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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

2

Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

Duncan, J.B.

1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

3

Evaluation of an alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from SRS tank waste using laboratory-scale centrifugal contactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkaline-side solvent extraction process for cesium removal from Savannah River Site (SRS) tank waste was evaluated experimentally using a laboratory-scale centrifugal contactor. Single-stage and multistage tests were conducted with this contactor to determine hydraulic performance, stage efficiency, and general operability of the process flowsheet. The results and conclusions of these tests are reported along with those from various supporting tests. Also discussed is the ability to scale-up from laboratory- to plant-scale operation when centrifugal contractors are used to carry out the solvent extraction process. While some problems were encountered, a promising solution for each problem has been identified. Overall, this alkaline-side cesium extraction process appears to be an excellent candidate for removing cesium from SRS tank waste.

Leonard, R. A.; Conner, C.; Liberatore, M. W.; Sedlet, J.; Aase, S. B.; Vandegrift, G. F.

1999-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

4

Method of removing cesium from steam  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method for removal of radioactive cesium from a hot vapor, such as high temperature steam, including the steps of passing input hot vapor containing radioactive cesium into a bed of silicate glass particles and chemically incorporating radioactive cesium in the silicate glass particles at a temperature of at least about 700.degree. F.

Carson, Jr., Neill J. (Clarendon Hills, IL); Noland, Robert A. (Oak Park, IL); Ruther, Westly E. (Skokie, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Cesium removal using crystalline silicotitanate. Innovative technology summary report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 100 million gallons of radioactive waste is stored in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Oak Ridge Reservation, and Savannah River Site (SRS). Most of the radioactivity comes from {sup 137}Cs, which emits high-activity gamma radiation. The Cesium Removal System is a modular, transportable, ion-exchange system configured as a compact processing unit. Liquid tank waste flows through columns packed with solid material, called a sorbent, that selectively adsorbs cesium and allows the other materials to pass through. The sorbent is crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an engineered material with a high capacity for sorbing cesium from alkaline wastes. The Cesium Removal System was demonstrated at Oak Ridge using Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) waste for feed. Demonstration operations began in September 1996 and were completed during June 1997. Prior to the demonstration, a number of ion-exchange materials were evaluated at Oak Ridge with MVST waste. Also, three ion-exchange materials and three waste types were tested at Hanford. These bench-scale tests were conducted in a hot cell. Hanford's results showed that 300 times less sorbent was used by selecting Ionsiv IE-911 over organic ion-exchange resins for cesium removal. This paper gives a description of the technology and discusses its performance, applications, cost, regulatory and policy issues and lessons learned.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

AX Tank Farm tank removal study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

SKELLY, W.A.

1999-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

7

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

8

CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using Hanford Waste Samples.'

DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

9

Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

Colburn, Richard P. (Pasco, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange for separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using resorcinol-formaldehyde resin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin to remove cesium from Hanford tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. The flowsheet also discusses process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs associated with the ion exchange process. It is expected that this flowsheet will evolve as open issues are resolved and progress is made on development needs. This is part of the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. 26 refs, 6 figs, 25 tabs.

Penwell, D.L.

1994-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

11

Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

Colburn, R.P.

1983-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

12

Interim salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualification monosodium titanate and cesium mass transfer tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. This qualification material was a set of six samples from Tank 21H in October 2012. This sample was used as a real waste demonstration of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests process. The Tank 21H sample was contacted with a reduced amount (0.2 g/L) of MST and characterized for strontium and actinide removal at 0 and 8 hour time intervals in this salt batch. {sup 237}Np and {sup 243}Am were both observed to be below detection limits in the source material, and so these results are not reported in this report. The plutonium and uranium samples had decontamination factor (DF) values that were on par or slightly better than we expected from Batch 5. The strontium DF values are slightly lower than expected but still in an acceptable range. The Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) testing demonstrated cesium removal, stripping and scrubbing within the acceptable range. Overall, the testing indicated that cesium removal is comparable to prior batches at MCU.

Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

13

REMOVAL OF CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE WASTE WITH SPHERICAL RESORCINOL FORMALDEHYDE ION EXCHANGE RESIN EXPERIMENTAL TESTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A principal goal at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is to safely dispose of the large volume of liquid nuclear waste held in many storage tanks. In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal. The spherical form of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) is being evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake waste at SRS, which is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. The sRF performance with SRS waste was evaluated in two phases: resin batch contacts and IX column testing with both simulated and actual dissolved salt waste. The tests, equipment, and results are discussed.

Duignan, M.; Nash, C.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

THERMAL PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS FOR SMALL ION-EXCHANGE CESIUM REMOVAL PROCESS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The In-Riser Ion Exchange program focuses on the development of in-tank systems to decontaminate high level waste (HLW) salt solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and the Hanford Site. Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) treatment for cesium removal is a primary in-riser technology for decontamination prior to final waste immobilization in Saltstone. Through this process, radioactive cesium from the salt solution is adsorbed onto the ion exchange media which is packed within a flow-through column. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) is being considered as the ion exchange media for the application of this technology at both sites. A packed column loaded with media containing radioactive cesium generates significant heat from radiolytic decay. Under normal operating conditions, process fluid flow through the column can provide adequate heat removal from the columns. However, in the unexpected event of loss of fluid flow or fluid drainage from the column, the design must be adequate to handle the thermal load to avoid unacceptable temperature excursions. Otherwise, hot spots may develop locally which could degrade the performance of the ion-exchange media or the temperature could rise above column safety limits. Data exists which indicates that performance degradation with regard to cesium removal occurs with RF at 65C. In addition, the waste supernate solution will boil around 130C. As a result, two temperature limits have been assumed for this analysis. An additional upset scenario was considered involving the loss of the supernate solution due to inadvertent fluid drainage through the column boundary. In this case, the column containing the loaded media could be completely dry. This event is expected to result in high temperatures that could damage the column or cause the RF sorbent material to undergo undesired physical changes. One objective of these calculations is to determine the range of temperatures that should be evaluated during testing with the RF media. Although, the safety temperature limit is based on the salt solution boiling point which does not apply in the air-filled case (because there is no liquid), this same limit (130C) is used as a measure for the evaluation of this condition as well. The primary objective of the present work is to develop models to simulate the thermal performance of the RF column design when the media is fully loaded with radioactive cesium and the central cooling tube is excluded. Previous analysis led to the consideration of this design simplification for RF, since the baseline column design with center cooling was developed assuming that CST media would be used for cesium removal which has a higher volumetric heat load. Temperature distributions and maximum temperatures across the column during SCIX process operations and upset conditions were conducted with a focus on SCIX implementation at Hanford. However, a feed composition and cesium loading were assumed which were known to be considerably higher than would typically be observed at Hanford. In order to evaluate the impact of this potentially highly conservative assumption, fractionally-reduced loading cases were also considered. A computational modeling approach was taken to include conservative, bounding estimates for key parameters so that the results would provide the maximum temperatures achievable under the design configurations.

Lee, S.; King, W.

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

15

Preliminary flowsheet: Ion exchange process for the separation of cesium from Hanford tank waste using Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This preliminary flowsheet document describes an ion exchange process which uses Duolite{trademark} CS-100 resin to remove cesium from Hanford Tank waste. The flowsheet describes one possible equipment configuration, and contains mass balances based on that configuration with feeds of Neutralized Current Acid Waste, and Double Shell Slurry Feed. Process alternatives, unresolved issues, and development needs are discussed which relate to the process.

Eager, K.M.; Penwell, D.L.; Knutson, B.J.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Underground Storage Tank Regulations for the Certification of Persons Who Install, Alter, and Remove Underground Storage Tanks (Mississippi)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Underground Storage Tank Regulations for the Certification of Persons who Install, Alter, and Remove Underground Storage Tanks applies to any project that will install, alter or remove...

17

MODELING AN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM ALKALINE RADIOACTIVE WASTE SOLUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde ion-exchange resin for the removal of cesium from alkaline radioactive waste solutions has been investigated through computer modeling. Cesium adsorption isotherms were obtained by fitting experimental data using a thermodynamic framework. Results show that ion-exchange is an efficient method for cesium removal from highly alkaline radioactive waste solutions. On average, two 1300 liter columns operating in series are able to treat 690,000 liters of waste with an initial cesium concentration of 0.09 mM in 11 days achieving a decontamination factor of over 50,000. The study also tested the sensitivity of ion-exchange column performance to variations in flow rate, temperature and column dimensions. Modeling results can be used to optimize design of the ion exchange system.

Smith, F; Luther Hamm, L; Sebastian Aleman, S; Johnston Michael, J

2008-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

18

Modeling Ion-Exchange Processing With Spherical Resins For Cesium Removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde and hypothetical spherical SuperLig(r) 644 ion-exchange resins are evaluated for cesium removal from radioactive waste solutions. Modeling results show that spherical SuperLig(r) 644 reduces column cycling by 50% for high-potassium solutions. Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde performs equally well for the lowest-potassium wastes. Less cycling reduces nitric acid usage during resin elution and sodium addition during resin regeneration, therefore, significantly decreasing life-cycle operational costs. A model assessment of the mechanism behind ''cesium bleed'' is also conducted. When a resin bed is eluted, a relatively small amount of cesium remains within resin particles. Cesium can bleed into otherwise decontaminated product in the next loading cycle. The bleed mechanism is shown to be fully isotherm-controlled vs. mass transfer controlled. Knowledge of residual post-elution cesium level and resin isotherm can be utilized to predict rate of cesium bleed in a mostly non-loaded column. Overall, this work demonstrates the versatility of the ion-exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. This evaluation justifies further development of a spherical form of the SL644 resin.

Hang, T.; Nash, C. A.; Aleman, S. E.

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

19

Alkaline-Side Extraction of Cesium from Savannah River Tank Waste Using a Calixarene-Crown Ether Extractant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results are presented supporting the viability of the alkaline-side CSEX process as a potential replacement for the In-Tank Precipitation process for removal of cesium from aqueous high-level waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Under funding from the USDOE Efficient Separations and Crosscutting program, a flowsheet was suggested in early June of 1998, and in the following four months, this flowsheet underwent extensive testing, both in batch tests at ORNL and ANL and in two centrifugal-contactor tests at ANL. To carry out these tests, the initial ESP funding was augmented by direct funds from Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation. The flowsheet employed a solvent containing a calixarene-crown hybrid compound called BoBCalixC6 that was invented at ORNL and can now be obtained commercially for government use from IBC Advanced Technologies. This special extractant is so powerful and selective that it can be used at only 0.01 M, compensating for its expense, but a modifier is required for use in an aliphatic diluent, primarily to increase the cesium distribution ratio D{sub Cs} in extraction. The modifier selected is a relatively economical fluorinated alcohol called Cs3, invented at ORNL and so far available. only from ORNL. For the flowsheet, the modifier is used at 0.2 M in the branched aliphatic kerosene Isopar{reg_sign} L. Testing at ORNL and ANL involved simulants of the SRS HLW. After extraction of the Cs from the waste simulant, the solvent is scrubbed with 0.05 M HNO{sub 3} and stripped with a solution comprised of 0.0005 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.0001 M CsNO{sub 3}. The selection of these conditions is justified in this report, both on the basis of experimental data and underlying theory.

Bonnesen, P.V.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Moyer, B.A.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Assessment of commercially available ion exchange materials for cesium removal from highly alkaline wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 61 million gallons of nuclear waste generated in plutonium production, radionuclide removal campaigns, and research and development activities is stored on the Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Although the pretreatment process and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include removal of cesium from the aqueous streams. In many cases, after cesium is removed, the dissolved salt cakes and supernates can be disposed of as LLW. Ion exchange has been a leading candidate for this separation. Ion exchange systems have the advantage of simplicity of equipment and operation and provide many theoretical stages in a small space. The organic ion exchange material Duolite{trademark} CS-100 has been selected as the baseline exchanger for conceptual design of the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM). Use of CS-100 was chosen because it is considered a conservative, technologically feasible approach. During FY 96, final resin down-selection will occur for IPM Title 1 design. Alternate ion exchange materials for cesium exchange will be considered at that time. The purpose of this report is to conduct a search for commercially available ion exchange materials which could potentially replace CS-100. This report will provide where possible a comparison of these resin in their ability to remove low concentrations of cesium from highly alkaline solutions. Materials which show promise can be studied further, while less encouraging resins can be eliminated from consideration.

Brooks, K.P.; Kim, A.Y.; Kurath, D.E.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Cesium and heavy metal removal from flue dusts and other matrices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A problem exists in the steel industry because of the generation of radioactive waste that is caused by the accidental destruction of nuclear detection instruments. The flue dust from electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) becomes contaminated with the radionuclide used. Typically the radionuclide is cesium 137. The problem is a concern to the industry since the contamination results in the generation of a mixed waste which is costly to dispose of properly. In the interest of providing a viable solution to the problem, Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies has developed a process for removal of cesium from flue dust. While removing the cesium from the treatment residue, the process also isolates the other major elements of concern and renders them innocuous, saleable, or readily disposable. However, several innovative techniques have been applied which make the process far more economical, and in addition, the changes simplify the operation and render it controllable. The process involves the dissolution of the various metallic and non-metallic constituents through the use of a mild mineral acid leach. This treatment solubilizes the majority of the constituents including the cesium.

Soderstrom, D.J.; May, R.; Spaulding, S. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Technology Applications Div.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

22

FULL-SCALE TESTING OF A CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SYSTEM TO REMOVE CESIUM FROM SAVANNAH RIVER SITE RADIOACTIVE WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel have completed construction and assembly of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility. Following assembly, they conducted testing to evaluate the ability of the process to remove non-radioactive cesium and to separate the aqueous and organic phases. They conducted tests at salt solution flow rates of 3.5, 6.0, and 8.5 gpm. During testing, the MCU Facility collected samples and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel for analysis of cesium, Isopar{reg_sign} L, and Modifier [1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol]. SRNL personnel analyzed the aqueous samples for cesium by Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and the solvent samples for cesium using a Parr Bomb Digestion followed by ICP-MS. They analyzed aqueous samples for Isopar{reg_sign} L and Modifier by gas chromatography (GC).

Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Earl Brass, E; Stanley Brown, S; Mark Geeting, M; Lcurtis Johnson, L; Charles02 Coleman, C; S Crump, S; Mark Barnes, M; Samuel Fink, S

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

Small Column Ion Exchange Testing of Superlig 644 for Removal of 137Cs from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (Tank 241-AN-107)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current BNFL Inc. flowsheet for the pretreatment of the Hanford high-level tank wastes includes the use of Superlig{reg_sign} materials for removing {sup 137}Cs from the aqueous fraction of the waste. The Superlig materials applicable to cesium removal include the cesium-selective Superlig 632and Superlig 644. These materials have been developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, Utah. This report describes the testing of the Superlig 644 ion exchange material in a small dual-column system. The bed volume of the lead column was 18.6 mL (L/D = 7), and the bed volume of the lag column was 15.9 mL (L/D = 6) during the loading phase. The sample processed was approximately 1.6 L of diluted waste ([Na{sup +}] = 4.84 M) from Tank 241-AN-107 (Envelope C). This sample had been previously treated for removal of Sr/transuranic (TRU) values and clarified in a single tube cross-flow filtration unit. All ion exchange process steps were tested, including resin-bed preparation, loading, feed displacement, water rinse, elution, eluant rinse, and resin regeneration. A summary of performance measures for both columns is shown in Table S1. The Cs {lambda} values represent a measure of the effective capacity of the SL-644 resin. The Cs {lambda} of 20 for the lead column is much lower than the estimated 150 obtained by the Savannah River Technology Center during Phase 1A testing. Equilibrium data obtained with batch contacts using the AN-107 Cs IX feed predicts a Cs {lambda} of 183. A Cs {lambda} for the lag column could not be determined due to insufficient breakthrough, but it appeared to work well and removed nearly all of the cesium not removed by the lead column. The low value for the lead column indicates that it did not perform as expected. This may have been due to air or gas in the bed that caused fluid channeling or blinding of the resin. The maximum decontamination factor (DF) for {sup 137}Cs listed in Table S1 is based on {sup 137}Cs concentration in the first samples collected from each column and the {sup 137}Cs concentration in the feed. The composite DF for {sup 137}Cs was 1,760, which provided an effluent with a {sup 137}Cs concentration of 8.7E-02 Ci/m{sup 3}. The {sup 137}Cs concentration is below the basis of design limit and is 7.2% of the contract limit for {sup 137}Cs.

DE Kurath; DL Blanchard; JR Bontha

2000-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

24

Ion exchange columns for selective removal of cesium from aqueous radioactive waste using hydrous crystalline silico-titanates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

conscious society. In Hanford, WA, hundreds of underground storage tanks hold tens of millions of gallons of aqueous radioactive waste. This liquid waste, which has a very high sodium content, contains trace amounts of radioactive cesium 137. Since... the material for batch ion exchange of the nuclear waste solution. More research was needed to investigate the material's effectiveness in a column operation. An ion exchange column system was developed to study column performance. The column design...

Ricci, David Michael

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

WILLIS, W.L.

2000-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NITROGEN REMOVAL FOR ON-SITE SEWAGE DISPOSAL: A RECIRCULATING SAND FILTER/ROCK TANK DESIGN, C. G. McKiel ABSTRACT: The nitrogen removal abilities of recirculating sand filter/rock tank (RSF) systems and conventional septic tank/soil absorption trench systems were compared in a field laboratory

Gold, Art

27

HIGH LEVEL WASTE MECHANCIAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal (MSR) using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system for the first time within one of its storage tanks. The WOW system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple waste tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. In addition, the project is currently preparing another waste tank for MSR utilizing lessons learned from this previous operational activity. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2,840 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. The construction of these tanks was completed in 1953, and they were placed into waste storage service in 1959. The tank's primary shell is 23 meters (75 feet) in diameter, and 7.5 meters (24.5 feet) in height. Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. Both Tank 5 and Tank 6 received and stored F-PUREX waste during their operating service time before sludge removal was performed. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close (fill with grout) Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. Mechanical Sludge Removal, the first step in the tank closure process, will be followed by chemical cleaning. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks will be isolated and filled with grout for long-term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal operations within Tank 6 removed approximately 75% of the original 95,000 liters (25,000 gallons). This sludge material was transferred in batches to an interim storage tank to prepare for vitrification. This operation consisted of eleven (11) Submersible Mixer Pump(s) mixing campaigns and multiple intraarea transfers utilizing STPs from July 2006 to August 2007. This operation and successful removal of sludge material meets requirement of approximately 19,000 to 28,000 liters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. Removal of the last 35% of sludge was exponentially more difficult, as less and less sludge was available to mobilize and the lighter sludge particles were likely removed during the early mixing campaigns. The removal of the 72,000 liters (19,000 gallons) of sludge was challenging due to a number factors. One primary factor was the complex internal cooling coil array within Tank 6 that obstructed mixer discharge jets and impacted the Effective Cleaning Radius (ECR) of the Submersible Mixer Pumps. Minimal access locations into the tank through tank openings (risers) presented a challenge because the available options for equipment locations were very limited. Mechanical Sludge Removal activities using SMPs caused the sludge to migrate to areas of the tank that were outside of the SMP ECR. Various SMP operational strategies were used to address the challenge of moving sludge from remote areas of the tank to the transfer pump. This paper describes in detail the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and mitigative solutions to cooling coil obstructions and other challenges. The performance of the WOW system and SMP operational strategies were evaluated and the resulting lessons learned are described for application to future Mechanical Sludge Removal operations.

Jolly, R; Bruce Martin, B

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

MODELING CST ION EXCHANGE FOR CESIUM REMOVAL FROM SCIX BATCHES 1 - 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is, through modeling, to predict the performance of Crystalline Silicotitinate (CST) for the removal of cesium from Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) Batches 1-4 (as proposed in Revision 16 of the Liquid Waste System Plan). The scope of this task is specified in Technical Task Request (TTR) 'SCIX Feed Modeling', HLE-TTR-2011-003, which specified using the Zheng, Anthony, Miller (ZAM) code to predict CST isotherms for six given SCIX feed compositions and the VErsatile Reaction and SEparation simulator for Liquid Chromatography (VERSE-LC) code to predict ion-exchange column behavior. The six SCIX feed compositions provided in the TTR represent SCIX Batches 1-4 and Batches 1 and 2 without caustic addition. The study also investigated the sensitivity in column performance to: (1) Flow rates of 5, 10, and 20 gpm with 10 gpm as the nominal flow; and (2) Temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 C with 35 C as the nominal temperature. The isotherms and column predictions presented in this report reflect the expected performance of engineered CST IE-911. This form of CST was used in experiments conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that formed the basis for estimating model parameters (Hamm et al., 2002). As has been done previously, the engineered resin capacity is estimated to be 68% of the capacity of particulate CST without binder.

Smith, F.

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

29

Preliminary Ion Exchange Modeling for Removal of Cesium from Hanford Waste Using SuperLig 644 Resin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proposed facility is being designed for the immobilization of Hanford high-level radioactive waste. One unit process in the facility is designed to remove radioactive cesium by ion-exchange from the strongly alkaline aqueous phase. A resin specifically designed with high selectivity of cesium under alkaline conditions is being investigated. The resin also is elutable under more acidic conditions. The proposed design of the facility consists of two sets of two packed columns placed in series (i.e., a lead column followed by a lag (guard) column configuration). During operation, upon reaching a specified cesium concentration criterion at the exit of the lag column, operation is switched to the second set of lead and lag columns. The cesium-loaded lead column is processed (i.e., washed and eluted) and switched to the lag position. the previous lag column is then placed in the lead position (without eluting) and the system is ready for use in the next cycle. For a well designed process, the loading and elution processes result in significant volume reductions in aqueous high-level waste.

Hamm, L.L.

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

30

System for removing liquid waste from a tank  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid therethrough. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank.

Meneely, Timothy K. (Penn Hills, PA); Sherbine, Catherine A. (N. Versailles Township, Allegheny County, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

System for removing liquid waste from a tank  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A tank especially suited for nuclear applications is disclosed. The tank comprises a tank shell for protectively surrounding the liquid contained therein; an inlet positioned on the tank for passing a liquid into the tank; a sump positioned in an interior portion of the tank for forming a reservoir of the liquid; a sloped incline for resting the tank thereon and for creating a natural flow of the liquid toward the sump; a pump disposed adjacent the tank for pumping the liquid; and a pipe attached to the pump and extending into the sump for passing the liquid there through. The pump pumps the liquid in the sump through the pipe and into the pump for discharging the liquid out of the tank. 2 figures.

Meneely, T.K.; Sherbine, C.A.

1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

32

STATUS OF MECHANICAL SLUDGE REMOVAL AND COOLING COILS CLOSURE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - F TANK FARM CLOSURE PROJECT - 9225  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site F-Tank Farm Closure project has successfully performed Mechanical Sludge Removal using the Waste on Wheels (WOW) system within two of its storage tanks. The Waste on Wheels (WOW) system is designed to be relatively mobile with the ability for many components to be redeployed to multiple tanks. It is primarily comprised of Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs), Submersible Transfer Pumps (STPs), and a mobile control room with a control panel and variable speed drives. These tanks, designated as Tank 6 and Tank 5 respectively, are Type I waste tanks located in F-Tank Farm (FTF) with a capacity of 2839 cubic meters (750,000 gallons) each. In addition, Type I tanks have 34 vertically oriented cooling coils and two horizontal cooling coil circuits along the tank floor. DOE intends to remove from service and operationally close Tank 5 and Tank 6 and other HLW tanks that do not meet current containment standards. After obtaining regulatory approval, the tanks and cooling coils will be isolated and filled with grout for long term stabilization. Mechanical Sludge Removal of the remaining sludge waste within Tank 6 removed {approx} 75% of the original 25,000 gallons in August 2007. Utilizing lessons learned from Tank 6, Tank 5 Mechanical Sludge Removal completed removal of {approx} 90% of the original 125 cubic meters (33,000 gallons) of sludge material in May 2008. The successful removal of sludge material meets the requirement of approximately 19 to 28 cubic meters (5,000 to 7,500 gallons) remaining prior to the Chemical Cleaning process. The Chemical Cleaning Process will utilize 8 wt% oxalic acid to dissolve the remaining sludge heel. The flow sheet for Chemical Cleaning planned a 20:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge for the first strike with mixing provided by the submersible mixer pumps. The subsequent strikes will utilize a 13:1 volume ratio of acid to sludge with no mixing. The results of the Chemical Cleaning Process are detailed in the 'Status of Chemical Cleaning of Waste Tanks at the Savannah River Site--F Tank Farm Closure Project--Abstract 9114'. To support Tank 5 and Tank 6 cooling coil closure, cooling coil isolation and full scale cooling coil grout testing was completed to develop a strategy for grouting the horizontal and vertical cooling coils. This paper describes in detail the performance of the Mechanical Sludge Removal activities and SMP operational strategies within Tank 5. In addition, it will discuss the current status of Tank 5 & 6 cooling coil isolation activities and the results from the cooling coil grout fill tests.

Jolly, R

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

33

ALTERATION OF KAOLINITE TO CANCRINITE AND SODALITE BY SIMULATED HANFORD TANK WASTE AND ITS IMPACT ON CESIUM RETENTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ALTERATION OF KAOLINITE TO CANCRINITE AND SODALITE BY SIMULATED HANFORD TANK WASTE AND ITS IMPACT University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA Abstract--Caustic nuclear wastes have leaked from tanks at the US of waste fluids to migrate into the underlying sediments. In this study, four simulant tank waste (STW

Flury, Markus

34

SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both strontium-85 and cesium-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor for strontium-85 with monosodium titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% strontium-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the strontium-85 instantaneous decontamination factor with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the monosodium titanate impregnated membrane cartridges and crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active monosodium titanate cartridges and co-sintered active crystalline silicotitanate cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of cesium-137 with co-sintered crystalline silicotitanate cartridges. Tests results with crystalline silicotitanate impregnated membrane cartridges for cesium-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating monosodium titanate and crystalline silicotitanate sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semicontinuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

35

In-tank processes for destruction of organic complexants and removal of selected radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report establishes the need and technical feasibility for using in-tank pretreatment processes for destruction of organic complexants and removal of {sup 90}Sr, transuranic (TRU) elements, and {sup 99}Tc from double-shell tank (DST) liquid wastes. Neither {sup 90}Sr nor {sup 99}{Tc} have to be removed from any DST solution to obtain vitrified product containing less than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) criteria for Class C commercial low-level waste (LLW). To meet the NRC criterion for Class C LLW, TRU elements must be removed from liquid wastes in three (possibly five) DSTs. No {sup 90}Sr will have to be removed from any solution for the total vitrified waste from both DSTs and single-shell tanks to meet a goal of <7 MCi of radionuclides and a NRC ruling for Hanford Site Incidental Waste. Guidance from ALARA principles and the TWRS Environmental Impact Statement may dictate additional removal of radionuclides from DST supernatant liquids. Scavenging processes involving precipitation of strontium phosphate and/or hydrated iron oxide effectively remove {sup 90}Sr and/or TRU elements from actual DST wastes including complexant concentrate (CC) wastes. Destruction of organic complexants is not required for these scavenging processes to reduce the {sup 90}Sr and/or TRU element concentrations of DST waste solutions to or below the NRC criteria for Class C commercial LLW. However, substantially smaller amounts of scavenging agents would be required for removal of {sup 90}Sr and TRU elements from CC waste if organic complexants were destroyed. Low concentrations of added Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} and Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} are desirable to minimize the volume of HLW glass.

Schulz, W.W.; Kupfer, M.J.; McKeon, M.M.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Methods of producing cesium-131  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of producing cesium-131. The method comprises dissolving at least one non-irradiated barium source in water or a nitric acid solution to produce a barium target solution. The barium target solution is irradiated with neutron radiation to produce cesium-131, which is removed from the barium target solution. The cesium-131 is complexed with a calixarene compound to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution. A liquid:liquid extraction device or extraction column is used to separate the cesium-131 from the barium target solution.

Meikrantz, David H; Snyder, John R

2012-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

37

ANALYSIS OF THE LEACHING EFFICIENCY OF INHIBITED WATER AND TANK SIMULANT IN REMOVING RESIDUES ON THERMOWELL PIPES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. Video inspection of the tank showed that a film of solid material adhered to the tank internal walls and structures between 69 inch and 150 inch levels. From the video inspection, the solid film thickness was estimated to be 1mm, which corresponds to {approx}33 kg of TPB salts (as 20 wt% insoluble solids) (1). This film material is expected to be easily removed by single-rinse, slurry pump operation during Tank 48H TPB disposition via aggregation processing. A similar success was achieved for Tank 49H TPB dispositioning, with slurry pumps operating almost continuously for approximately 6 months, after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids - Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} (Hydrated Sodium Carbonate, aka: Trona), Al(OH){sub 3} (Aluminum Hydroxide, aka: Gibbsite), NaTPB (Sodium Tetraphenylborate), NaNO{sub 3} (Sodium Nitrate) and NaNO{sub 2} (Sodium Nitrite) (2). Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. There is a risk that material on the internal surfaces of Tank 48H could not be easily removed. As a risk mitigation activity, the chemical composition and leachability of the Tank 48H film are being evaluated prior to initiating tank aggregation. This task investigated the dissolution characteristics of Tank 48H solid film deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, SRNL received four separate 23-inch long thermowell-conductivity pipe samples which were removed from the tank 48H D2 risers in order to determine: (1) the thickness of the solid film deposit, (2) the chemical composition of the film deposits, and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid film deposit in inhibited water (IW) and in DWPF recycle simulant (3).

Fondeur, F.; White, T.; Oji, L.; Martino, C.; Wilmarth, B.

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

38

Mechanism of Phosphorus Removal from Hanford Tank Sludge by Caustic Leaching  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two experiments were conducted to explore the mechanism by which phosphorus is removed from Hanford tank sludge by caustic leaching. In the first experiment, a series of phosphate salts were treated with 3 M NaOH under conditions prototypic of the actual leaching process to be performed in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The phosphates used were aluminum phosphate, bismuth phosphate, chromium(III) phosphate, and ?-tri-calcium phosphate; all of these phases have previously been determined to exist in Hanford tank sludge. The leachate solution was sampled at selected time intervals and analyzed for the specific metal ion involved (Al, Bi, Ca, or Cr) and for P (total and as phosphate). The solids remaining after completion of the caustic leaching step were analyzed to determine the reaction product. In the second experiment, the dependence of P removal from bismuth phosphate was examined as a function of the hydroxide ion concentration. It was anticipated that a plot of log[phosphate] versus log[hydroxide] would provide insight into the phosphorus-removal mechanism. This report describes the test activities outlined in Section 6.3.2.1, Preliminary Investigation of Phosphate Dissolution, in Test Plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, Rev.1. The objectives, success criteria, and test conditions of Section 6.3.2.1 are summarized here.

Lumetta, Gregg J.

2008-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

39

SELECTIVE REMOVAL OF STRONTIUM AND CESIUM FROM SIMULATED WASTE SOLUTION WITH TITANATE ION-EXCHANGERS IN A FILTER CARTRIDGE CONFIGURATIONS-12092  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results for the selective removal of strontium and cesium from simulated waste solutions with monosodium titanate (MST) and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) laden filter cartridges are presented. In these proof-of-principle tests, effective uptake of both Sr-85 and Cs-137 were observed using ion-exchangers in this filter cartridge configuration. At low salt simulant conditions, the instantaneous decontamination factor (D{sub F}) for Sr-85 with MST impregnated filter membrane cartridges measured 26, representing 96% Sr-85 removal efficiency. On the other hand, the Sr-85 instantaneous D{sub F} with co-sintered active MST cartridges measured 40 or 98% Sr-85 removal efficiency. Strontium-85 removal with the MST impregnated membrane cartridges and CST impregnated membrane cartridges, placed in series arrangement, produced an instantaneous decontamination factor of 41 compared to an instantaneous decontamination factor of 368 for strontium-85 with co-sintered active MST cartridges and co-sintered active CST cartridges placed in series. Overall, polyethylene co-sintered active titanates cartridges performed as well as titanate impregnated filter membrane cartridges in the uptake of strontium. At low ionic strength conditions, there was a significant uptake of Cs-137 with co-sintered CST cartridges. Tests results with CST impregnated membrane cartridges for Cs-137 decontamination are currently being re-evaluated. Based on these preliminary findings we conclude that incorporating MST and CST sorbents into membranes represent a promising method for the semi-continuous removal of radioisotopes of strontium and cesium from nuclear waste solutions.

Oji, L.; Martin, K.; Hobbs, D.

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

40

Alternate Methods for Eluting Cesium from Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A small-column ion exchange (SCIX) system has been proposed for removing cesium from the supernate and dissolved salt solutions in the high-level-waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The SCIX system could use either crystalline silicotitanate (CST), an inorganic, non-regenerable sorbent, or spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), a new regenerable resin, to remove cesium from the waste solutions. The baseline method for eluting the cesium from the RF resin uses 15 bed volumes (BV) of 0.5 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}). The nitric acid eluate, containing the radioactive cesium, would be combined with the sludge from the waste tanks and would be converted into glass at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS. The amount of nitric acid that would be used to elute the RF resin, using the current elution protocol, exceeds the capacity of DWPF to destroy the nitrate ions and maintain the required chemical reducing environment in the glass melt. Installing a denitration evaporator at SRS is technically feasible but would add considerable cost to the project. Alternate methods for eluting the resin have been tested, including using lower concentrations of nitric acid, other acids, and changing the flow regimes. About 4 BV of 0.5 M HNO{sub 3} are required to remove the sodium (titrate the resin) and most of the cesium from the resin, so the bulk of the acid used for the baseline elution method removes a very small quantity of cesium from the resin. A summary of the elution methods that have been tested are listed.

Taylor, Paul Allen [ORNL; Johnson, Heather Lauren [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Adsorption/Membrane Filtration as a Contaminant Concentration and Separation Process for Mixed Wastes and Tank Wastes - Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project was conducted to evaluate novel approaches for removing radioactive strontium (Sr) and cesium (Cs) from the tank wastes. The bulk of the Sr removal research conducted as part of this project investigated adsorption of Sr onto a novel adsorbent known as iron-oxide-coated sand. The second major focus of the work was on the removal of cesium. Since the chemistries of strontium and cesium have little commonality, different materials (namely, cesium scavengers known as hexacyanoferrates, HCFs) were employed in these tests. This study bridged several scientific areas and yielded valuable knowledge for implementing new technological processes. The applicability of the results extends beyond the highly specialized application niches investigated experimentally to other issues of potential interest for EMSP programs (e.g., separation of chromium from a variety of wastes using IOCS, separation of Cs from neutral and acidic wastes with EC-controlled HCFs).

Benjamin, M.M.

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Ferrocyanide Safety Program rationale for removing six tanks from the safety watch list  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents an in-depth study of single-shell tanks containing ferrocyanide wastes. Topics include: safety assessments, tank histories, supportive documentation about interim stabilization and planned remedial activities.

Borsheim, G.L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Cold test plan for the Old Hydrofracture Facility tank contents removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) Tanks Contents Removal Project Cold Test Plan describes the activities to be conducted during the cold test of the OHF sluicing and pumping system at the Tank Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF). The TTCTF is located at the Robotics and Process Systems Complex at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The cold test will demonstrate performance of the pumping and sluicing system, fine-tune operating instructions, and train the personnel in the actual work to be performed. After completion of the cold test a Technical Memorandum will be prepared documenting completion of the cold test, and the equipment will be relocated to the OHF site.

NONE

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION SUMMARY OF PRIOR LAB-SCALE TESTING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scoping laboratory scale tests were performed at the Chemical Engineering Department of the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and the Hanford 222-S Laboratory, involving double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) Hanford waste simulants. These tests established the viability of the Lithium Hydrotalcite precipitation process as a solution to remove aluminum and recycle sodium hydroxide from the Hanford tank waste, and set the basis of a validation test campaign to demonstrate a Technology Readiness Level of 3.

SAMS TL; GUILLOT S

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

45

Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/271999 During Sludge Core Removal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371, Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA{trademark} canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2.

VISWANATH, R.S.

1999-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

46

Removing Phosphate from Hanford High-Phosphate Tank Wastes: FY 2010 Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for environmental remediation at the Hanford Site in Washington State, a former nuclear weapons production site. Retrieving, processing, immobilizing, and disposing of the 2.2 × 105 m3 of radioactive wastes stored in the Hanford underground storage tanks dominates the overall environmental remediation effort at Hanford. The cornerstone of the tank waste remediation effort is the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). As currently designed, the capability of the WTP to treat and immobilize the Hanford tank wastes in the expected lifetime of the plant is questionable. For this reason, DOE has been pursuing supplemental treatment options for selected wastes. If implemented, these supplemental treatments will route certain waste components to processing and disposition pathways outside of WTP and thus will accelerate the overall Hanford tank waste remediation mission.

Lumetta, Gregg J.; Braley, Jenifer C.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.; Carter, Jennifer C.; MacFarlan, Paul J.

2010-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

47

PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

48

Strontium and cesium release mechanisms during unsaturated flow through waste-weathered Hanford sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

magnesium, calcium and strontium in Hanford tank wasteK. T. , Linking cesium and strontium uptake to kaoliniteS. ; Chorover, J. , Strontium speciation during reaction of

Chang, H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

ALUMINUM READINESS EVALUATION FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENRATION FROM HANFORD TANK WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Technology Readiness Evaluation (TRE) performed by AREV A Federal Services, LLC (AFS) for Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) shows the lithium hydrotalcite (LiHT) process invented and patented (pending) by AFS has reached an overall Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 3. The LiHT process removes aluminum and regenerates sodium hydroxide. The evaluation used test results obtained with a 2-L laboratory-scale system to validate the process and its critical technology elements (CTEs) on Hanford tank waste simulants. The testing included detailed definition and evaluation for parameters of interest and validation by comparison to analytical predictions and data quality objectives for critical subsystems. The results of the TRE would support the development of strategies to further mature the design and implementation of the LiHT process as a supplemental pretreatment option for Hanford tank waste.

SAMS TL; MASSIE HL

2011-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

51

Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

Harmon, Harry D.

2000-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

Harmon, Harry D.

2000-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

53

MODELING RESULTS FROM CESIUM ION EXCHANGE PROCESSING WITH SPHERICAL RESINS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ion exchange modeling was conducted at the Savannah River National Laboratory to compare the performance of two organic resins in support of Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX). In-tank ion exchange (IX) columns are being considered for cesium removal at Hanford and the Savannah River Site (SRS). The spherical forms of resorcinol formaldehyde ion exchange resin (sRF) as well as a hypothetical spherical SuperLig{reg_sign} 644 (SL644) are evaluated for decontamination of dissolved saltcake wastes (supernates). Both SuperLig{reg_sign} and resorcinol formaldehyde resin beds can exhibit hydraulic problems in their granular (nonspherical) forms. SRS waste is generally lower in potassium and organic components than Hanford waste. Using VERSE-LC Version 7.8 along with the cesium Freundlich/Langmuir isotherms to simulate the waste decontamination in ion exchange columns, spherical SL644 was found to reduce column cycling by 50% for high-potassium supernates, but sRF performed equally well for the lowest-potassium feeds. Reduced cycling results in reduction of nitric acid (resin elution) and sodium addition (resin regeneration), therefore, significantly reducing life-cycle operational costs. These findings motivate the development of a spherical form of SL644. This work demonstrates the versatility of the ion exchange modeling to study the effects of resin characteristics on processing cycles, rates, and cold chemical consumption. The value of a resin with increased selectivity for cesium over potassium can be assessed for further development.

Nash, C.; Hang, T.; Aleman, S.

2011-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

54

Preliminary engineering report waste area grouping 5, Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks content removal project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requires a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) for federal facilities placed on the National Priorities List. The Oak Ridge Reservation was placed on that list on December 21, 1989, and the agreement was signed in November 1991 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Operations Office, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The effective date of the FFA is January 1, 1992. One objective of the FFA is to ensure that liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that are removed from service are evaluated and remediated through the CERCLA process. Five inactive LLLW tanks, designated T-1, T-2, T-3, T-4, and T-9, located at the Old Hydrofracture (OHF) Facility in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been evaluated and are now entering the remediation phase. As a precursor to final remediation, this project will remove the current liquid and sludge contents of each of the five tanks (System Requirements Document, Appendix A). It was concluded in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis [EE/CA] for the Old Hydrofracture Facility Tanks (DOE 1996) that sluicing and pumping the contaminated liquid and sludge from the five OHF tanks was the preferred removal action. Evaluation indicated that this alternative meets the removal action objective and can be effective, implementable, and cost-effective. Sluicing and removing the tank contents was selected because this action uses (1) applicable experience, (2) the latest information about technologies and techniques for removing the wastes from the tanks, and (3) activities that are currently acceptable for storage of transuranic (TRU) mixed waste.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REMOVAL OF PERTECHNETATE FROM TANK 241-AN-105 SIMULANT USING PUROLITE A530E  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This effort falls under the technetium management initiative and will provide data for those who will make decisions regarding the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort is to challenge Purolite{reg_sign} A530E against a double-shell tank simulant from tank 241-AN-105 spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is commercially available and is currently being used at the 200 West Pump and Treat Groundwater Treatment Plant to remove pertechnetate. It has been demonstrated that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is highly effective in removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from a water matrix. Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is the commercial product of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biquat{trademark} resin. Further work has demonstrated that technetium-loaded A530E achieves a leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.5 (RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine).

DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY KJ; MOORE WP; JOHNSON JM

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

56

EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. A study has been conducted to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. A select few of the top candidate eluants from the screening tests were subjected to actual sorption (loading) and elution tests to confirm their elution ability. The actual sorption (loading) and elution tests mimicked the typical sRF-cesium ion exchange process (i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution) via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. The eluants tested included ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, and nitric acid. Calcium acetate and magnesium acetate were substitutes for calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively due to corrosion concerns. Nitric acid was selected for benchmarking since it is the baseline cesium eluant for sRF resin. The cesium elution performance of ammonium carbonate and ammonium acetate was approximately the same as the benchmark eluant, nitric acid. Ninety-seven (97), 94, and 100% percent of the cesium sorbed or loaded were eluted by ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, and nitric acid was respectively. The performance of calcium acetate and magnesium acetate, on the other hand, was mediocre. Percent elution was 16 and 8 respectively.

Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

57

Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

LABORATORY REPORT ON THE REMOVAL OF PERTECHNETATE FROM TANK 241-AN-105 SIMULANT USING PUROLITE A530E  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the laboratory testing and analyses as directed under the test plan, LAB-PLN-11-00010, Evaluation of Technetium Ion Exchange Material against Hanford Double Shell Tank Supernate Simulate with Pertechnetate. Technetium (Tc-99) is a major fission product from nuclear reactors, and because it has few applications outside of scientific research, most of the technetium will ultimately be disposed of as nuclear waste. The radioactive decay of Tc-99 to ruthenium 99 (Ru-99) produces a low energy {beta}{sup -} particle (0.1 MeV max). However, due to its fairly long half-life (t{sub 1/2} = 2.13E05 years), Tc-99 is a major source of radiation in low-level waste (UCRL-JRNL-212334, Current Status of the Thermodynamic Data for Technetium and its Compounds and Aqueous Species). Technetium forms the soluble oxy anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup -} under aerobic conditions. This anion is very mobile in groundwater and poses a health risk (ANL, Radiological and Chemical Fact Sheets to Support Health Risk Analyses for Contaminated Areas). It has been demonstrated that Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is highly effective in removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} from a water matrix (RPP-RPT-23199, The Removal of Technetium-99 from the Effluent Treatment Facility Basin 44 Waste Using Purolite A-530E, Reillex HPQ, and Sybron IONAC SR-7 Ion Exchange Resins). Purolite{reg_sign} A530E is the commercial product of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Biquat{trademark} resin (Gu, B. et. ai, Development of Novel Bifunctional Anion-Exchange Resins with Improved Selectivity for Pertechnetate Sorption from Contaminated Groundwater). Further work has demonstrated that technetium-loaded A530E achieves a leachability index in Cast Stone of 12.5 (ANSI/ASN-16.1-2003, Measurement of the Leachability of Solidified Low-Level Radioactive Wastes by a Short-term Test Procedure) as reported in RPP-RPT-39195, Assessment of Technetium Leachability in Cement-Stabilized Basin 43 Groundwater Brine. This effort falls under the technetium management initiative and will provide data for those who will make decisions on the handling and disposition of technetium. To that end, the objective of this effort was to challenge Purolite{reg_sign} A530E against a double-shell tank (DST) simulant (tank 241-AN-105 or AN-105) spiked with pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to determine breakthrough of the lead column.

DUNCAN JB; HAGERTY KJ, MOORE WP; JOHNSON JM

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

59

RESULTS OF CESIUM MASS TRANSFER TESTING FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT WITH HANFORD WASTE SIMULANT AP-101  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRNL has performed an Extraction, Scrub, Strip (ESS) test using the next generation solvent and AP-101 Hanford Waste simulant. The results indicate that the next generation solvent (MG solvent) has adequate extraction behavior even in the face of a massive excess of potassium. The stripping results indicate poorer behavior, but this may be due to inadequate method detection limits. SRNL recommends further testing using hot tank waste or spiked simulant to provide for better detection limits. Furthermore, strong consideration should be given to performing an actual waste, or spiked waste demonstration using the 2cm contactor bank. The Savannah River Site currently utilizes a solvent extraction technology to selectively remove cesium from tank waste at the Multi-Component Solvent Extraction unit (MCU). This solvent consists of four components: the extractant - BoBCalixC6, a modifier - Cs-7B, a suppressor - trioctylamine, and a diluent, Isopar L{trademark}. This solvent has been used to successfully decontaminate over 2 million gallons of tank waste. However, recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided a basis to implement an improved solvent blend. This new solvent blend - referred to as Next Generation Solvent (NGS) - is similar to the current solvent, and also contains four components: the extractant - MAXCalix, a modifier - Cs-7B, a suppressor - LIX-79{trademark} guanidine, and a diluent, Isopar L{trademark}. Testing to date has shown that this 'Next Generation' solvent promises to provide far superior cesium removal efficiencies, and furthermore, is theorized to perform adequately even in waste with high potassium concentrations such that it could be used for processing Hanford wastes. SRNL has performed a cesium mass transfer test in to confirm this behavior, using a simulant designed to simulate Hanford AP-101 waste.

Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

2011-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

60

HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

BERRIOCHOA MV

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor 20-L demonstration test: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the proposed methods of removing the cesium, strontium, and transuranics from the radioactive waste storage tanks at Savannah River is the small-tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation process. A two-reactor-in-series (15-L working volume each) continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system was designed, constructed, and installed in a hot cell to test the Savannah River process. The system also includes two cross-flow filtration systems to concentrate and wash the slurry produced in the process, which contains the bulk of radioactivity from the supernatant processed through the system. Installation, operational readiness reviews, and system preparation and testing were completed. The first test using the filtration systems, two CSTRs, and the slurry concentration system was conducted over a 61-h period with design removal of Cs, Sr, and U achieved. With the successful completion of Test 1a, the following tests, 1b and 1c, were not required.

Lee, D.D.; Collins, J.L.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Cesium and Strontium Specific Exchangers for Nuclear Waste Effluent Remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the past 50 years, nuclear defense activities have produced large quantities of nuclear waste that now require safe and permanent disposal. The general procedure to be implemented involves the removal of cesium and strontium from the waste solutions for disposal in permanently vitrified media. This requires highly selective sorbents or ion exchangers. Further, at the high radiation doses present in the solution, organic exchangers or sequestrants are likely to decompose over time. Inorganic ion exchangers are resistant to radiation damage and can exhibit remarkably high selectivities. We have synthesized three families of tunnel-type ion exchangers. The crystal structures of these compounds as well as their protonated phases, coupled with ion exchange titrations, were determined and this information was used to develop an understanding of their ion exchange behavior. The ion exchange selectivities of these phases could be regulated by isomorphous replacement of the framework metals by larger or smaller radius metals. In the realm of layered compounds, we prepared alumina, silica, and zirconia pillared clays and sodium micas. The pillared clays yielded very high Kd values for Cs+ and were very effective in removing Cs+ from groundwaters. The sodium micas also had a high affinity for Cs+ but an even greater attraction for S42+. They also possess the property of trapping these ions permanently as the layers slowly decrease their interlayer distance as loading occurs. Sodium nonatitanate exhibited extremely high Kd values for Sr2+ in alkaline tank wastes and should be considered for removal of Sr2+ in such cases. For tank wastes containing complexing agents, we have found that adding Ca2+ to the solution releases the complexed Sr2+ which may then be removed with the CST exchanger.

A. Clearfield; A. I. Bortun; L. A. Bortun; E. A. Bhlume; P. Sylvester; G. M. Graziano

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Linking Cesium and Strontium Uptake to Kaolinite Weathering in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linking Cesium and Strontium Uptake to Kaolinite Weathering in Simulated Tank Waste Leachate J O N and Sr. Strontium sorption was nearly complete within 24 h for initial Sr concentrations (Sr0) e 10-3 to 2 Ã? 10-3 d-1 as Cs and Sr concentrations were increased from 10-5 to 10-3 M. Discrete strontium

Chorover, Jon

64

Cleaning Cesium Radionuclides from BN-350 Primary Sodium  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports the successful design and operation of a system to remove highly radioactive cesium from the sodium coolant of the BN-350 reactor in Aktau, Kazakhstan. As an international effort between the United States and the Republic of Kazakhstan, a cesium-trapping system was jointly designed, fabricated, installed, and successfully operated. The results are significant for a number of reasons, including (a) a significant reduction of radioactivity levels of the BN-350 coolant and reactor surfaces, thereby reducing exposure to workers during shutdown operations; (b) demonstration of scientific ideas; and (c) the engineering application of effective cesium trap deployment for commercial-sized liquid-metal reactors. About 255 300 GBq (6900 Ci) of cesium was trapped, and the {sup 137}Cs specific activity in BN-350 primary sodium was decreased from 296 MBq/kg (8000 {mu}Ci/kg) to 0.37 MBq/kg (10 {mu}Ci/kg) by using seven cesium traps containing reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) as the cesium adsorbent. Cesium trapping was accomplished by pumping sodium from the primary circuit, passing it through a block of RVC within each trap, and returning the cleaned sodium to the primary circuit. Both to predict and to analyze the behavior of the cesium traps in the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, a model was developed that satisfactorily describes the observed results of the cesium trapping. By using this model, thermodynamic parameters, such as the heat of adsorption of cesium atoms on RVC and on internal piping surfaces of the BN-350 reactor primary circuit, -22.7 and -5.0 kJ/mole, respectively, were extracted from the experimental data.

Romanenko, O.G.; Allen, K.J.; Wachs, D.M.; Planchon, H.P.; Wells, P.B.; Michelbacher, J.A.; Nazarenko, P.; Dumchev, I.; Maev, V.; Zemtzev, B.; Tikhomirov, L.; Yakovlev, V.; Synkov, A

2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. It is probable that tank 241-C-112 exceeds the 1,000 g-mol inventory criteria established for the Ferrocyanide USQ; however, extensive energetic analysis of the waste has determined a maximum exothermic value of -9 cal/g dry waste. This value is substantially below any levels of concern (-75 cal/g). In addition, an investigation of potential mechanisms to generate concentration levels of radionuclides high enough to be of concern was performed. No credible mechanism was postulated that could initiate the formation of such concentration levels in the tank. Tank 241-C-112 waste is a complex material made up primarily of water and inert salts. The insoluble solids are a mixture of phosphates, sulfates, and hydroxides in combination with aluminum, calcium, iron, nickel, and uranium. Disodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium cesium nickel ferrocyanide probably exist in the tank; however, there appears to have been significant degradation of this material since the waste was initially settled in the tank.

Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Cesium and Strontium Separation Technologies Literature Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Integral to the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) Program’s proposed closed nuclear fuel cycle, the fission products cesium and strontium in the dissolved spent nuclear fuel stream are to be separated and managed separately. A comprehensive literature survey is presented to identify cesium and strontium separation technologies that have the highest potential and to focus research and development efforts on these technologies. Removal of these high-heat-emitting fission products reduces the radiation fields in subsequent fuel cycle reprocessing streams and provides a significant short-term (100 yr) heat source reduction in the repository. This, along with separation of actinides, may provide a substantial future improvement in the amount of fuel that could be stored in a geologic repository. The survey and review of the candidate cesium and strontium separation technologies are presented herein. Because the AFCI program intends to manage cesium and strontium together, technologies that simultaneously separate both elements are of the greatest interest, relative to technologies that separate only one of the two elements.

T. A. Todd; T. A. Todd; J. D. Law; R. S. Herbst

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

PRELIMINARY REPORT ON EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL ELUANTS FOR NON-ACID ELUTION OF CESIUM FROM RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small-column ion exchange (SCIX) units installed in high-level waste tanks to remove Cs-137 from highly alkaline salt solutions are among the waste treatment plans in the DOE-complex. Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (sRF) is the ion exchange resin selected for use in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). It is also the primary ion exchange material under consideration for SCIX at the Hanford site. The elution step of the multi-step ion exchange process is typically done with 0.5 M nitric acid. An acid eluant is a potential hazard in the event of a spill, leak, etc. because the high-level waste tanks are made of carbon steel. Corrosion and associated structural damage may ensue. Studies are ongoing to explore non-acid elution as an alternative. Batch contact sorption equilibrium screening tests have been conducted with 36 potential non-acid eluants. The sorption tests involve equilibrating each cesium-containing eluant solution with the sRF resin for 48 hours at 25 C in a shaker oven. In the sorption tests, an eluant is deemed to have a high cesium elution potential if it minimizes cesium sorption onto the sRF resin. The top candidates (based on lowest cesium sorption distribution coefficients) include ammonium carbonate, ammonium carbonate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate, rubidium carbonate, ammonium acetate, ammonium acetate/ammonium hydroxide, ammonium bicarbonate/ammonium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and magnesium chloride. The next phase of testing for this work will focus on the following down selected eluants: Ammonium carbonate, ammonium acetate, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, nitric acid, and ammonium hydroxide. The next testing phase is a confirmation of the elution ability of the selected eluants. It will mimic a typical sRF cesium ion exchange process i.e., sorption or loading, caustic wash, water rinse, and elution via batch contact sorption and quasi column caustic wash/water rinse/elution. Due to corrosion concerns, calcium acetate and magnesium acetate will be tested instead of calcium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively. Nitric acid is for benchmarking since it is the baseline sRF eluant. The information at hand indicates ammonium hydroxide, while a weak base, may hold promise as an effective eluant. Hence, its inclusion among the eluants to be studied despite the fact that it was not tested as a stand-alone eluant earlier.

Adu-Wusu, K.; Pennebaker, F.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

INVESTIGATING SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A PILOT-SCALE WASTE TANK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending and resuspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is for the pumps to resuspend the MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles so that they can be removed from the tank, and to suspend the MST so it can contact strontium and actinides. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5, B3, and B1). Previous testing showed that three Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank, and to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST and CST that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 84% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (2) Three SMPs will be able to resuspend more than 99.9% of the MST, CST, and simulated sludge that has settled for four weeks at nominal 45 C. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 82% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (3) A contact time of 6-12 hours is needed for strontium sorption by MST in a jet mixed tank with cooling coils, which is consistent with bench-scale testing and actinide removal process (ARP) operation.

Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

69

EIS-0189: Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), Richland, WA (Programmatic)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This environmental impact statement evaluates the Department of Energy (DOE)'s, in cooperation with the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), decisions on how to properly manage and dispose of Hanford Site tank waste and encapsulated cesium and strontium to reduce existing and potential future risk to the public, Site workers, and the environment. The waste includes radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste currently stored in 177 underground storage tanks, approximately 60 other smaller active and inactive miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs), and additional Site waste likely to be added to the tank waste, which is part of the tank farm system. In addition, DOE proposes to manage and dispose of approximately 1,930 cesium and strontium capsules that are by-products of tank waste. The tank waste and capsules are located in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington.

70

Cesium Removal at Fukushima Nuclear Plant - 13215  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Great East Japan Earthquake that took place on March 11, 2011 created a number of technical challenges at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. One of the primary challenges involved the treatment of highly contaminated radioactive wastewater. Avantech Inc. developed a unique patent pending treatment system that addressed the numerous technical issues in an efficient and safe manner. Our paper will address the development of the process from concept through detailed design, identify the lessons learned, and provide the updated results of the project. Specific design and operational parameters/benefits discussed in the paper include: - Selection of equipment to address radionuclide issues; - Unique method of solving the additional technical issues associated with Hydrogen Generation and Residual Heat; - Operational results, including chemistry, offsite discharges and waste generation. Results show that the customized process has enabled the utility to recycle the wastewater for cooling and reuse. This technology had a direct benefit to nuclear facilities worldwide. (authors)

Braun, James L.; Barker, Tracy A. [Avantech Incorporated, 95A Sunbelt Blvd Columbia, SC 29203 (United States)] [Avantech Incorporated, 95A Sunbelt Blvd Columbia, SC 29203 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) funded Technology Development and Deployment (TDD) to solve technical problems associated with waste tank closure for sites such as Hanford Site and Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the tasks supported by this funding at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNNL) was In-Tank Elutriation. Elutriation is the process whereby physical separation occurs based on particle size and density. This report satisfies the first phase of Task WP_1.3.1.1 In-Tank Elutriation, which is to assess the feasibility of this method of separation in waste tanks at Hanford Site and SRS. This report includes an analysis of scoping tests performed in the Engineering Development Laboratory of SRNL, analysis of Hanford's inadvertent elutriation, the viability of separation methods such as elutriation and hydrocyclones and recommendations for a path forward. This report will demonstrate that the retrieval of Hanford salt waste tank S-112 very successfully decreased the tank's inventories of radionuclides. Analyses of samples collected from the tank showed that concentrations of the major radionuclides Cs-136 and Sr-90 were decreased by factors of 250 and 6 and their total curie tank inventories decreased by factors of 60,000 and 2000. The total tank curie loading decreased from 300,000 Ci to 55 Ci. The remaining heel was nearly all innocuous gibbsite, Al(OH){sub 3}. However, in the process of tank retrieval approximately 85% of the tank gibbsite was also removed. Significant amounts of money and processing time could be saved if more gibbsite could be left in tanks while still removing nearly all of the radionuclides. There were factors which helped to make the elutriation of Tank S-112 successful which would not necessarily be present in all salt tanks. 1. The gibbsite particles in the tank were surprisingly large, as much as 200 {micro}m. The gibbsite crystals had probably grown in size over a period of decades. 2. The radionuclides were apparently either in the form of soluble compounds, like cesium, or micrometer sized particles of actinide oxides or hydroxides. 3. After the initial tank retrieval the tank contained cobble which is not conducive to elutriation. Only after the tank contents were treated with thousands of gallons of 50 wt% caustic, were the solids converted to sand which is compatible with elutriation. Discussions between SRNL and PNNL resulted in plans to test elutriation in two phases; in Phase 1 particles would be separated by differences in settling velocity in an existing scaled tank with its associated hardware and in Phase 2 additional hardware, such as a hydrocyclone, would be added downstream to separate slow settling partciels from liquid. Phase 1 of in-tank elutriation was tested for Proof of Principle in theEngineering Development Laboratory of SRNL in a 41" diameter, 87 gallon tank. The tank had been previously used as a 1/22 scale model of Hanford Waste Tank AY-102. The objective of the testing was to determine which tank operating parameters achieved the best separation between fast- and slow-settling particles. For Phase 1 testing a simulated waste tank supernatant, slow-settling particles and fast-settling particles were loaded to the scaled tank. Because this was a Proof of Principle test, readily available solids particles were used that represented fast-settling and slow-settling particles. The tank contents were agitated using rotating mixer jet pumps (MJP) which suspended solids while liquids and solids were drawn out of the tank with a suction tube. The goal was to determine the optimum hydraulic operating conditions to achieve clean separation in which the residual solids in the tank were nearly all fast-settling particles and the solids transferred out of the tank were nearly all slow-settling particles. Tests were conducted at different pump jet velocities, suction tube diameters and suction tube elevations. Testing revealed that the most important variable was jet velocity which translates to a d

Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

72

Ion Exchange Studies for Removal of Sulfate from Hanford Tank Waste Envelope C (241-AN-107) Using SuperLig 655 Resin  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BNFL Inc. is evaluating various pretreatment technologies to mitigate the impacts of sulfate on the LAW vitrification system. One pretreatment technology for separating sulfate from LAW solutions involves the use of SuperLig{reg_sign} 655 (SL-655), a proprietary ion exchange material developed and supplied by IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT. This report describes testing of SL-655 with diluted ([Na] {approximately} 5 M) waste from Hanford Tank 241-AN-107 at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Division. Batch contact studies were conducted from 4 to 96 hours to determine the sulfate distribution coefficient and reaction kinetics. A small-scale ion exchange column test was conducted to evaluate sulfate removal, loading, breakthrough, and elution from the SL-655. In all of these tests, an archived 241-AN-107 tank waste sample (pretreated to remove Cs, Sr, and transuranics elements) was used. The experimental details and results are described in this report. Under the test conditions, SL-655 was found to have no significant ion exchange affinity for sulfate in this matrix. The batch contact study resulted in no measurable difference in the aqueous sulfate concentration following resin contact (K{sub d} {approximately} 0). The column test also demonstrated SL-655 had no practical affinity for sulfate in the tested matrix. Within experimental error, the sulfate concentration in the column effluent was equal to the concentration in the feed after passing 3 bed volumes of sample through the columns. Furthermore, some, if not all, of the decreased sulfate concentration in these first three column volumes of effluent can be ascribed to mixing and dilution of the 241-AN-107 feed with the interstitial liquid present in the column at the start of the loading cycle. Finally, ICP-AES measurements on the eluate solutions showed the presence of barium as soon as contact with the feed solution is completed. Barium is a metal not detected in the feed solution. Should the loss of barium be correlated with the resin's ability to selectively complex sulfate, then maintaining even the current limited resin characteristics for sulfate complexation over multiple cycles becomes questionable.

DE Kurath; JR Bontha; DL Blanchard; SK Fiskum; BM Rapko

2000-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

73

High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning and Field Characterization at the West Valley Demonstration Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is nearing completion of radioactive high-level waste (HLW) retrieval from its storage tanks and subsequent vitrification of the HLW into borosilicate glass. Currently, 99.5% of the sludge radioactivity has been recovered from the storage tanks and vitrified. Waste recovery of cesium-137 (Cs-137) adsorbed on a zeolite media during waste pretreatment has resulted in 97% of this radioactivity being vitrified. Approximately 84% of the original 1.1 x 1018 becquerels (30 million curies) of radioactivity was efficiently vitrified from July 1996 to June 1998 during Phase I processing. The recovery of the last 16% of the waste has been challenging due to a number of factors, primarily the complex internal structural support system within the main 2.8 million liter (750,000 gallon) HLW tank designated 8D-2. Recovery of this last waste has become exponentially more challenging as less and less HLW is available to mobilize and transfer to the Vitrification Facility. This paper describes the progressively more complex techniques being utilized to remove the final small percentage of radioactivity from the HLW tanks, and the multiple characterization technologies deployed to determine the quantity of Cs-137, strontium-90 (Sr-90), and alpha-transuranic (alpha-TRU) radioactivity remaining in the tanks.

Drake, J. L.; McMahon, C. L.; Meess, D. C.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

74

Recovery of cesium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process of recovering cesium ions from mixtures of ions containing them and other ions, e.g., a solution of nuclear waste materials, which comprises establishing a separate source phase containing such a mixture of ions, establishing a separate recipient phase, establishing a liquid membrane phase in interfacial contact with said source and recipient phases, said membrane phase containing a ligand, preferably a selected calixarene as depicted in the drawing, maintaining said interfacial contact for a period of time long enough to transport by said ligand a substantial portion of the cesium ion from the source phase to the recipient phase, and recovering the cesium ion from the recipient phase. The separation of the source and recipient phases may be by the membrane phase only, e.g., where these aqueous phases are emulsified as dispersed phases in a continuous membrane phase, or may include a physical barrier as well, e.g., an open-top outer container with an inner open-ended container of smaller cross-section mounted in the outer container with its open bottom end spaced from and above the closed bottom of the outer container so that the membrane phase may fill the outer container to a level above the bottom of the inner container and have floating on its upper surface a source phase and a recipient phase separated by the wall of the inner container as a physical barrier. A preferred solvent for the ligand is a mixture of methylene chloride and carbon tetrachloride.

Izatt, Reed M. (Provo, UT); Christensen, James J. (Provo, UT); Hawkins, Richard T. (Orem, UT)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Waste tank characterization sampling limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ``TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories`` (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel.

Tusler, L.A.

1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

76

ANALYSIS OF THE SALT FEED TANK CORE SAMPLE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) immobilizes and disposes of low-level radioactive and hazardous liquid waste (salt solution) remaining from the processing of radioactive material at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Low-level waste (LLW) streams from processes at SRS are stored in Tank 50 until the LLW can be transferred to the SPF for treatment and disposal. The Salt Feed Tank (SFT) at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) holds approximately 6500 gallons of low level waste from Tank 50 as well as drain water returned from the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. Over the past several years, Saltstone Engineering has noted the accumulation of solids in the SFT. The solids are causing issues with pump performance, agitator performance, density/level monitoring, as well as taking up volume in the tank. The tank has been sounded at the same location multiple times to determine the level of the solids. The readings have been 12, 25 and 15 inches. The SFT is 8.5 feet high and 12 feet in diameter, therefore the solids account for approximately 10 % of the tank volume. Saltstone Engineering has unsuccessfully attempted to obtain scrape samples of the solids for analysis. As a result, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with developing a soft core sampler to obtain a sample of the solids and to analyze the core sample to aid in determining a path forward for removing the solids from the SFT. The source of the material in the SFT is the drain water return system where excess liquid from the Saltstone disposal vaults is pumped back to the SFT for reprocessing. It has been shown that fresh grout from the vault enter the drain water system piping. Once these grout solids return to the SFT, they settle in the tank, set up, and can't be reprocessed, causing buildup in the tank over time. The composition of the material indicates that it is potentially toxic for chromium and mercury and the primary radionuclide is cesium-137. Qualitative measurements show that the material is not cohesive and will break apart with some force.

Reigel, M.; Cheng, W.

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

77

Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been determined that poorly crystalline CST and SNT prepared at low temperature (100-150 C) exhibit much faster kinetics in uptake of Sr2+. In-situ X-ray studies has shown that SNT is a precursor phase to the formation of CST. It is possible to form mixtures of CST and SNT in a single reactant mix by control of temperature and time of reaction. It has been found that addition of a small amount of Cs+ to the reactant mix for the preparation of Nb-CST allows formation of the crystals in one day rather than ten days at 200 C. These discoveries suggest that a proper mix of sorbents (SNT, CST, Nb-CST) can be made easily at low cost that would remove all the HLW at the Savannah River site with a single in-tank procedure. The basic science goal in this project is to identify structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The research will then apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

Clearfield, Abraham

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been determined that poorly crystalline CST and SNT prepared at low temperature (100-150 deg. C) exhibit much faster kinetics in uptake of Sr2+. 2. In-situ X-ray studies has shown that SNT is a precursor phase to the formation of CST. 3. It is possible to form mixtures of CST and SNT in a single reactant mix by control of temperature and time of reaction. 4. It has been found that addition of a small amount of Cs+ to the reactant mix for the preparation of Nb-CST allows formation of the crystals in one day rather than ten days at 200 deg. C. 5. These discoveries suggest that a proper mix of sorbents (SNT, CST, Nb-CST) can be made easily at low cost that would remove all the HLW at the Savannah River site with a single in-tank procedure. Research Objective The basic science goal in this project is to identify structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The research will then apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

Clearfield, Abraham

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Decontamination of Radioactive Cesium Released from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - 13277  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Peculiar binding of Cesium to the soil clay minerals remained the major obstacle for the immediate Cs-decontamination of soil and materials containing clay minerals like sludge. Experiments for the removal of Cesium from soil and ash samples from different materials were performed in the lab scale. For soil and sludge ash formed by the incineration of municipal sewage sludge, acid treatment at high temperature is effective while washing with water removed Cesium from ashes of plants or burnable garbage. Though total removal seems a difficult task, water-washing of wood-ash or garbage-ash at 40 deg. C removes >90% radiocesium, while >60% activity can be removed from soil and sludge-ash by acid washing at 95 deg. C. (authors)

Parajuli, Durga; Minami, Kimitaka; Tanaka, Hisashi; Kawamoto, Tohru [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)] [Nanosystem Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology - AIST (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Strontium and cesium release mechanisms during unsaturated flow through waste-weathered Hanford sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Plutonium from Simulated Hanford Tank-Waste Sludges. Separ.Containing Tank Waste at Hanford. Separ. Sci. Technol. 2005,T. B. , Sr/TRU Removal from Hanford High Level Waste. Separ.

Chang, H.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

West, B.; Waltz, R.

2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

82

Preliminary Evaluation of Cesium Distribution for Wet Sieving Process Planned for Soil Decontamination in Japan - 13104  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the purpose of decontaminating radioactive cesium from a huge amount of soil, which has been estimated to be 1.2x10{sup 8} m{sup 3} by excavating to a 5-cm depth from the surface of Fukushima Prefecture where a severe nuclear accident occurred at TEPCO's power generating site and has emitted a significant amount of radioactive materials, mainly radioactive cesium, a wet sieving process was selected as one of effective methods available in Japan. Some private companies have demonstrated this process for soil treatment in the Fukushima area by testing at their plants. The results were very promising, and a full-fledged application is expected to follow. In the present study, we spiked several aqueous samples containing soil collected from an industrial wet sieving plant located near our university for the recycling of construction wastes with non-radioactive cesium hydroxide. The present study provides scientific data concerning the effectiveness in volume reduction of the contaminated soil by a wet sieving process as well as the cesium distribution between the liquid phase and clay minerals for each sub-process of the full-scale one, but a simulating plant equipped with a process of coagulating sedimentation and operational safety fundamentals for the plant. Especially for the latter aspect, the study showed that clay minerals of submicron size strongly bind a high content of cesium, which was only slightly removed by coagulation with natural sedimentation (1 G) nor centrifugal sedimentation (3,700 G) and some of the cesium may be transferred to the effluent or recycled water. By applying ultracentrifugation (257,000 G), most of submicron clay minerals containing cesium was removed, and the cesium amount which might be transferred to the effluent or recycled water, could be reduced to less than 2.3 % of the original design by the addition of a cesium barrier consisting of ultracentrifugation or a hollow fiber membrane. (authors)

Enokida, Y.; Tanada, Y.; Hirabayashi, D. [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Engineering, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan); Sawada, K. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)] [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho Nagoya-shi, Aichi-ken, 4648603 (Japan)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

Brady, Patrick V. (Albuquerque, NM); Dwyer, Brian P. (Albuquerque, NM); Krumhansl, James L. (Albuquerque, NM); Chwirka, Joseph D. (Tijeras, NM)

2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

84

Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time.

Komarneni, Sridhar (Altoona, PA); Roy, Rustum (State College, PA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Process for cesium decontamination and immobilization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cesium can be selectively recovered from a nuclear waste solution containing cesium together with other metal ions by contact with a modified phlogopite which is a hydrated, sodium phlogopite mica. Once the cesium has entered the modified phlogopite it is fixed and can be safely stored for long periods of time. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Komarneni, S.; Roy, R.

1988-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

87

ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS SAMPLE ANALYSIS, CHEMICAL MODELING, AND FILTRATION EVALUATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Filtration within the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) currently limits the throughput in interim salt processing at the Savannah River Site. In this process, batches of salt solution with Monosodium Titanate (MST) sorbent are concentrated by crossflow filtration. The filtrate is subsequently processed to remove cesium in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) followed by disposal in saltstone grout. The concentrated MST slurry is washed and sent to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for vitrification. During recent ARP processing, there has been a degradation of filter performance manifested as the inability to maintain high filtrate flux throughout a multi-batch cycle. The objectives of this effort were to characterize the feed streams, to determine if solids (in addition to MST) are precipitating and causing the degraded performance of the filters, and to assess the particle size and rheological data to address potential filtration impacts. Equilibrium modelling with OLI Analyzer{sup TM} and OLI ESP{sup TM} was performed to determine chemical components at risk of precipitation and to simulate the ARP process. The performance of ARP filtration was evaluated to review potential causes of the observed filter behavior. Task activities for this study included extensive physical and chemical analysis of samples from the Late Wash Pump Tank (LWPT) and the Late Wash Hold Tank (LWHT) within ARP as well as samples of the tank farm feed from Tank 49H. The samples from the LWPT and LWHT were obtained from several stages of processing of Salt Batch 6D, Cycle 6, Batch 16.

Martino, C.; Herman, D.; Pike, J.; Peters, T.

2014-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

88

Tank waste remediation system fiscal year 1998 multi-year work plan WBS 1.1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The TWRS Project Mission is to manage and immobilize for disposal the Hanford Site radioactive tank waste and cesium (Cs)/strontium (Sr) capsules in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost-effective manner. The scope includes all activities needed to (1) resolve safety issues; (2) operate, maintain, and upgrade the tank farms and supporting infrastructure; (3) characterize, retrieve, pretreat, and immobilize the waste for disposal and tank farm closure; and (4) use waste minimization and evaporation to manage tank waste volumes to ensure that the tank capacities of existing DSTs are not exceeded. The TWRS Project is responsible for closure of assigned operable units and D&D of TWRS facilities.

Lenseigne, D.L., Westinghouse Hanford, Richland, WA

1997-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Ferrocyanide tank waste stability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove [sup 137]CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes.

Fowler, K.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation and use is described for polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.; Mason, C.F.V.; Rais, J.

1997-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

91

Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for separation of cesium and strontium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation and use of polymeric materials containing hydrophobic anions and plasticizers for extraction of cesium and strontium. The use of polymeric materials containing plasticizers which are solvents for hydrophobic anions such as derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide or tetraphenylborate which are capable of extracting cesium and strontium ions from aqueous solutions in contact with the polymeric materials, is described. The polymeric material may also include a synergistic agent for a given ion like polyethylene glycol or a crown ether, for removal of radioactive isotopes of cesium and strontium from solutions of diverse composition and, in particular, for solutions containing large excess of sodium nitrate.

Abney, Kent D. (30 San Juan St., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Kinkead, Scott A. (70 Canada Cir., Los Alamos, NM 87544); Mason, Caroline F. V. (148 Piedra Loop, Los Alamos, NM 87544); Rais, Jiri (Fr. Krizka 11, 17000 Praha 7, CZ)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery - 12507  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. Our discussion of the Tank Farms and Waste Feed Delivery will cover progress made to date with Base and Recovery Act funding in reducing the risk posed by tank waste and in preparing for the initiation of waste treatment at Hanford. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The underground storage tanks range in capacity from 55,000 gallons to more than 1 million gallons. The tanks were constructed with carbon steel and reinforced concrete. There are eighteen groups of tanks, called 'tank farms', some having as few as two tanks and others up to sixteen tanks. Between 1943 and 1964, 149 single-shell tanks were built at Hanford in the 200 West and East Areas. Heat generated by the waste and the composition of the waste caused an estimated 67 of these single-shell tanks to leak into the ground. Washington River Protection Solutions is the prime contractor responsible for the safe management of this waste. WRPS' mission is to reduce the risk to the environment that is posed by the waste. All of the pumpable liquids have been removed from the single-shell tanks and transferred to the double-shell tanks. What remains in the single-shell tanks are solid and semi-solid wastes. Known as salt-cakes, they have the consistency of wet beach sand. Some of the waste resembles small broken ice, or whitish crystals. Because the original pumps inside the tanks were designed to remove only liquid waste, other methods have been developed to reach the remaining waste. Access to the tank waste is through long, typically skinny pipes, called risers, extending out of the tanks. It is through these pipes that crews are forced to send machines and devices into the tanks that are used to break up the waste or push it toward a pump. These pipes range in size from just a few inches to just over a foot in diameter because they were never intended to be used in this manner. As part of the agreement regulating Hanford cleanup, crews must remove at least 99% of the material in every tank on the site, or at least as much waste that can be removed based on available technology. To date, seven single-shell tanks have been emptied, and work is underway in another 10 tanks in preparation for additional retrieval activities. Two barriers have been installed over single-shell tanks to prevent the intrusion of surface water down to the tanks, with additional barriers planned for the future. Single and double-shell tank integrity analyses are ongoing. Because the volume of the waste generated through plutonium production exceeded the capacity of the single-shell tanks, between 1968 and 1986 Hanford engineers built 28 double-shell tanks. These tanks were studied and made with a second shell to surround the carbon steel and reinforced concrete. The double-shell tanks have not leaked any of their waste. (authors)

Fletcher, Thomas; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Cesium heat-pipe thermostat  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J. [Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement, 100095, Beijing (China)] [Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement, 100095, Beijing (China); Yi, X. [China National South Aviation industry CO., LTD., 412002, Hunan (China)] [China National South Aviation industry CO., LTD., 412002, Hunan (China); Yu, Z. [Dalian Jinzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing, 116100, Liaoning (China)] [Dalian Jinzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing, 116100, Liaoning (China)

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

94

ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

NONE

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Selective Capture of Cesium and Thallium from Natural Waters...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Capture of Cesium and Thallium from Natural Waters and Simulated Wastes with Copper Ferrocyanide Functionalized Selective Capture of Cesium and Thallium from Natural Waters and...

96

Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium Halide/Copper...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium HalideCopper Photocathode. Enhanced Quantum Efficiency From Hybrid Cesium HalideCopper Photocathode. Abstract: The quantum efficiency of Cu...

97

Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-BY-104  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This characterization report summarizes the available information on the historical uses, current status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste contained in underground storage tank 241-BY-104. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-44-09. Tank 241-BY-104 is one of 12 single-shell tanks located in the BY-Tank Farm in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Tank 241-BY-104 entered service in the first quarter of 1950 with a transfer of metal waste from an unknown source. Through cascading, the tank was full of metal waste by the second quarter of 1951. The waste was sluiced in the second quarter of 1954. Uranium recovery (tributyl phosphate) waste was sent from tank 241-BY-107 during the second quarter of 1955 and from tank 241-BY-110 during the third quarter of 1955. Most of this waste was sent to a crib during the fourth quarter of 1955. During the third and fourth quarters of 1956 and the second and third quarters of 1957, the tank received waste from the in-plant ferrocyanide scavenging process (PFeCN2) from tanks 241-BY-106, -107, -108, and -110. This waste type is predicted to compose the bottom layer of waste currently in the tank. The tank received PUREX cladding waste (CWP) periodically from 1961 to 1968. Ion-exchange waste from cesium recovery operations was received from tank 241-BX-104 during the second and third quarters of 1968. Tank 241-BY-104 received evaporator bottoms waste from the in-tank solidification process that was conducted in the BY-Tank Farm 0247from tanks 241 -BY- 109 and 241 -BY- 1 12 from 1970 to 1974. The upper portion of tank waste is predicted to be composed of BY saltcake. Tank 241-BY-104 was declared inactive in 1977. Waste was saltwell pumped from the tank during the third quarter of 1982 and the fourth quarter of 1985. Table ES-1 and Figure ES-1 describe tank 241-BY-104 and its status. The tank has an operating capacity of 2,869 kL and presently contains an estimated 1,234 kL of noncomplexed waste. Of this total volume, 568 kL are estimated to be sludge and 666 kL are estimated to be saltcake. The Hanlon values are not used because they are inconsistent with waste surface level measurements, and they will not be updated until the tank level stabilizes and the new surface photos are taken. This report summarizes the collection and analysis of two rotary-mode core samples obtained in October and November 1995 and reported in the Final Report for Tank 241-BY-104, Rotary Mode Cores 116 and 117. Cores 116 and 117 were obtained from risers 5 and IIA, respectively. The sampling event was performed to satisfy the requirements listed in the following documents: Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective , Data Requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process, Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Organic Fuel Rich Tank Safety Issue, Test Plan for Samples from Hanford Waste Tanks 241-BY-103, BY-104, BY-105, BY-106, BY-108, BY-110, YY-103, U-105, U-107, U-108, and U-109.

Benar, C.J.

1996-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

98

Tank Closure Progress at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Tank Farm Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant progress has been made at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to empty, clean and close radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) Tank Farm Facility (TFF). The TFF includes eleven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) underground stainless steel storage tanks and four smaller, 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) stainless steel tanks, along with tank vaults, interconnecting piping, and ancillary equipment. The TFF tanks have historically been used to store a variety of radioactive liquid waste, including wastes associated with past spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Although four of the large storage tanks remain in use for waste storage, the other seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks and the four 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks have been emptied of waste, cleaned and filled with grout. A water spray cleaning system was developed and deployed to clean internal tank surfaces and remove remaining tank wastes. The cleaning system was effective in removing all but a very small volume of solid residual waste particles. Recent issuance of an Amended Record of Decision (ROD) in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act, and a Waste Determination complying with Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2005, has allowed commencement of grouting activities on the cleaned tanks. The first three 113.5-kL (30,000-gal) tanks were grouted in the Fall of 2006 and the fourth tank and the seven 1,135.6-kL (300,000-gal) tanks were filled with grout in 2007 to provide long-term stability. It is currently planned that associated tank valve boxes and interconnecting piping, will be stabilized with grout as early as 2008. (authors)

Quigley, K.D. [CH2M..WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Butterworth, St.W. [CH2M..WG Idaho, LLC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lockie, K.A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Demonstration of Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation Process Using Savannah River Site High Level Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the experimental effort to demonstrate the continuous precipitation of cesium from Savannah River Site High Level Waste using sodium tetraphenylborate. In addition, the experiments examined the removal of strontium and various actinides through addition of monosodium titanate.

Peters, T.B.

2001-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Dual Tank Fuel System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

Wagner, Richard William (Albion, NY); Burkhard, James Frank (Churchville, NY); Dauer, Kenneth John (Avon, NY)

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

102

Hanford Tank Farms Vadose Zone, Addendum to the T Tank Farm Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This addendum to the T Tank Farm Report (GJO-99-101-TARA, GJO-HAN-27) published in September 1999 incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging incorporates the results of high-rate and repeat logging activities along with shape factor analysis of the logging data. A high-rate logging system was developed and deployed in the T Tank Farm to measure cesium-137 concentration levels in high gamma flux zones where the spectral gamma logging system was unable to collect usable data because of high dead times and detector saturation. This report presents additional data and revised visualizations of subsurface contaminant distribution in the T Tank Farm at the DOE Hanford Site in the state of Washington.

Spatz, Robert

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Development of a Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous Separation of Strontium and Cesium from Acidic Solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A synergistic extraction solvent for the simultaneous removal of cesium and strontium from acidic solutions has been investigated. The extraction solvent consists of, 4,4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), and 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB modifier) in a branched aliphatic kerosene (Isopar® L). Extraction synergy for strontium was observed when DtBuCH18C6 was combined with the BOBCalixC6 cesium extractant solvent and Cs-7SB modifier or if the Cs-7SB modifier was substituted into the SREX (Strontium Extraction) solvent in place of TBP. The novel process extracted both cesium and strontium simultaneously from 1 M nitric acid solutions with distribution ratios of 8.8 and 7.7 for strontium and cesium, respectively, at ambient temperature. Distribution coefficients for cesium and strontium as a function of nitric acid concentration and temperature were also obtained with 0.5 M<[HNO3]<2.5 M giving favorable distribution ratios. This new process utilizing the combined solvent has been named the Fission Product Extraction Process (FPEX).

Catherine L. Riddle; John D. Baker; Jack D. Law; Christopher A. McGrath; David H. Meikrantz; Bruce J. Mincher; Dean R. Peterman; Terry A. Todd

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Sintered wire cesium dispenser photocathode  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photoelectric cathode has a work function lowering material such as cesium placed into an enclosure which couples a thermal energy from a heater to the work function lowering material. The enclosure directs the work function lowering material in vapor form through a low diffusion layer, through a free space layer, and through a uniform porosity layer, one side of which also forms a photoelectric cathode surface. The low diffusion layer may be formed from sintered powdered metal, such as tungsten, and the uniform porosity layer may be formed from wires which are sintered together to form pores between the wires which are continuous from the a back surface to a front surface which is also the photoelectric surface.

Montgomery, Eric J; Ives, R. Lawrence; Falce, Louis R

2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

105

Sample Results From The Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 7 Tank 21H Qualification Samples  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 7 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An ARP and several ESS tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP/MCU. No issues with the projected Salt Batch 7 strategy are identified, other than the presence of visible quantities of dark colored solids. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable 4 hour average decontamination factors for Pu and Sr of 3.22 and 18.4, respectively. The Four ESS tests also showed acceptable behavior with distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 15.96, 57.1, 58.6, and 65.6 for the MCU, cold blend, hot blend, and Next Generation Solvent (NGS), respectively. The predicted value for the MCU solvent was 13.2. Currently, there are no models that would allow a prediction of extraction behavior for the other three solvents. SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed. While no outstanding issues were noted, the presence of solids in the samples should be investigated in future work. It is possible that the solids may represent a potential reservoir of material (such as potassium) that could have an impact on MCU performance if they were to dissolve back into the feed solution. This salt batch is intended to be the first batch to be processed through MCU entirely using the new NGS-MCU solvent.

Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

106

Phenolic cation-exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear wate solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs/sup +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

Ebra, M.A.; Wallace, R.M.

1982-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

107

Phenolic cation exchange resin material for recovery of cesium and strontium  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A phenolic cation exchange resin with a chelating group has been prepared by reacting resorcinol with iminodiacetic acid in the presence of formaldehyde at a molar ratio of about 1:1:6. The material is highly selective for the simultaneous recovery of both cesium and strontium from aqueous alkaline solutions, such as, aqueous alkaline nuclear waste solutions. The organic resins are condensation polymers of resorcinol and formaldehyde with attached chelating groups. The column performance of the resins compares favorably with that of commercially available resins for either cesium or strontium removal. By combining Cs.sup.+ and Sr.sup.2+ removal in the same bed, the resins allow significant reduction of the size and complexity of facilities for processing nuclear waste.

Ebra, Martha A. (Aiken, SC); Wallace, Richard M. (Aiken, SC)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2010 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2010 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2009-00138, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2010, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2010 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 30, 31 and 32 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2010-00533, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2010, Waste Tanks 30, 31 and 32. A total of 5824 photographs were made and 1087 visual and video inspections were performed during 2010. Ten new leaksites at Tank 5 were identified in 2010. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.5. Ten leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. None of these new leaksites resulted in a release to the environment. The leaksites were documented during wall cleaning activities and the waste nodules associated with the leaksites were washed away. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tank 12 during waste removal activities.

West, B.; Waltz, R.

2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

109

Strategic Design and Optimization of Inorganic Sorbents for Cesium, Strontium and Actinides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The basic science goal in this project is to identify structure/affinity relationships for selected radionuclides and existing sorbents. The research will then apply this knowledge to the design and synthesis of sorbents that will exhibit increased cesium, strontium and actinide removal. The target problem focuses on the treatment of high-level nuclear wastes. The general approach can likewise be applied to non-radioactive separations.

Maginn, Edward J.

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A kinetic model for ion exchange between cesium and sodium using silico-titanates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

over this entire range of pH. This unique characteristic makes the TAMS material desirable. Two other available organic ion exchangers (carboxylic acid based resin and resorcinol formaldehyde resin) show some capability for cesium removal; however... et al. (1947) used this method successfully to predict their data with the phenol-formaldehyde resinous exchanger, Amberlite IR-1. Similarly, Nachod and Wood (1944) and Turse and Rieman (1961) found their data fitted quite well on both zeolites...

Nguyen, Luan Thanh

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Langerhans Lab Protocols Fish tank water changing protocol.docx written 11/26/12 by JW Page 1 of 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Langerhans Lab Protocols Fish tank water changing protocol.docx written 11/26/12 by JW Page 1 of 1 Fish Tank Water Changing Fry and tanks: 1. Remove air stone & lid, then take tank from shelf and place fry to make sure it matches # on tank label. 4. Use small (air stone size) plastic tubing to siphon

Langerhans, Brian

112

Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

113

Fire Safety Tests for Cesium-Loaded Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The results of initial fire safety tests on the SRF resin were documented in a previous report (WTP-RPT-218). The present report summarizes the results of additional tests performed by SwRI on the cesium-loaded SRF resin. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. The as-received SwRI report is attached to this report in the Appendix A. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the cesium-loaded SRF resin.

Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Peterson, Reid A.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Final Report for the Erosion-Corrosion Anaysis of Tank 241-AW-02E Feed Pump Pit Jumpers B-2 and 1-4 Removed from Service in 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final report summarizing the results in the examination of two pipe sections (jumpers) from the tank 241-AW-02E feed pump pit in the 241-AW tank farm. These pipe section samples consisted of jumper AW02E-WT-J-[B – 2] and jumper AW02E-WT-J-[1 – 4]. For the remainder of this report, these jumpers will be referred to as B – 2 and 1 – 4.

Page, Jason S.

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

115

Removal of 1,082-Ton Reactor Among Richland Operations Office...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

so the plant can be torn down. Nearly 2,000 capsules of highly radioactive cesium and strontium need to be removed from water-filled storage basins and placed in dry storage....

116

Phase Chemistry of Tank Sludge Residual Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of high level nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford, Washington and Savannah River, South Carolina. These tanks will eventually be emptied and decommissioned. This will leave a residue of sludge adhering to the interior tank surfaces that may contaminate nearby groundwaters with radionuclides and RCRA metals. Performance assessment (PA) calculations must be carried out prior to closing the tanks. This requires developing radionuclide release models from the sludges so that the PA calculations can be based on credible source terms. These efforts continued to be hindered by uncertainties regarding the actual nature of the tank contents and the distribution of radionuclides among the various phases. In particular, it is of vital importance to know what radionuclides are associated with solid sludge components. Experimentation on actual tank sludges can be difficult, dangerous and prohibitively expensive. The research funded under this grant for the past three years was intended to provide a cost-effective method for developing the needed radionuclide release models using non-radioactive artificial sludges. Insights gained from this work will also have more immediate applications in understanding the processes responsible for heel development in the tanks and in developing effective technologies for removing wastes from the tanks.

J.L. Krumhansl

2002-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

117

A systematic look at Tank Waste Remediation System privatization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program is to store, treat, immobilize, and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford radioactive tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost effective manner. Highly radioactive Hanford waste includes current and future tank waste plus the cesium and strontium capsules. In the TWRS program, as in other Department of Energy (DOE) clean-up activities, there is an increasing gap between the estimated funding required to enable DOE to meet all of its clean-up commitments and level of funding that is perceived to be available. Privatization is one contracting/management approach being explored by DOE as a means to achieve cost reductions and as a means to achieve a more outcome-oriented program. Privatization introduces the element of competition, a proven means of establishing true cost as well as achieving significant cost reduction.

Holbrook, J.H.; Duffy, M.A.; Vieth, D.L.; Sohn, C.L.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Slide 1  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Irradiation for Materials Research Resin Is Being Evaluated For Removing Cesium-137 From the High- Level Tank Waste Solutions * Hanford and Savannah River Sites * Removing the...

119

Vandose Zone Characterization Project at the Hanford Tank Farms: SX Tank Farm Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The SX Tank Farm is located in the southwest portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This tank farm consists of 15 single-shell tanks (SSTs), each with an individual capacity of 1 million gallons (gal). These tanks currently store high-level nuclear waste that was primarily generated from what was called the oxidation-reduction or {open_quotes}REDOX{close_quotes} process at the S-Plant facility. Ten of the 15 tanks are listed in Hanlon as {open_quotes}assumed leakers{close_quotes} and are known to have leaked various amounts of high-level radioactive liquid to the vadose zone sediment. The current liquid content of each tank varies, but the liquid from known leaking tanks has been removed to the extent possible. In 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Office (DOE-RL) requested the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO), Grand Junction, Colorado, to perform a baseline characterization of contamination in the vadose zone at all the SST farms with spectral gamma-ray logging of boreholes surrounding the tanks. The SX Tank Farm geophysical logging was completed, and the results of this baseline characterization are presented in this report.

Brodeur, J.R.; Koizumi, C.J.; Bertsch, J.F.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Iraq liquid radioactive waste tanks maintenance and monitoring program plan.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to develop a project management plan for maintaining and monitoring liquid radioactive waste tanks at Iraq's Al-Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center. Based on information from several sources, the Al-Tuwaitha site has approximately 30 waste tanks that contain varying amounts of liquid or sludge radioactive waste. All of the tanks have been non-operational for over 20 years and most have limited characterization. The program plan embodied in this document provides guidance on conducting radiological surveys, posting radiation control areas and controlling access, performing tank hazard assessments to remove debris and gain access, and conducting routine tank inspections. This program plan provides general advice on how to sample and characterize tank contents, and how to prioritize tanks for soil sampling and borehole monitoring.

Dennis, Matthew L.; Cochran, John Russell; Sol Shamsaldin, Emad (Iraq Ministry of Science and Technology)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

PCB extraction from ORNL tank WC-14 using a unique solvent  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the development work of the Engineering Development Section of the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for an organic extraction method for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from tank WC-14. Tank WC-14 is part of the ORNL liquid low-level radioactive tank waste system and does not meet new secondary containment and leak detection regulations. These regulations require the tank to be taken out of service, and remediated before tank removal. To remediate the tank, the PCBs must be removed; the tank contents can then be transferred to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks before final disposal. The solvent being used for the PCB extraction experiments is triethylamine, an aliphatic amine that is soluble in water below 60{degrees}F but insoluble in water above 90{degrees}F. This property will allow the extraction to be carried out under fully miscible conditions within the tank; then, after tank conditions have been changed, the solvent will not be miscible with water and phase separation will occur. Phase separation between sludge, water, and solvent will allow solvent (loaded with PCBs) to be removed from the tank for disposal. After removing the PCBs from the sludge and removing the sludge from the tank, administrative control of the tank can be transferred to ORNL`s Environmental Restoration Program, where priorities will be set for tank removal. Experiments with WC-14 sludge show that greater than 90% extraction efficiencies can be achieved with one extraction stage and that PCB concentration in the sludge can be reduced to below 2 ppm in three extractions. It is anticipated that three extractions will be necessary to reduce the PCB concentration to below 2 ppm during field applications. The experiments conducted with tank WC-14 sludge transferred less than 0.03% of the original alpha contamination and less than 0.002% of the original beta contamination.

Bloom, G.A.; Lucero, A.J.; Koran, L.J.; Turner, E.N.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution.

Dietz, Mark L. (Elmhurst, IL); Horwitz, E. Philip (Naperville, IL); Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX); Barrans, Jr., Richard E. (Downers Grove, IL); Rausch, David (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Composition and process for separating cesium ions from an acidic aqueous solution also containing other ions  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A crown ether cesium ion extractant is disclosed as is its synthesis. The crown ether cesium ion extractant is useful for the selective purification of cesium ions from aqueous acidic media, and more particularly useful for the isolation of radioactive cesium-137 from nuclear waste streams. Processes for isolating cesium ions from aqueous acidic media using the crown ether cesium extractant are disclosed as are processes for recycling the crown ether cesium extractant and processes for recovering cesium from a crown ether cesium extractant solution. 4 figs.

Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.; Bartsch, R.A.; Barrans, R.E. Jr.; Rausch, D.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Robotic Inspection System for Bulk Liquid Storage Tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) requires: drainage of the product; cleaning of the vessel with water or solvents; physical removal, collection and containment of petroleum and chemical waste residues, including the waste streams created by the cleaning...

Hartsell, D. R.; Hakes, K. J.

126

Small Waste Tank Sampling and Retrieval System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Test Reactor Area of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), four 1500-gal catch tanks were found to contain RCRAhazardous waste. A system was needed to obtain a representative sample of the liquid, as well as the hardpacked heels, and to ultimately homogenize and remove the tank contents for disposal. After surveying the available technologies, the AEA Fluidic Pulse Mixing and Retrieval System was chosen for a technology demonstration. A demonstration, conducted with nonhazardous surrogate material, proved that the system was capable of loosening the hard-packed heel, homogenizing the entire tank contents, and collecting a representative sample. Based on the success of the demonstration, a detailed evaluation was done to determine the applicability of the system to other tanks. The evaluation included the sorting of data on more than 700 tanks to select candidates for further deployment of the system. A detailed study was also done to determine if the purchase of a second system would be cost effective. The results of the evaluation indicated that a total of thirteen tanks at the INEEL are amenable to sampling and/or remediation using the AEA Fluidic Pulse Mixing and Retrieval System. Although the currently-owned system appears sufficient for the needs of one INEEL program, it is insufficient to meet the combined needs at the INEEL. The INEEL will commence operation of the system on the TRA-730 Catch Tank System in June 2002.

Magleby, Mary Theresa

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Completion of the Operational Closure of Tank 18F and Tank 19F at the Savannah River Site by Grouting - 13236  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radioactive waste is stored in underground waste tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The low-level fraction of the waste is immobilized in a grout waste form, and the high level fraction is disposed of in a glass waste form. Once the waste is removed, the tanks are prepared for closure. Operational closure of the tanks consists of filling with grout for the purpose of chemically stabilizing residual material, filling the tank void space for long-term structural stability, and discouraging future intrusion. Two of the old-style single-shell tanks at the SRS have received regulatory approval confirming waste removal had been completed, and have been stabilized with grout as part of completing operational closure and removal from service. Consistent with the regulatory framework, two types of grout were used for the filling of Tanks 18F and 19F. Reducing grout was used to fill the entire volume of Tanks 18F and 19F (bulk fill grout) and a more flowable grout was used to fill equipment that was left in the tank (equipment fill grout). The reducing grout was added to the tanks using portable grout pumps filled from concrete trucks, and delivered the grout through slick lines to the center riser of each tank. Filling of the two tanks has been completed, and all equipment has been filled. The final capping of riser penetrations brings the operation closure of Tanks 18F and 19F to completion. (authors)

Tisler, Andrew J. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

DEMONSTRATION OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION SOLVENT WITH 2-CM CENTRIGUGAL CONTRACTORS USING TANK 49H WASTE AND WASTE SIMULANT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet using MaxCalix for the decontamination of high level waste (HLW). The demonstration was completed using a 12-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This represents the first CSSX process demonstration of the MaxCalix solvent system with Savannah River Site (SRS) HLW. Two tests lasting 24 and 27 hours processed non-radioactive simulated Tank 49H waste and actual Tank 49H HLW, respectively. A solvent extraction system for removal of cesium from alkaline solutions was developed utilizing a novel solvent invented at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This solvent consists of a calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant dissolved in an inert hydrocarbon matrix. A modifier is added to the solvent to enhance the extraction power of the calixarene and to prevent the formation of a third phase. An additional additive is used to improve stripping performance and to mitigate the effects of any surfactants present in the feed stream. The process that deploys this solvent system is known as Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). The solvent system has been deployed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in the Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) since 2008.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Pak, D.; Fink, S.; Blessing, R.; Washington, A.; Caldwell, T.

2011-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

129

Septic Tanks (Oklahoma)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A license from the Department of Environmental Quality is required for cleaning or pumping of septic tanks or holding tanks and disposing of sewage or septage. The rules for the license are...

130

Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105.

Carpenter, B.C.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Tank 241-T-111 tank characterization plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-T-111.

Homi, C.S.

1995-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

132

Functional design criteria, Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the technical baseline for retrieval of waste from ten double-shell tanks in the SY, AN, AP, AW, AY, and AZ tank farms. In order to retrieve waste from these tanks, systems are needed to mix the sludge with the supernate and pump the waste mixture from the tank. For 101-SY, the existing mitigation pump will be used to mix the waste and Project W-211 will provide for waste removal. The retrieval scope for the other nine tanks includes both the waste mixing and removal functions.

Rieck, C.A.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

133

DIESEL FUEL TANK FOUNDATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this analysis is to design structural foundations for the Diesel Fuel Tank and Fuel Pumps.

M. Gomez

1995-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

134

Cesium titanium silicate and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs.sub.2 Ti.sub.2 Si.sub.4 O.sub.13 pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs.sub.2 O and TiO.sub.2 loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO.sub.2 and Cs.sub.2 that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass.

Balmer, Mari L. (West Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Cesium titanium silicate and method of making  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is the new material, a ternary compound of cesium, silica, and titania, together with a method of making the ternary compound, cesium titanium silicate pollucite. More specifically, the invention is Cs{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 13} pollucite which is a new crystalline phase representing a novel class of Ti-containing zeolites. Compositions contain relatively high Cs{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2} loadings and are durable glass and ceramic materials. The amount of TiO{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2} that can be incorporated into these glasses and crystalline ceramics far exceeds the limits set for the borosilicate high level waste glass. 10 figs.

Balmer, M.L.

1997-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

136

TANK 4 CHARACTERIZATION, SETTLING, AND WASHING STUDIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sample of PUREX sludge from Tank 4 was characterized, and subsequently combined with a Tank 51 sample (Tank 51-E1) received following Al dissolution, but prior to a supernate decant by the Tank Farm, to perform a settling and washing study to support Sludge Batch 6 preparation. The sludge source for the majority of the Tank 51-E1 sample is Tank 12 HM sludge. The Tank 51-E1 sample was decanted by SRNL prior to use in the settling and washing study. The Tank 4 sample was analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. The characterization of the Tank 51-E1 sample, used here in combination with the Tank 4 sample, was reported previously. SRNL analyses on Tank 4 were requested by Liquid Waste Engineering (LWE) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLE-TTR-2009-103. The sample preparation work is governed by Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), and analyses were controlled by an Analytical Study Plan and modifications received via customer communications. Additional scope included a request for a settling study of decanted Tank 51-E1 and a blend of decanted Tank 51-E1 and Tank 4, as well as a washing study to look into the fate of undissolved sulfur observed during the Tank 4 characterization. The chemistry of the Tank 4 sample was modeled with OLI Systems, Inc. StreamAnalyzer to determine the likelihood that sulfate could exist in this sample as insoluble Burkeite (2Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}). The OLI model was also used to predict the composition of the blended tank materials for the washing study. The following conclusions were drawn from the Tank 4 analytical results reported here: (1) Any projected blend of Tank 4 and the current Tank 51 contents will produce a SB6 composition that is lower in Ca and U than the current SB5 composition being processed by DWPF. (2) Unwashed Tank 4 has a relatively large initial S concentration of 3.68 wt% on a total solids basis, and approximately 10% of the total S is present as an insoluble or undissolved form. (3) There is 19% more S than can be accounted for by IC sulfate measurement. This additional soluble S is detected by ICP-AES analysis of the supernate. (4) Total supernate and slurry sulfur by ICP-AES should be monitored during washing in addition to supernate sulfate in order to avoid under estimating the amount of sulfur species removed or remaining in the supernate. (5) OLI simulation calculations show that the presence of undissolved Burkeite in the Tank 4 sample is reasonable, assuming a small difference in the Na concentration that is well within the analytical uncertainties of the reported value. The following conclusions were drawn from the blend studies of Tank 4 and decanted Tank 51-E1: (1) The addition of Tank 4 slurry to a decanted Tank 51-E1 sample significantly improved the degree and time for settling. (2) The addition of Tank 4 slurry to a decanted Tank 51-E1 sample significantly improved the plastic viscosity and yield stress. (3) The SRNL washing test, where nearly all of the wash solution was decanted from the solids, indicates that approximately 96% or more of the total S was removed from the blend in these tests, and the removal of the sulfur tracks closely with that of Na. Insoluble (undissolved) S remaining in the washed sludge was calculated from an estimate of the final slurry liquid fraction, the S result in the slurry digestion, and the S in the final decant (which was very close to the method detection limit). Based on this calculated result, about 4% of the initial total S remained after these washes; this amount is equivalent to about 18% of the initially undissolved S.

Bannochie, C.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Zamecnik, J.

2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

137

Removal of radioactive and other hazardous material from fluid waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hollow glass microspheres obtained from fly ash (cenospheres) are impregnated with extractants/ion-exchangers and used to remove hazardous material from fluid waste. In a preferred embodiment the microsphere material is loaded with ammonium molybdophosphonate (AMP) and used to remove radioactive ions, such as cesium-137, from acidic liquid wastes. In another preferred embodiment, the microsphere material is loaded with octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) and used to remove americium and plutonium from acidic liquid wastes.

Tranter, Troy J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Knecht, Dieter A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Burchfield, Larry A. (W. Richland, WA); Anshits, Alexander G. (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Vereshchagina, Tatiana (Krasnoyarsk, RU); Tretyakov, Alexander A. (Zheleznogorsk, RU); Aloy, Albert S. (St. Petersburg, RU); Sapozhnikova, Natalia V. (St. Petersburg, RU)

2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

138

THE RETRIEVAL KNOWLEDGE CENTER EVALUATION OF LOW TANK LEVEL MIXING TECHNOLOGIES FOR DOE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK RETRIEVAL 10516  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) Complex has over two-hundred underground storage tanks containing over 80-million gallons of legacy waste from the production of nuclear weapons. The majority of the waste is located at four major sites across the nation and is planned for treatment over a period of almost forty years. The DOE Office of Technology Innovation & Development within the Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) sponsors technology research and development programs to support processing advancements and technology maturation designed to improve the costs and schedule for disposal of the waste and closure of the tanks. Within the waste processing focus area are numerous technical initiatives which included the development of a suite of waste removal technologies to address the need for proven equipment and techniques to remove high level radioactive wastes from the waste tanks that are now over fifty years old. In an effort to enhance the efficiency of waste retrieval operations, the DOE-EM Office of Technology Innovation & Development funded an effort to improve communications and information sharing between the DOE's major waste tank locations as it relates to retrieval. The task, dubbed the Retrieval Knowledge Center (RKC) was co-lead by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with core team members representing the Oak Ridge and Idaho sites, as well as, site contractors responsible for waste tank operations. One of the greatest challenges to the processing and closure of many of the tanks is complete removal of all tank contents. Sizeable challenges exist for retrieving waste from High Level Waste (HLW) tanks; with complications that are not normally found with tank retrieval in commercial applications. Technologies currently in use for waste retrieval are generally adequate for bulk removal; however, removal of tank heels, the materials settled in the bottom of the tank, using the same technology have proven to be difficult. Through the RKC, DOE-EM funded an evaluation of adaptable commercial technologies that could assist with the removal of the tank heels. This paper will discuss the efforts and results of developing the RKC to improve communications and discussion of tank waste retrieval through a series of meetings designed to identify technical gaps in retrieval technologies at the DOE Hanford and Savannah River Sites. This paper will also describe the results of an evaluation of commercially available technologies for low level mixing as they might apply to HLW tank heel retrievals.

Fellinger, A.

2009-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

139

TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR SRS RADIOACTIVE TANK OPERATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of the present work is to perform a heat balance study for type-I waste tank to assess the impact of using submersible mixer pumps during waste removal. The temperature results calculated by the model will be used to evaluate the temperatures of the slurry waste under various tank operating conditions. A parametric approach was taken to develop a transient model for the heat balance study for type-I waste tanks such as Tank 11, during waste removal by SMP. The tank domain used in the present model consists of two SMP?s for sludge mixing, one STP for the waste removal, cooling coil system with 36 coils, and purge gas system. The sludge waste contained in Tank 11 also has a decay heat load of about 43 W/m{sup 3} mainly due to the emission of radioactive gamma rays. All governing equations were established by an overall energy balance for the tank domain, and they were numerically solved. A transient heat balance model used single waste temperature model, which represents one temperature for the entire waste liquid domain contained in the tank at each transient time.

Lee, S.

2013-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

140

HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK CLOSURE PROJECT AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is in the process of closing two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 1.14 million liter (300,000 gallon) tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities. The basic tank closure sequence is as follows: Empty the tank to the residual heel using the existing jets; Video and sample the heel; Replace steam jets with new jet at a lower position in the tank, and remove additional material; Flush tank, piping and secondary containment with demineralized water; Video and sample the heel; Evaluate decontamination effectiveness; Displace the residual heel with multiple placements of grout; and Grout piping, vaults and remaining tank volume. Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in June 2002. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system is cost-effective since it also utilizes existing waste transfer technology (steam jets), to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank -specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has cleaned tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. Design, development, and testing of tank grouting delivery equipment were completed in October 2002. The system incorporates lessons learned from closures at other DOE facilities. The grout will be used to displace the tank residuals remaining after the cleaning is complete. To maximize heel displacement to the discharge pump, grout was placed in a sequence of five positions utilizing two riser locations. The project is evaluating the use of six positions to optimize the residuals removed. After the heel has been removed and the residuals stabilized, the tank, piping, and secondary containment will be grouted.

Quigley, K.D.; Wessman, D

2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

USE OF AN EQUILIBRIUM MODEL TO FORECAST DISSOLUTION EFFECTIVENESS, SAFETY IMPACTS, AND DOWNSTREAM PROCESSABILITY FROM OXALIC ACID AIDED SLUDGE REMOVAL IN SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS 1-15  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This thesis details a graduate research effort written to fulfill the Magister of Technologiae in Chemical Engineering requirements at the University of South Africa. The research evaluates the ability of equilibrium based software to forecast dissolution, evaluate safety impacts, and determine downstream processability changes associated with using oxalic acid solutions to dissolve sludge heels in Savannah River Site High Level Waste (HLW) Tanks 1-15. First, a dissolution model is constructed and validated. Coupled with a model, a material balance determines the fate of hypothetical worst-case sludge in the treatment and neutralization tanks during each chemical adjustment. Although sludge is dissolved, after neutralization more is created within HLW. An energy balance determines overpressurization and overheating to be unlikely. Corrosion induced hydrogen may overwhelm the purge ventilation. Limiting the heel volume treated/acid added and processing the solids through vitrification is preferred and should not significantly increase the number of glass canisters.

KETUSKY, EDWARD

2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield Mechanism. Effects of Cesium Cations in Lithium Deposition via Self-Healing Electrostatic Shield...

143

Development of Technologies for the Simultaneous Separation of Cesium and Strontium from Spent Nuclear Fuel as Part of an Advanced Fuel Cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, two solvent extraction technologies are being developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel. The first process utilizes a solvent consisting of chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol extractants in a phenyltrifluoromethyl sulfone diluent. Recent improvements to the process include development of a new, non-nitroaromatic diluent and development of new stripping reagents, including a regenerable strip reagent that can be recovered and recycled. Countercurrent flowsheets have been designed and tested on simulated and actual spent nuclear fuel feed streams with both cesium and strontium removal efficiencies of greater than 99 %. The second process developed to simultaneously separate cesium and strontium from spent nuclear fuel is based on two highly-specific extractants: 4,4',(5')-Di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and Calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6). The DtBuCH18C6 extractant is selective for strontium and the BOBCalixC6 extractant is selective for cesium. A solvent composition has been developed that enables both elements to be removed together and, in fact, a synergistic effect was observed with strontium distributions in the combined solvent that are much higher that in the strontium extraction (SREX) process. Initial laboratory test results of the new combined cesium and strontium extraction process indicate good extraction and stripping performance. A flowsheet for treatment of spent nuclear fuel is currently being developed.

Jack D. Law; R. Scott HErbst; David H. Meikrantz; Dean R. Peterman; Catherine L. Riddle; Richard D. Tillotson; Terry A. Todd

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of sludge and the level of dilution for the mixture. (5) Blending the size-reduced zeolite into larger quantities of sludge can reduce the amount of preferential settling. (6) Periodic dilution or resuspension due to sludge washing or other mixing requirements will increase the chances of preferential settling of the zeolite solids. (7) Mixtures of Purex sludge and size-reduced zeolite did not produce yield stresses greater than 200 Pascals for settling times less than thirty days. Most of the sludge-zeolite blends did not exceed 50 Pascals. These mixtures should be removable by current pump technology if sufficient velocities can be obtained. (8) The settling rate of the sludge-zeolite mixtures is a function of the ionic strength (or supernate density) and the zeolite- sludge mixing ratio. (9) Simulant tests indicate that leaching of Si may be an issue for the processed Tank 19 mound material. (10) Floating zeolite fines observed in water for the jet-eductor system and size-reduced zeolite were not observed when the size-reduced zeolite was blended with caustic solutions, indicating that the caustic solutions cause the fines to agglomerate. Based on the test programs described in this report, the potential for successfully removing Tank 18/19 mound material from Tank 7 with the current slurry pump technology requires the reduction of the particle size of the Tank 18/19 mound material.

Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

2007-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

146

Immobilization of Cesium Traps from the BN-350 Fast Reactor (Aktau, Kazakhstan)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During BN-350 reactor operations and also during the initial stages of decommissioning, cesium traps were used to decontaminate the reactor’s primary sodium coolant. Two different types of carbon-based trap were used – the MAVR series, low ash granulated graphite adsorber (LAG) contained in a carrier designed to be inserted into the reactor core during shutdown; and a series of ex-reactor trap accumulators(TAs) which used reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) to reduce Cs-137 levels in the sodium after final reactor shutdown. In total four MAVRs and seven TAs were used at BN-350 to remove an estimated cumulative 755 TBq of cesium. The traps, which also contain residual sodium, need to be immobilized in an appropriate way to allow them to be consigned as waste packages for long term storage and, ultimately, disposal. The present paper reports on the current status of the implementation phase, with particular reference to the work done to date on the trap accumulators, which have the most similarity with the cesium traps used at other reactors.

J. A. Michelbacher; C. Knight; O. G. Romanenko; I. L. Tazhibaeva; I. L. Yakovlev; A. V. Rovneyko; V. I. Maev; D. Wells; A. Herrick

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased.

Lee, Kearn P. [AREVA Federal Services LLC (United States); Thien, Michael G. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

148

RECENT PROGRESS IN DOE WASTE TANK CLOSURE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The USDOE complex currently has over 330 underground storage tanks that have been used to process and store radioactive waste generated from the production of weapons materials. These tanks contain over 380 million liters of high-level and low-level radioactive waste. The waste consists of radioactively contaminated sludge, supernate, salt cake or calcine. Most of the waste exists at four USDOE locations, the Hanford Site, the Savannah River Site, the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center and the West Valley Demonstration Project. A summary of the DOE tank closure activities was first issued in 2001. Since then, regulatory changes have taken place that affect some of the sites and considerable progress has been made in closing tanks. This paper presents an overview of the current regulatory changes and drivers and a summary of the progress in tank closures at the various sites over the intervening six years. A number of areas are addressed including closure strategies, characterization of bulk waste and residual heel material, waste removal technologies for bulk waste, heel residuals and annuli, tank fill materials, closure system modeling and performance assessment programs, lessons learned, and external reviews.

Langton, C

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700 C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite. 3 figs.

Pereira, C.

1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for immobilizing waste chlorides salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal, and in particular, a method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing cesium, in a synthetic form of pollucite. The method for synthesizing pollucite from chabazite and cesium chloride includes mixing dry, non-aqueous cesium chloride with chabazite and heating the mixture to a temperature greater than the melting temperature of the cesium chloride, or above about 700.degree. C. The method further comprises significantly improving the rate of retention of cesium in ceramic products comprised of a salt-loaded zeolite by adding about 10% chabazite by weight to the salt-loaded zeolite prior to conversion at elevated temperatures and pressures to the ceramic composite.

Pereira, Candido (Naperville, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Single-Shell Tanks Leak Integrity Elements/ SX Farm Leak Causes and Locations - 12127  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-91F Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal 1-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX- 111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and dry-wells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to leak detection. In-tank parameters can include temperature of the supernatant and sludge, types of waste, and chemical determination by either transfer or sample analysis. Ex-tank information can be assembled from many sources including design media, construction conditions, technical specifications, and other sources. Five conditions may have contributed to SX Farm tank liner failure including: tank design, thermal shock, chemistry-corrosion, liner behavior (bulging), and construction temperature. Tank design did not apparently change from tank to tank for the SX Farm tanks; however, there could be many unknown variables present in the quality of materials and quality of construction. Several significant SX Farm tank design changes occurred from previous successful tank farm designs. Tank construction occurred in winter under cold conditions which could have affected the ductile to brittle transition temperature of the tanks. The SX Farm tanks received high temperature boiling waste from REDOX which challenged the tank design with rapid heat up and high temperatures. All eight of the leaking SX Farm tanks had relatively high rate of temperature rise. Supernatant removal with subsequent nitrate leaching was conducted in all but three of the eight leaking tanks prior to leaks being detected. It is possible that no one characteristic of the SX Farm tanks could in isolation from the others have resulted in failure. However, the application of so many stressors - heat up rate, high temperature, loss of corrosion protection, and tank design working jointly or serially resulted in their failure. Thermal shock coupled with the tank design, construction conditions, and nitrate leaching seem to be the overriding factors that can lead to tank liner failure. The distinction between leaking and sound SX Farm tanks seems to center on the waste types, thermal conditions, and nitrate leaching. (authors)

Girardot, Crystal [URS- Safety Management Solutions, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Harlow, Don [ELR Consulting Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Venetz, Theodore; Washenfelder, Dennis [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Johnson, Jeremy [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-9IF Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal I-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and drywells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to leak detection. In-tank parameters can include temperature of the supernatant and sludge, types of waste, and chemical determination by either transfer or sample analysis. Ex-tank information can be assembled from many sources including design media, construction conditions, technical specifications, and other sources. Five conditions may have contributed to SX Farm tank liner failure including: tank design, thermal shock, chemistry-corrosion, liner behavior (bulging), and construction temperature. Tank design did not apparently change from tank to tank for the SX Farm tanks; however, there could be many unknown variables present in the quality of materials and quality of construction. Several significant SX Farm tank design changes occurred from previous successful tank farm designs. Tank construction occurred in winter under cold conditions which could have affected the ductile to brittle transition temperature of the tanks. The SX Farm tanks received high temperature boiling waste from REDOX which challenged the tank design with rapid heat up and high temperatures. All eight of the leaking SX Farm tanks had relatively high rate of temperature rise. Supernatant removal with subsequent nitrate leaching was conducted in all but three of the eight leaking tanks prior to leaks being detected. It is possible that no one characteristic of the SX Farm tanks could in isolation from the others have resulted in failure. However, the application of so many stressors - heat up rate, high temperature, loss of corrosion protection, and tank design - working jointly or serially resulted in their failure. Thermal shock coupled with the tank design, construction conditions, and nitrate leaching seem to be the overriding factors that can lead to tank liner failure. The distinction between leaking and sound SX Farm tanks seems to center on the waste types, thermal conditions, and nitrate leaching.

VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

153

Analysis of ammonium sulfate circulation tank failure -- Possible causes and their remediation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acme steel manufactures a liquid solution of ammonium sulphate by scrubbing the coke oven gas with a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. When the bath reaches a predetermined specific gravity, it is isolated from the system, neutralized with aqua ammonia, pumped to the shipping tanks, re-charged with water and acid, then placed back in service. To improve the ammonia removal efficiency, three circulation tanks are used in this system. In June 1996, the volume of two of the sulfate solution tanks in the ammonia removal plant were increased by two different pressure events. The first tank was damaged by pressure that was not relieved due to a plugged vent line. The second tank was damaged by a pressure event generated during the process of making ammonium sulfate. This paper will discuss the cause of the second tank`s failure, and the design solution to restart the operation of the plant.

O`Hearn, R.J. [Acme Steel, Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

154

Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

Poirier, Michael R.

2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

155

Integral cesium reservoir: Design and transient operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An electrically heated thermionic converter has been designed built and successfully tested in air (Homer et.al., 1995). One of the unique features of this converter was an integral cesium reservoir thermally coupled to the emitter. The reservoir consisted of fifteen cesiated graphite pins located in pockets situated in the emitter lead with thermal coupling to the emitter, collector and the emitter terminal; there were no auxiliary electric heaters on the reservoir. Test results are described for conditions in which the input thermal power to the converter was ramped up and down between 50% and 100% of full power in times as short as 50 sec, with data acquisition occurring every 12 sec. During the ramps the emitter and collector temperature profiles. the reservoir temperature and the electric output into a fixed load resistor are reported. The converter responded promptly to the power ramps without excessive overshoot and with no tendency to develop instabilities. This is the rust demonstration of the performance of a cesium-graphite integral reservoir in a fast transient

Smith, J.N. Jr.; Horner, M.H.; Begg, L.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wrobleski, W.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., West Mifflin, PA (United States). Bettis Atomic Power Lab.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 6 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from comparable samples in Macrobatch 5. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous macrobatch. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST in ARP continues to occur. Both the CST and CWT samples indicate that the target Free OH value of 0.03 has been surpassed. While at this time there is no indication that this has caused an operational problem, the CST should be adjusted into specification. The {sup 137}Cs results from the SRNL as well as F/H lab data indicate a potential decline in cesium decontamination factor. Further samples will be carefully monitored to investigate this.

Peters, T. B.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

OXALATE MASS BALANCE DURING CHEMICAL CLEANING IN TANK 6F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRR personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 6F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate. Some conclusions from this work are: (1) Approximately 65% of the oxalate added as oxalic acid was removed with the decanted liquid. (2) Approximately 1% of the oxalate (added to the tank as oxalic acid) formed precipitates with compounds such as nickel, manganese, sodium, and iron (II), and was dissolved with nitric acid. (3) As much as 30% of the oxalate may have decomposed forming carbon dioxide. The balance does not fully account for all the oxalate added. The offset represents the combined uncertainty in the analyses and sampling.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

158

Ferrocyanide tank waste stability. Supplement 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford Site during the mid to late 1950s as a result of efforts to create more tank space for the storage of high-level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed to remove {sup 137}CS from existing waste and newly generated waste that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in Hanford Site waste tanks. During the course of research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was recognized that ferrocyanide materials, when mixed with sodium nitrate and/or sodium nitrite, were capable of violent exothermic reaction. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s, when safety issues associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford Site tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety issues associated with these wastes, as well as current research and waste management programs. Testing to provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions is ongoing. This document supplements the information presented in Summary of Single-Shell Tank Waste Stability, WHC-EP-0347, March 1991 (Borsheim and Kirch 1991), which evaluated several issues. This supplement only considers information particular to ferrocyanide wastes.

Fowler, K.D.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

Rasor, Ned S. (Cupertino, CA); Riley, David R. (West Newton, PA); Murray, Christopher S. (Bethel Park, PA); Geller, Clint B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Thermionic converter with differentially heated cesium-oxygen source and method of operation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermionic converter having an emitter, a collector, and a source of cesium vapor is provided, wherein the source of cesium vapor is differentially heated so that said source has a hotter end and a cooler end, with cesium vapor evaporating from said hotter end into the space between the emitter and the collector and with cesium vapor condensing at said cooler end. The condensed cesium vapor migrates through a porous element from the cooler end to the hotter end.

Rasor, N.S.; Riley, D.R.; Murray, C.S.; Geller, C.B.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Tank characterization reference guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Streamlined approach for environmental restoration workplan for Corrective Action Unit 198: Test Cell C filter tank closure, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This plan addresses characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 198 identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The site is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 25 Test Cell C Complex. The CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-12 which includes two aboveground radioactive wastewater filter tanks. The tanks have an estimated capacity of 2,271 liters (600 gallons) each and were used to filter radioactive wastewater originating from the Test Cell C ``Nuclear Furnace 1`` testing. The tanks contain radioisotopes. Process knowledge indicates that the most likely isotopes of concern include {sup 90}Strontium and {sup 137}Cesium.

NONE

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Single-shell tank retrieval program mission analysis report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Mission Analysis Report was prepared to provide the foundation for the Single-Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Program, a new program responsible for waste removal for the SSTS. The SST Retrieval Program is integrated with other Tank Waste Remediation System activities that provide the management, technical, and operations elements associated with planning and execution of SST and SST Farm retrieval and closure. This Mission Analysis Report provides the basis and strategy for developing a program plan for SST retrieval. This Mission Analysis Report responds to a US Department of Energy request for an alternative single-shell tank retrieval approach (Taylor 1997).

Stokes, W.J.

1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

164

Hanford Tank Waste Information Enclosure 1 Hanford Tank Waste Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hanford Tank Waste Information Enclosure 1 1 Hanford Tank Waste Information 1.0 Summary This information demonstrates the wastes in the twelve Hanford Site tanks meet the definition of transuranic (TRU. The wastes in these twelve (12) tanks are not high-level waste (HLW), and contain more than 100 nanocuries

165

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90.degree. intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure.

Baker, Tod H. (O'Hara Township, Allegheny County, PA); Ott, Howard L. (Kiski Township, Armstrong County, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Pressurizer tank upper support  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

1994-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

167

Results of Tank-Leak Detection Demonstration Using Geophysical Techniques at the Hanford Mock Tank Site-Fiscal Year 2001  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During July and August of 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), hosted researchers from Lawrence Livermore and Lawrence Berkeley National laboratories, and a private contractor, HydroGEOPHYSICS, Inc., for deployment of the following five geophysical leak-detection technologies at the Hanford Site Mock Tank in a Tank Leak Detection Demonstration (TLDD): (1) Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT); (2) Cross-Borehole Electromagnetic Induction (CEMI); (3) High-Resolution Resistivity (HRR); (4) Cross-Borehole Radar (XBR); and (5) Cross-Borehole Seismic Tomography (XBS). Under a ''Tri-party Agreement'' with Federal and state regulators, the U.S. Department of Energy will remove wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) and other miscellaneous underground tanks for storage in the double-shell tank system. Waste retrieval methods are being considered that use very little, if any, liquid to dislodge, mobilize, and remove the wastes. As additional assurance of protection of the vadose zone beneath the SSTs, tank wastes and tank conditions may be aggressively monitored during retrieval operations by methods that are deployed outside the SSTs in the vadose zone.

Barnett, D BRENT.; Gee, Glendon W.; Sweeney, Mark D.

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Underground storage tank 291-D1U1: Closure plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 291-D1U1 tank system was installed in 1983 on the north side of Building 291. It supplies diesel fuel to the Building 291 emergency generator and air compressor. The emergency generator and air compressor are located southwest and southeast, respectively, of the tank (see Appendix B, Figure 2). The tank system consists of a single-walled, 2,000- gallon, fiberglass tank and a fuel pump system, fill pipe, vent pipe, electrical conduit, and fuel supply and return piping. The area to be excavated is paved with asphalt and concrete. It is not known whether a concrete anchor pad is associated with this tank. Additionally, this closure plan assumes that the diesel tank is below the fill pad. The emergency generator and air compressor for Building 291 and its associated UST, 291-D1U1, are currently in use. The generator and air compressor will be supplied by a temporary above-ground fuel tank prior to the removal of 291-D1U1. An above-ground fuel tank will be installed as a permanent replacement for 291-D1U1. The system was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984, as 291-41D and has subsequently been renamed 291-D1U1. Figure 1 (see Appendix B) shows the location of the 291-D1U1 tank system in relation to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Figure 2 (see Appendix B) shows the 291-D1U1 tank system in relation to Building 291. Figure 3 (see Appendix B) shows a plan view of the 291-D1U1 tank system.

Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 5F CHEMICAL CLEANING  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. The conclusions from this work are: (1) With the exception of iron, the dissolution of sludge components from Tank 5F agreed with results from the actual waste demonstration performed in 2007. The fraction of iron removed from Tank 5F by chemical cleaning was significantly less than the fraction removed in the SRNL demonstrations. The likely cause of this difference is the high pH following the first oxalic acid strike. (2) Most of the sludge mass remaining in the tank is iron and nickel. (3) The remaining sludge contains approximately 26 kg of barium, 37 kg of chromium, and 37 kg of mercury. (4) Most of the radioactivity remaining in the residual material is beta emitters and {sup 90}Sr. (5) The chemical cleaning removed more than {approx} 90% of the uranium isotopes and {sup 137}Cs. (6) The chemical cleaning removed {approx} 70% of the neptunium, {approx} 83% of the {sup 90}Sr, and {approx} 21% of the {sup 60}Co. (7) The chemical cleaning removed less than 10% of the plutonium, americium, and curium isotopes. (8) The chemical cleaning removed more than 90% of the aluminium, calcium, and sodium from the tank. (9) The cleaning operations removed 61% of lithium, 88% of non-radioactive strontium, and 65% of zirconium. The {sup 90}Sr and non-radioactive strontium were measured by different methods, and the differences in the fraction removed are not statistically significant. (10) Chemical cleaning removed 10-50% of the barium, chromium, iron, magnesium, manganese, and silicon. (11) Chemical cleaning removed only {approx}1% of the nickel.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

170

The Ashland tank collapse  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The estimated 3.9-million-gallon diesel oil spill from a collapsed storage tank at the Floreffe, Pa., terminal of Ashland Oil Co. has received a lot of attention, and for good reason. On Jan. 2, 1988 a 40-year-old, 48-ft-high, 120-ft-in diameter, reassembled tank suddenly ruptured and emptied its contents in a massive inland-water way fuel spill. An EPA-estimated 750,000 gallons washed over the 10-foot-high dike (with a holding capacity 110 percent that of the tank) into a drainage system on adjacent property to storm sewers that eventually empty into the Monongahela River, which runs into the Ohio River. More than 180,000 gal were recovered by cleanup, while 2.5 to 3.1 MMgal were contained by the tank farm's dike system.

Prokop, J.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

2013-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

172

Underground Storage Tank Regulations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Underground Storage Tank Regulations is relevant to all energy projects that will require the use and building of pipelines, underground storage of any sorts, and/or electrical equipment. The...

173

Storage Tanks (Arkansas)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Storage Tanks regulations is a set of rules and permit requirements mandated by the Arkansas Pollution and Ecology Commission in order to protect the public health and the lands and the waters...

174

Overview of Hanford Single Shell Tank (SST) Structural Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project (SSTIP) in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration, Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford Single-Shell Tanks. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS. The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford Single-Shell Tanks has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analysis of the remaining Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is scheduled for FY2014. Hanford Single-Shell Tanks are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tanks, looking for cracks and other surface conditions that may indicate signs of structural distress. The condition of the concrete and rebar of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks is currently being tested and planned for additional activities in the near future. Concrete and rebar removed from the dome of a 65 year old tank was tested for mechanics properties and condition. Results indicated stronger than designed concrete with additional Petrographic examination and rebar completed. Material properties determined from previous efforts combined with current testing and construction document review will help to generate a database that will provide indication of Hanford Single-Shell Tank structural integrity.

Rast, Richard S. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Jeremy M. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

175

CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. The closure will also fill, physically stabilize and isolate ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and chemically reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400 to stabilize selected potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted, respectively, to support the mass placement strategy developed by closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area - Vault held waste...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area - Vault held waste tanks with contamination from Hanford's former laboratory facilities 1,153-ton Waste Vault Removed from 300 Area -...

177

Deflagration studies on waste Tank 101-SY: Test plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Waste slurries produced during the recovery of plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel are stored in underground storage tanks. While a variety of waste types have been generated, of particular concern are the wastes stored in Tank 101-SY. A slurry growth-gas evolution cycle has been observed since 1981. The waste consists of a thick slurry, consisting of a solution high in NaOH, NaNO{sub 3}, NaAlO{sub 2}, dissolved organic complexants (EDTA, HEDTA, NTA, and degradation products), other salts (sulfates and phosphates), and radionuclides (primarily cesium and strontium). During a gas release the major gaseous species identified include: hydrogen and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Significant amounts of nitrogen may also be present. Traces of ammonia, carbon oxides, and other nitrogen oxides are also detected. Air and water vapor are also present in the tank vapor space. The purpose of the deflagration study is to determine risks of the hydrogen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and oxygen system. To be determined are pressure and temperature as a function of composition of reacting gases and the concentration of gases before and after the combustion event. Analyses of gases after the combustion event will be restricted to those tests that had an initial concentration of {le}8% hydrogen. This information will be used to evaluate safety issues related to periodic slurry growth and flammable gas releases from Tank 101-SY. the conditions to be evaluated will simulate gases in the vapor space above the salt cake as well as gases that potentially are trapped in pockets within/under the waste. The deflagration study will relate experimental laboratory results to conditions in the existing tanks.

Cashdollar, K.L.; Zlochower, I.A.; Hertzberg, M.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Reducing the Detection Limit for Tetraphenylborate in Tank 50H Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SRTC personnel are developing a technique that can determine the concentration of tetraphenylborate (TPB) at 300 grams in 100,000 gallons of salt solution (0.8 mg/L) in the presence of0.378 Ci/gal of Cs-137. The current High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method of analysis can determine the TPB concentration at 5 mg/L and higher. The limit of quantitation was lowered by modification of the sample preparation steps. The HPLC sample preparation method currently used requires neutralization of the tank waste sample followed by extraction with acetonitrile. This method dilutes the tank waste sample 6.5 to 1 increasing the limit of quantitation. The method described in this report concentrates the sample two-fold lowering the limit of quantitation from 5 mg/L to 0.25mg/L. Researchers used solvent extraction of undiluted tank waste to isolate, and concentrate (two-fold) samples of tank supernate and Plant Inhibited Water (PIW) that simulated tank supernate at the cesium level of approximately 0.3 Ci/gal. The 137Cs content in the tank supernate measured 0.65 Ci/gal prior to a two-fold dilution with PIW. The concentration of the TPB was determined by HPLC on a reversed-phase HPLC column using methanol, acetonitrile, and buffered water as the mobile phase. Important Findings: The 0.8 mg/L quantitation limit was met in the presence of radioactive cesium. A 93 per cent reduction in activity in the acetonitrile layer was achieved. A five-mL acetonitrile aliquot from the extraction of a tank waste sample containing 0.378 Ci/gal of Cs-137 could be handled in a radiological hood and comply with the less than 5 mR/hr hood limit. This method is applicable to tank waste solutions of high ionic strength (greater than 2.0 M Na). The ionic strength of tank waste solutions of low ionic strength will need to be adjusted by the addition of NaOH or 5.6 M average salt solution to facilitate the formation of two layers (organic and aqueous). Increasing the ionic strength of tank waste samples by blending in a high ionic strength solution will raise the limit of quantitation.

WHITE, THOMASL.

2004-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

At tank Low Activity Feed Homogeneity Analysis Verification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the merit of selecting sodium, aluminum, and cesium-137 as analytes to indicate homogeneity of soluble species in low-activity waste (LAW) feed and recommends possible analytes and physical properties that could serve as rapid screening indicators for LAW feed homogeneity. The three analytes are adequate as screening indicators of soluble species homogeneity for tank waste when a mixing pump is used to thoroughly mix the waste in the waste feed staging tank and when all dissolved species are present at concentrations well below their solubility limits. If either of these conditions is violated, then the three indicators may not be sufficiently chemically representative of other waste constituents to reliably indicate homogeneity in the feed supernatant. Additional homogeneity indicators that should be considered are anions such as fluoride, sulfate, and phosphate, total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon, and total alpha to estimate the transuranic species. Physical property measurements such as gamma profiling, conductivity, specific gravity, and total suspended solids are recommended as possible at-tank methods for indicating homogeneity. Indicators of LAW feed homogeneity are needed to reduce the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection (ORP) Program's contractual risk by assuring that the waste feed is within the contractual composition and can be supplied to the waste treatment plant within the schedule requirements.

DOUGLAS, J.G.

2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

180

Safety evaluation for the interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the basis for interim stabilization of tank 241-C-103. The document covers the removal of the organic liquid layer and the aqueous supernatant from tank 241-C-103. Hazards are identified, consequences are calculated and controls to mitigate or prevent potential accidents are developed.

Geschke, G.R.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

SHULTZ, M.V.

1999-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

182

Position paper -- Tank ventilation system design air flow rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to document a project position on required ventilation system design air flow rates for the waste storage tanks currently being designed by project W-236A, the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF). The Title 1 design primary tank heat removal system consists of two systems: a primary tank vapor space ventilation system; and an annulus ventilation system. At the conclusion of Title 1 design, air flow rates for the primary and annulus ventilation systems were 960 scfm and 4,400 scfm, respectively, per tank. These design flow rates were capable of removing 1,250,000 Btu/hr from each tank. However, recently completed and ongoing studies have resulted in a design change to reduce the extreme case heat load to 700,000 Btu/hr. This revision of the extreme case heat load, coupled with results of scale model evaporative testing performed by WHC Thermal Hydraulics, allow for a reduction of the design air flow rates for both primary and annulus ventilation systems. Based on the preceding discussion, ICF Kaiser Hanford Co. concludes that the design should incorporate the following design air flow rates: Primary ventilation system--500 scfm maximum and Annulus ventilation system--1,100 scfm maximum. In addition, the minimum air flow rates in the primary and annulus ventilation systems will be investigated during Title 2 design. The results of the Title 2 investigation will determine the range of available temperature control using variable air flows to both ventilation systems.

Goolsby, G.K.

1995-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

183

Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

Meikrantz, David H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Todd, Terry A. (Aberdeen, ID); Riddle, Catherine L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Law, Jack D. (Pocatello, ID); Peterman, Dean R. (Idaho Falls, ID); Mincher, Bruce J. (Idaho Falls, ID); McGrath, Christopher A. (Blackfoot, ID); Baker, John D. (Blackfoot, ID)

2007-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

184

CHANGING THE SAFETY CULTURE IN HANFORD TANK FARMS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2000 the Hanford Tank Farms had one of the worst safety records in the Department of Energy Complex. By the end of FY08 the safety performance of the workforce had turned completely around, resulting in one of the best safety records in the DOE complex for operations of its kind. This paper describes the variety of programs and changes that were put in place to accomplish such a dramatic turn-around. The U.S. Department of Energy's 586-square-mile Hanford Site in Washington State was established during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project to develop nuclear materials to end the war. For the next several decades it continued to produce plutonium for the nation's defense, leaving behind vast quantities of radioactive and chemical waste. Much of this waste, 53,000,000 gallons, remains stored in 149 aging single-shell tanks and 28 newer double-shell tanks. One of the primary objectives at Hanford is to safely manage this waste until it can be prepared for disposal, but this has not always been easy. These giant underground tanks, many of which date back to the beginning of the Manhattan Project, range in size from 55,000 gallons up to 1.1 million gallons, and are buried beneath 10 feet of soil near the center of the site. Up to 67 of the older single-shell tanks have leaked as much as one million gallons into the surrounding soil. Liquids from the single-shell tanks were removed by 2003 but solids remain in the form of saltcake, sludges and a hardened heel at the bottom of some tanks. The Department of Energy's Office of River Protection was established to safely manage this waste until it could be prepared for disposal. For most of the last seven years the focus has been on safely retrieving waste from the 149 aging single-shell and moving it to the newer double-shell tanks. Removing waste from the tanks is a difficult and complex task. The tanks were made to put waste in, not take it out. Because of the toxic nature of the waste, both chemically as well as radiologically, all retrieval operations must be performed using remote-controlled equipment which has to be installed in each tank, then removed when retrieval is completed. This process involves a variety of potentially hazardous construction activities including crane and rigging, excavation, electrical and piping work. It also requires strong attention to safety to avoid injuries to personnel and contamination of the environment.

BERRIOCHOA MV; ALCALA LJ

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

185

Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

eld quantized slow cesium atoms Jason M. Amini, ? Charles T.experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic ?elds,magnetic ?elds seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200

Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Identification of potential transuranic waste tanks at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this document is to identify potential transuranic (TRU) material among the Hanford Site tank wastes for possible disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as an alternative to disposal in the high-level waste (HLW) repository. Identification of such material is the initial task in a trade study suggested in WHC-EP-0786, Tank Waste Remediation System Decisions and Risk Assessment (Johnson 1994). The scope of this document is limited to the identification of those tanks that might be segregated from the HLW for disposal as TRU, and the bases for that selection. It is assumed that the tank waste will be washed to remove soluble inert material for disposal as low-level waste (LLW), and the washed residual solids will be vitrified for disposal. The actual recommendation of a disposal strategy for these materials will require a detailed cost/benefit analysis and is beyond the scope of this document.

Colburn, R.P.

1995-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

187

WRPS MEETING THE CHALLENGE OF TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is the Hanford tank operations contractor, charged with managing one of the most challenging environmental cleanup projects in the nation. The U.S. Department of Energy hired WRPS to manage 56 million gallons of high-level radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks. The waste is the legacy of 45 years of plutonium production for the U. S. nuclear arsenal. WRPS mission is three-fold: safely manage the waste until it can be processed and immobilized; develop the tools and techniques to retrieve the waste from the tanks, and build the infrastructure needed to deliver the waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) when it begins operating. WTP will 'vitrify' the waste by mixing it with silica and other materials and heating it in an electric melter. Vitrification turns the waste into a sturdy glass that will isolate the radioactivity from the environment. It will take more than 20 years to process all the tank waste. The tank waste is a complex highly radioactive mixture of liquid, sludge and solids. The radioactivity, chemical composition of the waste and the limited access to the underground storage tanks makes retrieval a challenge. Waste is being retrieved from aging single-shell tanks and transferred to newer, safer double-shell tanks. WRPS is using a new technology known as enhanced-reach sluicing to remove waste. A high-pressure stream of liquid is sprayed at 100 gallons per minute through a telescoping arm onto a hard waste layer several inches thick covering the waste. The waste is broken up, moved to a central pump suction and removed from the tank. The innovative Mobile Arm Retrieval System (MARS) is also being used to retrieve waste. MARS is a remotely operated, telescoping arm installed on a mast in the center of the tank. It uses multiple technologies to scrape, scour and rake the waste toward a pump for removal. The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) provided nearly $326 million over two-and-a-half years to modernize the infrastructure in Hanford's tank farms. WRPS issued 850 subcontracts totaling more than $152 million with nearly 76 percent of that total awarded to small businesses. WRPS used the funding to upgrade tank farm infrastructure, develop technologies to retrieve and consolidate tank waste and extend the life of two critical operating facilities needed to feed waste to the WTP. The 222-S Laboratory analyzes waste to support waste retrievals and transfers. The laboratory was upgraded to support future WTP operations with a new computer system, new analytical equipment, a new office building and a new climate-controlled warehouse. The 242-A Evaporator was upgraded with a control-room simulator for operator training and several upgrades to aging equipment. The facility is used to remove liquid from the tank waste, creating additional storage space, necessary for continued waste retrievals and WTP operation. The One System Integrated Project Team is ajoint effort ofWRPS and Bechtel National to identify and resolve common issues associated with commissioning, feeding and operating the Waste Treatment Plant. Two new facilities are being designed to support WTP hot commlsslomng. The Interim Hanford Storage project is planned to store canisters of immobilized high-level radioactive waste glass produced by the vitrification plant. The facility will use open racks to store the 15-foot long, two-foot diameter canisters of waste, which require remote handling. The Secondary Liquid Waste Treatment Project is a major upgrade to the existing Effluent Treatment Facility at Hanford so it can treat about 10 million gallons of liquid radioactive and hazardous effluent a year from the vitrification plant. The One System approach brings the staff of both companies together to identify and resolve WTP safety issues. A questioning attitude is encouraged and an open forum is maintained for employees to raise issues. WRPS is completing its mission safely with record-setting safety performance. Since WRPS took over the Hanford Tank Operations Contract in October 2

BRITTON JC

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

188

TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

2009-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

189

Cesium in the Savannah River Site environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cesium in the Savannah River Site Environment is published as a part of the Radiological Assessment Program (RAP). It is the fourth in a series of eight documents on individual radioisotopes released to the environment as a result of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations. The earlier documents describe the environmental consequences of tritium, iodine, and uranium. Documents on plutonium, strontium, carbon, and technetium will be published in the future. These are dynamic documents and current plans call for revising and updating each one on a two-year schedule.Radiocesium exists in the environment as a result of above-ground nuclear weapons tests, the Chernobyl accident, the destruction of satellite Cosmos 954, small releases from reactors and reprocessing plants, and the operation of industrial, medical, and educational facilities. Radiocesium has been produced at SRS during the operation of five production reactors. Several hundred curies of {sup 137}Cs was released into streams in the late 50s and 60s from leaking fuel elements. Smaller quantities were released from the fuel reprocessing operations. About 1400 Ci of {sup 137}Cs was released to seepage basins where it was tightly bound by clay in the soil. A much smaller quantity, about four Ci. was released to the atmosphere. Radiocesium concentration and mechanisms for atmospheric, surface water, and groundwater have been extensively studied by Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and ecological mechanisms have been studied by Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL). The overall radiological impact of SRS releases on the offsite maximum individual can be characterized by total doses of 033 mrem (atmospheric) and 60 mrem (liquid), compared with a dose of 12,960 mrem from non-SRS sources during the same period of time. Isotope {sup 137}Cs releases have resulted in a negligible risk to the environment and the population it supports.

Carlton, W.H.; Bauer, L.R.; Evans, A.G.; Geary, L.A.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Pinder, J.E.; Strom, R.N.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Oxalate Mass Balance During Chemical Cleaning in Tank 5F  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) is preparing Tank 5F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. Following mechanical sludge removal, SRS performed chemical cleaning with oxalic acid to remove the sludge heel. Personnel are currently assessing the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning to determine whether the tank is ready for closure. SRS personnel collected liquid samples during chemical cleaning and submitted them to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. Following chemical cleaning, they collected a solid sample (also known as 'process sample') and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. The authors analyzed these samples to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process. Analysis of the anions showed the measured oxalate removed from Tank 5F to be approximately 50% of the amount added in the oxalic acid. To close the oxalate mass balance, the author collected solid samples, leached them with nitric acid, and measured the concentration of cations and anions in the leachate.

Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

2011-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

191

TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION AND LEACHING OF A THERMOWELL AND CONDUCTIVITY PROBE PIPE SAMPLE FROM TANK 48H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A key component for the accelerated implementation and operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) is the recovery of Tank 48H. Tank 48H is a type IIIA tank with a maximum capacity of 1.3 million gallons. The material on the Tank 48H internal tank surfaces is estimated to have a total volume of approximately 115 gallons consisting of mostly water soluble solids with approximately 20 wt% insoluble solids (33 Kg TPB). This film is assumed to be readily removable. The material on the internal equipment/surfaces of Tank 48H is presumed to be easily removed by slurry pump operation. For Tank 49H, the slurry pumps were operated almost continuously for approximately 6 months after which time the tank was inspected and the film was found to be removed. The major components of the Tank 49H film were soluble solids--Na{sub 3}H(CO){sub 2}, Al(OH){sub 3}, NaTPB, NaNO{sub 3} and NaNO{sub 2}. Although the Tank 48H film is expected to be primarily soluble solids, it may not behave the same as the Tank 49H film. Depending on when the Recycle material or inhibited water can be added to Tank 48H, the tank may not be allowed to agitate for this same amount of time. The tank will be filled above 150 inches and agitated at least once during the Aggregation process. If the material cannot be removed after completion of these batches, the material may be removed with additional fill and agitation operations. There is a risk that this will not remove the material from the internal surfaces. As a risk mitigation activity, properties of the film and the ease of removing the film from the tank will be evaluated prior to initiating Aggregation. This task will investigate the dissolution of Tank 48H solid deposits in inhibited water and DWPF recycle. To this end, tank personnel plan to cut and remove a thermowell pipe from Tank 48H and submit the cut pieces to SRNL for both characterization and leaching behavior. A plan for the removal, packaging and transport of the thermowell pipe has been issued. This task plan outlines the proposed method of analysis and testing to estimate (1) the thickness of the solid deposit, (2) chemical composition of the deposits and (3) the leaching behavior of the solid deposits in inhibited water (IW) and in Tank 48H aggregate solution.

Fondeur, F

2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

192

CURRICULUM VITAE David W. Tank  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CURRICULUM VITAE David W. Tank Personal Birthdate: June 3, 1953 Citizenship : U.S. Address: Dept Physical Society Biophysical Society #12;Research Publications 1. Tank, D.W., Wu, E.-S., and Webb, W, 207-212 (1982). 2. Webb, W.W., Barak, L.S., Tank, D.W. and Wu, E.-S., Molecular mobility on the cell

Tank, David

193

Stratification in hot water tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stratification in a domestic hot water tank, used to increase system performance by enabling the solar collectors to operate under marginal conditions, is discussed. Data taken in a 120 gallon tank indicate that stratification can be achieved without any special baffling in the tank. (MJF)

Balcomb, J.D.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Distribution of cesium-137 in the Mississippi Delta  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the soil (Tamura, 1964; Jenne and Wahlberg, 1968; Wahlberg and Fisbman, 1962), The amount of Cs retained by soils and the amount leached into streams and rivers in the dissolved form depends upon the properties of the clay minerals present (Tamura... and Jacobs, 1960; Wahlberg and Fishman, 1962). Cesium adsorption on clay minerals found in the soils appears to be governed by a clay mineral's tendency to undergo and maintain collapse of the c-axis during cesium and potassium adsorption rather than...

Pflaum, Ronald Charles

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The reaction of cesium hydroxide with 4-phenylvaleric acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but with other alkali metal ions. Also, it was desirable to learn more about the fundamental nature of the excess solubility of 4-phenylvaleric acid in aqueous cesium hydroxide. Of special interest was to deter- mine whether any n-bonding may be involved.... Similarly, nuclear magnetic resonance techniques may be used to determine whether any TT-bonding involving the phenyl ring of 4- phenylvaleric acid occurs during its reaction with cesium hydroxide. If any such bonding to the n-electrons of the ring occurs...

Caughfield, Arvie Jeane

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Single-shell tank interim stabilization project plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solid and liquid radioactive waste continues to be stored in 149 single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. To date, 119 tanks have had most of the pumpable liquid removed by interim stabilization. Thirty tanks remain to be stabilized. One of these tanks (C-106) will be stabilized by retrieval of the tank contents. The remaining 29 tanks will be interim stabilized by saltwell pumping. In the summer of 1997, the US Department of Energy (DOE) placed a moratorium on the startup of additional saltwell pumping systems because of funding constraints and proposed modifications to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestones to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology). In a letter dated February 10, 1998, Final Determination Pursuant to Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in the Matter of the Disapproval of the DOE`s Change Control Form M-41-97-01 (Fitzsimmons 1998), Ecology disapproved the DOE Change Control Form M-41-97-01. In response, Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) directed Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LNMC) to initiate development of a project plan in a letter dated February 25, 1998, Direction for Development of an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan in Support of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In a letter dated March 2, 1998, Request for an Aggressive Single-Shell Tank (SST) Interim Stabilization Completion Project Plan, the DOE reaffirmed the need for an aggressive SST interim stabilization completion project plan to support a finalized Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-41 recovery plan. This project plan establishes the management framework for conduct of the TWRS Single-Shell Tank Interim Stabilization completion program. Specifically, this plan defines the mission needs and requirements; technical objectives and approach; organizational structure, roles, responsibilities, and interfaces; and operational methods. The plan is based on realistic assumptions and addresses three separate funding scenarios.

Ross, W.E.

1998-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

197

EXPERIMENTAL METHODS TO ESTIMATE ACCUMULATED SOLIDS IN NUCLEAR WASTE TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream; Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel; Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas; Laser rangefinders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds; Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds; Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These devices and techniques were very effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing plutonium and are expected to perform well at a larger scale. The operation of the techniques and their measurement accuracies will be discussed as well as the overall results of the accumulated solids test.

Duignan, M.; Steeper, T.; Steimke, J.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

Assessment of single-shell tank residual-liquid issues at Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides an assessment of the overall effectiveness and implications of jet pumping the interstitial liquids (IL) from single-shell tanks at Hanford. The jet-pumping program, currently in progress at Hanford, involves the planned removal of IL contained in 89 of the 149 single-shell tanks and its transfer to double-shell tanks after volume reduction by evaporation. The purpose of this report is to estimate the public and worker doses associated with (1) terminating pumping immediately, (2) pumping to a 100,000-gal limit per tank, (3) pumping to a 50,000-gal limit per tank, and (4) pumping to the maximum practical liquid removal level of 30,000 gal. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of these various levels of pumping in minimizing any undue health and safety risks to the public or worker is also presented.

Murthy, K.S.; Stout, L.A.; Napier, B.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Landstrom, D.K.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Tank farm nuclear criticality review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of stored wastes at the Hanford Site Tank Farm Complex was reviewed by a team of senior technical personnel whose expertise covered all appropriate aspects of fissile materials chemistry and physics. The team concluded that the detailed and documented nucleonics-related studies underlying the waste tanks criticality safety basis were sound. The team concluded that, under current plutonium inventories and operating conditions, a nuclear criticality accident is incredible in any of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SST), double-shell tanks (DST), or double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTS) on the Hanford Site.

Bratzel, D.R., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

200

100-N Area underground storage tank closures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the removal/characterization actions concerning underground storage tanks (UST) at the 100-N Area. Included are 105-N-LFT, 182-N-1-DT, 182-N-2-DT, 182-N-3-DT, 100-N-SS-27, and 100-N-SS-28. The text of this report gives a summary of remedial activities. In addition, correspondence relating to UST closures can be found in Appendix B. Appendix C contains copies of Unusual Occurrence Reports, and validated sampling data results comprise Appendix D.

Rowley, C.A.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

High Level Waste Tank Closure Project at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is making preparations to close two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 300,000 gallon tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). The INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF) Closure sequence consists of multiple steps to be accomplished through the existing tank riser access points. Currently, the tank risers contain steam and process waste lines associated with the steam jets, corrosion coupons, and liquid level indicators. As necessary, this equipment will be removed from the risers to allow adequate space for closure equipment and activities.

Wessman, D. L.; Quigley, K. D.

2002-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

202

URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM LOADING ONTO MONOSODIUM TITANATE MST IN TANK 50H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A possible disposition pathway for the residue from the abandoned In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) sends the material from Tank 48H in increments to Saltstone via aggregation in Tank 50H. After entering Tank 50H, the amount of fissile material sorbed on MST may increase as a result of contacting waste solutions with dissolved uranium and plutonium. SRNL recommends that nuclear criticality safety evaluations use uranium and plutonium loadings onto MST of 14.0 {+-} 1.04 weight percent (wt %) for uranium and 2.79 {+-} 0.197 wt % for plutonium given the assumed streams defined in this report. These values derive from recently measured for conditions relevant to the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and serve as conservative upper bounds for uranium and plutonium loadings during the proposed transfers of MST from Tank 48H into Tank 50H.

Hobbs, D

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

203

Progress in High-Level Waste Tank Cleaning at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is making preparations to close two underground high-level waste (HLW) storage tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) orders. Closure of these two tanks is scheduled for 2004 as the first phase in closure of the eleven 300,000 gallon tanks currently in service at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). Design, development, and deployment of a remotely operated tank cleaning system were completed in August 2001. The system incorporates many commercially available components, which have been adapted for application in cleaning high-level waste tanks. The system also uses existing waste transfer technology (steam-jets) to remove tank heel solids from the tank bottoms during the cleaning operations. By using this existing transfer system and commercially available equipment, the cost of developing custom designed cleaning equipment can be avoided. Remotely operated directional spray nozzles, automatic rotating wash balls, video monitoring equipment, decontamination spray-rings, and tank specific access interface devices have been integrated to provide a system that efficiently cleans tank walls and heel solids in an acidic, radioactive environment. This system is also compliant with operational and safety performance requirements at INTEC. Through the deployment of the tank cleaning system, the INEEL High Level Waste Program has demonstrated the capability to clean tanks to meet RCRA clean closure standards and DOE closure performance measures. The tank cleaning system deployed at the INTEC offers unique advantages over other approaches evaluated at the INEEL and throughout the DOE Complex. The system's ability to agitate and homogenize the tank heel sludge will simplify verification-sampling techniques and reduce the total quantity of samples required to demonstrate compliance with the performance standards. This will reduce tank closure budget requirements and improve closure-planning schedules.

Lockie, K. A.; McNaught, W. B.

2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

204

Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The ability to accurately determine a volume is a function of the quantity and quality of the waste tank images. Currently, mapping is performed remotely with closed circuit video cameras and still photograph cameras due to the hazardous environment. There are two methods that can be used to create a solids volume map. These methods are: liquid transfer mapping / post transfer mapping and final residual solids mapping. The task is performed during a transfer because the liquid level (which is a known value determined by a level measurement device) is used as a landmark to indicate solids accumulation heights. The post transfer method is primarily utilized after the majority of waste has been removed. This method relies on video and still digital images of the waste tank after the liquid transfer is complete to obtain the relative height of solids across a waste tank in relation to known and usable landmarks within the waste tank (cooling coils, column base plates, etc.). In order to accurately monitor solids over time across various cleaning campaigns, and provide a technical basis to support final waste tank closure, a consistent methodology for volume determination has been developed and implemented at SRS.

Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

205

A transient model for a cesium vapor thermionic converter. [Cs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an analytical model for simulating the transient and steady-state operation of cesium vapor thermionic converters. A parametric analysis is performed to assess the transient response of the converter to changes in fission power and width of interelectrode gap. The model optimizes the converter performance for maximum electric power to the load.(AIP)

El-Genk, M.S.; Murray, C.S.; Chaudhuri, S. (Institute for Space Nuclear Power Studies, Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA))

1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

206

Discovery of Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium and Promethium Isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

May, E

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Discovery of Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium and Promethium Isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Currently, forty-one cesium, thirty-five lanthanum, thirty-two praseodymium, and thirty-one promethium, isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

E. May; M. Thoennessen

2011-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

208

Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

209

Tank 241-Z-361 vapor sampling and analysis plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-Z-361 is identified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement), Appendix C, (Ecology et al. 1994) as a unit to be remediated under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). As such, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency will serve as the lead regulatory agency for remediation of this tank under the CERCLA process. At the time this unit was identified as a CERCLA site under the Tri-Party Agreement, it was placed within the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. In 1997, The Tri-parties redefined 200 Area Operable Units into waste groupings (Waste Site Grouping for 200 Areas Soils Investigations [DOE-RL 1992 and 1997]). A waste group contains waste sites that share similarities in geological conditions, function, and types of waste received. Tank 241-Z-361 is identified within the CERCLA Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group (DOE-RL 1992). The Plutonium/Organic-rich Process Condensate/Process Waste Group has been prioritized for remediation beginning in the year 2004. Results of Tank 216-Z-361 sampling and analysis described in this Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) and in the SAP for sludge sampling (to be developed) will determine whether expedited response actions are required before 2004 because of the hazards associated with tank contents. Should data conclude that remediation of this tank should occur earlier than is planned for the other sites in the waste group, it is likely that removal alternatives will be analyzed in a separate Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis (EE/CA). Removal actions would proceed after the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) signs an Action Memorandum describing the selected removal alternative for Tank 216-Z-361. If the data conclude that there is no immediate threat to human health and the environment from this tank, remedial actions for the tank will be defined in a feasibility study for the entire waste group.

BANNING, D.L.

1999-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

210

Underground storage tank management plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Management Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems in operation at the facility, to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks, and to establish a program for the removal of unnecessary UST systems and upgrade of UST systems that continue to be needed. The program implements an integrated approach to the management of UST systems, with each system evaluated against the same requirements and regulations. A common approach is employed, in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance, when corrective action is mandated. This Management Plan outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed by the UST Management Program, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Management Plan provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. (There are no underground radioactive waste UST systems located at Y-12.) The plan is divided into four major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) implementation requirements, (3) Y-12 Plant UST Program inventory sites, and (4) UST waste management practices. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Management Program, and the procedures and guidance used for compliance with applicable regulations.

NONE

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Relationship Between Flowability And Tank Closure Grout Quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

After completion of waste removal and chemical cleaning operations, Tanks 5-F and 6-F await final closure. The project will proceed with completing operational closure by stabilizing the tanks with grout. Savannah River Remediation's (SRR) experience with grouting Tanks 18-F and 19-F showed that slump-flow values were correlated with flow/spread inside these tanks. Less mounding was observed when using grouts with higher slump-flow. Therefore, SRNL was requested to evaluate the relationship between flowability and cured properties to determine whether the slump-flow maximum spread of Mix LP#8-16 could be increased from 28 inches to 30 inches without impacting the grout quality. A request was also made to evaluate increasing the drop height from 5 feet to 10 feet with the objective of enhancing the flow inside the tank by imparting more kinetic energy to the placement. Based on a review of the grout property data for Mix LP#8-16 collected from Tank 18-F and 19-F quality control samples, the upper limit for slump-flow measured per ASTM C 1611 can be increased from 28 to 30 inches without affecting grout quality. However, testing should be performed prior to increasing the drop height from 5 to 10 feet or observations should be made during initial filling operations to determine whether segregation occurs as a function of drop heights between 5 and 10 feet. Segregation will negatively impact grout quality. Additionally, increasing the delivery rate of grout into Tanks 5-F and 6-F by using a higher capacity concrete/grout pump will result in better grout spread/flow inside the tanks.

Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.; Hay, M. S.

2012-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

212

Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Johnson, G.D. (comp.)

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Surveillance and maintenance plan for the inactive liquid low-level waste tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ORNL has a total of 54 inactive liquid low-level waste (ILLLW) tanks. In the past, these tanks were used to contain radioactive liquid wastes from various research programs, decontamination operations, and reactor operations. The tanks have since been removed from service for various reasons; the majority were retired because of their age, some due to integrity compromises, and others because they did not meet the current standards set by the Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA). Many of the tanks contain residual radioactive liquids and/or sludges. Plans are to remediate all tanks; however, until remediation of each tank, this Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) Plan will be used to monitor the safety and inventory containment of these tanks.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Analysis Of The Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite Sample 2, and highest concentrations for Composite Sample 3. The Hg and Mo results suggest possible measurement outliers. However, the magnitudes of the differences between the Hg 95% upper confidence limit (UCL95) results with and without the outlier and the magnitudes of the differences between the Mo UCL95 results with and without the outlier do not appear to have practical significance. It is recommended to remove the potential measurement outliers. Doing so is conservative in the sense of producing a higher UCL95 for Hg and Mo than if the potential outliers were included in the calculations. In contrast to the inorganic results, most of the radionuclides did not demonstrate heterogeneity among the three Tank 6F composite sample characterization results.

Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

216

ANALYSIS OF THE TANK 6F FINAL CHARACTERIZATION SAMPLES-2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm-243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite Sample 2, and highest concentrations for Composite Sample 3. The Hg and Mo results suggest possible measurement outliers. However, the magnitudes of the differences between the Hg 95% upper confidence limit (UCL95) results with and without the outlier and the magnitudes of the differences between the Mo UCL95 results with and without the outlier do not appear to have practical significance. It is recommended to remove the potential measurement outliers. Doing so is conservative in the sense of producing a higher UCL95 for Hg and Mo than if the potential outliers were included in the calculations. In contrast to the inorganic results, most of the radionuclides did not demonstrate heterogeneity among the three Tank 6F composite sample characterization results.

Oji, L.; Diprete, D.; Coleman, C.; Hay, M.; Shine, G.

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

Analysis of the Tank 6F Final Characterization Samples-2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) to provide sample preparation and analysis of the Tank 6F final characterization samples to determine the residual tank inventory prior to grouting. Fourteen residual Tank 6F solid samples from three areas on the floor of the tank were collected and delivered to SRNL between May and August 2011. These Tank 6F samples were homogenized and combined into three composite samples based on a proportion compositing scheme and the resulting composite samples were analyzed for radiological, chemical and elemental components. Additional measurements performed on the Tank 6F composite samples include bulk density and water leaching of the solids to account for water soluble components. The composite Tank 6F samples were analyzed and the data reported in triplicate. Sufficient quality assurance standards and blanks were utilized to demonstrate adequate characterization of the Tank 6F samples. The main evaluation criteria were target detection limits specified in the technical task request document. While many of the target detection limits were met for the species characterized for Tank 6F some were not met. In a few cases, the relatively high levels of radioactive species of the same element or a chemically similar element precluded the ability to measure some isotopes to low levels. The isotopes whose detection limits were not met in all cases included Sn-126, Sb-126, Sb-126m, Eu-152, Cm- 243 and Cf-249. SRNL, in conjunction with the customer, reviewed all of these cases and determined that the impacts of not meeting the target detection limits were acceptable. Based on the analyses of variance (ANOVA) for the inorganic constituents of Tank 6F, all the inorganic constituents displayed heterogeneity. The inorganic results demonstrated consistent differences across the composite samples: lowest concentrations for Composite Sample 1, intermediate-valued concentrations for Composite Sample 2, and highest concentrations for Composite Sample 3. The Hg and Mo results suggest possible measurement outliers. However, the magnitudes of the differences between the Hg 95% upper confidence limit (UCL95) results with and without the outlier and the magnitudes of the differences between the Mo UCL95 results with and without the outlier do not appear to have practical significance. It is recommended to remove the potential measurement outliers. Doing so is conservative in the sense of producing a higher UCL95 for Hg and Mo than if the potential outliers were included in the calculations. In contrast to the inorganic results, most of the radionuclides did not demonstrate heterogeneity among the three Tank 6F composite sample characterization results.

Oji, L. N.; Diprete, D. P.; Coleman, C. J.; Hay, M. S.; Shine, E. P.

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop Agenda  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

948744369 GoalCharter: Identify key issues, including R&D needs, regulations, codes and standards, and a path forward to enable the deployment of hydrogen storage tanks...

219

Underground Storage Tanks (West Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This rule governs the construction, installation, upgrading, use, maintenance, testing, and closure of underground storage tanks, including certification requirements for individuals who install,...

220

Underground Storage Tanks (New Jersey)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This chapter constitutes rules for all underground storage tank facilities- including registration, reporting, permitting, certification, financial responsibility and to protect human health and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

PERFORMANCE TESTING OF THE NEXT-GENERATION CSSX SOLVENT WITH ACTUAL SRS TANK WASTE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Efforts are underway to qualify the Next-Generation Solvent for the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process. Researchers at multiple national laboratories have been involved in this effort. As part of the effort to qualify the solvent extraction system at the Savannah River Site (SRS), SRNL performed a number of tests at various scales. First, SRNL completed a series of batch equilibrium, or Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS), tests. These tests used {approx}30 mL of Next-Generation Solvent and either actual SRS tank waste, or waste simulant solutions. The results from these cesium mass transfer tests were used to predict solvent behavior under a number of conditions. At a larger scale, SRNL assembled 12 stages of 2-cm (diameter) centrifugal contactors. This rack of contactors is structurally similar to one tested in 2001 during the demonstration of the baseline CSSX process. Assembly and mechanical testing found no issues. SRNL performed a nonradiological test using 35 L of cesium-spiked caustic waste simulant and 39 L of actual tank waste. Test results are discussed; particularly those related to the effectiveness of extraction.

Pierce, R.; Peters, T.; Crowder, M.; Fink, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Tank closure reducing grout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

Caldwell, T.B.

1997-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

223

Hanford Tank Cleanup Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Bigfront.jpgcommunity200cell 9 Hanford Traffic Safety144 December Tank

224

Pore Water Extraction Test Near 241-SX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A proof-of-principle test is underway near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. The test will evaluate a potential remediation technology that will use tank farm-deployable equipment to remove contaminated pore water from vadose zone soils. The test system was designed and built to address the constraints of working within a tank farm. Due to radioactive soil contamination and limitations in drilling near tanks, small-diameter direct push drilling techniques applicable to tank farms are being utilized for well placement. To address space and weight limitations in working around tanks and obstacles within tank farms, the above ground portions of the test system have been constructed to allow deployment flexibility. The test system utilizes low vacuum over a sealed well screen to establish flow into an extraction well. Extracted pore water is collected in a well sump,and then pumped to the surface using a small-diameter bladder pump.If pore water extraction using this system can be successfully demonstrated, it may be possible to target local contamination in the vadose zone around underground storage tanks. It is anticipated that the results of this proof-of-principle test will support future decision making regarding interim and final actions for soil contamination within the tank farms.

Eberlein, Susan J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Danny L. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Tabor, Cynthia L. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States); Holm, Melissa J. [Washington River Protection Systems, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

225

Method and article for primary containment of cesium wastes. [DOE patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600/sup 0/C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1000/sup 0/C for a suitable duration.

Angelini, P.; Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Blanco, R.E.; Bond, W.D.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.

1981-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

226

Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5[prime]) [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. 3 figs.

Davis, M.W. Jr.; Bowers, C.B. Jr.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

228

Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

Davis, Jr., Milton W. (Lexington, SC); Bowers, Jr., Charles B. (Columbia, SC)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Underground Storage Tank Act (West Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

New underground storage tank construction standards must include at least the following requirements: (1) That an underground storage tank will prevent releases of regulated substances stored...

230

Independent Oversight Review, Hanford Tank Farms- November 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Review of Hanford Tank Farms Safety Basis Amendment for Double-Shell Tank Ventilation System Upgrades

231

A summary of available information on ferrocyanide tank wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ferrocyanide wastes were generated at the Hanford site during the mid to late 1950s to make more tank space available for the storage of high level nuclear waste. The ferrocyanide process was developed as a method of removing {sup 137}Cs from existing waste solutions and from process solutions that resulted from the recovery of valuable uranium in waste tanks. During the coarse of the research associated with the ferrocyanide process, it was discovered that ferrocyanide materials when mixed with NaNO{sub 3} and/or NaNO{sub 2} exploded. This chemical reactivity became an issue in the 1980s when the safety associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes in Hanford tanks became prominent. These safety issues heightened in the late 1980s and led to the current scrutiny of the safety associated with these wastes and the current research and waste management programs. Over the past three years, numerous explosive test have been carried out using milligram quantities of cyanide compounds. These tests provide information on the nature of possible tank reactions. On heating a mixture of ferrocyanide and nitrate or nitrite, an explosive reaction normally begins at about 240{degrees}C, but may occur well below 200{degrees}C in the presence of catalysts or organic compounds that may act as initiators. The energy released is highly dependent on the course of the reaction. Three attempts to model hot spots in local areas of the tanks indicate a very low probability of having a hot spot large enough and hot enough to be of concern. The main purpose of this document is to inform the members of the Tank Waste Science Panel of the background and issues associated with the ferrocyanide wastes. Hopefully, this document fulfills similar needs outside of the framework of the Tank Waste Science Panel. 50 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

Burger, L.L.; Strachan, D.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Reynolds, D.A. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Schulz, W.W. (Schulz (W.W.), Wilmington, DE (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Transient thermal analysis for radioactive liquid mixing operations in a large-scaled tank  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A transient heat balance model was developed to assess the impact of a Submersible Mixer Pump (SMP) on radioactive liquid temperature during the process of waste mixing and removal for the high-level radioactive materials stored in Savannah River Site (SRS) tanks. The model results will be mainly used to determine the SMP design impacts on the waste tank temperature during operations and to develop a specification for a new SMP design to replace existing longshaft mixer pumps used during waste removal. The present model was benchmarked against the test data obtained by the tank measurement to examine the quantitative thermal response of the tank and to establish the reference conditions of the operating variables under no SMP operation. The results showed that the model predictions agreed with the test data of the waste temperatures within about 10%.

Lee, S. Y.; Smith, III, F. G.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

2011-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

234

Request for closure, underground storage tank 2130-U: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Facility ID {number_sign}0-010117  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents a summary of the activities and analytical data related to the removal of underground storage tank (UST) 2130-U, previously located at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Removal of this tank was conducted in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulation 1200-1-15 (1992). A completed copy of the State of Tennessee, Division of Underground Storage Tanks, Permanent Closure Report Form is included as Appendix A of this document Based on the information and data presented herein, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant requests permanent closure for the tank 2130-U site.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

E-Print Network 3.0 - analysis cesium-137 cs-137 Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

DOSE ASSESSMENT 1997 BNL Site Environmental Report 9 -1 Summary: ; no analyses for strontium were performed. The maximum concentration of cesium-137 found in fish taken from......

236

Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-51xxx Electron electric dipole momentexperiment using electric-?eld quantized slow cesium atomsA proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM)

Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Caustic Recycle from Hanford Tank Waste Using NaSICON Ceramic Membrane Salt Splitting Process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A family of inorganic ceramic materials, called sodium (Na) Super Ion Conductors (NaSICON), has been studied at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate their ability to separate sodium from radioactively contaminated sodium salt solutions for treating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) tank wastes. Ceramatec Inc. developed and fabricated a membrane containing a proprietary NAS-GY material formulation that was electrochemically tested in a bench-scale apparatus with both a simulant and a radioactive tank-waste solution to determine the membrane performance when removing sodium from DOE tank wastes. Implementing this sodium separation process can result in significant cost savings by reducing the disposal volume of low-activity wastes and by producing a NaOH feedstock product for recycle into waste treatment processes such as sludge leaching, regenerating ion exchange resins, inhibiting corrosion in carbon-steel tanks, or retrieving tank wastes.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Kurath, Dean E.; Sevigny, Gary J.; Poloski, Adam P.; Pendleton, J.; Balagopal, S.; Quist, M.; Clay, D.

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

238

Hanford Double-Shell Tank Inspection Annual Report Calendar Year 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The double-shell tanks (DSTs) were constructed between 1968 and 1986. They will have exceeded their design life before the waste can be removed and trasferred to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant for vitrification. The Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project has been established to evaluate tank aging, and ensure that each tank is structurally sound for continued use. This is the first issue of the Double-Shell Tank Inspection Annual Report. The purpose of this issue is to summarize the results of DST inspections conducted from the beginnng of the inspection program through the end of CY2012. Hereafter, the report will be updated annually with summaries of the past year's DST inspection activities.

Petermann, Tasha M.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Washenfelder, D. J.

2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

239

Hanford tank residual waste – contaminant source terms and release models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residual waste is expected to be left in 177 underground storage tanks after closure at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site in Washington State (USA). In the long term, the residual wastes represent a potential source of contamination to the subsurface environment. Residual materials that cannot be completely removed during the tank closure process are being studied to identify and characterize the solid phases and estimate the release of contaminants from these solids to water that might enter the closed tanks in the future. As of the end of 2009, residual waste from five tanks has been evaluated. Residual wastes from adjacent tanks C-202 and C-203 have high U concentrations of 24 and 59 wt%, respectively, while residual wastes from nearby tanks C-103 and C-106 have low U concentrations of 0.4 and 0.03 wt%, respectively. Aluminum concentrations are high (8.2 to 29.1 wt%) in some tanks (C-103, C-106, and S-112) and relatively low (<1.5 wt%) in other tanks (C-202 and C-203). Gibbsite is a common mineral in tanks with high Al concentrations, while non-crystalline U-Na-C-O-P±H phases are common in the U-rich residual wastes from tanks C-202 and C-203. Iron oxides/hydroxides have been identified in all residual waste samples studied to date. Contaminant release from the residual wastes was studied by conducting batch leach tests using distilled deionized water, a Ca(OH)2-saturated solution, or a CaCO3-saturated water. Uranium release concentrations are highly dependent on waste and leachant compositions with dissolved U concentrations one or two orders of magnitude higher in the tests with high U residual wastes, and also higher when leached with the CaCO3-saturated solution than with the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution. Technetium leachability is not as strongly dependent on the concentration of Tc in the waste, and it appears to be slightly more leachable by the Ca(OH)2-saturated solution than by the CaCO3-saturated solution. In general, Tc is much less leachable (<10 wt% of the available mass in the waste) than previously predicted. This may be due to the coprecipitation of trace concentrations of Tc in relatively insoluble phases such as Fe oxide/hydroxide solids.

Deutsch, William J.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

2011-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

240

Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report.

Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Process for preparing chemically modified micas for removal of cesium salts from aqueous solution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A chemically modified mica composite formed by heating a trioctahedral mica in an aqueous solution of sodium chloride having a concentration of at least 1 mole/liter at a temperature greater than 180 degrees Centigrade for at least 20 hours, thereby replacing exchangeable ions in the mica with sodium. Formation is accomplished at temperatures and pressures which are easily accessed by industrial equipment. The reagent employed is inexpensive and non-hazardous, and generates a precipitate which is readily separated from the modified mica.

Yates, Stephen Frederic (1539 S. Kennicott Dr., Arlington Heights, IL 60005); DeFilippi, Irene (208 E. Edgewood La., Palatine, IL 60067); Gaita, Romulus (6646 Davis Rd., Morton Grove, IL 60053); Clearfield, Abraham (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Lyudmila (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843); Bortun, Anatoly (Department of Chemistry, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843)

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

242

Cornell University's Online Aboveground Petroleum Tank Inspection Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cornell University's Online Aboveground Petroleum Tank Inspection Program How To's What is Cornell University's Online Aboveground Petroleum Tank Inspection Program? Cornell University's Online Aboveground Petroleum Tank Inspection Program enables assigned tank inspectors to record their monthly aboveground tank

Pawlowski, Wojtek

243

Total nitrogen removal in a hybrid, membrane-aerated activated sludge process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Total nitrogen removal in a hybrid, membrane-aerated activated sludge process Leon S. Downing wastewater. Air-filled hollow-fiber membranes are incorporated into an activated sludge tank removal in activated sludge. ª 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The removal

Nerenberg, Robert

244

DOE HydrogenDOE Hydrogen Composite Tank ProgramComposite Tank Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE HydrogenDOE Hydrogen Composite Tank ProgramComposite Tank Program Dr. Neel Sirosh DIRECTOR and validate 5,000 psi storage tanks ­ Tank efficiency: 7.5 ­ 8.5 wt% · Validate 5,000 psi in-tank-pressure regulators ­ Total storage system efficiency: 5.7 wt% · Develop and validate 10,000 psi storage tanks ­ Tank

245

Tank 12H Acidic Chemical Cleaning Sample Analysis And Material Balance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process of Bulk Oxalic Acid (BOA) chemical cleaning was performed for Tank 12H during June and July of 2013 to remove all or a portion of the approximately 4400 gallon sludge heel. Three strikes of oxalic acid (nominally 4 wt % or 2 wt %) were used at 55 ?C and tank volumes of 96- to 140-thousand gallons. This report details the sample analysis of a scrape sample taken prior to BOA cleaning and dip samples taken during BOA cleaning. It also documents a rudimentary material balance for the Tank 12H cleaning results.

Martino, C. J.; Reboul, S. H.; Wiersma, B. J.; Coleman, C. J.

2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

246

Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

Klem, M.J.

1996-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

247

Engineering task plan for Tanks 241-AN-103, 104, 105 color video camera systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and installation of the video camera systems into the vapor space within tanks 241-AN-103, 104, and 105. The one camera remotely operated color video systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space. Activities may include but are not limited to core sampling, auger activities, crust layer examination, monitoring of equipment installation/removal, and any other activities. The objective of this task is to provide a single camera system in each of the tanks for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program.

Kohlman, E.H.

1994-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

248

Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C{sub 2}R{sub 2}B{sub 9}H{sub 9}){sub 2}{sup {minus}}(CoB{sub 2}R{sub 4}{sup {minus}}; R=CH{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 13}) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10{sup 4}) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB{sub 2}-hexyl{sub 4}{sup {minus}} extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described. 6 figs.

Miller, R.L.; Pinkerton, A.B.; Abney, K.D.; Kinkead, S.A.

1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

249

Preparation and use of tetra-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Preparation and use of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollide for extraction of cesium and strontium into hydrocarbon solvents. Tetra-C-alkyl derivatives of cobalt dicarbollide, Co(C.sub.2 R.sub.2 B.sub.9 H.sub.9).sub.2.sup.- (CoB.sub.2 R.sub.4.sup.- ; R=CH.sub.3 and C.sub.6 H.sub.13) are demonstrated to be significant cesium and strontium extractants from acidic and alkaline solutions into non-toxic organic solvent systems. Extractions using mesitylene and diethylbenzene are compared to those with nitrobenzene as the organic phase. CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- in diethylbenzene shows improved selectivity (10.sup.4) for Cs over Na in acidic solution. In dilute alkaline solution, CoB.sub.2 -hexyl.sub.4.sup.- extracts Cs less efficiently, but more effectively removes Sr from higher base concentrations. A general synthesis of tetra-C-alkyl cobalt dicarbollides is described.

Miller, Rebecca L. (Los Alamos, NM); Pinkerton, Anthony B. (Santa Fe, NM); Abney, Kent D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kinkead, Scott A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Hanford Tanks Initiative fiscal year 1997 retrieval technology demonstrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Hanford Tanks Initiative was established in 1996 to address a range of retrieval and closure issues associated with radioactive and hazardous waste stored in Hanford`s single shell tanks (SSTs). One of HTI`s retrieval goals is to ``Successfully demonstrate technology(s) that provide expanded capabilities beyond past practice sluicing and are extensible to retrieve waste from other SSTS.`` Specifically, HTI is to address ``Alternative technologies to past practice sluicing`` ... that can ... ``successfully remove the hard heel from a sluiced tank or to remove waste from a leaking SST`` (HTI Mission Analysis). During fiscal year 1997, the project contracted with seven commercial vendor teams to demonstrate retrieval technologies using waste simulants. These tests were conducted in two series: three integrated tests (IT) were completed in January 1997, and four more comprehensive Alternative Technology Retrieval Demonstrations (ARTD) were completed in July 1997. The goal of this testing was to address issues to minimize the risk, uncertainties, and ultimately the overall cost of removing waste from the SSTS. Retrieval technologies can be separated into three tracks based on how the tools would be deployed in the tank: globally (e.g., sluicing) or using vehicles or robotic manipulators. Accordingly, the HTI tests included an advanced sluicer (Track 1: global systems), two different vehicles (Track 2: vehicle based systems), and three unique manipulators (Track 3: arm-based systems), each deploying a wide range of dislodging tools and conveyance systems. Each industry team produced a system description as envisioned for actual retrieval and a list of issues that could prevent using the described system; defined the tests to resolve the issues; performed the test; and reported the results, lessons learned, and state of issue resolution. These test reports are cited in this document, listed in the reference section, and summarized in the appendices. This report analyzes the retrieval testing issues and describes what has been learned and issues that need further resolution. As such, it can serve as a guide to additional testing that must be performed before the systems are used in-tank. The major issues discussed are tank access, deployment, mining strategy, waste retrieval, liquid scavenging (liquid usage), maneuverability, positioning, static and dynamic performance, remote operations, reliability, availability, maintenance, tank safety, and cost.

Berglin, E.J.

1998-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

251

Cesium reservoir and interconnective components. Final test report: TFE Verification Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The program objective is to demonstrate the technology readiness of a TFE (thermionic fuel element) suitable for use as the basic element in a thermionic reactor with electric power output in the 0.5 to 5.0 MW range. A thermionic converter must be supplied with cesium vapor for two reasons. Cesium atoms adsorbed on the surface of the emitter cause a reduction of the emitter work function to permit high current densities without excessive heating of the emitter. The second purpose of the cesium vapor is to provide space-charge neutralization in the emitter-collector gap so that the high current densities may flow across the gap unattenuated. The function of the cesium reservoir is to provide a source of cesium atoms, and to provide a reserve in the event that cesium is lost from the plasma by any mechanism. This can be done with a liquid cesium metal reservoir in which case it is heated to the desired temperature with auxiliary heaters. In a TFE, however, it is desirable to have the reservoir passively heated by the nuclear fuel. In this case, the reservoir must operate at a temperature intermediate between the emitter and the collector, ruling out the use of liquid reservoirs. Integral reservoirs contained within the TFE will produce cesium vapor pressures in the desired range at typical electrode temperatures. The reservoir material that appears to be the best able to meet requirements is graphite. Cesium intercalates easily into graphite, and the cesium pressure is insensitive to loading for a given intercalation stage. The goals of the cesium reservoir test program were to verify the performance of Cs-graphite reservoirs in the temperature-pressure range of interest to TFE operation, and to test the operation of these reservoirs after exposure to a fast neutron fluence corresponding to seven year mission lifetime. In addition, other materials were evaluated for possible use in the integral reservoir.

Not Available

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Sequestration and release mechanisms of strontium and cesium in zeolite/feldspathoid systems and laboratory reacted Hanford sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from the release of strontium-90 and cesium-137 isotopes. SrK.T. (2006) NMR study of strontium binding by a micaceousChorover, J. (2011) Strontium and Cesium Release Mechanisms

Rivera, Nelson Antonio Jr.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

Rakestraw, L.D.

1994-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

254

A STRUCTURAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF FLAWS DETECTED DURING ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION OF TANK 15  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultrasonic (UT) inspection of Tank 15 was conducted between April and July 2007 in accordance with the Tank 15 UT inspection plan. This was a planned re-inspection of this tank, the previous one was performed in 2002. Ten cracks were characterized in the previous examination. The re-inspection was performed to verify the present models and understanding for stress corrosion cracking. During this re-examination, one indication that was initially reported as a 'possible perpendicular crack <25% through wall' in 2002, was clearly shown not to be a crack. Additionally, examination of a new area immediately adjacent to other cracks along a vertical weld revealed three new cracks. It is not known when these new cracks formed as they could very well have been present in 2002 as well. Therefore, a total of twelve cracks were evaluated during the re-examination. A critical review of the information describing stress corrosion crack behavior for the SRS waste tanks, as well as a summary review of the service history of Tank 15, was performed. Each crack was then evaluated for service exposure history, consistency of the crack behavior with the current understanding of stress corrosion cracking, and present and future impact to the structural integrity of the tank. Crack instability calculations were performed on each crack for a bounding waste removal loading condition in Tank 15. In all cases, the crack behavior was determined to be consistent with the previous understanding of stress corrosion cracking in the SRS waste tank environment. The length of the cracks was limited due to the short-range nature of the residual stresses near seam, repair and attachment welds. Of the twelve cracks, nine were located in the vapor space above the sludge layer, including the three new cracks. Comparison of the crack lengths measured in 2002 and 2007 revealed that crack growth had occurred in four of the six previously measured vapor space cracks. However, the growth remained within the residual stress zone. None of the three cracks beneath the sludge showed evidence of growth. The impact of the cracks that grew on the future service of Tank 15 was also assessed. Tank 15 is expected to undergo closure activities including sludge waste removal. A bounding loading condition for waste removal of the sludge at the bottom of Tank 15 was considered for this analysis. The analysis showed that the combination of hydrostatic, seismic, pump and weld residual stresses are not expected to drive any of the cracks identified during the Tank 15 UT inspection to instability. Wall thickness mapping for general thinning and pitting was also performed. No significant wall thinning was observed. The average wall thickness values were well above nominal. Two isolated pit-like indications were observed. Both were approximately 30 mils deep. However, the remaining wall thickness was still greater than nominal specified for the original construction plate material. It was recommended that a third examination of selected cracks in Tank 15 be performed in 2014. This examination would provide information to determine whether any additional detectable degradation is occurring in Tank 15 and to supplement the basis for characterization of conditions that are non-aggressive to tank corrosion damage. The in-service inspection program is re-evaluated on a three year periodicity. The Type I and II tanks are not active receipt tanks at present, and are therefore not a part of the In-Service Inspection Program for the Type III Tanks [1]. Changes to the mission for Tank 15 and other Type I and II tanks may be considered by the In-Service Inspection Review Committee (ISIRC) and the program adjusted accordingly.

Wiersma, B; James Elder, J

2008-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

255

Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford tank initiative: Applications to the AX Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combined engineering and geochemistry approach is recommended for the stabilization of waste in decommissioned tanks and contaminated soils at the AX Tank Farm, Hanford, WA. A two-part strategy of desiccation and gettering is proposed for treatment of the in-tank residual wastes. Dry portland cement and/or fly ash are suggested as an effective and low-cost desiccant for wicking excess moisture from the upper waste layer. Getters work by either ion exchange or phase precipitation to reduce radionuclide concentrations in solution. The authors recommend the use of specific natural and man-made compounds, appropriately proportioned to the unique inventory of each tank. A filler design consisting of multilayered cementitous grout with interlayered sealant horizons should serve to maintain tank integrity and minimize fluid transport to the residual waste form. External tank soil contamination is best mitigated by placement of grouted skirts under and around each tank, together with installation of a cone-shaped permeable reactive barrier beneath the entire tank farm. Actinide release rates are calculated from four tank closure scenarios ranging from no action to a comprehensive stabilization treatment plan (desiccant/getters/grouting/RCRA cap). Although preliminary, these calculations indicate significant reductions in the potential for actinide transport as compared to the no-treatment option.

Balsley, S.D.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Borns, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); McKeen, R.G. [Alliance for Transportation Research, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Monthly Tank Inspection Log Name of Campus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Monthly Tank Inspection Log Name of Campus Street Address of Campus City, State, and Zip Code of Campus 1 of 2 1. Facility PBS Registration Number 6. DISTRIBUTE TO : 2. Tank Number 3. Tank Registered(S) Satisfactory Repair or Adjustment Required Not Applicable Additional Comments Attached ABOVEGROUND STORAGE TANK

Rosen, Jay

257

Tips For Residential Heating Oil Tank Owners  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Tips For Residential Heating Oil Tank Owners Source: DEP Fact Sheet Residential heating oil tanks are used to store fuel for furnaces or boilers to heat homes. The tanks can either be aboveground tanks, normally located in basements or utility rooms

Maroncelli, Mark

258

Cornell University's Online Aboveground Petroleum Tank  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cornell University's Online Aboveground Petroleum Tank Inspection Program How To's Petroleum Bulk-material-storage/petroleum-bulk-storage/Documents/Inspect_GD.pdf What is Cornell University's Online Aboveground Petroleum Tank Inspection Program? Cornell University's Online Aboveground Petroleum Tank Inspection Program enables assigned tank inspectors to record

Pawlowski, Wojtek

259

Buffer Tank Design for Acceptable Control Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Buffer Tank Design for Acceptable Control Performance Audun Faanes and Sigurd Skogestad for the design of buffer tanks. We consider mainly the case where the objective of the buffer tank is to dampen- trol system. We consider separately design procedures for (I) mixing tanks to dampen quality

Skogestad, Sigurd

260

DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop Sandia National Laboratories  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DOE Vehicular Tank Workshop Sandia National Laboratories Livermore, CA April 29, 2010 Thursday the deployment of hydrogen storage tanks in early market fuel cell applications for vehicles Workshop Objectives at the first workshop in more detail, including Type 4 tank and PRD testing, tank service life and tracking

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

OVERVIEW OF HANFORD SINGLE SHELL TANK (SST) STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY - 12123  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To improve the understanding of the single-shell tanks (SSTs) integrity, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS), the USDOE Hanford Site tank contractor, developed an enhanced Single-Shell Tank Integrity Project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity, consisting of various subject matters experts in industry and academia, was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. This panel developed 33 recommendations in four main areas of interest: structural integrity, liner degradation, leak integrity and prevention, and mitigation of contamination migration. Seventeen of these recommendations were used to develop the basis for the M-45-10-1 Change Package for the Hanford Federal Agreement and Compliance Order, which is also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The structural integrity of the tanks is a key element in completing the cleanup mission at the Hanford Site. There are eight primary recommendations related to the structural integrity of Hanford SSTs. Six recommendations are being implemented through current and planned activities. The structural integrity of the Hanford SSTs is being evaluated through analysis, monitoring, inspection, materials testing, and construction document review. Structural evaluation in the form of analysis is performed using modern finite element models generated in ANSYS{reg_sign} The analyses consider in-situ, thermal, operating loads and natural phenomena such as earthquakes. Structural analysis of 108 of 149 Hanford SSTs has concluded that the tanks are structurally sound and meet current industry standards. Analyses of the remaining Hanford SSTs are scheduled for FY2013. Hanford SSTs are monitored through a dome deflection program. The program looks for deflections of the tank dome greater than 1/4 inch. No such deflections have been recorded. The tanks are also subjected to visual inspection. Digital cameras record the interior surface of the concrete tank domes, looking for cracks and other surface conditions that may indicate signs of structural distress. The condition of the concrete and rebar of the Hanford SSTs is currently being tested and planned for additional activities in the near future. Concrete and rebar removed from the dome of a 65-year-old tank is being tested for mechanics properties and condition. Results indicated stronger than designed concrete with additional Petrographic examination and rebar testing ongoing. Material properties determined from previous efforts combined with current testing and construction document review will help to generate a database that will provide continuing indication of Hanford SST structural integrity.

RAST RS; RINKER MW; WASHENFELDER DJ; JOHNSON JB

2012-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

262

Technology study of Gunite tank sludge mobilization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Tank Sludge Mobilization Technology Study was initiated to support the Gunite Tank Treatability Study effort. The technology study surveyed the methods and technologies available for tank cleaning and sludge mobilization in a radioactive environment. Technologies were identified and considered for applicability to the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) problems. These were then either accepted for further study or rejected as not applicable. Technologies deemed applicable to the GAAT sludge removal project were grouped for evaluation according to (1) deployment method, (2) types of remotely operated end effector equipment applicable to removal of sludge, (3) methods for removing wastes from the tanks, and (4) methods for concrete removal. There were three major groups of deployment technologies: ``past practice`` technologies, mechanical arm-based technologies, and vehicle-based technologies. The different technologies were then combined into logical sequences of deployment platform, problem, end effector, conveyance, post-removal treatment required (if any), and disposition of the waste. Many waste removal options are available, but the best technology in one set of circumstances at one site might not be the best type to use at a different site. No single technology is capable of treating the entire spectrum of wastes that will be encountered in GAAT. None of the systems used in other industries appears to be suitable, primarily because of the nature of the sludges in the GAAT Operable Unit (OU), their radiation levels, and tank geometries. Other commercial technologies were investigated but rejected because the authors did not believe them to be applicable.

DeVore, J.R.; Herrick, T.J.; Lott, K.E.

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Improvement in LNG storage tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To develop and produce natural gas fuel tanks for medium duty truck and transit bus end-use to overcome the weight and range problems inherent in current fuel systems.

NONE

1999-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

264

Light Duty Vehicle CNG Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle CNG Tanks Dane A. Boysen, PhD Program Director Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, US DOE dane.boysen@doe.gov Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Manufacturing...

265

Evolving Robocode Tank Jacob Eisenstein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evolving Robocode Tank Fighters Jacob Eisenstein AI Memo 2003-023 October 2003 © 2 0 0 3 m into things hurts. FANTASY · Sensors and actuators are noiseless. · Radar sensor detects velocity, bearing

Fernandez, Thomas

266

Investigating leaking underground storage tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INVESTIGATING LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS A Thesis by DAVID THOMPSON UPTON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1989... Major Subject: Geology INVESTIGATING LEAKING UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS A Thesis by DAVID THOMPSON UPTON Approved as to sty)e and content by: P. A, Domenico (Chair of Committee) jj K. W. Brown (Member) C. C Mathewson (Member) J. H. S ng Head...

Upton, David Thompson

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Thermalization of fast cesium 5D3/2 atoms in collisions with ground-state cesium atoms A. P. Hickman,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermalization of fast cesium 5D3/2 atoms in collisions with ground-state cesium atoms A. Marks,1 A fast, excited Cs atoms produced by photodissociating Cs2 mol- ecules with a pulsed dye laser. The velocities of the atoms in the 5D state formed by the process Cs2 X 1 g + + pumpCs2 * Cs 5D +Cs 6S are much

Huennekens, John

268

Stabilization of in-tank residual wastes and external-tank soil contamination for the tank focus area, Hanford Tank Initiative: Applications to the AX tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report investigates five technical areas for stabilization of decommissioned waste tanks and contaminated soils at the Hanford Site AX Farm. The investigations are part of a preliminary evacuation of end-state options for closure of the AX Tanks. The five technical areas investigated are: (1) emplacement of cementations grouts and/or other materials; (2) injection of chemicals into contaminated soils surrounding tanks (soil mixing); (3) emplacement of grout barriers under and around the tanks; (4) the explicit recognition that natural attenuation processes do occur; and (5) combined geochemical and hydrological modeling. Research topics are identified in support of key areas of technical uncertainty, in each of the five areas. Detailed cost-benefit analyses of the technologies are not provided. This investigation was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, during FY 1997 by tank Focus Area (EM-50) funding.

Becker, D.L.

1997-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

269

ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of the contract, the focus remains on the RTIEE.

Rachel Landry

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF) LABORATORY GERMANIUM OXIDE USE ON RECYCLE TRANSFERS TO THE H-TANK FARM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. Therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream feed stream, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. This strategy is known as 'feed forward statistical process control.' The DWPF depends on chemical analysis of the feed streams from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) where the frit plus adjusted sludge from the SRAT are mixed. The SME is the last vessel in which any chemical adjustments or frit additions can be made. Once the analyses of the SME product are deemed acceptable, the SME product is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and onto the melter. The SRAT and SME analyses have been analyzed by the DWPF laboratory using a 'Cold Chemical' method but this dissolution did not adequately dissolve all the elemental components. A new dissolution method which fuses the SRAT or SME product with cesium nitrate (CsNO{sub 3}), germanium (IV) oxide (GeO{sub 2}) and cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) into a cesium germanate glass at 1050 C in platinum crucibles has been developed. Once the germanium glass is formed in that fusion, it is readily dissolved by concentrated nitric acid (about 1M) to solubilize all the elements in the SRAT and/or SME product for elemental analysis. When the chemical analyses are completed the acidic cesium-germanate solution is transferred from the DWPF analytic laboratory to the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) where the pH is increased to {approx}12 M to be released back to the tank farm and the 2H evaporator. Therefore, about 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2}/year will be diluted into 1.4 million gallons of recycle. This 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2} may increase to 4 kg/yr when improvements are implemented to attain an annual canister production goal of 400 canisters. Since no Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) exists for germanium in the Tank Farm, the Effluent Treatment Project, or the Saltstone Production Facility, DWPF has requested an evaluation of the fate of the germanium in the caustic environment of the RCT, the 2H evaporator, and the tank farm. This report evaluates the effect of the addition of germanium to the tank farm based on: (1) the large dilution of Ge in the RCT and tank farm; (2) the solubility of germanium in caustic solutions (pH 12-13); (3) the potential of germanium to precipitate as germanium sodalites in the 2H Evaporator; and (4) the potential of germanium compounds to precipitate in the evaporator feed tank. This study concludes that the impacts of transferring up to 4 kg/yr germanium to the RCT (and subsequently the 2H evaporator feed tank and the 2H evaporator) results in <2 ppm per year (1.834 mg/L) which is the maximum instantaneous concentration expected from DWPF. This concentration is insignificant as most sodium germanates are soluble at the high pH of the feed tank and evaporator solutions. Even if sodium aluminosilicates form in the 2H evaporator, the Ge will likely substitute for some small amount of the Si in these structures and will be insignificant. It is recommended that the DWPF continue with their strategy to add germanium as a laboratory chemical to Attachment 8.2 of the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan (WCP).

Jantzen, C.; Laurinat, J.

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

-1 -RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THINK TANK CONVENORS December 7, 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- 1 - RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THINK TANK CONVENORS of our expert think tank 'Managing for Uncertainty: Pathogens and Disease Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), Australia's Invitational Scientists' Think Tank Managing

272

Acoustic Method for Fish Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks W.A. Kuperman and Philippedistributed among its 97 tanks to maximize feed-conversionrequires inventory- ing tanks regularly. Currently, this is

Kuperman, William A.; Roux, Philippe

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

A Cost Benefit Analysis of California's Leaking Underground Fuel Tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s Leaking Underground Fuel Tanks (LUFTs)”. Submitted to theCalifornia’s Underground Storage Tank Program”. Submitted tos Leaking Underground Fuel Tanks” by Samantha Carrington

Carrington-Crouch, Robert

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Acoustic Method for Fish Counting and Fish Sizing in Tanks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurements in an echoic tank. ICES Journal of Marineto fish counting in a tank. Journal of the Acousticaland materials of the cylindrical tanks for the experiments.

Roux, Philippe; Conti, Stéphane; Demer, David; Maurer, Benjamin D.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

DOE Selects Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC for Tank...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Plateau. The scope of the tank operations contract includes base operations of the tanks, analytical laboratory support, single-shell tank retrieval and closure, Waste...

276

PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We plan to treat these wastes as transuranic waste (TRU) for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which will reduce the WTP system processing time by three years. We are also developing and testing bulk vitrification as a technology to supplement the WTP LAW vitrification facility for immobilizing the massive volume of LAW. We will conduct a full-scale demonstration of the Demonstration Bulk Vitrification System by immobilizing up to 1,100 m{sup 3} (300,000 gallons) of tank S-109 low-curie soluble waste from which Cs-137 had previously been removed. This past year has been marked by both progress and new challenges. The focus of our tank farm work has been retrieving waste from the old single-shell tanks (SSTs). We have completed waste retrieval from three SSTs and are conducting retrieval operations on an additional three SSTs. While most waste retrievals have gone about as expected, we have faced challenges with some recalcitrant tank heel wastes that required enhanced approaches. Those enhanced approaches ranged from oxalic acid additions to deploying a remote high-pressure water lance. As with all large, long-term projects that employ first of a kind technologies, we continue to be challenged to control costs and maintain schedule. However, it is most important to work safely and to provide facilities that will do the job they are intended to do.

HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

277

Evaluation of Tank 241-T-111 Level Data and In-Tank Video Inspection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the status of tank T-111 as of January 1, 2014 and estimates a leak rate and post-1994 leak volume for the tank.

Schofield, John S. [Columbia Energy and Environmental Services (United States); Feero, Amie J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States)

2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

278

241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

279

241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

2014-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

280

241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Uranium and cesium diffusion in fuel cladding of electrogenerating channel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of reactor tests of a carbonitride fuel in a single-crystal cladding from a molybdenum-based alloy can be used in substantiating the operational reliability of fuels in developing a project of a megawatt space nuclear power plant. The results of experimental studies of uranium and cesium penetration into the single-crystal cladding of fuel elements with a carbonitride fuel are interpreted. Those fuel elements passed nuclear power tests in the Ya-82 pilot plant for 8300 h at a temperature of about 1500°C. It is shown that the diffusion coefficients for uranium diffusion into the cladding are virtually coincident with the diffusion coefficients measured earlier for uranium diffusion into polycrystalline molybdenum. It is found that the penetration of uranium into the cladding is likely to occur only in the case of a direct contact between the cladding and fuel. The experimentally observed nonmonotonic uranium-concentration profiles are explained in terms of predominant uranium diffusion along grain boundaries. It is shown that a substantially nonmonotonic behavior observed in our experiment for the uranium-concentration profile may be explained by the presence of a polycrystalline structure of the cladding in the surface region from its inner side. The diffusion coefficient is estimated for the grain-boundary diffusion of uranium. The diffusion coefficients for cesium are estimated on the basis of experimental data obtained in the present study.

Vasil’ev, I. V., E-mail: fnti@mail.ru; Ivanov, A. S.; Churin, V. A. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

FLAMMABILITY AND CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS FOR MCU WASTE TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site of Department of Energy will use the new Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) to process the waste stream by removing/reducing Cs-137 using Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) technology. The CSSX technology utilizes multicomponent organic solvent and annular centrifugal contactors to extract Cs-137 from waste salt solution. Due to the radiolysis of the aqueous nuclear wastes, hydrogen generation is expected in the MCU holding tanks. The hydrogen from radiolysis and the vapor from the organic component of the solvent, Isopar-L, may form a composite flammable gas mixture, resulting in a shorter time to flammability than that of a pure hydrogen environment. It has been found that the time-to-Lower Flammability Limit (LFL) and stoichiometric concentration (SC) vary greatly from tank to tank, and could be decreased significantly by the presence of the Isopar-L. However, neither the deflagration nor the detonation event would challenge the Evaluation Guideline for any of the tanks at any liquid level.

Knight, J; Mukesh Gupta, M

2007-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

283

Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

Peng, Fang Z. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Closure report for underground storage tank 141-R3U1 and its associated underground piping  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underground storage tank UST 141-R3U1 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984. This tank system consisted of a concrete tank, lined with polyvinyl chloride, and approximately 100 feet of PVC underground piping. UST 141-R3U1 had a capacity of 450 gallons. The underground piping connected three floor drains and one sink inside Building 141 to UST 141-R3U1. The wastewater collected in UST 141-R3U1 contained organic solvents, metals, and inorganic acids. On November 30, 1987, the 141-R3U1 tank system failed a precision tank test. The 141-R3U1 tank system was subsequently emptied and removed from service pending further precision tests to determine the location of the leak within the tank system. A precision tank test on February 5, 1988, was performed to confirm the November 30, 1987 test. Four additional precision tests were performed on this tank system between February 25, 1988, and March 6, 1988. The leak was located where the inlet piping from Building 141 penetrates the concrete side of UST 141-R3U1. The volume of wastewater that entered the backfill and soil around and/or beneath UST 141-R3U1 is unknown. On December 13, 1989, the LLNL Environmental Restoration Division submitted a plan to close UST 141-R3U1 and its associated piping to the Alameda County Department of Environmental Health. UST 141-R3U1 was closed as an UST, and shall be used instead as additional secondary containment for two aboveground storage tanks.

Mallon, B.J.; Blake, R.G.

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

RESORCINOL-FORMALDEHYDE ADSORPTION OF CESIUM (Cs+) FROM HANFORD WASTE SOLUTIONS-PART I: BATCH EQUILIBRIUM STUDY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Batch equilibrium measurements were conducted with a granular Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF) resin to determine the distribution coefficients (Kds) for cesium. In the tests, Hanford Site actual waste sample containing radioactive cesium and a pretreated waste sample that was spiked with non-radioactive cesium were used. Initial concentrations of non-radioactive cesium in the waste sample were varied to generate an equilibrium isotherm for cesium. Two additional tests were conducted using a liquid to solid phase ratio of 10 and a contact time of 120 hours. The measured distribution coefficient (Kd) for radioactive cesium (137Cs) was 948 mL/g; the Kd for non-radioactive cesium (133Cs) was 1039 mL/g. The Kd for non-radioactive cesium decreased from 1039 to 691 mL/g as the initial cesium concentration increased. Very little change of the Kd was observed at initial cesium concentrations above 64 mg/mL. The maximum sorption capacity for cesium on granular RF resin was 1.17 mmole/g dry resin. T his value was calculated from the fit of the equilibrium isotherm data to the Dubinin-Radushkevich equation. Previously, a total capacity of 2.84 mmole/g was calculated by Bibler and Wallace for air-dried RF resin.

HASSAN, NEGUIBM

2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

286

TANK48 CFD MODELING ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process of recovering the waste in storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS) typically requires mixing the contents of the tank to ensure uniformity of the discharge stream. Mixing is accomplished with one to four dual-nozzle slurry pumps located within the tank liquid. For the work, a Tank 48 simulation model with a maximum of four slurry pumps in operation has been developed to estimate flow patterns for efficient solid mixing. The modeling calculations were performed by using two modeling approaches. One approach is a single-phase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to evaluate the flow patterns and qualitative mixing behaviors for a range of different modeling conditions since the model was previously benchmarked against the test results. The other is a two-phase CFD model to estimate solid concentrations in a quantitative way by solving the Eulerian governing equations for the continuous fluid and discrete solid phases over the entire fluid domain of Tank 48. The two-phase results should be considered as the preliminary scoping calculations since the model was not validated against the test results yet. A series of sensitivity calculations for different numbers of pumps and operating conditions has been performed to provide operational guidance for solids suspension and mixing in the tank. In the analysis, the pump was assumed to be stationary. Major solid obstructions including the pump housing, the pump columns, and the 82 inch central support column were included. The steady state and three-dimensional analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with FLUENT{trademark} for the single-phase approach and CFX for the two-phase approach. Recommended operational guidance was developed assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of sludge suspension and spatial mixing under single-phase tank model. For quantitative analysis, a two-phase fluid-solid model was developed for the same modeling conditions as the single-phase model. The modeling results show that the flow patterns driven by four pump operation satisfy the solid suspension requirement, and the average solid concentration at the plane of the transfer pump inlet is about 12% higher than the tank average concentrations for the 70 inch tank level and about the same as the tank average value for the 29 inch liquid level. When one of the four pumps is not operated, the flow patterns are satisfied with the minimum suspension velocity criterion. However, the solid concentration near the tank bottom is increased by about 30%, although the average solid concentrations near the transfer pump inlet have about the same value as the four-pump baseline results. The flow pattern results show that although the two-pump case satisfies the minimum velocity requirement to suspend the sludge particles, it provides the marginal mixing results for the heavier or larger insoluble materials such as MST and KTPB particles. The results demonstrated that when more than one jet are aiming at the same position of the mixing tank domain, inefficient flow patterns are provided due to the highly localized momentum dissipation, resulting in inactive suspension zone. Thus, after completion of the indexed solids suspension, pump rotations are recommended to avoid producing the nonuniform flow patterns. It is noted that when tank liquid level is reduced from the highest level of 70 inches to the minimum level of 29 inches for a given number of operating pumps, the solid mixing efficiency becomes better since the ratio of the pump power to the mixing volume becomes larger. These results are consistent with the literature results.

Lee, S.

2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

287

Washing and caustic leaching of Hanford tank sludge: Results of FY 1997 studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current plan for remediating the Hanford tank farms consists of waste retrieval, pretreatment, treatment (immobilization), and disposal. The tank wastes will be partitioned into high-level and low-level fractions. The HLW will be immobilized in a borosilicate glass matrix; the resulting glass canisters will then be disposed of in a geologic repository. Because of the expected high cost of HLW vitrification and geologic disposal, pretreatment processes will be implemented to reduce the volume of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW). Caustic leaching (sometimes referred to as enhanced sludge washing or ESW) represents the baseline method for pretreating Hanford tank sludges. Caustic leaching is expected to remove a large fraction of the Al, which is present in large quantities in Hanford tank sludges. A significant portion of the P is also expected to be removed from the sludge by metathesis of water-insoluble metal phosphates to insoluble hydroxides and soluble Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Similar metathesis reactions can occur for insoluble sulfate salts, allowing the removal of sulfate from the HLW stream. This report describes the sludge washing and caustic leaching tests performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 1996. The sludges used in this study were taken from Hanford tanks AN-104, BY-108, S-101, and S-111.

Lumetta, G.J.; Burgeson, I.E.; Wagner, M.J.; Liu, J.; Chen, Y.L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF CAUSTIC WASH TANK AND SOLVENT HOLD TANK SAMPLES FROM MCU FROM AUGUST TO SEPTEMBER 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During processing of Salt Batches 3 and 4 in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU), the decontamination efficiency for cesium declined from historical values and from expectations based on laboratory testing. This report documents efforts to analyze samples of solvent and process solutions from MCU in an attempt to understand the cause of the reduced performance and to recommend mitigations. CWT Solutions from MCU from the time period of variable decontamination factor (DF) performance which covers from April 2011 to September 2011 (during processing of Salt Batch 4) were examined for impurities using chromatography and spectroscopy. The results indicate that impurities were found to be of two types: aromatic containing impurities most likely from Modifier degradation and aliphatic type impurities most likely from Isopar{reg_sign} L and tri-n-octylamine (TOA) degradation. Caustic washing the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) solution with 1M NaOH improved its extraction ability as determined from {sup 22}Na uptake tests. Evidence from this work showed that pH variance in the aqueous solutions within the range of 1M nitric acid to 1.91M NaOH that contacted the solvent samples does not influence the analytical determination of the TOA concentration by GC-MS.

Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

MOBILIZATION, POISONING, AND FILTRATION OF F-CANYON TANK 804 SLUDGE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) Deactivation and Decommissioning (SDD) Organization is evaluating options to disposition the F-Canyon 800 series underground tanks (including removal of the sludge heels from these tanks) and requested assistance from Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel to develop methods to effectively mobilize the sludge from these tanks (i.e., Tanks 804, 808, and 809). Because of the high plutonium content in Tank 804 (estimated to be as much as 1500 g), SDD needs to add a neutron poison to the sludge. They considered manganese and boron as potential poisons. Because of the large amount of manganese needed and the very slow filtration rate of the sludge/manganese slurry, SDD requested that SRNL investigate the impact of using boron rather than manganese as the poison. SRNL performed a series of experiments to help determine the disposal pathway of the material currently located in Tank 804. The objectives of this work are: (1) Determine the mobility of Tank 804 sludge when mixed with 10-15 parts sodium hydroxide as a function of pH between 10 and 14. (2) Determine the solubility of boron in sodium hydroxide solution with a free hydroxide concentration between 1 x 10{sup -4} and 2.0 M. (3) Recommend a filter pore size for SDD such that the filtrate contains no visible solids. (4) Determine whether a precipitate forms when the filtrate pH is adjusted to 12, 7, or 2 with nitric acid.

Poirier, M; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

290

Hanford tank clean up: A guide to understanding the technical issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most difficult technical challenges in cleaning up the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeast Washington State will be to process the radioactive and chemically complex waste found in the Site`s 177 underground storage tanks. Solid, liquid, and sludge-like wastes are contained in 149 single- and 28 double-shelled steel tanks. These wastes contain about one half of the curies of radioactivity and mass of hazardous chemicals found on the Hanford Site. Therefore, Hanford cleanup means tank cleanup. Safely removing the waste from the tanks, separating radioactive elements from inert chemicals, and creating a final waste form for disposal will require the use of our nation`s best available technology coupled with scientific advances, and an extraordinary commitment by all involved. The purpose of this guide is to inform the reader about critical issues facing tank cleanup. It is written as an information resource for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting to gain a basic understanding about the waste in Hanford`s tanks -- how the waste was created, what is in the waste, how it is stored, and what are the key technical issues facing tank cleanup. Access to information is key to better understanding the issues and more knowledgeably participating in cleanup decisions. This guide provides such information without promoting a given cleanup approach or technology use.

Gephart, R.E.; Lundgren, R.E.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

291

Tank 241-BY-111, cores 168 and 171 analytical results for the final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-BY-111. Push mode core segments were removed from risers 15 and 12A between August 13, 1996, and September 3, 1996. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-BY-111 Rotary Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan (TSAP) (Kruger, 1996) and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO. Two cores of nine segments were expected from this tank. Sampling problems prevented the acquisition of complete cores. Attachment 1 illustrates subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis and identifies their sources. This reference also relates tank farm identification numbers to their corresponding 222-S Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) sample numbers.

Nuzum, J.L.

1997-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

292

Microstructure analysis for chemical interaction between cesium and SUS 316 steel in fast breeder reactor application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study the corrosion products on a surface after cesium corrosion examination at 650 deg. C for 100 hrs were characterized by TEM observation around the corroded area on the surface in order to understand the corrosion mechanism of cesium fission product for cladding materials in fast reactor. The experimental results suggest the main corrosion mechanism occurred in the process of the separation of cesium chromate and metal (Fe, Ni). The main reaction of corrosion process was considered to be equation, 2Cs + 7/2 O{sub 2} + 2Cr {yields} Cs{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7}(L). (authors)

Sasaki, K.; Fukumoto, K. I.; Oshima, T.; Tanigaki, T.; Masayoshi, U. [RINE, Univ. of Fukui, 3-9-1, Bunkyo, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-101-SY: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101, which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

Lentsch, J.W., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

294

A safety assessment for proposed pump mixing operations to mitigate episodic gas releases in tank 241-SY-101: Hanford Site,Richland, Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This safety assessment addresses each of the elements required for the proposed action to remove a slurry distributor and to install, operate, and remove a mixing pump in Tank 241-SY-101,which is located within the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington.The proposed action is required as part of an ongoing evaluation of various mitigation concepts developed to eliminate episodic gas releases that result in hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space that exceed the lower flammability limit.

Lentsch, J.W.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Houdini{trademark}: Reconfigurable in-tank mobile robot. Final report, June 1995--January 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report details the development of a reconfigurable in-tank robotic cleanup system called Houdini{trademark}. Driven by the general need to develop equipment for the removal of radioactive waste from hundreds of DOE waste storage tanks and the specific needs of DOE sites such as Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Fernald, Houdini{trademark} represents one of the possible tools that can be used to mobilize and retrieve this waste material for complete remediation. Houdini{trademark} is a hydraulically powered, track driven, mobile work vehicle with a collapsible frame designed to enter underground or above ground waste tanks through existing 24 inch riser openings. After the vehicle has entered the waste tank, it unfolds and lands on the waste surface or tank floor to become a remotely operated mini-bulldozer. Houdini{trademark} utilizes a vehicle mounted plow blade and 6-DOF manipulator to mobilize waste and carry other tooling such as sluicing pumps, excavation buckets, and hydraulic shears. The complete Houdini{trademark} system consists of the tracked vehicle and other support equipment (e.g., control console, deployment system, hydraulic power supply, and controller) necessary to deploy and remotely operate this system at any DOE site. Inside the storage tanks, the system is capable of performing heel removal, waste mobilization, waste size reduction, and other tank waste retrieval and decommissioning tasks. The first Houdini{trademark} system was delivered on September 24, 1996 to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system acceptance test was successfully performed at a cold test facility at ORNL. After completion of the cold test program and the training of site personnel, ORNL will deploy the system for clean-up and remediation of the Gunite storage tanks.

Thompson, B.; Slifko, A.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

FLOWSHEET FOR ALUMINUM REMOVAL FROM SLUDGE BATCH 6  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of Tank 12 sludge slurry show a substantially larger fraction of aluminum than originally identified in sludge batch planning. The Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) plans to formulate Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) with about one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 12 and one half of the sludge slurry in Tank 4. LWO identified aluminum dissolution as a method to mitigate the effect of having about 50% more solids in High Level Waste (HLW) sludge than previously planned. Previous aluminum dissolution performed in a HLW tank in 1982 was performed at approximately 85 C for 5 days and dissolved nearly 80% of the aluminum in the sludge slurry. In 2008, LWO successfully dissolved 64% of the aluminum at approximately 60 C in 46 days with minimal tank modifications and using only slurry pumps as a heat source. This report establishes the technical basis and flowsheet for performing an aluminum removal process in Tank 51 for SB6 that incorporates the lessons learned from previous aluminum dissolution evolutions. For SB6, aluminum dissolution process temperature will be held at a minimum of 65 C for at least 24 days, but as long as practical or until as much as 80% of the aluminum is dissolved. As planned, an aluminum removal process can reduce the aluminum in SB6 from about 84,500 kg to as little as 17,900 kg with a corresponding reduction of total insoluble solids in the batch from 246,000 kg to 131,000 kg. The extent of the reduction may be limited by the time available to maintain Tank 51 at dissolution temperature. The range of dissolution in four weeks based on the known variability in dissolution kinetics can range from 44 to more than 80%. At 44% of the aluminum dissolved, the mass reduction is approximately 1/2 of the mass noted above, i.e., 33,300 kg of aluminum instead of 66,600 kg. Planning to reach 80% of the aluminum dissolved should allow a maximum of 81 days for dissolution and reduce the allowance if test data shows faster kinetics. 47,800 kg of the dissolved aluminum will be stored in Tank 8 and 21,000 kg will be stored in saltcake via evaporation. Up to 77% of the total aluminum planned for SB6 may be removed via aluminum dissolution. Storage of the aluminum-laden supernate in Tank 8 will require routine evaluation of the free hydroxide concentration in order to maintain aluminum in solution. Periodic evaluation will be established on concurrent frequency with corrosion program samples as previously established for aluminum-laden supernate from SB5 that is stored in Tank 11.

Pike, J; Jeffrey Gillam, J

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

297

Idaho HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks WM-182 and WM-183 - Rev. 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the plan for the closure of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tank Farm Facility tanks WM-182 and WM-183 in accordance with Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act interim status closure requirements. Closure of these two tanks is the first in a series of closures leading to the final closure of the eleven 300,000-gal tanks in the Tank Farm Facility. As such, closure of tanks WM-182 and WM-183 will serve as a proof-of-process demonstration of the waste removal, decontamination, and sampling techniques for the closure of the remaining Tank Farm Facility tanks. Such an approach is required because of the complexity and uniqueness of the Tank Farm Facility closure. This plan describes the closure units, objectives, and compliance strategy as well as the operational history and current status of the tanks. Decontamination, closure activities, and sampling and analysis will be performed with the goal of achieving clean closure of the tanks. Coordination with other regulatory requirements, such as U.S. Department of Energy closure requirements, is also discussed.

Evans, Susan Kay; unknown

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

TANK SPACE ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report addresses the projected shortfall of double-shell tank (DST) space starting in 2018. Using a multi-variant methodology, a total of eight new-term options and 17 long-term options for recovering DST space were evaluated. These include 11 options that were previously evaluated in RPP-7702, Tank Space Options Report (Rev. 1). Based on the results of this evaluation, two near-term and three long-term options have been identified as being sufficient to overcome the shortfall of DST space projected to occur between 2018 and 2025.

TURNER DA; KIRCH NW; WASHENFELDER DJ; SCHAUS PS; WODRICH DD; WIEGMAN SA

2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

299

Technical requirements specification for tank waste retrieval  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the technical requirements specification for the retrieval of waste from the underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. All activities covered by this scope are conducted in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission.

Lamberd, D.L.

1996-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

300

Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Breakout Session 1C—Fostering Technology Adoption I: Building the Market for Renewables with High Octane Fuels Underground Storage Tanks: New Fuels and Compatibility Ryan Haerer, Program Analyst, Alternative Fuels, Office of Underground Storage Tanks, Environmental Protection Agency

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Tank 241-BY-103 Tank Characterization Plan. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BY-103.

Schreiber, R.D.

1995-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

303

Technetium Inventory, Distribution, and Speciation in Hanford Tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is three fold: 1) assemble the available information regarding technetium (Tc) inventory, distribution between phases, and speciation in Hanford’s 177 storage tanks into a single, detailed, comprehensive assessment; 2) discuss the fate (distribution/speciation) of Tc once retrieved from the storage tanks and processed into a final waste form; and 3) discuss/document in less detail the available data on the inventory of Tc in other "pools" such as the vadose zone below inactive cribs and trenches, below single-shell tanks (SSTs) that have leaked, and in the groundwater below the Hanford Site. A thorough understanding of the inventory for mobile contaminants is key to any performance or risk assessment for Hanford Site facilities because potential groundwater and river contamination levels are proportional to the amount of contaminants disposed at the Hanford Site. Because the majority of the total 99Tc produced at Hanford (~32,600 Ci) is currently stored in Hanford’s 177 tanks (~26,500 Ci), there is a critical need for knowledge of the fate of this 99Tc as it is removed from the tanks and processed into a final solid waste form. Current flow sheets for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant process show most of the 99Tc will be immobilized as low-activity waste glass that will remain on the Hanford Site and disposed at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF); only a small fraction will be shipped to a geologic repository with the immobilized high-level waste. Past performance assessment studies, which focused on groundwater protection, have shown that 99Tc would be the primary dose contributor to the IDF performance.

Serne, R. Jeffrey; Rapko, Brian M.

2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

304

Tank 241-U-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-U-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

305

Milagro Tank Temperature Study: w/ and w/o Tank Insulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Milagro Tank Temperature Study: w/ and w/o Tank Insulation John A.J. Matthews and Bill Miller johnm/24 #12;Tank Temperature Study for Northern Auger · Auger North site (Colorado) is colder than Auger South. · Sept 2006: instrument Milargo outrigger tank to study freezing issues (Left photo) (Milagro experiment

306

The Fuel Tank Consider a cylindrical fuel tank of radius r and length L, that is  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Fuel Tank Question Consider a cylindrical fuel tank of radius r and length L, that is lying on its side. Suppose that fuel is being pumped into the tank at a rate q. At what rate is the fuel level rising? r L Solution Here is an end view of the tank. The shaded part of the circle is filled with fuel

Feldman, Joel

307

SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROGRAM MACROBATCH 5 TANK 21H QUALIFICATION MST, ESS AND PODD SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 5 processing. This qualification material was a composite created from recent samples from Tank 21H and archived samples from Tank 49H to match the projected blend from these two tanks. Additionally, samples of the composite were used in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and extraction-scrub-strip (ESS) tests. ARP and ESS test results met expectations. A sample from Tank 21H was also analyzed for the Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) requirements. SRNL was able to meet all of the requirements, including the desired detection limits for all the PODD analytes. This report details the results of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP), Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) and Performance Objectives Demonstration Document (PODD) samples of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 5 of the Integrated Salt Disposition Program (ISDP).

Peters, T.; Fink, S.

2012-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

308

Quality assurance program plan for cesium legacy project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) provides information on how the Quality Assurance Program is implemented for the Cesium Legacy Project. It applies to those items and tasks which affect the completion of activities identified in the work breakdown structure of the Project Management Plan (PMP). These activities include all aspects of cask transportation, project related operations within the 324 Building, and waste management as it relates to the specific activities of this project. General facility activities (i.e. 324 Building Operations, Central Waste Complex Operations, etc.) are covered in other appropriate QAPPs. The 324 Building is currently transitioning from being a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) managed facility to a B and W Hanford Company (BWHC) managed facility. During this transition process existing PNNL procedures and documents will be utilized until replaced by BWHC procedures and documents.

Tanke, J.M.

1997-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

309

Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank And Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 5 Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the ''microbatches'' of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (''Macrobatch'') 5 have been analyzed for {sup 238}Pu, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The results indicate good decontamination performance within process design expectations. While the data set is sparse, the results of this set and the previous set of results for Macrobatch 4 samples indicate generally consistent operations. The DSSHT samples show continued presence of titanium, likely from leaching of the monosodium titanate in the Actinide Removal process (ARP).

Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

310

Tank 241-BY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-BY-103 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-103 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

311

Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in ``Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues`` (Osborne and Huckaby 1994). Tank 241-BY-108 was vapor sampled in accordance with ``Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution (Osborne et al., 1994).

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

312

Tank 241-BY-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-BY-105 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-105 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

313

Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tank 241-BY-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-BY-107 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues{close_quotes}. Tank 241-BY-107 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution{close_quotes}.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

315

Tank 241-BY-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-BY-106 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-106 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

316

Tank 241-BY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 241-BY-104 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. The drivers and objectives of waste tank headspace sampling and analysis are discussed in {open_quotes}Program Plan for the Resolution of Tank Vapor Issues.{close_quotes} Tank 241-BY-104 was vapor sampled in accordance with {open_quotes}Data Quality Objectives for Generic In-Tank Health and Safety Issue Resolution.{close_quotes}

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

317

Hanford Communities Issue Briefing on Tank Farms  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Department of Energy Office of River Protection representatives Stacy Charboneau (Deputy Manager) and Tom Fletcher (Tank Farms Assistant Manager) and Washington State Department of Ecology's Suzanne Dahl (Tank Waste Section Manager) discuss Hanford's complex tank waste retrieval mission with members of the community.

318

Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Pump Tank  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pump tanks are concrete, fiberglass or polyethylene containers that collect wastewater to be dosed into the soil at intervals. This publication explains the design and maintenance of pump tanks, and it offers advice on what to do if a pump tank...

Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

319

Above Ground Storage Tank (AST) Inspection Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Above Ground Storage Tank (AST) Inspection Form Petroleum Bulk Storage Form Facility Name: ______________________ Tank No:_______________ Date:_____________ Inspection Parameter Result Comments/Corrective Actions 1. Is there leaking in the interstitial space (not DRY)? YES/NO/NA 2. Tank surface shows signs of leakage? YES/NO/NA 3

Pawlowski, Wojtek

320

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorption du cesium Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of SPIE Vol. 6871, 87112, (2008) Summary: from 9.192 GHz - of the fundamental Cesium atomic level have been scanned on a saturated absorption set... of the absorption line...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Thermal analysis of the ATI thermionic converter for optimum cesium reservoir location  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A first-order thermal analysis was performed on the emitter lead region of the Advanced Thermionic Initiative (ATI) Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) design. The lead region is the candidate location for a metal-matrix, cesium-graphite reservoir to supply cesium vapor to the thermionic converter. The cesium pressure developed is dependent upon the temperature and cesium-carbon equilibrium reaction of the reservoir. Steady-state, one dimensional conduction, with thermal radiation losses and Joulean heat generation, was used to calculate the temperature distribution in the non-fueled lead region. This temperature distribution was linked to the ATI reactor core design through the integration of axial emitter temperature distributions for the maximum, minimum, and average power TFE fuel pins. The axial temperature distribution in the emitter lead region was found to be most pronounced for the maximum power fuel element and least pronounced for the minimum power TFE.

Young, T.J. (Aerospace Power Division, Wright Laboratory/POOC, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States)); Thayer, K.L.; Ramalingam, M.L. (UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Dayton, Ohio 45432-1894 (United States))

1993-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Results from evaporation tests to support the MWTF heat removal system design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental tests program was conducted to measure the evaporative heat removal from the surface of a tank of simulated waste. The results contained in this report constitute definition design data for the latest heat removal function of the MWTF primary ventilation system.

Crea, B.A.

1994-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

323

SLUDGE HEEL REMOVAL BY ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE 12390  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High Level Waste (HLW) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently stored in aging underground storage tanks. This waste is a complex mixture of insoluble solids, referred to as sludge, and soluble salts. Continued long-term storage of these radioactive wastes poses an environmental risk. Operations are underway to remove and disposition the waste, clean the tanks and fill with grout for permanent closure. Heel removal is the intermediate phase of the waste retrieval and tank cleaning process at SRS, which is intended to reduce the volume of waste prior to treatment with oxalic acid. The goal of heel removal is to reduce the residual amount of radioactive sludge wastes to less than 37,900 liters (10,000 gallons) of wet solids. Reducing the quantity of residual waste solids in the tank prior to acid cleaning reduces the amount of acid required and reduces the amount of excess acid that could impact ongoing waste management processes. Mechanical heel removal campaigns in Tank 12 have relied solely on the use of mixing pumps that have not been effective at reducing the volume of remaining solids. The remaining waste in Tank 12 is known to have a high aluminum concentration. Aluminum dissolution by caustic leaching was identified as a treatment step to reduce the volume of remaining solids and prepare the tank for acid cleaning. Dissolution was performed in Tank 12 over a two month period in July and August, 2011. Sample results indicated that 16,440 kg of aluminum oxide (boehmite) had been dissolved representing 60% of the starting inventory. The evolution resulted in reducing the sludge solids volume by 22,300 liters (5900 gallons), preparing the tank for chemical cleaning with oxalic acid.

Keefer, M.

2012-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

324

Completion report for the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the results of the Inactive Liquid Low-Level Waste Tank Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The work performed is compared with that proposed in the statement of work and the service contract specification for the maintenance action to remediate tanks 3013, 3004-B, T-30, and 3001-B. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requires that all tanks, which have been removed from service and are designated in the FFA as Category D, must be remediated in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements. The Environmental Restoration Program`s inactive tank removal program strategy and plans for remediating the inactive LLLW tanks were documented in a report issued in January 1995 (Inactive Tanks Remediation Program Strategy and Plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, ORNL/ER-297). The inactive (Category D) tanks were initially screened for remediation according to risk, remediation technology required, level of instrumentation available, interferences with other piping and equipment, location, and available sludge removal techniques and storage requirements. On the basis of this preliminary screening, the tanks were assigned to one of five batches (I through V) for consideration of remedial action alternatives, and these batches were tentatively scheduled for remedial actions. The eight links tentatively assigned to Batch I were divided into two groups (Series I and Series II).

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Experimental Methods to Estimate Accumulated Solids in Nuclear Waste Tanks - 13313  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy has a large number of nuclear waste tanks. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles, e.g., plutonium containing, could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to remove most of the solids. Then the volume and shape of the residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for plutonium were measured. This paper discusses the overall test results, which indicated heavy solids only accumulate during the first few transfer cycles, along with the techniques and equipment designed and employed in the test. Those techniques include: - Magnetic particle separator to remove stainless steel solids, the plutonium surrogate from a flowing stream. - Magnetic wand used to manually remove stainless steel solids from samples and the tank heel. - Photographs were used to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds by developing a composite of topographical areas. - Laser range finders to determine the volume and shape of the solids mounds. - Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. - Computer driven positioner that placed the laser range finders and the core sampler over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank in locations where jet velocities were low. These devices and techniques were very effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing plutonium and are expected to perform well at a larger scale. The operation of the techniques and their measurement accuracies will be discussed as well as the overall results of the accumulated solids test. (authors)

Duignan, Mark R.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Steimke, John L. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A Comparison of Immersive HMD, Fish Tank VR and Fish Tank with Haptics Displays for Volume Visualization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Comparison of Immersive HMD, Fish Tank VR and Fish Tank with Haptics Displays for Volume: (1) head-mounted display (HMD); (2) fish tank VR (fish tank); and (3) fish tank VR augmented its structure. Fish tank and haptic participants saw the entire volume on-screen and rotated

Healey, Christopher G.

327

Cementitious Grout for Closing SRS High Level Waste Tanks - 12315  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1997, the first two United States Department of Energy (US DOE) high level waste tanks (Tanks 17-F and 20-F: Type IV, single shell tanks) were taken out of service (permanently closed) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). In 2012, the DOE plans to remove from service two additional Savannah River Site (SRS) Type IV high-level waste tanks, Tanks 18-F and 19-F. These tanks were constructed in the late 1950's and received low-heat waste and do not contain cooling coils. Operational closure of Tanks 18-F and 19-F is intended to be consistent with the applicable requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and will be performed in accordance with South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC). The closure will physically stabilize two 4.92E+04 cubic meter (1.3 E+06 gallon) carbon steel tanks and isolate and stabilize any residual contaminants left in the tanks. Ancillary equipment abandoned in the tanks will also be filled to the extent practical. A Performance Assessment (PA) has been developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closure of the F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) waste tanks. Next generation flowable, zero-bleed cementitious grouts were designed, tested, and specified for closing Tanks 18-F and 19-F and for filling the abandoned equipment. Fill requirements were developed for both the tank and equipment grouts. All grout formulations were required to be alkaline with a pH of 12.4 and to be chemically reducing with a reduction potential (Eh) of -200 to -400. Grouts with this chemistry stabilize potential contaminants of concern. This was achieved by including Portland cement and Grade 100 slag in the mixes, respectively. Ingredients and proportions of cementitious reagents were selected and adjusted to support the mass placement strategy developed by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Closure Operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures. The cement and slag contents of a mix selected for filling Tanks 18-F and 19-F should be limited to no more than 125 and 210 lbs/cyd, respectively, to limit the heat generated as the result of hydration reaction during curing and thereby enable mass pour placement. Trial mixes with water to total cementitious materials ratios of 0.550 to 0.580 and 125 lbs/cyd of cement and 210 lbs/cyd of slag met the strength and permeability requirements. Mix LP no.8-16 was selected for closing SRS Tanks 18-F and 19-F because it meets or exceeds the design requirements with the least amount of Portland cement and blast furnace slag. This grout is expected to flow at least 45 feet. A single point of discharge should be sufficient for unrestricted flow conditions. However, additional entry points should be identified as back-up in case restrictions in the tank impede flow. The LP no.8 series of trial mixes had surprisingly high design compressive strengths (2000 to 4000/5000 psi) which were achieved at extended curing times (28 to 90 days, respectively) given the small amount of Portland cement in the mixes (100 to 185 lbs/cyd). The grouts were flowable structural fills containing 3/8 inch gravel and concrete sand aggregate. These grouts did not segregate and require no compaction. They have low permeabilities (? 10{sup -9} cm/s) and are consequen

Langton, C.A.; Stefanko, D.B.; Burns, H.H. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Waymer, J.; Mhyre, W.B. [URS Quality and Testing (United States); Herbert, J.E.; Jolly, J.C. Jr. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Test Report for Permanganate and Cold Strontium Strike for Tank 241-AN-102  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 supernatants contain soluble Sr-90 and transuranic elements that require removal prior to vitrification to comply with the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant immobilized low-activity waste specification (WTP Contract, DE-AC27-01RV 14136, Specification 2.2.2.8, "Radionuclide Concentration Limitations") and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission provisional agreement on waste incidental to reprocessing (letter, Paperiello, C. J., "Classification of Hanford Low-Activity Tank Waste Fraction"). These two tanks have high concentrations of organics and organic complexants and are referred to as complexant concentrate tanks. A precipitation process using sodium permanganate (NaMnO{sub 4}) and strontium nitrate (Sr(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) was developed and tested with tank waste samples to precipitate Sr-90 and transuranic elements from the supernate (PNWD-3141, Optimization of Sr/TRU Removal Conditions with Samples of AN-102 Tank Waste). Testing documented in this report was conducted to further evaluate the use of the strontium nitrate/sodium permanganate process in tank farms with a retention time of up to 12 months. Previous testing was focused on developing a process for deployment in the ultrafiltration vessels in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. This environment is different from tank farms in two important ways: the waste is diluted in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant to ~5.5 M sodium, whereas the supernate in the tank farms is ~9 M Na. Secondly, while the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant allows for a maximum treatment time of hours to days, the in-tank farms treatment of tanks 241-AN102 and 241-AN-107 will result in a retention time of months (perhaps up to12 months) before processing. A comparative compilation of separation processes for Sr/transuranics has been published as RPP-RPT-48340, Evaluation of Alternative Strontium and Transuranic Separation Processes. This report also listed the testing needs for the permanganate precipitation process to be field-deployable. A more comprehensive listing of future testing needs to allow the process to be field deployable are contained in RPP-PLAN-51288, Development Test Plan for Sr/TRU Precipitation Process.

Duncan, James B.; Huber, Heinz J.; Smalley, Colleen S.

2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

329

ICPP Tank Farm planning through 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Historically, liquid high-level waste (HLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has been stored in the Tank Farm after which it is calcined with the calcine being stored in stainless steel bins. Following the curtailment of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in 1992, the HLW treatment methods were re-evaluated to establish a path forward for producing a final waste form from the liquid sodium bearing wastes (SBW) and the HLW calcine. Projections for significant improvements in waste generation, waste blending and evaporation, and calcination were incorporated into the Tank Farm modeling. This optimized modeling shows that all of the SBW can be calcined by the end of 2012 as required by the Idaho Settlement Agreement. This Tank Farm plan discusses the use of each of the eleven HLW tanks and shows that two tanks can be emptied, allowing them to be Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closed by 2006. In addition, it describes the construction of each tank and vault, gives the chemical concentrations of the contents of each tank, based on historical input and some sampling, and discusses the regulatory drivers important to Tank Farm operation. It also discusses new waste generation, the computer model used for the Tank Farm planning, the operating schedule for each tank, and the schedule for when each tank will be empty and closed.

Palmer, W.B.; Millet, C.B.; Staiger, M.D.; Ward, F.S.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

US Department of Energy, Westinghouse Hanford Company ARECO cesium transportation plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is committed to the safe, efficient, and cost-effective transportation of all materials that support its various programs and activities. DOE strives to ensure that hazardous materials (particularly radioactive),hazardous substances, and hazardous mixed waste are handled and transported in compliance with all applicable federal, state,tribal, and local rules and regulations. This plan outlines the activities and responsibilities of DOE and other agencies that will be followed to conclude a significant movement of radioactive cesium (Cs) chloride capsules in a safe and uneventful manner. DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) has directed that Cs capsules manufactured at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) be returned to WESF, located at DOE`s Hanford Site in southeast Washington State. Currently, there are 25 Cs capsules at the Applied Radiant Energy Corporation (ARECO)facility utilized for the polymerization of wood products in Lynchburg, Virginia, that requires removal as part of the overall Cs capsule return effort. This plan has been prepared in cooperation with member states of the Western Governors` Association (WGA) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB);the Council of State Governments Midwestern Office; and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservations, through whose jurisdictions these shipments will pass, and is an example of DOE-HQ`s commitment to early coordination and substantive involvement in its decision-making processes. This transportation plan identifies responsibilities, requirements,and procedures to ensure the success of the capsule return program. The plan summarizes transportation activities,organizational responsibilities, emergency preparedness guidelines, and other methods for achieving safe transport.

Clements, E.P., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Remote systems for waste retrieval from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory gunite tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study funded by the Department of Energy, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is preparing to demonstrate and evaluate two approaches for the remote retrieval of wastes in underground storage tanks. This work is being performed to identify the most cost-effective and efficient method of waste removal before full-scale remediation efforts begin in 1998. System requirements are based on the need to dislodge and remove sludge wastes ranging in consistency from broth to compacted clay from Gunite (Shotcrete) tanks that are approaching fifty years in age. Systems to be deployed must enter and exit through the existing 0.6 m (23.5 in.) risers and conduct retrieval operations without damaging the layered concrete walls of the tanks. Goals of this project include evaluation of confined sluicing techniques and successful demonstration of a telerobotic arm-based system for deployment of the sluicing system. As part of a sister project formed on the Old Hydrofracture Facility tanks at ORNL, vehicle-based tank remediation will also be evaluated.

Falter, D.D.; Babcock, S.M.; Burks, B.L.; Lloyd, P.D.; Randolph, J.D.; Rutenber, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Van Hoesen, S.D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Central Engineering Services

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

332

Analysis of tank deformation from fire induced ruptures and BLEVEs of 400 l propane tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of fire tests were conducted to study the thermal rupture of propane tanks. The tests involved 400 liter ASME automotive propane tanks filled to 80% capacity with commercial propane. The tanks were brought to failure using torches and pool fires. the resulting thermal ruptures varied in severity from minor fissures, measuring a few centimeters in length, to catastrophic failures where the tank was flattened on the ground. The catastrophic failures would typically be called Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosions (BLEVE). The objective of this work was to develop a correlation between the failure severity and the tank condition at failure. The deformed propane tanks were measured in detail and the extent of deformation was quantified. The tank failure severity was found to be a complex function of a number of tank and lading properties at failure. this paper presents the measured data from the tanks and a step by step description of how the correlation was determined.

Kielec, D.J.; Birk, A.M. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Turning the Corner on Hanford Tank Waste Cleanup-From Safe Storage to Closure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is leading the River Protection Project (RPP) which is responsible for the disposition of 204,000 cubic meters (54 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste that have accumulated in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. ORP continues to make good progress on improving the capability to treat Hanford tank waste. Design of the waste vitrification facilities is proceeding well and construction will begin within the next year. Progress is also being made in reducing risk to the worker and the environment from the waste currently stored in the tank farms. Removal of liquids from single-shell tanks (SSTs) is on schedule and we will begin removing solids (salt cake) from a tank (241-U-107) in 2002. There is a sound technical foundation for the waste vitrification facilities. These initial facilities will be capable of treating (vitrifying) the bulk of Hanford tank waste and are the corners tone of the clean-up strategy. ORP recognizes that as the near-term work is performed, it is vital that there be an equally strong and defensible plan for completing the mission. ORP is proceeding on a three-pronged approach for moving the mission forward. First, ORP will continue to work aggressively to complete the waste vitrification facilities. ORP intends to provide the most capable and robust facilities to maximize the amount of waste treated by these initial facilities by 2028 (regulatory commitment for completion of waste treatment). Second, and in parallel with completing the waste vitrification facilities, ORP is beginning to consider how best to match the hazard of the waste to the disposal strategy. The final piece of our strategy is to continue to move forward with actions to reduce risk in the tank farms and complete cleanup.

Boston, H. L.; Cruz, E. J.; Coleman, S. J.

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

SORPTION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM AND NEPTUNIUM ONTO SOLIDS PRESENT IN HIGH CAUSTIC NUCLEAR WASTE STORAGE TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solids such as granular activated carbon, hematite and sodium phosphates, if present as sludge components in nuclear waste storage tanks, have been found to be capable of precipitating/sorbing actinides like plutonium, neptunium and uranium from nuclear waste storage tank supernatant liqueur. Thus, the potential may exists for the accumulation of fissile materials in such nuclear waste storage tanks during lengthy nuclear waste storage and processing. To evaluate the nuclear criticality safety in a typical nuclear waste storage tank, a study was initiated to measure the affinity of granular activated carbon, hematite and anhydrous sodium phosphate to sorb plutonium, neptunium and uranium from alkaline salt solutions. Tests with simulated and actual nuclear waste solutions established the affinity of the solids for plutonium, neptunium and uranium upon contact of the solutions with each of the solids. The removal of plutonium and neptunium from the synthetic salt solution by nuclear waste storage tank solids may be due largely to the presence of the granular activated carbon and transition metal oxides in these storage tank solids or sludge. Granular activated carbon and hematite also showed measurable affinity for both plutonium and neptunium. Sodium phosphate, used here as a reference sorbent for uranium, as expected, exhibited high affinity for uranium and neptunium, but did not show any measurable affinity for plutonium.

Oji, L; Bill Wilmarth, B; David Hobbs, D

2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

335

CRITICAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE F-TANK FARM CLOSURE OPERATIONAL DOCUMENTATION REGARDING WASTE TANK INTERNAL CONFIGURATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The intent of this document is to provide clarification of critical assumptions regarding the internal configurations of liquid waste tanks at operational closure, with respect to F-Tank Farm (FTF) closure documentation. For the purposes of this document, FTF closure documentation includes: (1) Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the FTF PA) (SRS-REG-2007-00002), (2) Basis for Section 3116 Determination for Closure of F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (DOE/SRS-WD-2012-001), (3) Tier 1 Closure Plan for the F-Area Waste Tank Systems at the Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2010-00147), (4) F-Tank Farm Tanks 18 and 19 DOE Manual 435.1-1 Tier 2 Closure Plan Savannah River Site (SRR-CWDA-2011-00015), (5) Industrial Wastewater Closure Module for the Liquid Waste Tanks 18 and 19 (SRRCWDA-2010-00003), and (6) Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis for the Performance Assessment for the F-Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site (hereafter referred to as the Tank 18/Tank 19 Special Analysis) (SRR-CWDA-2010-00124). Note that the first three FTF closure documents listed apply to the entire FTF, whereas the last three FTF closure documents listed are specific to Tanks 18 and 19. These two waste tanks are expected to be the first two tanks to be grouted and operationally closed under the current suite of FTF closure documents and many of the assumptions and approaches that apply to these two tanks are also applicable to the other FTF waste tanks and operational closure processes.

Hommel, S.; Fountain, D.

2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

336

Tank 241-AY-102 Secondary Liner Corrosion Evaluation - 14191  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) determined that the primary tank of 241-AY-102 (AY-102) was leaking. A number of evaluations were performed after discovery of the leak which identified corrosion from storage of waste at the high waste temperatures as one of the major contributing factors in the failure of the tank. The propensity for corrosion of the waste on the annulus floor will be investigated to determine if it is corrosive and must be promptly removed or if it is benign and may remain in the annulus. The chemical composition of waste, the temperature and the character of the steel are important factors in assessing the propensity for corrosion. Unfortunately, the temperatures of the wastes in contact with the secondary steel liner are not known; they are estimated to range from 45 deg C to 60 deg C. It is also notable that most corrosion tests have been carried out with un-welded, stress-relieved steels, but the secondary liner in tank AY-102 was not stress-relieved. In addition, the cold weather fabrication and welding led to many problems, which required repeated softening of the metal to flatten secondary bottom during its construction. This flame treatment may have altered the microstructure of the steel.

Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions (United States); Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Solutions (United States); Johnson, Jeremy M. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of River Protection

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

337

Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at Purdue University and is detailed in Appendix A. Steam reforming proved to be too rigorous for efficient The second stage of this project was carried out at Texas A&M University and is Detailed in Appendix B. In this stage, a gentler ceramic synthesis process using Cs and Sr loaded kaolinite and bentonite clays was developed in collaboration with Dr. M. Kaminski at Argonne National Laboratory.

Sean M. McDeavitt

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

338

Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

Adu-Wusu, K.

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

339

HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) THERMAL & SEISMIC PROJECT BUCKLING EVALUATION METHODS & RESULTS FOR THE PRIMARY TANKS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a detailed buckling evaluation of the primary tanks in the Hanford double shell waste tanks. The analysis is part of a comprehensive structural review for the Double-Shell Tank Integrity Project. This work also provides information on tank integrity that specifically responds to concerns raise by the Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight (EH-22) during a review (in April and May 2001) of work being performed on the double-shell tank farms, and the operation of the aging waste facility (AWF) primary tank ventilation system.

MACKEY, T.C.

2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

340

241-AZ Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102. The construction history of the 241-AZ tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AZ tank farm, the second DST farm constructed, both refractory quality and tank and liner fabrication were improved.

Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

2013-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

241-SY Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tanks 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103. The construction history of the 241-SY tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank 241-AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank 241-AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-SY tank farm, the third DST farm constructed, refractory quality and stress relief were improved, while similar tank and liner fabrication issues remained.

Barnes, Travis J.; Boomer, Kayle D.; Gunter, Jason R.; Venetz, Theodore J.

2013-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

342

Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level waste, for disposal is a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

Petersen, C.A.

1996-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

343

Technical basis for classification of low-activity waste fraction from Hanford site tanks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall objective of this report is to provide a technical basis to support a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission determination to classify the low-activity waste from the Hanford Site single-shell and double-shell tanks as `incidental` wastes after removal of additional radionuclides and immobilization.The proposed processing method, in addition to the previous radionuclide removal efforts, will remove the largest practical amount of total site radioactivity, attributable to high-level wastes, for disposal in a deep geologic repository. The remainder of the waste would be considered `incidental` waste and could be disposed onsite.

Petersen, C.A., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

344

Aluminum Leaching of ''Archived'' Sludge from Tanks 8F, 11H, and 12H  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aluminum can promote formation or dissolution of networks in hydroxide solid solutions. When present in large amounts it will act as a network former increasing both the viscosity and the surface tension of melts. This translates into poor free flow properties that affect pour rate of glass production in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). To mitigate this situation, DWPF operations limit the amount of aluminum contained in sludge. This study investigated the leaching of aluminum compounds from archived sludge samples. The conclusions found boehmite present as the predominant aluminum compound in sludge from two tanks. We did not identify an aluminum compound in sludge from the third tank. We did not detect any amorphous aluminum hydroxide in the samples. The amount of goethite measured 4.2 percentage weight while hematite measured 3.7 percentage weight in Tank 11H sludge. The recommended recipe for removing gibbsite in sludge proved inefficient for digesting boehmite, removing less than 50 per cent of the compound within 48 hours. The recipe did remove boehmite when the test ran for 10 days (i.e., 7 more days than the recommended baseline leaching period). Additions of fluoride and phosphate to Tank 12H archived sludge did not improve the aluminum leaching efficiency of the baseline recipe.

FONDEUR, FERNANDOF.

2004-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

345

ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM - 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2011 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2011 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per SRR-LWE-2011-00026, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2011, were completed. Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2011 met the requirements of C-ESR-G-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 3, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.6. UT inspections were performed on Tanks 25, 26 and 34 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00495, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2011, Waste Tanks 25, 26, 34 and 41. A total of 5813 photographs were made and 835 visual and video inspections were performed during 2011. A potential leaksite was discovered at Tank 4 during routine annual inspections performed in 2011. The new crack, which is above the allowable fill level, resulted in no release to the environment or tank annulus. The location of the crack is documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.6.

West, B.; Waltz, R.

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

346

Chemical compatibility study of Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat with Hanford tank waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An independent chemical compatibility review of various wrapping and absorbent/padding materials was conducted to evaluate resistance to chemicals and constituents present in liquid waste from the Hanford underground tanks. These materials will be used to wrap long-length contaminated equipment when such equipment is removed from the tanks and prepared for transportation and subsequent disposal or storage. The materials studied were Cooley L18KU, Herculite, and Elephant Mat. The study concludes that these materials are appropriate for use in this application.

Mercado, J.E.

1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

347

Chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nanoparticles of alkali-doped tungsten bronzes are an excellent near-infrared shielding material, but exhibit slight chromatic instabilities typically upon applications of strong ultra-violet light or heating in humid environment, which acts detrimentally to long-life commercial applications. Origin of the chromatic instabilities in cesium-doped tungsten bronze has been investigated, and it has been found that the coloration and bleaching processes comprised electronic exchanges which accelerate or depress the polaron excitation and the localized surface plasmon resonance. Coloration on UV illumination is evidenced by electron diffraction as due to the formation of H{sub x}WO{sub 3}, which is considered to take place in the surface Cs-deficient WO{sub 3} region via the double charge injection mechanism. On the other hand, bleaching on heating in air and in humid environment is shown to accompany the extraction of Cs and electrons from Cs{sub 0.33}WO{sub 3} by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis and is concluded to be an oxidation of Cs{sub 0.33}WO{sub 3} on the particle surface.

Adachi, Kenji, E-mail: kenji-adachi@ni.smm.co.jp; Ota, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Okada, Mika; Oshimura, Nobumitsu; Tofuku, Atsushi [Ichikawa Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Metal Mining Co., Ltd., Ichikawa 272-8588 (Japan)

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

348

Cesium Delivery System for Negative Ion Source at IPR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technique of surface production of negative ions using cesium, Cs, has been efficiently exploited over the years for producing negative ion beams with increased current densities from negative ion sources used on neutral beam lines. Deposition of Cs on the source walls and the plasma grid lowers the work function and therefore enables a higher yield of H{sup -}, when hydrogen particles (H and/or H{sub x}{sup +}) strike these surfaces.A single driver RF based (100 kW, 1 MHz) negative ion source test bed, ROBIN, is being set up at IPR under a technical collaboration between IPR and IPP, Germany. The optimization of the Cs oven design to be used on this facility as well as multidriver sources is underway. The characterization experiments of such a Cs delivery system with a 1 g Cs inventory have been carried out using surface ionization technique. The experiments have been carried by delivering Cs into a vacuum chamber without plasma. The linear motion of the surface ionization detector, SID, attached with a linear motion feedthrough allows measuring the angular distribution of the Cs coming out of the oven. Based on the experimental results, a Cs oven for ROBIN has been proposed. The Cs oven design and experimental results of the prototype Cs oven are reported and discussed in the paper.

Bansal, G.; Pandya, K.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 382 428 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Singh, M. J. [ITER- India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat (India)

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

349

Hanford Isotope Project strategic business analysis Cesium-137 (Cs-137)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this business analysis is to address the beneficial reuse of Cesium 137 (Cs-137) in order to utilize a valuable national asset and possibly save millions of tax dollars. Food irradiation is the front runner application along with other uses. This business analysis supports the objectives of the Department of Energy National Isotope Strategy distributed in August 1994 which describes the DOE plans for the production and distribution of isotope products and services. As part of the Department`s mission as stated in that document. ``The Department of Energy will also continue to produce and distribute other radioisotopes and enriched stable isotopes for medical diagnostics and therapeutics, industrial, agricultural, and other useful applications on a businesslike basis. This is consistent with the goals and objectives of the National Performance Review. The Department will endeavor to look at opportunities for private sector to co-fund or invest in new ventures. Also, the Department will seek to divest from ventures that can more profitably or reliably be operated by the private sector.``

NONE

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Optimal Tank Farm Operation Sebastian Terrazas-Moreno  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Tank Farm Operation Sebastian Terrazas-Moreno Ignacio E. Grossmann John M. Wassick EWOIn collaboration with The Dow Chemical Company #12;A tank farm is a set of storage tanks that hold finished product until it is shipped Each tank can only hold one Loading of product takes place only from storage tanks

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

351

DEPARTMENf OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS TANK OPENING REPORT NO 62  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEPARTMENf OF NUCLEAR PHYSICS TANK OPENING REPORT NO 62 This report covers three tank openings; 2 history. We were plagued throughout these tank openings by poor beam transmission and spent most of our have, were manufactured and installed. The first tank opening2 May t.o 6 May 1988. This tank opening

Chen, Ying

352

Evaluation of improved techniques for the removal of fission products from process wastewater and groundwater: FY 1996 status  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes laboratory results acquired in the course of evaluating new sorbents for the treatment of radiologically contaminated groundwater and process wastewater. During FY 1996, the evaluation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F) resin for the removal of cesium and strontium from wastewaters was completed. Additionally, strontium sorption on sodium nonatitanate powder was characterized in a series of multicomponent batch studies. Both of these materials were evaluated in reference to a baseline sorbent, natural chabazite zeolite.

Bostick, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Guo, B. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

TANKS 18 AND 19-F EQUIPMENT GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) intends to remove Tanks 18-F and 19-F at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from service. The high-level waste (HLW) tanks have been isolated from the F-area Tank Farm (FTF) facilities and will be filled with cementitious grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the empty volumes in the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways from the surface to residual waste on the bottom of the tanks, (3) providing an intruder barrier, and (4) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to limit solubility of residual radionuclides. Bulk waste and heel waste removal equipment will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F when the tanks are closed. This equipment includes: mixer pumps, transfer pumps, transfer jets, equipment support masts, sampling masts and dip tube assemblies. The current Tank 18-F and 19-F closure strategy is to grout the internal void spaces in this equipment to eliminate fast vertical pathways and slow water infiltration to the residual material on the tank floor. This report documents the results of laboratory testing performed to identify a grout formulation for filling the abandoned equipment in Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The objective of this work was to formulate a flowable grout for filling internal voids of equipment that will remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F during the final closures. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, Tank Farm Closure Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The scope for this task is provided in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP), SRNL-RP-2011-00587. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Prepare and evaluate the SRR cooling coil grout identified in WSRC-STI-2008-00298 per the TTR for this work. The cooling coil grout is a mixture of BASF MasterFlow{reg_sign} 816 cable grout (67.67 wt. %), Grade 100 ground granulated blast furnace slag (7.52 wt. %) and water (24.81 wt. %); (2) Identify equipment grout placement and performance properties; (3) Design up to 2 additional grout systems for filling the Tank 18-F and Tank 19-F equipment; (4) Prepare samples of candidate grouts and measure fresh properties, thermal properties and cured properties; (5) Recommend a grout for the Tier 1A equipment fill mock up - ADMP 4 foot high mock up, 1 inch and 2 inch pipes; (6) Support procurement of materials for the Tier 1A equipment fill mock up test; (7) Prepare samples of the recommended grout for hydraulic property measurements which can be used for comparison to values used in the F- Tank Farm Performance Assessment (PA); and (8) Document equipment fill grout data and recommendations in a report.

Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium experiments were performed to study the uptake,19 assimilation and retention of americium (241 Am) and cesium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

355

ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The disposition of INEEL radioactive wastes is now under a Settlement Agreement between the DOE and the State of Idaho. The Settlement Agreement requires that existing liquid sodium bearing waste (SBW), and other liquid waste inventories be treated by December 31, 2012. This agreement also requires that all HLW, including calcined waste, be disposed or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. Sodium bearing waste (SBW) is produced from decontamination operations and HLW from reprocessing of SNF. SBW and HLW are radioactive and hazardous mixed waste; the radioactive constituents are regulated by DOE and the hazardous constituents are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Calcined waste, a dry granular material, is produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF). Two primary waste tank storage locations exist at the ICPP: Tank Farm Facility (TFF) and the Calcined Solids Storage Facility (CSSF). The TFF has the following underground storage tanks: four 18,400-gallon tanks (WM 100-102, WL 101); four 30,000-gallon tanks (WM 103-106); and eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. This includes nine 300,000-gallon tanks (WM 182-190) and two 318,000 gallon tanks (WM 180-181). This study analyzes the closure and subsequent use of the eleven 300,000+ gallon tanks. The 18,400 and 30,000-gallon tanks were not included in the work scope and will be closed as a separate activity. This study was conducted to support the HLW Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) waste separations options and addresses closure of the 300,000-gallon liquid waste storage tanks and subsequent tank void uses. A figure provides a diagram estimating how the TFF could be used as part of the separations options. Other possible TFF uses are also discussed in this study.

Spaulding, B.C.; Gavalya, R.A.; Dahlmeir, M.M. [and others

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

FY 1996 Tank waste analysis plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Tank Waste Analysis Plan (TWAP) describes the activities of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Characterization Project to plan, schedule, obtain, and document characterization information on Hanford waste tanks. This information is required to meet several commitments of Programmatic End-Users and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement. This TWAP applies to the activities scheduled to be completed in fiscal year 1996.

Homi, C.S.

1996-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

357

Tank 241-TY-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Tank 241-SX-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-SX-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Tank 241-T-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-T-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

360

Tank 241-TY-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Tank 241-C-105 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-105. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

362

Tank 241-C-102 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-102. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

Tank 241-TY-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-TY-101. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

364

Tank 241-C-106 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-106. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Tank 241-B-103 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-B-103. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

366

Tank 241-BX-104 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BX-104. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

367

Tank 241-C-109 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-109. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

368

Tank 241-C-111 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-111. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

369

Tank 241-C-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedure that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

370

Tank 241-C-107 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-C-107. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

371

Tank 241-BY-110 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank 241-BY-110. The drivers and objectives of the headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports. The vapor and headspace gas samples were collected and analyzed to determine the potential risks to the tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

372

Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

Rieck, R.H.

1996-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

373

Tank farm backlog soil sample analysis plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes the measures to collect samples, perform testing on samples, and make decisions to obtain a Contained- in Determination for tank farms backlog soil.

Ahlers, J.D., Westinghouse Hanford

1996-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

374

High-Pressure Tube Trailers and Tanks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

bending stress: continuous fiber vessels and vessels made of replicants Conformable tanks require internal stiffeners (ribs) to efficiently support the pressure and minimize...

375

Georgia Underground Storage Tank Act (Georgia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Georgia Underground Storage Act (GUST) provides a comprehensive program to prevent, detect, and correct releases from underground storage tanks (“USTs”) of “regulated substances” other than...

376

Math 315 Exam #3 Solutions in Brief 1. (20 points) Two tanks contain 10 liters of water each. Initially tank  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Math 315 Exam #3 Solutions in Brief 1. (20 points) Two tanks contain 10 liters of water each. Initially tank 1 contains no salt and tank 2 contains 246 grams of salt. Water con- taining 50 grams of salt per liter is added to tank 1 at the rate 2 liters/minute. Water containing no salt is added to tank 2

377

Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-BY-112  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-BY-112. This report supports the requirements of the Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-10. (This tank has been designated a Ferrocyanide Watch List tank.)

Baldwin, J.H.

1997-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

378

ATR/OTR-SY Tank Camera Purge System and in Tank Color Video Imaging System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This procedure will document the satisfactory operation of the 101-SY tank Camera Purge System (CPS) and 101-SY in tank Color Camera Video Imaging System (CCVIS). Included in the CPRS is the nitrogen purging system safety interlock which shuts down all the color video imaging system electronics within the 101-SY tank vapor space during loss of nitrogen purge pressure.

Werry, S.M.

1995-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

379

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for A Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the A Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Tank 241-C-101 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tank C-101 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks of fugitive emissions to tank farm workers. Gas and vapor samples from the Tank C-101 headspace were collected on July 7, 1994 using the in situ sampling (ISS) method, and again on September 1, 1994 using the more robust vapor sampling system (VSS). Gas and vapor concentrations in Tank C-101 are influenced by its connections to other tanks and its ventilation pathways. At issue is whether the organic vapors in Tank C-101 are from the waste in that tank, or from Tanks C-102 or C-103. Tank C-103 is on the Organic Watch List; the other two are not. Air from the Tank C-101 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9-m long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 8, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 34.0 C, and all heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, and Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology through a contract with Sandia National Laboratories. The 39 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks provided by the laboratories.

Huckaby, J.L.

1995-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BY-Tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on BY-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

Brevick, C.H.

1996-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

382

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for B Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the B Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BY Tank Farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the BY Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices contain data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for S tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200 West Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to all the SSTs in the S Tank Farm of the southwest quadrant of the 200 West Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for the SX-tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

386

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for the S-tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on S-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

387

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AW-tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AW-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

Brevick, C.H., Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

388

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AP-tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AP-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

389

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AN-tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AN-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

390

Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AY-tank farm  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AY-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford, Fluor Daniel Hanford

1997-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

391

Laboratory Demonstration of the Pretreatment Process with Caustic and Oxidative Leaching Using Actual Hanford Tank Waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the bench-scale pretreatment processing of actual tank waste materials through the entire baseline WTP pretreatment flowsheet in an effort to demonstrate the efficacy of the defined leaching processes on actual Hanford tank waste sludge and the potential impacts on downstream pretreatment processing. The test material was a combination of reduction oxidation (REDOX) tank waste composited materials containing aluminum primarily in the form of boehmite and dissolved S saltcake containing Cr(III)-rich entrained solids. The pretreatment processing steps tested included • caustic leaching for Al removal • solids crossflow filtration through the cell unit filter (CUF) • stepwise solids washing using decreasing concentrations of sodium hydroxide with filtration through the CUF • oxidative leaching using sodium permanganate for removing Cr • solids filtration with the CUF • follow-on solids washing and filtration through the CUF • ion exchange processing for Cs removal • evaporation processing of waste stream recycle for volume reduction • combination of the evaporated product with dissolved saltcake. The effectiveness of each process step was evaluated by following the mass balance of key components (such as Al, B, Cd, Cr, Pu, Ni, Mn, and Fe), demonstrating component (Al, Cr, Cs) removal, demonstrating filterability by evaluating filter flux rates under various processing conditions (transmembrane pressure, crossflow velocities, wt% undissolved solids, and PSD) and filter fouling, and identifying potential issues for WTP. The filterability was reported separately (Shimskey et al. 2008) and is not repeated herein.

Fiskum, Sandra K.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Tank Waste Remediation System Guide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Cold inelastic collisions between lithium and cesium in a two-species magneto-optical trap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate collisional properties of lithium and cesium which are simultaneously confined in a combined magneto-optical trap. Trap-loss collisions between the two species are comprehensively studied. Different inelastic collision channels are identified, and inter-species rate coefficients as well as cross sections are determined. It is found that loss rates are independent of the optical excitation of Li, as a consequence of the repulsive Li$^*$-Cs interaction. Li and Cs loss by inelastic inter-species collisions can completely be attributed to processes involving optically excited cesium (fine-structure changing collisions and radiative escape). By lowering the trap depth for Li, an additional loss channel of Li is observed which results from ground-state Li-Cs collisions changing the hyperfine state of cesium.

Schlöder, U; Schünemann, U; Grimm, R; Weidemüller, M

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

The effects of using Cesium-137 teletherapy sources as a radiological weapon (dirty bomb)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While radioactive sources used in medical diagnosis do not pose a great security risk due to their low level of radioactivity, therapeutic sources are extremely radioactive and can presumably be used as a radiological weapon. Cobalt-60 and Cesium-137 sources are the most common ones used in radiotherapy with over 10,000 of such sources currently in use worldwide, especially in the developing world, which cannot afford modern accelerators. The present study uses computer simulations to investigate the effects of using Cesium-137 sources from teletherapy devices as a radiological weapon. Assuming a worst-case terrorist attack scenario, we estimate the ensuing cancer mortality, land contamination, evacuation area, as well as the relevant evacuation, decontamination, and health costs in the framework of the linear risk model. The results indicate that an attack with a Cesium-137 dirty bomb in a large metropolitan city (especially one that would involve several teletherapy sources) although would not cause any sta...

Liolios, Theodore

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Determining Reactor Flux from Xenon-136 and Cesium-135 in Spent Fuel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The ability to infer the reactor flux from spent fuel or seized fissile material would enhance the tools of nuclear forensics and nuclear nonproliferation significantly. We show that reactor flux can be inferred from the ratios of xenon-136 to xenon-134 and cesium-135 to cesium-137. If the average flux of a reactor is known, the flux inferred from measurements of spent fuel could help determine whether that spent fuel was loaded as a blanket or close to the mid-plane of the reactor. The cesium ratio also provides information on reactor shutdowns during the irradiation of fuel, which could prove valuable for identifying the reactor in question through comparisons with satellite reactor heat monitoring data. We derive analytic expressions for these correlations and compare them to experimental data and to detailed reactor burn simulations. The enrichment of the original uranium fuel affects the correlations by up to 3 percent, but only at high flux.

A. C. Hayes; Gerard Jungman

2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

396

2020 Vision for Tank Waste Cleanup (One System Integration) - 12506  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The Cleanup of Hanford's 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored in 177 large underground tanks represents the Department's largest and most complex environmental remediation project. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored in the underground tanks grouped into 18 'tank farms' on Hanford's central plateau. Hanford's mission to safely remove, treat and dispose of this waste includes the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), ongoing retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and building or upgrading the waste feed delivery infrastructure that will deliver the waste to and support operations of the WTP beginning in 2019. Our discussion of the 2020 Vision for Hanford tank waste cleanup will address the significant progress made to date and ongoing activities to manage the operations of the tank farms and WTP as a single system capable of retrieving, delivering, treating and disposing Hanford's tank waste. The initiation of hot operations and subsequent full operations of the WTP are not only dependent upon the successful design and construction of the WTP, but also on appropriately preparing the tank farms and waste feed delivery infrastructure to reliably and consistently deliver waste feed to the WTP for many decades. The key components of the 2020 vision are: all WTP facilities are commissioned, turned-over and operational, achieving the earliest possible hot operations of completed WTP facilities, and supplying low-activity waste (LAW) feed directly to the LAW Facility using in-tank/near tank supplemental treatment technologies. A One System Integrated Project Team (IPT) was recently formed to focus on developing and executing the programs that will be critical to successful waste feed delivery and WTP startup. The team is comprised of members from Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), Washington River Protection Solutions LLC (WRPS), and DOE-ORP and DOE-WTP. The IPT will combine WTP and WRPS capabilities in a mission-focused model that is clearly defined, empowered and cost efficient. The genesis for this new team and much of the 2020 vision is based on the work of an earlier team that was tasked with identifying the optimum approach to startup, commissioning, and turnover of WTP facilities for operations. This team worked backwards from 2020 - a date when the project will be completed and steady-state operations will be underway - and identified success criteria to achieving safe and efficient operations of the WTP. The team was not constrained by any existing contract work scope, labor, or funding parameters. Several essential strategies were identified to effectively realize the one-system model of integrated feed stream delivery, WTP operations, and product delivery, and to accomplish the team's vision of hot operations beginning in 2016: - Use a phased startup and turnover approach that will allow WTP facilities to be transitioned to an operational state on as short a timeline as credible. - Align Tank Farm (TF) and WTP objectives such that feed can be supplied to the WTP when it is required for hot operations. - Ensure immobilized waste and waste recycle streams can be recei

Harp, Benton; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik [US DOE (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Small-Column Cesium Ion Exchange Elution Testing of Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work performed to evaluate multiple, cesium loading, and elution cycles for small columns containing SRF resin using a simple, high-level waste (HLW) simulant. Cesium ion exchange loading and elution curves were generated for a nominal 5 M Na, 2.4E-05 M Cs, 0.115 M Al loading solution traced with 134Cs followed by elution with variable HNO3 (0.02, 0.07, 0.15, 0.23, and 0.28 M) containing variable CsNO3 (5.0E-09, 5.0E-08, and 5.0E-07 M) and traced with 137Cs. The ion exchange system consisted of a pump, tubing, process solutions, and a single, small ({approx}15.7 mL) bed of SRF resin with a water-jacketed column for temperature-control. The columns were loaded with approximately 250 bed volumes (BVs) of feed solution at 45 C and at 1.5 to 12 BV per hour (0.15 to 1.2 cm/min). The columns were then eluted with 29+ BVs of HNO3 processed at 25 C and at 1.4 BV/h. The two independent tracers allowed analysis of the on-column cesium interaction between the loading and elution solutions. The objective of these tests was to improve the correlation between the spent resin cesium content and cesium leached out of the resin in subsequent loading cycles (cesium leakage) to help establish acid strength and purity requirements.

Brown, Garrett N.; Russell, Renee L.; Peterson, Reid A.

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

398

Double-Shell Tank Visual Inspection Changes Resulting from the Tank 241-AY-102 Primary Tank Leak  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Integrity Program, remote visual inspections are utilized to perform qualitative in-service inspections of the DSTs in order to provide a general overview of the condition of the tanks. During routine visual inspections of tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) in August 2012, anomalies were identified on the annulus floor which resulted in further evaluations. In October 2012, Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC determined that the primary tank of AY-102 was leaking. Following identification of the tank AY-102 probable leak cause, evaluations considered the adequacy of the existing annulus inspection frequency with respect to the circumstances of the tank AY-102 1eak and the advancing age of the DST structures. The evaluations concluded that the interval between annulus inspections should be shortened for all DSTs, and each annulus inspection should cover > 95 percent of annulus floor area, and the portion of the primary tank (i.e., dome, sidewall, lower knuckle, and insulating refractory) that is visible from the annulus inspection risers. In March 2013, enhanced visual inspections were performed for the six oldest tanks: 241-AY-101, 241-AZ-101,241-AZ-102, 241-SY-101, 241-SY-102, and 241-SY-103, and no evidence of leakage from the primary tank were observed. Prior to October 2012, the approach for conducting visual examinations of DSTs was to perform a video examination of each tank's interior and annulus regions approximately every five years (not to exceed seven years between inspections). Also, the annulus inspection only covered about 42 percent of the annulus floor.

Girardot, Crystal L. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Washenfelder, Dennis J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Jeremy M. [USDOE Office of River Protection, Richland, WA (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, Richland, WA (United States)

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

399

Turbomachinery debris remover  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for removing debris from a turbomachine. The apparatus includes housing and remotely operable viewing and grappling mechanisms for the purpose of locating and removing debris lodged between adjacent blades in a turbomachine.

Krawiec, Donald F. (Pittsburgh, PA); Kraf, Robert J. (North Huntingdon, PA); Houser, Robert J. (Monroeville, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1996 to evaluate these vessels, and evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "tank cesium removal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Annual Radioactive Waste Tank Inspection Program - 1998  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1998 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances, along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed, are the subject of this report.

McNatt, F.G.

1999-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

402

Annual radioactive waste tank inspection program - 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 1999 to evaluate these vessels and auxiliary appurtenances along with evaluations based on data accrued by inspections performed since the tanks were constructed are the subject of this report.

Moore, C.J.

2000-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

403

Battelle determines cause of Ashland tank failure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An existing flaw, combined with embrittled steel and residual stresses, led to the catastrophic failure of the fuel oil tank at Ashland Petroleum Co., Floreffe, Pa., l