National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for tandem mirror experiment

  1. Summary of results from the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonen, T.C.

    1981-02-26

    This report summarizes results from the successful experimental operation of the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) over the period October 1978 through September 1980. The experimental program, summarized by the DOE milestones given in Table 1-1, had three basic phases: (1) an 8-month checkout period, October 1978 through May 1979; (2) a 6-month initial period of operation, June through November 1979, during which the basic principles of the tandem configuration were demonstrated (i.e., plasma confinement was improved over that of a single-cell mirror); and (3) a 10-month period, December 1979 through September 1980, during which the initial TMX results were corroborated by additional diagnostic measurements and many detailed physics investigations were carried out. This report summarizes the early results, presents results of recent data analysis, and outlines areas of ongoing research and data analysis which will be reported in future journal publications.

  2. Photo of the Week: Inside the Tandem Mirror Experiment | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    research center for mirror fusion devices. The design consisted of a 64-meter-long vacuum vessel fitted with 26 coil magnets bonding the center of the vessel and two 400-ton...

  3. Application of power-factor correction in the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade magnet power supply

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corvin, W.C.

    1981-08-14

    The magnet power supply for the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX Upgrade) contains 24 groups of dc rectifiers that feed the water-cooled magnets. Each group consists of five or less rectifiers, connected in series. All 24 are current-regulating, using phase-controlled bilateral thyristors in the rectifier transformer primaries. The electric utility system must furnish reactive power to these phase-controlled thyristors as well as to the cmmutating diodes in the rectifier bridges.

  4. Tandem mirror technology demonstration facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-10-01

    This report describes a facility for generating engineering data on the nuclear technologies needed to build an engineering test reactor (ETR). The facility, based on a tandem mirror operating in the Kelley mode, could be used to produce a high neutron flux (1.4 MW/M/sup 2/) on an 8-m/sup 2/ test area for testing fusion blankets. Runs of more than 100 h, with an average availability of 30%, would produce a fluence of 5 mW/yr/m/sup 2/ and give the necessary experience for successful operation of an ETR.

  5. Neutral Beam Injection Experiments and Related Behavior of Neutral Particles in the GAMMA 10 Tandem Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Higashizono, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ohki, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ogita, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Shoji, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science(Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University (Japan); Islam, M.K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kubota, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Yamada, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Murakami, R. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    Results of neutral beam injection (NBI) experiments in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror plasmas are presented together with the neutral particle behavior observed in the experiments. A hydrogen neural beam was injected into the hot-ion-mode plasmas by using the injector installed in the central-cell for the plasma heating and fueling. High-energy ions produced by NBI were observed and its energy distribution was measured for the first time with a neutral particle analyzer installed in the central-cell. The temporal and spatial behavior of hydrogen was observed with axially aligned H{sub {alpha}} detectors installed from the central midplane to anchor-cell. Enhancement of hydrogen recycling due to the beam injection and the cause of the observed decrease in plasma diamagnetism are discussed. The Monte-Carlo code DEGAS for neutral transport simulation was applied to the GAMMA 10 central-cell and a 3-dimensional simulation was performed in the NBI experiment. Localization of neutral particle during the beam injection is investigated based on the simulation and it was found that the increased recycling due to the beam injection was dominant near the injection port.

  6. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  7. Engineering problems of tandem-mirror reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moir, R.W.; Barr, W.L.; Boghosian, B.M.

    1981-10-22

    We have completed a comparative evaluation of several end plug configurations for tandem mirror fusion reactors with thermal barriers. The axi-cell configuration has been selected for further study and will be the basis for a detailed conceptual design study to be carried out over the next two years. The axi-cell end plug has a simple mirror cell produced by two circular coils followed by a transition coil and a yin-yang pair, which provides for MHD stability. This paper discusses some of the many engineering problems facing the designer. We estimated the direct cost to be 2$/W/sub e/. Assuming total (direct and indirect) costs to be twice this number, we need to reduce total costs by factors between 1.7 and 2.3 to compete with future LWRs levelized cost of electricity. These reductions may be possible by designing magnets producing over 20T made possible by use of combinations of superconducting and normal conducting coils as well as improvements in performance and cost of neutral beam and microwave power systems. Scientific and technological understanding and innovation are needed in the area of thermal barrier pumping - a process by which unwanted particles are removed (pumped) from certain regions of velocity and real space in the end plug. Removal of exhaust fuel ions, fusion ash and impurities by action of a halo plasma and plasma dump in the mirror end region is another challenging engineering problem discussed in this paper.

  8. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the Tandem Mirror Reactor and thermochemical cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, R.W.; Ribe, F.L.

    1981-01-21

    This volume contains the following sections: (1) the Tandem Mirror fusion driver, (2) the Cauldron blanket module, (3) the flowing microsphere, (4) coupling the reactor to the process, (5) the thermochemical cycles, and (6) chemical reactors and process units. (MOW)

  9. Synfuels from fusion: using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werner, R.W.

    1982-11-01

    This study is concerned with the following area: (1) the tandem mirror reactor and its physics; (2) energy balance; (3) the lithium oxide canister blanket system; (4) high-temperature blanket; (5) energy transport system-reactor to process; (6) thermochemical hydrogen processes; (7) interfacing the GA cycle; (8) matching power and temperature demands; (9) preliminary cost estimates; (10) synfuels beyond hydrogen; and (11) thermodynamics of the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O system. (MOW)

  10. Development of polarization-controlled multi-pass Thomson scattering system in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Morimoto, M.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Kawahata, K.; Funaba, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Minami, T. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    In the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror, the typical electron density is comparable to that of the peripheral plasma of torus-type fusion devices. Therefore, an effective method to increase Thomson scattering (TS) signals is required in order to improve signal quality. In GAMMA 10, the yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG)-TS system comprises a laser, incident optics, light collection optics, signal detection electronics, and a data recording system. We have been developing a multi-pass TS method for a polarization-based system based on the GAMMA 10 YAG TS. To evaluate the effectiveness of the polarization-based configuration, the multi-pass system was installed in the GAMMA 10 YAG-TS system, which is capable of double-pass scattering. We carried out a Rayleigh scattering experiment and applied this double-pass scattering system to the GAMMA 10 plasma. The integrated scattering signal was made about twice as large by the double-pass system.

  11. Synfuels from fusion: producing hydrogen with the tandem mirror reactor and thermochemical cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ribe, F.L.; Werner, R.W.

    1981-01-21

    This report examines, for technical merit, the combination of a fusion reactor driver and a thermochemical plant as a means for producing synthetic fuel in the basic form of hydrogen. We studied: (1) one reactor type - the Tandem Mirror Reactor - wishing to use to advantage its simple central cell geometry and its direct electrical output; (2) two reactor blanket module types - a liquid metal cauldron design and a flowing Li/sub 2/O solid microsphere pellet design so as to compare the technology, the thermal-hydraulics, neutronics and tritium control in a high-temperature operating mode (approx. 1200 K); (3) three thermochemical cycles - processes in which water is used as a feedstock along with a high-temperature heat source to produce H/sub 2/ and O/sub 2/.

  12. Soft x-ray intensity profile measurements of electron cyclotron heated plasmas using semiconductor detector arrays in GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minami, R., E-mail: minami@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Imai, T.; Kariya, T.; Numakura, T.; Eguchi, T.; Kawarasaki, R.; Nakazawa, K.; Kato, T.; Sato, F.; Nanzai, H.; Uehara, M.; Endo, Y.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    Temporally and spatially resolved soft x-ray analyses of electron cyclotron heated plasmas are carried out by using semiconductor detector arrays in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror. The detector array has 16-channel for the measurements of plasma x-ray profiles so as to make x-ray tomographic reconstructions. The characteristics of the detector array make it possible to obtain spatially resolved plasma electron temperatures down to a few tens eV and investigate various magnetohydrodynamic activities. High power electron cyclotron heating experiment for the central-cell region in GAMMA 10 has been started in order to reduce the electron drag by increasing the electron temperature.

  13. Generating end plug potentials in tandem mirror plasma confinement by heating thermal particles so as to escape low density end stoppering plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, David E. (Danville, CA); Logan, B. Grant (Danville, CA)

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for raising the potential of a magnetic mirror cell by pumping charged particles of the opposite sign of the potential desired out of the mirror cell through excitation, with the pumping being done by an externally imposed field at the bounce frequency of the above charged particles. These pumped simple mirror cells then provide end stoppering for a center mirror cell for the tandem mirror plasma confinement apparatus. For the substantially complete pumping case, the end plugs of a tandem mirror can be up to two orders of magnitude lower in density for confining a given center mirror cell plasma than in the case of end plugs without pumping. As a result the decrease in recirculating power required to keep the system going, the technological state of the art required, and the capital cost are all greatly lowered.

  14. Conceptual design study FY 1981: synfuels from fusion - using the tandem mirror reactor and a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H. (ed.)

    1982-02-09

    This report represents the second year's effort of a scoping and conceptual design study being conducted for the express purpose of evaluating the engineering potential of producing hydrogen by thermochemical cycles using a tandem mirror fusion driver. The hydrogen thus produced may then be used as a feedstock to produce fuels such as methane, methanol, or gasoline. The main objective of this second year's study has been to obtain some approximate cost figures for hydrogen production through a conceptual design study.

  15. Field Experience with 3-Sun Mirror Module Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis; Avery, James E.; Huang, H,; Minkin, Leonid M; Fraas, J. X.; Maxey, L Curt; Gehl, Anthony C

    2008-01-01

    JX Crystals 3-sun PV mirror modules have now been operating in four separate systems in the field for up to 2 years. Two post-mounted 2-axis tracking arrays of 12 modules each were installed at the Shanghai Flower Park in April of 2006. Then 672 modules were installed in a 100 kW array on N-S horizontal beam trackers at the Shanghai Flower Port in November of 2006. Finally, sets of 4 modules were installed on azimuth-tracking carousels on buildings at the Oak Ridge National Lab and at the U. of Nevada in Las Vegas in late 2007. All of these modules in each of these systems are still operating at their initial power ratings. No degradation in performance has been observed. The benefit of these 3-sun PV mirror modules is that they use 1/3 of the silicon single-crystal cell material in comparison to traditional planar modules. Since aluminum mirrors are much cheaper than high-purity single-crystal silicon-cells, these modules and systems should be much lower in cost when manufactured in high volume.

  16. Coronagraphic demonstration experiment using aluminum mirrors for space infrared astronomical observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oseki, Shinji; Ishihara, Daisuke; Enya, Keigo; Haze, Kanae; Kotani, Takayuki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Nishiyama, Miho; Abe, Lyu; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2015-01-01

    For future space infrared astronomical coronagraphy, we perform experimental studies on the application of aluminum mirrors to a coronagraph. Cooled reflective optics is required for broad-band mid-infrared observations in space, while high-precision optics is required for coronagraphy. For the coronagraph instrument originally proposed for the next-generation infrared astronomical satellite project SPICA (SCI: SPICA Coronagraph Instrument), we fabricated and evaluated the optics consisting of high-precision aluminum off-axis mirrors with diamond-turned surfaces, and conducted a coronagraphic demonstration experiment using the optics with a coronagraph mask. We first measured the wave front errors (WFEs) of the aluminum mirrors with a He-Ne Fizeau interferometer to confirm that the power spectral densities of the WFEs satisfy the SCI requirements. Then we integrated the mirrors into an optical system and evaluated the overall performance of the system. As a result, we estimate the total WFE of the optics to b...

  17. Design scoping study of the 12T Yin-Yang magnet system for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS). Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The overall objective of this engineering study was to determine the feasibility of designing a Yin-Yang magnet capable of producing a peak field in the windings of 12T for the Tandem Mirror Next Step (TMNS) program. As part of this technical study, a rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimate of the winding for this magnet was undertaken. The preferred approach to the winding design of the TMNS plug coil utilizes innovative design concepts to meet the structural, electrical and thermodynamic requirements of the magnet system. Structurally, the coil is radially partitioned into four sections, preventing the accumulation of the radial loads and reacting them into the structural case. To safely dissipate the 13.34 GJ of energy stored in each Yin-Yang magnet, the winding has been electrically subdivided into parallel or nested coils, each having its own power supply and protection circuitry. This arrangement effectively divides the total stored energy of the coils into manageable subsystems. The windings are cooled with superfluid helium II, operated at 1.8K and 1.2 atmospheres. The superior cooling capabilities of helium II have enabled the overall winding envelope to be minimized, providing a current density of 2367 A/CM/sup 2/, excluding substructure.

  18. Photo of the Week: Inside the Tandem Mirror Experiment | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuilding energy codesPhiladelhia Gas WorksAugust 3, 2012Energy

  19. Bent Crystal X-Ray Mirrors for Time-Resolved Experiments with Femtosecond Laser-Produced X-ray Pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Linde, D.

    Bent Crystal X-Ray Mirrors for Time-Resolved Experiments with Femtosecond Laser-Produced X@iep.physik.uni-essen.de Abstract. In the last few years, bent crystal X-ray mirrors have played an important role in time, for example, with the help of toroidally bent crystals which allow a monochromatic point-to-point imaging

  20. Positronium Portal into Hidden Sector: A new Experiment to Search for Mirror Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Crivelli; Alexander Belov; Ulisse Gendotti; Sergei Gninenko; Andre Rubbia

    2010-07-19

    The understanding of the origin of dark matter has great importance for cosmology and particle physics. Several interesting extensions of the standard model dealing with solution of this problem motivate the concept of hidden sectors consisting of SU(3)xSU(2)_LxU(1)_Y singlet fields. Among these models, the mirror matter model is certainly one of the most interesting. The model explains the origin of parity violation in weak interactions, it could also explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe and provide a natural ground for the explanation of dark matter. The mirror matter could have a portal to our world through photon-mirror photon mixing (epsilon). This mixing would lead to orthopositronium (o-Ps) to mirror orthopositronium oscillations, the experimental signature of which is the apparently invisible decay of o-Ps. In this paper, we describe an experiment to search for the decay o-Ps -> invisible in vacuum by using a pulsed slow positron beam and a massive 4pi BGO crystal calorimeter. The developed high efficiency positron tagging system, the low calorimeter energy threshold and high hermiticity allow the expected sensitivity in mixing strength to be epsilon about 10^-9, which is more than one order of magnitude below the current Big Bang Nucleosynthesis limit and in a region of parameter space of great theoretical and phenomenological interest. The vacuum experiment with such sensitivity is particularly timely in light of the recent DAMA/LIBRA observations of the annual modulation signal consistent with a mirror type dark matter interpretation.

  1. Mirror plasma apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moir, Ralph W. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma.

  2. Perspectives of Use of Diagnostic Mirrors with Transparent Protection Layer in Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhin, Eugene E.; Razdobarin, Gennadiy T.; Semenov, Vladimir V.; Tolstyakov, Sergey Yu.; Kochergin, Mikhail M.; Kurskiev, Gleb S.; Podushnikova, Klara A. [Department of Plasma Physics, Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical lnstitute, SPb, 194021 (Russian Federation); Andreev, Alexandr N.; Davydov, Denis V.; Rastegaeva, Marina G. [Division of Solid State Physics, A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, SPb, 194021 (Russian Federation); Khimich, Yuriy P.; Gorshkov, Vladimir N.; Nikitin, Dmitriy B. [Research Institute of Optical Design, Federal Research Center Vavilov State Optical Institute, SPb, 199034 (Russian Federation); Litnovsky, Andrej M. [Institute fur Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Julich, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Ass EURATOM-FZ Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany)

    2008-03-12

    We evaluate using of metal mirrors over-coated with transparent protection layer for the in-vessel diagnostic systems in reactor-grade fusion devices. Ideally, these should satisfy the contradictory demands of high reflectivity and small rate degradation when being bombarded by CX atoms. The serious threat to the performance of diagnostic mirrors is surface contamination with carbon-based material eroded from carbon tiles. Via coupling the protective layer to a bulk mirror we can mitigate the deposit infiuence on the reflectance spectra. The regards are given to survivability in plasma environment of protected coated metallic mirrors.

  3. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persaud, A.

    2010-01-01

    The prototype tandem generator has been built using a smallmonoenergetic photon generator. The experiments indicateion source[6]. The tandem generator was designed to be able

  4. Acquisition, tracking, pointing, and line-of-sight control laboratory experiments for a space-based bifocal relay mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as well as the development of a test bed for a bifocal relay mirror spacecraft. Figure 1. Bifocal Relay-based bifocal relay mirror M. G. Spencer*, B. N. Agrawal, M. Romano Spacecraft Research and Design Center Naval ABSTRACT Space based bifocal relay mirrors are potentially an enabling/enhancing piece of any architecture

  5. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study interim design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    The status of the design of a tenth-of-a-kind commercial tandem-mirror fusion reactor is described at the midpoint of a two-year study. When completed, the design is to serve as a strategic goal for the mirror fusion program. The main objectives of the Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS) are: (1) to design an attractive tandem-mirror fusion reactor producing electricity and synfuels (in alternate versions), (2) to identify key development and technology needs, and (3) to exploit the potential of fusion for safety, low activation, and simple disposal of radioactive waste. In the first year we have emphasized physics and engineering of the central cell and physics of the end cell. Design optimization and trade studies are continuing, and we expect additional modifications in the end cells to further improve the performance of the final design.

  6. Can Sea Lions’ (Zalophus californianus) Use Mirrors to Locate an Object?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Heather M.; Webber, Krista; Kemery, Alicia; Garcia, Melissa; Kuczaj, II, Stan A

    2015-01-01

    experience with mirrors to efficiently use the properties ofwith mirrors to do so efficiently, much like human children

  7. Mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.; Bender, D.A.

    1994-10-04

    A unique lens or mirror mount having adjustable constraints at two key locations to allow for ''X'' and ''Y'' tilts of the mirror only is disclosed. The device uses two pair of flexures of a type such that the pivots of the mirror gimble are rigidly fixed in all planes allowing the device to have zero stacking tolerance and zero wear over time. 4 figs.

  8. Tandem betatron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keinigs, Rhonald K. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Two betatrons are provided in tandem for alternately accelerating an electron beam to avoid the single flux swing limitation of conventional betatrons and to accelerate the electron beam to high energies. The electron beam is accelerated in a first betatron during a period of increasing magnetic flux. The eletron beam is extracted from the first betatron as a peak magnetic flux is reached and then injected into a second betatron at a time of minimum magnetic flux in the second betatron. The cycle may be repeated until the desired electron beam energy is obtained. In one embodiment, the second betatron is axially offset from the first betatron to provide for electron beam injection directly at the axial location of the beam orbit in the second betatron.

  9. Mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humpal, H.H.

    1987-11-10

    A mirror mount is provided that allows free pitch, yaw and roll motion of the mirror while keeping the location of a point on the surface of the mirror fixed in the rest frame of reference of the mount. Yaw movement is provided by two yaw cylinders that are bearing mounted to provide rotation. Pitch and roll motion is provided by a spherically annular shell that is air bearing mounted to move between a clamp and an upper pedestal bearing. The centers of curvature of the spherical surfaces of the shell lie upon the point. Pitch motion and roll motion are separately and independently imparted to mirror by a pair of pitch paddles and a pair of roll paddles that are independently and separately moved by control rods driven by motors. 5 figs.

  10. Mirror monochromator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mankos, Marian; Shadman, Khashayar

    2014-12-02

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing a mirror electron monochromator (MirrorChrom) attachment to new and retrofitted electron microscopes (EMs) for improving the energy resolution of the EM from the characteristic range of 0.2-0.5 eV to the range of 10-50 meV. This improvement will enhance the characterization of materials by imaging and spectroscopy. In particular, the monochromator will refine the energy spectra characterizing materials, as obtained from transmission EMs [TEMs] fitted with electron spectrometers, and it will increase the spatial resolution of the images of materials taken with scanning EMs (SEMs) operated at low voltages. EOI’s MirrorChrom technology utilizes a magnetic prism to simultaneously deflect the electron beam off the axis of the microscope column by 90° and disperse the electrons in proportional to their energies into a module with an electron mirror and a knife-edge. The knife-edge cuts off the tails of the energy distribution to reduce the energy spread of the electrons that are reflected, and subsequently deflected, back into the microscope column. The knife-edge is less prone to contamination, and thereby charging, than the conventional slits used in existing monochromators, which improves the reliability and stability of the module. The overall design of the MirrorChrom exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in order to maintain the beam brightness – a parameter that impacts how well the electron beam can be focused downstream onto a sample. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate monochromator architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between energy resolution and beam current to achieve the optimum design for three particular applications with market potential: increasing the spatial resolution of low voltage SEMs, increasing the energy resolution of low voltage TEMs (beam energy of 5-20 keV), and increasing the energy resolution of conventional TEMs (beam energy of 80-120 keV). Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key monochromator components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded into a model describing the key electron-optical parameters of the complete monochromator. The simulations reveal that the mirror monochromator can reduce the energy spread of a Schottky electron source, an established electron emitter used widely in EMs, to 10 meV for practical beam current values and that further reduction of the energy spread down to 3 meV is possible for low current applications with a Cold Field Emitter (an electron source with 10x the brightness of a Schottky source). MirrorChroms can be designed and built to attach to different types of TEMs and SEMs, thus making them suitable for enhancing the study of the structure, composition, and bonding states of new materials at the nanoscale to advance material science research in the field of nanotechnology as well as biomedical research.

  11. Tandem mobile robot system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Shirey, David L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hayward, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  12. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Angeles Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation AOrganic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation by Chun-multi-junction tandem solar-cell design. Given this design,

  13. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Krishna (University of Massachusetts, Amherst) [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2007-04-04

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  14. Electrons and Mirror Symmetry

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Kumar, Krishna

    2009-09-01

    The neutral weak force between an electron and a target particle, mediated by the Z boson, can be isolated by measuring the fractional change under a mirror reflection of the scattering probability of relativistic longitudinally polarized electrons off unpolarized targets. This technique yields neutral weak force measurements at a length scale of 1 femtometer, in contrast to high energy collider measurements that probe much smaller length scales. Study of the variation of the weak force over a range of length scales provides a stringent test of theory, complementing collider measurements. We describe a recent measurement of the neutral weak force between two electrons by the E158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. While the weak force between an electron and positron has been extensively studied, that between two electrons had never directly been measured. We conclude by discussing prospects for even more precise measurements at future facilities.

  15. Intermediate Mirrors to Reach Theoretical Efficiency Limits of Multi-Bandgap Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapati, Vidya; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-01-01

    Creating a single bandgap solar cell that approaches the Shockley-Queisser limit requires a highly reflective rear mirror. This mirror enhances the voltage of the solar cell by providing photons with multiple opportunities for escaping out the front surface. Efficient external luminescence is a pre-requisite for high voltage. Intermediate mirrors in a multijunction solar cell can enhance the voltage for each cell in the stack. These intermediate mirrors need to have the added function of transmitting the below bandgap photons to the next cell in the stack. In this work, we quantitatively establish the efficiency increase possible with the use of intermediate selective reflectors between cells in a tandem stack. The absolute efficiency increase can be up to ~6% in dual bandgap cells with optimal intermediate and rear mirrors. A practical implementation of an intermediate selective mirror is an air gap sandwiched by antireflection coatings. The air gap provides perfect reflection for angles outside the escape c...

  16. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  17. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched.

  18. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    1991-01-01

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, and (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. The solar cell can be provided as a two-terminal device or a three-terminal device.

  19. Monolithic tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, M.W.

    1994-06-21

    A single-crystal, monolithic, tandem, photovoltaic solar cell is described which includes (a) an InP substrate having upper and lower surfaces, (b) a first photoactive subcell on the upper surface of the InP substrate, (c) a second photoactive subcell on the first subcell; and (d) an optically transparent prismatic cover layer over the second subcell. The first photoactive subcell is GaInAsP of defined composition. The second subcell is InP. The two subcells are lattice matched. 9 figs.

  20. Stable mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1983-11-04

    An improved mirror mount assembly is disclosed. The mirror mount assembly provides a post assembly slidable in a Y-axis orientation and a nut plate assembly slidable in an X-axis orientation and means for simultaneously locking said post assembly and said key assembly in a fixed position.

  1. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Erlan S. (Danville, CA); Smith, James R. (Livermore, CA); Salmon, J. Thaddeus (Livermore, CA); Monjes, Julio A. (San Ramon, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  2. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P. (Oakland, CA); Olivier, Scot S. (Santa Cruz, CA)

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  3. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2010-04-06

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  4. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  5. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  6. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-08-21

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft.

  7. Transition Metal Switchable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-01

    The switchable-mirrors technology was developed by Tom Richardson and Jonathan Slack of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Division. By using transition metals rather than the rare earth metals used in the first metal-hydride switchable mirrors, Richardson and Slack were able to lower the cost and simplify the manufacturing process. Energy performance is improved as well, because the new windows can reflect or transmit both visible and infrared light. Besides windows for offices and homes, possible applications include automobile sunroofs, signs and displays, aircraft windows, and spacecraft. More information at: http://windows.lbl.gov/materials/chromogenics/default.htm

  8. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    junction tandem solar cells, one wide-bandgap material withare being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, theTo utilize solar radiation more effectively, one possible

  9. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  10. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O. (Golden, CO); Kennedy, Cheryl E. (Lafayette, CO); Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO); Goggin, Rita M. (Englewood, CO)

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  11. MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C; Cohn, M

    2005-11-10

    This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.

  12. Physics: the big black box Mirror conjecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavalieri, Renzo

    Physics: the big black box Math Mirror conjecture A look into the mirror (I) an overview of Mirror Symmetry #12;Physics: the big black box Math Mirror conjecture Outline 1 Physics: the big black box 2 Math Symmetry #12;Physics: the big black box Math Mirror conjecture A slogan Mirror Symmetry is a correspondence

  13. Theory of optomechanics: Oscillator-field model of moving mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galley, Chad R; Hu, B L

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a model for the kinematics and dynamics of optomechanics which describe the coupling between an optical field, here modeled by a massless scalar field, and the internal (e.g., determining its reflectivity) and mechanical (e.g., displacement) degrees of freedom of a moveable mirror. As opposed to implementing boundary conditions on the field we highlight the internal dynamics of the mirror which provides added flexibility to describe a variety of setups relevant to current experiments. The inclusion of the internal degrees of freedom in this model allows for a variety of optical activities of mirrors from those exhibiting broadband reflective properties to the cases where reflection is suppressed except for a narrow band centered around the characteristic frequency associated with the mirror's internal dynamics. After establishing the model and the reflective properties of the mirror we show how appropriate parameter choices lead to useful optomechanical models such as the well known B...

  14. Coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentaro Somiya; Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2009-03-17

    Thermal noise of a mirror is one of the limiting noise sources in the high precision measurement such as gravitational-wave detection, and the modeling of thermal noise has been developed and refined over a decade. In this paper, we present a derivation of coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The result agrees to a previous result with an infinite-size mirror in the limit of large thickness, and also agrees to an independent result based on the mode expansion with a thin-mirror approximation. Our study will play an important role not only to accurately estimate the thermal-noise level of gravitational-wave detectors but also to help analyzing thermal noise in quantum-measurement experiments with lighter mirrors.

  15. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  16. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  17. More about neutron - mirror neutron oscillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zurab Berezhiani

    2009-11-12

    It was pointed out recently that oscillation of the neutron $n$ into mirror neutron $n'$, a sterile twin of the neutron with exactly the same mass, could be a very fast process with the the baryon number violation, even faster than the neutron decay itself. This process is sensitive to the magnetic fields and it could be observed by comparing the neutron lose rates in the UCN storage chambers for different magnetic backgrounds. We calculate the probability of $n-n'$ oscillation in the case when a mirror magnetic field $\\vec{B}'$ is non-zero and show that in this case it can be suppressed or resonantly enhanced by applying the ordinary magnetic field $\\vec{B}$, depending on its strength and on its orientation with respect to $\\vec{B}'$. The recent experimental data, under this hypothesis, still allow the $n-n'$ oscillation time order 1 s or even smaller. Moreover, they indicate that the neutron losses are sensitive to the orientation of the magnetic field. %at about $3\\sigma$ level. If these hints will be confirmed in the future experiments, this would point to the presence of the mirror magnetic field on the Earth of the order of 0.1 G, or some equivalent spin-dependent force of the other origin that makes a difference between the neutron and mirror neutron states.

  18. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  19. Mirror profile optimization for nano-focusing KB mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lin; Baker, Robert; Barrett, Ray; Cloetens, Peter; Dabin, Yves

    2010-06-23

    A KB focusing mirror width profile has been optimized to achieve nano-focusing for the nano-imaging end-station ID22NI at the ESRF. The complete mirror and flexure bender assembly has been modeled in 3D with finite element analysis using ANSYS. Bender stiffness, anticlastic effects and geometrical non-linear effects have been considered. Various points have been studied: anisotropy and crystal orientation, stress in the mirror and bender, actuator resolution and the mirror-bender adhesive bonding... Extremely high performance of the mirror is expected with residual slope error smaller than 0.6 {mu}rad, peak-to-valley, compared to the bent slope of 3000 {mu}rad.

  20. Tandem junction amorphous silicon solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1981-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell has an active body with two or a series of layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in a tandem stacked configuration with one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in tandem configuration can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps.

  1. High stroke pixel for a deformable mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.; Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.

    2005-09-20

    A mirror pixel that can be fabricated using standard MEMS methods for a deformable mirror. The pixel is electrostatically actuated and is capable of the high deflections needed for spaced-based mirror applications. In one embodiment, the mirror comprises three layers, a top or mirror layer, a middle layer which consists of flexures, and a comb drive layer, with the flexures of the middle layer attached to the mirror layer and to the comb drive layer. The comb drives are attached to a frame via spring flexures. A number of these mirror pixels can be used to construct a large mirror assembly. The actuator for the mirror pixel may be configured as a crenellated beam with one end fixedly secured, or configured as a scissor jack. The mirror pixels may be used in various applications requiring high stroke adaptive optics.

  2. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS): executive summary and overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Gordon, J.D.

    1984-07-01

    Two self-consistent MARS configurations are discussed - a 1200-MWe commercial electricity-generating plant and a synguels-generating plant that produces hydrogen with an energy equivalent to 26,000 barrels of oil per day. The MARS machine emphasizes the attractive features of the tandem mirror concept, including steady-state operation, a small-diameter high-beta plasma, a linear central cell with simple low-maintenance blankets, low first-wall heat fluxes (<10 W/cm/sup 2/), no driven plasma currents or associated disruptions, natural halo impurity diversion, and direct conversion of end-loss charged-particle power. The MARS electric plant produces 2600 MW of fusion power in a 130-m-long central cell. Advanced tandem-mirror plasma-engineering concepts, a high-efficiency liquid lithium-lead (Li/sub 17/Pb/sub 83/) blanket, and efficient direct electrical conversion of end loss power combine to produce a high net plant efficiency of 36%. With a total capital cost of $2.9 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the MARS electric plant produces busbar electricity at approx. 7 cents/kW-hour. The MARS synfuels plant produces 3500 MW of fusion power in a 150-m-long central cell. A helium-gas-cooled silicon carbide pebble-bed blanket provides high-temperature (1000/sup 0/C) heat to a thermochemical water-splitting cycle and the resulting hydrogen is catalytically converted to methanol for distribution. With a total capital cost of $3.6 billion (constant 1983 dollars), the synfuels plant produces methanol fuel at about $1.7/gal. The major features of the MARS reactor include sloshing-ion thermal barrier plugs for efficient plasma confinement, a high efficiency blanket, high-field (24-T) choke cells, drift pumping for trapped plasma species, quasi-optical electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) systems, and a component gridless direct converter.

  3. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    and G. Li, ?Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuittandem and triple-junction solar cells,? Materials, 2012, 5(for tandem organic solar cells,? Journal of Applied Physics,

  4. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    organic tandem and triple-junction solar cells,? Materials,Current-matched triple-junction solar cell reaching 41.1%demonstrations of triple-junction solar cells outperforming

  5. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    contacts for tandem organic solar cells,? Journal of AppliedITO-free flexible organic solar cells with printed currentC. de Mello, “ Efficient organic solar cells with solution-

  6. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    2015-01-01

    Y. Wu, and G. Li, ?Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-tandem and triple-junction solar cells,? Materials, 2012, 5(molecules for high performance solar cells,” Advanced Energy

  7. Compact neutron imaging system using axisymmetric mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khaykovich, Boris; Moncton, David E; Gubarev, Mikhail V; Ramsey, Brian D; Engelhaupt, Darell E

    2014-05-27

    A dispersed release of neutrons is generated from a source. A portion of this dispersed neutron release is reflected by surfaces of a plurality of nested, axisymmetric mirrors in at least an inner mirror layer and an outer mirror layer, wherein the neutrons reflected by the inner mirror layer are incident on at least one mirror surface of the inner mirror layer N times, wherein N is an integer, and wherein neutrons reflected by the outer mirror are incident on a plurality of mirror surfaces of the outer layer N+i times, where i is a positive integer, to redirect the neutrons toward a target. The mirrors can be formed by a periodically reversed pulsed-plating process.

  8. COS NCM2 Mirror Substrate Specification Date: January 28, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS NCM2 Mirror Substrate Specification Date: January 28, 2000 Document Number: COS-08, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: R. Cahill 2-18-99 R. Cahill, Optical Designer-18-99 J. Andrews, COS Experiment Manager, CU/CASA Date Approved By: J. Green 4-9-99 J. C. Green, COS

  9. COS NCM3 Mirror Substrate Specification Date: January 28, 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    COS NCM3 Mirror Substrate Specification Date: January 28, 2000 Document Number: COS-08, COS Instrument Scientist, CU/CASA Date Reviewed By: R. Cahill 2-18-99 R. Cahill, Optical Designer-18-99 J. Andrews, COS Experiment Manager, CU/CASA Date Approved By: J. Green 4-9-99 J. C. Green, COS

  10. Theory of optomechanics: Oscillator-field model of moving mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chad R. Galley; Ryan O. Behunin; B. L. Hu

    2012-04-11

    In this paper we present a model for the kinematics and dynamics of optomechanics which describe the coupling between an optical field, here modeled by a massless scalar field, and the internal (e.g., determining its reflectivity) and mechanical (e.g., displacement) degrees of freedom of a moveable mirror. As opposed to implementing boundary conditions on the field we highlight the internal dynamics of the mirror which provides added flexibility to describe a variety of setups relevant to current experiments. The inclusion of the internal degrees of freedom in this model allows for a variety of optical activities of mirrors from those exhibiting broadband reflective properties to the cases where reflection is suppressed except for a narrow band centered around the characteristic frequency associated with the mirror's internal dynamics. After establishing the model and the reflective properties of the mirror we show how appropriate parameter choices lead to useful optomechanical models such as the well known Barton-Calogeracos model [G. Barton and A. Calogeracos, Ann. Phys. 238, 227 (1995)] and the important yet lesser explored nonlinear models (e.g., $Nx$ coupling) for small photon numbers $N$, which present models based on side-band approximations [H. Kimble et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 022002 (2001)] cannot cope with. As a simple illustrative application we consider classical radiation pressure cooling with this model. To expound its theoretical structure and physical meanings we connect our model to field-theoretical models using auxiliary fields and the ubiquitous Brownian motion model of quantum open systems. Finally we describe the range of applications of this model, from a full quantum mechanical treatment of radiation pressure cooling, quantum entanglement between macroscopic mirrors, to the backreaction of Hawking radiation on black hole evaporation in a moving mirror analog.

  11. Design of magnetic mirrors for a linear theta pinch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veglia, V. P.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of generating optimum magnetic mirror fields at the ends of a 50-cm long theta-pinch experiment to study particle flow and loss effects has been investigated. A combination of active and passive mirrors was developed to produce 2-3:1 fields for a 23-kG pinch. Biot-Savart and potential field prediction solutions for the magnetic field distribution were compared with experimental measurements in 2-5-cm long coils for the 50-cm long pinch.

  12. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Douglas, David (Yorktown, VA)

    2005-10-18

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  13. Numerical Analysis for Controlling the Eigenmode Formation of Alfven Waves in the GAMMA 10 Tandem Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Higaki, H. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kakimoto, S. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ide, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Inoue, D. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Nagai, H. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Nakagome, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto University (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    The numerical analysis is performed with two dimensional wave code for controlling the eigenmode formation of fast Alfven waves in the GAMMA 10 central cell. The plasma production by fast waves depends on the wave excitation in the plasma. Eigenmodes are strongly formed when the boundary conditions in the axial and radial directions are satisfied. As the optimum density for the formation of eigenmode exists discretely, the density is clamped at the value where the eigenmode is strongly formed. For the higher density plasma production, the eigenmodes must be continuously excited as the density increases. It is found that the almost continuous excitation of eigenmodes can be realized by using two waves with different frequencies at the same time.

  14. Mirror with thermally controlled radius of curvature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neil, George R.; Shinn, Michelle D.

    2010-06-22

    A radius of curvature controlled mirror for controlling precisely the focal point of a laser beam or other light beam. The radius of curvature controlled mirror provides nearly spherical distortion of the mirror in response to differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces of the mirror. The radius of curvature controlled mirror compensates for changes in other optical components due to heating or other physical changes. The radius of curvature controlled mirror includes an arrangement for adjusting the temperature of the front surface and separately adjusting the temperature of the rear surface to control the radius of curvature. The temperature adjustment arrangements can include cooling channels within the mirror body or convection of a gas upon the surface of the mirror. A control system controls the differential expansion between the front and rear surfaces to achieve the desired radius of curvature.

  15. Potential of Magnetic Mirrors Development of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potential of Magnetic Mirrors Development of Fusion Energy Science: Physics, Materials, Blankets Simulation and Validation #12;Axisymmetric Mirrors · Circular Coils without Thermal Barriers ­ Simplified of Construction and Maintenance #12;A Simple Mirror can be MHD Stable · Seven Tested Methods 1.Expander plasma

  16. A Generalized Construction of Mirror Manifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Berglund; T. Hübsch

    1992-01-09

    We generalize the known method for explicit construction of mirror pairs of $(2,2)$-superconformal field theories, using the formalism of Landau-Ginzburg orbifolds. Geometrically, these theories are realized as Calabi-Yau hypersurfaces in weighted projective spaces. This generalization makes it possible to construct the mirror partners of many manifolds for which the mirror was not previously known.

  17. PROJECT PROFILE: Silicon-Based Tandem Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The project will demonstrate bonded gallium indium phosphide (GaInP) on silicon tandem cells, evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of this method of forming higher-efficiency tandem cells, and compare two- and three-terminal device configurations.

  18. High voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanak, Joseph J. (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high voltage series connected tandem junction solar battery which comprises a plurality of strips of tandem junction solar cells of hydrogenated amorphous silicon having one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon, arranged in a tandem configuration, can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps. The tandem junction strip solar cells are series connected to produce a solar battery of any desired voltage.

  19. Further Analysis of Accelerated Exposure Testing of Thin-Glass Mirror Matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, C. E.; Terwilliger, K.; Jorgensen, G. J.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) companies have deployed thin-glass mirrors produced by wet-silver processes on {approx}1-mmthick, relatively lightweight glass. These mirrors are bonded to metal substrates in commercial installations and have the confidence of the CSP industry. Initial hemispherical reflectance is {approx}93%-96%, and the cost is {approx}$16.1/m{sup 2}-$43.0/m{sup 2}. However, corrosion was observed in mirror elements of operational solar systems deployed outdoors for 2 years. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Advanced Materials Team has been investigating this problem. First, it was noted that this corrosion is very similar to the corrosion bands and spots observed on small (45 mm x 67 mm) thin-glass mirrors laminated to metal substrates with several different types of adhesives and subjected to accelerated exposure testing (AET) at NREL. The corrosion appears as dark splotches in the center of the mirror, with a corresponding 5%-20% loss in reflectivity. Secondly, two significant changes in mirror manufacture have occurred in the wet-chemistry process because of environmental concerns. The first is the method of forming a copper-free reflective mirror, and the second is the use of lead-free paints. However, the copper-free process requires stringent quality control and the lead-free paints were developed for interior applications. A test matrix of 84 combinations of sample constructions (mirror type/backprotective paint/adhesive/substrate) was devised for AET as a designed experiment to identify the most-promising mirrors, paints, and adhesives for use with concentrator designs. Two types of accelerated exposure were used: an Atlas Ci5000 WeatherOmeter (CI5000) and a BlueM damp-heat chamber. Based on an analysis of variance (ANOVA), the various factors and interactions were modeled. These samples now have more than 36 months of accelerated exposure, and most samples have completed their test cycle. We will discuss the results of the final exposure testing of these mirror samples. Glass mirrors with copper back-layers and heavily leaded paints have been considered robust for outdoor use. However, the basic mirror composition of the new mirrors is radically different from that of historically durable solar mirrors, and the outdoor durability must be determined.

  20. Process for preparing improved silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckwalter, C.Q. Jr.

    1980-01-28

    Glass mirrors having improved weathering properties are prepared by an improvement in the process for making the mirrors. The glass surface after it has been cleaned but before it is silvered, is contacted with a solution of lanthanide rare earths in addition to a sensitization solution of tin or palladium. The addition of the rare earths produces a mirror which has increased resistance to delamination of the silver from the glass surface in the presence of water.

  1. POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NEW COLLECTOR DESIGNS POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION IN NEW COLLECTOR DESIGNS This presentation was...

  2. Tandem microwave waste remediation and decontamination system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wicks, George G. (North Aiken, SC); Clark, David E. (Gainesville, FL); Schulz, Rebecca L. (Gainesville, FL)

    1999-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  3. Current and lattice matched tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga.sub.x In.sub.1-x P (0.505.ltoreq.X.ltoreq.0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low-resistance heterojunction, preferably a p+/n+ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice matched and current matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  4. ESnet IPv6 Mirror Servers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HAB PacketDieselAbsorptionPowering6106 TotalMinutesNetworkingMirror

  5. High explosives vapor detection by atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization/tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLuckey, S.A.; Goeringer, D.E.; Asano, K.G.

    1996-02-01

    The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of traces of high explosives is described. Particular emphasis is placed on use of the quadrupole ion trap as the type of tandem mass spectrometer. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge provides a simple, rugged, and efficient means for anion formation while the quadrupole ion trap provides for efficient tandem mass spectrometry. Mass selective ion accumulation and non-specific ion activation methods can be used to overcome deleterious effects arising from ion/ion interactions. Such interactions constitute the major potential technical barrier to the use of the ion trap for real-time monitoring of targeted compounds in uncontrolled and highly variable matrices. Tailored waveforms can be used to effect both mass selective ion accumulation and ion activation. Concatenated tailored waveforms allow for both functions in a single experiment thereby providing the capability for monitoring several targeted species simultaneously. The combination of atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization with a state-of-the-art analytical quadrupole ion trap is a highly sensitive and specific detector for traces of high explosives. The combination is also small and inexpensive relative to virtually any other form of tandem mass spectrometry. The science and technology underlying the glow discharge/ion trap combination is sufficiently mature to form the basis for an engineering effort to make the detector portable. 85 refs.

  6. Mirror-Augmented Photovoltaic Designs and Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Mirror-Augmented Photovoltaic Designs and Performance Wei-Chun Lin, Dave Hollingshead, Kara A-In developing photovoltaic (PV) technology, it is crucial to provide lower cost PV power. One of the useful-tracked) mirror-augmented photovoltaic (MAPV) system. A series of MATLAB calculations were developed to screen

  7. Three-point spherical mirror mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1984-01-23

    A three-point spherical mirror mount for use with lasers is disclosed. The improved mirror mount is adapted to provide a pivot ring having an outer surface with at least three spaced apart mating points to engage an inner spherical surface of a support housing.

  8. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  9. Algorithms for tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Ari Michael

    2008-01-01

    ed sequest algorithm. Analytical Chemistry 74, 5593– [138]of peptide ions. Analytical Chemistry 77, 4870–4882. [143]Tandem Mass Spectra. Analytical Chemistry, 77:4626-4639,

  10. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01

    advantage of light transmission through heat mirrors may notimportant but heat gain may not be, the transmission windowheat mirror coating alone (without substrate losses) is a solar transmission

  11. Experiments on the DM to LPC tandem interconnection 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McVay, John William

    1980-01-01

    Autocorrelations. 3 DM System Parameters. 4 DM Performance Results. 6 Lowpass Filtered Wh1te Noise. 6 Signal-to-Noise Rat1o Improvement. 7 Kalman Filters for ADM-W. 8 Kalman F1lter with Different DM Systems. . . 9 Kalman Filter w1th D1fferent Coefficient... speech wi th less granular noise than CVSO. His equations can be manipulated into the form k+1) = aII(k) Zc(1-l3 Zf( b(k), b(k-l), b(k-Z) ) (2. 3) where g is again a leakage constant and the function f( ) is looked up in Table 1. In this research...

  12. Durable silver coating for mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA); Thomas, Norman L. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A durable multilayer mirror includes reflective layers of aluminum and silver and has high reflectance over a broad spectral range from ultraviolet to visible to infrared. An adhesion layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride is deposited on an aluminum surface, and a thin layer of silver is then deposited on the adhesion layer. The silver layer is protected by a passivation layer of a nickel and/or chromium alloy or nitride and by one or more durability layers made of metal oxides and typically a first layer of metal nitride. The durability layers may include a composite silicon aluminum nitride and an oxinitride transition layer to improve bonding between nitride and oxide layers.

  13. Mirror Modes in the Heliosheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsurutani, B. T. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Calif. Inst. Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Guarnieri, F. L. [UNIVAP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Echer, E. E. [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Lakhina, G. S. [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai (India); Verkhoglyadova, O. P. [CSPAR, Univ. Alabama, Huntsville, AL (United States)

    2011-01-04

    Mirror mode (MM) structures are identified in the Voyager 1 heliosheath magnetic field data. Their characteristics are: (1) quasiperiodic structures with a typical scale size of {approx}57 {rho}{sub p}(proton gyroradii), (2) little or no angular changes across the structures ({approx}3 deg. longitude and {approx}3 deg. latitude), and (3) a lack of sharp boundaries at the magnetic dip edges. It is proposed that the pickup of interstellar neutrals in the upstream region of the termination shock (TS) is the likely cause of MM instability during intervals when the IMF is nearly orthogonal to the solar wind flow direction. Concomitant (quasiperpendicular) shock compression of the MM structures at the TS and additional injection of pickup ions (PUIs) throughout the heliosheath will enhance MM growth.

  14. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hayward, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Buttz, James H. (Albuquerque, NM); Shirey, David L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  15. Method of fabricating bifacial tandem solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wojtczuk, Steven J; Chiu, Philip T; Zhang, Xuebing; Gagnon, Edward; Timmons, Michael

    2014-10-07

    A method of fabricating on a semiconductor substrate bifacial tandem solar cells with semiconductor subcells having a lower bandgap than the substrate bandgap on one side of the substrate and with subcells having a higher bandgap than the substrate on the other including, first, growing a lower bandgap subcell on one substrate side that uses only the same periodic table group V material in the dislocation-reducing grading layers and bottom subcells as is present in the substrate and after the initial growth is complete and then flipping the substrate and growing the higher bandgap subcells on the opposite substrate side which can be of different group V material.

  16. The Shaft Torque of a Tandem Axial-Piston Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manring, Noah D.

    The Shaft Torque of a Tandem Axial- Piston Pump Noah D. Manring Viral S. Mehta Mechanical of this study is to identify the best indexed position of two rotating groups within a tandem axial-piston pump characteristics of the pump, other vibration aspects of the machine are also expected to be reduced. In particular

  17. Liquid Mirror Telescopes: A progress report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ermanno F. Borra; Marc Ferrari; Luc Girard; Gilberto Moretto; Gregoire Tremblay; Gerard Lemaitre

    1996-08-23

    We review the present status of liquid mirror telescopes. Interferometric tests of liquid mirrors (the largest one having a diameter of 2.5 meters ) show excellent optical qualities. The basic technology is now sufficiently reliable that it can be put to work. Indeed, a handful of liquid mirrors have now been built that are used for scientific work. A 3.7-m diameter LMT is presently being built in the new Laval upgraded testing facilities. Construction of the mirror can be followed on the Web site: http://astrosun.phy.ulaval.ca/lmt/lmt- home.html. Finally we address the issue of the field accessible to LMTs equipped with novel optical correctors. Optical design work, and some exploratory laboratory work, indicate that a single LMT should be able to access, with excellent images, small regions anywhere inside fields as large as 45 degrees.

  18. MEMS deformable mirror CubeSat testbed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinan, Anne D.

    To meet the high contrast requirement of 1 × 10[superscript ?10] to image an Earth-like planet around a Sun-like star, space telescopes equipped with coronagraphs require wavefront control systems. Deformable mirrors are ...

  19. Coating considerations for mirrors of CPV devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmauder, Torsten; Sauer, Peter; Ickes, Gerd

    2014-09-26

    One of the different optical concepts for concentrator devices is to place a focussing primary mirror behind a transparent front plate. In addition (also in case of Fresnel-diffractive main optics), further 'secondary' reflectors may be used further along the beam path. Such mirrors are usually implemented as coating stacks of a highly reflective metal - usually silver - and protective layers. The protective layers are preferably designed as reflection enhancing interference stack. The design of such protective layer stacks yields two difficulties, which are addressed in this paper: (a) vacuum coating of three-dimensional parts will result in a thickness distribution and the optical design of the stack should thus be tolerant to layer thickness variations, and (b) different places of the mirror will have different angle-of-incidence of the sunlight under operating conditions. As result, the layer stack has a different design at different places of the mirror.

  20. Motorized control for mirror mount apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A motorized control and automatic braking system for adjusting mirror mount apparatus is disclosed. The motor control includes a planetary gear arrangement to provide improved pitch adjustment capability while permitting a small packaged design. The motor control for mirror mount adjustment is suitable for laser beam propagation applications. The brake is a system of constant contact, floating detents which engage the planetary gear at selected between-teeth increments to stop rotation instantaneously when the drive motor stops.

  1. Mirror World at the Large Hadron Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riccardo Barbieri; Thomas Gregoire; Lawrence J. Hall

    2005-09-22

    A mirror world can modify in a striking way the LHC signals of the Higgs sector. An exact or approximate Z_2 symmetry between the mirror world and our world allows large mixing between the Higgs bosons of these worlds, leading to production rates and branching ratios for these states that are markedly different from the standard model and are characteristic of a mirror world. The constraints on these Higgs boson masses from precision electroweak data differ from the standard model bound, so that the new physics that cancels the quadratic divergence induced by the top quark may appear at a larger scale, possibly beyond the reach of the LHC. However, the scale of new physics needed to cancel the quadratic divergence induced by the Higgs boson is not significantly changed. With small breakings of the Z_2 parity, the lightest mirror quarks (and possibly charged mirror leptons) could be the dark matter in the universe, forming galactic halos that are stable to cooling. A possible signal from the relic radiation density of the mirror world is also discussed.

  2. A HIGH REPETITION PLASMA MIRROR FOR STAGED ELECTRON ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Osterhoff, Jens; Evans, Eugene; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22

    In order to build a compact, staged laser plasma accelerator the in-coupling of the laser beam to the different stages represents one of the key issues. To limit the spatial foot print and thus to realize a high overall acceleration gradient, a concept has to be found which realizes this in-coupling within a few centimeters. We present experiments on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used to reflect the focused laser beam into the acceleration stage.

  3. Neutron - Mirror Neutron Oscillations: How Fast Might They Be?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zurab Berezhiani; Luis Bento

    2006-02-20

    We discuss the phenomenological implications of the neutron (n) oscillation into the mirror neutron (n'), a hypothetical particle exactly degenerate in mass with the neutron but sterile to normal matter. We show that the present experimental data allow a maximal n-n' oscillation in vacuum with a characteristic time $\\tau$ much shorter than the neutron lifetime, in fact as small as 1 sec. This phenomenon may manifest in neutron disappearance and regeneration experiments perfectly accessible to present experimental capabilities and may also have interesting astrophysical consequences, in particular for the propagation of ultra high energy cosmic rays.

  4. Four-mirror extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography projection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cohen, Simon J (Pleasonton, CA); Jeong, Hwan J (Los Altos, CA); Shafer, David R (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a four-mirror catoptric projection system for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography to transfer a pattern from a reflective reticle to a wafer substrate. In order along the light path followed by light from the reticle to the wafer substrate, the system includes a dominantly hyperbolic convex mirror, a dominantly elliptical concave mirror, spherical convex mirror, and spherical concave mirror. The reticle and wafer substrate are positioned along the system's optical axis on opposite sides of the mirrors. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are positioned on the same side of the system's optical axis as the reticle, and are relatively large in diameter as they are positioned on the high magnification side of the system. The hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors are relatively far off the optical axis and hence they have significant aspherical components in their curvatures. The convex spherical mirror is positioned on the optical axis, and has a substantially or perfectly spherical shape. The spherical concave mirror is positioned substantially on the opposite side of the optical axis from the hyperbolic and elliptical mirrors. Because it is positioned off-axis to a degree, the spherical concave mirror has some asphericity to counter aberrations. The spherical concave mirror forms a relatively large, uniform field on the wafer substrate. The mirrors can be tilted or decentered slightly to achieve further increase in the field size.

  5. Polymer Solar Cells: New Materials, 3D Morphology, and Tandem...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Polymer Solar Cells: New Materials, 3D Morphology, and Tandem Devices March 2, 2010 at 3pm36-428 Ren Janssen Molecular Materials and Nanosystems, Eindhoven University of...

  6. Alignment and focus of mirrored facets of a heliosat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yellowhair, Julius E; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Diver, Richard B; Moss, Timothy A

    2013-11-12

    Various technologies pertaining to aligning and focusing mirrored facets of a heliostat are described herein. Updating alignment and/or focus of mirrored facets is undertaken through generation of a theoretical image, wherein the theoretical image is indicative of a reflection of the target via the mirrored facets when the mirrored facets are properly aligned. This theoretical image includes reference points that are overlaid on an image of the target as reflected by the mirrored facets of the heliostat. A technician adjusts alignment/focus of a mirrored facet by causing reflected reference markings to become aligned with the reference points in the theoretical image.

  7. Double relativistic electron-accelerating mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, Aleksandr A; Platonov, Konstantin Yu

    2013-05-31

    A numerical simulation of the interaction of a laser pulse with ultrathin targets has revealed a possibility of generating thin dense relativistic electron layers. The maximum kinetic energy of the electron mirror can be gained using an optimal combination of the target thickness and the laser pulse intensity and duration. It is proposed to use an additional (second) laser target, located at an optimal distance from the first target to cut off the laser pulse from the electron layer when the latter gains a maximum kinetic energy. This relativistic electron mirror can be used for efficient generation of 'hard' coherent radiation via counter reflection of an additional (probe) laser pulse from the mirror. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  8. Scalable stacked array piezoelectric deformable mirror for astronomy and laser processing applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L. Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Bryce, Emma; Hutson, David; Kirk, Katherine; Schwartz, Noah; Atkinson, David; Beard, Steven; Baillie, Tom; Parr-Burman, Phil; Strachan, Mel; UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ

    2014-02-15

    A prototype of a scalable and potentially low-cost stacked array piezoelectric deformable mirror (SA-PDM) with 35 active elements is presented in this paper. This prototype is characterized by a 2 ?m maximum actuator stroke, a 1.4 ?m mirror sag (measured for a 14 mm × 14 mm area of the unpowered SA-PDM), and a ±200 nm hysteresis error. The initial proof of concept experiments described here show that this mirror can be successfully used for shaping a high power laser beam in order to improve laser machining performance. Various beam shapes have been obtained with the SA-PDM and examples of laser machining with the shaped beams are presented.

  9. Enhanced loss of magnetic-mirror-trapped fast electrons by a shear Alfvén wave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.; Gekelman, W.; Pribyl, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Papadopoulos, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Laboratory observations of enhanced loss of magnetic mirror trapped fast electrons irradiated by a shear Alfvén Wave (SAW) are reported. The experiment is performed in the quiescent after-glow plasma in the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62(12), 2875–2883 (1991)]. A trapped energetic electron population (>100?keV) is generated in a magnetic mirror section (mirror ratio???2, length?=?3.5?m) by an X-mode high power microwave pulse, and forms a hot electron ring due to the grad-B and curvature drift. SAWs of arbitrary polarization are launched externally by a Rotating Magnetic Field source (?B/B{sub 0}???0.1%, ?{sub ?}???9?m). Irradiated by a right-handed circularly polarized SAW, the loss of electrons, in both the radial and the axial direction of the mirror field, is significantly enhanced and is modulated at f{sub Alfvén}. The periodical loss continues even after the termination of the SAW. Experimental observations suggest that a spatial distortion of the ring is formed in the SAW field and creates a collective mode of the hot electron population that degrades its confinement and leads to electron loss from the magnetic mirror. The results could have implications on techniques of radiation belt remediation.

  10. Evaluating Perceptual and Motor Explanations of Mirror Writing in Children 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hillary, Keira

    2012-11-28

    Mirror writing refers to script produced in the reverse direction. The spontaneous mirror writing observed in children may give us an insight into how writing actions develop. However, there is no consensus on whether ...

  11. Novel neutron focusing mirrors for compact neutron sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubarev, M. V.

    We demonstrated neutron beam focusing and neutron imaging using axisymmetric optics, based on pairs of confocal ellipsoid and hyperboloid mirrors. Such systems, known as Wolter mirrors, are commonly used in x-ray telescopes. ...

  12. An Advanced Fast Steering Mirror for optical communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kluk, Daniel Joseph

    2007-01-01

    I describe in this thesis the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of an Advanced Fast Steering Mirror (AFSM) for precision optical platforms. The AFSM consists of a mirror driven in two rotational axes by normal ...

  13. Control of a MEMS fast steering mirror for laser applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lane, Joseph Kerivan

    2012-01-01

    A control system for a MEMS fast steering mirror is designed and implemented to accurately steer a laser beam. This document contains a characterization of important mirror characteristics and the full analysis of an analog ...

  14. Solid State Replacement of Rotating Mirror Cameras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, A M; Bartolick, J M

    2006-08-25

    Rotating mirror cameras have been the mainstay of mega-frame per second imaging for decades. There is still no electronic camera that can match a film based rotary mirror camera for the combination of frame count, speed, resolution and dynamic range. The rotary mirror cameras are predominantly used in the range of 0.1 to 100 micro-seconds per frame, for 25 to more than a hundred frames. Electron tube gated cameras dominate the sub microsecond regime but are frame count limited. Video cameras are pushing into the microsecond regime but are resolution limited by the high data rates. An all solid state architecture, dubbed ''In-situ Storage Image Sensor'' or ''ISIS'', by Prof. Goji Etoh, has made its first appearance into the market and its evaluation is discussed. Recent work at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has concentrated both on evaluation of the presently available technologies and exploring the capabilities of the ISIS architecture. It is clear though there is presently no single chip camera that can simultaneously match the rotary mirror cameras, the ISIS architecture has the potential to approach their performance.

  15. NICMOS OPTICS OffAxis Conicoids Fold Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Glenn

    NICMOS OPTICS Off­Axis Conicoids Fold Mirrors Cameras 3, 1, 2 Pupil Al ignment Mirror Reimaging Optics (and Witness Samples) Before Installation The integrated NICMOS optical system is comprised of the fifteen NICMOS mirrors are mounted to a graphite epoxy truss, called the Fore­Optics Bracket (FOB

  16. Predictive modeling of thermoelastic energy dissipation in tunable MEMS mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Yun-Bo

    Predictive modeling of thermoelastic energy dissipation in tunable MEMS mirrors Houwen Tang is of significant importance in many microelectromechanical sys- tem MEMS applications. Thermoelastic damping can such as MEMS mirrors. We deal with the simulation and analysis of thermoelastic damping of MEMS mirrors based

  17. Mirror, Mirror: The Pairing of Hal Carter and Alan Seymour in Picnic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Philip M.

    2010-04-23

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Mirror, Mirror The Pairing of Hal Carter and Alan Seymour in Picnic Presented by Philip Middleton Williams, Ph.D. The William Inge Theatre Festival Scholars’ Conference... the drama. William Inge provides us with the classic example of these two contrasting characters in Picnic with the friendship of Hal Carter and Alan Seymour. These young men could not be more opposite in terms of character and physique; Inge describes...

  18. FIELD EXPERIENCE WITH 3-SUN MIRROR MODULE SYSTEMS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesofExtrans - PermeationGovernment |RoboticFIB CORE STATUS:

  19. Stern-Gerlach Experiments and Complex Numbers in Quantum Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Sivakumar

    2012-07-09

    It is often stated that complex numbers are essential in quantum theory. In this article, the need for complex numbers in quantum theory is motivated using the results of tandem Stern-Gerlach experiments

  20. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Doerner, R. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  1. Silicon nitride protective coatings for silvered glass mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.

    1984-07-20

    A protective diffusion barrier for metalized mirror structures is provided by a layer or coating of silicon nitride which is a very dense, transparent, dielectric material that is impervious to water, alkali, and other impurities and corrosive substances that typically attack the metal layers of mirrors and cause degradation of the mirrors' reflectivity. The silicon nitride layer can be deposited on the substrate prior to metal deposition thereon to stabilize the metal/substrate interface, and it can be deposited over the metal to encapsulate it and protect the metal from corrosion or other degradation. Mirrors coated with silicon nitride according to this invention can also be used as front surface mirrors.

  2. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger than that of slim holes. As a result, the research team decided to complete the project, document the tested designs and seek further support for the concept outside of the DOE.

  3. Photon-Atom Coupling with Parabolic Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Sondermann; Gerd Leuchs

    2015-07-23

    Efficient coupling of light to single atomic systems has gained considerable attention over the past decades. This development is driven by the continuous growth of quantum technologies. The efficient coupling of light and matter is an enabling technology for quantum information processing and quantum communication. And indeed, in recent years much progress has been made in this direction. But applications aside, the interaction of photons and atoms is a fundamental physics problem. There are various possibilities for making this interaction more efficient, among them the apparently 'natural' attempt of mode-matching the light field to the free-space emission pattern of the atomic system of interest. Here we will describe the necessary steps of implementing this mode-matching with the ultimate aim of reaching unit coupling efficiency. We describe the use of deep parabolic mirrors as the central optical element of a free-space coupling scheme, covering the preparation of suitable modes of the field incident onto these mirrors as well as the location of an atom at the mirror's focus. Furthermore, we establish a robust method for determining the efficiency of the photon-atom coupling.

  4. Special Issue: Human Genetics The overdue promise of short tandem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Queitsch, Christine

    variation to existing genetic models would considerably increase the proportion of her- itability explainedSpecial Issue: Human Genetics The overdue promise of short tandem repeat variation for heritability repeat (STR) variation has been proposed as a major explanatory factor in the heritability of com- plex

  5. Vacuum insulation tandem accelerator for B. Bayanov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

    of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia 2 Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk, Russia 3 Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk, Russia Summary Novel 2.5 MeV, 40 mA tandem accelerator ­ high voltage electrode, 4 ­ pump, 5 ­ charge-exchange target, 6 ­ letting-to-gas system, 7 ­ interim

  6. Alternative splicing regulation at tandem 30 splice sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandel-Gutfreund, Yael

    Alternative splicing regulation at tandem 30 splice sites Martin Akerman and Yael Mandel; Revised and Accepted December 6, 2005 ABSTRACT Alternative splicing (AS) constitutes a major mechanism% are related to alternative choices of 30 and 50 splice sites. Surprisingly, half of all these events involve

  7. Neutron to Mirror-Neutron Oscillations in the Presence of Mirror Magnetic Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. Altarev; C. A. Baker; G. Ban; K. Bodek; M. Daum; P. Fierlinger; P. Geltenbort; K. Green; M. G. D. van der Grinten; E. Gutsmiedl; P. G. Harris; R. Henneck; M. Horras; P. Iaydjiev; S. Ivanov; N. Khomutov; K. Kirch; S. Kistryn; A. Knecht; P. Knowles; A. Kozela; F. Kuchler; M. Ku?niak; T. Lauer; B. Lauss; T. Lefort; A. Mtchedlishvili; O. Naviliat-Cuncic; S. Paul; A. Pazgalev; J. M. Pendlebury; G. Petzoldt; E. Pierre; C. Plonka-Spehr; G. Quéméner; D. Rebreyend; S. Roccia; G. Rogel; N. Severijns; D. Shiers; Yu. Sobolev; R. Stoepler; A. Weis; J. Zejma; J. Zenner; G. Zsigmond

    2009-08-18

    We performed ultracold neutron (UCN) storage measurements to search for additional losses due to neutron (n) to mirror-neutron (n') oscillations as a function of an applied magnetic field B. In the presence of a mirror magnetic field B', UCN losses would be maximal for B = B'. We did not observe any indication for nn' oscillations and placed a lower limit on the oscillation time of tau_{nn'} > 12.0 s at 95% C.L. for any B' between 0 and 12.5 uT.

  8. Image-rotating, 4-mirror, ring optical parametric oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Arlee V.; Armstrong, Darrell J.

    2004-08-10

    A device for optical parametric amplification utilizing four mirrors oriented in a nonplanar configuration where the optical plane formed by two of the mirrors is orthogonal to the optical plane formed by the other two mirrors and with the ratio of lengths of the laser beam paths approximately constant regardless of the scale of the device. With a cavity length of less than approximately 110 mm, a conversion efficiency of greater than 45% can be achieved.

  9. Miniscule Mirrored Cavities Connect Quantum Memories | U.S. DOE...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Miniscule Mirrored Cavities Connect Quantum Memories Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic...

  10. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Sheng; Church, Matthew; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; McKinney, Wayne R.; Kirschman, Jonathan; Morrison, Greg; Noll, Tino; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-01-31

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the Advanced Light Source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the surface slope changes by approximately 1.5 ?mu rad rms (primarily defocus) under the same conditions.

  11. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Sheng

    2010-01-01

    stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directlyof the mirror with a Peltier element attached directly tostabilization based on a Peltier element have shown a

  12. Neutron-Mirror-Neutron Oscillations in a Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kerbikov; O. Lychkovskiy

    2008-06-01

    We calculate the rate of neutron-mirror-neutron oscillations for ultracold neutrons trapped in a storage vessel. Recent experimental bounds on the oscillation time are discussed.

  13. Wave-Driven Rotation In Centrifugal Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-03-28

    Centrifugal mirrors use supersonic rotation to provide axial confinement and enhanced stability. Usually the rotation is produced using electrodes, but these electrodes have limited the rotation to the Alfven critical ionization velocity, which is too slow to be useful for fusion. Instead, the rotation could be produced using radio frequency waves. A fixed azimuthal ripple is a simple and efficient wave that could produce rotation by harnessing alpha particle energy. This is an extension of the alpha channeling effect. The alpha particle power and efficiency in a simulated devices is sufficient to produce rotation without external energy input. By eliminating the need for electrodes, this opens new opportunities for centrifugal traps.

  14. Quantum Radiation of Uniformly Accelerated Spherical Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Frolov; D. Singh

    2001-06-07

    We study quantum radiation generated by a uniformly accelerated motion of small spherical mirrors. To obtain Green's function for a scalar massless field we use Wick's rotation. In the Euclidean domain the problem is reduced to finding an electric potential in 4D flat space in the presence of a metallic toroidal boundary. The latter problem is solved by a separation of variables. After performing an inverse Wick's rotation we obtain the Hadamard function in the wave-zone regime and use it to calculate the vacuum fluctuations and the vacuum expectation for the energy density flux in the wave zone.

  15. Imperfect relativistic mirrors in the quantum regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Serbeto, A., E-mail: serbeto@if.uff.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-340 RJ (Brazil); Galvão, R. M. O., E-mail: rgalvao@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The collective backscattering of intense laser radiation by energetic electron beams is considered in the relativistic quantum regime. Exact solutions for the radiation field are obtained, for arbitrary electron pulse shapes and laser intensities. The electron beams act as imperfect nonlinear mirrors on the incident laser radiation. This collective backscattering process can lead to the development of new sources of ultra-short pulse radiation in the gamma-ray domain. Numerical examples show that, for plausible experimental conditions, intense pulses of gamma-rays, due to the double Doppler shift of the harmonics of the incident laser radiation, can be produced using the available technology, with durations less than 1 as.

  16. Electrocurtain coating process for coating solar mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kabagambe, Benjamin; Boyd, Donald W.; Buchanan, Michael J.; Kelly, Patrick; Kutilek, Luke A.; McCamy, James W.; McPheron, Douglas A.; Orosz, Gary R.; Limbacher, Raymond D.

    2013-10-15

    An electrically conductive protective coating or film is provided over the surface of a reflective coating of a solar mirror by flowing or directing a cation containing liquid and an anion containing liquid onto the conductive surface. The cation and the anion containing liquids are spaced from, and preferably out of contact with one another on the surface of the reflective coating as an electric current is moved through the anion containing liquid, the conductive surface between the liquids and the cation containing liquid to coat the conductive surface with the electrically conductive coating.

  17. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Ager, III, Joel W. (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA)

    2011-10-18

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  18. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw (Kensington, CA); Ager, III, Joel W. (Berkeley, CA); Yu, Kin Man (Lafayette, CA)

    2012-03-06

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  19. The Use of Genetic Algorithms in Multilayer Mirror Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    The Use of Genetic Algorithms in Multilayer Mirror Optimization Shannon Lunt R. S. Turley optimization. We have adapted the genetic algorithm to design optimal bifunctional mirrors for the IMAGE reflections from multilayers 1.2 A New Application of the GA Genetic algorithms have been used in optimization

  20. Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis M. Catalfanoa, USA; b SEMATECH Inc., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT We investigated Ru mirror contamination film at different angles. During the contamination process, the EUV reflectivity of the Ru film

  1. % of non-featureless pixels SNOW WHITE MIRROR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    Legend % of non-featureless pixels SNOW WHITE MIRROR Daniel Collins Supervisor: Jean and attractiveness. They indicate that the more symmetrical a person's face is the more attractive they are. The Snow perspective. A virtual Snow White mirror was created to analyse facial symmetry and produce symmetry

  2. THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET Nicole Farnsworth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    THORIUM-BASED MIRRORS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET by Nicole Farnsworth Submitted to Brigham Young Ultraviolet and Thorium-based Mirrors . . . 1 1.2 Project Background the Optical Constants of Thorium Oxide 34 3.1 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurements

  3. Mirror Mode Structures in the Solar Wind: STEREO Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Mirror Mode Structures in the Solar Wind: STEREO Observations O. Enríquez-Rivera1 , X. Blanco-Cano1 Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, D.F., 04510, MEXICO 2. Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA Abstract. Mirror mode structures occur in the solar wind either

  4. Characterization of Contour Shapes Achievable with a MEMS Deformable Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    Characterization of Contour Shapes Achievable with a MEMS Deformable Mirror Yaopeng Zhou and Thomas for a particular AO application can be determined. In this paper, we characterize one MEMS DM that was recently electrostatic actuation in an architecture that has been described previously. We incorporated the MEMS mirror

  5. Background-reducing X-ray multilayer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloch, Jeffrey J. (Los Alamos, NM); Roussel-Dupre', Diane (Los Alamos, NM); Smith, Barham W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    Background-reducing x-ray multilayer mirror. A multiple-layer "wavetrap" deposited over the surface of a layered, synthetic-microstructure soft x-ray mirror optimized for reflectivity at chosen wavelengths is disclosed for reducing the reflectivity of undesired, longer wavelength incident radiation incident thereon. In three separate mirror designs employing an alternating molybdenum and silicon layered, mirrored structure overlaid by two layers of a molybdenum/silicon pair anti-reflection coating, reflectivities of near normal incidence 133, 171, and 186 .ANG. wavelengths have been optimized, while that at 304 .ANG. has been minimized. The optimization process involves the choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs as well as the number thereof, and the distance therebetween for the mirror, and the simultaneous choice of materials, the composition of the layer/pairs, and their number and distance for the "wavetrap."

  6. Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for Focusing Soft X-rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-01-01

    Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors forWe have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substratefor smooth polishing. Stainless steel is stronger and can be

  7. Mirror: Visually reflecting C{sup ++}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orosco, R.; Campo, M.; Sole, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Reflection is the ability of a system to inspect and change a model of itself. This ability allows to transparently control and extend the functionality of an existing system without performing any changes to the system itself. In dynamic object-oriented languages like CLOS or Smalltalk. the reflective ability is supported directly by the language. In C++, in contrast, reflection must be provided by some form of code annotation and pre-processing. In most cases, this approach either requires modification of the system code, or just supports the reflection of entire classes but not the reflection of determined objects. This work presents the Mirror environment that supports C++ reflective programming through visual association of meta-classes to classes. It allows full transparent reflection of objects using three-dimensional presentations of the different architecture levels. The environment adds reflective ability to C++ classes without any code modification visible to the user, as well as dynamically selective reflection of objects.

  8. Thin-Shell Deployable Reflectors with Collapsible Stiffeners: Experiments and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellegrino, Sergio

    suitable for high gain antennas, mirrors, etc. It is made as a single piece, for example by curing carbon-fiber of two different plastics. Both folding experiments and vibration tests in the fully deployed

  9. Nature Itself in a Mirror Space-Time

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov

    2015-10-12

    The unity of the structure of matter fields with flavor symmetry laws involves that the left-handed neutrino in the field of emission can be converted into a right-handed one and vice versa. These transitions together with classical solutions of the Dirac equation testify in favor of the unidenticality of masses, energies, and momenta of neutrinos of the different components. If we recognize such a difference in masses, energies, and momenta, accepting its ideas about that the left-handed neutrino and the right-handed antineutrino refer to long-lived leptons, and the right-handed neutrino and the left-handed antineutrino are short-lived fermions, we would follow the mathematical logic of the Dirac equation in the presence of the flavor symmetrical mass, energy, and momentum matrices. From their point of view, nature itself separates Minkowski space into left and right spaces concerning a certain middle dynamical line. Thereby, it characterizes any Dirac particle both by left and by right space-time coordinates. It is not excluded therefore that whatever the main purposes each of earlier experiments about sterile neutrinos, namely, about right-handed short-lived neutrinos may serve as the source of facts confirming the existence of a mirror Minkowski space-time.

  10. Gamma-ray Bursts Produced by Mirror Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Blinnikov

    1999-02-21

    I argue that cosmic Gamma-ray Bursts (GRB) may be produced by collapses or mergers of stars made of `mirror' matter. The mirror neutrinos (which are sterile for our matter) produced at these events can oscillate into ordinary neutrinos. The annihilations or decays of the latter create an electron-positron plasma and subsequent relativistic fireball with a very low baryon load needed for GRBs. The concept of mirror matter is able to explain several key problems of modern astrophysics: neutrino anomalies, the missing mass, MACHO microlensing events and GRBs. Thus this concept becomes very appealing and should be considered quite seriously and attentively.

  11. Current- and lattice-matched tandem solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1985-10-21

    A multijunction (cascade) tandem photovoltaic solar cell device is fabricated of a Ga/sub x/In/sub 1-x/P (0.505 equal to or less than x equal to or less than 0.515) top cell semiconductor lattice-matched to a GaAs bottom cell semiconductor at a low resistance heterojunction, preferably a p/sup +//n/sup +/ heterojunction between the cells. The top and bottom cells are both lattice-matched and current-matched for high efficiency solar radiation conversion to electrical energy.

  12. An Overview of the SGP Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O O D S TAPropaneandAn Overview of the SGP Tandem

  13. Integrated modeling for design of lightweight, active mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohan, Lucy E.

    Lightweight, active, silicon carbide mirrors have the potential to enable larger primary aperture, space-based optical systems, hence improving the resolution and sensitivity of such systems. However, due to the lack of ...

  14. The Use of Genetic Algorithms in Multilayer Mirror Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    The Use of Genetic Algorithms in Multilayer Mirror Optimization by Shannon Lunt March 1999.3 Optimization Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.1 Local Optimizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3.2 Global Optimizers

  15. Classroom Explorations: Pendulums, Mirrors, and Galileo’s Drama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cavicchi, Elizabeth

    What do you see in a mirror when not looking at yourself? What goes on as a pendulum swings? Undergraduates in a science class supposed that these behaviors were obvious until their explorations exposed questions with no ...

  16. Mechanical Design of the HER Synchrotron Light Monitor Primary Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daly, Edward F.; Fisher, Alan S.; Kurita, Nadine R.; Langton, J.; /SLAC

    2011-09-14

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the primary mirror that images the visible portion of the synchrotron radiation (SR) extracted from the High Energy Ring (HER) of the PEP-II B-Factory. During off-axis operation, the water-cooled GlidCop mirror is subjected to a heat flux in excess of 2000 W/cm2. When on-axis imaging occurs, the heat flux due to scattered SR, resistive wall losses and Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) heating is estimated at 1 W/cm2. The imaging surface is plated with Electroless Nickel to improve its optical characteristics. The design requirements for the primary mirror are listed and discussed. Calculated mechanical distortions and stresses experienced by the mirror during on-axis and off-axis operation will be presented.

  17. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  18. TRANSPARENT HEAT MIRRORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.

    2011-01-01

    surfaces in a passive solar-heated building is to maximizeBuildings and Community Systems. -i- TRANSPARENT HEATING MIRRORS FOR PASSIVEpassive solar systems. Architecturally, a window is a very complex building

  19. Wavefront control in space with MEMS deformable mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahoy, Kerri

    To meet the high contrast requirement of 1 × 10[superscript ?10] to image an Earth-like planet around a Sun-like star, space telescopes equipped with coronagraphs require wavefront control systems. Deformable mirrors (DMs) ...

  20. inside/out : mirrors for reflective, creative thinking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portocarrero, Edwina

    2011-01-01

    In this document I present three tools for reflective, creative thinking: Pillow-Talk, the NeverEnding Drawing Machine and Calliope. These tools make use of the "distorted mirror" metaphor for self-reflection. They are ...

  1. Lightweight diaphragm mirror module system for solar collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, Barry L. (Golden, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A mirror module system is provided for accurately focusing solar radiation on a point or a line as defined by an array of solar collectors. Each mirror module includes a flexible membrane stretched over a frame in a manner similar to that of a drum or a trampoline and further includes a silvered glass or plastic mirror for forming an optical reflecting surface. The configuration of the optical reflecting surface is variably adjustable to provide for the accurate focusing of the solar energy on a given collector array, e.g., a point or a linear array arrangement. The flexible mirror-membrane combination is lightweight to facilitate installation and reduce system cost yet structurally strong enough to provide for the precise focusing of the incident solar radiation in a semi-rigid reflector system in which unwanted reflector displacement is minimized.

  2. Durable Corrosion and Ultraviolet-Resistant Silver Mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, G. J.; Gee, R.

    2006-01-24

    A corrosion and ultra violet-resistant silver mirror for use in solar reflectors; the silver layer having a film-forming protective polymer bonded thereto, and a protective shield overlay comprising a transparent multipolymer film that incorporates a UV absorber. The corrosion and ultraviolet resistant silver mirror retains spectral hemispherical reflectance and high optical clarity throughout the UV and visible spectrum when used in solar reflectors.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF a-SiGe BASED TRIPLE, TANDEM AND SINGLE-JUNCTION SOLAR Xunming Deng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    OPTIMIZATION OF a-SiGe BASED TRIPLE, TANDEM AND SINGLE-JUNCTION SOLAR CELLS Xunming Deng Department, tandem and triple-junction a-SiGe based solar cells and materials [6-19]. Much of the research is also light and bias voltage for the measurement of multiple-junction cells. Materials characterization using

  4. Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    Single and Tandem Axial p-i-n Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices Thomas J. Kempa,, Bozhi Tian,, Dong Rip-i-n+-p+-i-n silicon nanowire (SiNW) photovoltaic elements. Scanning electron microscopy images of selectively etched. Finally, a novel single SiNW tandem solar cell consisting of synthetic integration of two photovoltaic

  5. Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bring down the cost of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells has gained huge momentum, and many strategiesOptimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic

  6. Semi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    -bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to deposit a high bandgap polycrystalline semiconductorSemi-transparent perovskite solar cells for tandems with silicon and CIGS Colin D. Bailie,a M on top to make a tandem solar cell. We use a transparent silver nanowire electrode on perovskite solar

  7. Tandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sargent, Edward H. "Ted"

    -based photodetectors1­5 and photovoltaic6­12 devices to be tailored. Multi-junction solar cells made from a combi- bandgap single-junction solar cells. In principle it also allows tandem and multi-junction cellsTandem colloidal quantum dot solar cells employing a graded recombination layer Xihua Wang1 , Ghada

  8. Vehicle Dispatching Problem at the Container Terminal with Tandem Lift Quay Cranes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Yao

    2013-07-09

    , the tandem lift operations bring new challenges to the vehicle dispatching at terminals and this has become a big issue in the application of tandem lift QCs. The vehicle dispatching at terminals is to enhance the QCs’ productivities by coordinating the QCs...

  9. GREENGATE AND FABREEKA BELT PERFORMANCE IN A 3.5 MV TANDEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1413 GREENGATE AND FABREEKA BELT PERFORMANCE IN A 3.5 MV TANDEM F. CRISTOFORI Istituto di Fisica of belts used in the 3.5 MV Tandem of C.I.S.E. REVUE DE PHYSIQUE APPLIQUÃ?E TOME 12, OCTOBRE 1977, PAGE belts. Unfortunately there is little information regarding the performance of these belts

  10. How do healthy individuals adapt to reversed vision generated when using mirror specs? An investigation into mirror devices, adaptation to body schema and imagery ability in healthy participants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Joanna Louise

    2010-11-26

    Introduction: This study investigates a new form of Mirror Therapy (MT), the Mirror Specs. Evidence suggests that MT is a non-invasive, cost effective method of reducing pain and increasing functioning in some chronic pain ...

  11. Neutron Spectrometry for D­T Plasmas in JET, using a Tandem Annular-radiator Proton-recoil Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neutron Spectrometry for D­T Plasmas in JET, using a Tandem Annular-radiator Proton-recoil Spectrometer

  12. ASSESSMENT OF MARKER PROTEINS IDENTIFIED IN WHOLE CELL EXTRACTS FOR BACTERIAL SPECIATION USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin; Wunschel, David S.

    2014-02-02

    ASSESSMENT OF MARKER PROTEINS IDENTIFIED IN WHOLE CELL EXTRACTS FOR BACTERIAL SPECIATION USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

  13. Bifacial Si Heterojunction-Perovskite Organic-Inorganic Tandem to Produce Highly Efficient Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asadpour, Reza; Khan, M Ryyan; Alam, Muhammad A

    2015-01-01

    As single junction thin-film technologies, both Si heterojunction (HIT) and Perovskite based solar cells promise high efficiencies at low cost. One expects that a tandem cell design with these cells connected in series will improve the efficiency further. Using a self-consistent numerical modeling of optical and transport characteristics, however, we find that a traditional series connected tandem design suffers from low Jsc due to band-gap mismatch and current matching constraints. It requires careful thickness optimization of Perovskite to achieve any noticeable efficiency gain. Specifically, a traditional tandem cell with state-of-the-art HIT (24%) and Perovskite (20%) sub-cells provides only a modest tandem efficiency of ~25%. Instead, we demonstrate that a bifacial HIT/Perovskite tandem design decouples the optoelectronic constraints and provides an innovative path for extraordinary efficiencies. In the bifacial configuration, the same state-of the-art sub-cells achieve a normalized output of 33%, exceed...

  14. Wind stress measurements from the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission and the impact on an ocean model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    Wind stress measurements from the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission and the impact by the QuikSCAT-SeaWinds scatterometer tandem mission (April­October 2003) and their impact on ocean model simulation. The diurnal variability captured by twice-daily scatterometer wind from the tandem mission

  15. A review of "Mirrors of Revolution: Conflict and Political Identity in Early Modern Europe" by Francesco Benigno 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worcester, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    adds to the narrative by suggesting their common reliance on ?thought experiments? as a means of developing a science of cognition. As Balakier explains, while the empirical bent of Traherne?s methods (particularly in the Centuries and the Dobell... and works to expand our understanding of the other side of the British Civil Wars. Francesco Benigno. Mirrors of Revolution: Con?ict and Political Identity in Early Modern Europe. Turnhout: Brepols, 2010. x + 334 pp. ? 70.00. Review...

  16. Status of High Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-02-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of photovoltaics (PV) for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to our energy supply and our environment. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course. This work includes bringing thin-film cells and modules toward 25% and 20% efficiencies, respectively, and developing multijunction concentrator cells and modules able to convert more than one-third of the sun's energy to electricity (i.e., 33% efficiency). This paper will address recent accomplishments of the NREL in-house research effort involving polycrystalline thin-film tandems, as well as the research efforts under way in the subcontracted area.

  17. Performance optimization of a bendable parabolic cylinder collimating X-ray mirror for the ALS micro-XAS beamline 10.3.2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Marcus, Matthew A.; Domning, Edward E.; Merthe, Daniel J.; Salmassi, Farhad; Smith, Brian V.

    2015-04-08

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline (BL) 10.3.2 is an apparatus for X-ray microprobe spectroscopy and diffraction experiments, operating in the energy range 2.4–17 keV. The performance of the beamline, namely the spatial and energy resolutions of the measurements, depends significantly on the collimation quality of light incident on the monochromator. In the BL 10.3.2 end-station, the synchrotron source is imaged 1:1 onto a set of roll slits which form a virtual source. The light from this source is collimated in the vertical direction by a bendable parabolic cylinder mirror. Details are presented of the mirror design, which allows formore »precision assembly, alignment and shaping of the mirror, as well as for extending of the mirror operating lifetime by a factor of ~10. Assembly, mirror optimal shaping and preliminary alignment were performed ex situ in the ALS X-ray Optics Laboratory (XROL). Using an original method for optimal ex situ characterization and setting of bendable X-ray optics developed at the XROL, a root-mean-square (RMS) residual surface slope error of 0.31 µrad with respect to the desired parabola, and an RMS residual height error of less than 3 nm were achieved. Once in place at the beamline, deviations from the designed optical geometry (e.g. due to the tolerances for setting the distance to the virtual source, the grazing incidence angle, the transverse position) and/or mirror shape (e.g. due to a heat load deformation) may appear. Due to the errors, on installation the energy spread from the monochromator is typically a few electron-volts. Here, a new technique developed and successfully implemented for at-wavelength (in situ) fine optimal tuning of the mirror, enabling us to reduce the collimation-induced energy spread to ~0.05 eV, is described.« less

  18. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Charlene C. (Powell, TN); Day, Jack R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  19. Switchable mirrors based on nickel-magnesium films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson,Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Armitage, Robert D.; Kostecki, Robert; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-01-16

    A new type of electrochromic mirror electrode based on reversible uptake of hydrogen in nickel magnesium alloy films is reported. Thin,magnesium-rich Ni-Mg films prepared on glass substrates by cosputtering from Ni and Mg targets are mirror-like in appearance and have low visible transmittance. Upon exposure to hydrogen gas or on reduction in alkaline electrolyte, the films take up hydrogen and become transparent. When hydrogen is removed, the mirror properties are recovered. The transition is believed to result from reversible formation of Mg2NiH4 and MgH2. A thin overlayer of palladium was found to enhance the kinetics of hydrogen insertion and extraction,and to protect the metal surface against oxidation.

  20. Mirror-writing in children and the right-writing rule: critically testing the implicit writing rule using novel stimuli. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henderson, Rowena

    2012-06-27

    Mirror-writing is the phenomenon in which letters, words or digits are written in reverse direction and can be read normally when held to a mirror. Unintentional mirror-writing is frequently observed in young children ...

  1. Mechanical and Thermal Tests of the Containers of Liquid Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. F. Borra; R. Content; G. Tremblay; A. Daigle; Y. Huot

    2004-03-25

    We give a generic description of a liquid mirror system and summarize some practical information useful to making them. We compare laboratory measurements of deformations, due to the weight of mercury on the container of a 3.7-m mirror and to temperature changes on a 1-m container, to finite element computer simulations. We find that the measurements agree reasonably well with the numerical simulations. The measurements on the 1-m container show no evidence of fatigue after a few thermal cycles. These results validate the computer models of containers described in a companion article.

  2. Can mirror matter solve the the cosmological lithium problem?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coc, Alain [Centre de Sciences Nucléaires et de Sciences de la Matière (CSNSM), CNRS/IN2P3, Université Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Bâtiment 104, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, France and Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-02

    The abundance of lithium-7 confronts cosmology with a long lasting inconsistency between the predictions of standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis with the baryonic density determined from the Cosmic Microwave Background observations on the one hand, and the spectroscopic determination of the lithium-7 abundance on the other hand. We investigated the influence of the existence of a mirror world, focusing on models in which mirror neutrons can oscillate into ordinary neutrons. Such a mechanism allows for an effective late time neutron injection, which induces an increase of the destruction of beryllium-7and thus a lower final lithium-7 abundance.

  3. Detection of Atmospheric Cherenkov Radiation Using Solar Heliostat Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rene A. Ong; the STACEE Collaboration

    1996-05-06

    The gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is largely unexplored. Ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large Cherenkov photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. This paper discusses the development of a Cherenkov detector using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collector. As part of this development, we built a prototype detector consisting of four heliostat mirrors and used it to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in extensive air showers created by cosmic ray particles.

  4. Detection of atmospheric Cherenkov radiation using solar heliostat mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ong, R A

    1996-01-01

    The gamma-ray energy region between 20 and 250 GeV is largely unexplored. Ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov detectors offer a possible way to explore this region, but large Cherenkov photon collection areas are needed to achieve low energy thresholds. This paper discusses the development of a Cherenkov detector using the heliostat mirrors of a solar power plant as the primary collector. As part of this development, we built a prototype detector consisting of four heliostat mirrors and used it to record atmospheric Cherenkov radiation produced in extensive air showers created by cosmic ray particles.

  5. The mirror effect: Virginia Woolf's war writings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murchison, Marcia Wilkens

    2013-02-22

    reproach, one that causes her to doubt herself and to revisit her decision to marry Dalloway. As Clarissa watches Peter play with his knife, a symbol of aggression and violence, she reflects on his effect on her. Woolf describes her experience using...

  6. Genealogy Reconstruction From Short Tandem Repeat Genotypes in an Amazonian Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kidd, Kenneth

    Genealogy Reconstruction From Short Tandem Repeat Genotypes in an Amazonian Population FRANCESC-8005 KEY WORDS microsatellites; Surui; parentage ABSTRACT We have reconstructed partial genealogies or half sibs. The genealogies inferred show that instances of polygyny and polyandry (or, alternatively

  7. Tandem benzannulation-ring closing metathesis strategy for the synthesis of benzo-fused nitrogen heterocycles ;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Xiao Yin

    2008-01-01

    A tandem benzannulation-ring closing metathesis strategy for the efficient synthesis of benzo-fused nitrogen heterocycles such as dihydroquinolines, benzazepines, and benzazocines has been developed. This strategy is based ...

  8. Supporting Information Tandem Catalytic Conversion of Glucose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    conducted in Kinesis microwave vials (Malta, NY). One unit (U) represents the conversion of 1.0 µmole1 Supporting Information Tandem Catalytic Conversion of Glucose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural

  9. Achieving High Performance Polymer Tandem Solar Cells via Novel Materials Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Letian

    2014-01-01

    polymers for organic solar cell applications. Chem. Rev.Hummelen, J. C. , Plastic solar cells. Adv. Funct. Mater.et al. , Ef?cient organic tandem solar cells based on small

  10. Analogy between MSE estimation theory and information theory in the study of tandem communication links 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piard, Veronique D.

    1994-01-01

    This research deals with developing an analogy between concepts in information theory and estimation theory in tandem communication problems. The analogy proposed by Messerschmitt [1] provides the intuitive basis for establishing a correspondence...

  11. Achieving High Performance Polymer Tandem Solar Cells via Novel Materials Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, Letian

    2014-01-01

    1980s for inorganic multijunction cells and more recentlyGaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells. Appl. Phys. Lett.of tandem/multijunction organic solar cells is nontrivial.

  12. Ion implantation for figure correction of high-resolution x-ray telescope mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chalifoux, Brandon D

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating mirrors for future high-resolution, large-aperture x-ray telescopes continues to challenge the x-ray astronomy instrumentation community. Building a large-aperture telescope requires thin, lightweight mirrors; ...

  13. Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panasenko, Dmitriy

    2012-01-01

    Benjamin, “Wave Formation in Laminar Flow down an Inclineda plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film. DmitriyA plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow

  14. Brunnian Braids Boundary Brunnian Braids Main Results Boundary Brunnian braids, mirror reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Brunnian Braids Boundary Brunnian Braids Main Results Boundary Brunnian braids, mirror reflection December 17, 2007 #12;Brunnian Braids Boundary Brunnian Braids Main Results Boundary Brunnian braids, mirror reflection and the homotopy groups Brunnian Braids Boundary Brunnian Braids Main Results #12

  15. 2 photon Laser optical path (Will Grimes June 3, 2013) (page 1 of 10) polarized mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stryker, Michael

    bottom periscope mirror periscope (Thor labs RS99) into microscope scan head #12;2 photon Laser in front of the beam. bottom periscope mirror periscope (Thor labs RS99) into microscope scan head beam

  16. Minimizing actuator-induced residual error in active space telescope primary mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Matthew William, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Heritage space telescope mirror technology-i.e. large, monolithic glass primary mirrors-has reached an upper limit on allowable aperture diameter given launch vehicle volume and mass constraints. The next generation of ...

  17. Analytical study on arbitrary waveform generation by MEMS micro mirror arrays.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyoncu, Salih K; Huang, Yuewang; Song, Qi; Boyraz, Ozdal

    2012-01-01

    waveform generation by MEMS micro mirror arrays Salih K.generation technique by using MEMS digital micro-mirrormodulator [11,12]. Up to date MEMS micro-mirror arrays have

  18. Integrated modeling and design of lightweight, active mirrors for launch survival and on-orbit performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohan, Lucy Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Lightweight, active mirrors are an enabling technology for large aperture, space-based optical systems. These mirrors have the potential to improve the optical resolution and sensitivity beyond what is currently possible. ...

  19. On the Kinematics of Solar Mirrors Using Massively Parallel Binary Actuation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubowsky, Steven

    Precision mirrors are required for effective solar energy collectors. Manufacturing such mirrors and making them robust to disturbances such as thermal gradients is expensive. In this paper, the use of parallel binary ...

  20. LOW VOLTAGE AND PULL-IN STATE ADJUSTABLE DUAL-SERVO-SCANNING-MIRROR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The mirror is composite of poly1, embedded oxide2, poly2 and gold. A sandwiched oxide layer provides

  1. Single and Tandem Stents in Sheep Iliac Arteries: Is There a Difference in Patency?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuermann, Karl; Vorwerk, Dierk; Buecker, Arno; Grosskortenhaus, Stefanie; Guenther, Rolf W. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Technology, Pauwelsstrasse 30, D-52057 Aachen (Germany)

    1998-09-15

    Purpose: To compare patency and neointima formation of single and tandem arterial stents. Methods: In each of six sheep, two Memotherm nitinol stents (tandem stents) were inserted into the external iliac artery on one side and a single stent into the artery on the opposite side. The size of the iliac lumen was assessed in the proximal, middle, and distal segments of the stents by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) before, immediately after, and 1 month after implantation when the sheep were killed. Neointimal thickness was determined in the proximal, middle, and distal segments of each stent by light microscopy. Results: All stents remained patent. There was no significant difference in lumen and neointimal thickness between single and tandem stents. Cranial tandem stents showed a significantly wider lumen and smaller neointimal thickness than caudal tandem stents. In the proximal and distal segments, the lumen of the stents was significantly smaller and the neointimal thickness greater than in the middle segment; differences in neointimal thickness were significant only between the proximal and the middle segment. Conclusion: In an experimental setting, tandem stents did not interfere with one another with regard to patency and neointima formation when compared with a single contralateral stent. Neointimal thickening after stent insertion seems to be inversely related to the original arterial diameter.

  2. The evolution of imitation and mirror neurons in adaptive agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borenstein, Elhanan

    The evolution of imitation and mirror neurons in adaptive agents Action editor: Luc Berthouze evolutionary adaptive agents that demonstrate imitative learn- ing, facilitating a comprehensive study The past 20 years have seen a renewed interest in imitation in various fields of research (Prinz & 1389

  3. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines N. J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , with their energy transferred to the waves. In a tokamak, by channeling the wave energy to fuel ions, the effective electric potential, so the quick removal of the energetic ash makes room for fuel ions. In mirror geometry wave that taps particle energy, while rejecting the particles to the periphery, also can fuel

  4. WAVE-DRIVEN ROTATION IN SUPERSONICALLY ROTATING MIRRORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    by radio-frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A popula, rotation, radio-frequency waves I. INTRODUCTION Magnetic mirror traps with supersonic rotation have many current through electrodes, the rotation could be produced volumetrically by radio-frequency waves near

  5. Low energy electron bombardment induced surface contamination of Ru mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Low energy electron bombardment induced surface contamination of Ru mirrors A. Al-Ajlonya , A., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT The impact of secondary electrons induced contamination of the Ru surface, carbon contamination, Ruthenium capping 1. INTRODUCTION Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation induced

  6. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01

    magnetron sputtering machine was used for producing a coating on a cleaved fiber end. Three different coating thicknesses of the TiO2 material [(150 i, 250 h, and 300 i)] for the low reflectance internal mirrors were tested. For the controllable low...

  7. Mirror Film Company Has 'Concentrated' Plans for Expansion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    ReflecTech Inc. is using a silvered polymer-based film -- instead of glass -- to make mirror panels for focusing sunlight onto a heat generator. Their innovation helped them land a Recovery Act tax credit to expand their Colorado company.

  8. A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    A low cost adaptive optics system using a membrane mirror C. Paterson, I. Munro and J. C. Dainty 2BZ, UK carlp@ic.ac.uk Abstract: A low cost adaptive optics system constructed almost en- tirely a diffractive wavefront generator based on a ferroelectric spatial light modulator. This is used to produce

  9. Rhodium coated mirrors deposited by magnetron sputtering for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marot, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Oelhafen, P.; Covarel, G.; Litnovsky, A.

    2007-10-15

    Metallic mirrors will be essential components of all optical spectroscopy and imaging systems for ITER plasma diagnostics. Any change in the mirror performance, in particular, its reflectivity, due to erosion of the surface by charge exchange neutrals or deposition of impurities will influence the quality and reliability of the detected signals. Due to its high reflectivity in the visible wavelength range and its low sputtering yield, rhodium appears as an attractive material for first mirrors in ITER. However, the very high price of the raw material calls for using it in the form of a film deposited onto metallic substrates. The development of a reliable technique for the preparation of high reflectivity rhodium films is therefore of the highest importance. Rhodium layers with thicknesses of up to 2 {mu}m were produced on different substrates of interest (Mo, stainless steel, Cu) by magnetron sputtering. Produced films exhibit a low roughness and crystallite size of about 10 nm with a dense columnar structure. No impurities were detected on the surface after deposition. Scratch tests demonstrate that adhesion properties increase with substrate hardness. Detailed optical characterizations of Rh-coated mirrors as well as results of erosion tests performed both under laboratory conditions and in the TEXTOR tokamak are presented in this paper.

  10. MEMS Deformable Mirrors for Astronomical Adaptive Optics S.A. Cornelissen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    on the development of high actuator count, micro-electromechanical (MEMS) deformable mirrors designed for high order Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based deformable mirrors (DMs) are an emerging class of wavefront correctors usedMEMS Deformable Mirrors for Astronomical Adaptive Optics S.A. Cornelissen1 , A.L. Hartzell1 , J

  11. Mirror-mode storms: STEREO observations of protracted generation of small amplitude waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Mirror-mode storms: STEREO observations of protracted generation of small amplitude waves C. T. Luhmann (2009), Mirror-mode storms: STEREO observations of protracted generation of small amplitude waves observes mirror-mode storms, periods in which small amplitude waves suddenly appear and persist for hours

  12. Hardware Implementation of the Primary Mirror Surface Heating System for the Gemini 8 meter Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­meter primary mirror. Keywords: seeing, resistive heating, thermal control, primary mirror 2 as a resistive heating element; the control of current flow across the mirror surface results in a controlled Block Diagram for Gemini Surface Heating System 2.4 Primary Voltage Control Subsystem: This system

  13. Hardware Implementation of the Primary Mirror Surface Heating System for the Gemini 8 meter Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -meter primary mirror. Keywords: seeing, resistive heating, thermal control, primary mirror 2 as a resistive heating element; the control of current flow across the mirror surface results in a controlled Block Diagram for Gemini Surface Heating System 2.4 Primary Voltage Control Subsystem: This system

  14. Development of a 4096 Element MEMS Continuous Membrane Deformable Mirror for High Contrast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    Development of a 4096 Element MEMS Continuous Membrane Deformable Mirror for High Contrast star. This surface micromachined MEMS deformable mirror will have an active aperture of 25.2mm developed for commercially available 1024 and 140 element MEMS deformable mirrors to achieve unprecedented

  15. MEMS Deformable Mirror Actuators with Enhanced Reliability S.A. Cornelissena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    MEMS Deformable Mirror Actuators with Enhanced Reliability S.A. Cornelissena , T.G. Bifanoa,b , P, 15 St. Mary's St., Boston, MA 02215 ABSTRACT MEMS deformable mirrors with thousands of actuators due to electrical overstress. We report on advances made in the development of MEMS deformable mirror

  16. A facility to evaluate the focusing performance of mirrors for Cherenkov Telescopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canestrari, Rodolfo; Bonnoli, Giacomo; Farisato, Giancarlo; Lessio, Luigi; Rodeghiero, Gabriele; Spiga, Rossella; Toso, Giorgio; Pareschi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the imaging atmospheric Cherenkov technique in late 1980's, ground-based observations of Very High-Energy gamma rays came into reality. Since the first source detected at TeV energies in 1989 by Whipple, the number of high energy gamma-ray sources has rapidly grown up to more than 150 thanks to the second generation experiments like MAGIC, H.E.S.S. and VERITAS. The Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory is the next generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, with at least 10 times higher sensitivity than current instruments. Cherenkov Telescopes have to be equipped with optical dishes of large diameter -- in general based on segmented mirrors -- with typical angular resolution of a few arc-minutes. To evaluate the mirror's quality specific metrological systems are required that possibly take into account the environmental conditions in which typically Cherenkov telescopes operate (in open air without dome protection). For this purpose a new facility for the characterization of mi...

  17. High Dose Neutron Irradiation Performance of Dielectric Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimishakavi, Anantha Phani Kiran Kumar; Leonard, Keith J; Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Snead, Lance Lewis

    2015-01-01

    The study presents the high-dose behavior of dielectric mirrors specifically engineered for radiation-tolerance: alternating layers of Al2O3/SiO2 and HfO2/SiO2 were grown on sapphire substrates and exposed to neutron doses of 1 and 4 dpa at 458 10K in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). In comparison to previously reported results, these higher doses of 1 and 4 dpa results in a drastic drop in optical reflectance, caused by a failure of the multilayer coating. HfO2/SiO2 mirrors failed completely when exposed to 1 dpa, whereas the reflectance of Al2O3/SiO2 mirrors reduced to 44%, eventually failing at 4 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of the Al2O3/SiO2 specimens showed SiO2 layer defects which increases size with irradiation dose. The typical size of each defect was 8 nm in 1 dpa and 42 nm in 4 dpa specimens. Buckling type delamination of the interface between the substrate and first layer was typically observed in both 1 and 4 dpa HfO2/SiO2 specimens. Composition changes across the layers were measured in high resolution scanning-TEM mode using energy dispersive spectroscopy. A significant interdiffusion between the film layers was observed in Al2O3/SiO2 mirror, though less evident in HfO2/SiO2 system. The ultimate goal of this work is the provide insight into the radiation-induced failure mechanisms of these mirrors.

  18. Structural support conceptual studies for a Yin-Yang magnet of a tandem mirror reactor. Final report, September 1979-August 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ojalvo, I.U.; Erickson, J.L.

    1980-07-01

    An investigation was made as to whether the TMR Yin-Yang coils will require elaborate external structural restraints. The approach taken was to use a simple coil case of compact design and to add and modify structural members to transfer loads from one coil to the other. The design considerations are described. (MOW)

  19. Communications system using a mirror kept in outer space by electromagnetic radiation pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Csonka, Paul L. (Eugene, OR)

    1981-01-01

    A method and system are described for transmitting electromagnetic radiation by using a communications mirror located between about 100 kilometers and about 200 kilometers above ground. The communications mirror is kept aloft above the atmosphere by the pressure of the electromagnetic radiation which it reflects, and which is beamed at the communications mirror by a suitably constructed transmitting antenna on the ground. The communications mirror will reflect communications, such as radio, radar, or television waves up to about 1,100 kilometers away when the communications mirror is located at a height of about 100 kilometers.

  20. Title of dissertation: H & NEUTRAL DENSITY SCALING IN THE MARYLAND CENTRIFUGAL EXPERI-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: H & NEUTRAL DENSITY SCALING IN THE MARYLAND CENTRIFUGAL EXPERI Department of Physics The Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment (MCX) is a hydrogen plasma confinement experiment with a rotating mirror magnetic configuration. This experiment was de- signed to test the concepts of centrifugal

  1. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  2. Mirror fusion. Quarterly report, April-June 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-09-11

    The information in each Quarterly is presented in the same sequence as in the Field Work Package Proposal and Authorization System (WPAS) submissions prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy; the main sections are Applied Plasma Physics, Confinement Systems, Development and Technology, and Mirror Fusion Test Facility (Planning and Projects). On occasion, we shall include information pertaining to the LLNL role as Lead Laboratory for the Open Systems Mirror Fusion Program. Each of these sections is introduced by an overall statement of the goals and purposes of the groups reporting in it. As appropriate within each section, statements of the goals of individual programs and projects are followed by articles containing summaries of significant recent activity and descriptive text.

  3. Bifacial Si Heterojunction-Perovskite Organic-Inorganic Tandem to Produce Highly Efficient Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reza Asadpour; Raghu V. K. Chavali; M. Ryyan Khan; Muhammad A. Alam

    2015-05-15

    As single junction thin-film technologies, both Si heterojunction (HIT) and Perovskite based solar cells promise high efficiencies at low cost. One expects that a tandem cell design with these cells connected in series will improve the efficiency further. Using a self-consistent numerical modeling of optical and transport characteristics, however, we find that a traditional series connected tandem design suffers from low Jsc due to band-gap mismatch and current matching constraints. It requires careful thickness optimization of Perovskite to achieve any noticeable efficiency gain. Specifically, a traditional tandem cell with state-of-the-art HIT (24%) and Perovskite (20%) sub-cells provides only a modest tandem efficiency of ~25%. Instead, we demonstrate that a bifacial HIT/Perovskite tandem design decouples the optoelectronic constraints and provides an innovative path for extraordinary efficiencies. In the bifacial configuration, the same state-of the-art sub-cells achieve a normalized output of 33%, exceeding the bifacial HIT performance at practical albedo reflections. Unlike the traditional design, this bifacial design is relatively insensitive to Perovskite thickness variations, which may translate to simpler manufacture and higher yield.

  4. Cryogenic systems for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slack, D.S.; Nelson, R.L.; Chronis, W.C.

    1985-08-01

    This paper includes an in-depth discussion of the design, fabrication, and operation of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) cryogenic system located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Each subsystem discussed to present a basic composite of the entire facility. The following subsystems are included: 500kW nitrogen reliquefier, subcoolers, and distribution system; 15kW helium refrigerator/liquefier and distribution system; helium recovery and storage system; rough vacuum and high vacuum systems.

  5. High-efficiency GaAs/Ge monolithic tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tobin, S.P.; Vernon, S.M.; Bajgar, C.; Haven, V.E.; Geoffroy, L.M.; Lillington, D.R.

    1988-05-01

    High photovoltaic efficiency and light weight are important criteria for spacecraft power applications. Present GaAs cells are approaching their efficiency limits, but are not efficient or light enough for future needs. The authors have investigated tandem cells of GaAs grown by MOCVD on thin Ge to address both higher efficiency and reduced weight. GaAs/Ge monolithic tandem cells of 4-cm/sup 2/ area have been produced with independently verified efficiencies up to 21.7 percent (AMO, one sun, 25/sup 0/C, total area). Under AM1.5 Global conditions, efficiencies are up to 24.3 percent. These are the highest one-sun efficiencies reported for GaAs/Ge cells, and the highest efficiency for a two-terminal monolithic tandem cell.

  6. Tandem Solar Cells Using GaAs Nanowires on Si: Design, Fabrication, and Observation of Voltage Addition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    for high-efficiency, low-cost multijunction solar cells. KEYWORDS: Tandem solar cell, Ga so that the efficiency advantage is outweighed by the low cost of Si solar cells for manyTandem Solar Cells Using GaAs Nanowires on Si: Design, Fabrication, and Observation of Voltage

  7. Measurement of Component Cell Current-Voltage Characteristics in a Tandem-JunctionTwo-Terminal Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    of multijunction solar cells. Keywords Measurement method, I-V characteristics, component cells, tandem junctionMeasurement of Component Cell Current-Voltage Characteristics in a Tandem- JunctionTwo-Terminal Solar Cell Chandan Das, Xianbi Xiang and Xunming Deng Department of Physics and Astronomy, University

  8. Deployable telescope having a thin-film mirror and metering structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumel, Leslie J. (Cedar Crest, NM); Martin, Jeffrey W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-24

    A deployable thin-film mirror telescope comprises a base structure and a metering structure. The base structure houses a thin-film mirror, which can be rolled for stowage and unrolled for deployment. The metering structure is coupled to the base structure and can be folded for stowage and unfolded for deployment. In the deployed state, the unrolled thin-film mirror forms a primary minor for the telescope and the unfolded metering structure positions a secondary minor for the telescope.

  9. High-resolution adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with multiple deformable mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Diana C. (Fremont, CA); Olivier, Scot S. (Livermore, CA); Jones; Steven M. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-23

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopes is introduced to produce non-invasive views of the human retina. The use of dual deformable mirrors improved the dynamic range for correction of the wavefront aberrations compared with the use of the MEMS mirror alone, and improved the quality of the wavefront correction compared with the use of the bimorph mirror alone. The large-stroke bimorph deformable mirror improved the capability for axial sectioning with the confocal imaging system by providing an easier way to move the focus axially through different layers of the retina.

  10. Project Profile: Cleanable and Hardcoat Coatings for Increased Durability of Silvered Polymeric Mirrors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    3M, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing optical coatings for solar mirrors that are durable, easily maintained, and more cost-effective.

  11. Absolute H Emission Measurement System for the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Absolute H Emission Measurement System for the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment Ryan Clary April 22 developed and implemented at the Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment (MCX). The primary goal of this system Introduction The Maryland Centrifugal eXperiment (MCX) is a rotating-plasma mirror machine. The purpose

  12. Mirror-Image Stimulation Applied to Field Behavioral Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svendsen, Gerald E.; Armitage, Kenneth

    1973-05-01

    MIRROR-IMAGE STIMULATION APPLIED TO FIELD BEHAVIORAL STUDIES' GERALD E. SVENDSEN AND KENNETH B. ARMITAGE Division of Biological Sciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence 66044 Abstract. Twenty-nine adult and yearling marmots were exposed... of each marmot were recorded This content downloaded from 129.237.46.100 on Thu, 28 Aug 2014 16:54:13 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 624 GERALD E. SVENDSEN AND KENNETH B. ARMITAGE Ecology, Vol. 54, No. 3 TABLE 1. Twenty-two behavioral...

  13. Visualization of uncorrelated, tandem symmetry mismatches in the internal genome packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Wen

    Visualization of uncorrelated, tandem symmetry mismatches in the internal genome packaging-driven packaging of a dsDNA genome into a preformed protein capsid through a unique portal vertex is essential of T7 DNA in packaging. A focused asymmetric reconstruction method was developed and applied

  14. Performance predictions for monolithic, thin-film CdTe/Ge tandem solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    Performance predictions for monolithic, thin-film CdTe/Ge tandem solar cells D.L. Pulfrey*, J. Dell): pulfrey@ece.ubc.ca ABSTRACT Cadmium telluride thin-film solar cells are now commercially available be attainable. 1. INTRODUCTION Thin film solar cells based on polycrystalline CdTe have been investigated

  15. Nuclear breeder reactor fuel element with axial tandem stacking and getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibby, Ronald L. (Richland, WA); Lawrence, Leo A. (Kennewick, WA); Woodley, Robert E. (Richland, WA); Wilson, Charles N. (Richland, WA); Weber, Edward T. (Kennewick, WA); Johnson, Carl E. (Elk Grove, IL)

    1981-01-01

    A breeder reactor fuel element having a tandem arrangement of fissile and fertile fuel with a getter for fission product cesium disposed between the fissile and fertile sections. The getter is effective at reactor operating temperatures to isolate the cesium generated by the fissile material from reacting with the fertile fuel section.

  16. Supplemental Material for DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, John J.

    1 Supplemental Material for ­ DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat STR Loci-mail: jlove@sciences.sdsu.edu Index for this document (Supplemental Material) A. Instructions for the Student) page 11 D. Supplemental Figure 1 and Figure 2 page 14 E. Important Points when Preparing Large

  17. Algorithms for Identifying Protein Cross-links via Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    Algorithms for Identifying Protein Cross-links via Tandem Mass Spectrometry Ting Chen Jake Ja e y mass spectrum. We designed fast and space-e cient algorithms for these two steps, and implemented-protein interactions and solving protein structures. We focus on new algorithms for interpretation of complex

  18. Laboratory Exercises DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Love, John J.

    Laboratory Exercises DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory CoursesS Received for publication, November 21, 2005 module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three

  19. Photoelectrochemical Behavior of Hierarchically Structured Si/WO3 Core-Shell Tandem Photoanodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Photoelectrochemical Behavior of Hierarchically Structured Si/WO3 Core-Shell Tandem Photoanodes 61801, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: WO3 thin films have been deposited and the shells consisting of a controlled morphology WO3 layer. Porosity was introduced into the WO3 outer shell

  20. Structure of a Longitudinal Actin Dimer Assembled by Tandem W Domains: Implications for Actin Filament Nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebowski, Grzegorz; Namgoong, Suk; Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Leavis, Paul C.; Navaza, Jorge; Dominguez, Roberto

    2013-11-20

    Actin filament nucleators initiate polymerization in cells in a regulated manner. A common architecture among these molecules consists of tandem WASP homology 2 domains (W domains) that recruit three to four actin subunits to form a polymerization nucleus. We describe a low-resolution crystal structure of an actin dimer assembled by tandem W domains, where the first W domain is cross-linked to Cys374 of the actin subunit bound to it, whereas the last W domain is followed by the C-terminal pointed end-capping helix of thymosin {beta}4. While the arrangement of actin subunits in the dimer resembles that of a long-pitch helix of the actin filament, important differences are observed. These differences result from steric hindrance of the W domain with intersubunit contacts in the actin filament. We also determined the structure of the first W domain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus VopL cross-linked to actin Cys374 and show it to be nearly identical with non-cross-linked W-Actin structures. This result validates the use of cross-linking as a tool for the study of actin nucleation complexes, whose natural tendency to polymerize interferes with most structural methods. Combined with a biochemical analysis of nucleation, the structures may explain why nucleators based on tandem W domains with short inter-W linkers have relatively weak activity, cannot stay bound to filaments after nucleation, and are unlikely to influence filament elongation. The findings may also explain why nucleation-promoting factors of the Arp2/3 complex, which are related to tandem-W-domain nucleators, are ejected from branch junctions after nucleation. We finally show that the simple addition of the C-terminal pointed end-capping helix of thymosin {beta}4 to tandem W domains can change their activity from actin filament nucleation to monomer sequestration.

  1. Precision Stabilization Simulation of a Ball Joint Gimbaled Mirror Using Advanced MATLAB

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Orlando

    Precision Stabilization Simulation of a Ball Joint Gimbaled Mirror Using Advanced MATLAB, they suffer from the common problems of weight and power requirements, and mechanical envelope constraints gimbaled mirror using advanced MATLAB tools and packages. 1. Introduction Our goal in this work

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACK SURFACE ACRYLIC SOLAR MIRRORS TO ASSURE 25 YEAR LIFETIME PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION OF BACK SURFACE ACRYLIC SOLAR MIRRORS TO ASSURE 25 YEAR LIFETIME at NREL was extremely valuable in completing this work. Funding for this project was obtained from Ohio 2. Literature Review 10 Solar Mirrors 10 Technology Development 15 Substrate PMMA Acrylic Weathering

  3. Simulation and optimization of mirror coatings for planar optics Stefan Bohr, Stefan Sinzinger, Jurgen Jahns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jahns, Jürgen

    Simulation and optimization of mirror coatings for planar optics Stefan Bohr, Stefan Sinzinger, J. For example an aluminum coating yields a reflectivity of about 0.9 (at = 633 nm). For a system with 7 reflections this leads to a light loss of more than 50 % only due to losses at the mirror coatings. Other

  4. Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals Tsung: A simple method for fabricating patternable micro-mirror devices by photo-induced alignment of dye to nearly perfect planar by the photo-excited adsorbed dyes. This structure transformation leads

  5. Dissociation of mirroring and mentalising systems in autism Lauren E. Marsh, Antonia F. de C. Hamilton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Antonia

    February 2011 Available online xxxx Keywords: Autism Social cognition Theory of mind Mirror neuron system (ASC), a neurodevelopmental disorder with a particular impact on social cognition. The paper aims Action understanding The role of mirror neuron systems and mentalising systems in causing poor social

  6. DYNAMICS OF TARGET PLASMA HEATED BY NEUTRAL BEAMS IN A MIRROR Andrey A. Kabantsev

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

    DYNAMICS OF TARGET PLASMA HEATED BY NEUTRAL BEAMS IN A MIRROR Andrey A. Kabantsev Budker Institute(3832)359121 taskaev@inp.nsk.su ABSTRACT Target plasma behavior in a mirror when heated by neutral beams was studied. Considerable changes of target plasma density depending on target quality were found. Neutral beam injection

  7. Simple piezoelectric-actuated mirror with 180 kHz servo bandwidth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). The actuator should be very useful in a wide variety of applications requiringSimple piezoelectric-actuated mirror with 180 kHz servo bandwidth Travis C. Briles1,, Dylan C. Yost.briles@colorado.edu Abstract: We present a high bandwidth piezoelectric-actuated mirror for length stabilization of an optical

  8. The Mirror DBMS at TREC-8 Arjen P. de Vries and Djoerd Hiemstra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    The Mirror DBMS at TREC-8 Arjen P. de Vries and Djoerd Hiemstra {arjen participates in TREC-8 using the Mir- ror DBMS, a prototype database system especially designed for multimedia of the global statistics on the ranking. 1 Introduction The Mirror DBMS [dV99] combines content management

  9. Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45 micro-mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    Optical bus waveguide metallic hard mold fabrication with opposite 45º micro-mirrors Xinyuan Doua In this paper, 3-to-3 metallic hard mold for optical bus waveguide with opposite 45º micro-mirrors was successfully fabricated using electroplating method. The optical bus waveguide pre-mold with 45º surfaces

  10. Requirements for MEMS Mirrors for Adaptive Optics in the Elizabeth Daly, Eugenie Dalimier and Chris Dainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    Requirements for MEMS Mirrors for Adaptive Optics in the Eye Elizabeth Daly, Eugenie Dalimier, Galway, Ireland. ABSTRACT MEMS is one of several emerging technologies for fabricating wavefront mirrors, including a 12x12 MEMS device. The key point is that it is the effectiveness of each actuator

  11. WAVE-DRIVEN ROTATION IN CENTRIFUGAL MIRRORS Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    WAVE-DRIVEN ROTATION IN CENTRIFUGAL MIRRORS Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, USA Centrifugal mirrors use input. By eliminating the need for electrodes, this opens new op- portunities for centrifugal traps. I

  12. GDT-based neutron source with multiple-mirror end plugs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beklemishev, A.; Anikeev, A.; Burdakov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, I.; Postupaev, V.; Sinitsky, S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-19

    We present a new linear trap to be built at the Budker Institute. It combines gasdynamictype central cell with sloshing ions for beam fusion and the multiple-mirror end plugs for improved axial confinement. Thus it is designed as an efficient neutron source and a testbed for future development of mirror-based fusion reactors.

  13. Wind buffeting effects on the Gemini 8m primary mirrors M. K. Cho1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wind buffeting effects on the Gemini 8m primary mirrors M. K. Cho1,2 , L. Stepp1 , and S. Kim3 and Mechanical Engineering, University of Arizona, 1130 N. Mountain, Tucson, AZ 85721 #12;Wind buffeting effects mirror distortion caused by wind pressure variations. To quantify telescope wind loading effects

  14. Design of Optical Metamaterial Mirror with Metallic Nanoparticles for Broadband Light Absorption in Graphene Optoelectronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seungwoo

    2015-01-01

    A general metallic mirror (i.e., a flat metallic surface) has been a popular optical component that can contribute broadband light absorption to thin-film optoelectronic devices; nonetheless, such electric mirror with a reversal of reflection phase inevitably causes the problem of minimized electric field near at the mirror surface (maximized electric field at one quarter of wavelength from mirror). This problem becomes more elucidated, when the deep-subwavelength-scaled two-dimensional (2D) material (e.g., graphene and molybdenum disulfide) is implemented into optoelectronic device as an active channel layer. The purpose of this work was to conceive the idea for using a charge storage layer (spherical Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), embedded into dielectric matrix) of the floating-gate graphene photodetector as a magnetic mirror, which allows the device to harness the increase in broadband light absorption. In particular, we systematically examined whether the versatile assembly of spherical AuNP monolayer within ...

  15. Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Molybdenum and Stainless Steel Mirrors Cleaning by High Repetition Rate Laser Beam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theoretical and Experimental Studies on Molybdenum and Stainless Steel Mirrors Cleaning by High Repetition Rate Laser Beam

  16. An experiment for developing a micro-crack alert system for large thin mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iye, Masanori

    of Japan, Kamogata 3037-5, Asakuchi-gun, Okayama 719-0232, Japan; eShock Wave and Condensed Matter Research been found during the first four-years operation and 7 of them were treated by grinding and polishing) before treating, (center) grinding and polishing, and (right) after treating. Figure 2. Setup of AE

  17. Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators G Johnston, G. Burgess, K. Lovegrove and A. Luzzi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators G Johnston, G. Burgess, K. Lovegrove to the success of all solar concentrators of this nature are cost effective and durable mirror panel components World Solar Congress 743 #12;Economic Mass Producible Mirror Panels for Solar Concentrators Johnston

  18. Deformable Mirrors for High-Power Lasers Supriyo Sinha*a, Justin D. Mansell**b, and Robert L. Byer'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Byer, Robert L.

    Deformable Mirrors for High-Power Lasers Supriyo Sinha*a, Justin D. Mansell**b, and Robert L. Byer with high power lasers. A reflectance of greater than 99.9% was measured and the mirror had a residual of average laser power (350W/cm2) was reduced from 88 nmto 31 nmrms. Keywords: deformable mirrors, lasers

  19. Sputtered II-VI Alloys and Structures forTandem PV: Final Subcontract Report, 9 December 2003 - 30 July 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A. D.; Collins, R.; Karpov, V. G.; Giolando, D.

    2008-09-01

    This report elaborates on Phase 3 and provides summaries of the first two Phases. Phase 3 research work was divided into five task areas covering different aspects of the II-VI tandem cell.

  20. Vacuum laser acceleration of relativistic electrons using plasma mirror injectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thévenet, M; Kahaly, S; Vincenti, H; Vernier, A; Quéré, F; Faure, J

    2015-01-01

    Accelerating particles to relativistic energies over very short distances using lasers has been a long standing goal in physics. Among the various schemes proposed for electrons, vacuum laser acceleration has attracted considerable interest and has been extensively studied theoretically because of its appealing simplicity: electrons interact with an intense laser field in vacuum and can be continuously accelerated, provided they remain at a given phase of the field until they escape the laser beam. But demonstrating this effect experimentally has proved extremely challenging, as it imposes stringent requirements on the conditions of injection of electrons in the laser field. Here, we solve this long-standing experimental problem for the first time by using a plasma mirror to inject electrons in an ultraintense laser field, and obtain clear evidence of vacuum laser acceleration. With the advent of PetaWatt class lasers, this scheme could provide a competitive source of very high charge (nC) and ultrashort rela...

  1. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases.

  2. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.

    1999-03-09

    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  3. Experiment of Fundamental ECRH in the GAMMA 10 Central Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatematsu, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ikegami, H. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Sekine, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Nagai, D. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Nozaki, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Ishii, K. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kohagura, J. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Nakashima, Y. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kubo, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Shimozuma, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science (Japan); Cho, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2005-01-15

    As an improvement of the central-cell ECRH (C-ECRH) system in GAMMA 10, an ellipsoidal mirror was installed instead of a cylindrical mirror. With this replacement, the microwave beam for ECRH is converged to the GAMMA 10 axis on the resonance surface and Poynting flux reaching the plasma core region becomes about five times larger than the previous one. Effectiveness of this system has been shown in the initial stage of experiment. Finite increment of soft X-ray signal during ECRH operation indicates an increase of the electron temperature. As more improvement, designing a new antenna is now under way.

  4. Efficient Direct Solar-to-Hydrogen Conversion by In Situ Interface Transformation of a Tandem Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Matthias M; Lackner, David; Dimroth, Frank; Hannappel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is nature's route to convert intermittent solar irradiation into storable energy, while its use for an industrial energy supply is impaired by low efficiency. Artificial photosynthesis provides a promising alternative for efficient robust carbon-neutral renewable energy generation. The approach of direct hydrogen generation by photoelectrochemical water splitting utilises customised tandem absorber structures to mimic the Z-scheme of natural photosynthesis. Here, a combined chemical surface transformation of a tandem structure and catalyst deposition at ambient temperature yields photocurrents approaching the theoretical limit of the absorber and results in a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 14%. The potentiostatically assisted photoelectrode efficiency is 17%. Present benchmarks for integrated systems are clearly exceeded. Details of the in situ interface transformation, the electronic improvement and chemical passivation are presented. The surface functionalisation procedure is widely applicab...

  5. GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs Monolithic Tandem Cells for High-Performance Solar Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, M. W.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.; Albin, D. S.; Carapella, J. J.; Duda, A.; Emery, K.; Geisz, J. F.; Jones, K.; Kurtz, S.; Moriarty, T.; Romero, M. J.

    2005-08-01

    We present a new approach for ultra-high-performance tandem solar cells that involves inverted epitaxial growth and ultra-thin device processing. The additional degree of freedom afforded by the inverted design allows the monolithic integration of high-, and medium-bandgap, lattice-matched (LM) subcell materials with lower-bandgap, lattice-mismatched (LMM) materials in a tandem structure through the use of transparent compositionally graded layers. The current work concerns an inverted, series-connected, triple-bandgap, GaInP (LM, 1.87 eV)/GaAs (LM, 1.42 eV)/GaInAs (LMM, {approx}1 eV) device structure grown on a GaAs substrate. Ultra-thin tandem devices are fabricated by mounting the epiwafers to pre-metallized Si wafer handles and selectively removing the parent GaAs substrate. The resulting handle-mounted, ultra-thin tandem cells have a number of important advantages, including improved performance and potential reclamation/reuse of the parent substrate for epitaxial growth. Additionally, realistic performance modeling calculations suggest that terrestrial concentrator efficiencies in the range of 40-45% are possible with this new tandem cell approach. A laboratory-scale (0.24 cm2), prototype GaInP/GaAs/GaInAs tandem cell with a terrestrial concentrator efficiency of 37.9% at a low concentration ratio (10.1 suns) is described, which surpasses the previous world efficiency record of 37.3%.

  6. High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, photovoltaic energy converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W

    2014-05-27

    A monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem solar photovoltaic converter has at least one, and preferably at least two, subcells grown lattice-matched on a substrate with a bandgap in medium to high energy portions of the solar spectrum and at least one subcell grown lattice-mismatched to the substrate with a bandgap in the low energy portion of the solar spectrum, for example, about 1 eV.

  7. High-efficiency, monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem photovoltaic energy converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    2011-11-29

    A monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem solar photovoltaic converter has at least one, and preferably at least two, subcells grown lattice-matched on a substrate with a bandgap in medium to high energy portions of the solar spectrum and at least one subcell grown lattice-mismatched to the substrate with a bandgap in the low energy portion of the solar spectrum, for example, about 1 eV.

  8. High-Efficiency GaInP/GaAs Tandem Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertness, K. A.; Friedman, D. J.; Kurtz, S. R.; Kibbler, A. E.; Cramer, C.; Olson, J. M.

    1996-09-01

    GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells have achieved efficiencies between 25.7-30.2%, depending on illumination conditions. The efficiencies are the highest confirmed two-terminal values measured for any solar cell within each standard illumination category. The monolithic, series-connected design of the tandem cells allows them to be substituted for silicon or gallium arsenide cells in photovoltaic panel systems with minimal design changes. The advantages of using GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells in space and terrestrial applications are discussed primarily in terms of the reduction in balance-of-system costs that accrues when using a higher efficiency cell. The new efficiency values represent a significant improvement over previous efficiencies for this materials system, and we identify grid design, back interface passivation, and top interface passivation as the three key factors leading to this improvement. In producing the high-efficiency cells, we have addressed nondestructive diagnostics and materials growth reproducibility as well as peak cell performance.

  9. High-efficiency GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertness, K.A.; Friedman, D.J.; Kurtz, S.R.; Kibbler, A.E.; Kramer, C.; Olson, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells have achieved new record efficiencies, specifically 25.7% under air-mass 0 (AM0) illumination, 29.5% under AM 1.5 global (AM1.5G) illumination, and 30.2% at 140-180x concentration under AM 1.5 direct (AM1.5D) illumination. These values are the highest two-terminal efficiencies achieved by any solar cell under these illumination conditions. The monolithic, series-connected design of the tandem cells allows them to be substituted for silicon or gallium arsenide cells in photovoltaic panel systems with minimal design changes. The advantages of using GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells in space and terrestrial applications are discussed primarily in terms of the reduction in balance-of-system costs that accrues when using a higher efficiency cell. The new efficiency values represent a significant improvement over previous efficiencies for this materials system, and we identify grid design, back interface passivation, and top interface passivation as the three key factors leading to this improvement. In producing the high-efficiency cells, we have addressed nondestructive diagnostics and materials growth reproducibility as well as peak cell performance. 31 refs.

  10. Payload characterization for CubeSat demonstration of MEMS deformable mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahoy, Kerri

    Coronagraphic space telescopes require wavefront control systems for high-contrast imaging applications such as exoplanet direct imaging. High-actuator-count MEMS deformable mirrors (DM) are a key element of these wavefront ...

  11. The 28th International Cosmic Ray Conference 1 Portable, Single-mirror, Air Fluorescence Detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    trailer has been implemented with a hydaulic lift so that the front of the mirror can be pointed an integrated weather station and rain detector to prevent operation during bad weather. The laser system

  12. Anisotropy and crystal orientation of silicon--application to the modeling of a bent mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Lin

    2010-06-23

    Matrix formula and MATLAB algorithm are proposed to calculate the stiffness coefficient matrix C, the Young's modulus, shear modulus and Poisson ratio for the silicon crystal in any orientation. Results for Si(110) and Si(311) are given as an example. The anisotropic material properties of the silicon have been used in the mirror width profile optimization for the nano-imaging end-station ID22NI at the ESRF. As the Si(110) is used as the substrate of this multilayer coated KB mirror, the silicon crystal axis [0 0 1] is proposed to orient to the mirror axis. This is the case to have low stress in the mirror and low bending forces from actuators.

  13. Stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror system, high power laser and laser peening method and system using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz B. (Rocklin, CA)

    2007-04-24

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  14. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz B. (Rocklin, CA)

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  15. Bob Ellis designs a PPPL first: A 3D printed mirror for microwave...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    28, 2014 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Bob Ellis with a 3D-printed plastic prototype for a non-mirror part of the launcher. (Photo by Elle StarkmanPPPL Office...

  16. PPPL engineers build mirror mechanism using 3D printer and off...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    machine being built in the south of France, using 3D printing and parts bought at Walmart. Known as a "self-aligning mirror mechanism," the invention consists of two...

  17. Mirror Writing Across Cultures: motor hypothesis vs. directional apraxia in dextrad and sinistrad writers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Mirror writing’ – the production of backwards facing script - occurs frequently in semi-literate children with the dominant right hand, and involuntarily with the non-dominant left hand amongst brain damaged adults, and ...

  18. The Role of Perception and Motor Programme in Deliberate Mirror Writing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin-Wen, Kuo

    2011-11-23

    This study investigated the case who had been doing deliberate mirror writing for a long time. And hope to have an insight to the underlying mechanisms. The perceptual hypothesis and motor programme hypothesis were tested ...

  19. Polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors; I. Influence of the aluminum oxide layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Harten, G; Keller, C U

    2009-01-01

    In polarimetry it is important to characterize the polarization properties of the instrument itself to disentangle real astrophysical signals from instrumental effects. This article deals with the accurate measurement and modeling of the polarization properties of real aluminum mirrors, as used in astronomical telescopes. Main goals are the characterization of the aluminum oxide layer thickness at different times after evaporation and its influence on the polarization properties of the mirror. The full polarization properties of an aluminum mirror are measured with Mueller matrix ellipsometry at different incidence angles and wavelengths. The best fit of theoretical Mueller matrices to all measurements simultaneously is obtained by taking into account a model of bulk aluminum with a thin aluminum oxide film on top of it. Full Mueller matrix measurements of a mirror are obtained with an absolute accuracy of ~1% after calibration. The determined layer thicknesses indicate logarithmic growth in the first few hou...

  20. Design of optimal dispersive mirrors for femtosecond enhancement cavities and compressors by minimizing phase distortion power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birge, Jonathan R.

    The optimization of phase distortion spectral power density is proposed as an alternative to GDD minimization of ultrafast cavity mirrors. This criterion is shown to minimize the detuning of cavity resonances from a uniform comb.

  1. Wavefront control in space with MEMS deformable mirrors for exoplanet direct imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marinan, Anne D.

    To meet the high contrast requirement of 1×10[superscript ?10] to image an Earth-like planet around a sun-like star, space telescopes equipped with coronagraphs require wavefront control systems. Deformable mirrors (DMs) ...

  2. Homological mirror symmetry for a Calabi-Yau hypersurface in projective space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Nicholas (Nicholas James)

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with Kontsevich's Homological Mirror Symmetry conjecture. In Chapter 1, which is based on [1], we consider the n-dimensional pair of pants, which is defined to be the complement of n + 2 generic ...

  3. Modification of surface properties on a nitride based coating films through mirror-quality finish grinding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katahira, K.; H. Ohmori; J. Komotori; Dornfeld, David; H. Kotani; M. Mizutani

    2010-01-01

    on a nitride based coating ?lms through mirror-quality ?nishA B S T R A C T Keywords: Coating Grinding Tribology In thistitanium nitride based coating ?lms ( TiN, TiCN, and TiAIN).

  4. Three-junction solar cells comprised of a thin-film GaInP/GaAs tandem cell mechanically stacked on a Si cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yazawa, Y.; Tamura, K.; Watahiki, S.; Kitatani, T.; Ohtsuka, H.; Warabisako, T.

    1997-12-31

    Three-junction tandem solar cells were fabricated by mechanical stacking of a thin-film GaInP/GaAs monolithic tandem cell and a Si cell. The epitaxial lift-off (ELO) technique was used for the thinning of GaInP/GaAs tandem cells. Both spectral responses of the GaInP top cell and the GaAs middle cell in the thin-film GaInP/GaAs monolithic tandem cell were conserved. The Si cell performance has been improved by reducing the absorption loss in the GaAs substrate.

  5. Relative radiant heat absorption characteristics of two types of mirror shields and a polished aluminum shield 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herron, Steven Douglas

    1973-01-01

    RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1973 Major Subject: Industrial Hygiene RELATIVE RADIANT HEAT ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF TWO TYPES OF MIRROR SHIELDS AND A POLISHED ALUMINUM SHIELD A Thesis by STEVEN DOUGLAS HERRON Approved...

  6. Closely spaced mirror pair for reshaping and homogenizing pump beams in laser amplifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, I.L.

    1992-12-01

    Channeling a laser beam by multiple reflections between two closely-spaced, parallel or nearly parallel mirrors, serves to reshape and homogenize the beam at the output gap between the mirrors. Application of this device to improve the spatial overlap of a copper laser pump beam with the signal beam in a dye laser amplifier is described. This technique has been applied to the AVLIS program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  7. Transport and equilibrium in field-reversed mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    Two plasma models relevant to compact torus research have been developed to study transport and equilibrium in field reversed mirrors. In the first model for small Larmor radius and large collision frequency, the plasma is described as an adiabatic hydromagnetic fluid. In the second model for large Larmor radius and small collision frequency, a kinetic theory description has been developed. Various aspects of the two models have been studied in five computer codes ADB, AV, NEO, OHK, RES. The ADB code computes two dimensional equilibrium and one dimensional transport in a flux coordinate. The AV code calculates orbit average integrals in a harmonic oscillator potential. The NEO code follows particle trajectories in a Hill's vortex magnetic field to study stochasticity, invariants of the motion, and orbit average formulas. The OHK code displays analytic psi(r), B/sub Z/(r), phi(r), E/sub r/(r) formulas developed for the kinetic theory description. The RES code calculates resonance curves to consider overlap regions relevant to stochastic orbit behavior.

  8. Fast Neutron - Mirror Neutron Oscillation and Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zurab Berezhiani; Luis Bento

    2006-02-24

    If there exists the mirror world, a parallel hidden sector of particles with exactly the same microphysics as that of the observable particles, then the primordial nucleosynthesis constraints require that the temperature of the cosmic background of mirror relic photons should be smaller than that of the ordinary relic photons, T'/T neutron - mirror neutron oscillation in vacuum, with an oscillation time $\\tau \\sim 1$ s, much smaller than the neutron lifetime. We show that this could provide a very efficient mechanism for transporting ultra high energy protons at large cosmological distances. The mechanism operates as follows: a super-GZK energy proton scatters a relic photon producing a neutron that oscillates into a mirror neutron which then decays into a mirror proton. The latter undergoes a symmetric process, scattering a mirror relic photon and producing back an ordinary nucleon, but only after traveling a distance $(T/T')^{3}$ times larger than ordinary protons. This may relax or completely remove the GZK-cutoff in the cosmic ray spectrum and also explain the correlation between the observed ultra high energy protons and far distant sources as are the BL Lacs.

  9. X-ray astronomy, like many other fields in astronomy, is all about good mirrors. Modern technology has enabled the production of some really powerful mirrors, making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulmer, Melville P.

    of the magnetic field (which is created in combination with the mirror), KelvinAll® expands and contracts and contracts. Programmed expansion and contraction produces stresses, which when strategically implanted--making it more powerful. So far this process has only been tried in very small areas. The plan is to slowly

  10. Tandem catalysis by palladium nanoclusters encapsulated in metal–organic frameworks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xinle; Guo, Zhiyong; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; Tesfagaber, Daniel; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-08-25

    A bifunctional Zr-MOF catalyst containing palladium nanoclusters (NCs) has been developed. The formation of Pd NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Combining the oxidation activity of Pd NCs and the acetalization activity of the Lewis acid sites in UiO-66-NH2, this catalyst (Pd@UiO-66-NH2) exhibits excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in a one-pot tandem oxidation-acetalization reaction. This catalyst shows 99.9% selectivity to benzaldehyde ethylene acetal in the tandem reaction of benzyl alcohol and ethylene glycol at 99.9% conversion of benzyl alcohol. We also examined various substituted benzyl alcohols and found that alcohols withmore »electron-donating groups showed better conversion and selectivity compared to those with electron-withdrawing groups. As a result, we further proved that there was no leaching of active catalytic species during the reaction and the catalyst can be recycled at least five times without significant deactivation.« less

  11. Computational design of high performance hybrid perovskite on silicon tandem solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rolland, A; Beck, A; Kepenekian, M; Katan, C; Huang, Y; Wang, S; Cornet, C; Durand, O; Even, J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the optoelectronic properties of a monolithically integrated series-connected tandem solar cell are simulated. Following the large success of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites, which have recently demonstrated large efficiencies with low production costs, we examine the possibility of using the same perovskites as absorbers in a tandem solar cell. The cell consists in a methylammonium mixed bromide-iodide lead perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3(1-x)Br3x (0 < x < 1), top sub-cell and a single-crystalline silicon bottom sub-cell. A Si-based tunnel junction connects the two sub-cells. Numerical simulations are based on a one-dimensional numerical drift-diffusion model. It is shown that a top cell absorbing material with 20% of bromide and a thickness in the 300-400 nm range affords current matching with the silicon bottom cell. Good interconnection between single cells is ensured by standard n and p doping of the silicon at 5.10^19cm-3 in the tunnel junction. A maximum efficiency of 27% is predicted ...

  12. Tandem catalysis by palladium nanoclusters encapsulated in metal–organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xinle; Guo, Zhiyong; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian Wei; Tesfagaber, Daniel; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-08-25

    A bifunctional Zr-MOF catalyst containing palladium nanoclusters (NCs) has been developed. The formation of Pd NCs was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). Combining the oxidation activity of Pd NCs and the acetalization activity of the Lewis acid sites in UiO-66-NH2, this catalyst (Pd@UiO-66-NH2) exhibits excellent catalytic activity and selectivity in a one-pot tandem oxidation-acetalization reaction. This catalyst shows 99.9% selectivity to benzaldehyde ethylene acetal in the tandem reaction of benzyl alcohol and ethylene glycol at 99.9% conversion of benzyl alcohol. We also examined various substituted benzyl alcohols and found that alcohols with electron-donating groups showed better conversion and selectivity compared to those with electron-withdrawing groups. As a result, we further proved that there was no leaching of active catalytic species during the reaction and the catalyst can be recycled at least five times without significant deactivation.

  13. Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

    2013-01-01

    overview. (A) Patterning, electroplating, and CMP of counterpost. (B) Patterning, electroplating, and CMP of the springlayer. (C) Patterning, electroplating, and CMP of the mirror

  14. Characterization Of High-Stroke High-Aspect Ratio Micro Electro Mechanical Systems Deformable Mirrors For Adaptive Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouchti, Mohamed Amine

    2013-01-01

    Mirrors For Adaptive Optics, PhD Thesis, University ofFabrication Adaptive  optics  applications  in  astronomy  Max, Center for Adaptive Optics, University of California,

  15. Prototype secondary mirror assembly design for the space infrared telescope facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stier, M.; Duffy, M.; Gullapalli, S.; Rockwell, R.; Sileo, F.; Krim, M.

    1989-02-01

    The authors describe their design of a liquid helium temperature prototype secondary mirror assembly (PSMA) under development for the NASA Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) program. The SIRTF secondary mirror assembly must operate below 4 K and provide the functions of highly precise 2-axis dynamic tilting (chopping) in addition to the conventional functions needed by the SIRTF observatory. Their PSMA design employs a fused quartz mirror kinematically attached at its center to an aluminium cruciform. The mirror/cruciform assembly is driven in tilt about its combined center of mass using a unique flexure pivot and a four-actuator control system with feedback provided by pairs of differential position sensors. The voice coil actuators are mounted on a second flexure-pivoted mass enhancing servo system stability and isolating the telescope from vibration-induced disturbances. The mirror/cruciform and the reaction mass are attached to opposite sides of an aluminum mounting plate whose dimensional characteristics are nominally identical to that of the aluminum flexure pivot material. The mounting plate is connected to the outer housing by a six degree of freedom focus and centering mechanism using pivoted actuation levers driven by lead screw/harmonic drive/stepper motor assemblies.

  16. Developments of a new mirror technology for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory for very high-energy gamma rays will consist of about a hundred of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) of different size with a total reflective area of about 10,000 m$^2$. Here we present a novel technology for the production of IACT mirrors that has been developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics PAS in Krakow, Poland. The mirrors are made by cold-slumping of the front reflecting aluminium-coated panel and the rear panel interspaced with aluminium spacers. Each panel is built of two glass panels laminated with a layer of a fibreglass tissue in between for reinforcement of the structure against mechanical damage. The mirror structure is open and does not require a perfect sealing needed in closed-type designs. It prohibits water to be trapped inside and enables a proper ventilation of the mirror. Full-size hexagonal prototype mirrors produced for the medium-sized CTA telescopes will be presented together with the results of recent comprehensive ...

  17. Fusion neutron generation computations in a stellarator-mirror hybrid with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O.

    2012-06-19

    In the paper [Moiseenko V.E., Noack K., Agren O. 'Stellarator-mirror based fusion driven fission reactor' J Fusion Energy 29 (2010) 65.], a version of a fusion driven system (FDS), i.e. a sub-critical fast fission assembly with a fusion plasma neutron source, is proposed. The plasma part of the reactor is based on a stellarator with a small mirror part. Hot ions with high perpendicular energy are assumed to be trapped in the magnetic mirror part. The stellarator part which connects to the mirror part and provides confinement for the bulk (deuterium) plasma. In the magnetic well of the mirror part, fusion reactions occur from collisions between a of hot ion component (tritium) with cold background plasma ions. RF heating is one option to heat the tritium. A more conventional method to sustain the hot ions is neutral beam injection (NBI), which is here studied numerically for the above-mentioned hybrid scheme. For these studies, a new kinetic code, KNBIM, has been developed. The code takes into account Coulomb collisions between the hot ions and the background plasma. The geometry of the confining magnetic field is arbitrary for the code. It is accounted for via a numerical bounce averaging procedure. Along with the kinetic calculations the neutron generation intensity and its spatial distribution are computed.

  18. System and method for online inspection of turbines using an optical tube with broadspectrum mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baleine, Erwan

    2015-12-22

    An optical inspection system for nondestructive internal visual inspection and non-contact infra-red (IR) temperature monitoring of an online, operating power generation turbine. The optical inspection system includes an optical tube having a viewing port, at least one reflective mirror or a mirror array having a reflectivity spectral range from 550 nm to 20 .mu.m, and capable of continuous operation at temperatures greater than 932 degrees Fahrenheit (500 degrees Celsius), and a transparent window with high transmission within the same spectral range mounted distal the viewing port. The same optical mirror array may be used to measure selectively surface temperature of metal turbine blades in the near IR range (approximately 1 .mu.m wavelength) and of thermal barrier coated turbine blades in the long IR range (approximately 10 .mu.m wavelength).

  19. Generation of intense coherent attosecond X-ray pulses using relativistic electron mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulagin, V V; Kornienko, V N; Cherepenin, Vladimir A; Suk, Hyyong

    2013-05-31

    We analyse the steepening of the leading edge of femtosecond petawatt pulses with the use of plasma layers and show that, at an electron density several times higher than the critical one, an asymmetric (in time domain) pulse can be produced with an amplitude of the first half-wave differing little from the maximum pulse amplitude. Using numerical simulation, we have studied the interaction of such pulses with nanometre-thick films, including the generation of relativistic electron mirrors and the reflection of a counterpropagating probe pulse from such mirrors. The resulting coherent X-ray pulses have a duration of {approx}120 as and a power of {approx}600 GW at a wavelength of {approx}13 nm. Our results demonstrate that the reflectivity of a relativistic electron mirror situated in the accelerating pulse field is independent of the probe pulse amplitude when it increases up to the accelerating pulse amplitude. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  20. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J.R.; Thomas, T.M.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1984-07-31

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  1. Method of bonding silver to glass and mirrors produced according to this method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, John R. (Golden, CO); Thomas, Terence M. (Arvada, CO); Czanderna, Alvin W. (Lakewood, CO)

    1985-01-01

    A method for adhering silver to a glass substrate for producing mirrors includes attaining a silicon enriched substrate surface by reducing the oxygen therein in a vacuum and then vacuum depositing a silver layer onto the silicon enriched surface. The silicon enrichment can be attained by electron beam bombardment, ion beam bombardment, or neutral beam bombardment. It can also be attained by depositing a metal, such as aluminum, on the substrate surface, allowing the metal to oxidize by pulling oxygen from the substrate surface, thereby leaving a silicon enriched surface, and then etching or eroding the metal oxide layer away to expose the silicon enriched surface. Ultraviolet rays can be used to maintain dangling silicon bonds on the enriched surface until covalent bonding with the silver can occur. This disclosure also includes encapsulated mirrors with diffusion layers built therein. One of these mirrors is assembled on a polymer substrate.

  2. A Demonstration of Wavefront Sensing and Mirror Phasing from the Image Domain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pope, Benjamin; Cheetham, Anthony; Martinache, Frantz; Norris, Barnaby; Tuthill, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In astronomy and microscopy, distortions in the wavefront affect the dynamic range of a high contrast imaging system. These aberrations are either imposed by a turbulent medium such as the atmosphere, by static or thermal aberrations in the optical path, or by imperfectly phased subapertures in a segmented mirror. Active and adaptive optics (AO), consisting of a wavefront sensor and a deformable mirror, are employed to address this problem. Nevertheless, the non-common-path between the wavefront sensor and the science camera leads to persistent quasi-static speckles that are difficult to calibrate and which impose a floor on the image contrast. In this paper we present the first experimental demonstration of a novel wavefront sensor requiring only a minor asymmetric obscuration of the pupil, using the science camera itself to detect high order wavefront errors from the speckle pattern produced. We apply this to correct errors imposed on a deformable microelectromechanical (MEMS) segmented mirror in a closed l...

  3. Metrology for x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Haizhang; Li, Xiaodan; Grindel, M.W.

    1995-09-01

    Mirrors used in x-ray telescope systems for observations outside of the earth`s atmosphere are usually made of several thin nested shells, each formed by a pair of paraboloidal and hyperboloidal surfaces. The thin shells are very susceptible to self-weight deflection caused by gravity and are nearly impossible to test by conventional interferometric techniques. The metrology requirements for these mirrors are extremely challenging. This paper presents a prototype of a Vertical Scanning Long Trace Profiler (VSLTP) which is optimized to measure the surface figure of x-ray telescope mirrors in a vertical orientation. The optical system of the VSLTP is described. Experimental results from measurements on an x-ray telescope mandrel and tests of the accuracy and repeatability of the prototype VSLTP are presented. The prototype instrument has achieved a height measurement accuracy of about 50 nanometers with a repeatability of better than 20 nanometers, and a slope measurement accuracy of about 1 microradian.

  4. An all-optical trap for a gram-scale mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Corbitt; Y. Chen; H. Mueller-Ebhardt; E. Innerhofer; D. Ottaway; H. Rehbein; D. Sigg; S. Whitcomb; C. Wipf; N. Mavalvala

    2007-07-26

    We report on a stable optical trap suitable for a macroscopic mirror, wherein the dynamics of the mirror are fully dominated by radiation pressure. The technique employs two frequency-offset laser fields to simultaneously create a stiff optical restoring force and a viscous optical damping force. We show how these forces may be used to optically trap a free mass without introducing thermal noise; and we demonstrate the technique experimentally with a 1 gram mirror. The observed optical spring has an inferred Young's modulus of 1.2 TPa, 20% stiffer than diamond. The trap is intrinsically cold and reaches an effective temperature of 0.8 K, limited by technical noise in our apparatus.

  5. Two LANL laboratory astrophysics experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Intrator, Thomas P.

    2014-01-24

    Two laboratory experiments are described that have been built at Los Alamos (LANL) to gain access to a wide range of fundamental plasma physics issues germane to astro, space, and fusion plasmas. The overarching theme is magnetized plasma dynamics which includes significant currents, MHD forces and instabilities, magnetic field creation and annihilation, sheared flows and shocks. The Relaxation Scaling Experiment (RSX) creates current sheets and flux ropes that exhibit fully 3D dynamics, and can kink, bounce, merge and reconnect, shred, and reform in complicated ways. Recent movies from a large data set describe the 3D magnetic structure of a driven and dissipative single flux rope that spontaneously self-saturates a kink instability. Examples of a coherent shear flow dynamo driven by colliding flux ropes will also be shown. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) uses Field reversed configuration (FRC) experimental hardware that forms and ejects FRCs at 150km/sec. This is sufficient to drive a collision less magnetized shock when stagnated into a mirror stopping field region with Alfven Mach number MA=3 so that super critical shocks can be studied. We are building a plasmoid accelerator to drive Mach numbers MA >> 3 to access solar wind and more exotic astrophysical regimes. Unique features of this experiment include access to parallel, oblique and perpendicular shocks, shock region much larger than ion gyro radii and ion inertial length, room for turbulence, and large magnetic and fluid Reynolds numbers.

  6. First principle analyses of direct bandgap solar cells with absorbing substrates versus mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirk, Alexander P. [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Kirk, Wiley P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas 76019 (United States)

    2013-11-07

    Direct bandgap InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells containing backside mirrors as well as parasitically absorbing substrates are analyzed for their limiting open circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency with comparison to record solar cells. From the principle of detailed balance, it is shown quantitatively that mirror solar cells have greater voltage and power conversion efficiency than their substrate counterparts. Next, the radiative recombination coefficient and maximum radiative lifetime of GaAs mirror and substrate solar cells are calculated and compared to the nonradiative Auger and Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetimes. Mirror solar cells have greater radiative lifetime than their substrate variants. Auger lifetime exceeds radiative lifetime for both substrate and mirror cells while SRH lifetime may be less or greater than radiative lifetime depending on trap concentration and capture cross section. Finally, the change in free energy of the photogenerated carriers is analyzed in a comparison between InP, GaAs, CdTe, and Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P mirror and substrate solar cells in order to characterize the relationship between solar photon quality and free energy management in solar cells with differing bandgaps. Wider bandgap visible threshold Ga{sub 0.5}In{sub 0.5}P solar cells make better use of the available change in free energy of the photogenerated charge carriers, even when normalized to the bandgap energy, than narrower bandgap near-IR threshold InP, GaAs, and CdTe solar cells.

  7. A mirror moving in quantum vacuum of a massive scalar field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qingdi Wang; William G. Unruh

    2015-06-18

    We present a mirror model moving in the quantum vacuum of a massive scalar field and study its motion under infinitely fluctuating quantum vacuum stress. The model is similar to the one in \\cite{PhysRevD.89.085009}, but this time there is no divergent effective mass to weaken the effect of divergent vacuum energy density. We show that this kind of weakening is not necessary. The vacuum friction and strong anti-correlation property of the quantum vacuum are enough to confine the mirror's position fluctuations.

  8. Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22

    A plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow speed 0.5-2 cm/s has been developed and characterized, for use as an ultrahigh intensity optical reflector. The use of flowing water as atarget surface automatically results in each laser pulse seeing a new interaction surface and avoids the need for mechanical scanning of the target surface. In addition, the breakdown of water does notproduce contaminating debris that can be deleterious to vacuum chamber conditions and optics, such as is the case when using conventional solid targets. The mirror exhibits 70percent reflectivity, whilemaintaining high-quality of the reflected spot.

  9. Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony J.; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas H.; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow speed (0.5-2 cm/s) has been developed and characterized, for use as an ultrahigh intensity optical reflector. The use of flowing water as a target surface automatically results in each laser pulse seeing a new interaction surface and avoids the need for mechanical scanning of the target surface. In addition, the breakdown of water does not produce contaminating debris that can be deleterious to vacuum chamber conditions and optics, such as is the case when using conventional solid targets. The mirror exhibits 70% reflectivity, while maintaining high-quality of the reflected spot.

  10. Demonstration of achromatic cold-neutron microscope utilizing axisymmetric focusing mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, D.; Khaykovich, B. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)] [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hussey, D.; Jacobson, D.; Arif, M. [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States)] [Physical Measurement Laboratory, NIST, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8461 (United States); Gubarev, M. V.; Ramsey, B. D. [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)] [Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA, VP62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Moncton, D. E. [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States) [Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 138 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-06

    An achromatic cold-neutron microscope with magnification 4 is demonstrated. The image-forming optics is composed of nested coaxial mirrors of full figures of revolution, so-called Wolter optics. The spatial resolution, field of view, and depth of focus are measured and found consistent with ray-tracing simulations. Methods of increasing the resolution and magnification are discussed, as well as the scientific case for the neutron microscope. In contrast to traditional pinhole-camera neutron imaging, the resolution of the microscope is determined by the mirrors rather than by the collimation of the beam, leading to possible dramatic improvements in the signal rate and resolution.

  11. Cooling of a mirror in cavity optomechanics with a chirped pulse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie-Qiao Liao; C. K. Law

    2011-11-21

    We investigate the response of a harmonically confined mirror to an optical pulse in cavity optomechanics. We show that when the pulsed coupling strength takes the form of a chirped pulse, thermal fluctuations of the mirror can be significantly transferred to the cavity field. In addition, the frequency modulation of the pulse could enable a better cooling performance by suppressing the sensitivity of the dependence of detuning and pulse areas. Using numerical investigations, we find that the pulsed-cooling is mainly limited by the cavity-field decay rate.

  12. Elliptical magnetic mirror generated via resistivity gradients for fast ignition inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-15

    The elliptical magnetic mirror scheme for guiding fast electrons for Fast Ignition proposed by Schmitz et al. (Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085016 (2012)) is studied for conditions on the multi-kJ scale which are much closer to full-scale Fast Ignition. When scaled up, the elliptical mirror scheme is still highly beneficial to Fast Ignition. An increase in the coupling efficiency by a factor of 3–4 is found over a wide range of fast electron divergence half-angles.

  13. SPOT Mirror and Incidence Angles Consider the Earth centered at E with radius r, a SPOT satellite S at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janée, Greg

    how far off-nadir the focus point is. For the SPOT HRV sensors it can range from -27 (west) to +27 (east) of the ground track. In SCIE metadata records the mirror angle is described by an integer "mirror and incidence angle values recorded in the SCIE metadata, respectively, and if s is the incidence angle computed

  14. Demonstration of a linear optical true-time delay device by use of a microelectromechanical mirror array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Betty Lise

    uses a free-space approach consisting of a single microelectromechanical systems MEMS mirror array microelectromechanical systems- MEMS -based White cell TTD device, a lin- ear cell. We used a commercially available MEMSDemonstration of a linear optical true-time delay device by use of a microelectromechanical mirror

  15. Stable roommates matchings, mirror posets, median graphs, and the local/global median phenomenon in stable matchings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Christine

    rise to mirror posets and vice versa, and mirror posets give rise to SR stable matchings and vice versa to as the bipartite version of SR, is the stable marriage problem (SM). There are n men and n women each of whom ranks-0830678. 1 #12;preference list, append an arbitrary ordering of the other men; do the same for the women

  16. Stable roommates matchings, mirror posets, median graphs, and the local/global median phenomenon in stable matchings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Christine

    rise to mirror posets and vice versa, and mirror posets give rise to SR stable matchings and vice versa problem (SM). There are n men and n women each of whom ranks participants from the opposite sex only the same for the women. It is straightforward to check that both instances have exactly the same stable

  17. Design and operation of a setup with a camera and adjustable mirror to inspect the sense-wire planes of the Time Projection Chamber inside the MicroBooNE cryostat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin Carls; Glenn Horton-Smith; Catherine C. James; Robert M. Kubinski; Stephen Pordes; Anne Schukraft; Thomas Strauss

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This paper describes an approach to view the inside of the MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.

  18. Design and Operation of A Setup with A Camera and Adjustable Mirror to Inspect the Sense-Wire Planes of the Time Projection Chamber Inside the MicroBooNE Cryostat

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carls, Benjamin; Horton-Smith, Glenn; James, Catherine C.; Kubinski, Robert M.; Pordes, Stephen; Schukraft, Anne; Strauss, Thomas

    2015-08-26

    Detectors in particle physics, particularly when including cryogenic components, are often enclosed in vessels that do not provide any physical or visual access to the detectors themselves after installation. However, it can be desirable for experiments to visually investigate the inside of the vessel. The MicroBooNE cryostat hosts a TPC with sense-wire planes, which had to be inspected for damage such as breakage or sagging. This inspection was performed after the transportation of the vessel with the enclosed detector to its final location, but before filling with liquid argon. Our paper describes an approach to view the inside of themore »MicroBooNE cryostat with a setup of a camera and a mirror through one of its cryogenic service nozzles. The paper also describes the camera and mirror chosen for the operation, the illumination, and the mechanical structure of the setup. It explains how the system was operated and demonstrates its performance.« less

  19. In Silico Identification Software (ISIS): A Machine Learning Approach to Tandem Mass Spectral Identification of Lipids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kangas, Lars J.; Metz, Thomas O.; Isaac, Georgis; Schrom, Brian T.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Wang, Luning; Tan, Li; Lewis, Robert R.; Miller, John H.

    2012-05-15

    Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has gained importance in the life sciences, yet it is not supported by software tools for high throughput identification of metabolites based on their fragmentation spectra. An algorithm (ISIS: in silico identification software) and its implementation are presented and show great promise in generating in silico spectra of lipids for the purpose of structural identification. Instead of using chemical reaction rate equations or rules-based fragmentation libraries, the algorithm uses machine learning to find accurate bond cleavage rates in a mass spectrometer employing collision-induced dissocia-tion tandem mass spectrometry. A preliminary test of the algorithm with 45 lipids from a subset of lipid classes shows both high sensitivity and specificity.

  20. Evaluation of 13 short tandem repeated loci for use in personal identification applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammond, H.A.; Caskey, C.T. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Jin, L.; Zhong, Y.; Chakraborty, R. (Univ. of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-07-01

    Personal identification by using DNA typing methodologies has been an issue in the popular and scientific press for several years. The authors present a PCR-based DNA-typing method using 13 unlinked short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Validation of the loci and methodology has been performed to meet standards set by the forensic community and the accrediting organization for parentage testing. Extensive statistical analysis has addressed the issues surrounding the presentation of [open quotes]match[close quotes] statistics. The authors have found STR loci to provide a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method of DNA typing for parentage testing, forensic identification, and medical diagnostics. Valid statistical analysis is generally simpler than similar analysis of RFLP-VNTR results and provides powerful statistical evidence of the low frequency of random multilocus genotype matching. 54 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Toward a Monolithic Lattice-Matched III-V on Silicon Tandem Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geisz, J. F.; Olson, J. M.; Friedman, D. J.

    2004-09-01

    A two-junction device consisting of a 1.7-eV GaNPAs junction on a 1.1-eV silicon junction has the theoretical potential to achieve nearly optimal efficiency for a two-junction tandem cell. We have demonstrated some of the key components toward realizing such a cell, including GaNPAs top cells grown on silicon substrates, GaP-based tunnel junctions grown on silicon substrates, and diffused silicon junctions formed during the epitaxial growth of GaNP on silicon. These components have required the development of techniques for the growth of high crystalline quality GaNPAs on silicon by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy.

  2. The clearest mirror : the science of laughing and crying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wanucha, Genevieve M. (Genevieve Marie)

    2009-01-01

    There are few things as familiar to us as the experience of laughing and crying. Studying the two emotional expressions side to side is a way to see our species anew. A way of linking what we share with other mammals to ...

  3. Optical and Durability Evaluation for Silvered Polymeric Mirrors and Reflectors: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number, CRD-08-316

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, M.

    2014-08-01

    3M is currently developing silvered polymeric mirror reflectors as low-cost replacements for glass mirrors in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This effort is focused on development of reflectors comprising both metallized polymeric mirror films based on improved versions of ECP-305+ or other durable mirror film concepts and appropriate mechanically robust substrates. The objectives for this project are to reduce the system capital and operating costs and to lower the levelized cost of energy for CSP installations. The development of mirror reflectors involves work on both full reflectors and mirror films with and without coatings. Mirror reflectors must meet rigid optical specifications in terms of radius of curvature, slope errors and specularity. Mirror films must demonstrate long-term durability and maintain high reflectivity. 3M would like to augment internal capabilities to validate product performance with methods and tools developed at NREL to address these areas.

  4. DAVID E. GUTIERREZ. Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics ofEthnicity. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernández, David Manuel

    1997-01-01

    Book Reviews David G. Gutierrez. Wa//s and Mirrors: MexicanPress, 1995. § avid G. Gutierrez' Wa//s and Mirrors: Mexicanconflicted relationship, Gutierrez traditional fills a gap

  5. Digestion Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1908-01-01

    STATION. ppp DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS G. S. FRAPS, PH. D., CHEMIST. POSTOFFICE COLLEGE SL'ATION, HRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. AUSTIN, TEXAS: \\'ON BOECKMANN-JONES CO., PRLNTEHP. 1908 TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT 8TArFIONS. OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD... OF CONTENTS . 1 . Digestibility of 1Caffir Corn. Milo Maize. and Molasses ....... G .................................... Ilcfinition of Terms 7 .................................. Method of Experiment 7 ............ Digestibility of Basal Ration of Meal...

  6. Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Climate changes mirror global warming predictions BY THOMAS CROWLEY Guest columnist The Herald" and must reflect, at least in part, the climate system response to the increase in global warming. What if we wanted to prevent global warming. This is just doomsday speaking of the same type that he

  7. Proton transport model in the ionosphere. 2. Inuence of magnetic mirroring and collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lummerzheim, Dirk

    Proton transport model in the ionosphere. 2. In¯uence of magnetic mirroring and collisions on the angular redistribution in a proton beam M. Galand1 , J. Lilensten2 , W. Kofman2 , D. Lummerzheim3 1 High in a proton/hydrogen beam by using a transport code in comparison with observations. H-emission Doppler pro

  8. Mirror-mediated cooling: a paradigm for particle cooling via the retarded dipole force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tim Freegarde; James Bateman; André Xuereb; Peter Horak

    2012-06-01

    Cooling forces result from the retarded dipole interaction between an illuminated particle and its reflection. For a one-dimensional example, we find cooling times of milliseconds and limiting temperatures in the millikelvin range. The force, which may be considered the prototype for cavity-mediated cooling, may be enhanced by plasmon and geometric resonances at the mirror.

  9. Minimizing Actuator-Induced Residual Error in Active Space Telescope Primary Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    power ­ Increased light-gathering ability ­ Launch constraints drive new technology for segmented finite element mirror model while keeping areal density (mass) and number of actuators (power, complexity keeping areal density (mass) and number of actuators (power, complexity) constant. #12;MIT SSL7 26 January

  10. Active Optics Performance Study of the Primary Mirror of the Gemini Telescopes Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Active Optics Performance Study of the Primary Mirror of the Gemini Telescopes Project Myung K. Cho Optical Sciences Center in the University of Arizona Tucson, AZ 85721 and Gemini Telescopes Project P. O. Box 26732 Tucson, AZ 85726­6732 Gemini Preprint #9 #12; Active optics performance study of the primary

  11. September 15, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 18 / OPTICS LETTERS 1433 Optical bistability induced by mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    September 15, 1997 / Vol. 22, No. 18 / OPTICS LETTERS 1433 Optical bistability induced by mirror, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Received May 2, 1997 We have observed optical bistability caused in 106 (ppm) have been successfully measured. © 1997 Optical Society of America Optical bistability

  12. Time dependent changes in extreme ultraviolet reflectivity of Ru mirrors from electron-induced surface chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    dissociation of residual hydrocarbons plays a dominant role in the presence of additional PEs, and thus reduces degradation.2 In fact, radiation induced carbon contamination and surface oxidation have been shown to drive that the adsorption and subsequent EUV-induced dissociation of water molecules on Ru surface affect mirror performance

  13. Adsorption dynamics and angular dependency of contaminants on Ru mirror surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    electrons from the Ru surface mainly take part in dissociating hydrocarbons and/or water molecules under EUVAdsorption dynamics and angular dependency of contaminants on Ru mirror surfaces M. Catalfano,a) A September 2011; accepted 10 December 2011; published online 6 January 2012) A real time contamination

  14. Using 50-mm electrostatic membrane deformable mirror in astronomical adaptive optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    achievable modulation of the local radius of curvature of the mirror is ±25 m. Simulations of the AO system with 37 electrodes (hereafter DM-37) is used in the AO system at McMath-Pierce solar telescope2 telescope.4 A larger number of actuators is needed, so we select a DM with 79 electrodes and 50-mm membrane

  15. Assessing social behavior phenotypes in adult zebrafish: shoaling, social preference and mirror biting tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    test, based on mirror image stimulation, is another well-established method for studying zebrafish a test battery. Key words: adult zebrafish, social behaviors, shoaling, social preference, conspecific-captured static images (during manual analysis) or using more sophisticated video-tracking (calculated by software

  16. High-performance polyimide waveguide array with micro mirror coupler for guided-wave optoelectronic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ray

    High-performance polyimide waveguide array with micro mirror coupler for guided-wave optoelectronicTexas at Austin, Austin, TX 78758 ABSTRACT We report the formation of high-performance polyimide waveguide array. We employed the Si CMOS process compatible polyimide as the fabrication material, which is relatively

  17. Limits for light intensification by reflection from relativistic plasma mirrors A. A. Solodov,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limits for light intensification by reflection from relativistic plasma mirrors A. A. Solodov,a V of those pulses. The combination of these effects would result in dramatic light intensification toward to be proportional to exp - Ec/E ,4 where Ec = m2 c3 e = 1.32 1016 V cm , 1 where c is the speed of light in vacuum

  18. The Evolution of Imitation and Mirror Neurons in Adaptive Agents Elhanan Borenstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruppin, Eytan

    The Evolution of Imitation and Mirror Neurons in Adaptive Agents Elhanan Borenstein School of imitative behavior. We successfully develop evolutionary adaptive agents that demonstrate imitative learning Neurons The past twenty years have seen a renewed interest in imitation in various fields of research

  19. Through-Wafer Interconnects for High Degree of Freedom MEMS Deformable Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    Through-Wafer Interconnects for High Degree of Freedom MEMS Deformable Mirrors Alioune Diouf 1 Spinelli Place, Cambridge, MA 02138 Abstract The development of an assembly and packaging process for MEMS University MEMS DMs are surface-micromachined polysilicon double-cantilever actuator architecture

  20. Emergence of atom-light-mirror entanglement inside an optical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Genes; D. Vitali; P. Tombesi

    2008-01-15

    We propose a scheme for the realization of a hybrid, strongly quantum-correlated system formed of an atomic ensemble surrounded by a high-finesse optical cavity with a vibrating mirror. We show that the steady state of the system shows tripartite and bipartite continuous variable entanglement in experimentally accessible parameter regimes, which is robust against temperature.

  1. Group delay of electromagnetic pulses through multilayer dielectric mirrors beyond special relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang-Tao Liu; Wu Xin; Nian-Hua Liu; Jun Li; Fu-Hai Su

    2012-11-27

    In this Letter, we investigate the group delay of optical pulses through multilayer dielectric mirrors (MDM) combined with gravitational wave (GW). We find that the delay increases linearly with MDM length for the transmitted wave packet, whereas the Hartman effect disappears. Our study provides insight into the nature of both quantum tunnelling and GW.

  2. Tilting mirror strips in a linear Fresnel reector Gang Xiao (University of Nice, France)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Tilting mirror strips in a linear Fresnel reector Gang Xiao (University of Nice, France) February 29, 2012 Abstract When a linear Fresnel reector solar concentrator is installed in a site with high of the linear Fresnel reector. Technical restrictions and diculties of this method are also discussed

  3. 4096-element continuous face-sheet MEMS deformable mirror for high-contrast imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    microelectromechanical systems MEMS DM that has been demonstrated to be capable of flattening a wavefront 0.54 nm rms4096-element continuous face-sheet MEMS deformable mirror for high-contrast imaging Steven A 02138 Abstract. We present the progress in the development of a 4096- element microelectromechanical

  4. A Mirror of Our World: Google Earth and the History of Cartography 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, David Y.

    2009-08-20

    Google Earth is widely admired as one of the most advanced and powerful products of modern computerized cartography. It has been praised as a revolutionary new way of viewing the earth, as the first convincing attempt at a mirror-world or a...

  5. Polarocryptic mirror of the lookdown as a biological model for open ocean camouflage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Molly E.

    with high solar altitudes, yet ineffective against asymmetric polarized radiance fields associ- ated with low solar inclinations. Here we identify a biological model for polaro­crypsis. We measured with nonpolarization sensitive strategies, such as a ver- tical mirror. Lookdowns achieve polaro­crypsis across solar

  6. Low-order adaptive deformable mirror J. Christopher Dainty, Alexander V. Koryabin, and Alexis V. Kudryashov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dainty, Chris

    . Kudryashov We report the main parameters of a nine-electrode bimorph piezoelectric adaptive mirror designed, such as retinal imaging and intracavity high-power laser beam control,4 that might benefit from low-order, low. Dainty is with the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BZ, UK. A. V. Koryabin

  7. Transport phenomena in stochastic magnetic mirrors Leonid Malyshkin 1 and Russell Kulsrud 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transport phenomena in stochastic magnetic mirrors Leonid Malyshkin 1 and Russell Kulsrud 2 as the electron­proton collision term. Finally, we obtain the four plasma transport coefficients and the effective magnetic field lines, and as a result, they have to go larger distances between hot and cold regions

  8. Fast Steering Mirror systems for the U-AVLIS program at LLNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, J.; Avicola, K.; Payne, A.; Peterson, R.L.; Ward, R.

    1994-07-01

    We have successfully deployed several fast steering mirror systems in the Uranium Atomic Vapor Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) facility at LLNL. These systems employ 2 mm to 150 mm optics and piezoelectric actuators to achieve microradian pointing accuracy with disturbance rejection bandwidths to a few hundred hertz.

  9. Particle deconfinement in a bent magnetic mirror Renaud Gueroult and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of peculiarities of particle confinement properties in non axi-symmetric magnetic fields have been identified mirror can produce additional particle transport. The magnetic field non axi-symmetry is responsible of a properly tuned radial electric field. Because of the mass dependence of the magnetic field non

  10. Compact standing-wave transform spectrometer based on integrated MEMS mirror and thin-film photodetector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, David A. B.

    Compact standing-wave transform spectrometer based on integrated MEMS mirror and thin an integrated standing-wave Fourier-transform spectrometer, 17 × 13 × 2 mm, with 32 nm spectral resolution spectrometer, based on the 1-D standing-wave transform spectrometer architecture [1], with an integrated

  11. Synthesis of Polycyclic Benzofused Nitrogen Heterocycles via a Tandem Benzannulation/Ring-Closing Metathesis Strategy. Application in a Formal Synthesis of (+)-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mak, Xiao Yin

    A two-stage “tandem strategy” for the synthesis of benzofused nitrogen heterocycles is described that is particularly useful for the construction of systems with a high level of substitution on the benzenoid ring. The first ...

  12. Experiment Profile:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    their shapes, how galaxies cluster and the brightness of exploding stars called supernovae. WHY IS THIS EXPERIMENT NEEDED NOW? Research during the last decade using different...

  13. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV�s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

  14. SU-E-T-615: Investigation of the Dosimetric Impact of Tandem Loading in the Treatment of Cervical Cancer for HDR Brachytherapy Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Esquivel, C; Patton, L; Nelson, K; Lin, B

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric impact of the tandem loading in the treatment of cervical cancer for HDR brachytherapy procedures. Methods: Ten patients were evaluated, each of whom received 5 fractions of treatment. Tandem and ovoid sets were inserted into the uterine cavity based on institutional protocols and procedures. Following insertion and stabilization, CT image sets of 1.5mm slice thickness were acquired and sent to the Oncentra V4.3 Treatment Planning System. Critical structures such as the CTV, bladder, rectum, sigmoid, and bowel were contoured and a fractional dose of 5.5Gy was prescribed to Point A for each patient. Six different treatment plans were created for each fraction using varying tandem weightings; from 0.5 to 1.4 times that of the ovoids. Surface dose evaluation of various ovoid diameters, 2.0-3.5cm, at the vaginal fornices was also investigated. Results: Critical structures were evaluated based on varying dose and volume constraints, in particular the 2.0 cc volume recommendation cited by the gynecological GEC-ESTRO working group. Based on dose volume histogram evaluation, a reduction of dose to the critical structures was most often discovered when the tandem weighting was increased. CTV coverage showed little change as the tandem weighting was varied. Ovoid surface dose decreased by 50-65% as the tandem weighting increased. Conclusion: The advantage of 3D planning with HDR brachytherapy is the dose optimization for each individual treatment plan. This investigation shows that by utilizing large tandem weightings, 1.4 times greater than the ovoid, one can still achieve adequate coverage of the CTV and relatively low doses to the critical structures. In some cases, one would still have to optimize further per individual case. In addition, the ovoid surface dose was greatly decreased when large tandem weighting was utilized; especially for small ovoid diameters.

  15. Design of Integrated III-Nitride/Non-III-Nitride Tandem Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toledo, N. G.; Friedman, D.J.; Farrell, R. M.; Perl, E. E.; Lin, C. T.; Bowers, J. E.; Speck, J. S.; Mishra, U. K.

    2012-03-01

    The integration of III-nitride and non-III-nitride materials for tandem solar cell applications can improve the efficiency of the photovoltaic device due to the added power contributed by the III-nitride top cell to that of high-efficiency multi-junction non-III-nitride solar cells if the device components are properly designed and optimized. The proposed tandem solar cell is comprised of a III-nitride top cell bonded to a non-III-nitride, series-constrained, multi-junction subcell. The top cell is electrically isolated, but optically coupled to the underlying subcell. The use of a III-nitride top cell is potentially beneficial when the top junction of a stand-alone non-III-nitride subcell generates more photocurrent than the limiting current of the non-III-nitride subcell. Light producing this excess current can either be redirected to the III-nitride top cell through high energy photon absorption, redirected to the lower junctions through layer thickness optimization, or a combination of both, resulting in improved total efficiency. When the non-III-nitride cell's top junction is the limiting junction, the minimum power conversion efficiency that the III-nitride top cell must contribute should compensate for the spectrum filtered from the multi-junction subcell for this design to be useful. As the III-nitride absorption edge wavelength, {lambda}{sub N}, increases, the performance of the multi-junction subcell decreases due to spectral filtering. In the most common spectra of interest (AM1.5G, AM1.5 D, and AM0), the technology to grow InGaN cells with {lambda}{sub N}<520 nm is found to be sufficient for III-nitride top cell applications. The external quantum efficiency performance, however, of state-of-the-art InGaN solar cells still needs to be improved. The effects of surface/interface reflections are also presented. The management of these reflection issues determines the feasibility of the integrated III-nitride/non-III-nitride design to improve overall cell efficiency.

  16. Transformative Experiences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    Transformative Experiences Internships & Field Schools Honors & Research Faculty Notables Alumni have at least one poten- tially transformative experi- ence - an opportunity to de- sign and carry out to be transformational are study abroad, internships, service learning, research, student-led learning, and lead- ership

  17. Progress in High-Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandem Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2004-08-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications. The goal is that PV will contribute significantly to the U.S. and world energy supply and environmental enhancement in the 21st century. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course, to accelerate and enhance their impact in the marketplace. To accomplish this, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices. This paper will describe progress of the subcontractor and in-house R&D on critical pathways for a PV technology having a high potential to reach cost-competitiveness goals: 25%-efficient, low-cost polycrystalline thin-film tandems for large-area, flat-plate modules.

  18. Structural Insights into the Cooperative Binding of SeqA to a Tandem GATC Repeat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Y.; Brendler, T; Austin, S; Guarne, A

    2009-01-01

    SeqA is a negative regulator of DNA replication in Escherichia coli and related bacteria that functions by sequestering the origin of replication and facilitating its resetting after every initiation event. Inactivation of the seqA gene leads to unsynchronized rounds of replication, abnormal localization of nucleoids and increased negative superhelicity. Excess SeqA also disrupts replication synchrony and affects cell division. SeqA exerts its functions by binding clusters of transiently hemimethylated GATC sequences generated during replication. However, the molecular mechanisms that trigger formation and disassembly of such complex are unclear. We present here the crystal structure of a dimeric mutant of SeqA [SeqA{Delta}(41-59)-A25R] bound to tandem hemimethylated GATC sites. The structure delineates how SeqA forms a high-affinity complex with DNA and it suggests why SeqA only recognizes GATC sites at certain spacings. The SeqA-DNA complex also unveils additional protein-protein interaction surfaces that mediate the formation of higher ordered complexes upon binding to newly replicated DNA. Based on this data, we propose a model describing how SeqA interacts with newly replicated DNA within the origin of replication and at the replication forks.

  19. Probing the quantum vacuum with an artificial atom in front of a mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. -C. Hoi; A. F. Kockum; L. Tornberg; A. Pourkabirian; G. Johansson; P. Delsing; C. M. Wilson

    2014-10-31

    Quantum fluctuations of the vacuum are both a surprising and fundamental phenomenon of nature. Understood as virtual photons flitting in and out of existence, they still have a very real impact, \\emph{e.g.}, in the Casimir effects and the lifetimes of atoms. Engineering vacuum fluctuations is therefore becoming increasingly important to emerging technologies. Here, we shape vacuum fluctuations using a "mirror", creating regions in space where they are suppressed. As we then effectively move an artificial atom in and out of these regions, measuring the atomic lifetime tells us the strength of the fluctuations. The weakest fluctuation strength we observe is 0.02 quanta, a factor of 50 below what would be expected without the mirror, demonstrating that we can hide the atom from the vacuum.

  20. Ion polished Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors for high water window reflectivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Radünz, Stefan; Rauhut, Roman; Hofstetter, Michael; Venkatesan, Sriram; Wochnik, Angela; Gullikson, Eric M.; Fischer, Stefan; Nickel, Bert; Scheu, Christina; et al

    2014-01-20

    Recent advances in the development of attosecond soft X-ray sources ranging into the water window spectral range, between the 1s states of carbon and oxygen (284 eV–543 eV), are also driving the development of suited broadband multilayer optics for steering and shaping attosecond pulses. The relatively low intensity of current High Harmonic Generation (HHG) soft X-ray sources calls for an efficient use of photons, thus the development of low-loss multilayer optics is of uttermost importance. Here, we report about the realization of broadband Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors with nearly atomically smooth interfaces by an optimized ion beam deposition and assistedmore »interface polishing process. This yields to our knowledge highest multilayer mirror reflectivity at 300 eV near normal incidence. The results are verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and soft/hard X-ray reflectometry.« less

  1. Ion polished Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors for high water window reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guggenmos, Alexander; Radünz, Stefan; Rauhut, Roman; Hofstetter, Michael; Venkatesan, Sriram; Wochnik, Angela; Gullikson, Eric M.; Fischer, Stefan; Nickel, Bert; Scheu, Christina; Kleineberg, Ulf

    2014-01-20

    Recent advances in the development of attosecond soft X-ray sources ranging into the water window spectral range, between the 1s states of carbon and oxygen (284 eV–543 eV), are also driving the development of suited broadband multilayer optics for steering and shaping attosecond pulses. The relatively low intensity of current High Harmonic Generation (HHG) soft X-ray sources calls for an efficient use of photons, thus the development of low-loss multilayer optics is of uttermost importance. Here, we report about the realization of broadband Cr/Sc attosecond multilayer mirrors with nearly atomically smooth interfaces by an optimized ion beam deposition and assisted interface polishing process. This yields to our knowledge highest multilayer mirror reflectivity at 300 eV near normal incidence. The results are verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and soft/hard X-ray reflectometry.

  2. The application of angular resolved scatter to the documentation of damage to smooth mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gillespie, C.H.; Edwards, D.F.; Stover, J.C.

    1986-10-30

    Mirrors designed to survive exposure to damaging radiation are being irradiated and then measured to determine the mechanisms of failure and to improve the ability of analysis codes to predict an exposure damage threshold. The differences between survival and catastrophic failure are easily recognized and recorded by macro photography. However, the coal of this project is to quantify the onset of mirror degradation utilizing non contact methods that have good measurement sensitivity to small changes in reflectivity (material properties) and light scatter (roughness). A new angular resolved scatterometer is described that has an extended dynamic range and integrated analysis capable of displaying the surface power spectral density (PSD) over large bandwidths of surface spatial frequencies. Graphical displays of the scattered light power before and after exposure to the radiation are compared and integrated over equivalent spatial bandwidths of sensitivity for other instruments to compare calculated RMS roughness values.

  3. Some new schemes for producing high-accuracy elliptical X-ray mirrors by elastic bending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padmore, H.A.; Howells, M.R.; Irick, S.; Renner, T.; Sandler, R.; Koo, Y.-M.

    1996-08-01

    Although x-ray micro-foci can be produced by a variety of diffractive methods, grazing incidence mirrors are the only route to an achromatic focus. In this paper we describe our efforts to produce elliptically shaped mirrors with the very high figure accuracy necessary for producing a micro-focus. The motivation for this work is provided by the need to produce achromatic foci for a range of applications ranging from tunable micro-focus x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy ({mu}-XPS) at soft x-ray energies to micro-focus white beam x-ray diffraction ({mu}-XRD) at hard x-ray energies. We describe the methodology of beam bending, a practical example of a system we have produced for {mu}-XRD, and results demonstrating the production of a surface with micro-radian figure accuracy.

  4. A mirror for lab-based quasi-monochromatic parallel x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Thanhhai; Lu, Xun; Lee, Chang Jun; Jeon, Insu; Jung, Jin-Ho; Jin, Gye-Hwan; Kim, Sung Youb

    2014-09-15

    A multilayered parabolic mirror with six W/Al bilayers was designed and fabricated to generate monochromatic parallel x-rays using a lab-based x-ray source. Using this mirror, curved bright bands were obtained in x-ray images as reflected x-rays. The parallelism of the reflected x-rays was investigated using the shape of the bands. The intensity and monochromatic characteristics of the reflected x-rays were evaluated through measurements of the x-ray spectra in the band. High intensity, nearly monochromatic, and parallel x-rays, which can be used for high resolution x-ray microscopes and local radiation therapy systems, were obtained.

  5. Vectorial velocity filter for ultracold neutrons based on a surface-disordered mirror system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Chizhova; S. Rotter; T. Jenke; G. Cronenberg; P. Geltenbort; G. Wautischer; H. Filter H. Abele; J. Burgdörfer

    2014-03-19

    We perform classical three-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations of ultracold neutrons scattering through an absorbing-reflecting mirror system in the Earth's gravitational field. We show that the underlying mixed phase space of regular skipping motion and random motion due to disorder scattering can be exploited to realize a vectorial velocity filter for ultracold neutrons. The absorbing-reflecting mirror system proposed allows beams of ultracold neutrons with low angular divergence to be formed. The range of velocity components can be controlled by adjusting the geometric parameters of the system. First experimental tests of its performance are presented. One potential future application is the investigation of transport and scattering dynamics in confined systems downstream of the filter.

  6. A low-cost mirror mount control system for optics setups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, Maithreyi

    2013-01-01

    We describe a flexible, simple to build, low-cost, and computer-controlled optical mirror actuator system we developed for undergraduate research laboratories. Geared motors for hobby robotics are controlled by an Arduino microcontroller board in combination with an H bridge to finely position the mirror mount actuators. We present a graphical user interface based on the free Python script language. The price of the fully controlled actuator system is thus only a small fraction of the price of any commercial system; however, it is quickly implementable due to the use of open hardware electronics. We show the performance of the system and give an outlook for future expansions and use in advanced optical setups.

  7. Performance of 3-Sun Mirror Modules on Sun Tracking Carousels on Flat Roof Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraas, Dr. Lewis; Avery, James E.; Minkin, Leonid M; Maxey, L Curt; Gehl, Anthony C; Hurt, Rick A; Boehm, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Commercial buildings represent a near term market for cost competitive solar electric power provided installation costs and solar photovoltaic module costs can be reduced. JX Crystals has developed a carousel sun tracker that is prefabricated and can easily be deployed on building flat roof tops without roof penetration. JX Crystals is also developing 3-sun PV mirror modules where less expensive mirrors are substituted for two-thirds of the expensive single crystal silicon solar cell surface area. Carousels each with four 3-sun modules have been set up at two sites, specifically at Oak Ridge National Lab and at the University of Nevada in Las Vegas. The test results for these systems are presented.

  8. Preventing and reversing vacuum-induced optical losses in high-finesse tantalum (V) oxide mirror coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangloff, Dorian

    High-finesse optical cavities placed under vacuum are foundational platforms in quantum information science with photons and atoms. We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror ...

  9. Continuous flow photocatalysis enhanced using an aluminum mirror: rapid and selective synthesis of 2?-deoxy and 2?,3?-dideoxynucleosides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Bo

    A unique photochemical flow reactor featuring quartz tubing, an aluminum mirror and temperature control has been developed for the photo-induced electron-transfer deoxygenation reaction to produce 2?-deoxy and 2?,3?-dide ...

  10. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartman, Charles W. (Alamo, CA); Shearer, James W. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  11. A microwave tomography system using a tunable mirror for beam steering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tayebi, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Department of Physic (United States); Tang, J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Paladhi, P. Roy; Udpa, L.; Udpa, S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Non-Destructive Evaluation Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Microwave tomography is a fast-growing technique in the fields of NDE and medical industry. This paper presents a new microwave tomography system which reduces the complexities of conventional microwave imaging systems by utilizing a reconfigurable mirror, a tunable reflectarray antenna. In order to build a tunable reflectarray with beam steering capabilities, the unit cell characteristics should dynamically alter. Modelling and experimental results of a single unit cell are presented in this work.

  12. Support mechanism for a mirrored surface or other arrangement and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutburth, R.W.

    1985-11-08

    An adjustment mechanism such as a three point spherical mount for adjustably supporting a planer mirror or other type of arrangement relative to a plane defined by a given pair of perpendicular axes is described in this disclosure. This mechanism provides for positioning within the plane defined by the given pair of intersecting perpendicular axes. Limited positioning is possible about either of these axes and provides for a ''non-floating'' center of adjustment.

  13. Linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, E.S.; Chen, S.L.

    1991-01-15

    A means and method for producing linearization of scan velocity of resonant vibrating-mirror beam deflectors in laser scanning system including presenting an elliptical convex surface to the scanning beam to reflect the scanning beam to the focal plane of the scanning line. The elliptical surface is shaped to produce linear velocity of the reflective scanning beam at the focal plane. Maximization of linearization is accomplished by considering sets of criteria for different scanning applications. 6 figures.

  14. Advanced ultraviolet-resistant silver mirrors for use in solar reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Gee, Randy (Arvada, CO)

    2009-11-03

    A silver mirror construction that maintains a high percentage of hemispherical reflectance throughout the UV and visible spectrum when used in solar reflectors, comprising:a) a pressure sensitive adhesive layer positioned beneath a silver overlay;b) a polymer film disposed on the silver overlay;c) an adhesive layer positioned on the polymer film; andd) a UV screening acrylic film disposed on the adhesive layer.

  15. Application of conical 90-degree reflectors for solving the problem of mirror alignment in terahertz-range lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radionov, V P; Kiselev, V K

    2014-10-29

    We report a study of the conical mirrors with an apex angle of 90° in the resonator of the gas-discharge HCN laser with the radiation wavelength of 337 ?m (0.89 THz). Experimental results have shown that such mirrors do not require precise alignment. This makes it possible to improve the radiation stability, significantly simplify the construction of laser and reduce the complexity of its maintenance. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Active shape correction of a thin glass/plastic X-ray mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, D; Basso, S; Civitani, M; Collura, A; Dell'Agostino, S; Cicero, U Lo; Lullo, G; Pelliciari, C; Riva, M; Salmaso, B; Sciortino, L

    2015-01-01

    Optics for future X-ray telescopes will be characterized by very large aperture and focal length, and will be made of lightweight materials like glass or plastic in order to keep the total mass within acceptable limits. Optics based on thin slumped glass foils are currently in use in the NuSTAR telescope and are being developed at various institutes like INAF/OAB, aiming at improving the angular resolution to a few arcsec HEW. Another possibility would be the use of thin plastic foils, being developed at SAO and the Palermo University. Even if relevant progresses in the achieved angular resolution were recently made, a viable possibility to further improve the mirror figure would be the application of piezoelectric actuators onto the non-optical side of the mirrors. In fact, thin mirrors are prone to deform, so they require a careful integration to avoid deformations and even correct forming errors. This however offers the possibility to actively correct the residual deformation. Even if other groups are alre...

  17. Multivariate $p$-adic formal congruences and integrality of Taylor coefficients of mirror maps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Krattenthaler; Tanguy Rivoal

    2010-04-12

    We generalise Dwork's theory of $p$-adic formal congruences from the univariate to a multi-variate setting. We apply our results to prove integrality assertions on the Taylor coefficients of (multi-variable) mirror maps. More precisely, with $\\mathbf z=(z_1,z_2,...,z_d)$, we show that the Taylor coefficients of the multi-variable series $q(\\mathbf z)=z_i\\exp(G(\\mathbf z)/F(\\mathbf z))$ are integers, where $F(\\mathbf z)$ and $G(\\mathbf z)+\\log(z_i) F(\\mathbf z)$, $i=1,2,...,d$, are specific solutions of certain GKZ systems. This result implies the integrality of the Taylor coefficients of numerous families of multi-variable mirror maps of Calabi-Yau complete intersections in weighted projective spaces, as well as of many one-variable mirror maps in the "Tables of Calabi-Yau equations" [arXiv:math/0507430] of Almkvist, van Enckevort, van Straten and Zudilin. In particular, our results prove a conjecture of Batyrev and van Straten in [Comm. Math. Phys. 168 (1995), 493-533] on the integrality of the Taylor coefficients of canonical coordinates for a large family of such coordinates in several variables.

  18. Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed: High Contrast Measurements with a MEMS Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J W; Morzinski, K; Reza, L; Severson, S; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Dillon, D; Sommargren, G

    2005-08-16

    ''Extreme'' adaptive optics systems are optimized for ultra-high-contrast applications, such as ground-based extrasolar planet detection. The Extreme Adaptive Optics Testbed at UC Santa Cruz is being used to investigate and develop technologies for high-contrast imaging, especially wavefront control. We use a simple optical design to minimize wavefront error and maximize the experimentally achievable contrast. A phase shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) measures wavefront errors with sub-nm precision and accuracy for metrology and wavefront control. Previously, we have demonstrated RMS wavefront errors of <1.5 nm and a contrast of >10{sup 7} over a substantial region using a shaped pupil without a deformable mirror. Current work includes the installation and characterization of a 1024-actuator Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) deformable mirror, manufactured by Boston Micro-Machines for active wavefront control. Using the PSDI as the wavefront sensor we have flattened the deformable mirror to <1 nm within the controllable spatial frequencies and measured a contrast in the far field of >10{sup 6}. Consistent flattening required testing and characterization of the individual actuator response, including the effects of dead and low-response actuators. Stability and repeatability of the MEMS devices was also tested. Ultimately this testbed will be used to test all aspects of the system architecture for an extrasolar planet-finding AO system.

  19. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics BIFOCAL RELAY MIRROR EXPERIMENTS ON THE NPS THREE AXIS SPACECRAFT SIMULATOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    rate gyros, reaction wheels, thrusters, sun sensors, and an onboard control computer. This free allowed for dynamic, real-time testing and validation of the target acquisition, tracking, and laser beam and tracking, and spacecraft jitter control. The RME also demonstrated autonomous spacecraft attitude control

  20. IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IRRADIATION EXPERIMENTS & FACILITIES AT BNL: BLIP & NSLS II Peter Wanderer Superconducting MagnetV). Simultaneous irradiation and isotope production by increasing beam energy, placing irradiation target ahead of isotope production target · 117 Mev 140, 160, 180, 202 MeV · Irradiation at room temperature Alternative

  1. Highly stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices with intermediate connectors using lithium amide as n-type dopant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Dong-Ying; Zu, Feng-Shuo; Shi, Xiao-Bo; Liao, Liang-Sheng E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Aziz, Hany E-mail: lsliao@suda.edu.cn

    2014-08-25

    In this work, we report thermally decomposable lithium amide (LiNH{sub 2}) feasible to function as an effective n-type dopant for intermediate connectors in tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs). Metallic lithium, which is released from the decomposition process of LiNH{sub 2}, is proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and responsible for n-type electrical doping of electron transporting materials. We demonstrate that tandem OLEDs using LiNH{sub 2} and Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as n-type dopants, respectively, give a comparable electroluminescence efficiency and, moreover, the device with LiNH{sub 2} has far longer operational lifetime. The results therefore highlight the significance of selecting suitable n-type dopant in intermediate connectors to fabricate high-stability tandem OLEDs.

  2. New Optical Link Technologies for HEP Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Delurgio; W. Fernando; B. Salvachua; D. Lopez; R. Stanek; D. Underwood

    2011-09-30

    As a concern with the reliability and mass of current optical links in LHC experiments, we are investigating CW lasers and light modulators as an alternative to VCSELs. In addition we are developing data links in air, utilizing steering by MEMS mirrors and optical feedback paths for the control loop. Laser, modulator, and lens systems used are described, as well as two different electronic systems for a free space steering feedback loop. Our prototype system currently operates at 1.25 Gb/s, but could be upgraded. This link works over distances of order meters. Such links might enable one to move communication lasers (e.g. VCSELs) and optical fibers out of tracking detectors, for reasons such as reliability and power consumption. Some applications for free space data links, such as local triggering and data readout and trigger-clock distribution and links for much longer distances are also discussed.

  3. Gross fibrations, SYZ mirror symmetry, and open Gromov-Witten invariants for toric Calabi-Yau orbifolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwokwai Chan; Cheol-Hyun Cho; Siu-Cheong Lau; Hsian-Hua Tseng

    2015-04-01

    For a toric Calabi-Yau (CY) orbifold $\\mathcal{X}$ whose underlying toric variety is semi-projective, we construct and study a non-toric Lagrangian torus fibration on $\\mathcal{X}$, which we call the Gross fibration. We apply the Strominger-Yau-Zaslow (SYZ) recipe to the Gross fibration of $\\mathcal{X}$ to construct its mirror with the instanton corrections coming from genus 0 open orbifold Gromov-Witten (GW) invariants, which are virtual counts of holomorphic orbi-disks in $\\mathcal{X}$ bounded by fibers of the Gross fibration. We explicitly evaluate all these invariants by first proving an open/closed equality and then employing the toric mirror theorem for suitable toric (partial) compactifications of $\\mathcal{X}$. Our calculations are then applied to (1) prove a conjecture of Gross-Siebert on a relation between genus 0 open orbifold GW invariants and mirror maps of $\\mathcal{X}$ -- this is called the open mirror theorem, which leads to an enumerative meaning of mirror maps, and (2) demonstrate how open (orbifold) GW invariants for toric CY orbifolds change under toric crepant resolutions -- an open analogue of Ruan's crepant resolution conjecture.

  4. Application of modern-control-design methodologies to a multi-segmented deformable-mirror system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughan, E.M.

    1991-05-23

    The multi-segmented deformable mirror system is proposed as an element for a portion of a ballistic missile defense system. The size of the mirror required for this defense function requires that the mirror be developed in segments, and then these segments should be phased together to produce one continuous, large optic. The application of multivariable control system synthesis techniques to provide closed-loop wavefront control of the deformable mirror system is the problem discussed in this thesis. The method of H at infinity control system synthesis using loop-shaping techniques was used to develop a controller that meets a robust performance specification. The number and location of sensors was treated as a design variable, and the structured singular value (mu) was used to determine the performance robustness of the deformable mirror system. Decentralized control issues are also addressed through the use of necessary conditions in an effort to determine a suitable decentralized control structure with performance similar to that of the centralized controller.

  5. Development of fast steering mirror control system for plasma heating and diagnostics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, K., E-mail: okada.kohta@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Ito, S.; Mizuno, Y.; Ogasawara, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nishiura, M. [Department of Advanced Energy, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A control system for a fast steering mirror has been newly developed for the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) launchers in the large helical device. This system enables two-dimensional scan during a plasma discharge and provides a simple feedback control function. A board mounted with a field programmable gate array chip has been designed to realize feedback control of the ECH beam position to maintain higher electron temperature by ECH. The heating position is determined by a plasma diagnostic signal related to the electron temperature such as electron cyclotron emission and Thomson scattering.

  6. Cleanable and Hardcoat Coatings for Increased Durability of Silvered Polymeric Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padiyath, Raghunath

    2013-04-01

    We have successfully developed coating formulations which significantly increasethe abrasion resistance of mirror films. We have demonstrated manufacturing scale-up of these films to full width andproduction volumes. Implementation of these films in commercial test sites is planned for Q2 2013(Abengoa, Gossamer Space Frames). This slide show outlines the background and objectives of the project, technical approach and results, and key lessons. It also presents the need and opportunity for reduction of costs for CSP and collectors. It also presents an approach for a large aperture parabolic trough collector with reflective film and a high concentration factor, including demonstration and results.

  7. Microelectromechanical mirrors and electrically-programmable diffraction gratings based on two-stage actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, James J.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Dohner, Jeffrey L.

    2005-11-22

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device for redirecting incident light is disclosed. The MEM device utilizes a pair of electrostatic actuators formed one above the other from different stacked and interconnected layers of polysilicon to move or tilt an overlying light-reflective plate (i.e. a mirror) to provide a reflected component of the incident light which can be shifted in phase or propagation angle. The MEM device, which utilizes leveraged bending to provide a relatively-large vertical displacement up to several microns for the light-reflective plate, has applications for forming an electrically-programmable diffraction grating (i.e. a polychromator) or a micromirror array.

  8. The use of a high-order MEMS deformable mirror in the Gemini Planet Imager

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyneer, L A; Bauman, B; Cornelissen, S; Jones, S; Macintosh, B; Palmer, D; Isaacs, J

    2010-12-17

    We briefly review the development history of the Gemini Planet Imager's 4K Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror. We discuss essential calibration steps and algorithms to control the MEMS with nanometer precision, including voltage-phase calibration and influence function characterization. We discuss the integration of the MEMS into GPI's Adaptive Optics system at Lawrence Livermore and present experimental results of 1.5 kHz closed-loop control. We detail mitigation strategies in the coronagraph to reduce the impact of abnormal actuators on final image contrast.

  9. Principles of passive and active cooling of mirror-based hybrid systems employing liquid metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anglart, Henryk [Div. of Nuclear Technology, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106-91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-19

    This paper presents principles of passive and active cooling that are suitable to mirrorbased hybrid, nuclear fission/fusion systems. It is shown that liquid metal lead-bismuth cooling of the mirror machine with 25 m height and 1.5 GW thermal power is feasible both in the active mode during the normal operation and in the passive mode after the reactor shutdown. In the active mode the achievable required pumping power can well be below 50 MW, whereas the passive mode provides enough coolant flow to keep the clad temperature below the damage limits.

  10. Durable silver mirror with ultra-violet thru far infra-red reflection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA)

    2010-11-23

    A durable highly reflective silver mirror characterized by high reflectance in a broad spectral range of about 300 nm in the UV to the far infrared (.about.10000 nm), as well as exceptional environmental durability. A high absorptivity metal underlayer is used which prevents the formation of a galvanic cell with a silver layer while increasing the reflectance of the silver layer. Environmentally durable overcoat layers are provided to enhance mechanical and chemical durability and protect the silver layer from corrosion and tarnishing, for use in a wide variety of surroundings or climates, including harsh or extreme environments.

  11. Enhanced visible and near-infrared capabilities of the JET mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomanowski, B. A. Sharples, R. M.; Meigs, A. G.; Conway, N. J.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Heesterman, P.; Kinna, D. [EURATOM Collaboration: JET-EFDA Team

    2014-11-15

    The mirror-linked divertor spectroscopy diagnostic on JET has been upgraded with a new visible and near-infrared grating and filtered spectroscopy system. New capabilities include extended near-infrared coverage up to 1875 nm, capturing the hydrogen Paschen series, as well as a 2 kHz frame rate filtered imaging camera system for fast measurements of impurity (Be II) and deuterium D?, D?, D? line emission in the outer divertor. The expanded system provides unique capabilities for studying spatially resolved divertor plasma dynamics at near-ELM resolved timescales as well as a test bed for feasibility assessment of near-infrared spectroscopy.

  12. This thesis focuses on the theoretical work done to determine thermodynamic properties of a chalcopyrite thin-film material for use as a photovoltaic material in a tandem device. The material of main focus here

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This thesis focuses on the theoretical work done to determine thermodynamic properties of a chalcopyrite thin-film material for use as a photovoltaic material in a tandem device. The material of main photovoltaic properties, and good lattice matching with ZnSnP2, the other component in this tandem device

  13. Manufacturing of High-Efficiency Bi-Facial Tandem Concentrator Solar Cells: February 20, 2009--August 20, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wojtczuk , S.

    2011-06-01

    Spire Semiconductor made concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells using a new bi-facial growth process and met both main program goals: a) 42.5% efficiency 500X (AM1.5D, 25C, 100mW/cm2); and b) Ready to supply at least 3MW/year of such cells at end of program. We explored a unique simple fabrication process to make a N/P 3-junction InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs tandem cells . First, the InGaAs bottom cell is grown on the back of a GaAs wafer. The wafers are then loaded into a cassette, spin-rinsed to remove particles, dipped in dilute NH4OH and spin-dried. The wafers are then removed from the cassette loaded the reactor for GaAs middle and InGaP top cell growth on the opposite wafer face (bi-facial growth). By making the epitaxial growth process a bit more complex, we are able to avoid more complex processing (such as large area wafer bonding or epitaxial liftoff) used in the inverted metamorphic (IMM) approach to make similar tandem stacks. We believe the yield is improved compared to an IMM process. After bi-facial epigrowth, standard III-V cell steps (back metal, photolithography for front grid, cap etch, AR coat, dice) are used in the remainder of the process.

  14. A spinning mirror for fast angular scans of EBW emission for magnetic pitch profile measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volpe, Francesco [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A tilted spinning mirror rapidly steers the line of sight of the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) emission radiometer at the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In order to resist high mechanical stresses at rotation speeds of up to 12 000 rpm and to avoid eddy current induced magnetic braking, the mirror consists of a glass-reinforced nylon substrate of a special self-balanced design, coated with a reflecting layer. By completing an angular scan every 2.5-10 ms, it allows one to characterize with good time resolution the Bernstein-extraordinary-ordinary mode-conversion efficiency as a function of the view angles. Angular maps of conversion efficiency are directly related to the magnetic pitch angle at the cutoff layer for the ordinary mode. Hence, measurements at various frequencies provide the safety factor profile at the plasma edge. Initial measurements and indications of the feasibility of the diagnostic are presented. Moreover, angular scans indicate the best launch conditions for EBW heating.

  15. Photo-Thermal Transfer Function of Dielectric Mirrors for Precision Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan W. Ballmer

    2015-01-07

    The photo-thermal transfer function from absorbed power incident on a dielectric mirror to the effective mirror position is calculated using the coating design as input. The effect is found to change in amplitude and sign for frequencies corresponding to diffusion length comparable to the coating thickness. Transfer functions are calculated for the $Ti$-doped ${\\rm Ta_2O_5:SiO_2}$ coating used in Advanced LIGO and for a crystalline ${\\rm Al_xGa_{1-x}As}$ coating. The shape of the transfer function at high frequencies is shown to be a sensitive indicator of the effective absorption depth, providing a potentially powerful tool to distinguish coating-internal absorption from surface contamination related absorption. The sign change of the photo-thermal effect could also be useful to stabilize radiation pressure-based opto-mechanical systems. High frequency corrections to the previously published thermo-optic noise estimates are also provided. Finally, estimating the quality of the thermo-optic noise cancellation occurring in fine-tuned ${\\rm Al_xGa_{1-x}As}$ coatings requires the detailed heat flow analysis done in this paper.

  16. Passive faraday mirror attack in practical two-way quantum key distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi-Hai Sun; Mu-Sheng Jiang; Lin-Mei Liang

    2012-03-04

    The faraday mirror (FM) plays a very important role in maintaining the stability of two way plug-and-play quantum key distribution (QKD) system. However, the practical FM is imperfect, which will not only introduce additional quantum bit error rate (QBER) but also leave a loophole for Eve to spy the secret key. In this paper, we propose a passive faraday mirror attack in two way QKD system based on the imperfection of FM. Our analysis shows that, if the FM is imperfect, the dimension of Hilbert space spanned by the four states sent by Alice is three instead of two. Thus Eve can distinguish these states with a set of POVM operators belonging to three dimension space, which will reduce the QBER induced by her attack. Furthermore, a relationship between the degree of the imperfection of FM and the transmittance of the practical QKD system is obtained. The results show that, the probability that Eve loads her attack successfully depends on the degree of the imperfection of FM rapidly, but the QBER induced by Eve's attack changes with the degree of the imperfection of FM slightly.

  17. Geometric Engineering, Mirror Symmetry and 6d (1,0) -> 4d, N=2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michele Del Zotto; Cumrun Vafa; Dan Xie

    2015-05-31

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T^2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2,Z) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T^2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T^2. Among the resulting 4d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1,0) SCFTs where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal compactification of the little string version of these theories can lead to class S theories with no punctures on arbitrary genus Riemann surface.

  18. Effect of interference on thermal noise and coating optimization in dielectric mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. M. Kondratiev; A. G. Gurkovsky; M. L. Gorodetsky

    2011-02-18

    Optical multilayer coatings of high-reflective mirrors significantly determine the properties of Fabry-Perot resonators. Thermal (Brownian) noise in these coatings produce excess phase noise which can seriously degrade the sensitivity of high-precision measurements with these cavities, in particular in laser gravitational-wave antennas (for example project LIGO), where at the current stage it is one of the main limiting factors. We present a method to calculate this effect accurately and analyze different strategies to diminish it by optimizing the coating. Traditionally this noise is calculated as if the beam is reflected from the surface of the mirror fluctuating due to the sums of the fluctuations of each layer. However the beam in fact penetrates a coating and Brownian expansion of the layers leads to dephasing of interference in the coating and consequently to additional change in reflected phase. Fluctuations in the thickness of a layer change the strain in the medium and hence due to photoelastic effect change the refractive index of this layer. This additional effect should be also considered. It is possible to make the noise smaller preserving the reflectivity by changing the total number of layers and thicknesses of high and low refractive ones. We show how this optimized coating may be constructed analytically rather then numerically as before. We also check the possibility to use internal resonant layers and optimized cap layer to decrease the thermal noise.

  19. A double crystal monochromator using tangentially bend crystals in combination with toroidal mirror focusing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Jun, Thompson,A.C.; Padmore,H.A.

    2000-02-24

    In collaboration with the Chemistry Department at the University of California at Berkeley, the ALS is building a beamline for structural determination in materials chemistry. The system will be used for single crystal x-ray diffraction on crystals that are too small or disordered for examination on laboratory systems, and typically will be used for crystals in the 5 - 20 micron regime. As some of the materials being designed are of the size of small proteins, phasing using direct methods is problematic, and so use of multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion techniques will be employed in many cases. The production of new compounds has been revolutionized in recent years with the development of combinatorial synthesis techniques, and a major b2048 to further advances in this field is access to rapid measurement of structural parameters. The specification of the beamline follows from these points. It must have a small focal spot to match closely the size of the crystals, high resolution for MAD techniques, and a high flux in the small focus. The strategy for satisfying these constraints is to us a system which is compact and which uses the minimum number of components. This is done in this case by using a pseudo channel cut crystal monochromator with tangentially bent crystals, in combination with a 1:1 focusing toroidal mirror. The toroidal mirror at 1:1 magnification has only very small aberrations, and from a 220 (h) by 25 (v) [micro] m FWHM source, an image of 220 by 45 [micro]m FWHM should be produced for a 3 mrad horizontal aperture for a full vertical aperture. This has already been achieved on an existing beamline. The crystal monochromator uses tangentially bent crystals in a concave - convex configuration to achieve matching of Bragg angles to the divergent source, while maintaining zero focusing power. A useful feature of this arrangement is that while there is an optimum crystal curvature for each energy that gives the expected Darwin width limited resolution, fixing the curvature gives approximately ideal resolution over typically 2 keV for the ALS bending magnet source. A further simplification is that the whole optical system will be inside the shield wall, with only a small pipe emerging from the shield wall to feed a standard commercial diffraction system. This means that the mirror will be at only 6.5 m from the source. This means that the toroidal mirror can be as short as 300 mm while collecting most of the vertical radiation fan. In addition, as the required tangential slope error is related to the angular size of the source, putting the mirror close reduces the slope error requirements substantially. These aspects together should result in a simple, low cost and very high performance system for small crystal, small molecule cr2048llography.

  20. Resonant loop mirror with narrow-band reflections and its application in single-frequency fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paschotta, R.; Brinck, D.J.; Farwell, S.G.; Hanna, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new form of loop mirror (to be realized with all-fiber or integrated optics technology) that can produce narrow-band reflections and could find an application in single-frequency fiber lasers, allowing for a standing-wave design with a long doped section and eliminating the need for a Faraday isolator or a fiber grating. We discuss the main features of such a loop mirror and present experimental results that agree well with the theory. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  1. A review of "The Public Mirror: Molière and the Social Commerce of Depiction." by Larry F. Norman 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiki Gounaridou

    2002-01-01

    enough been addressed directly, despite the number of books and articles in recent years that have taken for granted the impor- tance of coteries and other literary communities in Early Modern England. Larry F. Norman. The Public Mirror: Moli...?re and the Social Com- merce of Depiction. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1999. vii + 226 pp. $40. Review by KIKI GOUNARIDOU, SMITH COLLEGE. In The Public Mirror, Larry Norman?s intention is to un- cover the aesthetic and social conditions...

  2. Journal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 2002, pp. 8789 Synchronous Mirror Delay for Zero-and Multi-Phase Locking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    ) A clock generation circuit used in synchronous SRAM (static random access memory) was de- signedJournal of the Korean Physical Society, Vol. 40, No. 1, January 2002, pp. 8789 Synchronous Mirror by adapting SMD (synchronous mirror delay) scheme. A multi-phase synchronous circuit suited for the double

  3. Stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the2 determination of pesticides in water samples: method validation and measurement uncertainty3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    carry-over between consecutive extractions with the same stir21 bar. Pesticide quantification in water1 Title :1 Stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the2 determination of pesticides in water samples: method validation and measurement uncertainty3

  4. Highly stable and high power efficiency tandem organic light-emitting diodes with transition metal oxide-based charge generation layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    efficiency improvement Transition metal oxide a b s t r a c t Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. Ó 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) [1 displays and lighting panels. However, before mass production of OLEDs for the consumer market can start

  5. The hybrid reactor project based on the straight field line mirror concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agren, O.; Noack, K.; Moiseenko, V. E.; Hagnestal, A.; Kaellne, J.; Anglart, H. [Uppsala University, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Institute of Plasma Physics, National Science Center 'Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology', 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Uppsala University, Angstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Royal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Reactor Technology, SE 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-06-19

    The straight field line mirror (SFLM) concept is aiming towards a steady-state compact fusion neutron source. Besides the possibility for steady state operation for a year or more, the geometry is chosen to avoid high loads on materials and plasma facing components. A comparatively small fusion hybrid device with 'semi-poor' plasma confinement (with a low fusion Q factor) may be developed for industrial transmutation and energy production from spent nuclear fuel. This opportunity arises from a large fission to fusion energy multiplication ratio, Q{sub r} = P{sub fis}/P{sub fus}>>1. The upper bound on Q{sub r} is primarily determined by geometry and reactor safety. For the SFLM, the upper bound is Q{sub r} Almost-Equal-To 150, corresponding to a neutron multiplicity of k{sub eff}=0.97. Power production in a mirror hybrid is predicted for a substantially lower electron temperature than the requirement T{sub e} Almost-Equal-To 10 keV for a fusion reactor. Power production in the SFLM seems possible with Q Almost-Equal-To 0.15, which is 10 times lower than typically anticipated for hybrids (and 100 times smaller than required for a fusion reactor). This relaxes plasma confinement demands, and broadens the range for use of plasmas with supra-thermal ions in hybrid reactors. The SFLM concept is based on a mirror machine stabilized by qudrupolar magnetic fields and large expander tanks beyond the confinement region. The purpose of the expander tanks is to distribute axial plasma loss flow over a sufficiently large area so that the receiving plates can withstand the heat. Plasma stability is not relying on a plasma flow into the expander regions. With a suppressed plasma flow into the expander tanks, a possibility arise for higher electron temperature. A brief presentation will be given on basic theory for the SFLM with plasma stability and electron temperature issues, RF heating computations with sloshing ion formation, neutron transport computations with reactor safety margins and material load estimates, magnetic coil designs as well as a discussion on the implications of the geometry for possible diagnostics. Reactor safety issues are addressed and a vertical orientation of the device could assist passive coolant circulation. Specific attention is put to a device with a 25 m long confinement region and 40 cm plasma radius in the mid-plane. In an optimal case (k{sub eff}= 0.97) with a fusion power of only 10 MW, such a device may be capable of producing a power of 1.5 GW{sub th}.

  6. Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: A design principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Lin Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Sato, Shintaroh; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-20

    To develop a realistic design principle, we calculated the maximum conversion efficiency ?{sub sc} and optimized sub-cell band-gap energies E{sub g} in double-junction tandem solar cells via a detailed-balance theory, paying particular attention to their dependence on internal luminescence quantum yields y{sub int} of the top and bottom sub-cell materials. A strong drop in the maximum ?{sub sc} occurs when y{sub int} slightly drops from 1 to 0.9, where the drop in y{sub int} of the bottom cell causes a stronger effect than that of the top cell. For low values of y{sub int}, the maximum ?{sub sc} has a simple logarithmic dependence on the geometric mean of the two sub-cells'y{sub int}.

  7. Monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, ultra-thin, strain-counterbalanced, photovoltaic energy converters with optimal subcell bandgaps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO); Mascarenhas, Angelo (Lakewood, CO)

    2012-05-08

    Modeling a monolithic, multi-bandgap, tandem, solar photovoltaic converter or thermophotovoltaic converter by constraining the bandgap value for the bottom subcell to no less than a particular value produces an optimum combination of subcell bandgaps that provide theoretical energy conversion efficiencies nearly as good as unconstrained maximum theoretical conversion efficiency models, but which are more conducive to actual fabrication to achieve such conversion efficiencies than unconstrained model optimum bandgap combinations. Achieving such constrained or unconstrained optimum bandgap combinations includes growth of a graded layer transition from larger lattice constant on the parent substrate to a smaller lattice constant to accommodate higher bandgap upper subcells and at least one graded layer that transitions back to a larger lattice constant to accommodate lower bandgap lower subcells and to counter-strain the epistructure to mitigate epistructure bowing.

  8. Delineating a road-salt plume in lakebed sediments using electrical resistivity, piezometers, and seepage meters at Mirror Lake,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toran, Laura

    , New Hampshire, U.S.A. A combination of bottom-cable and floating-cable electrical-resistivity surveys, and seepage meters at Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, U.S.A Laura Toran1 , Melanie Johnson1 , Jonathan Nyquist1Delineating a road-salt plume in lakebed sediments using electrical resistivity, piezometers

  9. Magnetic Mirrors at the Nanoscale : Theory M. P. J. L. Chang, D. Jia1 and H. Nazari2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Mark J. L.

    of heat from one wire coil to the defect will be higher than the rate due to uniform blackbody radiation. In the case of tungsten, for our typical spiral geometry, the heating rate is enhanced by a factor of 15 as 106 , which is evidently not appropriate. Keywords: Magnetic Mirrors, Vector Potential, Radiative Heat

  10. Homotopy Groups Braid Groups Main Results Methods of the Proofs Remarks Mirror Reflections on Braids and the Higher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    Homotopy Groups Braid Groups Main Results Methods of the Proofs Remarks Mirror Reflections Braid Groups Main Results Methods of the Proofs Remarks Artin Braids and Homotopy Groups Homotopy Groups Braid Groups Main Results Methods of the Proofs Remarks #12;Homotopy Groups Braid Groups Main Results

  11. Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) for radiation hardened final optics for laser inertial fusion energy power plants*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    1 Grazing incidence liquid metal mirrors (GILMM) for radiation hardened final optics for laser final optics in a laser inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plant. The amount of laser light the GILMM substrate, adaptive (deformable) optics, surface tension and low Reynolds number, laminar flow in the film

  12. IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 67 Low-Dispersive Dielectric Mirrors for Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natelson, Douglas

    IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 1, JANUARY 2008 67 Low-Dispersive Dielectric Mirrors for Future Wireless Terahertz Communication Systems Ibraheem A. Ibraheem, Norman Krumbholz component for future wireless terahertz communication sys- tems. Here, we investigate the dispersion

  13. 150 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 Synchronous Mirror Delay for Multiphase Locking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong Duk

    is fabricated using 0.13- m CMOS technology. To measure the synchronizing error of the clock generation circuit, many synchronous clock generation circuits in which internal signal synchronizes with external signal150 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 39, NO. 1, JANUARY 2004 Synchronous Mirror Delay

  14. A Reexamination of Stimulus-Frequency Effects in Recognition: Two Mirrors for Low-and High-Frequency Pseudowords

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reder, Lynne

    A Reexamination of Stimulus-Frequency Effects in Recognition: Two Mirrors for Low- and High-Frequency than for high-frequency words) has intrigued memory researchers, and multiple accounts have been judgments for presented items) is higher for low- frequency words than for high-frequency words (e

  15. Mirrors for X-ray telescopes: Fresnel diffraction-based computation of Point Spread Functions from metrology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raimondi, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The imaging sharpness of an X-ray telescope is chiefly determined by the optical quality of its focusing optics, which in turn mostly depends on the shape accuracy and the surface finishing of the grazing incidence X-ray mirrors that compose the optical modules. In order to ensure the imaging performance during the mirror manufacturing, a fundamental step is represented by the prediction of the mirror Point Spread Function (PSF) from the metrology of its surface. Traditionally, the PSF computation in X-rays is assumed to be different depending on whether the surface defects are classified as figure errors or roughness [...] The aim of this work is to overcome this limit, providing analytical formulae, valid at any light wavelength, to compute the PSF of an X-ray mirror shell from the measured longitudinal profiles and the roughness Power Spectral Density (PSD), without distinguishing spectral ranges with different treatments. The method we adopted is based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle to compute the diffr...

  16. Effects of backward-propagating waves and lumped mirror losses on self-induced transparency modelocking in quantum cascade lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talukder, Muhammad Anisuzzaman

    Effects of backward-propagating waves and lumped mirror losses on self-induced transparency Work to date on self-induced transparency modelocking in quantum cascade lasers QCLs has neglected that is long compared to round-trip time Trt is required in order to suppress continuous waves that may lead

  17. Dealing with Laser Scanner Failure: Mirrors and Windows Shao-Wen Yang and Chieh-Chih Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chieh-Chih "Bob"

    such as mirror reflection and glass transparency. We introduce a sensor fusion technique to detect the potential the round-trip time of a pulse of light. Laser scanners can send light photons toward an object and only and a black surface will reflect only a small amount of light. Transparent objects such as glasses will only

  18. Time interval and lattice vibration in Raman effect, photoelectric effect and plane mirror reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Kumar; S. Sahoo

    2012-07-02

    Time interval between the incident and scattered photon in Raman effect and absorption of photon and emission of electron in photoelectric effect has not been determined till now. This is because there is no such high level instrument discovered till now to detect time interval to such a small level. But this can be calculated theoretically by applying a basic principle of physics like impulse is equal to the change in momentum. Considering the collision between electron and photon as perfect inelastic collision in photoelectric effect, elastic and inelastic collision in Raman effect and elastic collision in plane mirror reflection and the interaction between electron and photon as strong gravitational interaction we calculate the required time interval. During these phenomena there is lattice vibration which can be quantized as phonon particles.

  19. Mirror effect induced by the dilaton field on the Hawking radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maeda, Kengo; Okamura, Takashi

    2006-11-03

    A ''stringy particle'' action is naturally derived from Kaluza-Klein compactification of a test string action coupled to the dilaton field in a conformally invariant manner. According to the standard procedure, we perform the second quantization of the stringy particle. As an interesting application, we consider evaporation of a near-extremal dilatonic black hole by Hawking radiation via the stringy particles. We show that a mirror surface which reflects them is induced by the dilaton field outside the the horizon when the size of the black hole is comparable to the Planck scale. As a result, the energy flux does not propagate across the surface, and hence the evaporation of the dilatonic black hole stops just before the naked singularity at the extremal state appears even though the surface gravity is non-zero in the extremal limit.

  20. Mirror symmetry at high spin in {sup 51}Fe and {sup 51}Mn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentley, M. A.; Williams, S. J.; Joss, D. T.; O'Leary, C. D.; Bruce, A. M.; Cameron, J. A.; Carpenter, M. P.; Fallon, P.; Frankland, L.; Gelletly, W. (and others)

    2000-11-01

    Gamma decays from excited states in the T{sub z}=-1/2 nucleus {sup 51}Fe have been observed for the first time. The differences in excitation energies as compared with those of the mirror partner, {sup 51}Mn, have been interpreted in terms of Coulomb effects and the resulting Coulomb energy differences (CED) can be understood intuitively in terms of particle-alignment effects. A new CED effect has been observed, in which different CED trends have been measured for each signature of the rotational structures that characterize these mid-f{sub 7/2} shell nuclei. Large-scale fp-shell model calculations have been used to compute the trends of the CED as a function of spin. The result of comparing these calculations with the data demonstrates an ability to reproduce the fine details of the Coulomb effects with a precision far greater than has been previously achieved.

  1. OPTIMIZING CENTRIFUGAL BARREL POLISHING FOR MIRROR FINISH SRF CAVITY AND RF TESTS AT JEFFERSON LAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ari Palczewski, Rongli Geng, Hui Tian

    2012-07-01

    We performed Centrifugal Barrel Polishing (CBP) on a 1.3 GHz fine grain TESLA single cell cavity and 1.5 GHz fine grain CEBAF high gradient superconducting radio frequency (SRF) single cell cavity following a modified recipe originally developed at Fermi National Accelerator Lab (FNAL). We were able to obtain a mirror like surface similar to that obtained at FNAL, while reducing the number of CBP steps and total processing time. This paper will discuss the change in surface and subsequent cavity performance post CBP, after a 800 C bake (no pre-bake chemistry) and minimal controlled electro-polishing (10 micron). In addition to Q vs. E{sub ACC} thermometry mapping with preheating characteristics and optical inspection of the cavity after CBP will also be shown.

  2. Electronic film with embedded micro-mirrors for solar energy concentrator systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz; Mark Davidson

    2004-04-16

    A novel electronic film solar energy concentrator with embedded micro-mirrors that track the sun is described. The potential viability of this new concept is presented. Due to miniaturization, the amount of material needed for the optical system is minimal. Because it is light-weight and flexible, it can easily be attached to the land or existing structures. This presents an economic advantage over conventional concentrators which require the construction of a separate structure to support them, and motors to orient them to intercept and properly reflect sunlight. Such separate structures must be able to survive gusts, windstorms, earthquakes, etc. This concentrator utilizes the ground or existing edifices which are already capable of withstanding such vicissitudes of nature.

  3. Validation experiment of a numerically processed millimeter-wave interferometer in a laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogi, Y., E-mail: kogi@fit.ac.jp; Higashi, T.; Matsukawa, S. [Department of Information Electronics, Fukuoka Institute of Technology, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan); Mase, A. [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-0811 (Japan); Kohagura, J.; Yoshikawa, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5202 (Japan); Kuwahara, D. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    We propose a new interferometer system for density profile measurements. This system produces multiple measurement chords by a leaky-wave antenna driven by multiple frequency inputs. The proposed system was validated in laboratory evaluation experiments. We confirmed that the interferometer generates a clear image of a Teflon plate as well as the phase shift corresponding to the plate thickness. In another experiment, we confirmed that quasi-optical mirrors can produce multiple measurement chords; however, the finite spot size of the probe beam degrades the sharpness of the resulting image.

  4. 2/3/2014 Micro-windmills could power your cellphone, Lifestyle -SciTech -Pune Mirror,Pune Mirror http://www.punemirror.in/article/26/2014011420140115101022302d1b13a35/Microwindmills-could-power-your-cellphone.html#ftr2 1/2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    2/3/2014 Micro-windmills could power your cellphone, Lifestyle - SciTech - Pune Mirror,Pune Mirror at the University of Texas at Arlington have designed a micro-windmill that generates wind energy and may become large windmills are not preferred. Smitha Rao and J C Chiao designed and built the device that is about

  5. arXiv:1106.4977v3[math.AG]6Mar2015 MIRROR SYMMETRY FOR LOG CALABI-YAU SURFACES I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacking, Paul

    HACKING, AND SEAN KEEL Abstract. We give a canonical synthetic construction of the mirror family to pairs. Smoothness: Around the Gross­Siebert locus 66 5. The relative torus 72 1 #12;2 MARK GROSS, PAUL HACKING

  6. On the partner particles for moving mirror radiation and black hole evaporation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Hotta; R. Schützhold; W. G. Unruh

    2015-04-21

    The partner mode with respect to a vacuum state for a given mode (like that corresponding to one of the thermal particles emitted by a black hole) is defined and calculated. The partner modes are explicitly calculated for a number of cases, in particular for the modes corresponding to a particle detector being excited by turn-on/turn-off transients, or with the thermal particles emitted by the accelerated mirror model for black hole evaporation. One of the key results is that the partner mode in general is just a vacuum fluctuation, and one can have the partner mode be located in a region where the state cannot be distinguished from the vacuum state by any series of local measurements, including the energy density. I.e., "information" (the correlations with the thermal emissions) need not be associated with any energy transport. The idea that black holes emit huge amounts of energy in their last stages because of all the information which must be emitted under the assumption of black-hole unitarity is found not necessarily to be the case.

  7. Compact tunable Compton x-ray source from laser-plasma accelerator and plasma mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Wang, Xiaoming; Shaw, Joseph M.; Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Downer, M. C.; Arefiev, Alexey V.; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.

    2015-02-15

    We present an in-depth experimental-computational study of the parameters necessary to optimize a tunable, quasi-monoenergetic, efficient, low-background Compton backscattering (CBS) x-ray source that is based on the self-aligned combination of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) and a plasma mirror (PM). The main findings are (1) an LPA driven in the blowout regime by 30 TW, 30?fs laser pulses produce not only a high-quality, tunable, quasi-monoenergetic electron beam, but also a high-quality, relativistically intense (a{sub 0} ? 1) spent drive pulse that remains stable in profile and intensity over the LPA tuning range. (2) A thin plastic film near the gas jet exit retro-reflects the spent drive pulse efficiently into oncoming electrons to produce CBS x-rays without detectable bremsstrahlung background. Meanwhile, anomalous far-field divergence of the retro-reflected light demonstrates relativistic “denting” of the PM. Exploiting these optimized LPA and PM conditions, we demonstrate quasi-monoenergetic (50% FWHM energy spread), tunable (75–200?KeV) CBS x-rays, characteristics previously achieved only on more powerful laser systems by CBS of a split-off, counter-propagating pulse. Moreover, laser-to-x-ray photon conversion efficiency (?6?×?10{sup ?12}) exceeds that of any previous LPA-based quasi-monoenergetic Compton source. Particle-in-cell simulations agree well with the measurements.

  8. Near-Thermal Radiation in Detectors, Mirrors and Black Holes: A Stochastic Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpan Raval; B. L. Hu; Don Koks

    1996-06-27

    In analyzing the nature of thermal radiance experienced by an accelerated observer (Unruh effect), an eternal black hole (Hawking effect) and in certain types of cosmological expansion, one of us proposed a unifying viewpoint that these can be understood as arising from the vacuum fluctuations of the quantum field being subjected to an exponential scale transformation. This viewpoint, together with our recently developed stochastic theory of particle-field interaction understood as quantum open systems described by the influence functional formalism, can be used to address situations where the spacetime possesses an event horizon only asymptotically, or none at all. Examples studied here include detectors moving at uniform acceleration only asymptotically or for a finite time, a moving mirror, and a collapsing mass. We show that in such systems radiance indeed is observed, albeit not in a precise Planckian spectrum. The deviation therefrom is determined by a parameter which measures the departure from uniform acceleration or from exact exponential expansion. These results are expected to be useful for the investigation of non-equilibrium black hole thermodynamics and the linear response regime of backreaction problems in semiclassical gravity.

  9. Interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons with mirror and mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dress, William B.; Kisner, Roger A.; Richards, Roger K.

    2004-06-01

    53 Systems and methods are described for an interferometric source of multi-color, multi-beam entangled photons. An apparatus includes: a multi-refringent device optically coupled to a source of coherent energy, the multi-refringent device providing a beam of multi-color entangled photons; a condenser device optically coupled to the multi-refringent device, the condenser device i) including a mirror and a mixer and ii) converging two spatially resolved portions of the beam of multi-color entangled photons into a converged multi-color entangled photon beam; a tunable phase adjuster optically coupled to the condenser device, the tunable phase adjuster changing a phase of at least a portion of the converged multi-color entangled photon beam to generate a first interferometeric multi-color entangled photon beam; and a beam splitter optically coupled to the condenser device, the beam splitter combining the first interferometeric multi-color entangled photon beam with a second interferometric multi-color entangled photon beam.

  10. Optimal tuning and calibration of bendable mirrors with slope measuring profilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinney, Wayne; Kirschman, Jonathan; MacDowell, Alastair; Warwick, Tony; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2009-06-22

    We describe a technique to optimally tune and calibrate bendable x-ray optics for sub-micron focusing. The focusing is divided between two elliptically cylindrical reflecting elements, a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) pair. Each optic is shaped by applying unequal bending couples to each end of a flat mirror. The developed technique allowsoptimal tuning of these systems using surface slope data obtained with a slope measuring instrument, the long trace profiler (LTP). Due to the near linearity of the problem, the minimal set of data necessary for the tuning of each bender, consists of only three slope traces measured before and after a single adjustment of each bending couple. The data are analyzed with software realizing a method of regression analysis with experimentally found characteristic functions of the benders. The resulting approximation to the functional dependence of the desired shape provides nearly final settings. Moreover, the characteristic functions of the benders found in the course of tuning, can be used for retuning to a new desired shape without removal from the beamline and re-measuring. We perform a ray trace, using profiler data for the finally tuned optics, predicting the performance to be expected during use of the optics on the beamline.

  11. Suitability of nanodiamond NV centers for spontaneous emission control experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbas Mohtashami; A. Femius Koenderink

    2012-12-20

    NV centers in diamond are generally recognized as highly promising as indefinitely stable highly efficient single-photon sources. We report an experimental quantification of the brightness, radiative decay rate, nonradiative decay rate and quantum efficiency of single NV centers in diamond nanocrystals. Our experiments show that the commonly observed large spread in fluorescence decay rates of NV centers in nanodiamond is inconsistent with the common explanation of large nanophotonic mode-density variations in the ultra-small high-index crystals at near-unity quantum efficiency. We report that NV centers in 25 nm nanocrystals are essentially insensitive to local density of states (LDOS) variations that we induce at a dielectric interface by using liquids to vary the refractive index, and propose that quantum efficiencies in such nanocrystals are widely distributed between 0% and 20%. For single NV centers in larger 100 nm nanocrystals, we show that decay rate changes can be reversibly induced by nanomechanically approaching a mirror to change the LDOS. Using this scanning mirror method, for the first time we report calibrated quantum efficiencies of NV centers, and show that different but nominally identical nanocrystals have widely distributed quantum efficiencies between 10% and 90%. Our measurements imply that nanocrystals that are to be assembled into hybrid photonic structures for cavity QED should first be individually screened to assess fluorescence properties in detail.

  12. Direct Integration for Mirror Curves of Genus Two and an Almost Meromorphic Siegel Modular Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrecht Klemm; Maximilian Poretschkin; Thorsten Schimannek; Martin Westerholt-Raum

    2015-06-16

    This work considers aspects of almost holomorphic and meromorphic Siegel modular forms from the perspective of physics and mathematics. The first part is concerned with (refined) topological string theory and the direct integration of the holomorphic anomaly equations. Here, a central object to compute higher genus amplitudes, which serve as the generating functions of various enumerative invariants, is provided by the so-called propagator. We derive a universal expression for the propagator for geometries that have mirror curves of genus two which is given by the derivative of the logarithm of Igusa's cusp form of weight 10. In addition, we illustrate our findings by solving the refined topological string on the resolutions of the three toric orbifolds of order three, five and six. In the second part, we give explicit expressions for lowering and raising operators on Siegel modular forms, and define almost holomorphic Siegel modular forms based on them. Extending the theory of Fourier-Jacobi expansions to almost holomorphic Siegel modular forms and building up on recent work by Pitale, Saha, and Schmidt, we can show that there is no analogue of the almost holomorphic elliptic second Eisenstein series. In the case of genus 2, we provide an almost meromorphic substitute for it. This, in particular, leads us to a generalization of Ramanujan's differential equation for the second Eisenstein series. The two parts are intertwined by the observation that the meromorphic analogue of the almost holomorphic second Eisenstein series coincides with the physical propagator. In addition, the generalized Ramanujan identities match precisely the physical consistency conditions that need to be imposed on the propagator.

  13. High Energy Gamma-Ray Observations of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar with the Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oser, S; Boone, L M; Chantell, M C; Conner, Z; Covault, C E; Dragovan, M; Fortin, P; Gregorich, D T; Hanna, D S; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Ragan, K; Scalzo, R A; Schuette, D R; Theoret, C G; Tumer, T O; Williams, D A; Zweerink, J A

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a new ground-based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope for gamma-ray astronomy. STACEE uses the large mirror area of a solar heliostat facility to achieve a low energy threshold. A prototype experiment which uses 32 heliostat mirrors with a total mirror area of ~ 1200\\unit{m^2} has been constructed. This prototype, called STACEE-32, was used to search for high energy gamma-ray emission from the Crab Nebula and Pulsar. Observations taken between November 1998 and February 1999 yield a strong statistical excess of gamma-like events from the Crab, with a significance of $+6.75\\sigma$ in 43 hours of on-source observing time. No evidence for pulsed emission from the Crab Pulsar was found, and the upper limit on the pulsed fraction of the observed excess was E_{th}) = (2.2 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^{-10}\\unit{photons cm^{-2} s^{-1}}. The observed flux is in agreement with a continuation to lower energies of the power law spectrum seen at TeV energies...

  14. The X-ray Telescope of the CAST Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Kotthaus; H. Braeuninger; P. Friedrich; R. Hartmann; D. Kang; M. Kuster; G. Lutz; L. Strueder

    2005-11-14

    The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST) searches for solar axions employing a 9 Tesla superconducting dipole magnet equipped with 3 independent detection systems for X-rays from axion-photon conversions inside the 10 m long magnetic field. Results of the first 6 months of data taking in 2003 imply a 95 % CL upper limit on the axion-photon coupling constant of 1.16x10(-10) GeV(-1) for axion masses CAST is a X-ray telescope consisting of a Wolter I type mirror system and a fully depleted pn-CCD as focal plane detector. Exploiting the full potential of background suppression by focussing X-rays emerging from the magnet bore, the axion sensitivity obtained with telescope data taken in 2004, for the first time in a controlled laboratory experiment, will supersede axion constraints derived from stellar energy loss arguments.

  15. A Review of "Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft, and Caste in Colonial Mexico" by Laura A. Lewis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    of scholarship, and enough nuggets of new research to keep even Monteverdi specialists engaged. Laura A. Lewis. Hall of Mirrrors: Power, Witchcraft, and Caste in Colonial Mexico. Durham: Duke University Press, 2003. xvi + 262 pp. $79.95 cloth; $22....95 paperback. Review by patricia m. garc?a, the university of texas at austin. Laura A. Lewis?s Hall of Mirrors: Power, Witchcraft, and Caste in Co- lonial Mexico begins with the first of many case histories of men and women accused of engaging in, directly...

  16. High power test of a wideband diplexer with short-slotted metal half mirrors for electron cyclotron current drive system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saigusa, M.; Atsumi, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Nagashima, K. [Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Oda, Y.; Fukunari, M.; Sakamoto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2014-02-12

    The wideband high power diplexer has been developed for combining and fast switching of high power millimeter waves generated by a dual frequency gyrotron. The actual diplexer was tested at the frequency band of 170 GHz in low power. After adjusting a resonant frequency of diplexer for the gyrotron frequency, the evacuated wideband diplexer with short-slotted metal half mirrors was tested at an incident power of about 150 kW, a pulse duration of 30 ms and a frequency band of 170.2–170.3 GHz. Any discharge damage was not observed in the diplexer.

  17. Metrology for Industry for use in the Manufacture of Grazing Incidence Beam Line Mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metz, James P.; Parks, Robert E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this SBIR was to determine the slope sensitivity of Specular Reflection Deflectometry (SRD) and whether shearing methods had the sensitivity to be able to separate errors in the test equipment from slope error in the unit under test (UUT), or mirror. After many variations of test parameters it does not appear that SRD yields results much better than 1 ? radian RMS independent of how much averaging is done. Of course, a single number slope sensitivity over the full range of spatial scales is not a very insightful number in the same sense as a single number phase or height RMS value in interferometry does not tell the full story. However, the 1 ? radian RMS number is meaningful when contrasted with a sensitivity goal of better than 0.1 ? radian RMS. Shearing is a time proven method of separating the errors in a measurement from the actual shape of a UUT. It is accomplished by taking multiple measurements while moving the UUT relative to the test instrument. This process makes it possible to separate the two errors sources but only to a sensitivity of about 1 ? radian RMS. Another aspect of our conclusions is that this limit probably holds largely independent of the spatial scale of the test equipment. In the proposal for this work it was suggested that a test screen the full size of the UUT could be used to determine the slopes on scales of maybe 0.01 to full scale of the UUT while smaller screens and shorter focal length lenses could be used to measure shorter, or smaller, patches of slope. What we failed to take into consideration was that as the scale of the test equipment got smaller so too did the optical lever arm on which the slope was calculated. Although we did not do a test with a shorter focal length lens over a smaller sample area it is hard to argue with the logic that the slope sensitivity will be about the same independent of the spatial scale of the measurement assuming the test equipment is similarly scaled. On a more positive note, SRD does appear to be a highly flexible, easy to implement, rather inexpensive test for free form optics that require a dynamic range that exceeds that of interferometry. These optics are quite often specified to have more relaxed slope errors, on the order of 1 ? radian RMS or greater. It would be shortsighted to not recognize the value of this test method in the bigger picture.

  18. Portable controls experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Richard Winston

    2012-01-01

    Experiments for controls classes like MIT's 2.004 require large lab setups and expensive equipment such as oscilloscopes and function generators. We developed a series of controls experiments based on National Instruments' ...

  19. General formulation for magnetohydrodynamic wave propagation, fire-hose, and mirror instabilities in Harris-type current sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hau, L.-N. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lai, Y.-T. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-15

    Harris-type current sheets with the magnetic field model of B-vector=B{sub x}(z)x-caret+B{sub y}(z)y-caret have many important applications to space, astrophysical, and laboratory plasmas for which the temperature or pressure usually exhibits the gyrotropic form of p{r_reversible}=p{sub Parallel-To }b-caretb-caret+p{sub Up-Tack }(I{r_reversible}-b-caretb-caret). Here, p{sub Parallel-To} and p{sub Up-Tack} are, respectively, to be the pressure component along and perpendicular to the local magnetic field, b-caret=B-vector/B. This study presents the general formulation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagation, fire-hose, and mirror instabilities in general Harris-type current sheets. The wave equations are expressed in terms of the four MHD characteristic speeds of fast, intermediate, slow, and cusp waves, and in the local (k{sub Parallel-To },k{sub Up-Tack },z) coordinates. Here, k{sub Parallel-To} and k{sub Up-Tack} are, respectively, to be the wave vector along and perpendicular to the local magnetic field. The parameter regimes for the existence of discrete and resonant modes are identified, which may become unstable at the local fire-hose and mirror instability thresholds. Numerical solutions for discrete eigenmodes are shown for stable and unstable cases. The results have important implications for the anomalous heating and stability of thin current sheets.

  20. Experiments: Preparation and Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neumaier, Arnold

    the experimental set­up und the results of performing the experiment. Again, this is part of human cultureExperiments: Preparation and Measurement by Arnold Neumaier, Vienna March 1996 Abstract Introduction Experiments, properly arranged, provide information about a physical system by suitable

  1. When light reflects from a mirror or glass, the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. In this exercise we will be walking through the proof of this fact.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lega, Joceline

    1 2 A B C Mirror x L - x L h1 h2 When light reflects from a mirror or glass, the angle of this fact. Physically, light obeys Fermat's Principle, also called The Principle of Least Distance. This principle states that light will always travel the least distance possible (or the shortest path

  2. Commissioning and early experiments of the PHELIX facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    it can travel through a periscope and a telescope over 70taken in design- ing the periscope mirror holders such as to

  3. Double Beta Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nanal, Vandana [Dept. of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2011-11-23

    At present, neutrinoless double beta decay is perhaps the only experiment that can tell us whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. Given the significance of the 0{nu}{beta}{beta}, there is a widespread interest for these rare event studies employing a variety of novel techniques. This paper describes the current status of DBD experiments. The Indian effort for an underground NDBD experiment at the upcoming INO laboratory is also presented.

  4. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerator and Experimental Schedule Beam Time Request Form Experiment Scheduling and General Information Radiation Budget Form (pdf) Interactive beam request form (for contact...

  5. Nuclear Physics: Experiment Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free Electron Laser (FEL) Medical Imaging Physics Topics Campaigns Meetings Recent Talks Archived Talks Additional Information Computing at JLab Operations Logbook Experiment...

  6. Flux Conversion and Evidence of Relaxation in a High-Plasma Formed by High-Speed Injection into a Mirror Confinement Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    -reversed configuration (FRC). This shows both the robustness of FRCs and their tendency to assume a preferred plasmaFlux Conversion and Evidence of Relaxation in a High-#12; Plasma Formed by High-Speed Injection into a Mirror Confinement Structure H.Y. Guo, A. L. Hoffman, K. E. Miller, and L. C. Steinhauer Redmond Plasma

  7. Abstract--Grazing incidence metal mirrors in laser-driven IFE power plants are subject to a variety of threats that result

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tillack, Mark

    Abstract--Grazing incidence metal mirrors in laser-driven IFE power plants are subject to a variety. The GIMM lowers the effective laser power flux without much loss of reflectivity, thus prolonging [4] at UCSD, and help define design windows for the GIMM in a laser-driven IFE power plant

  8. Scattered Light Interference from a Single Metal Nanoparticle and Its Mirror Image Sang-Kee Eah,, Heinrich M. Jaeger,, Norbert F. Scherer,,| Gary P. Wiederrecht, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    as an efficient way to transport energy on a small length scale.11 Small metal nano- particles are also being distance measurement with 10 nm resolution through this nonintrusive far field interferometry. Spontaneous energy levels. Changing the photonic mode density near a light emitter by placing it near a mirror

  9. 3/11/13 9:17 AMResearcher says interest in zombies waxes, wanes to mirror societal dissatisfaction -The Washington Post Page 1 of 5http://www.washingtonpost.com/entertainment/tv/researcher-says-inte...faction/2013/03/11/8a5d0472-8a2e-11e2-a88e-461ffa2e34e

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    3/11/13 9:17 AMResearcher says interest in zombies waxes, wanes to mirror societal dissatisfaction in zombies waxes, wanes to mirror societal dissatisfaction Seth Wenig, File/Associated Press - FILE to care. 3. Researcher says interest in zombies waxes, wanes to mirror societal dissatisfaction 4. Joy

  10. Franklin: User Experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Research Supercomputing Center; He, Yun; Kramer, William T.C.; Carter, Jonathan; Cardo, Nicholas

    2008-05-07

    The newest workhorse of the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center is a Cray XT4 with 9,736 dual core nodes. This paper summarizes Franklin user experiences from friendly early user period to production period. Selected successful user stories along with top issues affecting user experiences are presented.

  11. International Experience Singapore 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    , energy and environmental issues in India, alternative energy and technology in China and Hong KongInternational Experience Singapore 2014 Department of Energy, Environmental And Chemical Experience Program is part of the McDonnell International Scholars Academy Global Energy & Environment

  12. Characterization, performance and optimization of PVDF as a piezoelectric film for advanced space mirror concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Gary D.; Assink, Roger Alan; Dargaville, Tim Richard; Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail; Clough, Roger Lee; Elliott, Julie M.; Martin, Jeffrey W.; Mowery, Daniel Michael; Celina, Mathew Christopher

    2005-11-01

    Piezoelectric polymers based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) are of interest for large aperture space-based telescopes as adaptive or smart materials. Dimensional adjustments of adaptive polymer films depend on controlled charge deposition. Predicting their long-term performance requires a detailed understanding of the piezoelectric material features, expected to suffer due to space environmental degradation. Hence, the degradation and performance of PVDF and its copolymers under various stress environments expected in low Earth orbit has been reviewed and investigated. Various experiments were conducted to expose these polymers to elevated temperature, vacuum UV, {gamma}-radiation and atomic oxygen. The resulting degradative processes were evaluated. The overall materials performance is governed by a combination of chemical and physical degradation processes. Molecular changes are primarily induced via radiative damage, and physical damage from temperature and atomic oxygen exposure is evident as depoling, loss of orientation and surface erosion. The effects of combined vacuum UV radiation and atomic oxygen resulted in expected surface erosion and pitting rates that determine the lifetime of thin films. Interestingly, the piezo responsiveness in the underlying bulk material remained largely unchanged. This study has delivered a comprehensive framework for material properties and degradation sensitivities with variations in individual polymer performances clearly apparent. The results provide guidance for material selection, qualification, optimization strategies, feedback for manufacturing and processing, or alternative materials. Further material qualification should be conducted via experiments under actual space conditions.

  13. Long Pulse EBW Start-up Experiments in MAST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shevchenko, V F; Caughman, J B; Diem, S; Mailloux, J; Brien, M R O; Peng, M; Saveliev, A N; Takase, Y; Tanaka, H; Taylor, G

    2015-01-01

    The non-solenoid start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion for electron Bernstein wave (EBW) excitation. It consists of the mode conversion of the ordinary mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X) mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance and experiences a subsequent X to EBW mode conversion near the upper hybrid resonance. Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted electron cyclotron resonance. The absorption of EBW remains high even in cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [V. Shevchenko et al, Nuclear Fusion 50, 022004 (2010)]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results ...

  14. Long pulse EBW start-up experiments in MAST

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shevchenko, V. F.; Baranov, Y. F.; Bigelow, T.; Caughman, J. B.; Diem, S.; Dukes, C.; Finburg, P.; Hawes, J.; Gurl, C.; Griffiths, J.; et al

    2015-03-12

    Start-up technique reported here relies on a double mode conversion (MC) for electron Bernstein wave (EBW) excitation. It consists of MC of the ordinary (O) mode, entering the plasma from the low field side of the tokamak, into the extraordinary (X) mode at a mirror-polarizer located at the high field side. The X mode propagates back to the plasma, passes through electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and experiences a subsequent X to EBW MC near the upper hybrid resonance (UHR). Finally the excited EBW mode is totally absorbed at the Doppler shifted ECR. The absorption of EBW remains high even inmore »cold rarefied plasmas. Furthermore, EBW can generate significant plasma current giving the prospect of a fully solenoid-free plasma start-up. First experiments using this scheme were carried out on MAST [1]. Plasma currents up to 33 kA have been achieved using 28 GHz 100kW 90ms RF pulses. Recently experimental results were extended to longer RF pulses showing further increase of plasma currents generated by RF power alone. A record current of 73kA has been achieved with 450ms RF pulse of similar power. The current drive enhancement was mainly achieved due to RF pulse extension and further optimisation of the start-up scenario.« less

  15. The Neutron EDM Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. G. Harris

    2007-12-05

    The neutron EDM experiment has played an important part over many decades in shaping and constraining numerous models of CP violation. This review article discusses some of the techniques used to calculate EDMs under various theoretical scenarios, and highlights some of the implications of EDM limits upon such models. A pedagogical introduction is given to the experimental techniques employed in the recently completed ILL experiment, including a brief discussion of the dominant systematic uncertainties. A new and much more sensitive version of the experiment, which is currently under development, is also outlined.

  16. General relativity and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Damour

    1994-12-08

    The confrontation between Einstein's theory of gravitation and experiment is summarized. Although all current experimental data are compatible with general relativity, the importance of pursuing the quest for possible deviations from Einstein's theory is emphasized.

  17. Experiment Scheduling Committee

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Experiment Scheduling Committee Title Name Phome Email Deputy Director for Research Bob McKeown (757) 269-6481 bmck@jlab.org Physics Division AD (co-chair) Rolf Ent (757) 269-7373...

  18. The GLUEX Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.R. Shepherd

    2009-12-01

    The GLUEX experiment, to be constructed in the new Hall D at Jefferson Lab as part of the 12 GeV upgrade, will utilize a linearly polarized 9 GeV photon beam, produced via coherent bremsstrahlung radiation off of a diamond wafer, incident on a proton target to conduct a search for exotic hybrid mesons. A summary of the physics motivation for the experiment and the key factors that drive the design of the detector and beam line is presented.

  19. The MAJORANA Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The MAJORANA Collaboration

    2011-09-22

    The MAJORANA collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale 76Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR experiment, an R&D effort that will field approximately 40kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the DEMONSTRATOR.

  20. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Busch, Matthew; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Christofferson, Cabot-Ann; Collar, J. I.; Combs, Dustin C.; Cooper, R. J.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, Steven R.; Esterline, James H.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, Matthew P.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Hazama, R.; Henning, R.; Hime, Andrew; Hoppe, Eric W.; Horton, Mark; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, Mary; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaFerriere, Brian D.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leon, Jonathan D.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Merriman, Jason H.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Overman, Nicole R.; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Ronquest, M. C.; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Snavely, Kyle J.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, John; Wolfe, B. A.; Yakushev, E.; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, Vladimir; Zhang, C.

    2011-10-01

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  1. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguayo, E.; Fast, J. E.; Hoppe, E. W.; Keillor, M. E.; Kephart, J. D.; Kouzes, R. T.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Orrell, J. L.; Overman, N. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F. T. III [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Back, H. O. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Barabash, A. S.; Konovalov, S. I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y.-D.; Detwiler, J. A.; Loach, J. C. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); and others

    2011-12-16

    The Majorana collaboration is actively pursuing research and development aimed at a tonne-scale {sup 76}Ge neutrinoless double-beta decay ({beta}{beta}(0{nu})-decay) experiment. The current, primary focus is the construction of the Majorana Demonstrator experiment, an R and D effort that will field approximately 40 kg of germanium detectors with mixed enrichment levels. This article provides a status update on the construction of the Demonstrator.

  2. Manufacture of and Apparatus for Nearly Frictionless Operation of a Rotatable Array of Micro-Mirrors in a Solar Concentrator Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz; David V. Overhauser

    2006-01-28

    Due to an ever growing shortage of conventional energy sources, there is an increasingly intense interest in harnessing solar energy. The instant invention can contribute to the goal of achieving environmentally clean solar energy to be competitive with conventional energy sources. A novel method is described for manufacturing a transparent sheet with an embedded array of mirrored spheroidal micro-balls for use in a solar energy concentrator, and analogous applications such as optical switches and solar rocket assist. The micro-balls are covered with a thin spherical shell of lubricating liquid so that they are free to rotate in an almost frictionless encapsulation in the sheet. Novel method and apparatus are presented for producing the preferred embodiment of a close-packed monolayer of the array of mirrored micro-balls.

  3. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); LaPointe, M.A. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Ganguly, A. K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.

  5. Irish Potato Fertilizer Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hotchkiss, W.S.; Kyle, E. J. (Edwin Jackson)

    1908-01-01

    - ERS, 191 4 FIELD B I., Nitrogen; P.; Phosphoric aci'd; K., potash. lo~~.--The price of fertilizer as in 1906, was as follows: Cotton Seed ~eal,' $26.00 per ton; Acid Phospnate, $20.00 per ton; Sulphate ;h. $55.00 Der ton. Yield Marketabe Bushels.... BULLETIN NO 101 January, 1908. ish Potato Fertilizer Experiments - Postoffice, COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS. TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS OFFICERS. GOVERNING BOARD. (Board of Directors A. & M. College.) \\ - -- K. K. LEGGETT...

  6. Preventing and Reversing Vacuum-Induced Optical Losses in High-Finesse Tantalum (V) Oxide Mirror Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gangloff, Dorian; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenkovi?, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuleti?, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO$_2$ passivating the Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism.

  7. Software design for the control system for Small-Size Telescopes with single-mirror of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    :,; B?ocki, J; Bogacz, L; Borkowski, J; Bulik, T; Cadoux, F; Christov, A; Cury?o, M; della Volpe, D; Dyrda, M; Favre, Y; Frankowski, A; Grudnik, ?; Grudzi?ska, M; Heller, M; Id?kowski, B; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Kasperek, J; Lalik, K; Lyard, E; Mach, E; Mandat, D; Marsza?ek, A; Micha?owski, J; Moderski, R; Rameez, M; Montaruli, T; Neronov, A; Niemiec, J; Ostrowski, M; Pa?ko, P; Pech, M; Porcelli, A; Prandini, E; Rajda, P; Schioppa, E jr; Schovanek, P; Seweryn, K; Skowron, K; Sliusar, V; Sowi?ski, M; Stawarz, ?; Stodulska, M; Stodulski, M; Pujadas, I Troyano; Toscano, S; Walter, R; Wi?cek, M; Zagda?ski, A; Zi?tara, K; Zychowski, P

    2015-01-01

    The Small-Size Telescope with single-mirror (SST-1M) is a 4 m Davies-Cotton telescope and is among the proposed telescope designs for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). It is conceived to provide the high-energy ($>$ few TeV) coverage. The SST-1M contains proven technology for the telescope structure and innovative electronics and photosensors for the camera. Its design is meant to be simple, low-budget and easy-to-build industrially. Each device subsystem of an SST-1M telescope is made visible to CTA through a dedicated industrial standard server. The software is being developed in collaboration with the CTA Medium-Size Telescopes to ensure compatibility and uniformity of the array control. Early operations of the SST-1M prototype will be performed with a subset of the CTA central array control system based on the Alma Common Software (ACS). The triggered event data are time stamped, formatted and finally transmitted to the CTA data acquisition. The software system developed to control the devices of an SS...

  8. Measuring Programming Experience Janet Feigenspan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaestner, Christian

    Measuring Programming Experience Janet Feigenspan, University of Magdeburg Christian K of Duisburg-Essen Abstract--Programming experience is an important confound- ing parameter in controlled experiments regarding program comprehension. In literature, ways to measure or control pro- gramming

  9. Measuring Programming Experience Janet Feigenspan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apel, Sven

    Measuring Programming Experience Janet Feigenspan, University of Magdeburg, Germany Christian K Hanenberg, University of Duisburg-Essen, Germany Abstract--Programming experience is an important confound- ing parameter in controlled experiments regarding program comprehension. In literature, ways

  10. Hog Feeding Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burns, John C.

    1910-01-01

    ................................................................................. ~eriment,s Nos. 111 and IV 17 I ...................................................................................... ,,,,proved Hogs vs. Scrubs 19 I Corn vs. Rice Bran vs. Spanish Peanuts ........................................................... 22... 1 ! .................................................................................................................. Summary. 33 I I [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] HOG FEEDING EXPERIMENTS. BY JOHN C. BURNS, DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL...

  11. The Majorana Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. E. Guiseppe; for the Majorana Collaboration

    2010-12-30

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in Ge-76. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  12. The Majorana Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aalseth, Craig E.; Aguayo Navarrete, Estanislao; Amman, M.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Bai, Xinhua; Barabash, Alexander S.; Barbeau, P. S.; Bergevin, M.; Bertrand, F.; Boswell, M.; Brudanin, V.; Bugg, William; Burritt, Tom H.; Busch, Matthew; Capps, Greg L.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Collar, J. I.; Cooper, R. J.; Creswick, R.; Detwiler, Jason A.; Diaz, J.; Doe, Peter J.; Efremenko, Yuri; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Ejiri, H.; Elliott, S. R.; Ely, James H.; Esterline, James H.; Farach, H. A.; Fast, James E.; Fields, N.; Finnerty, P.; Fraenkle, Florian; Gehman, Victor M.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Green, M.; Guiseppe, Vincente; Gusey, K.; Hallin, A. L.; Harper, Gregory; Hazama, R.; Henning, Reyco; Hime, Andrew; Hong, H.; Hoppe, Eric W.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Howard, Stanley; Howe, M. A.; Johnson, R. A.; Keeter, K.; Keillor, Martin E.; Keller, C.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kidd, M. F.; Knecht, A.; Kochetov, Oleg; Konovalov, S.; Kouzes, Richard T.; LaRoque, B. H.; Leviner, L.; Loach, J. C.; Luke, P.; MacMullin, S.; Marino, Michael G.; Martin, R. D.; Medlin, D.; Mei, Dong-Ming; Miley, Harry S.; Miller, M. L.; Mizouni, Leila; Myers, Allan W.; Nomachi, Masaharu; Orrell, John L.; Peterson, David; Phillips, D.; Poon, Alan; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, Gopakumar; Prior, Gersende; Radford, D. C.; Reid, Douglas J.; Rielage, Keith; Robertson, R. G. H.; Rodriguez, Larry; Ronquest, M. C.; Salazar, Harold; Schubert, Alexis G.; Shima, T.; Shirchenko, M.; Sobolev, V.; Steele, David; Strain, J.; Swift, Gary; Thomas, K.; Timkin, V.; Tornow, W.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Vanyushin, I.; Varner, R. L.; Vetter, Kai; Vorren, Kris R.; Wilkerson, J. F.; Wolfe, B. A.; Xiang, W.; Yakushev, E.; Yaver, Harold; Young, A.; Yu, Chang-Hong; Yumatov, V.; Zhang, C.

    2011-08-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  13. The MAJORANA Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guiseppe, V.E.; Keller, C.; Mei, D-M; Perevozchikov, O.; Perumpilly, G.; Thomas, K.; Xiang, W.; Zhang, C.; Aalseth, C.E.; Aguayo, E.; Ely, J.; Fast, J.E.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hossbach, T.W.; Keillor, M.; Kephart, J.D.; Kouzes, R.; Miley, H.S.; Mizouni, L.; Myers, A.W.; Reid, D.; Amman, M.; Bergevin, M.; Chan, Y-D; Detwiler, J.A.; Loach, J.C.; Luke, P.N.; Martin, R.D.; Poon, A.W.P.; Prior, G.; Vetter, K.; Yaver, H.; Avignone, F.T. III; Creswick, R.; Farach, H.; Mizouni, L.; Avignone, Frank Titus; Bertrand Jr, Fred E; Capps, Gregory L; Cooper, Reynold J; Radford, David C; Varner Jr, Robert L; Wilkerson, John F; Yu, Chang-Hong; Back, H.O.; Leviner, L.; Young, A.R.; Back , H.O.; Bai, X.; Hong, H.; Howard, S.; Medlin, D.; Sobolev, V.; Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Vanyushin, I.; Yumatov, V.; Barbeau, P.S.; Collar, J.I.; Fields, N.; Boswell , M.; Brudanin, V.; Egorov, V.; Gusey, K.; Kochetov, O.; Shirchenko, M.; Timkin, V.; Yakushev, E.; Bugg, W.; Efremenko, M.; Burritt , T.H.; Burritt , T.H.; Busch, M.; Esterline, J.; Swift, G.; Tornow, W.; Hazama, R.; Nomachi, M.; Shima, T.; Finnerty , P.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The Majorana Collaboration is assembling an array of HPGe detectors to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge. Initially, Majorana aims to construct a prototype module to demonstrate the potential of a future 1-tonne experiment. The design and potential reach of this prototype Demonstrator module are presented.

  14. Experiment Profile: Mu2e

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    alternatives and a cost range for the experiment, is expected in 2011. Earliest construction could begin 2013 with data-taking beginning in 2017. LIFESPAN OF EXPERIMENT: Two...

  15. Multi-matrix, dual polarity, tandem mass spectrometry imaging strategy applied to a germinated maize seed. Toward mass spectrometry imaging of an untargeted metabolome

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Feenstra, Adam D.; Hansen, Rebecca L.; Lee, Young Jin

    2015-08-27

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides high spatial resolution information that is unprecedented in traditional metabolomics analyses; however, the molecular coverage is often limited to a handful of compounds and is insufficient to understand overall metabolomic changes of a biological system. Here, we propose an MSI methodology to increase the diversity of chemical compounds that can be imaged and identified, in order to eventually perform untargeted metabolomic analysis using MSI. We use the desorption/ionization bias of various matrixes for different metabolite classes along with dual polarities and a tandem MSI strategy. The use of multiple matrixes and dual polarities allows usmore »to visualize various classes of compounds, while data-dependent MS/MS spectra acquired in the same MSI scans allow us to identify the compounds directly on the tissue. In a proof of concept application to a germinated corn seed, a total of 166 unique ions were determined to have high-quality MS/MS spectra, without counting structural isomers, of which 52 were identified as unique compounds. According to an estimation based on precursor MSI datasets, we expect over five hundred metabolites could be potentially identified and visualized once all experimental conditions are optimized and an MS/MS library is available. Finally, metabolites involved in the glycolysis pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were imaged to demonstrate the potential of this technology to better understand metabolic biology.« less

  16. The LUX experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bradley, A.; Byram, D.; Cahn, S. B.; et al

    2015-03-24

    We present the status and prospects of the LUX experiment, which employs approximately 300 kg of two-phase xenon to search for WIMP dark matter interactions. The LUX detector was commissioned at the surface laboratory of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD, between December 2011 and February 2012 and the detector has been operating underground since January, 2013. These proceedings review the results of the commissioning run as well as the status of underground data-taking.

  17. Waveguide QED: Power Spectra and Correlations of Two Photons Scattered Off Multiple Distant Qubits and a Mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao-Lung L. Fang; Harold U. Baranger

    2015-05-25

    We study two-level systems (2LS) coupled at different points to a one-dimensional waveguide in which one end is open and the other is either open (infinite waveguide) or closed by a mirror (semi-infinite). Upon injection of two photons (corresponding to weak coherent driving), the resonance fluorescence and photon correlations are shaped by the effective qubit transition frequencies and decay rates, which are substantially modified by interference effects. In contrast to the well-known result in an infinite waveguide, photons reflected by a single 2LS coupled to a semi-infinite waveguide are initially bunched, a result that can be simply explained by stimulated emission. As the number of 2LS increases (up to 10 are considered here), rapid oscillations build up in the correlations that persist for a very long time. For instance, when the incoming photons are slightly detuned, the transmitted photons in the infinite waveguide are highly antibunched. On the other hand, upon resonant driving, incoherently reflected photons are mostly distributed within the photonic band gap and several sharp side peaks. These features can be explained by considering the poles of the single particle Green function in the Markovian regime combined with the time delay. Our calculation is not restricted to the Markovian regime, and we obtain several fully non-Markovian results. We show that a single 2LS in a semi-infinite waveguide can not be decoupled by placing it at the node of the photonic field, in contrast to recent results in the Markovian regime. Our results illustrate the complexities that ensue when several qubits are strongly coupled to a bus (the waveguide) as might happen in quantum information processing.

  18. Experiments in sideband suppression on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, C.J.; Coyle, M.R.; Paxton, A.H. (Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Laser and Optical R and D Group); O'Shea, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Byrd, D.A.; Feldman, D.W.; Goldstein, J.C.: Pitcher, E.J.; Zaugg, T.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Two versions of the Phase-Step Mirror'' (PSM), a novel optical component that prevents the formation of sidebands in a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) were tested on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) APEX FEL. Sideband suppression and frequency control with high extraction efficiency and single line, transform limited operation were demonstrated. The results of our LANL experiments and computer simulations showed that for very high gain applications, the first-order sideband is completely suppressed, but the laser gain is so strong that on about pass 300 the sideband at the second-order or next free spectral range of the PSM appears. This second-order sideband may be suppressed by designing a PSM with grooves having two alternating depths, one chosen to suppress the first-order sideband, and the other, the second-order sideband.

  19. Experiments in sideband suppression on the Los Alamos National Laboratory Free-Electron Laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, C.J.; Coyle, M.R.; Paxton, A.H. [Mission Research Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Laser and Optical R and D Group; O`Shea, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Byrd, D.A.; Feldman, D.W.; Goldstein, J.C.: Pitcher, E.J.; Zaugg, T.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Two versions of the ``Phase-Step Mirror`` (PSM), a novel optical component that prevents the formation of sidebands in a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) were tested on the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) APEX FEL. Sideband suppression and frequency control with high extraction efficiency and single line, transform limited operation were demonstrated. The results of our LANL experiments and computer simulations showed that for very high gain applications, the first-order sideband is completely suppressed, but the laser gain is so strong that on about pass 300 the sideband at the second-order or next free spectral range of the PSM appears. This second-order sideband may be suppressed by designing a PSM with grooves having two alternating depths, one chosen to suppress the first-order sideband, and the other, the second-order sideband.

  20. Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poletto, L., E-mail: poletto@dei.unipd.it; Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P. [CNR - Institute of Photonics and Nanotechnologies (CNR-IFN), via Trasea 7, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F. [Physics Division, School of Science and Technology, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Finetti, P. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Grazioli, C. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Trieste, Via L. Giorgieri 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Kivimäki, A. [CNR-Istituto Officina dei Materiali (CNR-IOM), Laboratorio TASC, I-34149 Trieste (Italy); Stagira, S. [Politecnico di Milano – Department of Physics, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Coreno, M. [ELETTRA - Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza Area Science Park, S. S. 14 - km 163,5, I-34149, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); CNR – Istituto di Struttura della Materia (CNR-ISM), UOS Basovizza, I-34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25–800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented.

  1. Performance of a radiatively cooled system for quantum optomechanical experiments in space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilan-Zanoni, André; Johann, Ulrich; Aspelmeyer, Markus; Kaltenbaek, Rainer; Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a radiatively cooled instrument is investigated in the context of optomechanical quantum experiments, where the environment of a macroscopic particle in a quantum-superposition has to be cooled to less than 20\\,K in deep space. A heat-transfer analysis between the components of the instrument as well as a transfer-function analysis on thermal oscillations induced by the spacecraft interior and by dissipative sources is performed. The thermal behaviour of the instrument in an orbit around a Lagrangian point and in a highly elliptical Earth orbit is discussed. Finally, we investigate further possible design improvements aiming at lower temperatures of the environment of the macroscopic particle. These include a mirror-based design of the imaging system on the optical bench and the extension of the heat shields.

  2. Experiments in Steer Feeding. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, John A. (John Alexander); Marshall, F. R. (Frederick Rupert)

    1904-01-01

    as to the relative value of these two very characteristic rations for steer feeding. Cotton? seed meal and hulls is the ration that is most generally used throughout the cotton belt, while corn and alfalfa will likely be conceded to be the ration which is most... STATIONS. BULLETIN NO. 76. Animal Husbandry Section. T E X A S G R S I C 1904. EXPERIMENTS IN STEER FEEDING I. RICE BY-PRODUCTS FOR STEER FEEDING. II. FODDERS FOR FEEDING STEERS WITH COTTONSEED MEAL. III. MOLASSES FOR STEER FEEDING. IV. COMPARISON...

  3. BooNE Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B L O OLaura|BilayerBiomimetic DyeBlue Gene/QENT2.0.01Experiment

  4. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvan Racah Evan RacahNFTS-13Report InstructionsExperiment

  5. Fermilab | Tevatron | Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES OctoberEvan Racah861MayArtQuestions for theare thereExperiments

  6. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid you not find whatGas SeparationsRelevantTechnologiesEventsExperiment

  7. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) WignerEnergyAbout UsExpectationsExperiment

  8. Experiment Safety Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) WignerEnergyAboutExperiment Safety

  9. Sandia Energy - Experiments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II) byMultidayAlumniProjectsCyberNotLEDPhase FieldEnergyExperiments Home

  10. Stirling machine operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ross, B.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  11. Experience Report for WOPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pope, G

    2010-04-06

    One of the purposes of the SQA effort at LLNL is to attempt to determine the 'goodness' of the research codes used for various scientific applications. Typically these are two and three dimensional multi-physics simulation and modeling codes. These legacy research codes are used for applciations such as atmospheric dispersion modeling and analysis and prediction of the performance of engineered systems. These codes are continually subjected to automated regression test suites consisting of verified and validated expected results. Code is managed in repositories. Experience level of developers is high in the knowledge domain, platforms, and languages used. Code size of the multi-physics code used in this study was 578,242 lines excluding comment and blank lines or 5538.7 function points. Languages were 70% C++, 20% C, and 10% Fortran. The code has 130 users and a development team of 14 and an embedded SQE. The code has achieved 100% prime feature test coverage, 73.6% functional test coverage, and 71.5% statement test coverage. The average cyclomatic complexity of the code was 6.25. The codes have evolved over 10 years. Research codes are challenging because there is a desire to balance agility with discipline as well as compliance with DOE standards. Agility is important to allow experimentation with new algorithms and addition of the latest physics features. Discipline is important to increase the quality of the codes. Automation of processes and defect prevention/detection are deployed throughout the software development process. Since resarch codes are a small segment of the software industry, not much information exists in terms of reliability studies on these types of codes. This paper describes attempts to determine the goodness of these research codes. Goodness defined as both correctness of the codes and their fault densities. Correctness is determined by user interviews, peer review; feature based automated testing, and coverage measurement. This paper focuses on the fault density aspect of goodness and reliability of the codes in particular. The approach taken was to use multiple fault density prediction methods and compare results to actual experimentation and other industry studies on fault density. As a result of the predictions and experiments our confidence in the prediction methods was increased and our confidence in the goodness of the code from a fault density perspective was given more context. A large unintended benefit of these experiments was to find defects hidden for years in the codes when using the Monte Carlo reliability testing results to develop heuristic based bug driven tests.

  12. The polarized SRF gun experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

    2008-10-01

    An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

  13. Experience with capture cavity II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koeth, T.; /Fermilab /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Branlard, J.; Edwards, H.; Fliller, R.; Harms, E.; Hocker, A.; McGee, M.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Prieto, P.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Valuable experience in operating and maintaining superconducting RF cavities in a horizontal test module has been gained with Capture Cavity II. We report on all facets of our experience to date.

  14. The CAPTAIN Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bian, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    The Cryogenic Apparatus for Precision Tests of Argon Interactions with Neutrinos (CAPTAIN) program is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two liquid Argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs), a primary detector with a mass of approximately 10 ton that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a two ton prototype detector for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in the high-energy regime (1.5-5 GeV) at Fermilab NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in the low-energy regime (UV laser track has been seen in its TPC. This paper gives an overview of the CAPTAIN pr...

  15. The PANTHER User Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coram, Jamie L.; Morrow, James D.; Perkins, David Nikolaus

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  16. One Way Mirror 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenk, Barbara

    1982-01-01

    . Tenaya took Jenny down to be poked at in sick bay, then led her back and had her try on clothes. The numb, fogged feeling had set in again, and Jenny was having difficulty concentrating. She simply nodded agree ment to whatever Tenaya suggested. If all...-haired captain, whose name turned out to be Gellis len Ronan, to half a dozen officers in im pressive uniforms, and to a bunch of women who seemed to belong with, or to, these officers, she could no longer summon up any reaction at all to anything. She couldn...

  17. Mirror Lake Spring 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    .) and the Wolfeboro Wastewater Treatment Facility (WWTF), which is upstream of the lake. In the summer of 2007). The LMP addresses the most pertinent initial concerns for the lake, including primary sources of excess

  18. Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kautz, Henry

    Understanding Human Experience Henry Kautz One of the earliest goals of research in artificial intelligence was to create systems that can interpret and understand day to day human experience. Early work on the goal of building systems that understand human experience. Each of the previous barriers is weakened

  19. The CAPTAIN Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jianming Bian

    2015-09-25

    The Cryogenic Apparatus for Precision Tests of Argon Interactions with Neutrinos (CAPTAIN) program is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two liquid Argon time projection chambers (LArTPCs), a primary detector with a mass of approximately 10 ton that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a two ton prototype detector for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in the high-energy regime (1.5-5 GeV) at Fermilab NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in the low-energy regime (UV laser track has been seen in its TPC. This paper gives an overview of the CAPTAIN program and reports the status of the commissioning. The up-to-date detector design and running plans are also described.

  20. Early strong interaction counter experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terwilliger, K.M.

    1980-06-01

    The 17 /sup 0/ beam and some ..pi..-p two body scattering experiments run in the beginning years of the ZGS are discussed. (AIP)