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1

Tar Sands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Tar Sands Tar Sands Jump to: navigation, search More info on OpenEI Oil and Gas Gateway Federal Environmental Statues Federal Oil and Gas Statutes Oil and Gas Companies United States Oil and Gas Boards International Oil and Gas Boards Related Reports Keystone Pipeline System Canada's Oil Sands Royal Society of Canada: Environmental and Health Impacts of Canada's Oil Sands Industry Dictionary.png Tar Sands: A resource, found in particular abundance in Canada, where viscous petroleum is mixed in with a layer of sand, clay, and water. The form of petroleum is often referred to as "bitumen". The resource has only recently been considered part of the world's oil reserves Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Tarsands1.png About Tar Sands The Tar Sands, also referred to as Oil Sands, or Bitumen Sands, are a

2

Recent government efforts regarding tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Conclusions from a workshop on tar sands are discussed. The workshop participants came to 3 conclusions: any oil-impregnated rock that is mined or quarried and then processed on the surface should be considered tar sands; some physical parameter should be used to differentiate tar sands from heavy oils, e.g., viscosity; and the dividing line between tar sands and heavy oil should be a point above which there is not currently significant commercial production. The resulting definition states that tar sand is any consolidated or unconsolidated rock other than coal, oil shale, or gilsonite, that contains a hydrocarbonaceous material with a gas-free viscosity, measured at reservoir temperature, greater than 10,000 cp, or contains a hydrocarbonaceous material that is extracted from the mined or quarried rock. Some consideration of resuming tar sands leasing also is discussed.

Pumphrey, D.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Application of gas flotation and foam separation for the treatment of tar-sand wastewaters  

SciTech Connect

A feasibility study was undertaken to evaluate the potential of air flotation and foam separation for the treatment of tar sand, steam generation waste waters collected following an in-situ experiment in Vernal, Utah. It was found that the process waters were not amenable to treatment by means of polymer-aided air flotation or foam separation. Suspended solids were readily removed by the process, but dissolved organic substances were not affected significantly.

Boardman, G.D.; Nolan, B.T.; VanLeigh, L.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Definition: Tar Sands | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Tar Sands Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Tar Sands A resource, found in particular abundance in Canada, where viscous petroleum is mixed in with a layer of sand, clay, and water. The form of petroleum is often referred to as "bitumen". The resource has only recently been considered part of the world's oil reserves View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Oil sands, tar sands or, more technically, bituminous sands, are a type of unconventional petroleum deposit. The oil sands are loose sand or partially consolidated sandstone containing naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, and water, saturated with a dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen (or colloquially tar due to

5

Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource and Technology Development

6

Oil shale and tar sands technology: recent developments  

SciTech Connect

The detailed, descriptive information in this book is based on US patents, issued since March 1975, that deal with the technology of oil shale and tar sands. The book contains an introductory overview of the subject. Topics included are oil shale retorting, in situ processing of oil shale, shale oil refining and purification processes, in situ processing of tar sands, tar sands separation processes.

Ranney, M.W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Penney, W.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Oil shale, tar sands, and related materials  

SciTech Connect

This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar sand industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar sands by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar sand bitumen.

Stauffer, H.C.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Five thousand one hundred forty-two citations of reports, journal articles, patents, conference papers, and monographs resulting from research on oil shales and tar sands are presented. These citations and approximately 5100 additional citations are a part of the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base. The citations, with abstracts, are arranged by subject category. Within the categories references to reports are listed in alphanumeric order by report number. Other citations follow in inverse chronological order. Five indexes are provided: Corporate, Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number.

Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs.

Westhoff, James D. (Laramie, WY); Harak, Arnold E. (Laramie, WY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar sands  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for utilizing tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar sands are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar sands are then burned at 2000/degree/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce a solid waste that is easily disposable. The process and apparatus have the advantages of being able to utilize tar sands having a broad range of bitumen content and the advantage of producing product gases that are free from combustion gases and thereby have a higher heating value. Another important advantage is rapid pyrolysis of the tar sands in the cyclone so as to effectively utilize smaller sized reactor vessels for reducing capitol and operating costs. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Westhoff, J.D.; Harak, A.E.

1988-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

12

Flotation behavior of digested asphalt ridge tar sands  

SciTech Connect

The hot water process for Utah tar sands differs from that used for Canadian tar sands due to inherent differences in respective bitumen viscosities and the nature of bitumen-sand association. Although contact angle measurements of solvent extracted Asphalt Ridge bitumen indicated moderate hydrophobicity, air bubble attachment to the bitumen concentrate is not possible. This suggests that flotation separation is dependent on air bubble entrapment. Improved separation at higher flotation temperatures was due to the decrease in bitumen viscosity. 16 refs.

Smith, R.J.; Miller, J.D.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Enhancing permeability in oil shale and applications to tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Explosive fracturing and rubblization are used to enhance oil shale permeability. Blasting strategy and results are discussed, in particular the Geokinetics blasting. The field data desired are listed. Comments are offered on the extension of the blasting techniques to tar sands. (DLC)

Schamaun, J.T.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report, July 1990--July 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Contents of this report include the following: executive summary; characterization of the native bitumen from the Whiterocks oil sand deposit; influence of carboxylic acid content on bitumen viscosity; water based oil sand separation technology; extraction of bitumen from western oil sands by an energy-efficient thermal method; large- diameter fluidized bed reactor studies; rotary kiln pyrolysis of oil sand; catalytic upgrading of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; ebullieted bed hydrotreating and hydrocracking; super critical fluid extraction; bitumen upgrading; 232 references; Appendix A--Whiterocks tar sand deposit bibliography; Appendix B--Asphalt Ridge tar sand deposit bibliography; and Appendix C--University of Utah tar sands bibliography.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Pyrolysis of Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand: Characterization of volatile compound evolution  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sunnyside (Utah) tar sand was subjected to programmed temperature pyrolysis and the volatile products were detected by tandem on-line mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in real time analyses. A heating rate of 4/degree/C/min from room temperature to 900/degree/C was employed. Evolution of hydrogen, light hydrocarbons, nitrogen-, sulfur- and oxygen-containing compounds was monitored by MS or MS/MS detection. Evolution of volatile organic compounds occurred in two regimes: 1) low temperature (maximum evolution at 150 to 175/degree C), corresponding to entrained organics, and 2) high temperature (maximum evolution at 440 to 460/degreeC), corresponding to cracking of large organic components. Pyrolysis yields were dominated by the evolution of light hydrocarbons. Alkanes and alkenes of two carbons and higher had temperatures of maximum evolution at approximately 440/degree/C, and methane at approximately 474/degree/C. Aromatic hydrocarbons had temperatures of maximum evolution slightly higher, at approximately 450/degree/C. In general, H/sub2/, CO, and CO/sub2/ exhibited evolution associated with hydrocarbon cracking reactions, and high temperature evolution associated with mineral decomposition, the water-gas shift reaction, and gasification reactions. Compared to other domestic tar sands, the gas evolution relected more mineral decomposition character for Sunnyside tar sand. 26 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.; Crawford, R.W.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Production from multiple zones of a tar sands formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating a tar sands formation includes providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat is allowed to transfer from the heaters to at least a portion of the formation. Fluids are produced from the formation through at least one production well that is located in at least two zones in the formation. The first zone has an initial permeability of at least 1 darcy. The second zone has an initial of at most 0.1 darcy. The two zones are separated by a substantially impermeable barrier.

Karanikas, John Michael; Vinegar, Harold J

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

17

Systems and methods for producing hydrocarbons from tar sands formations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. A plurality of heaters are located in the formation. The heaters include at least partially horizontal heating sections at least partially in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The heating sections are at least partially arranged in a pattern in the hydrocarbon layer. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the hydrocarbon layer. The provided heat creates a plurality of drainage paths for mobilized fluids. At least two of the drainage paths converge. A production well is located to collect and produce mobilized fluids from at least one of the converged drainage paths in the hydrocarbon layer.

Li, Ruijian (Katy, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

18

Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1990-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

19

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses. Additional information about the PEIS can be found at http://ostseis.anl.gov.

Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

22

Disjointed connections : the presidential permitting of tar sands oil pipelines at the U.S.-Canadian border.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The fuel for dynamic change in the United State’s energy relationship with Canada lies in immense deposits of tar sands beneath the boreal forests of… (more)

Tomasovic, Brian Scott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Polymer flotation and activated carbon adsorption treatment for in situ tar sand process water  

SciTech Connect

Tar sand deposits in the United States are estimated to exceed thirty billion barrels, and offer long term potential for satisfying future energy needs. At present there is no commercial scale tar sand extraction industry in the United States, although several bench and pilot scale research projects have been completed. Three of the larger field scale experiments were completed by the Department of Energy (DOE) at a site near Vernal, Utah. The first two of these efforts involved in situ combustion while the third used steam drive. This paper reviews some of the flotation configurations which were used to generate a large (350 L) volume of treated effluent as well as describing some toxicology and analytical chemistry protocols used to characterize these fluids. Additional emphasis is placed upon a series of activated carbon adsorption experiments undertaken to detoxify the flotation effluents.

Mc Ternan, W.F.; Kocornik, D.J.; Nolan, B.T.; Blanton, W.E.; Boardman, G.D.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

True in-situ bed preparation: oil shale and tar sand  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, a detailed study was conducted to evaluate the status of the bed preparation technology that had been developed for true in-situ processing of oil shale. It was concluded that the two techniques which had received the bulk of the attention in prior field experimentation, namely the wellbore springing and hydraulic/explosive fracturing concepts, both had inherent traits which would prevent them from being useful in practical applications. In the current paper, the previous results are reviewed to determine whether or not they are also applicable to tar sand. The conclusion reached is that neither technique would be practical for preparing a tar sands deposit for in-situ processing.

Boade, R. R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Recovery of heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from underground formations  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of producing heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from an underground formation. The method consists of utilizing or establishing an aqueous fluid communication path within and through the formation between an injection well or conduit and a production well or conduit by introducing into the formation from the injection well or conduit hot water and/or low quality steam at a temperature in the range about 60{sup 0}-130{sup 0}C and at a substantially neutral or alkaline pH to establish or enlarge the aqueous fluid communication path within the formation from the injection well or conduit to the production well or conduit by movement of the introduced hot water or low quality steam through the formation, increasing the temperature of the injected hot water of low quality steam to a temperature in the range about 110{sup 0}-180{sup 0}C while increasing the pH of the injected hot water or low quality steam to a pH of about 10-13 so as to bring about the movement or migration or stripping of the heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation substantially into the hot aqueous fluid communication path with the formation and recovering the resulting produced heavy crude oil or tar sand oil or bitumen from the formation as an emulsion containing less than about 30% oil or bitumen from the production well or conduit.

McKay, A.S.

1989-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

27

Class I cultural resource overview for oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah and Wyoming.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the 'Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005', Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is developing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) to evaluate alternatives for establishing commercial oil shale and tar sands leasing programs in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. This PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of alternatives identifying BLM-administered lands as available for application for commercial leasing of oil shale resources within the three states and of tar sands resources within Utah. The scope of the analysis of the PEIS also includes an assessment of the potential effects of future commercial leasing. This Class I cultural resources study is in support of the Draft Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement and is an attempt to synthesize archaeological data covering the most geologically prospective lands for oil shale and tar sands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. This report is based solely on geographic information system (GIS) data held by the Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming State Historic Preservation Offices (SHPOs). The GIS data include the information that the BLM has provided to the SHPOs. The primary purpose of the Class I cultural resources overview is to provide information on the affected environment for the PEIS. Furthermore, this report provides recommendations to support planning decisions and the management of cultural resources that could be impacted by future oil shale and tar sands resource development.

O'Rourke, D.; Kullen, D.; Gierek, L.; Wescott, K.; Greby, M.; Anast, G.; Nesta, M.; Walston, L.; Tate, R.; Azzarello, A.; Vinikour, B.; Van Lonkhuyzen, B.; Quinn, J.; Yuen, R.; Environmental Science Division

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits: state-of-knowledge  

SciTech Connect

Tar-sand petroleum-extraction procedures undergoing field testing for possible commercial application in the US include both surface (above-ground) and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface tar-sand systems currently being field tested in the US are thermal decomposition processes (retorting), and suspension methods (solvent extraction). Underground bitumen extraction procedures that are also being field tested domestically are in situ combustion and steam-injection. Environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic concerns associated with construction and operation of 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand surface and in situ facilities have been estimated and are summarized in this report. The principal regulations that commercial tar-sand facilities will need to address are also discussed, and environmental control technologies are summarized and wherever possible, projected costs of emission controls are stated. Finally, the likelihood-of-occurrence of potential environmental, health, and safety problems that have been determined are reviewed, and from this information inference is made as to the environmental acceptability of technologically feasible 20,000-bbl/d commercial tar-sand oil-extraction procedures.

Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

1982-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

29

In situ heat treatment from multiple layers of a tar sands formation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating a tar sands formation is disclosed. The method includes providing a drive fluid to a first hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation to mobilize at least some hydrocarbons in the first layer. At least some of the mobilized hydrocarbons are allowed to flow into a second hydrocarbon containing layer of the formation. Heat is provided to the second layer from one or more heaters located in the second layer. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the second layer of the formation.

Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX)

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

Speight, J.G.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

32

Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining Permitting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

" or "Gas" does not include any gaseous or liquid substance processed from coal, oil shale, or tar sands

Utah, University of

33

Technology assessment: environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with oil recovery from US tar-sand deposits  

SciTech Connect

The tar-sand resources of the US have the potential to yield as much as 36 billion barrels (bbls) of oil. The tar-sand petroleum-extraction technologies now being considered for commercialization in the United States include both surface (above ground) systems and in situ (underground) procedures. The surface systems currently receiving the most attention include: (1) thermal decomposition processes (retorting); (2) suspension methods (solvent extraction); and (3) washing techniques (water separation). Underground bitumen extraction techniques now being field tested are: (1) in situ combustion; and (2) in situ steam-injection procedures. At this time, any commercial tar-sand facility in the US will have to comply with at least 7 major federal regulations in addition to state regulations; building, electrical, and fire codes; and petroleum-industry construction standards. Pollution-control methods needed by tar-sand technologies to comply with regulatory standards and to protect air, land, and water quality will probably be similar to those already proposed for commercial oil-shale systems. The costs of these systems could range from about $1.20 to $2.45 per barrel of oil produced. Estimates of potential pollution-emisson levels affecting land, air, and water were calculated from available data related to current surface and in situ tar-sand field experiments in the US. These data were then extrapolated to determine pollutant levels expected from conceptual commercial surface and in situ facilities producing 20,000 bbl/d. The likelihood-of-occurrence of these impacts was then assessed. Experience from other industries, including information concerning health and ecosystem damage from air pollutants, measurements of ground-water transport of organic pollutants, and the effectiveness of environmental-control technologies was used to make this assessment.

Daniels, J.I.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Ricker, Y.E.

1981-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

34

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrographic study of Fe in bitumens derived from tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on bitumens extracted from tar sands from various locations (Utah, California, Kentucky, and Alberta) that were examined by size exclusion chromatography with on-line element-specific detection to study the Fe concentration as a function of size. In most cases, the resulting profiles exhibit unimodal distributions at relatively large molecular size with very similar times for maximum elution. specifically, Sunnyside (Utah) and McKittrick (California) tar-sand bitumens exhibited very intense maxima consistent with extremely high bulk Fe contents. Arroyo Grande (California) exhibited an additional maximum at very large molecular size. This size behavior of the Fe appears to correlate with the large molecular size Ni and V components eluted under the same conditions.

Reynolds, J.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (US)); Biggs, W.R. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (US))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Volatile compound evolution from the programmed temperature pyrolysis of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands at a 10 degrees C/min heating rate  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Big Clifty (Kentucky) and McKittrick (California) tar sands were pyrolyzed at a 10{degrees}C/min heating rate from room temperature to 900{degrees}C. The volatile compounds were detected on-line and in real time by tandem mass spectrometry using MS and MS/MS detection. This paper reports the programmed temperature pyrolysis behaviors of Big Clifty and McKittrick tar sands and compares their results. 48 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Characterization and utilization of hydrotreated products produced from the Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen-derived liquid  

SciTech Connect

The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the mined and crushed ore from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor. The purpose was to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variable. A sulfided nickel-molybendum on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in all experiments. Moderately severe operating conditions were employed; that is, high reaction temperature (617--680 K) high reactor pressure (11.0--17.1 MPa) and low liquid feed rate (0.18--0.77 HSV); to achieve the desired reduction in heteroatom content. Detailed chemical structures of the bitumen-derived liquid feedstock and the hydrotreated total liquid products were determined by high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses. The compounds identified in the native bitumen included isoprenoids; bicyclic, tricycle, and tetracyclic terpenoids; steranes; hopanes; and perhydro-{beta}-carotenes. In addition, normal and branched alkanes and alkenes and partially dehydrogenated hydroaromatics were identified in the bitumen-derived liquid. The dominant pyrolysis reactions were: (1) the dealkylation of long alkyl side chains to form {alpha} - and isoolefins; and (2) the cleavage of alkyl chains linking aromatic and hydroaromatic clusters. Olefinic bonds were not observed in the hydrotreated product and monoaromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant aromatic species. The properties of the jet fuel fractions from the hydrotreated products met most of the jet fuel specifications. The cetane indices indicated these fractions would be suitable for use as diesel fuels.

Tsai, C.H.; Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Characterization of Black Trona Waters and use of the waters for recovery of bitumen from US tar sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There were two principal research objectives for this project. The first objective was to characterize organic material in Black Trona Water with an emphasis on colloids and organic acids. The second objective was to determine the utility of Black Trona Water as a solvent for extracting fossil fuels from US Tar Sands. Spectroscopic studies, molecular weights and shapes of polymeric acids and behavior as a polysoap were determined. Experiments indicate that trona water is preferable to Black Trona Water as an extraction agent for tar sands. The trona water is fairly efficient at stripping bitumen from the sand with gentle heating. In trona water, the displaced bitumen is readily collected on a Teflon surface (i.e., a non-water-wetted surface) with little material dissolving in the water. In contrast, the polysoap in Black Trona Water appears to take up displaced bitumen in a detergent-like process. Separating bitumen from the polysoap would undoubtedly be very difficult. 38 references, 16 figures, 2 tables.

Barden, R.E.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Western gas sands: Technology status report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research on western gas sands is conducted by the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Technology Center to encourage the development of very low permeability gas sands in the western United States. The current search is an outgrowth of earlier Government research on tight sands in which nuclear and massive hydraulics fracturing stimulations were tested without definitive results. Based on input from the gas industry, universities, and geologic and engineering consulting firms, activites were broadened to include fundamental research and development. Consequently, the focus of the research for the last several years has been on improving diagnostic instruments for evaluating reservoir and stimulation performances, interpreting geophysical and engineering data, and stimulation techniques. Intergrated geologic studies of three depositional basins that contain tight lenticular sandstone units have also been pursued as part of this new effort. To date, the following tentative conclusions have been formulated: The permeability of the tight gas sands can be as much as three to four orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional gas deposits. Nineteen western geologic basins and trends have been identified that contain significant volumes of tight gas. Gas resources in the priority geologic basins have been estimated as follows: Piceance Basin, 420 Tcf.; Greater Green River Basin, 4971 Tcf.; and Uinta Basin, 21 Tcf. The critical parameters for successfully developing tight sandstone resources are the presence of natural fractures within a reservoir and the effective propped length of hydraulically induced fractures. Stimulation technology is presently insufficient to efficiently recover gas from lenticular, tight reservoirs. 15 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

42

Guidebook for the Use of Synfuels in Electric Utility Combustion Systems, Volume 3: Liquid Fuels Derived From Shale and Tar Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The properties of liquid fuels derived from oil shales or tar sands differ substantially and in varying degrees from those of conventional petroleum fuels. Utilities will find data and procedures in this guidebook to help them evaluate the modifications those fuels would require in their systems.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Investigation of sand consolidation using steam for the Tar Zone, Wilmington field, California.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An experimental study was carried out to better understand and optimize the process of sand consolidation using high-pH steam in wells of the Wilmington field,… (more)

Nilsen, Knut Arild

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Western Gas Sands Project. Status report  

SciTech Connect

The progress during December, 1977 of the major government sponsored endeavors undertaken to increase gas production from the low permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. The USGS is continuing geological and geophysical studies in the four major western basins to better characterize the resource base. Shipping arrangements for the core donated to the USGS by Inexco WASP (a well drilled for possible nuclear explosive stimulation in Wyoming) have been made, and cores for macrofossil and ostracode analysis from the Bowdoin Dome area have been collected. The National Laboratories, funded by DOE, are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on the development of new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling and data analysis. Field tests and demonstrations active in the Uinta and Piceance Basins are Gas Producing Enterprises (GPE) Natural Buttes, Wells No. 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, and 22; Mobil Research and Development, Well No. F-31-13G; and Rio Blanco Natural Gas Company, Well No. 498-4-1. Colorado Interstate Gas Company has initiated activity on its project with the installation of equipment, and Mitchell Energy Company's proposal to conduct an MHF test in the Cotton Valley lime gas reservoir in Texas is nearing the contract negotiation stage.

1978-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas such as tight gas, shale gas, or coal bed methane gas tolocation. Development of shale oil and gas, tar sands, coalGas hydrates will undoubtedly also be present in shales,

Moridis, G.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Coal Tar and Bedrock  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The characterization of bedrock groundwater and coal tar impacts is one of the most complicated tasks associated with managing manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This report provides an overview of the fate and transport of coal tar in bedrock and the methods available to investigate coal tar at particular sites and discusses how to develop a decision-making framework for coal tar investigations.

2007-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

47

Western gas sands project status report  

SciTech Connect

The Western Gas Sands Project Plan, Project Implementation Plans and Project Plan Document FY 78 are in various stages of preparation. Information gathering by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the initial data base for many of the project activities is nearing completion. Some base maps are complete and field investigations in the principal areas of interest are being conducted. Research and development by Energy Research Centers and National Laboratories were directed toward new tools and instrumentation systems, rock mechanics experiments, mathematical modeling, and data analysis. The Uinta Basin in Utah and Piceance Basin in Colorado have ongoing massive hydraulic fracture (MHF) experiments in the Upper Cretaceous tight gas formations. These are: CER Corporation, MHF 3; Gas Producing Enterprises, Natural Buttes No. 14, 18, 19, 20; Mobil Oil, F-31-13G; and Rio Blanco Natural Gas, 498-4-1. Colorado Interstate Gas Company has been awarded a contract to determine if productivity in low permeability reservoirs can be improved by reducing the interstitialwater saturation. They will be using two wells, the Sprague No. 1 and Miller No. 1, completed in the Dakota J formation in the Wattenberg Field in north central Colorado. All of the massive hydraulic fracture wells, with the exception of the Pacific Transmission well, have been fractured as planned. The Mobil and GPE No. 14, 18, and 20 wells show significant improvement as compared to original flow rates. The Mobil well is being tested for additional MHF treatments. Sandia Laboratories is continuing their research program in hydraulic fracturing at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS).

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

The White House & Tar Sands Remarks in front of the White House on 29 August 2011.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in structurally complex areas. A comparison of applications for conventional and unconventional oil and gas of Northern Italy where he worked on a joint project with Agip, the Italian state oil and gas company. Dr are the controlling parameters for the development of oil and gas resources, and how can these be simulated

Hansen, James E.

49

Tight gas sands study breaks down drilling and completion costs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Given the high cost to drill and complete tight gas sand wells, advances in drilling and completion technology that result in even modest cost savings to the producer have the potential to generate tremendous savings for the natural gas industry. The Gas Research Institute sponsored a study to evaluate drilling and completion costs in selected tight gas sands. The objective of the study was to identify major expenditures associated with tight gas sand development and determine their relative significance. A substantial sample of well cost data was collected for the study. Individual well cost data were collected from nearly 300 wells in three major tight gas sand formations: the Cotton Valley sand in East Texas, the Frontier sand in Wyoming, and the Wilcox sand in South Texas. The data were collected and organized by cost category for each formation. After the information was input into a data base, a simple statistical analysis was performed. The statistical analysis identified data discrepancies that were then resolved, and it helped allow conclusions to be drawn regarding drilling and completion costs in these tight sand formations. Results are presented.

Brunsman, B. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)); Saunders, B. (S.A. Holditch Associates Inc., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

50

Characterization of nickel and vanadium compounds in tar sand bitumen by UV-VIS spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography coupled with element specific detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previously, the authors examined the Ni and V in heavy crude oils, residua, and processed products by several metal speciation techniques to ascertain molecular structure and processing behavior. Two classes of metal compounds were found - metallopetroporphyrins and metallo-nonprophyrins - each having unique reactivity during processing. In efforts to better understand the binding of metals in the oil medium, they now examine NI and V in tar sand bitumens. The bitumen was solvent extracted from the sand matrix and was separated by column chromatography and the petroporphyrin content was quantitated by UV-vis spectroscopy. The petroporphyrin contents ranged from virtually none to over 36% of the total metals. Asphalt Ridge (Utah) has primarily Ni petroporphyrins; Big Clifty (Kentucky) and Athabasca (Canada) have primarily V petroporphyrins; Arroyo Grande and McKittrick (California) have roughly equal amounts of both types; and Sunnyside (Utah) has virtually none of either.

Reynolds, J.G.; Jones, E.L.; Bennett, J.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Biggs, W.R. (Chevron Research Co., Richmond, CA (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings  

SciTech Connect

An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

compressibility for coal-bed methane (CBM) reservoirs (Bumband gas, tar sands, coal bed methane etc. can proceed whengas, shale gas, or coal bed methane gas to compete in the

Moridis, G.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include tight gas sands, gas shales, and coal-bed methane.Figure 3. Although the gas-shale production grows at a

Silin, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Unconventional gas resources. [Eastern Gas Shales, Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, Methane from Geopressured Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document describes the program goals, research activities, and the role of the Federal Government in a strategic plan to reduce the uncertainties surrounding the reserve potential of the unconventional gas resources, namely, the Eastern Gas Shales, the Western Gas Sands, Coalbed Methane, and methane from Geopressured Aquifers. The intent is to provide a concise overview of the program and to identify the technical activities that must be completed in the successful achievement of the objectives.

Komar, C.A. (ed.)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report  

SciTech Connect

A summation is presented of the coring program site identification, and drilling and testing activity in the four primary study areas of the Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP). Pertinent information for January, February, and March, 1978 is included for each study area. The areas are the Northern Great Plains Province, the Greater Green River Basin, the Piceance Basin, and the Uinta Basin.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs are usually low due to poor permeability. As such, state-of-the-art technology must be used to economically develop the resource. TGS formations need to be hydraulically fractured in order to enhance the gas production rates. A majority of these reservoirs can be described as thick, multilayered gas systems. Many reservoirs are hundreds of feet thick and some are thousands of feet thick. The technology used to complete and stimulate thick, tight gas reservoirs is quite complex. It is often difficult to determine the optimum completion and stimulating techniques in thick reservoirs. The optimum methods are functions of many parameters, such as depth, pressure, temperature, in-situ stress and the number of layers. In multilayered reservoirs, it is important to include several sand layers in a single completion. The petroleum literature contains information on the various diversion techniques involved in the completion of these multilayered reservoirs. In this research, we have deduced and evaluated eight possible techniques that have been used in the oil and gas industry to divert multilayered fracture treatments in layered reservoirs. We have developed decision charts, economic analyses and computer programs that will assist completion engineers in determining which of the diversion methods are feasible for a given well stimulation. Our computer programs have been tested using case histories from the petroleum literature with results expressed in this thesis. A limited entry design program has also being developed from this research to calculate the fluid distribution into different layers when fracture treating multilayered tight gas reservoirs using the limited entry technique. The research is aimed at providing decision tools which will eventually be input into an expert advisor for well completions in tight gas reservoirs worldwide.

Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Delineation of Coal Tar Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquid and Groundwater Plumes at a Former Manufactured Gas Plant Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the results of a field investigation at a former manufactured gas plant (MGP) site in the Midwest. The focus of the investigation was delineating the distribution of coal tar (a dense nonaqueous phase liquid) and the associated dissolved-phase constituents in groundwater using a combination of analysis methodologies. The results will be used to determine remediation needs at the site.

1998-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

58

Western Gas Sands Project. Quarterly basin activities report  

SciTech Connect

A summation of information is presented on geology and drilling activity in the four primary study areas of the Western Gas Sands Project. The areas of interest are the Greater Green River Basin, the Piceance Basin, the Uinta Basin, and the Northern Great Plains Province. Drilling activity is discussed for the months of October, November, and December, 1977, with the major emphasis on wells located in low permeability sandstone areas, having significant gas production and utilizing hydraulic fracturing treatments. The drilling information was obtained primarily from ''The Rocky Mountain Region Report'' published by Petroleum Information Corporation on a daily basis. Another source of information was the ''Montana Oil and Gas Journal'' which is released weekly.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 1 -- Base program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

Smith, V.E.

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Numerical simulation of transient gas flow during underbalanced drilling into a gas sand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Shallow gas drilling has long been recognized as a serious problem in offshore operations. Low fracture gradients and shallow casing do not permit shutting- in the well. Computer simulations of gas kicks during drilling require accurate description of the gas flow rate from the formation into the wellbore. The problem is complicated by the fact that during drilling into a gas sand the effective wellbore area exposed to flow is continually changing until the formation has been completely drilled. This paper describes a numerical model developed to calculate gas flow into the wellbore while drilling underbalanced into a gas sand. A two-dimensional finite difference model of transient flow from the reservoir has been coupled with a one-dimensional finite element model of two-phase flow in the wellbore.

Berg, K.A.; Skalle, P. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Trondheim (NO)); Podio, A.L. (Dept. of Petroleum Engineering, Univ. of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (US))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Improvement of Sulphur Resistance of a Nickel-modified Catalytic Filter for Tar Removal from Biomass Gasification Gas  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work focuses on the development of catalytic candle filters for the simultaneous removal of tars and particles from the biomass gasification gas at high temperature. An improvement of sulphur resistance of the nickel-activated catalytic filter was developed by the addition of CaO. The influences of preparation procedure of catalytic filter, the ratio of Ni/CaO and the loading of Ni and CaO on the performance of the catalytic filter were investigated.

Zhang, Y.; Draelants, D.J.; Engelen, K.; Baron, G.V.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

62

Estimating the Amount of Coal Tar Weathering in Sediments by Two-Dimensional Automated-Sequential Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-GC/MS) and Comprehensive Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC/MS) Techniques — Phase III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is intended to inform scientists and engineers concerned with assessing and remediating former manufactured gas plants and other coal tar-contaminated sites. Although the report focuses on coal tar in sediment, the results are equally applicable to studies investigating and remediating coal tar, crude oil, and their by-products in the vadose zone or in ground or pore waters, as well as marine animals. The data provided in this report should allow more accurate analyses to better direct remedi...

2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

63

Heavy crude and tar sands: Hydrocarbons for the 21st century. Volume 2, Reservoir behavior, drilling and production  

SciTech Connect

Volume 2 is devoted to heavy oil reservoir behavior, production, and the drilling and completion of wells to meet the special needs of these fascinating but difficult oils and bitumens. The volume begins with four papers describing approaches to the recovery of heavy oil and to two fields subject to different recovery mechanisms. Although most heavy oil fields are produced with the assistance of steam stimulation, which commenced in Venezuela, or steam flood, many other methods for the improvement of recovery are potentially applicable. The seven reports on pilot projects examine mostly the results of studies on the dominant thermal recovery methods - steam stimulation, steam flood, and in situ combustion. The behavior of reservoirs under development through use of horizontal wells is the subject of three reports, of vertical wells, nine papers. Much is still to be teamed concerning the relative advantages of these two distinctive methods of reservoir development. The 18 reports on drilling and production are of great importance to the science and engineering of heavy oil because of the problems heavy oil causes after it is induced to flow to the well bore. Artificial lifting of the oil has traditionally centered on the use of sucker rods, but other methods, such as chamber or cavity-pump lift may prove to be efficacious. Horizontal well drilling is a logical approach to maximizing the amount of reservoir exposed to the well bore but this entails special problems in bore-hole clean-up. Heavy oils, too, pose special, frequently very difficult gravel packing problems. Sand production with heavy oil has always posed both economic and technological difficulties and major effort is devoted to overcoming them, as evidenced by the reports in this section. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Meyer, R.F. [ed.] [Geological Survey, Washington, DC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

64

Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

volumes of shale (gray), sand (yellow), gas hydrate-?lledgas hydrate-bearing zone is also bounded laterally with impermeable shaleshale section that overlies the Frio sand showing four-way closure that forms the trap for the AC818 gas

Boswell, R.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Collection of technical data for tight gas sands in support of the massive hydraulic fracturing system. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Results are presented of work performed to study case histories of logging problems/requirements in tight gas sand areas, provide production histories/completion information on selected Uinta Basin tight gas sand wells, provide geologic guidance and additional technical input for computer simulation of tight gas sand well behavior, and develop information about production histories, completion techniques and reservoir rock characteristics from selected tight gas sand key wells in the Piceance and Green River Basins. A list of gas sand wells in the Uinta Basin is included along with gas production statistics, completion and reservoir data, and well production data. (JRD)

Knutson, C.F.; Boardman, C.R.

1978-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

66

Materials Science and Engineering in the Canadian Oil Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

While people have heard about these "tar sands" in the news, relatively few know what oil sands are, and how they are extracted/processed. This presentation ...

67

Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the demand for energy worldwide increases, the oil and gas industry will need to increase recovery from unconventional gas reservoirs (UGR). UGRs include Tight Gas Sand (TGS), coalbed methane and gas shales. To economically produce UGRs, one must have adequate product price and one must use the most current technology. TGS reservoirs require stimulation as a part of the completion, so improvement of completion practices is very important. We did a thorough literature review to extract knowledge and experience about completion and stimulation technologies used in TGS reservoirs. We developed the principal design and two modules of a computer program called Tight Gas Sand Advisor (TGS Advisor), which can be used to assist engineers in making decisions while completing and stimulating TGS reservoirs. The modules include Perforation Selection and Proppant Selection. Based on input well/reservoir parameters these subroutines provide unambiguous recommendations concerning which perforation strategy(s) and what proppant(s) are applicable for a given well. The most crucial parameters from completion best-practices analyses and consultations with experts are built into TGS Advisor's logic, which mimics human expert's decision-making process. TGS Advisor's recommended procedures for successful completions will facilitate TGS development and improve economical performance of TGS reservoirs.

Bogatchev, Kirill Y

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Developing a tight gas sand advisor for completion and stimulation in tight gas reservoirs worldwide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As the demand for energy worldwide increases, the oil and gas industry will need to increase recovery from unconventional gas reservoirs (UGR). UGRs include Tight Gas Sand (TGS), coalbed methane and gas shales. To economically produce UGRs, one must have adequate product price and one must use the most current technology. TGS reservoirs require stimulation as a part of the completion, so improvement of completion practices is very important. We did a thorough literature review to extract knowledge and experience about completion and stimulation technologies used in TGS reservoirs. We developed the principal design and two modules of a computer program called Tight Gas Sand Advisor (TGS Advisor), which can be used to assist engineers in making decisions while completing and stimulating TGS reservoirs. The modules include Perforation Selection and Proppant Selection. Based on input well/reservoir parameters these subroutines provide unambiguous recommendations concerning which perforation strategy(s) and what proppant(s) are applicable for a given well. The most crucial parameters from completion best-practices analyses and consultations with experts are built into TGS Advisor’s logic, which mimics human expert’s decision-making process. TGS Advisor’s recommended procedures for successful completions will facilitate TGS development and improve economical performance of TGS reservoirs.

Bogatchev, Kirill Y.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The evaluation of waterfrac technology in low-permeability gas sands in the East Texas basin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The petroleum engineering literature clearly shows that large proppant volumes and concentrations are required to effectively stimulate low-permeability gas sands. To pump large proppant concentrations, one must use a viscous fluid. However, many operators believe that low-viscosity, low-proppant concentration fracture stimulation treatments known as ??waterfracs?? produce comparable stimulation results in low-permeability gas sands and are preferred because they are less expensive than gelled fracture treatments. This study evaluates fracture stimulation technology in tight gas sands by using case histories found in the petroleum engineering literature and by using a comparison of the performance of wells stimulated with different treatment sizes in the Cotton Valley sands of the East Texas basin. This study shows that large proppant volumes and viscous fluids are necessary to optimally stimulate tight gas sand reservoirs. When large proppant volumes and viscous fluids are not successful in stimulating tight sands, it is typically because the fracture fluids have not been optimal for the reservoir conditions. This study shows that waterfracs do produce comparable results to conventional large treatments in the Cotton Valley sands of the East Texas basin, but we believe it is because the conventional treatments have not been optimized. This is most likely because the fluids used in conventional treatments are not appropriate or have not been used appropriately for Cotton Valley conditions.

Tschirhart, Nicholas Ray

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Market model finds tight gas sands R and D offers most promise  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unconventional natural gas (UNG) - primarily tight gas sands - offers by far the largest opportunity for reducing gas costs between now and 2000, a team of researchers reported at the Sept. 1984 International Gas Research conference in Washington, DC. The promises of UNG R and D far outweigh those of synthetic natural gas (SNG), the researchers concluded, but stressed that SNG R and D should nonetheless continue - but with a different focus and changed performance goals.

Not Available

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

71

Catalytic Steam Reforming of Gasifier Tars: On-Line Monitoring of Tars with a Transportable Molecular-Beam Mass Spectrometer; Milestone Completion Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A method for evaluating catalytic tar decomposition in real time is presented. The effectiveness of two catalysts are compared. A key technical and economic barrier to commercialization of biomass gasification technologies is the removal of tars that are unavoidably formed in this thermochemical process. Tars contain fuel value; however, they are problematic in gas engines (both reciprocating and turbine) because they condense in the fuel delivery system, forming deposits that negatively affect operation and efficiency. These tars also combust with high luminosity, potentially forming soot particles. The conventional technology for tar removal is wet scrubbing. Although this approach has shown some success, there are significant equipment and operating costs associated with it. In order to prevent the generation of toxic wastewater, the tars must be separated and either disposed as hazardous waste or, preferably, combusted in the gasification plant. A conceptually better approach is catalytic steam reforming of the tars to hydrogen and carbon monoxide (CO), effectively increasing the gasification efficiency and eliminating the problems mentioned above. In FY2000, Battelle Columbus Laboratories attempted to demonstrate integrated gasification-gas turbine operation using catalytic steam reforming of tars. NREL participated in those tests using the transportable molecular-beam mass spectrometer (TMBMS) to monitor the catalytic reactor's performance on-line [10]. Unfortunately, the pilot plant tests encountered operational problems that prevented conclusive determination of the efficacy of the selected catalyst (Battelle's DN34). In FY2001, NREL performed on-site tar steam reforming tests using a slip-stream of hot pyrolysis gas from the Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU), which was directed to a bench-scale fluidized bed reactor system designed expressly for this purpose. Supporting this effort, the TMBMS was employed to provide on-line analysis of the tar conversion. The gas composition changes were monitored by two identical gas chromatographs (GCs), and modified method 5 sampling was performed to obtain gravimetric conversion data. The combination of these analytical techniques provided definitive catalyst performance data, as well as linkage to previous and on-going work elsewhere. Two catalysts were tested: nickel (Ni) on potassium promoted alumina (Sued-Chemie C11-NK), used commercially for naphtha steam reforming, and alumina (Battelle's DN34) claimed to be effective for gasifier tar decomposition. In addition, sand was tested as an inert reference material.

Carpenter, D.; Ratcliff, M.; Dayton, D.

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Economics of tight sands gas extraction as affected by r and d. Occasional pub  

SciTech Connect

The paper examines the economics and resource potential of tight sand formations as a major near-term source of unconventional gas. The main vehicles for analyzing the issues to date are the 1980 study by the National Petroleum Council (NPC) on tight sand resources and two studies based on the NPC's work at different stages of completion for the GRI Center for Energy Systems Analysis (CESA).

Rosenberg, J.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

A unique set of high-quality downhole shallow subsurface well log data combined with industry standard 3D seismic data from the Alaminos Canyon area has enabled the first detailed description of a concentrated gas hydrate accumulation within sand in the Gulf of Mexico. The gas hydrate occurs within very fine grained, immature volcaniclastic sands of the Oligocene Frio sand. Analysis of well data acquired from the Alaminos Canyon Block 818 No.1 ('Tigershark') well shows a total gas hydrate occurrence 13 m thick, with inferred gas hydrate saturation as high as 80% of sediment pore space. Average porosity in the reservoir is estimated from log data at approximately 42%. Permeability in the absence of gas hydrates, as revealed from the analysis of core samples retrieved from the well, ranges from 600 to 1500 millidarcies. The 3-D seismic data reveals a strong reflector consistent with significant increase in acoustic velocities that correlates with the top of the gas-hydrate-bearing sand. This reflector extends across an area of approximately 0.8 km{sup 2} and delineates the minimal probable extent of the gas hydrate accumulation. The base of the inferred gas-hydrate zone also correlates well with a very strong seismic reflector that indicates transition into units of significantly reduced acoustic velocity. Seismic inversion analyses indicate uniformly high gas-hydrate saturations throughout the region where the Frio sand exists within the gas hydrate stability zone. Numerical modeling of the potential production of natural gas from the interpreted accumulation indicates serious challenges for depressurization-based production in settings with strong potential pressure support from extensive underlying aquifers.

Boswell, R.D.; Shelander, D.; Lee, M.; Latham, T.; Collett, T.; Guerin, G.; Moridis, G.; Reagan, M.; Goldberg, D.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Integration of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Technology with Oil Sands Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarizes an evaluation of siting an HTGR plant in a remote area supplying steam, electricity and high temperature gas for recovery and upgrading of unconventional crude oil from oil sands. The area selected for this evaluation is the Alberta Canada oil sands. This is a very fertile and active area for bitumen recovery and upgrading with significant quantities piped to refineries in Canada and the U.S Additionally data on the energy consumption and other factors that are required to complete the evaluation of HTGR application is readily available in the public domain. There is also interest by the Alberta oil sands producers (OSP) in identifying alternative energy sources for their operations. It should be noted, however, that the results of this evaluation could be applied to any similar oil sands area.

L.E. Demick

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Geomechanics of subsurface sand production and gas storage .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Improving methods of hydrocarbon production and developing new techniques for the creation of natural gas storage facilities are critically important for the petroleum industry. This… (more)

Choi, Jong-Won

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Western Gas Sands Project: Northern Great Plains Province review  

SciTech Connect

The synopsis outlines the Upper Cretaceous low permeability natural (biogenic) gas formations of the Northern Great Plains Province (NGPP) of Montana, Wyoming, North and South Dakota. The main objectives are to present a general picture of that stratigraphy, significant structures, and natural gas potential.

Newman, III, H E [comp.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Wilcox formation evaluation; Improved procedures for tight-gas-sand evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses risks in tight-gas-sand evaluation, reduced by defining relationships between pore geometry and critical water saturations. These results are integrated with log interpretation to derive an estimated kh that compares favorably with a true kh from production tests. These procedures are potentially applicable for evaluating other complex reservoirs.

Lewis, D.J.; Perrin, J.D. (BP Exploration Inc., Houston, TX (US))

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

Maria Cecilia Bravo

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying possible relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. Based on a critical review of the available literature, a better understanding of the main weaknesses of the current state of the art of modeling and simulation for tight sand reservoirs has been reached. Progress has been made in the development and implementation of a simple reservoir simulator that is still able to overcome some of the deficiencies detected. The simulator will be used to quantify the impact of microscopic phenomena in the macroscopic behavior of tight sand gas reservoirs. Phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization are being considered as part of this study. To date, the adequate modeling of gas slippage in porous media has been determined to be of great relevance in order to explain unexpected fluid flow behavior in tight sand reservoirs.

Maria Cecilia Bravo; Mariano Gurfinkel

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Effect of cavitation on the properties of coal-tar pitch as studied by gas-liquid chromatography  

SciTech Connect

The applicability of the cavitation-wave effect to coal-tar pitch processing is considered. The results of the GLC analysis of the test material before and after rotor-pulsation cavitation treatment are given. The organic matter of coal-tar pitch was found to degrade upon cavitation; as a result of this, the yields of light and medium fractions considerably increased. 5 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

M.I. Baikenov; T.B. Omarbekov; S.K. Amerkhanova (and others) [Buketov State University, Karaganda (Kazakhstan)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

82

Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pore space. Although the grains in tight sand samples do notfluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predictflow properties of tight sand imply that a small amount of

Silin, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Western Gas Sands Subprogram. Status report, October-November-December 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The progress during October, November and December 1982 of government-sponsored projects to increase gas production from low permeability gas sands of the Western United States, is summarized in this edition of the Western Gas Sands Subprogram (WGSS) Quarterly Status Report. During the quarter, major changes were made in the management of the subprogram. Personnel in the Division of Petroleum Projects Management at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) assumed the role of management for the Western Gas Sands Subprogram that had been performed by the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC). BETC continued in-house research on the fluid and proppant problems of fracture conductivity, and management of the Multi-Well Experiment (MWX). Owing to economic constraints, all efforts at the Sandia National Laboratory that were not directly related to the performance of MWX were terminated. The projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Los Alamos National Laboratory were reduced by approximately 50 percent. The efforts at the USGS were reduced by 70 percent. Significant progress was made in the MWX project. Both the Upper and Lower Cozzette zones were production tested. Interference tests run on the Upper Cozzette showed much higher in situ permeability than core and log analysis indicated. This higher permeability has been attributed to the natural fractures. The site was closed for the winter on December 22 and the test trailer moved to CER Corporation, Las Vegas, for maintenance and upgrading. 40 figures, 16 tables.

Crawley, A. (comp.)

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Research investigations in oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, and advanced fuels research: Volume 2 -- Jointly sponsored research program. Final report, October 1986--September 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Numerous studies have been conducted in five principal areas: oil shale, tar sand, underground coal gasification, advanced process technology, and advanced fuels research. In subsequent years, underground coal gasification was broadened to be coal research, under which several research activities were conducted that related to coal processing. The most significant change occurred in 1989 when the agreement was redefined as a Base Program and a Jointly Sponsored Research Program (JSRP). Investigations were conducted under the Base Program to determine the physical and chemical properties of materials suitable for conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, to test and evaluate processes and innovative concepts for such conversions, to monitor and determine environmental impacts related to development of commercial-sized operations, and to evaluate methods for mitigation of potential environmental impacts. This report is divided into two volumes: Volume 1 consists of 28 summaries that describe the principal research efforts conducted under the Base Program in five topic areas. Volume 2 describes tasks performed within the JSRP. Research conducted under this agreement has resulted in technology transfer of a variety of energy-related research information. A listing of related publications and presentations is given at the end of each research topic summary. More specific and detailed information is provided in the topical reports referenced in the related publications listings.

Smith, V.E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas, liquid crude oil, shale oil, tars and bitumen (Scragg,gas, liquid crude oil, shale oil, tars and bitumen (Scragg,

Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Tight Western Sands  

SciTech Connect

Results of a study to identify and evaluate potential public health and safety problems and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Tight Western Sands are reported. A brief discussion of economic and technical constraints to development of this resource is also presented to place the environmental and safety issues in perspective. A description of the resource base, recovery techniques, and possible environmental effects associated with tight gas sands is presented.

Riedel, E.F.; Cowan, C.E.; McLaughlin, T.J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands: 1986 annual report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents progress for the second year of a five-year project concerned with the pore structure and flow properties of low permeability gas sands. The main objective of work during the first year was to carry out advanced core analysis on cores recovered from the Multi-Well Field Experiment. In Phase 2, the properties of both fractured and non-fractured samples (hereafter referred to as matrix) have been studied. Special attention was given to the combined effect of overburden pressure and water saturation on gas flow. 11 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

Morrow, N.R.; Buckley, J.S.; Cather, S.M.; Brower, K.R.; Dandge, V.; Graham, M.; Gonzales, B.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Tight gas sands are unconventional hydrocarbon energy resource storing large volume of natural gas. Microscopy and 3D imaging of reservoir samples at different scales and resolutions provide insights into the coaredo not significantly smaller in size than conventional sandstones, the extremely dense grain packing makes the pore space tortuous, and the porosity is small. In some cases the inter-granular void space is presented by micron-scale slits, whose geometry requires imaging at submicron resolutions. Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations simulate different scenarios of capillary-equilibrium two-phase fluid displacement. For tight sands, the simulations predict an unusually low wetting fluid saturation threshold, at which the non-wetting phase becomes disconnected. Flow simulations in combination with Maximal Inscribed Spheres computations evaluate relative permeability curves. The computations show that at the threshold saturation, when the nonwetting fluid becomes disconnected, the flow of both fluids is practically blocked. The nonwetting phase is immobile due to the disconnectedness, while the permeability to the wetting phase remains essentially equal to zero due to the pore space geometry. This observation explains the Permeability Jail, which was defined earlier by others. The gas is trapped by capillarity, and the brine is immobile due to the dynamic effects. At the same time, in drainage, simulations predict that the mobility of at least one of the fluids is greater than zero at all saturations. A pore-scale model of gas condensate dropout predicts the rate to be proportional to the scalar product of the fluid velocity and pressure gradient. The narrowest constriction in the flow path is subject to the highest rate of condensation. The pore-scale model naturally upscales to the Panfilov's Darcy-scale model, which implies that the condensate dropout rate is proportional to the pressure gradient squared. Pressure gradient is the greatest near the matrix-fracture interface. The distinctive two-phase flow properties of tight sand imply that a small amount of gas condensate can seriously affect the recovery rate by blocking gas flow. Dry gas injection, pressure maintenance, or heating can help to preserve the mobility of gas phase. A small amount of water can increase the mobility of gas condensate.

Silin, D.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Ajo-Franklin, J.B.; Nico, P.

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

www.tyndall.ac.uk Shale gas: an updated assessment of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as oil derived from tar sands. Nevertheless, there are several routes by which shale gas extraction maywww.tyndall.ac.uk Shale gas: an updated assessment of environmental and climate change impacts Summary This report, commissioned by The Co-operative, is an update on our January report, Shale gas

Matthews, Adrian

90

Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic fracturing is essential for producing gas and oil at an economic rate from low permeability sands. Most fracturing treatments use water and polymers with a gelling agent as a fracturing fluid. The water is held in the small pore spaces by capillary pressure and is not recovered when drawdown pressures are low. The un-recovered water leaves a water saturated zone around the fracture face that stops the flow of gas into the fracture. This is a particularly acute problem in low permeability formations where capillary pressures are high. Depletion (lower reservoir pressures) causes a limitation on the drawdown pressure that can be applied. A hydraulic fracturing process can be energized by the addition of a compressible, sometimes soluble, gas phase into the treatment fluid. When the well is produced, the energized fluid expands and gas comes out of solution. Energizing the fluid creates high gas saturation in the invaded zone, thereby facilitating gas flowback. A new compositional hydraulic fracturing model has been created (EFRAC). This is the first model to include changes in composition, temperature, and phase behavior of the fluid inside the fracture. An equation of state is used to evaluate the phase behavior of the fluid. These compositional effects are coupled with the fluid rheology, proppant transport, and mechanics of fracture growth to create a general model for fracture creation when energized fluids are used. In addition to the fracture propagation model, we have also introduced another new model for hydraulically fractured well productivity. This is the first and only model that takes into account both finite fracture conductivity and damage in the invaded zone in a simple analytical way. EFRAC was successfully used to simulate several fracture treatments in a gas field in South Texas. Based on production estimates, energized fluids may be required when drawdown pressures are smaller than the capillary forces in the formation. For this field, the minimum CO{sub 2} gas quality (volume % of gas) recommended is 30% for moderate differences between fracture and reservoir pressures (2900 psi reservoir, 5300 psi fracture). The minimum quality is reduced to 20% when the difference between pressures is larger, resulting in additional gas expansion in the invaded zone. Inlet fluid temperature, flow rate, and base viscosity did not have a large impact on fracture production. Finally, every stage of the fracturing treatment should be energized with a gas component to ensure high gas saturation in the invaded zone. A second, more general, sensitivity study was conducted. Simulations show that CO{sub 2} outperforms N{sub 2} as a fluid component because it has higher solubility in water at fracturing temperatures and pressures. In fact, all gas components with higher solubility in water will increase the fluid's ability to reduce damage in the invaded zone. Adding methanol to the fracturing solution can increase the solubility of CO{sub 2}. N{sub 2} should only be used if the gas leaks-off either during the creation of the fracture or during closure, resulting in gas going into the invaded zone. Experimental data is needed to determine if the gas phase leaks-off during the creation of the fracture. Simulations show that the bubbles in a fluid traveling across the face of a porous medium are not likely to attach to the surface of the rock, the filter cake, or penetrate far into the porous medium. In summary, this research has created the first compositional fracturing simulator, a useful tool to aid in energized fracture design. We have made several important and original conclusions about the best practices when using energized fluids in tight gas sands. The models and tools presented here may be used in the future to predict behavior of any multi-phase or multi-component fracturing fluid system.

Mukul Sharma; Kyle Friehauf

2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Integration of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a preliminary comparison of conventional and potential HTGR-integrated processesa in several common industrial areas: ? Producing electricity via a traditional power cycle ? Producing hydrogen ? Producing ammonia and ammonia-derived products, such as fertilizer ? Producing gasoline and diesel from natural gas or coal ? Producing substitute natural gas from coal, and ? Steam-assisted gravity drainage (extracting oil from tar sands).

Lee Nelson

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effect of reformer conditions on catalytic reforming of biomass-gasification tars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parametric tests on catalytic reforming of tars produced in biomass gasification are performed using a bench-scale, fluid-bed catalytic reformer containing a commercial nickel-based catalyst. The product gas composition and yield vary with reformer temperature, space time, and steam: biomass ratio. Under certain catalytic tar reforming conditions, the gas yield increases by 70%; 97% of the tars are cracked into gases; and benzene and naphthalene, the predominant tar species, are virtually eliminated from the product gas.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Investigation of coal tar mobility at a former MGP site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The presence of coal tar in the subsurface of former manufactured gas plant sites poses an environmental hazard and a potential threat to public health. Coal tar can release various chemical compounds that are transported into the groundwater. Before any efforts can be made to remove coal tar from contaminated subsurface soils, it is recommended to characterize coal tar properties and composition and to delineate the residual saturation point between mobile and immobile coal tar. This paper presents a new innovative field device, the Res-SAT field tool, and laboratory procedures that can be used to determine the saturation-capillary pressure relationship for a soil-water coal-tar system and the critical pressure for coal tar mobility.

Moo-Young, H.K.; Mo, X.H.; Waterman, R.; Coleman, A.; Saroff, S. [California State University Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

94

Storms of My Grandchildren's Opa 13 December 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and unconventional fossil fuel (tar sands, tar shale, fracked gas) in the ground. Background: Unhelpful

Hansen, James E.

95

Uinta Basin Oil and Gas Development Air Quality Constraints  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Production EASTERN UTAH BLM Proposed Leasing for Oil Shale and Tar Sands Development "Indian Country" ­ Regulatory Authority Controlled by the Tribes and EPA Oil Shale Leasing Tar Sands Leasing "Indian Country

Utah, University of

96

Monitored natural attenuation of manufactured gas plant tar mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water: a 14-year field study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Site 24 was the subject of a 14-year (5110-day) study of a ground water plume created by the disposal of manufactured gas plant (MGP) tar into a shallow sandy aquifer approximately 25 years prior to the study. The ground water plume in 1988 extended from a well-defined source area to a distance of approximately 400 m down gradient. A system of monitoring wells was installed along six transects that ran perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the plume centerline. The MGP tar source was removed from the site in 1991 and a 14-year ground water monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study commenced. The program measured the dissolved mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) periodically over time, which decreased significantly over the 14-year period. Naphthalene decreased to less than 99% of the original dissolved mass, with mass degradation rates of 0.30 per year (half-life 2.3 years). Bulk attenuation rate constants for plume centerline concentrations over time ranged from 0.33 {+-} 0.09 per year (half-life 2.3 {+-} 0.8 years) for toluene and 0.45 {+-} 0.06 per year (half-life 1.6 {+-} 0.2 years) for naphthalene. The hydrogeologic setting at Site 24, having a sandy aquifer, shallow water table, clay confining layer, and aerobic conditions, was ideal for demonstrating MNA. However, these results demonstrate that MNA is a viable remedial strategy for ground water at sites impacted by MAHs and PAHs after the original source is removed, stabilized, or contained.

Neuhauser, E.F.; Ripp, J.A.; Azzolina, N.A.; Madsen, E.L.; Mauro, D.M.; Taylor, T. [Foth Infrastructure & Environment LLC, Green Bay, WI (United States)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Evaluation of water production in tight gas sands in the Cotton Valley formation in the Caspiana, Elm Grove and Frierson fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Normally in tight gas sands, water production is not a problem but in such low permeability reservoirs it is difficult to produce gas at commercial flow rates. Since water is more viscous than gas, very little water is normally produced in low permeability reservoirs. The production of large volumes of water from tight gas sands, say 50-100 bbls of water per MMcf of gas constitutes a cause for concern. High water production (>200 bbls of water per MMcf of gas) has been observed in the low permeability Cotton Valley sands in the Caspiana, Elm Grove and Frierson fields of North Louisiana. This research evaluates water production in the above tight gas sands using field data provided by Matador Resource, a member of the Crisman Institute in Texas A&M university. The research is aimed at providing realistic reservoir scenarios of excess water production in tight gas sands. Log analysis, property trends and well production profiles have been used in establishing the different scenarios. The reservoir simulation results and the production trends show a possible water source from faults and fractures connecting the Travis Peak/Smackover sands to the Cotton Valley sands. An improved understanding of the reservoir would help in further field development.

Ozobeme, Charles Chinedu

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Numerical modeling of gas migration into and through faulted sand reservoirs in Pabst Field (Main Pass East Block 259), northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The further exploration and development of Pabst Gas Field with faulted sand reservoirs require an understanding of the properties and roles of faults, particularly Low Throw near Vertical Faults (LTNVFs), in gas migration and accumulation at a reservoir scale. This study presents numerical modeling of gas migration and accumulation processes in Pabst Field. Based on studies of the reservoirs, structure, faults, and fluid properties of the field, reservoir scale modeling was performed to determine the gas supply style and the fault properties by means of hundreds of iterations in which the fault properties and gas supply pattern were modified to match the gas distribution obtained from modeling with the gas distribution inferred from seismic data constrained by well data and production data. This study finds that in the main three sand reservoirs of Pabst Field the overlying younger sands cut down into the underlying older sands, so that partial connections between the three sands allow gas communication among the sands. Meanwhile, three fault families break up the three sands into numerous compartments. A primary fault and large synthetic and antithetic faults act as gas migration pathways: the synthetic and antithetic faults are inlets for gas flow and the primary fault is an outlet, and LTNVFs act as barriers to gas flow. Modeling requires fault properties in the field to change while the field is formed. The porosity and permeability of the faults in Pabst Field are 10% and 0.1 md, respectively, during gas charging of the sand reservoirs. But when there is no gas charging and large gas columns are maintained, the porosity and permeability of the faults decrease to 6% and 0.001 md, respectively. Pabst Field probably has an impulse gas charge history. Fault opening and closing, gas charge and recharge, and replacement of gas by formation water may occur. A combination of stratigraphy, structure, overpressure and gas charge rate control gas migration style, gas charge history, and gas distribution in the field. The significance of the study is that this improved numerical approach for modeling gas migration into and through specifically faulted sand reservoirs fills the gap between basin modeling and production modeling.

Li, Yuqian

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Carbon sequestration in natural gas reservoirs: Enhanced gas recovery and natural gas storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by numerical simulation below. pipeline gas shalecushion gas sand shale CH4 working gas CH4 working gas sand

Oldenburg, Curtis M.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Literature Review: Asphalt Batching of MGP Tar-Containing Soil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of its manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites research effort, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is committed to developing and applying scientific and technological information to address the issues of remediation, treatment, and recycling of soils containing MGP tar and related organic compounds. This report deals with the issue of using MGP tar-containing soils in the manufacture of asphalt products.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

OIL and GAS ENGINEERING Page 1 of 3 2009/2010 Curriculum  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

% of unconventional resources (blue) Figure 1 helps make clear why the tar sands and other unconventional fossil fuels are important. The purple bars show the total emissions to date from the conventional fossil fuels (oil, gas of the CO2 increase from 280 to 391 ppm. The blue bar is 50% of known unconventional fossil fuel (UFF

Calgary, University of

102

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal-to-liquids, and oil shale. This shift could potentiallyresources (coal, NG, oil shale, tar sands) used in producing

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Pore-scale mechanisms of gas flow in tight sand reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

adjacent fractures. Natural gas composition consists mostlyNatural gas is called wet or dry depending on how large is the lique?able portion of gas composition.

Silin, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Continuity and permeability development in the tight gas sands of the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The relationships between reservoir characteristics and flow regimes exhibited by twenty-one Uinta Basin gas wells represent fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposits. Production data were analyzed to determine the type of flow for each well. This analysis indicated that one well exhibits radial flow, thirteen wells linear flow, and seven wells indeterminate flow regimes. Values of SSP, ..delta..t, R/sub w/ and SP curve patterns were determined from well logs. These data were compared for the three types of flow observed. It appears that SSP, R/sub w/ and SP pattern may be useful in qualitatively distinguishing between sands of low continuity and those with moderate continuity. The permeabilities are considerably higher than those normally attributed to ''tight sands.'' Also permeability correlates inversely with the number of sands completed in each well. Consideration of the orientations of linear features in the area and those of reservoir lenses in outcrops indicates that the relationship between frac orientation and lens geometry cannot be effectively predicted without a good technique to predict lens orientation. Completion strategies to optimize frac efficiency are suggested, based upon the findings of this study.

Knutson, C.F.; Boardman, C.R.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and quantification of gas hydrates using rock physics andAdvances in the Study of Gas Hydrates. Kluwer, New York, pp.2008. Fracture-controlled gas hydrate systems in the Gulf of

Boswell, R.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Hydraulic fracture productivity performance in tight gas sands, a numerical simulation approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Hydraulically fractured tight gas reservoirs are one of the most common unconventional sources being produced today, and look to be a regular source of gas… (more)

Ostojic, Jakov

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Reduction of Ammonia and Tar in Pressurized Biomass Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present paper intended to present the results of parametric study of the formation of ammonia and tar under pressurized gasification conditions. By the use of multivariate data analysis, the effects of operating parameters were determined and their influences could be quantified. In order to deal with cases in which high levels of ammonia and tar were produced, study of catalytic hot gas cleaning was performed, aiming to discuss the removal efficiency and test catalysts.

Wang, W.; Olofsson, G.

2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

108

DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK FOR HYDRAULICALLY FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS IN TIGHT GAS SANDS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Increasing demand on fossil fuels and the decline in their production promote producing hydrocarbon from unconventional sources. Natural gas existing in tight reservoirs has a… (more)

Kulga, Ihsan

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Cowards in Our Democracies: Part 1 27 January 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from tar sands and tar shale; hydro-fracking to expand extraction of natural gas; and increased mining; squeezing of oil from tar sands and tar shale; hydro- fracking to expand extraction of natural gas

Hansen, James E.

110

Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrate systems in the Gulf of Mexico. Marine and Petroleumof the northern Gulf of Mexico gas-hydrate-stability zone.Cold seeps of the deep Gulf of Mexico: community structure

Boswell, R.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Centrifuge treatment of coal tar  

SciTech Connect

New technology is required for the removal of water and heavy fractions from regular coal tar. Centrifuges offer the best option. Purification of coal tar by means of centrifuges at OAO NLMK permits the production of pitch coke or electrode pitch that complies with current standards.

L.A. Kazak; V.Z. Kaidalov; L.F. Syrova; O.S. Miroshnichenko; A.S. Minakov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

112

NETL: Oil and Natural Gas: Enhanced Oil Recovery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that have unconventional characteristics (e.g., oil in fractured shales, kerogen in oil shale, bitumen in tar sands) constitute an enormous potential domestic supply of energy....

113

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. The program is divided into seven major technical areas: tar evolution rates in rapid heating conditions; molecular weight and vapor pressure characteristics of tars; chemical structure and calorific values of tars; influence of interphase mass transport phenomena; gas phase secondary reactions of primary'' tars; parent coal nitrogen evolution during devolatilization; and model hypothesis testing. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characteristics, calorific value, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Consideration is being given to NMR analysis as well as tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubility. Results are discussed. 4 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Rock matrix and fracture analysis of flow in western tight gas sands  

SciTech Connect

Advanced core analysis includes measurements on the matrix properties of the rock. Matrix properties are important even in fractured wells since it is these properties which determine the rate of gas flow into the fractures. Cores are being tested from the fluvial, coastal, and paludal zones of the Mesaverde. At least two cores from each of these zones from all three wells will be analyzed. Properties measured include permeability as a function of confining pressure over the range of 500 to 5000 psi. A minimum of two Klinkenberg permeabilities are being determined from at least five data points. Interpretation includes estimates of pore size from gas slippage. Water adsorption and desorption isotherms will be determined for selected samples with data points being obtained at the following relative humidities: 0, 20, 40, 60, 75, 90, 92, 95 and 98. Porosity measurements from both thin section examination and volumetric measurements are being made. These results will be compared with the porosities of the cored internals determined from logs.

Morrow, N.R.; Brower, K.R.; Ward, J.S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

THE EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON OXIDATION KINETICS OF TAR FROM A TARMAT RESERVOIR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the pressure differential across the tarmat could build up to a level that might cause the tar seal to beak). The pipe was #12;sealed at both ends by flanges and copper O-rings. A 1.6-mm OD, stainless steel tube. About 20 g of clean sand were placed on top of the mixture to help preheat and distribute air flow

Abu-Khamsin, Sidqi

116

Hydraulic fracture model and diagnostics verification at GRI/DOE multi-site projects and tight gas sand program support. Final report, July 28, 1993--February 28, 1997  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mesaverde Group of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado has been a pilot study area for government-sponsored tight gas sand research for over twenty years. Early production experiments included nuclear stimulations and massive hydraulic fracture treatments. This work culminated in the US Department of Energy (DOE)`s Multiwell Experiment (MWX), a field laboratory designed to study the reservoir and production characteristics of low permeability sands. A key feature of MWX was an infrastructure which included several closely spaced wells that allowed detailed characterization of the reservoir through log and core analysis, and well testing. Interference and tracer tests, as well as the use of fracture diagnostics gave further information on stimulation and production characteristics. Thus, the Multiwell Experiment provided a unique opportunity for identifying the factors affecting production from tight gas sand reservoirs. The purpose of this operation was to support the gathering of field data that may be used to resolve the number of unknowns associated with measuring and modeling the dimensions of hydraulic fractures. Using the close-well infrastructure at the Multiwell Site near Rifle, Colorado, this operation focused primarily on the field design and execution of experiments. The data derived from the experiments were gathered and analyzed by DOE team contractors.

Schroeder, J.E.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

117

Review of the Literature on Catalytic Biomass Tar Destruction: Milestone Completion Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A summary of literature pertaining to catalytic biomass gasification''tar'' destruction, an overview of catalysts studied, and an evaluation of the future potential for this gas cleaning technology.

Dayton, D.

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Overview - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

... (tar sands, oil shales) or created liquids (gas-to-liquids, coal oil). Canadian and Venezuelan heavy oil and tar sands and similar deposits are ...

119

Development of a tar decomposition model for application in a Chemical-Looping Reformer operated with raw gas from a biomass gasifier.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The production of Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG) represents one of the promising alternatives for biofuel manufacture. The transport sector is where SNG has been identified… (more)

Pestana, Maria Inęs

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Silica Sand  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the molds and cores in foundries that make steel castings, and for casting gray iron, brass, aluminum and magnesium metals. Since silica sand has a very high melting point, it is...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

GJO-2001-208-TAR  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

GJO-2001-208-TAR GJO-2001-208-TAR MAC-GWSHP 11.7-1 UMTRA Ground Water Project Biological Assessment for Ground Water Remediation at the Shiprock Site Final April 2001 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Project Number UGW-511-0020-26-000 Document Number U0118600 Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-966587335 This Page Intentionally Blank Contents Page . Introduction ................................................................................................................................... 1 Background .................................................................................................................................. 1 ........................................................................................................................ Action Summary 3

122

Cowards in Our Democracies: Part 2 28 January 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from tar sands and tar shale; hydro-fracking to expand extraction of natural gas; and increased mining advertisements for clean coal, clean tar sands (sanitized as "oil sands"), clean gas fracking. However, no matter, tar sands pipelines, gas fracking. But the only lasting solution, and the only one that will save

Hansen, James E.

123

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Associated Offshore Tight Sands Production Rate (Mcf/day)Holditch, S. 2006. Tight Gas Sands. Society of Petroleumshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Technical and Economic Evaluation of Coal Tar Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Pumping Techniques  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry has become aware of potential environmental issues at some sites resulting from process residues or byproducts at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. One of the greatest challenges utility managers face in the management of these sites is the subsurface presence of coal tar, dense-non aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL). This report, which explores the technical feasibility and life cycle costs for several coal tar DNAPL pumping alternatives, is intended to assist utilities in evalua...

2000-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

125

GJO-2000-163-TAR  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

63-TAR 63-TAR MAC-MSG 2.2.5 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operable Unit I l l Interim Remedial Action Progress Report July 1999 - July 2000 September 2000 Work Performed Under DOE Conlracl No. DE-AC13-96GJ87335 for the U.S. Departmenf of Energy Approved lorpublic release; dislribullon is unlimiled. MAC-MSG 2.2.5 Monticello Mill Tailings Site Operabig Unit 1 1 1 Interim Remedial Action Progress Report July 1999-July 2000 September 2000 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office Grand Junction Office Project Number MSG-035-001 1-01-000 Document Number Q0019700 Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-96GJ87335 Task Order Number MAC00-03 Documcnt Number Q0019700 Signature Page Signature Page Interim Remedial Action Work Plan

126

GJO-2000-183-TAR  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

83-TAR 83-TAR LREP 6.1.13 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program 2000 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites January 200 1 Work Performed Under DOE Conlnccf Na DE-AC13-96GJ87335 lor Uw U.S. Deparlmenf of Energ) Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. , . This file contains inspection data for the Shiprock Site only. Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program 2000 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites January 2001 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Albuquerque Operations Office Grand Junction, Colorado Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-96GJ87335 Task Order Number MAC 01 -06

127

Transportation Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in oil shale, ethanol, coal liquids and gases, and tar sandsfrom coal and oil shale, domestic natural gas, and domesticcoal, oil shale, tar sands, natural gas, water, and

Sperling, Daniel

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Integrated Biomass Gasification with Catalytic Partial Oxidation for Selective Tar Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Biomass gasification is a flexible and efficient way of utilizing widely available domestic renewable resources. Syngas from biomass has the potential for biofuels production, which will enhance energy security and environmental benefits. Additionally, with the successful development of low Btu fuel engines (e.g. GE Jenbacher engines), syngas from biomass can be efficiently used for power/heat co-generation. However, biomass gasification has not been widely commercialized because of a number of technical/economic issues related to gasifier design and syngas cleanup. Biomass gasification, due to its scale limitation, cannot afford to use pure oxygen as the gasification agent that used in coal gasification. Because, it uses air instead of oxygen, the biomass gasification temperature is much lower than well-understood coal gasification. The low temperature leads to a lot of tar formation and the tar can gum up the downstream equipment. Thus, the biomass gasification tar removal is a critical technology challenge for all types of biomass gasifiers. This USDA/DOE funded program (award number: DE-FG36-O8GO18085) aims to develop an advanced catalytic tar conversion system that can economically and efficiently convert tar into useful light gases (such as syngas) for downstream fuel synthesis or power generation. This program has been executed by GE Global Research in Irvine, CA, in collaboration with Professor Lanny Schmidt's group at the University of Minnesota (UoMn). Biomass gasification produces a raw syngas stream containing H2, CO, CO2, H2O, CH4 and other hydrocarbons, tars, char, and ash. Tars are defined as organic compounds that are condensable at room temperature and are assumed to be largely aromatic. Downstream units in biomass gasification such as gas engine, turbine or fuel synthesis reactors require stringent control in syngas quality, especially tar content to avoid plugging (gum) of downstream equipment. Tar- and ash-free syngas streams are a critical requirement for commercial deployment of biomass-based power/heat co-generation and biofuels production. There are several commonly used syngas clean-up technologies: (1) Syngas cooling and water scrubbing has been commercially proven but efficiency is low and it is only effective at small scales. This route is accompanied with troublesome wastewater treatment. (2) The tar filtration method requires frequent filter replacement and solid residue treatment, leading to high operation and capital costs. (3) Thermal destruction typically operates at temperatures higher than 1000oC. It has slow kinetics and potential soot formation issues. The system is expensive and materials are not reliable at high temperatures. (4) In-bed cracking catalysts show rapid deactivation, with durability to be demonstrated. (5) External catalytic cracking or steam reforming has low thermal efficiency and is faced with problematic catalyst coking. Under this program, catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) is being evaluated for syngas tar clean-up in biomass gasification. The CPO reaction is exothermic, implying that no external heat is needed and the system is of high thermal efficiency. CPO is capable of processing large gas volume, indicating a very compact catalyst bed and a low reactor cost. Instead of traditional physical removal of tar, the CPO concept converts tar into useful light gases (eg. CO, H2, CH4). This eliminates waste treatment and disposal requirements. All those advantages make the CPO catalytic tar conversion system a viable solution for biomass gasification downstream gas clean-up. This program was conducted from October 1 2008 to February 28 2011 and divided into five major tasks. - Task A: Perform conceptual design and conduct preliminary system and economic analysis (Q1 2009 ~ Q2 2009) - Task B: Biomass gasification tests, product characterization, and CPO tar conversion catalyst preparation. This task will be conducted after completing process design and system economics analysis. Major milestones include identification of syngas cleaning requirements for proposed system

Zhang, Lingzhi; Wei, Wei; Manke, Jeff; Vazquez, Arturo; Thompson, Jeff; Thompson, Mark

2011-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

129

Sand consolidation method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating a subterranean, unconsolidated sand and petroleum-containing formation whose temperature is less than 200{degrees}F penetrated by at least one well, which is in fluid communication with at least a portion of the unconsolidated sand-containing subterranean formation, in order to form a permeable barrier in the treatment zone around the well which restrains the movement of sand particles into the well while permitting the passage of formation fluids including petroleum therethrough. It comprises introducing a non aqueous gas into the treatment zone of the formation to reduce the water content of the portion of the formation where the permeable barrier is to be formed to less than 5 percent by volume based on the volume of pore space to be treated; introducing an effective volume of treating fluid into the treatment zone, comprising a compound which is capable of being acid catalyzed to undergo condensation polymerization at formation temperatures, an anhydride of a strong acid, and a diluent for the polymerizable compound and the anhydride; and allowing the treating fluid to remain in the treatment zone for a period of time sufficient to ensure substantially complete polymerization.

Friedman, R.H.; Surles, B.W.

1991-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

130

Coal Tar Treatability Test Program: Chemical Oxidation Effects on Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Using Potassium Permanganate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has initiated a progressive program to investigate the effectiveness of using potassium permanganate to mitigate the impact of coal tar on groundwater at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using potassium permanganate to reduce the rate of dissolution of chemical constituents present in coal-tar-derived dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) into the surrounding groundwater. The focus of the research was 1) to develop a proof of concept for using pot...

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

131

Economic benefits of R and D on gas supply technologies. [Unconventioal natural gas resources which are tight sands, Devonian shale, coal seam gas, and gas co-produced with water  

SciTech Connect

Advanced natural gas supply technologies, if successful, could lower the average cost of gas to consumers by 18% and increase the expected gas demand by 2 quads/year by the year 2000. Advanced production techniques for unconventional gas will have by far the greatest impact on future gas prices, providing economic benefits of between $200 billion and $320 billion. Advanced SNG from coal will provide only a $9 billion benefit if unconventional gas meets all of its performance targets. However, higher demand and failure of unconventional gas R and D could raise the benefits of SNG research to $107 billion. SNG research provides a hedge value that increases the likelihood of receiving a positive payoff from gas supply R and D. Changing the performance goals for SNG research to emphasize cost reduction rather than acceleration of the date of commercialization would greatly increase the potential benefits of the program. 9 references, 8 figures, 5 tables.

Darrow, K.G.; Ashby, A.B.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Marshalla, R.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX Background A significant portion of U.S. natural gas production comes from unconventional gas resources such as tight gas sands. Tight gas sands...

133

Application of Metagenomics for Identification of Novel Petroleum Hydrocarbon Degrading Enzymes in Natural Asphalts from the Rancho La Brea Tar Pits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WITH BIODEGRADATION OF CRUDE-OIL IN THE OUACHITA MOUNTAINS,A SPHALTS AND H EAVY O IL Crude oil is an extremely complexto natural gas, liquid crude oil, shale oil, tars and

Baquiran, Jean-Paul Mendoza

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

GC/MS characterization of condensable tars in the output stream of a stirred fixed-bed gasifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The output stream of the stirred fixed-bed gasifier at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center was sampled for total entrained material. A major portion of the entrained material, in addition to particles, is condensable tar that is subsequently removed from the process gas by wet scrubbing. Characterization of the entrained materials, specifically the tar, is important to establish contaminant levels and to evaluate performance of downstream cleanup units. Samples of tars were collected from the process unit in a combined ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen sampler and stored in a refrigerator. The tar samples were then separated into asphaltene, neutral oil, tar acid, and base fractions by solvent extraction using toluene, pentane, sulfuric acid, and potassium hydroxide extraction. Characterization of the fractions obtained from these tars include IR, UV, GC, and GC/MS analysis. The mass spectrometer analysis of the various isolates shows that many individual peaks in the gas chromatograph are in fact mixtures that can be readily identified by the mass spectrometer. It was found that many of the species identified in these fractions were members of aromatic homologous series consisting of parent, mono, di, and tri substituted compounds. Compound identification was made by comparison of the data system library and standard reference spectra. This paper will discuss the instrumental approach and limitation of the GC/MS and the results of the characterization studies of entrained hydrocarbons collected from the gasifier stream.

Lamey, S.C.; McCaskill, K.B.; Smith, R.R.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Gas developments lead Canadian activity  

SciTech Connect

Canada has an immense supply of natural gas. The Western Sedimentary Basin of Canada is North America`s largest gas-bearing geologic province and extends from British Columbia on Canada`s west coast, eastward through the provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba and includes portions of the Northwest Territories and the Yukon. The basin supplies most of Canada`s natural gas with nearly 85% of it coming from Alberta. The production of natural gas supplies from conventional fields continues to increase. Major gas discoveries, made in the frontier and offshore regions, are going to be developed as well over time, as the economics and the markets dictate. Furthermore, Canada`s relatively unexplored Arctic and offshore basins, which promise excellent geological potential, will be developed at some point in the future. The paper discusses gas exploration and drilling activities, market access, the future of Canadian natural gas, how price challenges development of heavy oil and tar sands, and extending life of oil fields.

Riahi, M.L.; Perdue, J.M.; Kunkel, B.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

Despite its high nitrogen concentration levels relative to the parent coal samples, 7.2% vs. 1.4 - 2.0%, little volatile nitrogen evolution is observed until decomposition temperatures of 600[degree]C or greater are obtained. Due to the lack of decomposition via tar evolution and as contrasted to parent coals, no significant bound nitrogen is evolved with heavy hydrocarbons at particle temperatures less than 600[degree]C. Similar to virgin'' chars and tars formed during rapid devolatilization, the polyimide samples begin to evolve significant fractions of bound nitrogen as IR-active light gases at particle temperatures between 650 and 750[degree]C. Unlike coal samples, however, relatively large fractions of the light gases are observed to be ammonia. The IR-active, nitrogen-containing light gas evolution rapidly declines at polyimide char temperatures greater than 750[degree]C, again in contrast to observed behavior in virgin coal char samples. It is not certain if the nitrogen evolution kinetics changes from selectively forming ammonia and hydrogen cyanide to benzonitriles or free nitrogen at these temperatures. The light gas evolution pattern with decomposition temperature of polymide could contribute to our understanding of the low conversion efficiencies observed for bound nitrogen to NO[sub x] conversion in the char combustion phase of pfc combustion.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of total production from tar sands or shale oil, we assumeproduction category, with unconventional (tar sands or shale oil)production covers coal bed methane, tight gas reservoirs, shale gas, tight oil,

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Projections of Full-Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Metrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Adam R. 2008. “Converting Oil Shale to Liquid Fuels: Energyshale gas, tight oil, oil shale, and tar (bitumen) sands. In

Coughlin, Katie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shales, silts, and non-commercial sand stringers above the target GH reservoirs. High gas production

Moridis, G.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Biomass waste gasification - Can be the two stage process suitable for tar reduction and power generation?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of one stage (co-current) and two stage gasification of wood pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Original arrangement with grate-less reactor and upward moving bed of the pellets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two stage gasification leads to drastic reduction of tar content in gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer One stage gasification produces gas with higher LHV at lower overall ER. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Content of ammonia in gas is lower in two stage moving bed gasification. - Abstract: A pilot scale gasification unit with novel co-current, updraft arrangement in the first stage and counter-current downdraft in the second stage was developed and exploited for studying effects of two stage gasification in comparison with one stage gasification of biomass (wood pellets) on fuel gas composition and attainable gas purity. Significant producer gas parameters (gas composition, heating value, content of tar compounds, content of inorganic gas impurities) were compared for the two stage and the one stage method of the gasification arrangement with only the upward moving bed (co-current updraft). The main novel features of the gasifier conception include grate-less reactor, upward moving bed of biomass particles (e.g. pellets) by means of a screw elevator with changeable rotational speed and gradual expanding diameter of the cylindrical reactor in the part above the upper end of the screw. The gasifier concept and arrangement are considered convenient for thermal power range 100-350 kW{sub th}. The second stage of the gasifier served mainly for tar compounds destruction/reforming by increased temperature (around 950 Degree-Sign C) and for gasification reaction of the fuel gas with char. The second stage used additional combustion of the fuel gas by preheated secondary air for attaining higher temperature and faster gasification of the remaining char from the first stage. The measurements of gas composition and tar compound contents confirmed superiority of the two stage gasification system, drastic decrease of aromatic compounds with two and higher number of benzene rings by 1-2 orders. On the other hand the two stage gasification (with overall ER = 0.71) led to substantial reduction of gas heating value (LHV = 3.15 MJ/Nm{sup 3}), elevation of gas volume and increase of nitrogen content in fuel gas. The increased temperature (>950 Degree-Sign C) at the entrance to the char bed caused also substantial decrease of ammonia content in fuel gas. The char with higher content of ash leaving the second stage presented only few mass% of the inlet biomass stream.

Sulc, Jindrich; Stojdl, Jiri; Richter, Miroslav; Popelka, Jan [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Svoboda, Karel, E-mail: svoboda@icpf.cas.cz [Faculty of the Environment, Jan Evangelista Purkyne University in Usti nad Labem, Kralova Vysina 7, 400 96 Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v.v.i., Rozvojova 135, 165 02 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Smetana, Jiri; Vacek, Jiri [D.S.K. Ltd., Ujezdecek - Dukla 264, 415 01 Teplice I (Czech Republic); Skoblja, Siarhei; Buryan, Petr [Dept. of Gas, Coke and Air protection, Institute of Chemical Technol., Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Residual Saturation of Coal Tar, a Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (NAPL), in Soils at MGP Sites: March 2002 Interim Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal tar, a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL), is present in the subsurface at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. EPRI initiated this research project to compile and synthesize available data on residual saturation of various NAPLs, as well as to summarize available data on groundwater quality and soil concentrations of coal tar constituents found at a number of MGP sites. The continuing EPRI research will carry out laboratory experiments to generate residual saturation values for a number of soil-...

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

142

Table Definitions, Sources, and Explanatory Notes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded.

143

Petroleum Supply Monthly  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is...

144

Glossary - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded.

145

--No Title--  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is...

146

Weekly Petroleum Status Report  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is...

147

Laboratory Studies on Rendering Remediation Wastes Nonhazardous: Blending of Tar and Tarry Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some remediation wastes and tarry soils from former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites will be classified as hazardous waste based on the results of Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) tests. This report presents the results of bench-scale mixing tests of nine blending agents on several former MGP tars and tarry soils known to exceed the toxicity characteristic (TC) for benzene. These mixing studies were designed to measure the dilution, loss by volatilization, or fixation by adsorption of ...

2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

G JO-2001-283-TAR  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

JO-2001-283-TAR JO-2001-283-TAR MAGLREP 6.3.1-4 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program 2001 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites January 2002 Work Performed Under DOE Conlracf No. DE-AC1+96GJ87335 for Ule U.S. Approwd for public release; dislrihution is unlimited. ~ ..~... ~.~ . ..., . . . This file contains inspection data for the Shiprock Site only. MAC-LREP 6 . 3 . 1 4 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program 2001 Annual Site Inspection and Monitoring Report for Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act Title I Disposal Sites January 2002 Prepared for U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office Grand Junction, Colorado Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-96GJ87335

149

VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Preparation of environmental analyses for synfuel and unconventional gas technologies  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Government agencies that offer financial incentives to stimulate the commercialization of synfuel and unconventional gas technologies usually require an analysis of environmental impacts resulting from proposed projects. This report reviews potentially significant environmental issues associated with a selection of these technologies and presents guidance for developing information and preparing analyses to address these issues. The technologies considered are western oil shale, tar sand, coal liquefaction and gasification, peat, unconventional gas (western tight gas sands, eastern Devonian gas shales, methane from coal seams, and methane from geopressured aquifers), and fuel ethanol. Potentially significant issues are discussed under the general categories of land use, air quality, water use, water quality, biota, solid waste disposal, socioeconomics, and health and safety. The guidance provided in this report can be applied to preparation and/or review of proposals, environmental reports, environmental assessments, environmental impact statements, and other types of environmental analyses. The amount of detail required for any issue discussed must, by necessity, be determined on a case-by-case basis.

Reed, R.M. (ed.)

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Team Sand Point (SP)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this flight report is to summarize the field activities of the ShoreZone aerial video imaging (AVI) survey conducted out of Sand Point and Cold Bay in

Team Cold Bay (cb

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Dual bed reactor for the study of catalytic biomass tars conversion  

SciTech Connect

A dual fixed bed laboratory scale set up has been used to compare the activity of a novel Rh/LaCoO{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst to that of dolomite, olivine and Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, typical catalysts used in fluidized bed biomass gasification, to convert tars produced during biomass devolatilization stage. The experimental apparatus allows the catalyst to be operated under controlled conditions of temperature and with a real gas mixture obtained by the pyrolysis of the biomass carried out in a separate fixed bed reactor operated under a selected and controlled heating up rate. The proposed catalyst exhibits much better performances than conventional catalysts tested. It is able to completely convert tars and also to strongly decrease coke formation due to its good redox properties. (author)

Ammendola, P.; Piriou, B.; Lisi, L.; Ruoppolo, G.; Chirone, R.; Russo, G. [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione - CNR, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

153

Velocities of deep water reservoir sands De-hua Han, University of Houston  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and shale, which is not focus for this study. Sorting HP Shale ShallowDeep Sorting HP Shale Sorting HP Shale sands. Grain density is 2.65 gm/cc, typical for clean sands. Measured gas permeability ranged from 100 have revealed gradual effect of clay content on porosity and velocity of shaly sands and sandy shales

154

Fuel Oil Prepared by Blending Heavy Oil and Coal Tar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of temperature, harmonic ration, surfactant and shearing to fuel oil prepared by blending heavy oil and coal tar were detailedly studied. The results show that the viscosity of the blended oil increases gradually with the increase of harmonic ... Keywords: coal tar, heavy oil, blending, surfactant

Guojie Zhang; Xiaojie Guo; Bo Tian; Yaling Sun; Yongfa Zhang

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Biomass Gasifier ''Tars'': Their Nature, Formation, and Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The main purpose of this review is to update the information on gasification tar, the most cumbersome and problematic parameter in any gasification commercialization effort. The work aims to present to the community the scientific and practical aspects of tar formation and conversion (removal) during gasification as a function of the various technological and technical parameters and variables.

Milne, T. A.; Evans, R. J. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory); Abatzaglou, N. (Kemestrie, Inc.)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Sand consolidation methods  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method for consolidating unconsolidated mineral particles including sand in a subterranean petroleum formation penetrated by a well in fluid communication with at least a portion of the formation. It comprises: providing a sand consolidating fluid comprising a polymerizable monomer, diluent for the monomer, and a nonvolatile strong acid catalyst capable of causing polymerization of the monomer at fluid injection temperatures; mixing the sand consolidating fluid with steam to form a multiphase treating fluid; injecting the treating fluid into the formation to occupy the void space of at least a portion of the formation adjacent to the well; and allowing the injected fluids to remain in the formations for a period of time sufficient to accomplish at least partial polymerization of the monomer, forming a permeable consolidated mass around the wellbore. Also described is a method for forming a fluid impermeable zone in a permeable, subterranean oil-containing formation adjacent to a wellbore penetrating the formation.

Friedman, R.H.; Surles, B.W.; Fader, P.D.

1990-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

157

Micellar solubilization of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in coal tar-contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Solubilization of PAHs from a coal tar-contaminated soil obtained from a manufactured gas plant (MGP) site was evaluated using nonionic polyoxyethylene surfactants at dosages greater than cmc. Up to 25% of Soxhlet-extractable PAHs could be solubilized at surfactant loadings of 0.3 g/g of oil in 16 days in completely stirred batch reactors. Longer periods were required to reach equilibrium at higher surfactant dosages. Raoult`s law satisfactorily described the partitioning of constituent PAHs between the weathered coal tar and the micellar solution. An equilibrium model was developed to predict the solubilization of PAHs from coal tar-contaminated soils for given properties of the soil, surfactant, and component PAHs. The model predicted solubilization of constituent PAHs reasonably well at low surfactant dosages. At extremely high surfactant dosages, the model failed to reliably predict solubilization. Presumably, mass transfer mass transfer limitations prevented the attainment of equilibrium during the duration (380h) of solubilization experiments. 25 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

Yeom, I.T.; Ghosh, M.M.; Cox, C.D.; Robinson, K.G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Peer Review Summary Document (7/30/2012)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of oil from Canadian tar sand and other unconventional oil resources is incompatible with the aim. In 2007 Statoil bought the rights to extract oil from tar sand in the fragile boreal forest of Alberta that extraction of unconventional resources, such as tar sand and shale gas, is incompatible with the attempts

159

The Price Is Wrong for Oil Shale and Tar Sand Tech  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The huge run-up in oil prices over the last several years, reaching a peak of close to US $150 per barrel this past summer, has given energy companies a big incentive to find new ways of harvesting unconventional oil, especially in North America. Technology ...

M. Heger

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Oil shales and tar sands: a bibliography. Supplement 2, Parts 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This bibliography includes 4715 citations arranged in the broad subject categories: reserves and exploration; site geology and hydrology; drilling, fracturing, and mining; oil production, recovery, and refining; properties and composition; direct uses and by-products; health and safety; marketing and economics; waste research and management; environmental aspects; regulations; and general. There are corporate, author, subject, contract number, and report number indexes.

Grissom, M.C. (ed.)

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

ELASTIC ROCK PROPERTIES OF TIGHT GAS SANDSTONES FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and to locate the best locations to drill for them. The tight gas sands of the Piceance Basin have long been understanding of the way that fractures have controlled the production of gas in these tight gas sands an east to west trend of tight gas sand fields that produce a substantial amount of the total gas produced

162

4. Natural Gas Statistics - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

gas fields, i.e., tight sands, shales, and coalbeds. Consideringthegrowingcontributionofthisgastothe National total, the term “unconventional” is ...

163

An Integrated Approach to Evaluating In-Situ Solidification/Stabilization of Coal Tar Impacted Soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an integrated approach to the assessment of the suitability and performance of in-situ solidification/stabilization (ISS) at former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites where coal tar is present. The use of ISS at former MGP sites in the United States started in 1992, and since then has been implemented at MGP sites in at least 13 states, as well as in a number of European countries. The lack of consistent, readily available, and cost-effective technical performance measures for the IS...

2009-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

164

PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

1957-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Review of Novel Catalysts for Biomass Tar Cracking and Methane Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review of the literature was conducted to examine the performance of catalysts other than conventional nickel catalysts, and alkaline earth and olivine based catalysts for treating hot raw product gas from a biomass gasifier to convert methane and tars into synthesis gas. Metal catalysts other than Ni included precious metals Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd, as well as Cu, Co, and Fe in limited testing. Nickel catalysts promoted with Rh, Zr, Mn, Mo, Ti, Ag, or Sn were also examined, as were Ni catalysts on Ce2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, and La2O3. In general, Rh stood out as a consistently superior metal catalyst for methane reforming, tar cracking, and minimizing carbon buildup on the catalyst. Ru and Ir also showed significant improvement over Ni for methane reforming. Ceria stood out as good support material and particularly good promoter material when added in small quantities to another support material such as alumina, zirconia, or olivine. Other promising supports were lanthana, zirconia, and titania.

Gerber, Mark A.

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

166

I SAND95-2448C  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SAND95-2448C SAND95-2448C eddfigt6qI7-*+ To be presented at the 32"d AIANASMEISAEIASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, Lake Buena Vista, FL, July 1-3, 1996 A SURVEY OF COMBUSTIBLE METALS, THERMITES, AND INTERMETALLICS FOR PYROTECHNIC APPLICATIONS* S. H. Fischer and M. C. Grubelich Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87185-1453 ABSTRACT Thermite mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in pyrotechnic applications. Advantage of these systems typically include high energy density, impact insensitivity, high combustion temperature, and a wide range of gas production. They generally exhibit high temperature stability, and possess insensitive ignition properties. In this paper, we review the applications, benefits, and characteristics

167

Sand Hills EA  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- - Office Name and State goes here Environmental Assessment Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility Albany County, Wyoming May 2011 High Desert District Rawlins Field Office The BLM's multiple-use mission is to sustain the health and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations. The Bureau accomplishes this by managing such activities as outdoor recreation, livestock grazing, mineral development, and energy production, and by conserving natural, historical, cultural, and other resources on public lands. BLM/WY/PL-11/035+1430 WY-030-EA09-314 Contents Chapter Page Acronyms and Abbreviations .................................................................................................. ix

168

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study are to develop an improved understanding of the process of coal tar evolution, its relationship to the structural characteristics of the parent coal, and the dependence of the chemical and physical properties of the tar products on the conditions of devolatilization. Data from this study are expected to allow hypothesis testing and refinements of coal devolatilization models relevant to the pulverized coal combustion process. A range of coal ranks, from a Texas lignite to a Pennsylvania anthracite, are employed in the investigation. In addition, a high temperature polymer, a polyimide, is utilized as an additional reference case. The polyimide serves as a truly polymeric reference material for examining the nitrogen evolution behavior of coal. The samples are subjected to elemental composition determination, infrared absorbance characterization, calorific value measurement, high temperature ash analysis, and maceral composition. Potential tar yields are determined by long hold time heated grid investigations of each coal at a final temperature and heating rate observed to maximize tar yields for the reference coal. Relative tar evolution kinetic behavior is determined by zero hold time heated grid investigations of each coal. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

RFC Sand Creek Development LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

RFC Sand Creek Development LLC RFC Sand Creek Development LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name RFC Sand Creek Development LLC Place Aurora, Colorado Zip 80014 Product Subsidiary of Republic Financial Corporation set up to invest in Sand Creek Energy LLC, a planned gas to liquid facility. Coordinates 39.325162°, -79.54975° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.325162,"lon":-79.54975,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

170

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Annual report, July 1991--July 1992  

SciTech Connect

The University of Utah tar sand research and development program is concerned with research and development on Utah is extensive oil sands deposits. The program has been intended to develop a scientific and technological base required for eventual commercial recovery of the heavy oils from oil sands and processing these oils to produce synthetic crude oil and other products such as asphalt. The overall program is based on mining the oil sand, processing the mined sand to recover the heavy oils and upgrading them to products. Multiple deposits are being investigated since it is believed that a large scale (approximately 20,000 bbl/day) plant would require the use of resources from more than one deposit. The tasks or projects in the program are organized according to the following classification: Recovery technologies which includes thermal recovery methods, water extraction methods, and solvent extraction methods; upgrading and processing technologies which covers hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and hydropyrolysis; solvent extraction; production of specialty products; and environmental aspects of the production and processing technologies. These tasks are covered in this report.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Transverse Aeolian Ridges (TARs) on Mars Matt Balme a,b,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Opportunity observations that show TAR- like ripples to have a core of fine material armored by a monolayer

Bourke, Mary C.

172

SAND2011-6895  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

10. The 36 module Z-machine, including laser triggered gas switches, self-breaking water switches, magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines, and a post-hole convoluted...

173

Guide to Preparing SAND Reports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Guide to Preparing SAND Reports contains guidelines for producing SAND Reports and other information releases. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulations and Sandia policy. The Guide includes in Section 1, policies for protecting and reproducing official information at Sandia, SAND number information, and Review & Approval procedures; in Section 2, basic writing instructions, which are illustrated in an annotated sample report; in Section 3, an explanation of the format, layout, and graphics of SAND Reports and a table that details the markings and legends needed for report covers and title pages; in Section 4, the procedures for reproducing and distributing SAND Reports; and in Section 5, information on presentations and conference papers, journal articles, book chapters, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia's preferred style, usage, and grammar; equations; report references; and trademarks and copyrights. 4 May 1998 Intentionally Left Blank May 1998 5 Conten...

Tamara Locke Editor; Tamara K. Locke

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-Situ Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and of unconventional deposits such as heavy oils, tar sands and oil shales.” As conventional oil becomes scarcer, the transport sector will remain dependent on petroleum resources, if no oil substitute is available. Fuels from non-conventional oil resources... www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R Abstract Supplying Synthetic Crude Oil from Canadian Oil Sands: A Comparative Study of the Costs and CO2 Emissions of Mining and In-situ Recovery EPRG Working Paper 1005...

Méjean, A; Hope, Chris

175

Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Glossary API Gravity: An  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

drip gas, as well as liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gil- sonite, and oil shale. Excludes topped crude oil, resid- ual oil, other unfinished oils, and liquids...

177

X:\\L6046\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma.vp  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

and drip gas, as well as liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Excludes topped crude oil, re- sidual oil, other unfinished oils, and liquids...

178

Glossary Glossary  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

and drip gas, as well as liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gilsonite, and oil shale. Excludes topped crude oil, residual oil, other unfinished oils, and liquids...

179

Vehicle Technologies Office: Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

than light, sweet crude oil - for example, natural gas, heavy crude, tar (oil) sands, oil shale, and coal. Renewable Non-Petroleum-Based Fuels Researchers have identified options...

180

X:\\Data_Publication\\Pma\\current\\ventura\\pma00.vp  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

drip gas, as well as liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, gil- sonite, and oil shale. Excludes topped crude oil, resid- ual oil, other unfinished oils, and liquids...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Transportation Energy Futures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRANSPORTATION ment of Oil Shale Technology. Washing- ton,interest and investments in oil shale, ethanol, coal liquidsbiomass materials, coal, oil shale, tar sands, natural gas,

Sperling, Daniel

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Two Line Subject Title One Line Title  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

residual oil zone * next generation enhanced gas recovery * heavy oil; tar sands * oil shale * methane hydrate Common Technical Challenges * Efficient engineering of the...

183

Increase Energy Sustainability  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Renewable fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel can help offset petroleum use. Other fossil fuels such as coal, shale oil, tar sands, and natural gas are another possibility....

184

Oil Study Guide - Middle School | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- Middle School More Documents & Publications Oil Study Guide - High School Natural Gas Study Guide - Middle School Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

185

METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is given for the pretreatment of monazite sand with sodium hydroxide. When momazite sand is reacted with sodium hydroxide, the thorium, uranium, and rare earths are converted to water-insoluble hydrous oxides; but in the case of uranium, the precipitate compound may at least partly consist of a slightly soluble uranate. According to the patent, monazite sand is treated with an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, and the insoluble compounds of thorium, uranium, and the rare earths are separated from the aqueous solution. This solution is then concentrated causing sodium phosphate to crystallize out. The crystals are removed from the remaining solution, and the solution is recycled for reaction with a mew supply of momazite sand.

Calkins, G.D.

1957-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

186

Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Pore-scale characterization and modeling of two-phase flow in tight gas sandstones.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Unconventional natural gas resources, particularly tight gas sands, constitute a significant percentage of the natural gas resource base and offer abundant potential for future reserves… (more)

Mousavi, Maryam Alsadat

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Experimental investigation of sand consolidation using high-temperature alkaline solution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to better understand the sand consolidation process under high-temperature alkaline solution. Wilmington Tar sand samples were successfully consolidated in the laboratory using high-temperature (250-260?C) solution of sodium carbonate (pH 11-12). The sample was placed in a vertical 18 in. long aluminum cylindrical cell with an ID of 1.5 in.. The top half of the cell was thermally insulated while the bottom half was cooled. Hot alkaline solution was injected at 20 ml/min for 3-4 hours at the top of the cell and liquid produced at the bottom of the cell. After each experiment, the cell contents were removed and analyzed to determine if sand consolidation occurred. Both aggregates of sand grains and sectioned and polished epoxy-mounted sand grains were examined and analyzed using an electron microprobe to determine any change in shape, size, or composition of the sand pack and precipitation and growth of secondary phases. To better understand the process, experiments were subsequently conducted using samples of pure quartz, pure feldspar, and a 50:50 (by weight) mixture of quartz and feldspar. In each case, both varied 20-40 mesh and 50-250 mesh grain size samples were used. For the 20-40 mesh cases, zeolites and a mixture of amorphous silica and sodium carbonate were deposited on grain surfaces but were insufficient to cause overall sand consolidation. However, when a finer, poorly sorted (50-250 mesh) 50:50 mixture of feldspar and quartz was used, sand consolidation was obtained in 2.5 hours. At the top, hotter part of the cell, equant and acicular zeolite crystals (sodium aluminum silicates) weakly bound the sand grains. At the bottom and cooler part of the cell, the sand grains were strongly bound by a mixture of amorphous silica and sodium carbonate. Results to-date indicate that both zeolite and silica may be cementing agents, the grain-bonding strength depending on the grain surface area. This investigation is part of an ongoing research. The temperature, injection rate, and pH of the alkaline solution, treating time and "soaking period" are considered important process parameters that need to be further investigated.

Moreno Romero, Fidel Enrique

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in low permeability reservoirs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of this study are: to demonstrate the effectiveness of a non-damaging liquid, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in creating sand-propped hydraulic fractures in ``tight`` gas bearing formations within the Appalachian Basin; and to compare and rank the gas production responses from wells treated with liquid CO{sub 2} with other types of treatments (shooting, water based, nitrogen, etc.). The preliminary results are encouraging, and although only a few months of production is available, the rate of gas production from the CO{sub 2} treated candidate wells is greater than that from the control wells. The CO{sub 2}/sand fracs appear to be 56 percent better than the nitrogen fracs in Pike County. In addition, the CO{sub 2}/sand fracs are 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the Pike County study area. It should be recognized that these results are from a very limited data set and overall conclusions may change as more control wells are added to the analysis. From a stimulation process achievement viewpoint, the maximum amount of sand pumped is 46,000 pounds at an average concentration of 3.1 pound per gallon. It should be pointed out that additional foam and nitrogen stimulations have recently been performed by the operator in the Pike County area, and subsequent discussions in the future will include additional control wells to the baseline data sets.

Mazza, R.L.; Gehr, J.B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

190

Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Implements a gas based on the ideal gas law. It should be noted that this model of gases is niave (from many perspectives). ...

191

Shocks in supersonic sand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We measure time-averaged velocity, density, and temperature fields for steady granular flow past a wedge and calculate a speed of granular pressure disturbances (sound speed) equal to 10% of the flow speed. The flow is supersonic, forming shocks nearly identical to those in a supersonic gas. Molecular dynamics simulations of Newton's laws and Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equation yield fields in quantitative agreement with experiment. A numerical solution of Navier-Stokes-like equations agrees with a molecular dynamics simulation for experimental conditions excluding wall friction.

E. Rericha; C. Bizon; M. D. Shattuck; H. L. Swinney

2001-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

192

Non-Darcy flow analysis through tight sand formations  

SciTech Connect

An experimental setup was designed and constructed to measure the flow parameters through tight sand porous media. The two kinds of coreholders being used are Hassler-type and one in which the core sample is encapsulated in layers of epoxy resin and metal alloy. A gas flow measuring system was also developed for accurately measuring very low gas flow rates. Using Darcy's Law as a tool for analysis of the experimental data, we obtained that the gas permeability of the SFE No. 3 (Staged Field Experiment No. 3) core samples is a linear function of reciprocal mean pressure, and decreases with overburden pressure. The water permeability is also decreased with overburden pressure and is about 6 times smaller than gas permeability for the samples that we have tested. No significant hysteresis effect was obtained for dry gas permeability after several two phase flow runs. We successfully tested our encapsulated coreholder and measured gas flow rate through a tight sand core sample at different pressure drops. The results showed that the experimental runs using Hassler-type coreholder at overburden pressures higher than 2000 psig will probably give us the reliable experimental data. The experimental data obtained from the two different types of tight sandstones were analyzed using the Non-Darcy flow equation. The results showed the importance and reliability of the Non-Darcy formulation for describing the flow behavior under different overburden and system pressures. Non-Darcy's velocity for both gas and liquid phase were incorporated into an existing FORTRAN code for simulation of the tight gas reservoirs. The modified program was tested to compare the initial production data of SFE No. 2 well. Our simulation showed in the case of local turbulence and non-uniformities in the tight sand formation, the value of [beta] increases and Non-Darcy effect becomes important.

Wang, Ching-Huei.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Proceedings: EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum  

SciTech Connect

The EPRI Manufactured Gas Plants 2003 Forum covered a range of topics related to remediation and management of former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites, with emphasis on technological advances and current issues associated with site cleanup. In specific, the forum covered MGP coal-tar delineation, soil and groundwater remediation technologies, improvements in air monitoring, and ecological risk characterization/risk management tools.

None

2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Investigation of the rank dependence of tar evolution. Quarterly report, 1 July 1990--30 September 1990  

SciTech Connect

Despite its high nitrogen concentration levels relative to the parent coal samples, 7.2% vs. 1.4 - 2.0%, little volatile nitrogen evolution is observed until decomposition temperatures of 600{degree}C or greater are obtained. Due to the lack of decomposition via tar evolution and as contrasted to parent coals, no significant bound nitrogen is evolved with heavy hydrocarbons at particle temperatures less than 600{degree}C. Similar to ``virgin`` chars and tars formed during rapid devolatilization, the polyimide samples begin to evolve significant fractions of bound nitrogen as IR-active light gases at particle temperatures between 650 and 750{degree}C. Unlike coal samples, however, relatively large fractions of the light gases are observed to be ammonia. The IR-active, nitrogen-containing light gas evolution rapidly declines at polyimide char temperatures greater than 750{degree}C, again in contrast to observed behavior in virgin coal char samples. It is not certain if the nitrogen evolution kinetics changes from selectively forming ammonia and hydrogen cyanide to benzonitriles or free nitrogen at these temperatures. The light gas evolution pattern with decomposition temperature of polymide could contribute to our understanding of the low conversion efficiencies observed for bound nitrogen to NO{sub x} conversion in the char combustion phase of pfc combustion.

Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

Beattie, Alan G. (Corrales, NM); Bohon, W. Mark (Frisco, TX)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fail to meet this demand, the most likely alternatives will be heavy oil, oil sands, oil shale, and liquids from natural gas and coal. These are carbon-intensive fuels that would...

197

Sand consolidation method employing latex  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of treating a subterranean, unconsolidated sand and petroleum containing formation penetrated by at least one well, which is in fluid communication with at least a portion of the unconsolidated sand containing subterranean formation. This forms a flexible, permeable barrier around the well which restrains the movement of sand particles into the well while permitting the passage of formation fluids including petroleum there through. The method comprises: a. forming a predetermined quantity of a treating fluid comprising a water external phase emulsion having as its dispersed or discontinuous phase, a predetermined amount of an oil-insoluble rubber. The emulsion also contains a predetermined quantity of a material which hydrolyzes at reservoir temperature to form an acid; b. injecting the treating fluid into the formation to be consolidated; and c. leaving the fluid undisturbed in the formation for a predetermined period of time sufficient to allow the emulsion to break so the oil insoluble rubber coats the sand grains, forming a competent permeable barrier around the wellbore.

Friedman, R.H.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

198

Appraisal of the tight sands potential of the Sand Wash and Great Divide Basins. Final report, June 1989--June 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The volume of future tight gas reserve additions is difficult to estimate because of uncertainties in the characterization and extent of the resource and the performance and cost-effectiveness of stimulation and production technologies. Ongoing R&D by industry and government aims to reduce the risks and costs of producing these tight resources, increase the certainty of knowledge of their geologic characteristics and extent, and increase the efficiency of production technologies. Some basins expected to contain large volumes of tight gas are being evaluated as to their potential contribution to domestic gas supplies. This report describes the results of one such appraisal. This analysis addresses the tight portions of the Eastern Greater Green River Basin (Sand Wash and Great Divide Subbasins in Northwestern Colorado and Southwestern Wyoming, respectively), with respect to estimated gas-in-place, technical recovery, and potential reserves. Geological data were compiled from public and proprietary sources. The study estimated gas-in-place in significant (greater than 10 feet net sand thickness) tight sand intervals for six distinct vertical and 21 areal units of analysis. These units of analysis represent tight gas potential outside current areas of development. For each unit of analysis, a ``typical`` well was modeled to represent the costs, recovery and economics of near-term drilling prospects in that unit. Technically recoverable gas was calculated using reservoir properties and assumptions about current formation evaluation and extraction technology performance. Basin-specific capital and operating costs were incorporated along with taxes, royalties and current regulations to estimate the minimum required wellhead gas price required to make the typical well in each of unit of analysis economic.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Characteristics and Applications of Copper Stamp Sand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chemical, physical properties and antimicrobial activity of stamp sand were investigated, ... Characterization of Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Powders for ...

200

Effect of temperature on wave velocities in sands and sandstones with heavy hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of temperature on wave velocities in well cemented Massillon and Boise sandstones and unconsolidated Ottawa sand saturated with heavy hydrocarbons, as well as the dependence of compressional velocities in the hydrocarbons themselves as a function of temperature. The hydrocarbons selected as pore saturants were a commercial paraffin wax, 1-Eicosene, natural heavy crude, and natural tar. The experimental results show that the compressional wave velocities in the hydrocarbons decrease markedly with increasing temperature. In contrast wave velocities in the Massillon and Boise sandstones and unconsolidated Ottawa sand saturated with air or water decrease only little with increasing temperatures. The main reason for the large decreases in rocks with hydrocarbons is the melting of solid hydrocarbons, and high pore pressure. Thermal expansion of the saturants, and possibly thermal cracking of the heavy fractions and vaporization of the light fractions of the hydrocarbons may also contribute. The large decreases of the compressional and shear wave velocities in the hydrocarbon-saturated rocks and sands with temperature, suggest that seismic measurements such as used in seismology or borehole tomography may be very useful in detecting steam fronts in heavy hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing steam flooding.

Wang, Z.; Nur, A.M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Method for diverting a gaseous sand-consolidating fluid  

SciTech Connect

An unconsolidated gas-producing sand in which the permeability is layered and the productivity can be impaired by liquid blocking can be consolidated by wetting the rock surfaces with a limited amount of water, injecting a smoke which selectively reduces the permeability of the most permeable layers by depositing on their faces unconsolidated masses of substantially inert solid particles and injecting a gaseous silicon polyhalide to convert a significant proportion of the rock surface-wettingwater to a grain bonding silica gel.

Davies, D. R.; Richardson, E. A.

1980-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

202

HOW DO WE CONVERT THE TRANSPORT SECTOR TO RENEWABLE ENERGY AND IMPROVE THE SECTOR'S INTERPLAY WITH THE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, oil sands, oil shale, uranium, and hydrogen as an energy carrier. The final chapter deplores by a transition to tar sands, heavy oil, gas-to-liquid synfuels, coal-to-liquid synfuels, and oil shale, all

203

Solvent Extraction for Remediation of Manufactured Gas Plant Sites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI has assessed the feasibility of using a solvent extraction process to remove coal tar from the subsurface or to treat contaminated soil excavated from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. The assessment indicates that in situ solvent extraction may recover a significant amount of tar from the subsurface within a reasonable timeframe, provided subsurface conditions are conducive to process implementation. This work will help utilities searching for cost-effective technologies to remediate MGP sites.

1993-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

204

Investigation of Combustion Kinetic Cooking Oil Tar Samples with Thermogravimetric Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cooking fire not only brought huge economic losses and adverse social impact. The combustible material of fire in fog discharge pipe is the cooking oil tar. In order to solve the problem of fire in fog discharge pipe, it is necessary to research ... Keywords: combustion science, fog discharge pipe of cooking, cooking oil tar, combustion characteristics, reaction kinetics

Xie Zheng-wen; Su Kai-yu; Wu Chao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Experimental Study on Tar-free Gasification of Coal in a Fixed Bed  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Throated twin-oxidation zone gasifier of coal was exploited based on the characteristic analysis on the updraft gasifier and downdraft gasifier, and tar-free gasification of coal was experimentally investigated in the throated twin-oxidation zone gasifier. ... Keywords: tar-free gasification, fixed bed, operational parameters

Wang Lianyong; Cai Jiuju

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Conferences Individual papers and tables of contents from most conferences listed can be ordered  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

discoveries are declin- ing rapidly · unconventional: deep water oil natural gas liquids tar sands from production has peaked · unconventional: deep water oil natural gas liquids tar sands from Alberta shale resources #12;· oil industry in 1859 · Rockefellers, Standard Oil · Rockefeller Foundation has funded pet

Reynolds, Albert C.

207

METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

1958-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

208

A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-precision location technique to improve the image resolution of a hydraulic fracture treatment in a tight gas sand, another thick (~ 450-600 m) interval of productive, tight-gas sands interbedded with mudstones (Dutton in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of east Texas. Gas is produced from multiple, low-permeability sands

209

GASIFICATION IN THE CANADIAN OIL SANDS:  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Long Lake integrated bitumen and upgrading project, now under construction by OPTI Canada Inc. and Nexen Inc., is the first application of large-scale gasification in Canada. It also represents the first implementation of a gasification project in conjunction with a heavy oil recovery and upgrading project. The Canadian oil sands are a vast petroleum resource that currently produces over one million barrels per day (bpd) using proven mining and in-situ recovery technologies. Production is projected to rise to over two million bpd by the end of the decade. However the large volumes of natural gas normally needed by the bitumen recovery and upgrading facilities are a significant barrier to economic development of the resource. The Long Lake Project uses a unique combination of technologies to provide a solution to the natural gas supply and cost issue. A key component is a gasification facility using the Shell Gasification Process (SGP) which is integrated with the bitumen upgrading to convert the liquid asphaltene by-product stream into hydrogen for the secondary upgrading step and syngas fuel. An Air Liquide air separation unit (ASU) will provide

unknown authors

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Semi-annual report for the unconventional gas recovery program, period ending March 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Four subprograms are reported on: methane recovery from coalbeds, Eastern gas shales, Western gas sands, and methane from geopressured aquifers. (DLC)

Manilla, R.D.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Production optimization of a tight sandstone gas reservoir with well completions: A numerical simulation study.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Tight gas sands have significant gas reserves, which requires cost-effective well completion technology and reservoir development plans for viable commercial exploitation. In this study, a… (more)

Defeu, Cyrille W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA  

SciTech Connect

Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Vapor Pressures and Heats of Vaporization of Primary Coal Tars  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

/ PC92544-18 / PC92544-18 VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS FINAL REPORT Grant Dates: August, 1992 - November, 1996 Principal Authors: Eric M. Suuberg (PI) and Vahur Oja Report Submitted: April, 1997 Revised: July, 1997 Grant Number: DE-FG22-92PC92544 Report Submitted by: ERIC M. SUUBERG DIVISION OF ENGINEERING BROWN UNIVERSITY PROVIDENCE, RI 02912 TEL. (401) 863-1420 Prepared For: U. S. DEPT. OF ENERGY FEDERAL ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER P.O. BOX 10940 PITTSBURGH, PA 15236 DR. KAMALENDU DAS, FETC, MORGANTOWN , WV TECHNICAL PROJECT OFFICER "US/DOE Patent Clearance is not required prior to the publication of this document" ii United States Government Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any

214

The Earth, Energy, and Agriculture Tad W. Patzek  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, natural gas, gas hydrates, oil shale, etc. The deposition and transformation rates of these fossil fuels The new fossil fuel resources are tar sands, ultra heavy oil, oil shale, tight-rock gas, and coal

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

215

CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR ABANDONED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

recovery Vent gas '\\Raw shale oil Recycled gas compressorThis process produces shale oil, a low BTU gas, and char,Oil Shale Process" in Oil Shale and Tar Sands, J. W. Smith

Persoff, P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil - Past Program Archives...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

These programs focused on improving industry understanding of ways to locate and produce natural gas from unconventional natural gas resources: Western U.S. Gas Sands (1977-1992),...

217

Engineering assessment of radioactive sands and residues, Lowman Site, Lowman, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Lowman site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive sands and residues at Lowman, Idaho. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of radioactive sands and residues and radiation exposure of individuals and nearby populations, and investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas released from the 191,000 tons of radioactive sands, residues, and contaminated soils at the Lowman site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown radioactive sands and external gamma radiation also are factors.

Not Available

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Instrumentation and tar measurement systems for a downdraft biomass gasifier.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biomass gasification is a promising route utilizing biomass materials to produce fuels and chemicals. Gas product from the gasification process is so called synthesis gas… (more)

Hu, Ming

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

technology offer SandTES -High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

technology offer SandTES - High Temperature Sand Thermal Energy Storage key words: High Temperature together with Dr. Eisl of ENRAG GmbH. Background Thermal energy storage (TES) systems are essential Energy Storage | Fluidized Bed | Sand | The invention consists of a fluidized bed with internal heat

Szmolyan, Peter

220

Fiscal Policy and Utah's Oil and Gas Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unconventional sources, such as oil sands and oil shale. It is important to note that overall reserve figures. Although Utah contains large deposits of oil shale and oil sands, both of which can be processed to yield from oil shale and oil sands is exempt from the state oil and gas severance tax. Utah also levies

Provancher, William

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Canyon dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An alternative to the FB-Line scrap recovery dissolver was desired for the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) residues from the plutonium reduction process due to the potential generation of hydrogen gas concentrations above the lower flammability limit. To address this concern, a flowsheet was developed for the F-Canyon dissolvers. The dissolvers are continually purged with nominally 33 SCFM of air; therefore the generation of flammable gas concentrations should not be a concern. Following removal of crucible fragments, small batches of the remaining sand fines or slag chunks containing less than approximately 350 grams of plutonium can be dissolved using the center insert in each of the four annular dissolver ports to address nuclear criticality safety concerns. Complete dissolution of the sand fines and slag chunks was achieved in laboratory experiments by heating between 75 and 85 degrees Celsius in a 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M (hydrogen) fluoride solution. Under these conditions, the sand and slag samples dissolved between 1 and 3 hours. Complete dissolution of plutonium and calcium fluorides in the slag required adjusting the dissolver solution to 7.5 wt% aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN). Once ANN was added to a dissolver solution, further dissolution of any plutonium oxide (PuO2) in successive charges was not practical due to complexation of the fluoride by aluminum. During the laboratory experiments, well mixed solutions were necessary to achieve rapid dissolution rates. When agitation was not provided, sand fines dissolved very slowly. Measurement of the hydrogen gas generation rate during dissolution of slag samples was used to estimate the amount of metal in the chunks. Depending upon the yield of the reduction, the values ranged between approximately 1 (good yield) and 20% (poor yield). Aging of the slag will reduce the potential for hydrogen generation as calcium metal oxidizes over time. The potential for excessive corrosion in the dissolvers was evaluated using experimental data reported in the literature. Corrosion data at the exact flowsheet conditions were not available; however, the corrosion rate for 304L stainless steel (wrought material) corrosion coupons in 10M nitric acid/0.01M hydrofluoric acid at 95 degrees Celsius was reported as 21 mils per year. If the fluoride in the dissolver is complexed with aluminum, the corrosion rate will decrease to approximately 5 mils per year.

Rudisill, T.S.; Gray, J.H.; Karraker, D.G.; Chandler, G.T.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

NREL Patents a Catalyst that Removes Syngas Tar, Boosting the Economics of Biofuels (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

NREL has patented a catalyst that reforms tar into syngas, a breakthrough that can accelerate the process of getting biomass ready for fuel synthesis and use as a drop-in fuel.

Not Available

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

DOE's Early Investment in Shale Gas Technology Producing Results...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

sands, and methane from coalbeds, DOE developed and stimulated the deployment of advanced exploration and production technologies. These technologies recovered new gas supplies...

224

Improved core recovery in laminated sand and shale sequences  

SciTech Connect

Coring and core analysis are essential to the exploration, development, and production phases of the oil and gas industry. Large-diameter (4-in. (10-cm)) core provides engineers and geologists with direct means to measure physical properties of reservoir rocks at both the microscopic and macroscopic levels. This information provides engineers with clues to improve their understanding of the reservoir and prediction of its performance. If stored properly, core may assist in development of the reservoir many years after the well is drilled. In microlaminated reservoirs, laboratory core analysis is very important because of inherent limitations in wireline log resolution. In these cases, petrophysical information, such as saturation, porosity, and net feet of pay, cannot be calculated from wireline data. Instead, these data must be measured directly from core plugs in the laboratory. Historically, core recovery in these types of reservoirs has not been good (Fig. 1A) using methods designed for firmly consolidated formations. These methods did not achieve satisfactory recovery in unconsolidated sand interbedded with hard shale stringers for two reasons: unconsolidated sand was eroded by mechanical or hydraulic means and shale ''jammed'' in the core barrel, thereby preventing more core from entering. Changes in coring strategies and equipment have nearly eliminated recovery problems in unconsolidated sand while reducing jams in shale (Fig. 1B). This paper discusses several of these changes and presents ideas for further improvements.

Bradburn, F.R.; Cheatham, C.A. (Shell Offshore Inc. (US))

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Permeability Gas Low Permeability Gas Design and Implementation of Energized Fracture Treatment in Tight Gas Sands DE-FC26-06NT42955 Goal The goal of this project is to develop methods and tools that can enable operators to design, optimize, and implement energized fracture treatments in a systematic way. The simulator that will result from this work would significantly expand the use and cost-effectiveness of energized fracs and improve their design and implementation in tight gas sands. Performer University of Texas-Austin, Austin, TX Background A significant portion of U.S. natural gas production comes from unconventional gas resources such as tight gas sands. Tight gas sands account for 58 percent of the total proved natural gas reserves in the United States. As many of these tight gas sand basins mature, an increasing number of wells are being drilled or completed into nearly depleted reservoirs. This includes infill wells, recompletions, and field-extension wells. When these activities are carried out, the reservoir pressures encountered are not as high as the initial reservoir pressures. In these situations, where pressure drawdowns can be less than 2,000 psi, significant reductions in well productivity are observed, often due to water blocking and insufficient clean-up of fracture-fluid residues. In addition, many tight gas sand reservoirs display water sensitivity—owing to high clay content—and readily imbibe water due both to very high capillary pressures and low initial water saturations.

226

Evaluation of the Implementation of Contained Recovery of Oily Waste (CROW(TM)) Enhanced Recovery at a Manufactured Gas Plant Site  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the implementation of an enhanced tar recovery remediation system at a former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) site. The project included investigations, treatability and testing, cost analysis, system design, construction, and operations.

1999-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

227

Solid-Phase Biotreatment Technology Studies Using Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) Soils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The utility industry has been conducting site investigations to assess the presence of tar residuals at manufactured gas plant sites and to determine appropriate remediation actions. Tars typically contain volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. This report evaluates the feasibility of remediating such tarry materials using a patented solid-phase bioremediation technology to target PAH degradation. Bench- and pilot scale treatability trials det...

2000-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

228

Exponential growth, energetic Hubbert cycles, and the advancement of technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the climate, and made all fossil fuels, coal, crude oil, natural gas, gas hydrates, oil shale, etc deposit of organic carbon. 2 The new fossil fuel resources are tar sands, ultra heavy oil, oil shale

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

229

Society faces many energy challenges in this century, but "running out" of energy resources in a global or absolute sense is not one of them. The world may be run-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as conventional oil and gas; there is 5 - 10 times as much oil shale and unconventional gas as coal; the energy tar sands, oil shales, and coal will sharply increase the emissions of climate-altering carbon dioxide

Bensel, Terrence G.

230

Fraced horizontal well shows potential of deep tight gas  

SciTech Connect

Successful completion of a multiple fraced, deep horizontal well demonstrated new techniques for producing tight gas sands. In Northwest Germany, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH drilled, cased, and fraced the world`s deepest horizontal well in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes ``Main`` sand at 15,687 ft (4,783 m) true vertical depth. The multiple frac concept provides a cost-efficient method to economically produce significant gas resources in the ultra-tight Rotliegendes ``Main`` sand. Besides the satisfactory initial gas production rate, the well established several world records, including deepest horizontal well with multiple fracs, and proved this new technique to develop ultra-tight sands.

Schueler, S. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Celle (Germany); Santos, R. [Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

1996-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

231

Generation of sand bars under surface waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(cont.) Experiments were performed in a large wave flume to validate the theory and to study additional aspects of sand bar evolution. The wave envelope and bar profile were recorded for low and high beach reflection, ...

Hancock, Matthew James, 1975-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Hydraulic fracturing with a refractory proppant for sand control  

SciTech Connect

A sand control and heat transfer method is described for use in a borehole having an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated oil or gas reservoir which is otherwise likely to introduce substantial amounts of sand into the borehole, comprising: (a) providing a borehole casing through the reservoir; (b) perforating the casing at preselected intervals therealong to form at least one of longitudinal, in-line perforations; (c) hydraulically fracturing the reservoir by injecting a fracturing fluid containing a fine grain fused refractory material which comprises substantially silicon carbide or silicon nitride, and a clay stabilizing agent; (d) injecting a proppant comprising a gravel packing fused refractory material comprised substantially of silicon carbide or silicon nitride into the fracture, whereby a first layer of fine grain fused refractory material is held in place along the entire face of the fracture by a second layer of gravel packing fused refractory material also extending along the entire length of the fracture thereby excluding fines; and (e) producing oil or gas from the reservoir through the fracture into the borehole casing via a thermal oil recovery method which proppant and layers provide for increased heat transfer into the formation.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Stowe, L.R.

1989-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

233

Partition behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons between aged coal tar and water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Coal tar aged in a large-scale, artificial aquifer experiment for five years was subsequently investigated for leaching behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). After five years, the initially liquid coal tar had solidified and formed segregated particles with a grain size similar to that of the sandy aquifer material. The composition of the aged coal tar (ACT) with regard to PAHs was remarkably different from that of the original bulk coal tar (BCT), because most of the low-molecular-weight compounds had been depleted. Equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of 17 PAHs leaching from the aquifer material containing the ACT were measured from consecutive equilibration steps at increasing temperatures of between 25 and 100 {sup o}C using accelerated solvent extraction. The results showed 2-to 5,000-fold lower concentrations than those from BCT, indicating dramatic changes of dissolution behavior of PAHs from coal tar after the five-year aging period. Predictions based on Raoult's law with the subcooled liquid solubilities substantially overestimated the equilibrium aqueous-phase concentrations of the PAHs from ACT, whereas the estimations were reasonable if the solid solubilities were employed instead. The enthalpies of phase transfer from ACT to water were determined based on the van't Hoff equation. The resulting values agreed with the dissolution enthalpies of pure solid rather than subcooled liquid PAHs.

Liu, L.H.; Endo, S.; Eberhardt, C.; Grathwohl, P.; Schmidt, T.C. [University of Tubingen, Tubingen (Germany)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

New method for sand control and well stimulation in unconsolidated dirty sands  

SciTech Connect

A new technique, the Solder Glass sand consolidation well completion method, has been developed which allows unlimited drawdown and improves productivity in wells completed in unconsolidated formations containing shales and clays. This technique eliminates the problems of sand production and fines migration by artificially consolidating a volume of reservoir sand near the wellbore. The consolidation is resistant to high temperature, chemical attack, and degradation resulting from high velocity fluid flow. Additionally, porosity and permeability in the consolidated volume of reservoir sand are improved as a result of irreversible dehydration of clays. 12 refs.

Aslesen, K.S.; Short, C.J.; Terwilliger, P.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

236

Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand  

SciTech Connect

The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearingsediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas productionfrom gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeabilityparameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by meansof inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictionswith observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-raycomputed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and thehydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-rayCT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations arenon-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydratesaturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at twolocations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parametersets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydratesaturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parametersrequire further refinement of the experimental design, and betterdescription of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

237

Sand-control alternatives for horizontal wells  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that it has been well documented that horizontal completions increase production rates, as much as two to five times those of conventional techniques, because more of the producing formation is exposed to the wellbore. Although productivity improvements are highly sensitive to reservoir parameters, it is becoming generally accepted that optimum horizontal lengths will be 2,000 to 4,000 ft. The length of these completions generally causes the velocity of the fluid at the sandface to be an order of magnitude less than that observed in conventional completions. Because drag forces contributed to sand production, horizontal wells can produce at higher sand-free flow rates than conventional completions in the same reservoir. While it is frequently argued that horizontal wells do not need sand control, the potential for sand production increases significantly as reserves deplete and rock stresses increase. This is becoming more evident today in several major North Sea oil fields with conventional completions. Also, many unconsolidated formations produce sand for the first time with the onset of water production, a typical problem in such areas as the Gulf of Mexico. Operators must decide whether to implement sand control in the original horizontal-completion program because of an immediate concern or because the potential exists for a problem to arise as the well matures.

Zaleski, T.E. Jr. (Baker Sand Control (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Foundry Sand Reclamation: CMP Report No. 90-6  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current environmental regulations have created a situation where the disposal of waste foundry sand has become difficult and expensive. One solution to this problem is the use of a sand reclamation system which "cleans" the sand to a sufficient degree to allow re-use of the sand in the foundry sand system. A large number of sand binder systems are in use for various reasons of cost and performance characteristics. There are also three main methods of sand reclamation and combinations of these. A basic un...

1991-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

239

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydraulic Fracturing and Sand Control Hydraulic Fracturing and Sand Control Hydraulic Fracturing and Sand Control Author: M. Sharma Venue: Industry Workshop, Austin, Texas, May 7, 2008 (http://www.cpge.utexas.edu) Abstract: The Hydraulic Fracturing and Sand Control project consists of a set of 9 projects (5 related to fracturing and 4 related to sand control) that are currently underway. The project began in 2006 and is planned to continue for at least 2 years (2008). Each member company contributes $50,000 per year as a grant to the University and in return receives all the research results from the projects underway. F1. Energized fractures in tight gas sands/ gas shales (Kyle Freihof, Mukul Sharma) F2. Refracturing and stress reorientation in sands / shales (Vasudev Singh, Nicolas Rousell, Mukul Sharma)

240

Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Tight Gas Production ..... 3-B-10 3B-3 Tight Sand Resource Base ..... 3B-1-2 3B-4 Gas Shale Resource Base..... 3B-1-4 3B-5 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilot in Northern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the middle Capay Shale (depleted gas) and McCormick Sand (depleted gas reservoir located within the Middle Capay shaleCO 2 gas will occur in the 2-3 m thick Capay Shale interval

Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Frame moduli of unconsolidated sands and sandstones  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the authors investigate the elastic moduli of the empty grain framework (the frame moduli) in unconsolidated sands and consolidated sandstones. The work was done to improve the interpretation of seismic amplitude anomalies and amplitude variations with offset (AVO) associated with hydrocarbon reservoirs. They developed a laboratory apparatus to measure the frame Poisson's ratio and Young's modulus of unconsolidated sands at seismic frequencies (0.2 to 155 Hz) in samples approximately 11 cm long. They used ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements to measure the frame moduli of consolidated sandstones. They found that the correlation coefficient between the frame Poisson's ratio [sigma][sub A] and the mineral Poisson's ratio [sigma][sub M] is 0.84 in consolidated sandstones and only 0.28 in unconsolidated sands. The range of [sigma][sub A] values in unconsolidated sands is 0.115 to 0.237 (mean = 0.187, standard deviation = 0.030), and [sigma][sub A] cannot be estimated without core or log analyses. Frame moduli analyses of core samples can be used to calibrate the interpretation of seismic amplitude anomalies and AVO effects. For use in areas without core or log analyses, the authors developed an empirical relation that can be used to estimate [sigma][sub A] in unconsolidated sands and sandstones from [sigma][sub M] and the frame P-wave modulus.

Spencer, J.W. Jr.; Cates, M.E.; Thompson, D.D. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., La Habra, CA (United States))

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2})/sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. More specifically, one operator furnished three offset wells which were stimulated with the carbon dioxide/sand frac method. The quantity of proppant and fluids pumped during each well stimulation ranged from 23,000 to 43,000 pounds of proppant and from 120 to 160 tons of liquid carbon dioxide. Another operator furnished two offset wells which were each stimulated with approximately 47,000 pounds of proppant and 120 tons of carbon dioxide. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

244

Sand control method employing special hydraulic fracturing technique  

SciTech Connect

A novel sand control method is disclosed wherein high viscosity, high sand concentration, fracturing fluids are pumped through sets of vertically oriented perforations in borehole casings located in unconsolidated or loosely consolidated pay zones. Various techniques are utilized to insure that sand fills disposed on either side of the borehole casing cover and substantially overlap each borehole casing perforation set. Procedures are then followed to bring the well into production without washing out the sand fills in these areas, whereby the resulting perforation-sand fill configurations effectively control sand production from the treated zone.

Medlin, W.L.; Mullins, L.D.; Zumwalt, G.L.

1983-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

245

xxxx xxxx xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx x 1116 f xx xx xxxx tar diff trnhs ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... ee p2 205.1 220.3 gpfp hany 970127_3500_3398 a 3500 f xx 24 elec tar diff trnhs 59.43 20.59 608848klx ee p2 209.9 241.1 gbcb hany ...

2008-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

246

PAHs underfoot: contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U.S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of {Sigma}PAHs associated with sealcoat. Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U.S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U.S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median SPAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2.1 and 0.8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted. 30 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Peter C. Van Metre; Barbara J. Mahler; Jennifer T. Wilson [U.S. Geological Survey, Austin, TX (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

247

Granular size segregation in underwater sand ripples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an experimental study of a binary sand bed under an oscillating water flow. The formation and evolution of ripples is observed. The appearance of a granular segregation is shown to strongly depend on the sand bed preparation. The initial wavelength of the mixture is measured. In the final steady state, a segregation in volume is observed instead of a segregation at the surface as reported before. The correlation between this phenomenon and the fluid flow is emphasised. Finally, different ``exotic'' patterns and their geophysical implications are presented.

G. Rousseaux; H. Caps; J. -E. Wesfreid

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

248

Bacterial mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in reconstituted mixtures and crude coal tar extracts and fractions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are one of the most ubiquitous carcinogens in the environment, little is known regarding their potential mutagenic interactions. Risk assessment of complex PAH mixtures utilizes toxic equivalency factors which assume additive interactions between individual PAHS. The mutagenic interactions of PAH mixtures were investigated using the Salmonellalmicrosome assay. Two groups of samples included PAH mixtures modeling a coal tar and an environmental crude coal tar extract and its fractions. The PAH mixtures were prepared in 2-, 3-, 4-ring and total reconstituted groups in the same percentages as a model coal tar. The environmental coal tar was extracted and separated into PAH fractions. Each sample was tested at 5 consecutive dose levels with and without metabolic activation in the Salmonella/microsome assay using tester strains TA98 and TAIOO. The reconstituted mixture elicited the maximum mutagenic response of 1,089 revertants at a dose of 1.8mg/mL. At the four lower dose levels (0.09mg/mL to 1.8mg/mL), the reconstituted induced a higher response than the 4-ring mixture. At the highest dose level (18mg/mL), the reconstituted showed a lower response that the 4-ring. These results suggest enhanced mutagenic responses at lower dose levels, with inhibition at higher doses. The mutagenicity of the PAH mixtures was evaluated in combinations as 2-:3-, 3-:4-, and 2-:4-ring mixtures. The 2-:4-ring, and 3-:4-ring combinations induced lower mutagenic responses than the 4-ring alone, suggesting inhibition by the 2-and 3-ring PAHS. Inhibition was also observed when benzo[a]pyrene was tested 935 net revertants, while the benzo[a]pyrene:reconstituted mixture induced 349 net revertants. The methylene chloride extract of a coal tar induced 385 net TA98 and 589 net TAIOO revertants with high metabolic activation (30%). Fractions from the coal tar extract and binary mixtures of individual chemicals with a reconstituted coal tar extract induced additive responses. These data indicate that mixtures of PAHs exhibit a variety of mutagenic interactions. The interactive responses appear controlled by concentration and metabolism of the PAHS. Research of this nature may aid in establishing a clearer understanding of risks and interactions which occur from exposure to PAHS.

Onufrock, Amy Mildred

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

World oil use is projected to grow to 98 million b/d in 2015 and 118 million b/d in 2030. Total world natural gas consumption is projected to rise to 134 Tcf in 2015 and 182 Tcf in 2030. In an era of declining production and increasing demand, economically producing oil and gas from unconventional sources is a key challenge to maintaining global economic growth. Some unconventional hydrocarbon sources are already being developed, including gas shales, tight gas sands, heavy oil, oil sands, and coal bed methane. Roughly 20 years ago, gas production from tight sands, shales, and coals was considered uneconomic. Today, these resources provide 25% of the U.S. gas supply and that number is likely to increase. Venezuela has over 300 billion barrels of unproven extra-heavy oil reserves which would give it the largest reserves of any country in the world. It is currently producing over 550,000 b/d of heavy oil. Unconventional oil is also being produced in Canada from the Athabasca oil sands. 1.6 trillion barrels of oil are locked in the sands of which 175 billion barrels are proven reserves that can be recovered using current technology. Production from 29 companies now operating there exceeds 1 million barrels per day. The report provides an overview of continuous petroleum sources and gives a concise overview of the current status of varying types of unconventional oil and gas resources. Topics covered in the report include: an overview of the history of Oil and Natural Gas; an analysis of the Oil and Natural Gas industries, including current and future production, consumption, and reserves; a detailed description of the different types of unconventional oil and gas resources; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in unconventional resources; an analysis of the barriers that are hindering the development of unconventional resources; profiles of key producing regions; and, profiles of key unconventional oil and gas producers.

none

2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Western Gas Sands Project Quarterly Basin Activities Report  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly basin activities report is a summation of three months drilling and testing activities in the Greater Green River Basin, Northern Great Plains Province, Piceance Basin, and Uinta Basin. Detailed information is given for each study area for the first quarter of 1979.

Atkinson, C H

1979-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

251

Sand Bluff Wind Farm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sand Bluff Wind Farm Sand Bluff Wind Farm Jump to: navigation, search Name Sand Bluff Wind Farm Facility Sand Bluff Wind Farm Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner E.On Climate & Renewables Developer E.On Climate & Renewables Energy Purchaser Direct Energy Location Near Big Spring TX Coordinates 32.201622°, -101.404799° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.201622,"lon":-101.404799,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

252

CO{sub 2}/sand fracturing in Devonian shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of five carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) /sand well stimulations were successfully executed with two Devonian shale operators in Perry and Pike Counties, Kentucky. This new stimulation method offers a minimum formation damage proppant stimulation approach for natural gas producers in the United States. Some operators have been concerned about the frac fluid formation damage associated with the water and chemicals used in conventional foam stimulations, whereas other operators have been concerned about the lack of proppant in straight nitrogen fracs used by service companies today. Two carefully screened geological areas of established Devonian shale production were selected based on active ongoing drilling and completion operations. One selected control area contained an existing set of wells with established production histories. The logistics and field layout of a typical carbon dioxide/sand frac treatment has been described and highlighted. The importance and unique aspects of the closed system blender that is required for job execution is discussed. Five stimulation treatments have been reviewed, and stimulation and preliminary production data compared to offset wells stimulated with nitrogen, and explosives. Initial production results indicate more than a 50 percent increase in production rate compared to nitrogen fraced wells in the Pike County area. In addition, production is also 4.8 times better than conventional shot wells in the same area. These results are encouraging enough to formally combine existing pumping equipment, a closed system blender, and liquid carbon dioxide supplies to develop a new fracturing service in the eastern US A total of 22 additional jobs are planned in the eastern US in low permeability gas formations over the next year.

Yost, A.B. II [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Mazza, R.L. [Petroleum Consulting Services, Canton, OH (United States); Gehr, J.B. [Natural Gas Resources Corporation (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

A Pilot Scale Evaluation of Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO) Technology: A Field Application at a Former Manu factured Gas Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites commonly contain areas where coal tar has been released, potentially existing in several phases including non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in portions of the subsurface site soils. This report describes a field-based pilot scale study of an in situ oxidation technology called Surfactant-Enhanced In Situ Chemical Oxidation (S-ISCO), which was developed by VeruTEK Technologies, Inc.BackgroundCoal tar can remain as ...

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

254

The Time of Sands: Quartz-rich Sand Deposits as a Renewable Resource  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rich Sand Deposits as a Renewable Resource Nelson R. Shaffercan even be considered a renewable resource. The reader willbuild our society, and its renewable nature. We are not the

Shaffer, Nelson R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

CAVITY LIKE COMPLETIONS IN WEAK SANDS PREFERRED UPSTREAM MANAGEMENT PRACTICES  

SciTech Connect

The technology referred to as Cavity Like Completions (CLC) offers a new technique to complete wells in friable and unconsolidated sands. A successfully designed CLC provides significant increases in well PI (performance index) at lower costs than alternative completion techniques. CLC technology is being developed and documented by a partnership of major oil and gas companies through a GPRI (Global Petroleum Research Institute) joint venture. Through the DOE-funded PUMP program, the experiences of the members of the joint venture will be described for other oil and gas producing companies. To date six examples of CLC completions have been investigated by the JV. The project was performed to introduce a new type of completion (or recompletion) technique to the industry that, in many cases, offers a more cost effective method to produce oil and gas from friable reservoirs. The project's scope of work included: (1) Further develop theory, laboratory and field data into a unified model to predict performance of cavity completion; (2) Perform at least one well test for cavity completion (well provided by one of the sponsor companies); (3) Provide summary of geo-mechanical models for PI increase; and (4) Develop guidelines to evaluate success of potential cavity completion. The project tracks the experiences of a joint industry consortium (GPRI No. 17) over a three year period and compiles results of the activities of this group.

Ian Palmer; John McLennan

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

257

Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated sands  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for consolidating sand around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent sand from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting sand inflow.

Davies, David K. (Kingwood, TX); Mondragon, III, Julius J. (Redondo Beach, CA); Hara, Philip Scott (Monterey Park, CA)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

258

POWERS OF TEN 10 deka (da)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/yr) World U.S. Petroleum 10 135 41 Natural Gas 10 60 20 Coal 250 90 15 Tar sands >2 0 0 Oil shale 2,000 0 0

Kammen, Daniel M.

259

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory - Postdoc Eric Verploegen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to help clean up the processes used to extract oil from tar sands and natural gas from shale. Verploegen is not sure if there will be many synchrotrons in his future, but he...

260

RECEIVED BY TIC FEB 2 7 18m  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methods Drilling methods . Completion and pipelining Advanced recovery methods Oil shale and tar sands Liquified natural gas Oil storage methods Refining. M i d d l e A f r...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Essays on the Economics of Environmental Issues: The Environmental Kuznets Curve to Optimal Energy Portfolios  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

damage caused by shale oil extraction, the mention of a billfrom the production of shale oil and shale gas are higherB. (2007), Draft oil shale and tar sands resource manage-

Meininger, Aaron G.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California, Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyT. and G. A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide."oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomass Natural

Farrell, Alexander; Sperling, Daniel

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for CO2 evolved from oil shale." Fuel Processing TechnologyT. and G. A. Miller (1980). "Oil Shales and Carbon Dioxide."oil, coal, tar sands, oil shale Natural gas, biomass Natural

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Comprehensive Study of the Reservoir Sand and Depositional Setting of Garden Banks Field 236, North-Central Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-Central Gulf of Mexico Sean O'Brien, M. Royhan Gani, and Abu K. M. Sarwar Department of Earth and Environmental in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Hydrocarbon explo- ration and production of these deposits has yielded one of the largest gas producing trends in the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf-slope break. Reservoir sands were

Gani, M. Royhan

265

NETL: Shale Gas and Other Natural Gas Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Natural Gas Resources Natural Gas Resources Natural Gas Resources Shale Gas | Environmental | Other Natural Gas Related Resources | Completed NG Projects Project Number Project Name Primary Performer 10122-47 Predicting higher-than-average permeability zones in tight-gas sands, Piceance basin: An integrated structural and stratigraphic analysis Colorado School of Mines 10122-43 Diagnosis of Multi-Stage Fracturing in Horizontal Well by Downhole Temperature Measurement for Unconventional Oil and Gas Wells Texas A&M University 10122-42 A Geomechanical Analysis of Gas Shale Fracturing and Its Containment Texas A&M University 09122-02 Characterizing Stimulation Domains, for Improved Well Completions in Gas Shales Higgs-Palmer Technologies 09122-04 Marcellus Gas Shale Project Gas Technology Institute (GTI)

266

Computational Predictions and Experimental Measurements of the Performance of a Louver Particle Separator for Use in Gas Turbine Engines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Gas turbine engines that power aircraft operate in harsh environments where solid particles, such as sand, are ingested into the engine. Solid particles damage aircraft… (more)

Musgrove, Grant

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

SAND76-0260 Unlimited Release  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SAND76-0260 SAND76-0260 Unlimited Release Printed July 1976 . POWER SUPPLIES FOR SPACE SYSTEMS QUALITY ASSURANCE BY SANDIA LABORATORIES Robert L. Hannigan Robert R. Harnar Electronic and Electrical Devices Division 951 2 Sandia Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87115 AB STRAC T This report summarizes the Sandia Laboratories participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used i n space systems over the past 10 years. Basic elements of this QA program a r e briefly de- scribed and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems f o r which Sandia has had the QA responsibility a r e presented, including SNAP 1 9 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo),

268

EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Bureau of Land Management, with DOE’s Western Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct, operate, and maintain the Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility on private and federal lands in Albany County, Wyoming. If the proposed action is implemented, Western would interconnect the proposed facility to an existing transmission line.

269

Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised  

SciTech Connect

This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

Locke, T.K. [ed.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience  

SciTech Connect

For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

None, None

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

A combined saline formation and gas reservoir CO2 injection pilot in Northern California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

alternating layers of sands and shales deposited in deltaiclens in the overlying Capay Shale (Figure 3). Figure 1. Gas-in the middle Capay Shale (depleted gas) and McCormick

Trautz, Robert; Myer, Larry; Benson, Sally; Oldenburg, Curt; Daley, Thomas; Seeman, Ed

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Thailand gas project now operational  

SciTech Connect

Now operational, Phase 1 of Thailand's first major natural gas system comprises one of the world's longest (264 miles) offshore gas lines. Built for the Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT), this system delivers gas from the Erawan field in the Gulf of Thailand to two electrical power plants near Bangkok, operated by the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT). The project required laying about 360 miles of pipeline, 34-in., 0.625 in.-thick API-5LX-60 pipe offshore and 28-in., 0.406 in.-thick API-5LX-60 onshore. The offshore pipe received a coal-tar coating, a 3.5-5.0 in. concrete coating, and zinc sacrificial-anode bracelets. The onshore line was coated with the same coal-tar enamel and, where necessary, with concrete up to 4.5 in. thick. Because EGAT's two power plants are the system's only customers, no more pipeline will be constructed until deliveries, currently averaging about 100 million CF/day, reach the 250 million CF/day level. The project's second phase will include additional pipelines as well as an onshore distribution network to industrial customers.

Horner, C.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

81: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming 81: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming EA-1581: Sand Hills Wind Project, Wyoming Location of the proposed Sand Hills Wind Project, near Laramie, Wyoming Location of the proposed Sand Hills Wind Project, near Laramie, Wyoming Summary The Bureau of Land Management, with DOE's Western Area Power Administration as a cooperating agency, is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to construct, operate, and maintain the Sand Hills Wind Energy Facility on private and federal lands in Albany County, Wyoming. If the proposed action is implemented, Western would interconnect the proposed facility to an existing transmission line. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. List of Available Documents

274

Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative - Residential Heat Pump Loan Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Program Info State Alabama Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount 7% interest rate 5 or 10 year pay schedule maximum of $12,000 Provider Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative The Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative offers a heat pump loan program to eligible residential members. To qualify, members must have had power with Sand Mountain Electric Cooperative for at least one year, have the home electric bill and deeds in the same name, and pass a credit check. Heat pumps must be installed by a [http://www.smec.coop/heatpumpcontractors.htm

275

Unconsolidated sand grain shape, size impact frac-pack design  

SciTech Connect

The shape and size of sand grains, as well as the saturating fluid, influence the mechanical properties of unconsolidated sands and need to be considered in frac-pack design. These mechanical properties of unconsolidated properties of unconsolidated sands play an important role in determining the geometry of frac-pack treatments. Stress-strain curves obtained for unconsolidated sands at elevated stresses show highly nonlinear hysteretic behavior. The impact of these findings on frac-pack design can be significant. The nonlinear elastic properties of unconsolidated sand can give rise to some unique features in the pressure response and in the fracture geometry that may not be observed in hard rocks. This article focuses on the impact of mechanical properties of poorly consolidated and unconsolidated sands on the geometry of frac packs. The paper discusses frac packs, mechanical properties (Young`s modulus, shear failure) and effective treatments.

Wang, E.; Sharma, M.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

276

IA REP0 SAND85-2809 Unlimited Release UC-92A  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

IA REP0 SAND85-2809 Unlimited Release UC-92A IA REP0 SAND85-2809 Unlimited Release UC-92A Printed July 1986 High Energy Gas Fracture Experiments in Fluid-Filled Boreholes-Potential Geothermal Application J. F. Cuderman, T. Y. Chu, J. Jung, R. D. Jacobson Prepared by Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, New Mexico 87 185 and Livermore, California 94550 for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-76DP00789 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process

277

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

managementdownloadsgao-01246pdf Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

278

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

downloadsurtac-meeting-february-2012 Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

279

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

gosling-and-fehner-closing-circle Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

280

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

spr-quick-facts-and-faqs Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

intelligence-counterintelligence-wfp Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

282

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ea-1087-final-environmental-assessment Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

283

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

al-broadband-plan-empowering-consumers Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

284

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

aridownloadshanford-ari-overview Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

285

Process for treatment of residual gas  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for the treatment of the residual gases which are produced when hydrogen sulfide is reduced, by combustion, to elementary sulfur by the Claus process. The residual gases are fed through a heated conduit and gas scrubber, wherein the temperature of those residual gases are maintained above the melting point of sulfur. A portion of the raw coke oven gas condensate is admitted to the gas scrubber to be returned to the coke oven battery main from the flushing liquid separator as flushing liquor. The residual gases are then conducted through the coke oven gas purification process equipment along with the raw coke oven gas where the residual gases are intermixed with the raw coke oven gas prior to tar separation.

Nolden, K.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

287

SANDIA REPORT SAND93-1076  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SANDIA SANDIA REPORT SAND93-1076 * u_qo UnlimitedRelease 1 Pdnted November 1993 :ii l Standard Testing Procedures for Optical Fiber and Unshielded Twisted Pair at Sandia National Laboratories R. L. Adams Pe,_e,d by Sand!a Nm#ocml L.abomlodN Albuquerque, NewMexlooI71U and Uvermore,California$M860 for the UnitedStatesDepartment ofEnergy underContract DE.ACOI-MALIIf_D SF2900Q(8-81 } _IITRIEIUTION OF THiS DGCU,VltZNT 18 UNLIMITED k Issued by Sandia National Laboratories, operated for the United States Department of Energy by Sandia Corporation. NOTICE. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, nor any of their c_ntractors, subcontractors, or their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability

288

TESTING OF TMR SAND MANTIS FINAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

Screening tests of Sand Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candidate zoom tube materials given equal operating exposure. Additionally, this testing has shown that erosion of the rubber discharge hose directly downstream of the vehicle could be expected to limit the service life of the discharge hose. On the basis of these test results, SRNL recommends the following; {lg_bullet} redesign of critical system components (e.g., zoom tube, discharge hose) should be conducted to improve system characteristics relative to erosion and capitalize on the results of this testing, {lg_bullet} continued efforts to deploy the Sand Mantis should include testing to better define and optimize operating parameters, and gain an understanding of system dynamics, {lg_bullet} discontinue wear testing with the selected materials pending redesign of critical system components (1st recommendation) and inclusion of other candidate materials. The final selection of additional candidate materials should be made following design changes, but might include a Stellite alloy or zirconia.

Krementz, D; William Daugherty, W

2007-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

289

Plant Encroachment on the Burrell, Pennsylvania, Disposal Cell--GJO-99-96-TAR, June 1999  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Performed Under DOE Contract No. DE-AC13-96GJ87335 for the U.S. Department of Energy Performed Under DOE Contract No. DE-AC13-96GJ87335 for the U.S. Department of Energy Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. Department of Energy GJO-99-96-TAR Plant Encroachment on the Burrell, Pennsylvania, Disposal Cell: Evaluation of Long-Term Performance and Risk June 1999 DOE Grand Junction Office June 1999 Plant Encroachment on the Burrell, Pennsylvania, Disposal Cell Page iii Contents Page Executive Summary .....................................................................................................................vii 1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1 1.1 Purpose......................................................................................................................... 1

290

Site Selection for DOE/JIP Gas Hydrate Drilling in the Northern Gulf of Mexico  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the late spring of 2008, the Chevron-led Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) expects to conduct an exploratory drilling and logging campaign to better understand gas hydrate-bearing sands in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. The JIP Site Selection team selected three areas to test alternative geological models and geophysical interpretations supporting the existence of potential high gas hydrate saturations in reservoir-quality sands. The three sites are near existing drill holes which provide geological and geophysical constraints in Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system in an area characterized by seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and abundant seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets ponded sheet sands and associated channel/levee deposits within a minibasin, making this a non-structural play. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. Drilling locations have been selected at each site to 1) test geological methods and models used to infer the occurrence of gas hydrate in sand reservoirs in different settings in the northern Gulf of Mexico; 2) calibrate geophysical models used to detect gas hydrate sands, map reservoir thicknesses, and estimate the degree of gas hydrate saturation; and 3) delineate potential locations for subsequent JIP drilling and coring operations that will collect samples for comprehensive physical property, geochemical and other analyses.

Hutchinson, D.R. (USGS); Shelander, D. (Schlumberger, Houston, TX); Dai, J. (Schlumberger, Hoston, TX); McConnell, D. (AOA Geophysics, Inc., Houston, TX); Shedd, W. (Minerals Management Service); Frye, M. (Minerals Management Service); Ruppel, C. (USGS); Boswell, R.; Jones, E. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX); Collett, T.S. (USGS); Rose, K.; Dugan, B. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX); Wood, W. (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory); Latham, T. (Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

MODELLING THE LOW-TAR BIG GASIFICATION CONCEPT Lars Andersen, Brian Elmegaard, Bjrn Qvale, Ulrik Henriksen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plant systems: Gas engine, Simple cycle gas turbine, Recuperated gas turbine and Integrated Gasification in the following systems are pre- sented in this paper: · Gas engine · Gas turbine (Simple Cycle) · Gas turbine, and running cost of a gas cleaning system can be reduced, and the reliability can be increased. Both pyrolysis

292

Predicting Well Stimulation Results in a Gas Storage Field in the Absence of Reservoir Data, Using Neural Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sand. The Clinton is a tight gas-bearing sandstone. Natural fracturing is thought to account storage field located in Northeastern Ohio. The formation is a tight gas sandstone known as the Clinton for production in economic quantities. Sand occurs in lenses and is largely discontinuous from one well

Mohaghegh, Shahab

293

Identification of Parameters Influencing the Response of Gas Storage Wells to Hydraulic Fracturing with the Aid of a Neural Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

located in Northeastern Ohio. The formation is a tight gas sandstone called the Clinton Sand. All was trained with existing data to identify influential parameters in hydraulic fracturing of the Clinton Sand Characteristics The Clinton reservoir is a tight gas sandstone. Natural fracturing is thought to account

Mohaghegh, Shahab

294

Thermal reclaimer apparatus for a thermal sand reclamation system  

SciTech Connect

A thermal reclaimer apparatus is disclosed for thermally removing from the used foundry sand the organic matter that is present therein. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus includes chamber means in which the used foundry sand is heated to a predetermined temperature for a preestablished period in order to accomplish the burning away of the organic matter that the used foundry sand contains. The chamber means includes inlet means provided at one end thereof and outlet means provided at the other end thereof. Feed means are cooperatively associated with the pipe means and thereby with the inlet means for feeding the used foundry sand through the inlet means into the chamber means. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus further includes rotating means operative for effecting the rotation of the chamber means as the used foundry sand is being heated therein. The chamber means has cooperatively associated therewith burner means located at the same end thereof as the outlet means. The burner means is operative to effect the heating of the used foundry sand to the desired temperature within the chamber means. Tumbling means are provided inside the chamber means to ensure that the used foundry sand is constantly turned over, i.e., tumbled, and that the lumps therein are broken up as the chamber means rotates. Lastly, the used foundry sand from which the organic matter has been removed leaves the chamber means through the outlet means.

Deve, V.

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

Triaxial behavior of sand-mica mixtures using genetic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates an application of genetic programming (GP) for modeling of coarse rotund sand-mica mixtures. An empirical model equation is developed by means of GP technique. The experimental database used for GP modeling is based on a laboratory ... Keywords: Genetic programming, Leighton Buzzard Sand, Mica, Modeling, Triaxial testing

Ali Firat Cabalar; Abdulkadir Cevik

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Epoxy-borax-coal tar composition for a radiation protective, burn resistant drum liner and centrifugal casting method  

SciTech Connect

A boron containing burn resistant, low level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source. The material is basically composed of Borax in the range of 25-50%, coal tar in the range of 25-37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% Borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

Taylor, Robert S. (Livermore, CA); Boyer, Norman W. (Livermore, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Sand control in horizontal wells in heavy-oil reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Recent advances in horizontal-well technology has greatly improved the potential for heavy oil recovery. Such recovery may be hampered, however, by sanding problems associated with most heavy-oil reservoirs. These reservoir sands are mostly unconsolidated and may lead to severe productivity-loss problems if produced freely. This paper offers recommendations for sand control in three Canadian heavy-oil reservoirs. Experimental evidence has shown that minimizing the annular space between the casing and the open hole is important, especially in the case of smaller wire space, lower oil viscosity, and thinner pay zone. Several types of wire-wrapped screens and flexible liners were tested for sand control. Only flexible liners reduced sand production to a negligible amount.

Islam, M.R. (Nova Husky Research Corp. (CA)); George, A.E. (Energy, Mines, and Resources (CA))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Sand Mountain Electric Coop | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mountain Electric Coop Mountain Electric Coop Jump to: navigation, search Name Sand Mountain Electric Coop Place Alabama Utility Id 16629 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Drainage Pumping Station LS - Outdoor Lighting Service Lighting RS - Residential Service Residential Schedule GSA - General Power Service - Part 1 Commercial Schedule GSA - General Power Service - Part 2 Commercial Schedule GSA - General Power Service - Part 3 Commercial Schedule GSB Commercial Schedule GSD Commercial

299

Direct Production of Silicones From Sand  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

2001-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

300

Diamonds in the rough: identification of individual napthenic acids in oil sands process water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Expansion of the oil sands industry of Canada has seen a concomitant increase in the amount of process water produced and stored in large lagoons known as tailings ponds. Concerns have been raised, particularly about the toxic complex mixtures of water-soluble naphthenic acids (NA) in the process water. To date, no individual NA have been identified, despite numerous attempts, and while the toxicity of broad classes of acids is of interest, toxicity is often structure-specific, so identification of individual acids may also be very important. The chromatographic resolution and mass spectral identification of some individual NA from oil sands process water is described. The authors concluded that the presence of tricyclic diamondoid acids, never before even considered as NA, suggests an unprecedented degree of biodegradation of some of the oil in the oil sands. The identifications reported should now be followed by quantitative studies, and these used to direct toxicity assays of relevant NA and the method used to identify further NA to establish which, or whether all NA, are toxic. The two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method described may also be important for helping to better focus reclamation/remediation strategies for NA as well as in facilitating the identification of the sources of NA in contaminated surface waters (auth)

Rowland, Steven J.; Scarlett, Alan G.; Jones, David; West, Charles E. (Petroleum and Environmental Geochemistry Group, Biogeochemistry Research Centre, University of Plymouth (United Kingdom)); Frank, Richard A. (Aquatic Ecosystems Protection Research Division-Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, Ontario (Canada)

2011-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Determination of critical cracking temperature of oil sands at low temperature conditions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This research is intended to predict the viscoelastic behavior of oil sand mixesunder low temperature conditions. The oil sand used in this project is a… (more)

Chandika, Charan kumar

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Methane-Hydrate Bearing Sand Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Methane-Hydrate Bearing Sand Fluid Flow through Heterogeneous Methane-Hydrate Bearing Sand: Observations Using X-Ray CT Scanning Authors: Yongkoo Seol and Timothy J. Kneafsey Venue: 6th International Conference on Gas Hydrates (ICGH 2008), Vancouver, British Columbia, CANADA, July 6-10, 2008. http://www.icgh.org/ [external site] Abstract: The effects of porous medium heterogeneity on methane hydrate formation, water flow through the heterogeneous hydrate-bearing sand, and hydrate dissociation were observed in an experiment using a heterogeneous sand column with prescribed heterogeneities. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to monitor saturation changes in water, gas, and hydrate during hydrate formation, water flow, and hydrate dissociation. The sand column was packed in several segments having vertical and horizontal layers with two distinct grain-size sands. The CT images showed that as hydrate formed, the water and hydrate saturations were dynamically redistributed by variations in capillary strength of the medium (the tendency for a material to imbibe water), which changed with the presence and saturation of hydrate. Water preferentially flowed through fine sand near higher hydrate-saturation regions where the capillary strength was elevated relative to the lower hydrate saturation regions. Hydrate dissociation initiated by depressurization varied with different grain sizes and hydrate saturations.

303

NETL: Oil & Natural Gas Technologies Reference Shelf - Presentation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Permeability of Laboratory-Formed Hydrate-Bearing Sand Permeability of Laboratory-Formed Hydrate-Bearing Sand Permeability of Laboratory-Formed Hydrate-Bearing Sand (OTC 19536) Authors: Timothy J. Kneafsey (speaker), Yongkoo Seol, Arvind Gupta, and Liviu Tomutsa Venue: 2008 Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, May 5-8, 2008 http://www.spe.org and http://www.smenet.org [external sites] Abstract: Methane hydrate was formed in moist sand under confining stress in a long, x-ray transparent pressure vessel. Three initial water saturations were used to form three different methane hydrate saturations. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe location-specific density changes, caused by hydrate formation and flowing water. Gas permeability was measured in each test for dry sand, moist sand, frozen sand, and hydrate-bearing sand. Results of these measurements are presented. Water was flowed through the hydrate-bearing sand, and the changes in water saturation were observed using CT scanning. Inverse modeling will be performed using these data to extend the relative permeability measurements

304

Engineering analysis of biomass gasifier product gas cleaning technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

For biomass gasification to make a significant contribution to the energy picture in the next decade, emphasis must be placed on the generation of clean, pollutant-free gas products. This reports attempts to quantify levels of particulated, tars, oils, and various other pollutants generated by biomass gasifiers of all types. End uses for biomass gases and appropriate gas cleaning technologies are examined. Complete systems analysis is used to predit the performance of various gasifier/gas cleanup/end use combinations. Further research needs are identified. 128 refs., 20 figs., 19 tabs.

Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Moore, R.H.; Mudge, L.K.; Elliott, D.C.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Prediction of light gas composition in coal devolatilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model describes the devolatilization behavior of rapidly heated coal based on the chemical structure of the coal. It predicts the overall char, tar, and light gas yields. This paper presents an improved CPD model with improved capability for predicting light gas composition. This is achieved by incorporating a kinetic model that simulates the release of various light gas species from their respective sources/functional groups in coal. The improved CPD model is validated using experiments with a wire mesh reactor and published experimental observations.13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Ravichandra S. Jupudi; Vladimir Zamansky; Thomas H. Fletcher [GE Global Research, Bangalore (India)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

Pradeep Agrawal

2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

307

A secure and covert communication channel for HTTP tar pits to implement dynamic web page blocks to bar spammer's harvesters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unsolicited commercial email (UCE, spam), scam and phishing emails make up for more than 90% of all emails sent world-wide. Most anti spam methods known rely on filtering emails. Meanwhile, even web browsers check URLs against blacklists to avoid fraud. ... Keywords: HTTP tar pit, access control, distributed, proactive anti-spam-measures, spam

Tobias Eggendorfer

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

The apparent surface roughness of moving sand transported by wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive analytical model of aeolian sand transport in saltation. It quantifies the momentum transfer from the wind to the transported sand by providing expressions for the thickness of the saltation layer and the apparent surface roughness. These expressions are for the first time entirely derived from basic physical principles. The model further predicts the sand transport rate (mass flux) and the impact threshold shear velocity. We show that the model predictions are in very good agreement with experiments and numerical state of the art simulations of aeolian saltation.

Thomas Pähtz; Jasper F. Kok; Hans J. Herrmann

2011-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

309

Utilizing secondary heat to heat wash oil in the coke-oven gas desulfurization division  

SciTech Connect

Removal of hydrogen sulfide from the coke-oven gas by the vacuum-carbonate method involves significant energy costs, comprising about 47% of the total costs of the process. This is explained by the significant demand of steam for regeneration of the wash oil, the cost of which exceeds 30% of the total operating costs. The boiling point of the saturated wash oil under vacuum does not exceed 70/sup 0/C, thus the wash oil entering the regenerator can be heated either by the direct coke-oven gas or by the tar supernatant from the gas collection cycle. Utilizing the secondary heat of the direct coke-oven gas and the tar supernatant liquor (the thermal effect is approximately the same) to heat the wash oil from the gas desulfurization shops significantly improves the industrial economic indices. Heating the wash oil from gas desulfurization shops using the vacuum-carbonate method by the heat of the tar supernatant liquor may be adopted at a number of coking plants which have a scarcity of thermal resources and which have primary coolers with vertical tubes.

Volkov, E.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Seismic amplitude and coherency response of channel sand, offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geological drilling hazards are a major concern in the ics. drilling and development of offshore reservoirs. Some of these hazards may display high amplitudes on seismic profiles and some may be associated with stratigraphic features. Seismic amplitude anomalies associated with channel sand deposits may indicate potential accumulations of hydrocarbons in reservoirs. However, shallow hydrocarbon accumulations are rarely of production size. More often, they are potential geological drilling hazards that could inhibit the development of petroleum resources from deeper hydrocarbon-bearing layers. Traditionally, existing and potential geologic hazards are identified by interpretation of high-resolution site survey data, acquired specifically for drilling hazard delineation. This paper describes a new technique for drilling hazard identification using a conventional 3D seismic amplitude dataset. An event coherence calculation program is applied to a 3D seismic dataset to derive seismic attributes sufficient to highlight structural and stratigraphic discontinuities in the area. A resultant 3D difference cube is used to establish fault framework and to detect spatial distribution of channel deposits in the area and their geometries. Superposition of the difference cube on seismic amplitude data allows simultaneous display of structural and stratigraphic discontinuities and reflectivity information. Therefore, it is used for the delineation of channels, which show anomalous amplitudes, identification of their dimensions and spatial locations, and implication of gas-charged sand distribution within the detected channel. The paper gives a detailed description of a workflow, which was found sufficient for delineation of likely gas-charged sand channels, and discusses the ways to adjust the proposed workbox to specific objectives.

Fischer, Elena Mikhaylovna

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Getty mines oil sands in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large deposit of oil-laden diatomaceous earth in the McKittrick oil field 40 miles west of Bakersfield, California, has resisted all efforts at production by standard means. Getty Oil Co. is in the pilot phase of a project to recover the Diatomite's oil by an open pit mining operation. It also could have significant implications for other California oil fields, possibly setting the stage for the mining of oil sands in shallow fields like Kern River, S. Belridge, and Lost Hills to maximize oil recovery. A report on the project is summarized. The Diatomite is estimated to have 500 million bbl of oil in reserves, of which 380 million bbl are recoverable. The estimated amount of recoverable oil exceeds the McKittrick field's cumulative production of 240 million bbl. A pilot plant was built to test solvent extraction method of recovering heavy oil. The multistep process involves a series of 6 extractors. The Lurgi retorting plant employs a 2-step heating process to separate hydrocarbons from crushed ore.

Rintoul, B.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

After the fire is out: A post in-situ combustion audit, Upper Miocene deepwater sands, San Joaquin Valley, California  

SciTech Connect

An audit of small-scale, air in-situ combustion projects developed in the upper Miocene Monarch and Webster unconsolidated, arkosic sand reservoirs, Midway Sunset field, Kern County, California, demonstrates minor rock diagenesis. Burn distribution and progression is controlled by reservoir continuity, layering, and original permeability variations. Air in-situ combustion projects were operated between 1962 and 1976. Injected air drives a burning oil (coke) front through a reservoir reaching maximum temperatures of 650C. Dense new well control including 3,000 ft of core is part of a large steamdrive development. Fireflood-induced diagenesis was clearly visible in core. Altered zones include sands with reduced oil saturations, burn zones with remaining coke, and reddish (oxidized) zones with no hydrocarbons. Wireline log response in these zones have been highly modified. Detailed mapping by subzone using pre- and post-burn logs permits the determination of three-dimensional burn and reduced saturation geometries. Little rock alteration occurred in these sands. The only diagenesis of the sand fraction was to calcite grains, where oil/calcite reactions produced calcium sulfate rims and CO{sub 2} gas. X-ray diffraction of finer 'matrix' reveals no recrystallization of opal-CT, no irreversible collapse of smectite, and only minor removal of kaolinite. Partial dissolution of opal and zeolites was visible in SEM. This nonequilibrium mineral suite probably reflects kinetic control by grain size, protective grain coatings, and alteration time.

Eagan, J.M.; Barrett, M.L. (Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Bakersfield, CA (United States)); Soustek, P.G. (Mobil Exploration and Producing US, Denver, CO (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar  

SciTech Connect

In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Sand Ridges and Dunes in the Calumet Region  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

when the U. S. Steel corporation purchased 8000 acres of sand dunes and swamps for its mills and a new city, Gary, you can still see ridge after ridge paralleling the lake shore...

315

Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Sand Dunes Hot Spring Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Sand Dunes Hot Spring Sector Geothermal energy Type Aquaculture Location Hooper, Colorado Coordinates 37.7427775°, -105.8752987° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

316

CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND96-2555 UC-1243 Unlimited Release  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND96-2555 UC-1243 Unlimited Release A Study of Productionlnjection Data from Slim Holes and Large-Diameter Wells at the Takigami Geothermal Field, Kyushu,...

317

SEISMIC ANISOTROPY IN TIGHT GAS SANDSTONES, RULISON FIELD, PICEANCE BASIN, COLORADO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Piceance basin area have created the Mesaverde Group tight gas sand reservoirs. As shown in Figure 2 of siltstones, shales and tight sandstones with a coaly interval at the base. The main producing interval was predominantly from the fluvial point bar sand bodies, with extremely low matrix permeabilities (

318

April 02.pub  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

that change tar into oil while it is still underground in tar sand deposits. The current production of crude oil from tar sands is a significant contributor to Canada's GHG...

319

The effects of psammophilous plants on sand dune dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Psammophilous plants are special plants that flourish in sand moving environments. There are two main mechanisms by which the wind affects these plants: (i) sand drift exposes roots and covers branches--the exposed roots turn into new plants and the covered branches turn into new roots; both mechanisms result in an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes; (ii) strong winds, often associated with sand movement, tear branches and seed them in nearby locations, resulting in new plants and an enhanced growth rate of the psammophilous plant cover of the dunes. Despite their important role in dune dynamics, to our knowledge, psammophilous plants have never been incorporated into mathematical models of sand dunes. Here, we attempt to model the effects of these plants on sand dune dynamics. We construct a set of three ordinary differential equations for the fractions of surface cover of regular vegetation, biogenic soil crust and psammophilous plants. The latter reach their optimal growth under (i) specific sand drift or (ii) specific wind power. We show that psammophilous plants enrich the sand dune dynamics. Depending on the climatological conditions, it is possible to obtain one, two, or three steady dune states. The activity of the dunes can be associated with the surface cover--bare dunes are active, and dunes with significant cover of vegetation, biogenic soil crust, or psammophilous plants are fixed. Our model shows that under suitable precipitation rates and wind power, the dynamics of the different cover types is in accordance with the common view that dunes are initially stabilized by psammophilous plants that reduce sand activity, thus enhancing the growth of regular vegetation that eventually dominates the cover of the dunes and determines their activity.

Golan Bel; Yosef Ashkenazy

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

320

Phylogeographic Structure in the Bogus Yucca Moth Prodoxus quinquepunctellus (Prodoxidae): Comparisons with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

track to learn about and strategize action on these important issues: fracking, tar sands, divestment

Althoff, David M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Computing Zeta Functions of Nondegenerate Curves W. Castryck 1# , J. Denef 1 and F. Vercauteren 2##  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

environmentally fragile public lands; squeezing of oil from tar sands; hydro-fracking to expand extraction

International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

322

SOLID-DER Page 1/89 Project no.: 019938  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and technically acceptable liquid fuels from oil shale, tar sand b international concern. T The current

323

Humic acid complexation of basic and neutral polycyclic aromatic compounds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, metallurgical processes, and some coal, oil shale, and tar sand conversion systems. These com- pounds exhibit

Chorover, Jon

324

Energy Policy Act of 2005 -Select News and Analysis WSU Extension Energy Library http://www.energy.wsu.edu/library/  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Section 351 Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005 - Title III

Collins, Gary S.

325

Testimony of Ernest J. Moniz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shale, deepwater oil and polar oil. Oil projects, projects that add oil production either by bringing shale oil production is viable at a large scale has yet to be seen. We do not know if exploitation resources, this includes light, medium and heavy oil, Natural Gas Liquids (NGL), tar sands or oil sands, oil

Williams, Brian C.

326

Natural Gas Program Archive (Disk1)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Eastern U.S. Gas Eastern U.S. Gas Shales Eastern U.S. Gas Eastern U.S. Gas Shales Shales Program Program This DVD contains information related to research and development (R&D) undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) during the 1976-1995 time period. This R&D focused on improving industry understanding of ways to locate and produce natural gas from the fractured organic gas shales of the Eastern U.S. A second DVD is also available that includes similar information related to the five other R&D programs targeting unconventional natural gas during roughly the same time frame: Western U.S. Gas Sands (1977-1992), Methane Recovery from Coalbeds (1978-1982), Methane Hydrates (1982-1992), Deep Source Gas Project (1982-1992), and Secondary Gas Recovery (1987-1995). The following items are found on this DVD.

327

DOE/EA-1584: Final Environmental Assessment for Sand Point Wind Installation Project, Sand Point, Alaska (September 2009)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Sand Point Wind Installation Project Sand Point, Alaska DOE/EA -1584 U.S. Department of Energy Golden Field Office 1617 Cole Boulevard Golden, Colorado 80401-3305 September 2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1.0 INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................. 1 1.1 NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES....................................................................................................... 1 1.2 BACKGROUND .................................................................................................... 1 1.3 PURPOSE AND NEED.......................................................................................... 2 1.4 PUBLIC SCOPING AND CONSULTATION.......................................................

328

Energy, Oil Sands and Sustainable Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wells by Downhole Temperature Measurement for Unconventional Oil and Gas Wells (Projects 2.5.21) ­ Dr) 845-1307 ­ http://www.pe.tamu.edu Agenda Heavy Oil, Stimulation/IOR, Environmental, Well Construction Steam-Solvent Injection to Increase Efficiency of Thermal Oil Recovery Processes (Project 1

Barthelat, Francois

329

Method of tagging sand with ruthenium-103 and the resultant product  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A procedure for tagging sand with a radioisotope for use in the study of sediment transport involves the precipitation of a metal radioisotope in the form of an iodide directly on the sand, followed by heating the sand to a temperature sufficient to effect a phase transformation of the sand and a decomposition of the metal iodide, leaving the metal firmly attached to the sand.

Case, Forrest N. (Oak Ridge, TN); McFarland, Clyde E. (Knoxville, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

An optical analysis of the organic soil over an old petroleum tar deposit1 Servane Gillet and Jean-Franois Ponge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the mineral soil, forming Mor (Coughtrey at al., 1979;1 Balabane at al., 1999; Gillet and Ponge, 2002 polluted by hydrocarbons, in particular tar deposits. A6 polluted plot was selected by visual inspection

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

331

Feasibility of calculating petrophysical properties in tight-sand reservoirs using neural networks. Final report, October 1989-July 1991  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the research was to determine the feasibility of using neural networks to estimate petrophysical properties in tight sand reservoirs. A second objective was to gain some experience concerning how to approach the development of a future prototype, including what should be done and what should be avoided. Gas Research Institute (GRI) focused the project on tight sands because they contain enormous gas reserves and their complicated lithology represents a challenge to log analysts. The data were supplied by GRI from two of its geographically proximate experimental wells in tight sand formations. The nets were tested in sections of those wells that were not used for training, and in two other wells, one in a geographically close but geologically unrelated formation and one in Wyoming. The feasibility testing demonstrated that the relatively simple neural networks developed have comparable accuracy with standard logging analysis estimates in wells that contributed data to the training set. Transportability of the network was tested by using core measurements in two wells in which the nets were not trained, with inconclusive results. Recommendations were made to increase the accuracy of the neural networks.

Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Javitz, H.S.; Park, W.; Lee, J.D.; Bergman, A.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Biomass Gas Cleanup Using a Therminator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project is to develop and demonstrate a novel fluidized-bed process module called a �¢����Therminator�¢��� to simultaneously destroy and/or remove tar, NH3 and H2S from raw syngas produced by a fluidized-bed biomass gasifier. The raw syngas contains as much as 10 g/m3 of tar, 4,000 ppmv of NH3 and 100 ppmv of H2S. The goal of the Therminator module would be to use promising regenerable catalysts developed for removing tar, ammonia, and H2S down to low levels (around 10 ppm). Tars are cracked to a non-condensable gas and coke that would deposit on the acid catalyst. We will deposit coke, much like a fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) in a petroleum refinery. The deposited coke fouls the catalyst, much like FCC, but the coke would be burned off in the regenerator and the regenerated catalyst would be returned to the cracker. The rapid circulation between the cracker and regenerator would ensure the availability of the required amount of regenerated catalyst to accomplish our goal. Also, by removing sulfur down to less than 10 ppmv, NH3 decomposition would also be possible in the cracker at 600-700���°C. In the cracker, tar decomposes and lays down coke on the acid sites of the catalyst, NH3 is decomposed using a small amount of metal (e.g., nickel or iron) catalyst incorporated into the catalyst matrix, and H2S is removed by a small amount of a metal oxide (e.g. zinc oxide or zinc titanate) by the H2S-metal oxide reaction to form metal sulfide. After a tolerable decline in activity for these reactions, the catalyst particles (and additives) are transported to the regenerator where they are exposed to air to remove the coke and to regenerate the metal sulfide back to metal oxide. Sulfate formation is avoided by running the regeneration with slightly sub-stoichiometric quantity of oxygen. Following regeneration, the catalyst is transported back to the cracker and the cycling continues. Analogous to an FCC reactor system, rapid cycling will allow the use of very active cracking catalysts that lose activity due to coking within the order of several seconds.

David C. Dayton; Atish Kataria; Rabhubir Gupta

2012-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

333

A Political Ecology of Hydraulic Fracturing for Natural Gas in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

[:] shale gas in the US, sand mines in Wisconsin, oil in the Ecuadoran Amazon, oil in the Niger Delta's Marcellus Shale Laura J. Stroup, Ph.D. Dept. of Geography, Texas State University Michael H. Finewood, Ph ! Background of Marcellus Shale Gas Play ! Current Events: The Case of PA ! Geography of Fracking in Study

Scott, Christopher

334

FreezeFrac Improves the Productivity of Gas Shales S. Enayatpour, E. Van Oort, T. Patzek, University of Texas At Austin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SPE 166482 FreezeFrac Improves the Productivity of Gas Shales S. Enayatpour, E. Van Oort, T. Patzek to unconventional hydrocarbon reservers such as oil shales, gas shales, tight gas sands, coalbed methane, and gas; Keaney et al., 2004). Successful production of oil and gas from shales with nano-Darcy range permeability

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

335

Method for manufacturing a well production and sand screen assembly  

SciTech Connect

A method for forming and assembling a well production and sand screen assembly in a well having a screen therein forming an outer annulus and a wash pipe internally of the screen forming an inner annulus comprising further (A) mounting a high pressure fluid pump means and a valve means on each wash pipe, inner annulus, and outer annulus, and (B) connecting the valve means in fluid communication with the high pressure fluid pump means for controlling the ingress and egress of the high pressure fluids and removed formation material for forming a sand pack in the well and simultaneously for applying and maintaining a positive fluid pressure against the overburden during work in the well for preventing cave-ins and sloughing of the unconsolidated formation well walls until the sand pack is formed.

Widmyer, R.H.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

336

Determination of the forms of nitrogen released in coal tar during rapid devolatilization  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this work is determined the forms of nitrogen in coal that lead to nitrogen release during devolatilization. Experiments are to be performed in two existing laminar flow reactors available at Brigham Young University, which are both capable of temperatures (up to 2000 K), particle heating rates (10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} K/s), and residence times (up to 500 ms) relevant to conditions commonly encountered in industrial pulverized coal combustors. the forms of nitrogen in coal, char, and tar samples will be analyzed using state-of-the-art techniques, including nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high resolution nitrogen-specific chromatography. These sophisticated analysis techniques will be preformed in collaboration with other research at BYU, the University of Utah, and industrial organizations. Coals will be obtained as a function of rank, including eight coals from the University of Utah that are to be used in pilot scale tests in support of the DOE Coal-2000 HiPPS (high Performance Power Systems) and LEBS (Low-Emission Boiler Systems) program. Anticipated results from the proposed research will be (a) nitrogen release parameters during devolatilization for specific coals pertinent to the HiPPS and LEBS projects, (b) better fundamental understanding of the chemistry of nitrogen release, and (c) a nitrogen release submodel based on fundamental chemistry that may be more widely applicable than existing empirical relationships.

Fletcher, T.H.

1996-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

337

Taxa-area Relationship (TAR) of Microbial Functional Genes with Long-TGerm Fertilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Diversity and spatial patterns in plant and animal communities are well documented as a positive-power law of a taxa-area relationship (TAR). At present little is known whether this also applies to soil microbial communities and whether long-term fertilization has an influence on the underlying microbial diversity. To test the effects of long-term fertilization on above-ground botanical diversity and below-ground microbial diversity, a nested sampling approach on Park Grass plots (12d& 11/2c) of Rothamsted Reseach in United Kingdom, both at ~;; pH 5 but with plant diversities of between 42 and 13 respectively were used. GeoChip 3.0, covering approximately 57, 000 gene sequences of 292 gene families involved in nitrogen, carbon, sulfur and phosphorus cycling, metal reduction and resistance, and organic contaminant degradation, was used to determine the gene area relationships for both functional and phylogenetic groups and the relationship to plant diversity. Our analysis indicated that the microbial communities were separated by different plant diversity based on DCA. The soil microbial diversity was in accord with plant diversity. Soil microbial community exhibited different z value with different plant diversity, z = 0.0449 with higher plant diversity and z = 0.0583 with lower plant diversity (P< 0.0001). These results suggest that the turnover in space of microorganisms may be higher with long-term fertilization.

Liang, Yuting; Wu, Liyou; Clark, Ian; Xue, Kai; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Deng, Ye; He, Zhili; Hirsch, Penny; Mcgrath, Steve; Zhou, Jizhong

2010-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

338

Measuring Energy Sustainability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and natural gas, unconventional oil (e.g., tar sands, oil shale, and extra heavy oil), unconventional natural unconventional resources, such as oil shale or tight gas formations. Over the first thirty years there is a clear. However, the chemical processes for mak- ing distillate fuel from coal, oil shale, natural gas, and even

339

Continental energy security: Energy security in the North American context1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

300 0 500 *Oil & gas from EIA ** Unconventional oil & gas; uncertain, could be large Other Methane Oil Gas Coal GtC Reserve growth Proven reserves* Emissions (CDIAC) EIA IPCC CO2(ppmv) 600 400 200 100 Hydrates Shale Oil Tar Sands ? ** #12;Caption if needed #12;"Free Will" Alternative 1. Phase Out Coal CO2

Hughes, Larry

340

Global Warming* The Perfect Storm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrates Shale Oil Tar Sands ? ** #12;Caption if needed #12;"Free Will" Alternative 1. Phase Out Coal CO2 Oil Gas Coal GtC Reserve growth Proven reserves* Emissions (CDIAC) EIA IPCC CO2(ppmv) 600 400 200 100 300 0 500 *Oil & gas from EIA ** Unconventional oil & gas; uncertain, could be large Other Methane

Hansen, James E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Annual Energy Outlook with Projections to 2025-Issues in Focus - Natural  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Consumption in Canadian Oil Sands Production Consumption in Canadian Oil Sands Production Issues In Focus. Natural Gas Consumption in Canadian Oil Sands Production In recent years, extensive investment has gone into the development of AlbertaÂ’s oil sands. In 2002, CanadaÂ’s crude bitumen production from oil sands averaged 790,000 barrels per day, while conventional crude output was 2,140,000 barrels per day (including natural gas liquids). Natural gas is used both to extract the bitumen from the sand and to convert the bitumen into syncrude. Currently, oil sands operations consume approximately 330 billion cubic feet per year of natural gas. Printer Friendly Version Projection 2002 2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 Tar sands oil supply (million barrels per day) Mined bitumen 0.43 0.56 0.87 1.64 1.82 1.87

342

Permeability of laboratory-formed methane-hydrate-bearing sand: Measurements and observations using x-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

Methane hydrate was formed in two moist sands and a sand/silt mixture under a confining stress in an X-ray-transparent pressure vessel. Three initial water saturations were used to form three different methane-hydrate saturations in each medium. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe location-specific density changes caused by hydrate formation and flowing water. Gas-permeability measurements in each test for the dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing states are presented. As expected, the effective permeabilities (intrinsic permeability of the medium multiplied by the relative permeability) of the moist sands decreased with increasing moisture content. In a series of tests on a single sample, the effective permeability typically decreased as the pore space became more filled, in the order of dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing. In each test, water was flowed through the hydrate-bearing medium and we observed the location-specific changes in water saturation using CT scanning. We compared our data to a number of models, and our relative permeability data compare most favorably with models in which hydrate occupies the pore bodies rather than the pore throats. Inverse modeling (using the data collected from the tests) will be performed to extend the relative permeability measurements.

Kneafsey, T. J.; Seol, Y.; Gupta, A.; Tomutsa, L.

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Mechanism of acoustic emissions from booming sand dunes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The classical elastic mechanics shows that the fundamental frequency of a sand grain chain is similar to the typical frequency of acoustic emission generated by the booming dunes. The "song of dunes" is therefore considered to originate from the resonance of grain chains occurring within a solid layer only several centimeters thick.

Zhen-Ting Wang

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

344

Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitrate-Cancrinite Precipitation on Quartz Sand in Simulated Hanford Tank Solutions B A R R Y R . B minerals at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford site in Washington. Nitrate-cancrinite began's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington since the late 1950s (1). To predict the fate

Illinois at Chicago, University of

345

SAND2006-1982J Solid-State Environmentally Safe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

battery packs in parallel.The commercial target cost is expected to open at $50 per 1.5-volt cellSAND2006-1982J #12;Solid-State Environmentally Safe Battery for Replacing Lithium Batteries 1 Entry with High Power Battery Systems Company 5 Silkin Street, Apt. 40 Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod Russia

346

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially-saturated sand in the sonic frequency range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sands can be viewed as an end-member of the spectrum of naturally-occurring granular materials, with tight

Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Extensional wave attenuation and velocity in partially saturated sand in the sonic frequency range  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sands can be viewed as an end-member of the spectrum of naturally-occurring granular materials, with tight

Liu, Z.; Rector, J.W.; Nihei, K.T.; Tomutsa, L.; Myer, L.R.; Nakagawa, S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Semi-annual report for the unconventional gas recovery program, period ending September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported in research on methane recovery from coalbeds, eastern gas shales, western gas sands, and geopressured aquifers. In the methane from coalbeds project, data on information evaluation and management, resource and site assessment and characterization, model development, instrumentation, basic research, and production technology development are reported. In the methane from eastern gas shales project, data on resource characterization and inventory, extraction technology, and technology testing and verification are presented. In the western gas sands project, data on resource assessments, field tests and demonstrations and project management are reported. In the methane from geopressured aquifers project, data on resource assessment, supporting research, field tests and demonstrations, and technology transfer are reported.

Manilla, R.D. (ed.)

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Paleo-Storminess in the Southern Lake Michigan Basin, as Recorded by Eolian Sand Downwind of Dunes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Eolian sand deposited in lakes downwind of coastal sand dunes record a history of paleoclimatic fluctuations. Studies from embayed lakes along the east-central coast of… (more)

Hanes, Barbara E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Geochemical Evidence for an Eolian Sand Dam across the North and South Platte Rivers in Nebraska  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

microcracks saturating the ECC (Fig. 1(b)) before localization. This tight crack width is essential designation M45) along with green ECC mixture proportions (ECC with green foundry sand, ECC with bag house calcinator sand) Mixture proportions, *high-range water reducer M45 M45G M45 Calcin Cement 1 1 1 F-110 sand 0

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

351

Examination of pulverized waste recycled glass as filter media in slow sand filtration. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to investigate the pulverization of waste recycled glass to produce glass sand for slow sand filters. Pulverization experiments were performed using a fail mill pulverizer. The glass sand product from the pulverizer meets the size distribution requirements of ASTM-C-33 without size distribution adjustment. The size distribution must be adjusted to meet the grain size distribution requirements of the Ten States Standards and the USEPA for filter media used in slow sand filters. Pulverized glass that meet slow sand filter media specifications is an effective alternative to silica sand as a filter media for slow sand filtration. Three pilot plant slow sand filters with glass sand filter media were compared to a fourth filter containing silica sand filter media. Over an 8 month period of continuous operation, the performance of the glass sand filter media was as good or better than the silica sands, with removals of 56% to 96% for turbidity; 99.78% to 100.0% for coliform bacteria; 99.995% to 99.997% for giardia cysts; 99.92% and 99.97% for cryptosporidium oocysts. Based on a cost-benefit analysis, converting waste glass into filter media may be economically advantageous for recycling facilities.

Piccirillo, J.B.; Letterman, R.D.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low Btu fuel from castings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low Btu gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollutis reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved. 5 figs.

Scheffer, K.D.

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

353

System and process for the abatement of casting pollution, reclaiming resin bonded sand, and/or recovering a low BTU fuel from castings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Air is caused to flow through the resin bonded mold to aid combustion of the resin binder to form a low BTU gas fuel. Casting heat is recovered for use in a waste heat boiler or other heat abstraction equipment. Foundry air pollution is reduced, the burned portion of the molding sand is recovered for immediate reuse and savings in fuel and other energy is achieved.

Scheffer, Karl D. (121 Governor Dr., Scotia, NY 12302)

1984-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

354

Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The coke plant at the Sparrows Point Plant consist of three coke oven batteries and two coal chemical plants. The by-product coke oven gas (COG) consists primarily of hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and contaminants consisting of tars, light oils (benzene, toluene, and xylene) hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, water vapor and other hydrocarbons. This raw coke oven gas needs to be cleaned of most of its contaminants before it can be used as a fuel at other operations at the Sparrows Point Plant. In response to environmental concerns, BSC decided to replace much of the existing coke oven gas treatment facilities in the two coal chemical Plants (A and B) with a group of technologies consisting of: Secondary Cooling of the Coke oven Gas; Hydrogen Sulfide Removal; Ammonia Removal; Deacification of Acid Gases Removed; Ammonia Distillation and Destruction; and, Sulfur Recovery. This combination of technologies will replace the existing ammonia removal system, the final coolers, hydrogen sulfide removal system and the sulfur recovery system. The existing wastewater treatment, tar recovery and one of the three light oil recovery systems will continue to be used to support the new innovative combination of COG treatment technologies.

Not Available

1992-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

355

Unconventional gas outlook: resources, economics, and technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The report explains the current and potential of the unconventional gas market including country profiles, major project case studies, and new technology research. It identifies the major players in the market and reports their current and forecasted projects, as well as current volume and anticipated output for specific projects. Contents are: Overview of unconventional gas; Global natural gas market; Drivers of unconventional gas sources; Forecast; Types of unconventional gas; Major producing regions Overall market trends; Production technology research; Economics of unconventional gas production; Barriers and challenges; Key regions: Australia, Canada, China, Russia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States; Major Projects; Industry Initiatives; Major players. Uneconomic or marginally economic resources such as tight (low permeability) sandstones, shale gas, and coalbed methane are considered unconventional. However, due to continued research and favorable gas prices, many previously uneconomic or marginally economic gas resources are now economically viable, and may not be considered unconventional by some companies. Unconventional gas resources are geologically distinct in that conventional gas resources are buoyancy-driven deposits, occurring as discrete accumulations in structural or stratigraphic traps, whereas unconventional gas resources are generally not buoyancy-driven deposits. The unconventional natural gas category (CAM, gas shales, tight sands, and landfill) is expected to continue at double-digit growth levels in the near term. Until 2008, demand for unconventional natural gas is likely to increase at an AAR corresponding to 10.7% from 2003, aided by prioritized research and development efforts. 1 app.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

356

SAND97-8490 UC-404 Unlimited Release  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SAND97-8490 UC-404 SAND97-8490 UC-404 Unlimited Release Printed March 1997 J Mechanical Properties and Energy Absorption Characteristics of a Polyurethane Foam S. H. Goods, C. L. Neuschwanger, C. Henderson, D. M. Skala DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as a n account of work sponsored by a n agenq of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, make any warrantyy express or impIied, or assumes any legal liabili- ty or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, appa- ratus, product, or process disdased, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necrsariiy constitute or

357

White Sands, New Mexico: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sands, New Mexico: Energy Resources Sands, New Mexico: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 32.38319°, -106.481499° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.38319,"lon":-106.481499,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

358

Shredded tires and rubber-sand as lightweight backfill  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The growing interest in utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has opened the possibility of constructing reinforced soil structures with unconventional backfills. Scrap tires are a high-profile waste material for which several uses have been studied, including the use of shredded tires as backfill. A triaxial testing program was conducted to investigate the stress-strain relationship and strength of tire chips and a mixture of sand and tire chips. The test results and additional information from the literature were used in the numerical modeling of wall backfills, both unreinforced and reinforced with geosynthetics. The numerical modeling results suggest tire shreds, particularly when mixed with sand, may be effectively used as a backfill.

Lee, J.H.; Salgado, R.; Lovell, C.W. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Civil Engineering; Bernal, A. [GeoHidra, Caracas (Venezuela)

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Shallow horizontal drilling in unconsolidated sands offshore California  

SciTech Connect

Four shallow horizontal wells were drilled from Platform C in Dos Cuadras field offshore California to recover reserves inaccessible with conventional drilling techniques. The wells had true vertical depths (TVD's) ranging from 746 to 989 ft with total horizontal displacements from 1,613 to 3,788 ft. The wells had horizontal displacement TVD ratios up to 3.95. The targets were unconsolidated, high-permeability sands. This paper details well planning, drilling, and completion.

Payne, J.D.; Bunyak, M.J. (Unocal Corp., Los Angeles, CA (United States)); Huston, C.W. (Smith International Inc., Tyler, TX (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Project Drum Inlet: explosive excavation in saturated sand  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal storms during February of 1971 completely closed the Drum Inlet navigation channel through the Outer Banks off the North Carolina coast. This channel is highly useful to commercial and sport fishing industries in the Carteret County vicinity of North Carolina, and is vital to maintenance of the ecological balance in the inland Core Sound waters. To reopen Drum Inlet, an alignment about 2.1 miles south of the original location was selected. A contract dredge excavated a channel from the inland Core Sound waterway to and part way through the Outer Banks. The final 385-ft-long section of sand separating the Core Sound from the Atlantic Ocean was excavated with large explosive charges, This report describes the explosive excavation of that portion of the channel. Twenty-two separate canisters, each containing 1 ton of aluminized ammonium-nitrate slurry blasting agent, were emplaced in two rows. All charges were detonated simultaneously at 1327 hours, 23 Decembcr 1971. The detonation successfully removed the sand barrier, forming a continuous channel over 80 ft in width. This channel subsequently washed out to a width of about 1000 ft and was used:is an access route to the Raleigh Bay fishing grounds. The Drum Inlet project demonstrated the practicality of explosive channel excavation in saturated sand under the special conditions encountered at this site. (auth)

Snell, C.M.; Gillespie, R.H.

1973-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

File:OilSands.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

OilSands.pdf OilSands.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage File:OilSands.pdf Size of this preview: 463 × 599 pixels. Other resolution: 464 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,275 × 1,650 pixels, file size: 1.69 MB, MIME type: application/pdf, 85 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 14:24, 14 February 2012 Thumbnail for version as of 14:24, 14 February 2012 1,275 × 1,650, 85 pages (1.69 MB) Graham7781 (Talk | contribs)

362

Methane hydrate distribution from prolonged and repeated formation in natural and compacted sand samples: X-ray CT observations  

SciTech Connect

To study physical properties of methane gas hydrate-bearing sediments, it is necessary to synthesize laboratory samples due to the limited availability of cores from natural deposits. X-ray computed tomography (CT) and other observations have shown gas hydrate to occur in a number of morphologies over a variety of sediment types. To aid in understanding formation and growth patterns of hydrate in sediments, methane hydrate was repeatedly formed in laboratory-packed sand samples and in a natural sediment core from the Mount Elbert Stratigraphic Test Well. CT scanning was performed during hydrate formation and decomposition steps, and periodically while the hydrate samples remained under stable conditions for up to 60 days. The investigation revealed the impact of water saturation on location and morphology of hydrate in both laboratory and natural sediments during repeated hydrate formations. Significant redistribution of hydrate and water in the samples was observed over both the short and long term.

Rees, E.V.L.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Seol, Y.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Potential for substitution of geothermal energy at domestic defense installations and White Sands Missile Range  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Geothermal resources that might provide substitute energy at any of 76 defense installations are identified and evaluated. The geologic characteristics and related economics of potential geothermal resources located at or near the 76 installations were estimated. The geologic assessment identified 18 installations with possible geothermal resources and 4 Atlantic Coastal Plain resource configurations that represented the alternatives available to East Coast bases. These 18 locations and 4 resource configurations, together with 2 possible resources at the White Sands Missile Range and a potential resource at Kings Bay, Georgia, were examined to determine the relative economics of substituting potential geothermal energy for part or all of the existing oil, gas, and electrical energy usage. Four of the military installations - Mountain Home, Norton, Hawthorne, and Sierra - appear to be co-located with possible geothermal resources which, if present, might provide substitute energy at or below current market prices for oil. Six additional locations - Ellsworth, Luke, Williams, Bliss, Fallon, and Twentynine Palms - could become economically attractive under certain conditions. No geothermal resource was found to be economically competitive with natural gas at current controlled prices. Generation of electric power at the locations studied is estimated to be uneconomic at present.

Bakewell, C.A.; Renner, J.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Representation of common equipment at a natural gas hydraulic fracturing drill pad. Representation of common equipment at a natural gas hydraulic fracturing drill pad. How is Shale Gas Produced? Shale gas formations are "unconventional" reservoirs - i.e., reservoirs of low "permeability." Permeability refers to the capacity of a porous, sediment, soil - or rock in this case - to transmit a fluid. This contrasts with a "conventional" gas reservoir produced from sands and carbonates (such as limestone). The bottom line is that in a conventional reservoir, the gas is in interconnected pore spaces, much like a kitchen sponge, that allow easier flow to a well; but in an unconventional reservoir, like shale, the reservoir must be mechanically "stimulated" to

365

Parcperdue geopressure-geothermal project. Study a geopressured reservoir by drilling and producing a well in a limited geopressured water sand. Final technical report, September 28, 1979-December 31, 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The behavior of geopressured reservoirs was investigated by drilling and producing a well in small, well defined, geopressured reservoir; and performing detailed pressure transient analysis together with geological, geophysical, chemical, and physical studies. The Dow-DOE L. R. Sweezy No. 1 well was drilled to a depth of 13,600 feet in Parcperdue field, just south of Lafayette, Louisiana, and began production in April, 1982. The production zone was a poorly consolidated sandstone which constantly produced sand into the well stream, causing damage to equipment and causing other problems. The amount of sand production was kept manageable by limiting the flow rate to below 10,000 barrels per day. Reservoir properties of size, thickness, depth, temperature, pressure, salinity, porosity, and permeability were close to predicted values. The reservoir brine was undersaturated with respect to gas, containing approximately 20 standard cubic feet of gas per barrel of brine. Shale dewatering either did not occur or was insignificant as a drive mechanism. Production terminated when the gravel-pack completion failed and the production well totally sanded in, February, 1983. Total production up to the sanding incident was 1.94 million barrels brine and 31.5 million standard cubic feet gas.

Hamilton, J.R.; Stanley, J.G. (eds.) [eds.

1984-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

366

National Metal Casting Research Institute final report. Volume 1, Sand reclamation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mobile thermal foundry sand reclamation unit was designed and constructed. This unit consisted of thermal and mechanical sand reclamation equipment installed on the bed of a 50 foot low-boy trailer. It was transported to a number of Midwest foundries for on-site demonstration of the sand reclamation process. This allowed participating foundries to have their own refuse sand (10-100 tons) processed and then reused in production for evaluation. The purpose for building the unit was to demonstrate to foundries through ``hands on`` experience that refuse sands can be reclaimed and successfully reused particularly in regard to product quality. Most of the participating foundries indicated a high level of satisfaction with the reclaimed sand. Laboratory testing of samples of the used sand, before and after processing by the demonstration unit, verified the usability of the reclaimed sand. One of the foundries participating was a brass foundry, the sand from this foundry contained lead and is classified as a hazardous material. After reclamation the sand was no longer hazardous and could also be reused in the foundry.

Vondra, L.F.; Burningham, J.S. [University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States). Dept. of Industrial Technology

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

368

Natural gas hydrates - issues for gas production and geomechanical stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Natural gas hydrates are solid crystalline substances found in the subsurface. Since gas hydrates are stable at low temperatures and moderate pressures, gas hydrates are found either near the surface in arctic regions or in deep water marine environments where the ambient seafloor temperature is less than 10°C. This work addresses the important issue of geomechanical stability in hydrate bearing sediments during different perturbations. I analyzed extensive data collected from the literature on the types of sediments where hydrates have been found during various offshore expeditions. To better understand the hydrate bearing sediments in offshore environments, I divided these data into different sections. The data included water depths, pore water salinity, gas compositions, geothermal gradients, and sedimentary properties such as sediment type, sediment mineralogy, and sediment physical properties. I used the database to determine the types of sediments that should be evaluated in laboratory tests at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The TOUGH+Hydrate reservoir simulator was used to simulate the gas production behavior from hydrate bearing sediments. To address some important gas production issues from gas hydrates, I first simulated the production performance from the Messsoyakha Gas Field in Siberia. The field has been described as a free gas reservoir overlain by a gas hydrate layer and underlain by an aquifer of unknown strength. From a parametric study conducted to delineate important parameters that affect gas production at the Messoyakha, I found effective gas permeability in the hydrate layer, the location of perforations and the gas hydrate saturation to be important parameters for gas production at the Messoyakha. Second, I simulated the gas production using a hydraulic fracture in hydrate bearing sediments. The simulation results showed that the hydraulic fracture gets plugged by the formation of secondary hydrates during gas production. I used the coupled fluid flow and geomechanical model "TOUGH+Hydrate- FLAC3D" to model geomechanical performance during gas production from hydrates in an offshore hydrate deposit. I modeled geomechanical failures associated with gas production using a horizontal well and a vertical well for two different types of sediments, sand and clay. The simulation results showed that the sediment and failures can be a serious issue during the gas production from weaker sediments such as clays.

Grover, Tarun

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Two-stage fixed-bed gasifier with selectable middle gas off-take point  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-stage fixed bed coal gasifier wherein an annular region is in registry with a gasification zone underlying a devolatilization zone for extracting a side stream of high temperature substantially tar-free gas from the gasifier. A vertically displaceable skirt means is positioned within the gasifier to define the lower portion of the annular region so that vertical displacement of the skirt means positions the inlet into the annular region in a selected location within or in close proximity to the gasification zone for providing a positive control over the composition of the side stream gas.

Strickland, L.D.; Bissett, L.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Two-stage fixed-bed gasifier with selectable middle gas off-take point  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A two-stage fixed bed coal gasifier wherein an annular region is in registry with a gasification zone underlying a devolatilization zone for extracting a side stream of high temperature substantially tar-free gas from the gasifier. A vertically displaceable skirt means is positioned within the gasifier to define the lower portion of the annular region so that vertical displacement of the skirt means positions the inlet into the annular region in a selected location within or in close proximity to the gasification zone for providing a positive control over the composition of the side stream gas.

Strickland, Larry D. (Morgantown, WV); Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Production process for glass sand from the quartz waste from the beneficiation of kingiseppsk phosphorites  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a process developed for the production of molding sand from the quartz waste which makes it possible to simplify the system for obtaining glass sand. According to this system, the main operation in the removal of most of the residual phosphate shell and alkaline earth metal oxides from the quartz waste is foam separation, using the residual concentration of reagents in the pulp (tallow and kerosene). After the subsequent washing and hydraulic classification, the sands meet the requirements set for molding sands grade Ob2K. The characteristics of the original flotation tailings and molding sand are presented. The mineralogical analysis of the molding sand showed that the iron-containing impurities are grains of glauconite, films of iron oxide on the surface of the grains, grains of ferrous-dolomite cement, and iron from the apparatus.

Ershov, V.I.; Lezhnev, Y.P.; Novofastovskaya, E.M.; Rants, G.F.; Shalamova, V.G.; Sinyakova, E.I.; Sokolova, E.I.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

Nicolas Perry; Magali Mauchand; Alain Bernard

2010-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

375

Non-Incineration Treatment to Reduce Benzene and VOC Emissions from Green Sand Molding Systems  

SciTech Connect

Final report describing laboratory, pilot scale and production scale evaluation of advanced oxidation systems for emissions and cost reduction in metal casting green sand systems.

Fred S. Cannon; Robert C. Voigt

2002-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

376

Development of Optimal Energy Infrastructures for the Oil Sands Industry in a CO?-constrained World.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Western Canadian bitumen is becoming a predominant source of energy for North American markets. The bitumen extraction and upgrading processes in the oil sands industry… (more)

Ordorica Garcia, Jesus Guillermo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Adsorption of Single-ring Model Naphthenic Acid from Oil Sands ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Adsorption of Single-ring Model Naphthenic Acid from Oil Sands Tailings Pond Water Using Petroleum Coke-derived Activated Carbon.

378

An investigation of the combustion of oil sand derived bitumen-in-water emulsions.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Dwindling conventional oil resources has caused exploration efforts to focus elsewhere. Bitumen from oil sands has emerged as one of the primary unconventional oil… (more)

Kennelly, Timothy Robert

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

O-1: Using of Spent Moulding Sands for Production of Burned ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The measurements of exhaust gases emissions performed during burning the products containing spent moulding sands as well as during the normal ...

380

I-8: Research on the Influence of Moulding Sand with Furan Resin ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, I-8: Research on the Influence of Moulding Sand with Furan Resin ... Study of Different metallurgical Waste for Preparation of Glass-Ceramics.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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381

Meso-Scale Simulations to Examine the Role of Sand Paper Grit on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface between the platen and LX-10 sample includes a layer of sand particulates to .... Shock-Induced Phase Transformations in Ce-Al Metallic Glass.

382

Development Of Reclamation Substrates For Alberta Oil Sands Using Mature Fine Tailings And Coke.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Mature fine tailings and coke are waste products of the oil sands industry with potential for reclamation. A greenhouse study assessed whether substrates of various… (more)

Luna-Wolter, Gabriela L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Preparation of Activated Carbon from Oil Sands Coke by Chemical and Physical Activation Techniques.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Oil sands coke is a by-product resulting from the upgrading of heavy crude bitumen to light synthetic oil. This research investigates the preparation of activated… (more)

Morshed, Golam

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Use of Computed X-ray Tomographic Data for Analyzing the Thermodynamics of a Dissociating Porous Sand/Hydrate Mixture  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a method that has been used extensively in laboratory experiments for measuring rock properties and fluid transport behavior. More recently, CT scanning has been applied successfully to detect the presence and study the behavior of naturally occurring hydrates. In this study, we used a modified medical CT scanner to image and analyze the progression of a dissociation front in a synthetic methane hydrate/sand mixture. The sample was initially scanned under conditions at which the hydrate is stable (atmospheric pressure and liquid nitrogen temperature, 77 K). The end of the sample holder was then exposed to the ambient air, and the core was continuously scanned as dissociation occurred in response to the rising temperature. CT imaging captured the advancing dissociation front clearly and accurately. The evolved gas volume was monitored as a function of time. Measured by CT, the advancing hydrate dissociation front was modeled as a thermal conduction problem explicitly incorporating the enthalpy of dissociation, using the Stefan moving-boundary-value approach. The assumptions needed to perform the analysis consisted of temperatures at the model boundaries. The estimated value for thermal conductivity of 2.6 W/m K for the remaining water ice/sand mixture is higher than expected based on conduction alone; this high value may represent a lumped parameter that incorporates the processes of heat conduction, methane gas convection, and any kinetic effects that occur during dissociation. The technique presented here has broad implications for future laboratory and field testing that incorporates geophysical techniques to monitor gas hydrate dissociation.

Freifeld, Barry M.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Stern, Laura A.; Kirby, Stephen H.

2002-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

385

South Dakota shallow gas hunt heats up  

SciTech Connect

As the search for shallow gas reserves in South Dakota intensifies, most of the exploratory drilling activity is concentrating along the Camp Crook anticline in the northwestern part of the state, where large amounts of gas could be locked in shallow, low-pressure sands. Gas production found in 1977 in the Cretaceous Shannon of the West Short Pine hills field in Harding Co. set off the current gas play. Drilling reports now list some 28 wells in that section of the state, mostly in Harding Co. Previous drilling - notably at the Ardmore gas field in southwestern South Dakota in the 1940s - failed to initiate any exploratory plays. The state remains one of the most undrilled prospective hydrocarbon regions in the US. South Dakota's Cretaceous section is similar to that in Wyoming, where the Dakota and Muddy sandstones are important producers. Numerous sites for exploratory wells lie in the Powder River, Kennedy, and Williston basins.

McCaslin, J.C.

1981-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

386

Gas Production from Hydrate-Bearing Sediments - Emergent Phenomena -  

SciTech Connect

Even a small fraction of fine particles can have a significant effect on gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments and sediment stability. Experiments were conducted to investigate the role of fine particles on gas production using a soil chamber that allows for the application of an effective stress to the sediment. This chamber was instrumented to monitor shear-wave velocity, temperature, pressure, and volume change during CO{sub 2} hydrate formation and gas production. The instrumented chamber was placed inside the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Seafloor Process Simulator (SPS), which was used to control the fluid pressure and temperature. Experiments were conducted with different sediment types and pressure-temperature histories. Fines migrated within the sediment in the direction of fluid flow. A vuggy structure formed in the sand; these small cavities or vuggs were precursors to the development of gas-driven fractures during depressurization under a constant effective stress boundary condition. We define the critical fines fraction as the clay-to-sand mass ratio when clays fill the pore space in the sand. Fines migration, clogging, vugs, and gas-driven fracture formation developed even when the fines content was significantly lower than the critical fines fraction. These results show the importance of fines in gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments, even when the fines content is relatively low.

Jung, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Jang, J.W. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL; Rawn, Claudia J [ORNL; Santamarina, Carlos [Georgia Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

www.myresources.com.au OIL & GAS BULLETIN VOL. 15, NO. 11 PAGE 9 Safety first: Oil rigs off the north west shelf will be studied for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

www.myresources.com.au OIL & GAS BULLETIN VOL. 15, NO. 11 PAGE 9 NEWS Safety first: Oil rigs off for future successful tight gas exploration projects in Western Australia has been set up and studies the tight gas sand field at its exploration permit in the South Perth Basin. Professor Rezaee said

388

Occurrence of gas hydrate in Oligocene Frio sand: Alaminos Canyon Block 818: Northern Gulf of Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Gulf of Mexico Exploration and Production. Society ofChevron North America Exploration and Production Company andNorth America Exploration and Production Company, Houston,

Boswell, R.D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Fluid Resistance Analysis of Sand Control Slotted Liner with Compound Cavity Based on Fluent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Slotted liners have been used for many years to provide sand control in many oil industry applications. They are commonly applied in reservoirs that produce high-viscosity oil from horizontal wells with unconsolidated, high-permeability sands. However, ... Keywords: slotted liner, newly-designed slot, Fluid resistance

Hang Li; Yonghong Liu; Jianmin Ma; Xinfang Wei

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Effect of temperature on wave velocities in sands and sandstones with heavy hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of temperature on wave velocities in sandstones and unconsolidated sand saturated with heavy hydrocarbons. The large decreases of the compressional and shear velocities in such sandstones and sand with increasing temperature suggest that seismic methods may be very useful in detecting heat fronts in heavy hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing steamflooding or in-situ combustion.

Wang, Z.; Nur, A.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.  

SciTech Connect

This 'Quick Reference Guide' supplements the more complete 'Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products'. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

Not Available

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

A modeling approach for iron concentration in sand filtration effluent using adaptive neuro-fuzzy model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effluent iron concentration is an important water quality criterion used for the assessment of the performance of rapid sand filters, in addition to other criteria. This study deals with the prediction of effluent iron concentrations by adaptive neuro-fuzzy ... Keywords: ANFIS, Effluent iron concentration, Modeling, Sand filtration

Mehmet Çakmakci; Cumali Kinaci; Mahmut Bayramo?lu; Y?lmaz Yildirim

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Modelling damping ratio and shear modulus of sand-mica mixtures using genetic programming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents two Genetic Programming (GP) models for damping ratio and shear modulus of sand-mica mixtures based on experimental results. The experimental database used for GP modelling is based on a laboratory study of dynamic properties of saturated ... Keywords: Genetic programming, Leighton buzzard sand, Mica, Resonant column testing

Abdulkadir Cevik; Ali Firat Cabalar

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and other communication products : quick reference guide.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Quick Reference Guide supplements the more complete Guide to Preparing SAND Reports and Other Communication Products. It provides limited guidance on how to prepare SAND Reports at Sandia National Laboratories. Users are directed to the in-depth guide for explanations of processes.

Not Available

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

DOE Expedition Discovers the First Gulf of Mexico Resource-Quality Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Expedition Discovers the First Gulf of Mexico Resource-Quality Expedition Discovers the First Gulf of Mexico Resource-Quality Gas Hydrate Deposits DOE Expedition Discovers the First Gulf of Mexico Resource-Quality Gas Hydrate Deposits May 14, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has established that gas hydrate can and does occur at high saturations within reservoir-quality sands in the Gulf of Mexico. NETL--in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Minerals Management Service, an industry research consortium led by Chevron, and others--recently completed a landmark 21-day gas hydrate drilling expedition that discovered highly saturated hydrate-bearing sands in two of three sites drilled. Gas hydrate is a unique substance comprised of natural gas (almost

396

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ment-energy-safety-and-health-trainers Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

397

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

l-and-activity-report-december-16-2011 Download Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources- Oil Shale and Tar Sands Profiles of Companies Engaged in Domestic Oil Shale and Tar Sands...

398

Review of {sup 222}Rn in natural gas produced from unconventional sources  

SciTech Connect

A review of the literature on trace radioactivity in natural gas and natural gas products has been performed and the consequent radioactivity concentrations and dose rates due to natural radioactive elements in natural gas produced from Devonian shale wells, western tight gas sands, geo-pressurized aquifiers and coal beds have been studied. Preliminary data on {sup 222}Rn concentrations from these energy sources fall within the range observed for more conventional sources. Gas produced from reservoirs with higher than average natural /sup 238/U higher than average levels of {sup 222}Rn. Massive fracturing techniques do not appear to raise the relative concentration of radon in natural gas.

Gogolak, C.V.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Retention behavior of dilute polymers in oil sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adequate mobility control between fluid banks is a pertinent factor in the successful application of secondary and tertiary oil recovery processes. Favorable mobilities can be obtained by increasing the viscosity or reducing the permeability to the displacing fluid phase. Polyacrylamide and oio-polymers have proved to be useful for these purposes. These polymers increase the water viscosity substantially at low concentrations. The resulting reduced mobility of the displacing phase suppresses the fingering phenomenon and improves piston-like displacement. However, the structural complexity of these polymers coupled with the complexity of the flow channels in the porous medium cause part of these polymers to be retained in the reservoir as the displacing fluid from advances, thereby causing a reduction in the concentration of the polymer solution and consequently a loss of mobility control. In addition to the mechanical filtering, adsorption on the grain surfaces reduce the polymer concentration in the displacing fluid. Behavior of polyacrylamide polymers has been studied extensively. Susceptibility of these polymers to salinity, pH, shear, temperature, etc., is well documented. Mechanical entrapment, retention, degradation and adsorption behavior on porous media, including fired Berea sandstone, bead packs and Ottawa sand have been reported. The present study investigates the adsorption and trapping of polymers in flow experiments through unconsolidated oil field sands. Effects of particle size and mineral content have been studied. Effect of a surfactant slug on polymer-rock interaction is also reported. Corroborative studies have been conducted to study the pressure behavior and high tertiary oil recovery in surfactant dilute-polymer systems.

Kikani, J.; Somerton, W.H.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Report. Results of a Piezocone Investigation - Shiprock, New Mexico - February 2002. GJO-2001-276-TAR. MAC-GWSHP 13.3-1.  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

GJO-2001-276-TAR GJO-2001-276-TAR MAC-GWSHP13.3-1 UMTRA Ground Water Project Results of A Piezocone Investigation Shiprock, New Mexico February 2002 Prepared by U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office Grand Junction, Colorado Project Number UGW-511-0020-28-003 Document Number U0145400 Work Performed Under DOE Contract Number DE-AC13-96GJ87335 Document Number U0145400 DOE/Grand Junction Office Results of A Piezocone InvestigationShiprock, New Mexico February 2002 Page 2 Executive Summary A piezocone study was performed at the Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA disposal cell as a screening- level investigation of in situ moisture conditions within the disposal cell. The purpose of the investigation was to determine if moisture conditions within the cell are saturated,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Alberta bound : the interface between Alberta's environmental policies and the environmental management of three Albertan oil sands companies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Athabasca Oil Sands, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada, were for many years anomalous. Two oil sands operators developed their extraction techniques for 30 years, refining their technology before production became ...

Lemphers, Nathan C

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Ruslands Gas.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to… (more)

Elkjćr, Jonas Bondegaard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Ratio of produced gas to produced water from DOE's EDNA Delcambre No. 1 geopressured-geothermal aquifer gas well test  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A paper presented by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) at the Third Geopressured-Geothermal Energy Conference hypothesized that the high ratio of produced gas to produced water from the No. 1 sand in the Edna Delcambre No. 1 well was due to free gas trapped in pores by imbibition over geological time. This hypothesis was examined in relation to preliminary test data which reported only average gas to water ratios over the roughly 2-day steps in flow rate. Subsequent public release of detailed test data revealed substantial departures from the previously reported computer simulation results. Also, data now in the public domain reveal the existence of a gas cap on the aquifier tested. This paper describes IGT's efforts to match the observed gas/water production with computer simulation. Two models for the occurrence and production of gas in excess of that dissolved in the brine have been used. One model considers the gas to be dispersed in pores by imbibition, and the other model considers the gas as a nearby free gas cap above the aquifier. The studies revealed that the dispersed gas model characteristically gave the wrong shape to plots of gas production on the gas/water ratio plots such that no reasonable match to the flow data could be achieved. The free gas cap model gave a characteristically better shape to the production plots and could provide an approximate fit to the data of the edge of the free gas cap is only about 400 feet from the well.Because the geological structure maps indicate the free gas cap to be several thousand feet away and the computer simulation results match the distance to the nearby Delcambre Nos. 4 and 4A wells, it appears that the source of the excess free gas in the test of the No. 1 sand may be from these nearby wells. The gas source is probably a separate gas zone and is brought into contact with the No. 1 sand via a conduit around the No. 4 well.

Rogers, L.A.; Randolph, P.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Identification of National Energy Policies and Energy Access in Jordan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy are natural gas, renewable energy and oil shale. Renewable energy applications in Jordan includes is less than 2% of the total energy mix. Oil shale reserves in Jordan are estimated at 40 billion tons: Potential New and Renewable Energy Resources 1. Oil Shale Geological reserves 40 billion tons 2. Tar Sands

405

What steps should be taken that will protect the country's valuable groundwater and drinking water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to carry tar sands oil (about 830,000 barrels per day) to Texas refineries unless sufficient objections reserves of conventional oil and gas are enough to take atmospheric CO2 well above 400 ppm. However, if emissions from coal are phased out over the next few decades and if unconventional fossil fuels are left

Peterson, Blake R.

406

GAS INJECTION/WELL STIMULATION PROJECT  

SciTech Connect

Driver Production proposes to conduct a gas repressurization/well stimulation project on a six well, 80-acre portion of the Dutcher Sand of the East Edna Field, Okmulgee County, Oklahoma. The site has been location of previous successful flue gas injection demonstration but due to changing economic and sales conditions, finds new opportunities to use associated natural gas that is currently being vented to the atmosphere to repressurize the reservoir to produce additional oil. The established infrastructure and known geological conditions should allow quick startup and much lower operating costs than flue gas. Lessons learned from the previous project, the lessons learned form cyclical oil prices and from other operators in the area will be applied. Technology transfer of the lessons learned from both projects could be applied by other small independent operators.

John K. Godwin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, L.G.

1979-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

408

Wet powder seal for gas containment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

Stang, Louis G. (Sayville, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

SPE 159255-PP Rock Classification from Conventional Well Logs in Hydrocarbon-Bearing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

locations and deep water, and towards expensive unconventional sources such as oil shale and tar sands. Let

Torres-VerdĂ­n, Carlos

410

REPORT OF THE SURFACE SCIENCE WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fossil fuels (coal, shale oil)]. The problems at the S A -2Coal Conventional Gasification Oil shale Tar sands Oil,

Somorjai, G.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Call For Papers (PDF) - TMS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

gasification processes, oil shale and tar sand combustion, etc.) Solvent extraction . Mineral processing. Experimental techniques: existing and new developments.

412

ACCESS Magazine Fall 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon-intensive oil sources such as tar sands and heavymore carbon-intensive oil sources means more GHG emissions.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Asilomar Declaration on Climate Policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon-intensive oil sources such as tar sands and heavymore carbon-intensive oil sources means more GHG emissions.

Sperling, Dan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION ENERGY PATHWAYS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are rising, and direct substitutes for petroleum (such as unconventional oil from oil shale and tar sands

California at Davis, University of

415

DiSCLAiMER "This book was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as oil shale, tar sands, and coal emit far more carbon dioxide than petroleum as these resource

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

416

Edmund G. Brown, Jr. ENERGY-EFFICIENT COMMUNITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, vehicles can still drive with gasoline/diesel derived from tar sand, oil shale, and coal derived liquids

417

. . . T h o u g h t s c o n t i n u e d Petroleum EngineeringN e w s l e t t e r Vol. 11, No. 1 September 2007ColoradoSchoolofMines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

locations and deep water, and towards expensive unconventional sources such as oil shale and tar sands. Let

418

A SIMULATION MODEL FOR CANADA-US CLIMATE POLICY ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as Greenland Shelf oil, Venezuelan heavy oil, Athabaska tar sands and Green River oil shale. The latter sources

419

NRRI NowWinter 2009 GrowingStrongIndustries~DevelopingNewIdeas~NurturingNaturalResources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(including tar sands and oil shale), as well as continued investment and exploration of new sources of oil

Netoff, Theoden

420

Options for Near-Term Phaseout of CO2 Emissions from Coal Use in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

unconventional fossil fuels (e.g., oil shale and tar sands) are prohibited. This paper outlines technology

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Hydrogen Delivery Infrastructure Option Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, vehicles can still drive with gasoline/diesel derived from tar sand, oil shale, and coal derived liquids

422

On the practical limits to substitution Robert U. Ayres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are rising, and direct substitutes for petroleum (such as unconventional oil from oil shale and tar sands

423

Stocks, Flows, and Prospects of Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, such as Greenland Shelf oil, Venezuelan heavy oil, Athabaska tar sands and Green River oil shale. The latter sources

Delucchi, Mark

424

Ecological Consequences of Landscape Fragmentation on the Lizard Community in the Mescalero-Monahans Shinnery Sands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Landscape fragmentation poses a major threat to biodiversity world-wide. The goal of my dissertation research was to determine the effects of landscape fragmentation on a lizard community in the Mescalero-Monahans shinnery sands, New Mexico and the extent to which conservation efforts might protect biodiversity in this ecosystem. My research relied heavily on data collected from a large-scale spatially-replicated comparative study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of landscape fragmentation as a result of oil and gas development on the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus). Results from analysis of lizard community structure indicate that fragmented sites are less diverse than non-fragmented sites. In particular, two species are found in lower density and occupancy in the fragmented locations (Holbrookia maculata and Sceloporus arenicolus). Analysis of landscape configuration at the scale of a trapping grid indicated that sand dune blowout shape and size differed between fragmented and non-fragmented locations. Differences in landscape pattern were associated with reduced lizard diversity. Because of this association between lower diversity and altered landscape pattern, extensive alterations to landscape pattern may cause disassembly at the ecosystem level. The maintenance of existing landscape pattern may be important to the maintenance of diversity in this ecosystem. Evaluations of habitat use patterns of the lizards in this community demonstrate that a few species have narrow preferences for certain habitats. In particular, H. maculata, Phrynosoma cornutum, and S. arenicolus all demonstrated narrow habitat use patterns. Effect size of fragmentation for each species indicated that the same three species showed a large effect when comparing their average abundances between fragmented and non-fragmented locations. Thus species that are most likely to benefit or be harmed by landscape fragmentation are those with the most specific habitat requirements. Umbrella species represent one of many approaches to conservation using surrogate species. I used data on ants, beetles, small mammals, lizards, and endemic species to test the use of the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) as an umbrella for endemism and biodiversity of the Mescalero-Monahans shinnery sands ecosystem. I applied a comparative approach at three spatial scales to examine how conservation practices at different scales may affect biodiversity and endemism in this ecosystem. At the largest scale, the frequency of occurrence for endemic species increased though no other patterns emerged because S. arenicolus was present at all sites and there were no relationships between relative abundances of S. arenicolus and the other taxonomic groups. At the smallest scale, both beetle species richness, diversity, and endemic species richness were higher in the presence of S. arenicolus. To protect biodiversity in this ecosystem, conservation efforts should focus on protection at the scale of the species distribution rather than on the small-scale placement of individual well pads.

Leavitt, Daniel 1979-

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

"GREENHOUSE GAS NAME","GREENHOUSE GAS CODE","FORMULA","GWP"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP)" Greenhouse Gases and Global Warming Potentials (GWP)" "(From Appendix E of the instructions to Form EIA-1605)" "GREENHOUSE GAS NAME","GREENHOUSE GAS CODE","FORMULA","GWP" ,,,"TAR1","AR42" "(1) Carbon Dioxide","CO2","CO2",1,1 "(2) Methane","CH4","CH4",23,25 "(3) Nitrous Oxide","N2O","N2O",296,298 "(4) Hydroflourocarbons" "HFC-23 (trifluoromethane)",15,"CHF3",12000,14800 "HFC-32 (difluoromethane)",16,"CH2F2",550,675 "HFC-41 (monofluoromethane)",43,"CH3F",97,92 "HFC-125 (pentafluoroethane)",17,"CHF2CF3",3400,3500

426

Experience with SAND-Tcl: A Scripting Tool for Spatial Databases 1 CLAUDIO ESPERANC A (Contact Author)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experience with SAND-Tcl: A Scripting Tool for Spatial Databases 1 CLAUDIO ESPERANC¸ A (Contact. This is illustrated by de- scribing our experience with SAND-Tcl, a scripting tool developed by us for building spatial database applications. SAND-Tcl is an extension of the Tcl embedded scripting language

Samet, Hanan

427

‹ Countries Congo (Brazzaville) Overview  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

large oil sands deposits (unconventional petroleum deposits of bitumen also known as tar sands) and Eni, an Italian company, is currently leading exploration activities.

428

Biofuels: Review of Policies and Impacts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with new technologies of fracking or tar sands mining.oil drilling. Hydraulic fracking, which is considered to betar sands or hydraulic fracking which, on one hand, provide

Janda, Karel; Kristoufek, Ladislav; Zilberman, David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Assessment of potential domestic fossil-fuel resources for SNG (substitute natural gas) production. Final report, February 1983-August 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quality and availability of naturally occurring resources and industrial by-products which could be gasified and thereby serve as feedstock for SNG plants were studied to identify those resources with the greatest potential for exploitation in this regard. KRSI accumulated information from a large number of literature sources relative to the resources identified by GRI for study. To the extent possible, KRSI then organized this information to highlight for each resource the grades available, typical chemical compositions, quantities and locations of reserves, recovery methods and rates of production and consumption. This information clearly shows that coal is the most practical source of long-term feedstock for SNG in the contiguous USA. Coal resources amount to 84% (by quads) of the energy resources which were studied. In comparison, peat, shale oil and tar sand contain about 11% of the total.

Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Shah, K.V.; Koneru, P.B.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Scientific Objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Leg II Drilling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Gulf of Mexico Methane Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) has been performing research on marine gas hydrates since 2001 and is sponsored by both the JIP members and the U.S. Department of Energy. In 2005, the JIP drilled the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico to acquire downhole logs and recover cores in silt- and clay-dominated sediments interpreted to contain gas hydrate based on analysis of existing 3-D seismic data prior to drilling. The new 2007-2009 phase of logging and coring, which is described in this paper, will concentrate on gas hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaminos Canyon, Green Canyon, and Walker Ridge protraction areas. Locations were selected to target higher permeability, coarser-grained lithologies (e.g., sands) that have the potential for hosting high saturations of gas hydrate and to assist the U.S. Minerals Management Service with its assessment of gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for drilling during the upcoming campaign and presents the results from analyzing existing seismic and well log data as part of the site selection process. Alaminos Canyon 818 has the most complete data set of the selected blocks, with both seismic data and comprehensive downhole log data consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrate-bearing sands. Preliminary analyses suggest that the Frio sandstone just above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone may have up to 80% of the available sediment pore space occupied by gas hydrate. The proposed sites in the Green Canyon and Walker Ridge areas are also interpreted to have gas hydrate-bearing sands near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, but the choice of specific drill sites is not yet complete. The Green Canyon site coincides with a 4-way closure within a Pleistocene sand unit in an area of strong gas flux just south of the Sigsbee Escarpment. The Walker Ridge site is characterized by a sand-prone sedimentary section that rises stratigraphically across the base of the gas hydrate stability zone and that has seismic indicators of gas hydrate. Copyright 2008, Offshore Technology Conference

Jones, E. (Chevron); Latham, T. (Chevron); McConnell, D. (AOA Geophysics); Frye, M. (Minerals Management Service); Hunt, J. (Minerals Management Service); Shedd, W. (Minerals Management Service); Shelander, D. (Schlumberger); Boswell, R.M. (NETL); Rose, K.K. (NETL); Ruppel, C. (USGS); Hutchinson, D. (USGS); Collett, T. (USGS); Dugan, B. (Rice University); Wood, W. (Naval Research Laboratory)

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Natural gas content of geopressured aquifers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It is hypothesized that free, but immobile, natural gas is trapped in pores in geopressured aquifers and that this gas becomes mobile as aquifer pressure is reduced by water production. Computer simulation reveals this hypothesis is a plausible explanation for the high gas/water ratio observed from the No. 1 sand in the Edna Delcambre No. 1 well. In this Delcambre well test, the gas/water ratio increased from the solution gas value of less than 20 SCF/bbl to more than 50 SCF/bbl during production of 32,000 barrels of water in 10 days. Bottom hole pressure was reduced from 10,846 to 9,905 psia. The computer simulation reveals that such increased gas production requires relative permeability to gas(k{sub rg}) increase from less than 10{sup -4} to about 10{sup -3} due to a decrease in fractional water saturation of pores (S{sub w}) of only about 0.001. Further, assuming drainage relative permeabilities are as calculated by the method of A.T. Corey{sup 1}, initial gas saturation of pores must be greater than 0.065. Means for achieving these initial conditions during geological time will be qualitatively discussed, and the effect of trapped gas upon long-term production will be described.

Randolph, Philip L.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Remarks in the National Assembly of France The European Climate Foundation kindly helped arrange a discussion about global climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the planet on which civilization developed #12;Scenarios assume no "Other" = Tar Sands, Oil Shale, Methane HydratesScenarios assume no Other Tar Sands, Oil Shale, Methane Hydrates Coal phase-out by 2030 peak CO2, Oil shale, Methane hydratesTar sands, Oil shale, Methane hydrates Don't Pursue Every Last Drop of Oily

Hansen, James E.

433

Human-Made Climate Change: A Moral, Political and Legal Issue Dr. James E. Hansen  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

billion years. But if we burn all fossil fuels, including tar sands and oil shale, it is conceivable than 100 nations to agree to this target. Scenarios assume no "Other" = Tar Sands, Oil Shale, Methane years 2. No Unconventional Fossil Fuels Tar sands, Oil shale, Methane hydrates 3. Dont Pursue Last Drops

Hansen, James E.

434

Secondary recovery of gas from Gulf Coast reservoirs  

SciTech Connect

Studies funded by the Gas Research Institute have provided insight into the investment decisions of a small operator engaged in SGR from an abandoned Frio sandstone reservoir in Galveston County, Texas. Favorable gas-brine ratios were obtained by rapid brine production using gas lift. The lowered reservoir pressure allowed imbibition-trapped gas bubbles to expand and merge, forming a mobile phase which greatly improved recovery. Brine was disposed by environmentally benign reinjection into a shallower, unconsolidated sand unit, although the disposal formation suffered permeability damage due to iron hydroxides in the brine. Brine solids were reduced by keeping oxygen out of the surface plumbing and performing gas-brine separation in several steps inside pressurized vessels. Periodic backflowing of the disposal well dislodged the damaged surface layer of the unconsolidated disposal sand, which was then removed from the hole by swabbing, exposing a fresh formation surface to the brine. This work has shown that the technical problems involved in secondary gas recovery can be overcome by using relatively simple solutions in line with the budget constraints of a small operator. Because secondary gas production occurs in known fields located near major gathering systems and transmission lines, it is expected to supply a significant portion of future domestic natural gas.

Soeder, D.J.; Randolph, P.L.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

SciTech Connect

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at Nini, Ndes, and Nmax. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Paul J. Tikalsky, Hussain U. Bahia, An Deng and Thomas Snyder

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

Excess Foundry Sand Characterization and Experimental Investigation in Controlled Low-Strength Material and Hot-Mixing Asphalt  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides technical data regarding the reuse of excess foundry sand. The report addresses three topics: (1) a statistically sound evaluation of the characterization of foundry sand, (2) a laboratory investigation to qualify excess foundry sand as a major component in controlled low-strength material (CLSM), and (3) the identification of the best methods for using foundry sand as a replacement for natural aggregates for construction purposes, specifically in asphalt paving materials. The survival analysis statistical technique was used to characterize foundry sand over a full spectrum of general chemical parameters, metallic elements, and organic compounds regarding bulk analysis and leachate characterization. Not limited to characterization and environmental impact, foundry sand was evaluated by factor analyses, which contributes to proper selection of factor and maximization of the reuse marketplace for foundry sand. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into CLSM, excavatable CLSM and structural CLSM containing different types of excess foundry sands were investigated through laboratory experiments. Foundry sand was approved to constitute a major component in CLSM. Regarding the integration of foundry sand into asphalt paving materials, the optimum asphalt content was determined for each mixture, as well as the bulk density, maximum density, asphalt absorption, and air voids at N{sub ini}, N{sub des}, and N{sub max}. It was found that foundry sands can be used as an aggregate in hot-mix asphalt production, but each sand should be evaluated individually. Foundry sands tend to lower the strength of mixtures and also may make them more susceptible to moisture damage. Finally, traditional anti-stripping additives may decrease the moisture sensitivity of a mixture containing foundry sand, but not to the level allowed by most highway agencies.

Pauul J. Tikalsky

2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

437

Analysis of three geopressured geothermal aquifer-natural gas fields; Duson Hollywood and Church Point, Louisiana  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The available well logs, production records and geological structure maps were analyzed for the Hollywood, Duson, and Church Point, Louisiana oil and gas field to determine the areal extent of the sealed geopressured blocks and to identify which aquifer sands within the blocks are connected to commercial production of hydrocarbons. The analysis showed that over the depth intervals of the geopressured zones shown on the logs essentially all of the sands of any substantial thickness had gas production from them somewhere or other in the fault block. It is therefore expected that the sands which are fully brine saturated in many of the wells are the water drive portion of the producing gas/oil somewhere else within the fault block. In this study only one deep sand was identified, in the Hollywood field, which was not connected to a producing horizon somewhere else in the field. Estimates of the reservoir parameters were made and a hypothetical production calculation showed the probable production to be less than 10,000 b/d. The required gas price to profitably produce this gas is well above the current market price.

Rogers, L.A.; Boardman, C.R.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Guide to preparing SAND reports and other communication products.  

SciTech Connect

This guide describes the R&A process, Common Look and Feel requirements, and preparation and publishing procedures for communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Samples of forms and examples of published communications products are provided. This guide takes advantage of the wealth of material now available on the Web as a resource. Therefore, it is best viewed as an electronic document. If some of the illustrations are too small to view comfortably, you can enlarge them on the screen as needed. The format of this document is considerably different than that usually expected of a SAND Report. It was selected to permit the large number of illustrations and examples to be placed closer to the text that references them. In the case of forms, covers, and other items that are included as examples, a link to the Web is provided so that you can access the items and download them for use. This guide details the processes for producing a variety of communication products at Sandia National Laboratories. Figure I-1 shows the general publication development process. Because extensive supplemental material is available from Sandia on the internal web or from external sources (Table I-1), the guide has been shortened to make it easy to find information that you need.

Not Available

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

An Observational Analysis and Evaluation of Land Surface Model Accuracy in the Nebraska Sand Hills  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the influence of subsurface water on the energy budget components of three locations with heterogeneous land surfaces in the Nebraska Sand Hills are examined through observations and use of the Noah land surface model (LSM). ...

David B. Radell; Clinton M. Rowe

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Characterization Report on Sand, Slag, and Crucible Residues and on Fluoride Residues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports on the chemical characterization of the sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C) residues and the fluoride residues that may be shipped from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to Savannah River Site (SRS).

Murray, A.M.

1999-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Technologies, markets and challenges for development of the Canadian Oil Sands industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the current status of development of the Canadian oil sands industry, and considers possible paths of further development. We outline the key technology alternatives, critical resource ...

Lacombe, Romain H.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Determination of soil liquefaction characteristics by large-scale laboratory tests. [Sand  

SciTech Connect

The testing program described in this report was carried out to study the liquefaction behavior of a clean, uniform, medium sand. Horizontal beds of this sand, 42 inches by 90 inches by 4 inches were prepared by pluviation with a special sand spreader, saturated, and tested in a shaking table system designed for this program, which applied a horizontal cyclic shear stress to the specimens. Specimen size was selected to reduce boundary effects as much as possible. Values of pore pressures and shear strains developed during the tests are presented for sand specimens at relative densities of 54, 68, 82, and 90 percent, and the results interpreted to determine the values of the stress ratio causing liquefaction at the various relative densities.

1975-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Temperature, Precipitation, and Lightning Modification in the Vicinity of the Athabasca Oil Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Athabasca oil sands development in northeast Alberta, Canada, has disturbed more than 500 km2 of boreal forest through surface mining and tailings ponds development. In this paper, the authors compare the time series of temperatures and ...

Daniel M. Brown; Gerhard W. Reuter; Thomas K. Flesch

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND952729 Unlimited Release U G A Q O D  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

r x 12-N -. CONTRACTOR REPORT SAND952729 Unlimited Release U G A Q O D Evaluation of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a Binding Polymer for Absorbers Used to-Treat Liquid Radioactive...

445

Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits  

SciTech Connect

The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

An Investigation for Disposal of Drill Cuttings into Unconsolidated Sandstones and Clayey Sands  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project include experimental data and a set of models for relating elastic moduli/porosity/texture and static-to-dynamic moduli to strength and failure relationships for unconsolidated sands and clayey sands. The results of the project should provide the industry with a basis for wider use of oil base drilling fluids in water sensitive formations by implementing drill cutting injection into existing wells at abandoned formations and controlling fracture geometry to prevent ground water contamination.

Mese, Ali; Dvorkin, Jack; Shillinglaw, John

2000-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

447

Gas purification  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas having a high carbon dioxide content is contacted with sea water in an absorber at or near the bottom of the ocean to produce a purified natural gas.

Cook, C.F.; Hays, G.E.

1982-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

448

Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas. Under the baseline winter weather scenario, EIA expects end-of-October working gas inventories will total 3,830 billion cubic feet (Bcf) and end March ...

449

Understanding landfill gas generation and migration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Landfill gas research in the US Department of Energy (DOE) from Municipal Waste (EMW) Program is focusing on two major areas of investigation: (1) Landfill gas migration processes; and (2) Landfill gas generation. With regard to gas migration, a field investigation is examining bidirectional gas movement through landfill cover materials by processes of pressure and diffusional flow. The overall purpose of the study is to quantify gas loss from the landfill reservoir by natural venting and air influx due to pumping on recovery wells. Two field sites--a humid site with clay cover and a semiarid site with sand cover--have been instrumented to examine vertical gas movement through cover materials. Results from the humid site indicate that: (1) concentrations of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen in soil gas vary seasonally with soil moisture; (2) based on average methane gradients in soil gas and a simple diffusion model, up to 10E5 g methane m/sup /minus /2/ yr/sup /minus/1/ are vented through the cover materials at the humid site (area of 17 ht); and (3) during prolonged wet weather, pressure gradients of more than 2 kPa may develop between the cover materials and top of refuse, indicating that pressure flow is periodically an important mechanism for gas transport. The second project is addressing landfill gas generation. The major goal is to develop simple assay techniques to examine the gas production potential of landfilled refuse. Refuse samples extracted from various depths in a landfill are being leached by three different methods to separate microbial mass and substrate. The leachates are being subjected to Biochemical Methane Production (BMP) assays with periodic qualitative examination of microbial populations using fluorescence microscopy of live cultures and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Bogner, J.; Rose, C.; Vogt, M.; Gartman, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Gas Week  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Presented by: Guy F. Caruso, EIA AdministratorPresented to: Gas WeekHouston, TexasSeptember 24, 2003

Information Center

2003-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

451

Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures  

SciTech Connect

The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-kaolin mixtures containing 0, 5, 10, and 30% kaolin (by dry weight) is measured for matric suctions, {psi}{sub m} < {approximately} 6.0 m. The measured unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub m}) values are compared with predicted unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub p}) values using the Brooks-Corey-Burdine and van Genuchten-Mualem relative hydraulic conductivity functions. In general, the accuracy of k{sub p} decreases with an increase in kaolin content or an increase in {psi}{sub m}. In addition, k{sub m} tends to be underpredicted for kaolin contents of 10 and 30% at relatively high suctions (1.0 m {le} {psi}{sub m} {le} 6.0 m) and overpredicted for kaolin contents of 0 and 5% at relatively low suctions (0.1 m {le} {psi}{sub m} < 1.0 m). For a given kaolin content and {psi}{sub m}, k{sub p} based on the Brooks-Corey-Burdine function tends to be more accurate than k{sub m} based on the van Genuchten-Mualem function. Finally, for 1.0 m {le} {psi}{sub m} {le} 6.0 m, k{sub p} based on analysis using the maximum volumetric water content ({theta}{sub m}) attained under steady-state flow conditions typically is more accurate than k{sub p} based on analysis using the saturated volumetric water content, {theta}{sub s}, where {theta}{sub m} {approximately} 84--90% of {theta}{sub s} in this study.

Chiu, T.F. [Genesis Group, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Shackelford, C.D. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

FIELD TESTING & OPTIMIZATION OF CO2/SAND FRACTURING TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

These contract efforts involved the demonstration of a unique liquid free stimulation technology which was, at the beginning of these efforts, in 1993 unavailable in the US. The process had been developed, and patented in Canada in 1981, and held promise for stimulating liquid sensitive reservoirs in the US. The technology differs from that conventionally used in that liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), instead of water is the base fluid. The CO{sub 2} is pumped as a liquid and then vaporizes at reservoir conditions, and because no other liquids or chemicals are used, a liquid free fracture is created. The process requires a specialized closed system blender to mix the liquid CO{sub 2} with proppant under pressure. These efforts were funded to consist of up to 21 cost-shared stimulation events. Because of the vagaries of CO{sub 2} supplies, service company support and operator interest only 19 stimulation events were performed in Montana, New Mexico, and Texas. Final reports have been prepared for each of the four demonstration groups, and the specifics of those demonstrations are summarized. A summary of the demonstrations of a novel liquid-free stimulation process which was performed in four groups of ''Candidate Wells'' situated in Crockett Co., TX; San Juan Co., NM; Phillips Co., MT; and Blaine Co., MT. The stimulation process which employs CO{sub 2} as the working fluid and the production responses were compared with those from wells treated with conventional stimulation technologies, primarily N{sub 2} foam, excepting those in Blaine Co., MT where the reservoir pressure is too low to clean up spent stimulation liquids. A total of 19 liquid-free CO{sub 2}/sand stimulations were performed in 16 wells and the production improvements were generally uneconomic.

Raymond L. Mazza

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Dynamic Behavior of Sand: Annual Report FY 11  

SciTech Connect

Currently, design of earth-penetrating munitions relies heavily on empirical relationships to estimate behavior, making it difficult to design novel munitions or address novel target situations without expensive and time-consuming full-scale testing with relevant system and target characteristics. Enhancing design through numerical studies and modeling could help reduce the extent and duration of full-scale testing if the models have enough fidelity to capture all of the relevant parameters. This can be separated into three distinct problems: that of the penetrator structural and component response, that of the target response, and that of the coupling between the two. This project focuses on enhancing understanding of the target response, specifically granular geomaterials, where the temporal and spatial multi-scale nature of the material controls its response. As part of the overarching goal of developing computational capabilities to predict the performance of conventional earth-penetrating weapons, this project focuses specifically on developing new models and numerical capabilities for modeling sand response in ALE3D. There is general recognition that granular materials behave in a manner that defies conventional continuum approaches which rely on response locality and which degrade in the presence of strong response nonlinearities, localization, and phase gradients. There are many numerical tools available to address parts of the problem. However, to enhance modeling capability, this project is pursuing a bottom-up approach of building constitutive models from higher fidelity, smaller spatial scale simulations (rather than from macro-scale observations of physical behavior as is traditionally employed) that are being augmented to address the unique challenges of mesoscale modeling of dynamically loaded granular materials. Through understanding response and sensitivity at the grain-scale, it is expected that better reduced order representations of response can be formulated at the continuum scale as illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2. The final result of this project is to implement such reduced order models in the ALE3D material library for general use.

Antoun, T; Herbold, E; Johnson, S

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

454

Biocalcification of Sand through Ureolysis Chiung-Wen Chou1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, mineral transformation, and biogenic gas production (Seagren and Aydilek 2009). For example, natural and have a tremendous effect on the composition, properties, and geomechanical behavior of earth materials compounds that can contribute to soil cementation. One of these natural processes is microbially induced

Aydilek, Ahmet

455

Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

456

Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

457

Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

458

Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

459

Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

460

Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tar sands gas" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

462

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

463

Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

464

Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

465

Sand deformation concept for in-situ recovery of bitumen by cyclic steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Historically, a vertical or horizontal fracture is believed to be a main recovery mechanism for a cyclic steam injection process from the unconsolidated oil sands. Most of the current computer models for the process are based on the fracture concept. With the new postulated ''Sand Deformation Concept'' on the other hand, the injected fluid is able to penetrate the unconsolidated oil sand by creating microchannels. When the pore pressure is reduced during production, these secondary flow channels will totally or partially collapse. Condensed steam tends to sweep fluids where the bitumen had been heated and imparts mobility due to the injected hot fluid. Flow geometry of the new concept was fully investigated in this study. The physical differences between the sand deformation zone and the no-deformation zone were also investigated. The major differences zone were also investigated. The major differences between these two zones are a porosity change, a pressure level and energy and flow characteristics resulting from the existence of microchannels. All of these modifications were successfully incorporated into a conventional numerical thermal simulator. The new model provided an excellent match for all the field observations (steam injection pressure, oil-and-water production rates, fluid production temperature, downhole production pressure and the salinity changes) of a steam stimulated well in an unconsolidated oil sand. Conclusion from the study indicates that the most important phenomenon for in-situ recovery of bitumen is the one way valve effect of the microchannels which are opened during injection and closed during production.

Ito, Y.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Evaluation of metals release from oil sands coke : an ecotoxicological assessment of risk and hazard to aquatic invertebrates .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The oil sands operations in northeast Alberta, Canada, employ unconventional processes to produce synthetic crude oil (SCO). Because the extracted bitumen, ˇ®the form of oil… (more)

PUTTASWAMY, NAVEEN V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Natural Gas  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Energy Department supports research and policy options to ensure environmentally sustainable domestic and global supplies of oil and natural gas.

468

Gas separating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

Gollan, A.

1988-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

469

Effective fracture geometry obtained with large water sand ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shale gas formation exhibits some unusual reservoir characteristics: nano-darcy matrix permeability, presence of natural fractures and gas storage on the matrix surface that makes it unique in many ways. It’s difficult to design an optimum fracture treatment for such formation and even more difficult is to describe production behavior using a reservoir model. So far homogeneous, two wing fracture, and natural fracture models have been used for this purpose without much success. Micro seismic mapping technique is used to measure the fracture propagation in real time. This measurement in naturally fractured shale formation suggests a growth of fracture network instead of a traditional two wing fractures. There is an industry wise consensus that fracture network plays an important role in determining the well productivity of such formations. A well with high density of fracture networks supposed to have better productivity. Shale formations have also exhibited production pattern which is very different from conventional or tight gas reservoir. Initial flow period is marked by steep decline in production while the late time production exhibits a slow decline. One of the arguments put for this behavior is linear flow from a bi-wing fractured well at early time and contribution of adsorbed gas in production at late time. However, bi-wing fracture geometry is not supported by the micro-seismic observation. A realistic model should include both the fracture network and adsorbed gas property. In this research we have proposed a new Power Law Permability model to simulate fluid flow from hydraulically fractured Shale formation. This model was first described by Valko & Fnu (2002) and used for analyzing acid treatment jobs. The key idea of this model is to use a power law permeability function that varies with the radial distance from well bore. Scaling exponent of this power law function has been named power law index. The permeability function has also been termed as secondary permeability. This work introduces the method of Laplace solution to solve the problem of transient and pseudo steady-state flow in a fracture network. Development and validation of this method and its extension to predict the pressure (and production) behaviour of fracture network were made using a novel technic. Pressure solution was then combined with material balance through productivity index to make production forecast. Reservoir rock volume affected by the fracture stimulation treatment that contributes in the production is called effective stimulated volume. This represents the extent of fracture network in this case. Barnett shale formation is a naturally fractured shale reservoir in Fort Worth basin. Several production wells from this formation was analysed using Power Law Model and it was found that wells productivity are highly dependent on stimulated volume. Apparently the wells flow under pseudo steady state for most part of their producing life and the effect of boundary on production is evident in as soon as one months of production. Due to short period of transient flow production from Barnett formations is expected to be largely independent of the relative distribution of permeability and highly dependent on the stimulated area and induced secondary permeability. However, an indirect relationship between permeability distribution and production rate is observed. A well with low power law index shows a better (more even) secondary permeability distribution in spatial direction, larger stimulated volume and better production. A comparative analysis between the new model and traditional fracture model was made. It was found that both models can be used successfully for history matching and production forecasting from hydraulically fractured shale gas formation.

Kumar, Amrendra

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z