wells, when their service as Stevens Zone producers is completed, or by twin well replacements drilled specifically as Olig Sand completions. Thirty-six exhibits have been included to present basic data and study results in a manner that will enhance the readers's understanding of the reservoirs. These exhibits include six maps in the M-series, six sections in the S-Series, and fourteen figures in the F-Series, as well as ten tables. The Appendix includes miscellaneous basic data such as well logs, core analyses, pressure measurements, and well tests. The Calculations Section of the report develops and explains the analytical methods used to define well productivity, determine reserves, and schedule future production of those reserves. Although no MER recommendations have been made for these gas condensate reservoirs, recommended depletion schemes and schedules are presented. These schemes include one eventual recompletion and one new well to maximize present worth of these reservoirs which carry proved reserves of 289 MMCF and probable reserves of 853 MMCF, effective August 1, 1986. In addition, potential future testing is earmarked for wells 322-30R and 344-30R. 11 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Western gas sands project. Status report, 1 June-30 June 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Progress of the government-sponsored projects during June 1980, that are directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States, is summarized. Northwest Exploration declined use of their site for the multi-well experiment; additional sites are being contemplated. Experiments began at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center designed to examine fracture closure and crushing strength of bauxite. At Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, work is progressing on the code to calculate fluid motion in an expanding propagation crack.

  14. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for NASA White Sands Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-10-01

    This report focuses on the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  15. Reduced coated-tubing failures cut costs at Dickinson Heath Sand Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brus, K.R. )

    1990-03-01

    In the Dickinson Heath Sand Unit waterflood, corrosion-related failures of coated injection tubing began accelerating in 1979 with the increased water production attributed to waterflood response. The trend peaked in 1984 when $164,000 was spent pulling failed tubing (34 workovers). Starting in 1983, the selection of coatings, coating-application-process quality control, and handling/installation procedures were examined, modified, and refined. The author discusses how these changes and improvements resulted in fewer pulling jobs and less money spent on associated workovers during 1988.

  16. EA-1978: Sand Creek Winds, McCone County, Montana | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|Department of Energy 8:Final78: Sand Creek Winds, McCone County,

  17. Sand Storm 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    ). Germ and fiber fractions are removed according to density and particle size using hydrocyclones and screens, subsequently, the fiber fraction is mixed with heavy steep water to make corn gluten feed. Remaining solids, mainly starch and gluten... protein, are then centrifuged to remove the protein fraction. The resulting slurry is hydrocycloned to remove the remaining protein, resulting in a highly purified starch concentrate that is greater than 99.5% starch, which is subsequently fermented...

  18. SAND REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust, High-Throughput Analysis of Protein StructuresMaintenance /SAMPLENotice of

  19. SAND REPORT SAND2002xxxx

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newman, Alantha

    Distribution Category UC-999 Discrete Optimization Models for Protein Folding Bob Carr and Bill Hart Cambridge, MA alantha@theory.lcs.mit.edu Abstract Protein folding is an important problem in Computational is a widely studied model of protein folding that abstracts the dominant force in protein folding

  20. Mineral Dissolution and Secondary Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions Affecting Subsurface Porosity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guohui; Um, Wooyong

    2012-11-23

    Highly alkaline nuclear waste solutions have been released from underground nuclear waste storage tanks and pipelines into the vadose zone at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington, causing mineral dissolution and re-precipitation upon contact with subsurface sediments. High pH caustic NaNO3 solutions with and without dissolved Al were reacted with quartz sand through flow-through columns stepwise at 45, 51, and 89°C to simulate possible reactions between leaked nuclear waste solution and primary subsurface mineral. Upon reaction, Si was released from the dissolution of quartz sand, and nitrate-cancrinite [Na8Si6Al6O24(NO3)2] precipitated on the quartz surface as a secondary mineral phase. Both steady-state dissolution and precipitation kinetics were quantified, and quartz dissolution apparent activation energy was determined. Mineral alteration through dissolution and precipitation processes results in pore volume and structure changes in the subsurface porous media. In this study, the column porosity increased up to 40.3% in the pure dissolution column when no dissolved Al was present in the leachate, whereas up to a 26.5% porosity decrease was found in columns where both dissolution and precipitation were observed because of the presence of Al in the input solution. The porosity change was also confirmed by calculation using the dissolution and precipitation rates and mineral volume changes.

  1. Oedometric Test, Bauer's Law and the Micro-Macro Connection for a Dry Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. F. Oquendo; J. D. Muńoz; A. Lizcano

    2010-11-23

    What is the relationship between the macroscopic parameters of the constitutive equation for a granular soil and the microscopic forces between grains? In order to investigate this connection, we have simulated by molecular dynamics the oedometric compression of a granular soil (a dry and bad-graded sand) and computed the hypoplastic parameters $h_s$ (the granular skeleton hardness) and $\\eta$ (the exponent in the compression law) by following the same procedure than in experiments, that is by fitting the Bauer's law $e/e0 = exp(-(3p/hs)\\eta)$, where $p$ is the pressure, and $e_0$ and $e$ are the initial and present void ratios. The micro-mechanical simulation includes elastic and dissipative normal forces plus slip, rolling and static friction between grains. By this way we have explored how the macroscopic parameters change by modifying the grains stiffness, V ; the dissipation coefficient, $\\gamma_n$; the static friction coefficient, $\\mu_s$; and the dynamic friction coefficient, $\\mu_k$ . Cumulating all simulations, we obtained an unexpected result: the two macroscopic parameters seems to be related by a power law, $h_s = 0.068(4)\\eta^{9.88(3)}$. Moreover, the experimental result for a Guamo sand with the same granulometry fits perfectly into this power law. Is this relation real? What is the final ground of the Bauer's Law? We conclude by exploring some hypothesis.

  2. Performance and operation of the Hamm Minnelusa Sand Unit, Campbell County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doll, T.E.; Hanson, M.T.

    1987-12-01

    The Hamm Minnelusa Sand Unit was discovered in 1966 and produced from the Minnelusa B sand. The field was under fluid-expansion primary recovery until water injection began in Dec. 1972. Waterflood response peaked at a higher monthly rate than that of primary recovery. Water production indicated channeling through high-permeability zones. In Oct. 1975, a volumetric-sweep improvement program was initiated into the single-injection wellbore. Anionic polyacrylamide and aluminum citrate were injected to provide in-depth vertical conformance. A second well was converted to injection in April 1976, and sweep improvement started 26 months later. The third well was converted to injection and the chemical-oil-recovery program began in Aug. 1982. The first two injectors were converted to produce water disposal at that date. The polymer-augmented waterflood was terminated in Jan. 1985. Water injection continues. This paper details flood performance up to July, 1985. Cumulative water injection is 76.6% of the total PV. A 39.5% PV chemical slug has been injected. Total recovery to data is 48.7% of the original oil in place (OOIP).

  3. Deformation mechanisms during uplift of buried pipes in sand Mcanismes de dformation lors du soulvement d'une conduite enterre dans le sable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolton, Malcolm

    Deformation mechanisms during uplift of buried pipes in sand Mécanismes de déformation lors du uplift of a pipe buried in sand, a series of tests was conducted in a plane-strain calibration chamber. During uplift, wide zones of distributed shear developed between the pipe shoulders and the ground

  4. Model for the formation of longshore sand ridges on the Continental Shelf: The interaction of internal waves and the bottom topography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Restrepo, J.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bona, J.L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-01-05

    Longshore sand ridges are frequently observed to occur on the continental shelf where the overlying ocean is stratified. This study formulates a model for the formation and evolution of three-dimensional longshore sand ridges on the continental shelf. The model is based on the interaction of interfacial, weakly nonlinear waves in a stratified ocean with the sedimentary bottom topography.

  5. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BARCHAN DUNES IN THE INTRA-CRATER DUNE FIELDS AND THE NORTH POLAR SAND SEA. M.C. Bourke1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourke, Mary C.

    A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF BARCHAN DUNES IN THE INTRA-CRATER DUNE FIELDS AND THE NORTH POLAR SAND@nasm.si.edu. Introduction: Martian sand dunes have the poten- tial to contribute data on geological history through a study of their form. Recognition of the characteristics of both recent and ancient dunes is the first step to- wards

  6. Resource Utilization and Coexistence of Seed-Eating Desert Rodents in Sand Dune Habitats Author(s): James H. Brown and Gerald A. Lieberman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, James H.

    Resource Utilization and Coexistence of Seed-Eating Desert Rodents in Sand Dune Habitats Author UTILIZATION AND COEXISTENCE OF SEED-EATING DESERT RODENTS IN SAND DUNE HABITATS' JAMES H. BROWN Department how these differences affect the utilization of seeds. Our estimates of total overlap in resource

  7. 23International Journal of Metalcasting/Spring 2012 MeasureMent of Gas evolution froM PunB Bonded sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    of castings.2-4 Defects associated with binder gas generation from bonded sand molds and cores, with blowholes introduction Resin binders used to make sand molds and cores thermally decompose when subjected to the high into metalcasting simulation software in order to better predict the occurrence of gas defects.10-12 Crucial ele

  8. VOLUME 88, NUMBER 1 P HY S I CA L REV I E W L E T T ER S 7 JANUARY 2002 Shocks in Supersonic Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    VOLUME 88, NUMBER 1 P HY S I CA L REV I E W L E T T ER S 7 JANUARY 2002 Shocks in Supersonic Sand such as sand grains [2]. The usual theoretical approach to understanding granular flows is dense gas kinetic

  9. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) for the determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dungan, R.S. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (United States). Environmental Management & Byproducts Utilization Laboratory

    2005-07-01

    The use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in foundry molding sand, specifically a 'green sand' (clay-bonded sand) was investigated. The BTEX extraction was conducted using a 75 {mu} M carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR-PDMS) fiber, which was suspended above 10 g of sample. The SPME fiber was desorbed in a gas chromatograph injector port (280{sup o}C for 1 min) and the analytes were characterized by mass spectrometry. The effects of extraction time and temperature, water content, and clay and bituminous coal percentage on HS-SPME of BTEX were investigated. Because green sands contain bentonite clay and carbonaceous material such as crushed bituminous coal, a matrix effect was observed. The detection limits for BTEX were determined to be {lt}= 0.18 ng g{sup -1} of green sand.

  10. Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.

    2010-11-30

    Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the matrix-fracture interface. The distinctive two-phase flow properties of tight sand imply that a small amount of gas condensate can seriously affect the recovery rate by blocking gas flow. Dry gas injection, pressure maintenance, or heating can help to preserve the mobility of gas phase. A small amount of water can increase the mobility of gas condensate.

  11. Lithology and cyclicity in the deposition of the Middle Ordovician McKee Sand member of the Tulip Creek Formation (Simpson Group) in the Tobosa Basin of Southeast New Mexico and West Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bosco, Michael John

    1999-01-01

    in quads sand grain size and percentage of clay and carbonate composition accompanied by sharp breaks and repetition in facies delineate this cyclicity. The McKee Sand is largely composed of sandstones, muddy sandstones, and sandy mudstones. The sandstones...

  12. VOLUME 88, NUMBER 1 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 7 JANUARY 2002 Shocks in Supersonic Sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    Sand Erin C. Rericha,1 Chris Bizon,2 Mark D. Shattuck,1 and Harry L. Swinney1 1 Center for Nonlinear to those that form in fluid flows also occur in flows of macroscopic particles such as sand grains [2

  13. Frequency dependent elastic properties and attenuation in heavy-oil sands: comparison between mea-sured and modeled data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ) properties of heavy-oil sands over a range of frequencies (2 - 2000Hz) covering the seismic bandwidth. The results show reason- ably good agreement between the measured data and modeled response especially at non larger than that of conventional light oil. Current methods of produc- tion from heavy-oil reservoirs

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF APPROPRIATE QUALIFICATION TESTING AND END-OF-LIFE WASTE STORAGE CONSIDERATIONS FOR DEEP BED SAND FILTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthews, K.

    2010-06-02

    Deep bed sand (DBS) filters have filtered radioactive particulates at two United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites since 1948. Some early DBS filters experienced issues with chemical attack on support tiles, requiring significant repairs. Designs of DBS filters constructed since 1970 paid greater attention to chemical compatibility, resulting in decades of reliable performance since 1975.

  15. Insights from a Geophysical and Geomorphological Mars Analog Field Study at the Great Kobuk Sand Dunes, Northwestern Alaska

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stillman, David E.

    Kobuk Sand Dunes, Northwestern Alaska Mcginnis, R. N.1 ; C. L. Dinwiddie1 ; D. Stillman2 ; K. Bjella3 of Engineers, Fairbanks, AK, United States. Terrestrial dune systems are used as natural analogs to improve understanding of the processes by which planetary dunes form and evolve. Selected terrestrial analogs are often

  16. Sorption and transport of aqueous FeII in a goethite-coated sand column under anoxic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Sorption and transport of aqueous FeII in a goethite-coated sand column under anoxic conditions K and dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the sorption of FeII onto three goethites (G1, G2 and G3) having batch experiments were combined with hydrodynamic parameters to simulate breakthrough curves in goethite

  17. Uncovering the Microbial Diversity of the Alberta Oil Sands through Metagenomics: A Stepping Stone for Enhanced Oil Recovery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voordouw, Gerrit

    1 Uncovering the Microbial Diversity of the Alberta Oil Sands through Metagenomics: A Stepping Voordouw3 1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta; 2 Genome Science Center, B.C. Cancer Genome Alberta, Calgary, AB. Team and deliverables The multidisciplinary R&D team will include

  18. Measurement of Gas Evolution from PUNB Bonded Sand as a Function of Temperature G. Samuels and C. Beckermann

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    molds and cores thermally decompose when subjected to the high temperature conditions in metal casting binder gas can profoundly influence the quality of metal castings2-4 . Defects associated with binder gas generation from bonded sand molds and cores, with blowholes and pinholes being the most common5-9 , result

  19. CROSSWELL SEISMIC REFLECTION IMAGING OF A SHALLOW COBBLE-AND-SAND AQUIFER: AN EXAMPLE FROM THE BOISE HYDROGEOPHYSICAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrash, Warren

    CROSSWELL SEISMIC REFLECTION IMAGING OF A SHALLOW COBBLE-AND- SAND AQUIFER: AN EXAMPLE FROM Crosswell seismic data contain first-arrival information for velocity inversion and reflec- tions for seismic stratigraphic analysis. Seismic velocity information is useful for directly com- paring to

  20. A 1-D modelling of streaming potential dependence on water content during drainage experiment in sand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allčgre, Vincent; Ackerer, Philippe; Jouniaux, Laurence; Sailhac, Pascal; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05371.x

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of electrokinetics for unsaturated conditions is crucial for numerous of geophysical data interpretation. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the streaming potential coefficient C as a function of the water saturation Sw is still discussed. We propose here to model both the Richards' equation for hydrodynamics and the Poisson's equation for electrical potential for unsaturated conditions using 1-D finite element method. The equations are first presented and the numerical scheme is then detailed for the Poisson's equation. Then, computed streaming potentials (SPs) are compared to recently published SP measurements carried out during drainage experiment in a sand column. We show that the apparent measurement of DV / DP for the dipoles can provide the SP coefficient in these conditions. Two tests have been performed using existing models for the SP coefficient and a third one using a new relation. The results show that existing models of unsaturated SP coefficients C(Sw) provide poor results in term...

  1. Western Gas Sands Project. Status report, 1 March-31 March 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The March, 1980 progress of the government-sponsored projects directed towards increasing gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized in this report. A site for the multi-well experiment was approved by the industry review committee; drilling is expected by mid-summer. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on fracture conductivity, rock/fluid interaction, and log evaluation and interpretation techniques. Lawrence Livermore Laboratory continued experimental and theoretical work on hydraulic fracturing mechanics and analysis of well test data. Analysis of data obtained from a test of the borehole seismic unit by Sandia Laboratories continued. The DOE Well Test Facility continued bottom-hole pressure buildup measurements at the Colorado Interstate Gas Company Miller No. 1 well.

  2. The evaluation of waterfrac technology in low-permeability gas sands in the East Texas basin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tschirhart, Nicholas Ray

    2005-11-01

    Concentration In itia lD el iv er ab ilit y, M Mc f/d ay - HPC - - MPC - Comparison of Average Deliverability for Different Treatment Sizes 1.307 3.562 0 1 2 3 4 MPC HPC Average Maximum Proppant Concentration Av er ag e OG IP ,B CF - MPC - - HPC - Comparison... er ab ilit y, M Mc f/d ay Av er ag e OG IP ,B CF Av er ag e Dr ai na ge A re a, ac re s Fig 7. ? Results of Large Treatments in the Wilcox-Lobo Sand 24 Table 4 ? Wilcox-Lobo Case History Data Treatment Size Well Proppant Quantity (lbs) Lf (ft) Gas...

  3. Evolution of seismic velocities in heavy oil sand reservoirs during thermal recovery process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nauroy, Jean-François; Guy, N; Baroni, Axelle; Delage, Pierre; Mainguy, Marc; 10.2516/ogst/2012027

    2013-01-01

    In thermally enhanced recovery processes like cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) or steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD), continuous steam injection entails changes in pore fluid, pore pressure and temperature in the rock reservoir, that are most often unconsolidated or weakly consolidated sandstones. This in turn increases or decreases the effective stresses and changes the elastic properties of the rocks. Thermally enhanced recovery processes give rise to complex couplings. Numerical simulations have been carried out on a case study so as to provide an estimation of the evolution of pressure, temperature, pore fluid saturation, stress and strain in any zone located around the injector and producer wells. The approach of Ciz and Shapiro (2007) - an extension of the poroelastic theory of Biot-Gassmann applied to rock filled elastic material - has been used to model the velocity dispersion in the oil sand mass under different conditions of temperature and stress. A good agreement has been found between these pre...

  4. Soil damping constants related to common soil properties in sands and clays 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gibson, Gary Clive

    1968-01-01

    SOIL D'c~. 'I'IIIG COESTAlxI. S PI', IslTED TO CO!~i'iOI& SOII. PRO& ERTIES J3I SAE1)S AND CL?"S A Thesis by Gary Olive G'boon Sr b':I' te'I to tho Gra=lu. . te Col lope of Texas Afxl Univcrsi ty in pert'al fulfillsent of the requirenent... for the Je;, ree of YiASTER Ol" SCIEI!CE August ISSS II. ';or Subject: Civil I:nSin er. nb SOIL DAMPING CONSTANTS REIATED TO COMMON SOIL PROPERTIES IN SANDS AND CLAYS A Thesis by Gary Clive Gibson Approved as to style and content by: (Head...

  5. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruple, John; Keiter, Robert

    2010-12-31

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  6. QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMPROVED RECOVERY: APPLICATION TO HEAVY OIL SANDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James W. Castle; Fred J. Molz; Ronald W. Falta; Cynthia L. Dinwiddie; Scott E. Brame; Robert A. Bridges

    2002-10-30

    Improved prediction of interwell reservoir heterogeneity has the potential to increase productivity and to reduce recovery cost for California's heavy oil sands, which contain approximately 2.3 billion barrels of remaining reserves in the Temblor Formation and in other formations of the San Joaquin Valley. This investigation involves application of advanced analytical property-distribution methods conditioned to continuous outcrop control for improved reservoir characterization and simulation, particularly in heavy oil sands. The investigation was performed in collaboration with Chevron Production Company U.S.A. as an industrial partner, and incorporates data from the Temblor Formation in Chevron's West Coalinga Field. Observations of lateral variability and vertical sequences observed in Temblor Formation outcrops has led to a better understanding of reservoir geology in West Coalinga Field. Based on the characteristics of stratigraphic bounding surfaces in the outcrops, these surfaces were identified in the subsurface using cores and logs. The bounding surfaces were mapped and then used as reference horizons in the reservoir modeling. Facies groups and facies tracts were recognized from outcrops and cores of the Temblor Formation and were applied to defining the stratigraphic framework and facies architecture for building 3D geological models. The following facies tracts were recognized: incised valley, estuarine, tide- to wave-dominated shoreline, diatomite, and subtidal. A new minipermeameter probe, which has important advantages over previous methods of measuring outcrop permeability, was developed during this project. The device, which measures permeability at the distal end of a small drillhole, avoids surface weathering effects and provides a superior seal compared with previous methods for measuring outcrop permeability. The new probe was used successfully for obtaining a high-quality permeability data set from an outcrop in southern Utah. Results obtained from analyzing the fractal structure of permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop and from core permeability data provided by Chevron from West Coalinga Field were used in distributing permeability values in 3D reservoir models. Spectral analyses and the Double Trace Moment method (Lavallee et al., 1991) were used to analyze the scaling and multifractality of permeability data from cores from West Coalinga Field. T2VOC, which is a numerical flow simulator capable of modeling multiphase, multi-component, nonisothermal flow, was used to model steam injection and oil production for a portion of section 36D in West Coalinga Field. The layer structure and permeability distributions of different models, including facies group, facies tract, and fractal permeability models, were incorporated into the numerical flow simulator. The injection and production histories of wells in the study area were modeled, including shutdowns and the occasional conversion of production wells to steam injection wells. The framework provided by facies groups provides a more realistic representation of the reservoir conditions than facies tracts, which is revealed by a comparison of the history-matching for the oil production. Permeability distributions obtained using the fractal results predict the high degree of heterogeneity within the reservoir sands of West Coalinga Field. The modeling results indicate that predictions of oil production are strongly influenced by the geologic framework and by the boundary conditions. The permeability data collected from the southern Utah outcrop, support a new concept for representing natural heterogeneity, which is called the fractal/facies concept. This hypothesis is one of the few potentially simplifying concepts to emerge from recent studies of geological heterogeneity. Further investigation of this concept should be done to more fully apply fractal analysis to reservoir modeling and simulation. Additional outcrop permeability data sets and further analysis of the data from distinct facies will be needed in order to fully develop

  7. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  8. Postmortem analysis of sand grain crushing from pile interface using X-ray I. Matas Silva, Gal Combe, Pierre Foray, Frdric Flin, and Bernard Lesaffre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Pile foundations of offshore platforms, wind and water turbines are typically subjected to a variety heavy structures such as offshore platforms and wind/water turbines in sands. While a lot of effort has

  9. Studies of the terrestrial O{sub 2} and carbon cycles in sand dune gases and in biosphere 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Severinghaus, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Molecular oxygen in the atmosphere is coupled tightly to the terrestrial carbon cycle by the processes of photosynthesis, respiration, and burning. This dissertation examines different aspects of this coupling in four chapters. Chapter 1 explores the feasibility of using air from sand dunes to reconstruct atmospheric O{sub 2} composition centuries ago. Such a record would reveal changes in the mass of the terrestrial biosphere, after correction for known fossil fuel combustion, and constrain the fate of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}.

  10. Safety-analysis report for packaging - corrugated steel container (SAND Box) for DOT specification 7A packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugger, R.P.

    1983-05-16

    Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, Type A corrugated steel containers for shipment and storage of Transuranic (TRU) solid waste have been developed. The containers are made entirely of 14 gauge (0.0747-in.) low carbon steel. All seams including the closure are welded to produce a leak-tight container. Four sizes of the SAND Box container have successfully met all Specification 7A, Type A requirements.

  11. Safety analysis report for packaging-corrugated steel container (SAND Box) for DOT Specification 7A packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brugger, R.P.

    1983-01-24

    Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, Type A corrugated steel containers for shipment and storage of Transuranic (TRU) solid waste have been developed. The containers are made entirely of 14 gauge (0.0747-in.) low carbon steel. All seams including the closure are welded to produce a leaktight container. Four sizes of the SAND Box container have successfully met all Specification 7A, Type A requirements.

  12. Qualitative risk assessment of Sandia`s rocket preparation and launch facility at Barking Sands, Kauai

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper demonstrates the application of a qualitative methodology for performing risk assessments using the consequence and probability binning criteria of DOE Order 5481.1B. The particular application that is the subject of this paper is a facility risk assessment conducted for Sandia National Laboratories` Kauai Test Facility (KTF). The KTF is a rocket preparation and launch facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy and is located on the US Navy`s Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii. The KTF consists of an administrative compound and main launch facility located on the north end of the PMRF, as well as the small Kokole Point launch facility located on the south end of the PMRF. It is classified as a moderate hazard facility in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B. As such, its authorization basis for operations necessitates a safety/risk assessment. This paper briefly addresses the hazards associated with KTF operations and the accidents selected for evaluation, introduces the principal elements of the accident assessment methodology, presents analysis details for two of the selected accidents, and provides a summary of results for all of the accidents evaluated.

  13. Impact of early diagenesis of Eolian reservoirs, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krystinik, L.F.; Andrews, S.; Fryberger, S.G.

    1985-02-01

    Dune and associated alluvial and playa deposits at Great Sand Dunes National Monument, Colorado, provide an excellent opportunity to study early diagenetic development of vertical and horizontal permeability barriers in recent eolian deposits (> 10 ka). Cements observed include calcite, aragonite, protodolomite(.), amorphous silica, iron hydroxide, smectite, trona, and halite. Cementation is controlled by the availability of water, with several hydrologic subenvironments producing different cements. Evaporative cementation in dunes adjacent to playas is commonly dominated by trona and halite, but calcite, aragonite, and amorphous silica also bind the sediment. These cements are generally most concentrated in fine laminations where capillary action has pulled water into dunes. Iron hydroxides, calcite, and amorphous silica precipitate at the interface between ground water and streams or lakes, where the pH gradient may exceed 5 pH units (pH 5.7-11.5). Subsequent movement of the ground-water table can result in cross-cutting cement zones. Early cementation in dunes prevents deflation and provides a mechanism for preservation of the reservoir unit. Intense cementation may permanently occlude porosity, or leaching may reestablish well-interconnected porosity. An understanding of the extent and composition of early cement zones can be used to improve hydrodynamic models for production and enhanced recovery.

  14. Experimental results of single screw mechanical tests: a follow-up to SAND2005-6036.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Sandwook; Lee, Kenneth L.; Korellis, John S.; McFadden, Sam X.

    2006-08-01

    The work reported here was conducted to address issues raised regarding mechanical testing of attachment screws described in SAND2005-6036, as well as to increase the understanding of screw behavior through additional testing. Efforts were made to evaluate fixture modifications and address issues of interest, including: fabrication of 45{sup o} test fixtures, measurement of the frictional load from the angled fixture guide, employment of electromechanical displacement transducers, development of a single-shear test, and study the affect of thread start orientation on single-shear behavior. A286 and 302HQ, No.10-32 socket-head cap screws were tested having orientations with respect to the primary loading axis of 0{sup 0}, 45{sup o}, 60{sup o}, 75{sup o} and 90{sup o} at stroke speeds 0,001 and 10 in/sec. The frictional load resulting from the angled screw fixture guide was insignificant. Load-displacement curves of A286 screws did not show a minimum value in displacement to failure (DTF) for 60{sup o} shear tests. Tests of 302HQ screws did not produce a consistent trend in DTF with load angle. The effect of displacement rate on DTF became larger as shear angle increased for both A286 and 302HQ screws.

  15. GJO-99-112-TAR Rev.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers CoMadisonAMOCOELIkNATION ;.7,? . - G

  16. G JO-2001-283-TAR

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1.Reports1E~ S·D3 2,000 4,000DOEK I NFe

  17. GJO-99-112-TAR Rev.

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the t-) S/,,5 'a C O M P R E H E N S I551 -xiii Please

  18. Permeability of laboratory-formed methane-hydrate-bearing sand: Measurements and observations using x-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Seol, Y.; Gupta, A.; Tomutsa, L.

    2010-09-15

    Methane hydrate was formed in two moist sands and a sand/silt mixture under a confining stress in an X-ray-transparent pressure vessel. Three initial water saturations were used to form three different methane-hydrate saturations in each medium. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe location-specific density changes caused by hydrate formation and flowing water. Gas-permeability measurements in each test for the dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing states are presented. As expected, the effective permeabilities (intrinsic permeability of the medium multiplied by the relative permeability) of the moist sands decreased with increasing moisture content. In a series of tests on a single sample, the effective permeability typically decreased as the pore space became more filled, in the order of dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing. In each test, water was flowed through the hydrate-bearing medium and we observed the location-specific changes in water saturation using CT scanning. We compared our data to a number of models, and our relative permeability data compare most favorably with models in which hydrate occupies the pore bodies rather than the pore throats. Inverse modeling (using the data collected from the tests) will be performed to extend the relative permeability measurements.

  19. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed wet, turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands and were evaluated for water-wet and mixed wet states. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The remaining oil saturation of the mixed wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern: (1) the vertical {open_quotes}film surface drainage{close_quotes} of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the cap rock, (3) updip migration of the oil that accumulated under the cap rock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the cap rock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the end point mobility ratio.

  20. A methodology to assess the radionuclide migration parameters through bentonite-sand backfill in a short experimental duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurumoorthy, C.; Kusakabe, O.

    2007-07-01

    Bentonite-Sand Backfill is a part of Engineered Barrier System (EBS) widely used in a Near Surface Disposal Facility (NSDF) to delay migration of radionuclides from the disposed nuclear waste in a geo environment. Laboratory migration experiments have been conducted to understand the advection/diffusion mechanisms of various radionuclides through backfill and to evaluate their migration rates in order to assess the performance of EBS. Migration through backfill is an extremely slow process and the experiments are time consuming. Also, these experiments have limitations to simulate the field stress conditions. Various researchers have experienced the advantages of centrifuge modeling technique to model contaminant transport problems of geo-environment. However, no such studies have been carried out adopting this technique to model the behaviour of bentonite-sand mixture as backfill in NSDF. An attempt has been made in the present study to investigate the validity of this technique to carry out such studies. Significance of geotechnical centrifuge modeling to simulate the prototype radionuclide migration mechanisms through backfill is highlighted. This paper presents the dimensional analysis of various scale factors to construct a physical model for centrifuge tests to monitor online the migration phenomena of radionuclides through bentonite-sand mixture. Studies reveal the feasibility of the technique to evaluate the migration parameters in a short experimental duration. Such studies help in improving EBS design and assessing the long-term performance of EBS in NSDF. (authors)